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ABSTRACT Children in the age of 6-12 are now must fully involved in learning English since it is considered essential for children to learn it earlier. In fact, it does not work yet for most children learning English, as a case in one of the primary schools in Subang that 97% of them could not even spell colors in English. The researchers begin to concern about the materials being taught related to their motivation to learn English where lack of motivation is proven as the main issue in this case. So, the researcher is anxious about finding out the more practical solution in term of increasing their motivation to speak English, without ignoring the nature of the children itself; curious, active, full of enthusiasm and often show a lot of eagerness to participate. The researchers employed descriptive study in conducting this research, while observation and interviews were employed to collecting the data. The findings show that there is a material now given in the senior high school which is appropriate and increasing strongly the students’ motivation to learn English better, especially in speaking, which rarely occur in the first grade of senior high school. Therefore the researchers conclude that having relevant and constructive material which actually touches the nature of the children would directly increase their motivation the most. Due to the results, the researchers recommend the government and any educationist to be more selective in verdict the materials given to students with paying more attention to the students’ interest and motivation on them.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter presents background on the research, limitation of the research, research questions, aims of research, significance of the research, and hypothesis. This chapter also provides a brief explanation about the method of the research. In the end of this chapter, the researcher informs clarification of main terms and organization of paper. 1.1 Background
Speaking English is now found very hard to be applied in daily activities even by the students of English Department. It seems to be strange when people speak English in the public areas. Speaking English even with friends of English department will be considered as weird by others. Rarely finding students, no matter in what level they are, who have willingness to speak English in his daily life becomes one of the proves that the students have the lack of motivation. They are not even able to motivate themselves; it indicates that they will not able to motivate others. Why speaking English is important, while reading is the most important area or activity for individuals to engage in for the sake of the development of L2 academic competence, and it is important as well for interpersonal function and for merely “getting along” in any literate society (Troike 2006), should be clearly explained in the very first beginning. As the data I found, elementary students’ activities in the classroom are mostly, for about 85%, done in the speaking way. Repeating what their teacher said, singing, mentioning fruits, animals, those are examples on how students done most orally English learning in speaking way, not reading. Speaking is also important area of activity for L2 learners if they will be using the language for interpersonal purposes,
whether these are primarily social or instrumental (Troike 2006). To speak English cannot be done with ease. Having minimally 200 vocabularies is one of the requirements for just speaking English falteringly. Since students must have hundreds even thousand vocabularies to speak English fluently, they should be engaged earlier. Most Indonesian usually consider somebody good in English through her/his pronunciation, speaking. The impressive image given through speak English is totally effective to show off her/his ability. Peoples’ ways to see that can motivate that somebody to learn or do it more. Firstly before learning it, the students should have willingness to do it. The willingness comes up from motivation. Motivation is a key to ultimate level of proficiency (Troike 2006). In researcher point of view, increasing students’ motivations mean helping them to increase their level of English proficiency. So first thing to do is motivating the children to have deeper desire to speak English. The forms of the motivation can be a compliment, a pride, or amazement. It can be various. Children, according to their age, are considered easy to be motivated. All teachers need to do is choosing the best way to motivate them through the materials given in the class. Since children are more successful L2 learners than adults (Troike 2006), the writer believes that children should be engrafted earlier. Completing that way, children’s nature is essential. It is one of the ways to have fundamental on how children respond or do something. In accordance with children’s nature, if they are given a compliment because they do something, they will do the same thing anymore to gain it again. Introduction material which in status quo is explained for the students in senior high school seems not really effective in increasing their motivation to speak English. Based on the description above about motivation and children’s nature, introduction material can meet the need of teachers to increase the children motivation to learn speaking English. Since children will meet many new people, it will be good for them to know how to introduce themselves. When parents and others know that their children
can speak English by introducing themselves to a guest for example, it will make their parents rightfully proud and suddenly give compliments. These compliments are another form of motivation which can burn children spirit to speak more not only to introduce them. There was also another reason why I have big concern and curiosity on this topic. This is just a real story happened to my cousin. Last week, my cousin, a little girl of six, went home and told my family how happy she was. She also promised to learn hard especially in learning English. Then she began to tell the story when he was in the English class. It was just a simple story in my point of view. When her teacher asked her for several questions, she never missed it. She could answer every single question pointed to her. Then her friends adored her and suddenly thought that she is so smart in speaking English. Her teacher also plays role here, she gave her a compliment. For me, that was just an ordinary compliment. However, my cousin accepted all as her new spirit, big spirit to learn English more. Actually, at that time I saw it as one of the motivation components which is desire to attain the goal or need (see Oxford and Ehrman 1993). I never thought before that this kind of very simple action could affect deeply students’ motivation. Therefore, with a big expectation that it could be useful for Education and its elements I decided to make a research on it, with the topic “The need of “introduction” material (now given in the first grade of both senior and senior high school) to be taught earlier to the fourth grade students of elementary school in term of increasing their motivation to speak English”. 1.2 Limitation of Problem
This research is limited in gathering information on how “introduction” material which held in the first grade of senior high school will affect the students motivation in improving speaking skill if it is taught in fourth grade of elementary school. The researcher specifies her study in the observation of the effectiveness of applying introduction material in
improving students’ motivation in speaking English, without neglecting other aspects that could occur in the adapting of introduction material as one of the materials presenting in the fourth grade students of elementary school.
Based on the background above, the present research endeavored to address the questions below: 1. What are school?
2. Which school should be in the first place to teach introduction
the advantages and disadvantages
introduction material earlier to fourth grade students of elementary
material in term of motivating students to speak English better?
The Aims of Research
The aims of this research are described below: 1. To identify which material is important to be given earlier as the elementary school material 2. To identify how significant does the introduction material promote the students’ motivation to speak English more 3. To have a brief knowledge about children and teenagers motivation affected by the introduction material given to them
The Significance of Research
The result of this research will allow the fourth grade students of elementary school to have the introduction material as one of the English
materials given. Since it is considered less effective and efficient to adapt this material to the first grade students of senior high school in promoting their motivation to speak English, it would be better to convert it to be the elementary students’ material. The impact would be seen in their spirit to learn more vocabularies and their effort to speak English earlier. This would be very helpful for them in the future because they already fill their spirit with a big motivation to learn English. Another consideration is that introduction material is the applicative one that is easy to be applied everywhere. As children, for sure, they will meet many new people; give this material to senior high school students will be too late to be taught.
The researcher firstly came up with an assumption that children need something applicative for them in learning speaking English. Most people considered speaking English as a hard thing to do. The researcher believed that changing this paradigm since the children age is very crucial. Children should be have an understanding that learn or speak English is not that hard. It means that they should be given an interest and attractive material to stimulate those continuing speaking English. Motivated by compliment, feeling of proud, amazement, will lead them to the first interest that Speaking English is cool. They know not all people could speak English. Thus, introduction material is something that they can apply it anytime with anybody to show off their ability. In Indonesia, if there were children of seven or eight already speak English, it is a great thing to see. People will be amazed. Children feel rightfully proud. The compliments fill their head. So, related to the assumption above the researcher began this research with a hypothesis “children need an applicative material to increase their motivation, in this case it is introduction material given in senior high school”.
Research Method in General
The research methods used in this research is qualitative method which is valuable “to assist the researcher in deciding whether the teaching program needed to be modified or altered in any way so that the objectives may be achieved more effectively” (Nunan, 1992). 1.8 Data Collection
As outlined above, this study used multiple techniques of data collection, conducted not only at the conclusion of the study, but also in a first beginning and ongoing way (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2000, p. 505; Bogdan and Biklen, 2003). This research begins with doing an observation toward both fourth grade students of elementary school and first grade students of senior high school and the interview done to twenty senior high school students who already learnt introduction material. This observation is addressed to have a wider point of view on how introduction material affecting students motivation to speak English. Another purpose of the observation is that to know who feel more attractive in learning this material and followed it up by learning the next English materials with same or bigger motivation than before. The interview is aimed to strengthen the researcher hypothesis that introduction material affects nothing to the senior high school students’ motivation in improving their speaking English ability. Ongoing data collection will be taken up briefly in this section, and the use of interview, which was conducted at the end of the research in detail. The interview is employed to the twenty students from both elementary and senior high school. 1.9 Classification of Terms
These following words and its meanings are several terms used in the research topic (Consulted from Cambridge University):
: (U) enthusiasm for doing something; (N) The need or reason for doing something;
Speak, speaking : using the stated language; to (be able) talk in a language. Need : something that somebody should have or would it. : an activity to do to make people know
benefit from having Introduction somebody. Material
: information produced in various forms to help people. : a school which provides the first part of a child’s
Elementary school education, usually
for children between five and eleven years old. High school Increase : a school in the US for children aged 16-18 years old. : to make something larger in size.
CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION
2.1 Historical Developments and Trends in the Study of Foreign
Language Learning (L2) Motivation
The field of foreign language learning (L2) motivation research was founded in 1959 by two Canadian social psychologists, Lambert and Gardner. Although they were not linguists, they became interested in second language learning because of the somewhat unusual Canadian socio-political environment, which is characterized by the coexistence of French- and English-speaking communities. The most universally accepted contribution of their work to the field has been that learning a second language is unlike learning any other subject. This is because it “involves imposing elements of another culture into one’s own lifespace” (Gardner & Lambert, 1972, p. 193), and because it is easily influenced (positively or negatively) by a range of social factors, such as prevailing attitudes toward the language, geo-political considerations, and cultural stereotypes (Dörnyei, 2005). In other respects, though, the field, just like its counterpart in general and educational psychology, has undergone a number of shifts: in scope, in research perspectives, in its relation to practice, and in its relationship with the field of Second Language Acquisition research. The first empirical investigations related to L2 learning motivation took place in Canada, and were aimed at identifying and measuring variables that shared variance in common with measures of English-French bilingualism (Gardner & Lambert, 1959). Many such studies resulted in the proposal of Gardner and Smythe’s (1975) pioneering socio-educational model of second language acquisition in school contexts, which has been revised several times (e.g., Gardner, 1985a; Gardner, 2000; Gardner & MacIntyre, 1993a; Tremblay & Gardner, 1995). It is interesting to note that, according to Gardner, “acquisition” involves “the development of bilingual skill in the language, and that this requires considerable time, effort, and persistence” (Gardner, 2001a, p. 4, my emphasis). Another motivation research occurred after the publication of Dörnyei and Ottó’s innovative (1998) process model of L2 motivation. As a result, in the late 1990s, a new, process-oriented period began for L2 motivation research. The process-oriented period is characterized by an increasing
emphasis on viewing motivation, not simply as a static product, but also as a dynamic process fluctuating over time. This movement is spearheaded by the research that has been carried out by Dörnyei, Ushioda (e.g., 2001), and colleagues in Europe. The new approaches are moving toward an integration of concepts from motivational psychology, personality psychology, and even neurobiology (Dörnyei, 2005). 2.2 Orientation and Motivation A basic distinction was made in Gardner (1985a) but has frequently been misunderstood, namely that between orientation and motivation (i.e., “the driving force in any situation,” Gardner, 2001a, p. 6). Gardner’s theory does not belong to goal-type theories (Dörnyei, 2001c); therefore, its focus is on motivation, not orientations. There are two common misconceptions of Gardner’s motivation theory (Dörnyei, 2005). One is that L2 motivation is simply the interplay of two components, “instrumental an “integrative / orientation It / is motivation” not and an that orientation motivation.” surprising
misconceptions abound, given that: • The terms “orientation” and “motivation” have been used somewhat inconsistently in the past by Gardner himself. • Gardner, for instance, still mentions both “integrative orientation” and “integrative motivation” but that the terms have come to refer to different concepts linked in complex hierarchical relationships (see Figure 2.3). • Many of these terms sound confusingly similar (e.g., “integrativeness,” and “integrative motive”). The other common misconception is that the theory revolves around a simple dichotomy of the type, “instrumental motivation is bad / integrative motivation is good,” which is probably a consequence of Gardner’s almost exclusive focus on “integrativeness.” 2.3 Integrative Motivation Figure 2.3. shows Gardner’s (2001a) conceptualization of “Integrative Motivation.” based on an extract from his basic model of second language
which of the
“Integrative motivation” subsumes three components. The first two, “integrativeness” and “attitudes toward the learning situation,” are usually fairly highly correlated and are seen as supports for the third component, which is “motivation.” In other words, a student who has high levels of “integrativeness,” and/or “positive attitudes toward the learning situation,” but is low in “motivation” is unlikely to achieve much in terms of L2 proficiency. Conversely, for motivation levels to be sustained over the long period needed to master an L2 a high level of “motivation” alone is insufficient; it needs to be supported by high levels of “integrativeness,” and/or positive “attitudes toward the learning situation.” Gardner’s (1985a) social psychological approach assumes that students’ goals, when they engage in L2 learning, fall into two categories, an integrative orientation, and an instrumental one. An integrative orientation reflects a positive disposition toward a community of L2 speakers, accompanied by a desire to learn the L2 for the purpose of interacting with, and even becoming similar to valued members of the community of L2 speakers. An instrumental orientation refers to a desire to learn the L2 primarily for potential concrete gains associated with L2 proficiency, such as improved education, career, or financial prospects. Even though “integrativeness” and “instrumentality” are the two most frequently highlighted concepts in L2 motivation studies (Csizér & Dörnyei, 2005), “instrumentality” has not received much attention from Gardner. “Integrativeness” is assessed in the AMTB by scales tapping attitudes toward the group of L2 speakers, general interest in foreign languages, and a set of integrative orientation items reflecting reasons for studying the L2 based on attraction to the group of L2 speakers (MacIntyre, 2002). Finally, Figure 2.3 indicates the function that Gardner (2001a, p. 5) attributes to “instrumental motivation” and to other motivational factors (e.g., a stimulating L2 teacher or course), within a class of variables that
he termed “other support” in his model of second language learning. However, this miscellaneous class of factors appears somewhat artificially differentiated from “integrative motivation,” and not particularly well integrated into the model (Dörnyei, 2005).
FIGURE 2.3 Conceptualization of Integrative Motivation (Based on Gardner, 2001, pp. 5-7)
2.4 Value Components of L2 Motivation For many secondary school students, learning an L2 remains primarily an academic requirement, which is often at best perceived as a means to achieve another end. In other words, they may be interested in obtaining high scores in an L2 test (which may only require the ability to do well in complex multiple-choice tests, and not test either oral or written
proficiency in the L2), in order to pursue other meaningful personal goals. Recall that the term “instrumentality” is normally used to refer to learning an L2 for such utilitarian purposes. Dörnyei and Kormos (2000), and Dörnyei (2002) investigated the instrumental benefits associated with the EFL proficiency of Hungarian high school learners. In these studies, the authors preferred to use the term “incentive values” to instrumentality because, besides the usual pragmatic benefits mentioned by the participants, other incentives were mentioned such as traveling, making foreign friends, and understanding English songs. Dörnyei and Kormos (2000) found a negative correlation between learners with high task attitudes who reported an interest in incentive values and the number of words produced by these learners; they suggested it might be because such an interest was socially desirable rather than genuine. On the other hand, Dörnyei (2002) reported a highly significant, positive correlation between students with positive task attitudes who reported an interest in incentive values and the number of turns they had taken during the task. Dörnyei (2002) indicates that the result is in accordance with his theoretical proposition that task motivation is “fuelled by a combination of situation-specific and generalized motives” (p. 151). Finally, another noteworthy finding from the studies by Dörnyei and Kormos (2000) and Dörnyei (2002) was that some learners, who had negative attitudes toward the tasks used in their study, nevertheless engaged in L2 communication behavior when they held favorable attitudes toward the L2 course. This seems to lend support to Schumann’s (1999) argument that some individuals may be “willing to endure” (p. 36) certain L2 learning experiences that they find unappealing or even unpleasant, just because of the contribution these experiences make to achieving a longer-term goal that they value (e.g., learning an L2). It also suggests to me that favorable attitudes toward an L2 course may be related to the positive value students attach to L2 learning in general, and that attitudes toward
specific language learning tasks may be based on an affective type of response to these learning tasks, which can be self regulated. 2.5 Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Strategies Framework Traditionally, motivational psychologists have been more concerned about what motivation is than about how we can use this knowledge to motivate learners. Recently, however, there has been a marked change, and more and more researchers have decided to look at the pedagogical implications of research by conceptualizing motivational strategies. Motivational strategies can refer to instructional interventions consciously applied by the teacher to elicit and stimulate student motivation, or to self-regulating strategies that are used purposefully by individual students to manage the level of their own motivation. The motivational strategies discussed here belong to the first type, namely, to instructional techniques used by teachers. A survey of the educational psychology literature related to the study of motivation in the classroom reveals many publications on teacher behaviors that should be effective in fostering student motivation in the classroom (for reviews in educational psychology see, e.g., Brophy, 2004; Ginsberg & Wlodkowski, 2000; Pintrich & Schunk, 2002; within the area of language education see, e.g., Alison & Halliwell, 2002; Dörnyei, 2001a, 2006; Williams & Burden, 1997).Yet, it also reveals the absence of a theory-based framework that could accommodate the diverse behaviors— although Dörnyei (2001a) is a notable exception in the L2 field. His model for a motivational L2 teaching practice comprises four main dimensions:
Creating the basic motivational conditions, namely, laying the
foundations of motivation through establishing a good teacher-student rapport, a pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere, and a cohesive learner group with appropriate group norms.
Generating initial motivation, that is, “whetting the students’
appetite” by using strategies designed to develop positive attitudes toward the language course and language learning in general, and to increase the learners’ expectancy of success.
Maintaining and protecting motivation through promoting situation-
specific task motivation (e.g., by designing stimulating, enjoyable, and relevant tasks), by providing learners with experiences of success, by allowing them to maintain a positive social image even during the often face-threatening task of having to communicate with a severely limited language code, and finally, by promoting learner autonomy.
Encouraging positive retrospective self-evaluation through the
promotion of adaptive attributions and the provision of effective and encouraging feedback, as well as by increasing learner satisfaction and by offering grades in a motivational manner. Figure 2.5 presents the schematic representation of the model, indicating the main macro-strategies associated with each dimension. The macrostrategies are further broken down into over 100 motivational techniques. The reader is referred to Dörnyei’s book on motivational strategies (2001a) where these are explained in detail. Dörnyei’s L2 motivational strategies framework served as the theoretical basis for designing the classroom observation instruments in the current investigation. While the motivational strategies reported in the L2 motivation literature are usually grounded in sound theoretical considerations, there has been very little research in the past to answer this crucial question: Do the proposed techniques actually work in language classrooms? This deficiency was already highlighted by Gardner and Tremblay (1994) over a decade ago: In reflecting on the potential usefulness of motivational strategies, they argued that, from a scientific point of view, intuitive appeal without empirical evidence was not enough to justify strong claims in favor of the use of such strategies. They therefore recommended that these strategies be considered as mere hypotheses to be tested, and highlighted a number of possible pitfalls to avoid in such research. The fact that there may be a discrepancy between the assumed and the actual motivational power of certain motives or motivational strategies is indeed a real concern, which is well reflected in the title of a very recent paper by Chen, Warden, and Chang (2005): “Motivators that do not motivate.”
In retrospect, however, it can be seen that Gardner and Tremblay’s (1994) recommendations have hardly been taken up by scholars in the L2 field. This is partly because validation studies of motivational strategies are labor-intensive, since they require the application of experimental designs and/or extensive classroom observation. At the time of writing, only one published study (Dörnyei & Csizér, 1998) had the explicit objective to provide empirical data about the effectiveness of 51 motivational strategies (selected from a list, drawn up by Dörnyei, 1994a, of about 100). However, that study only relied on teachers’ self-reports about how important they considered strategies and how often they used them; it was not based on documentation of the actual nature of the participating teachers’ motivational practice (which would have been more objective), nor on the students’ classroom behavior to which such practice might have been linked.
The Components of a Motivational L2 Teaching Practice (Dörnyei, 2001, p. 29)
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design
This mini study, as outlined before, is conducted by using qualitative descriptive method. Qualitative or interpretive methods are not yet commonly used in L2 motivation research, although they have been advocated over the past decade (e.g., Dörnyei, 2001c, in press; Ushioda, 1996). A main difference between quantitative and qualitative/interpretive methods is that the latter focus on the participants’ rather than the researcher’s interpretations and priorities. Thus, qualitative methods can be more contextually sensitive than quantitative ones because researchers do not set out to test preconceived hypotheses; rather, they tend to define analytic categories only during the process of research. Qualitative methods exclude the collection of numerical data in favor of natural data in the form of researchers’ field notes (e.g., notes taken during classroom observations), participants’ verbalizations of their experiences (e.g., interviews, journal entries, or answers to open-ended items in questionnaires), and/or authentic documents (e.g., recorded speech samples, texts written by participants, video-recordings of lessons). The analysis of these data consists of discovering meaningful themes and patterns. Consequently, researchers can learn about students’ L2 motivation from, for instance, descriptions constructed after having observed the students engaged in classroom activities and from students’ accounts of their feelings relating to their L2 teacher and engagement in L2 class activities. From observation notes, it is possible to appreciate how teachers select, sequence, modify, and create activities to cater to their students’ specific needs and the constraints of their particular environment.
With their potential for yielding rich and varied data, qualitative research methods accompanied by quality in-depth analysis and interpretation can lead to uncovering the structure of events when the meanings and perspectives of individuals are important. The main drawbacks are that qualitative-type studies are labor-intensive and usually involve only a small number of participants, which makes it impossible to generalize the findings since the few participants may not be representative of the population being studied. However, the latter drawback can be overcome to some extent by using appropriate sampling methods (see next section, and for more details, Dörnyei, 2007). 3.2 Data Collection
The data are collected using observation and the interviews. The observation is done in the fourth grade of elementary school and first grade of senior high school in Subang. This city is chosen because the citizens in this city are less development especially in the educational field. It shown by the results of national examination conducted every years. Beside math, English become the obstacle to pass the examination. The researchers assume that the cause is the teachers lack in molding the students since the children age. Because of the lack motivation that never be built in themselves make the students stay longer in the paradigm of “learning English is hard”. The elementary school is chosen because most of the students about 95% have low marks. Even though the teacher has done many methods but then the students are still not being motivated to get higher marks. Then it is considered as the lack of motivation that the students have in learning English. Another reason that leads the researchers to choose this elementary school is because of their open-minded toward the progress of their students. The same case also occurs in one of senior high schools in Subang. When being asked, they answer that the materials is sometime too hard and other times too simple. Then to
prove all the assumption, the researchers firstly conduct observation to know the real of students’ activities includes its material in class. 3.2.1 Observation Observation is an investigation done systematically and employed intentionally by using the five senses, especially eyes toward the ongoing cases (Bimo Walgito, 1987: 54). While Djumhur (1985: 51) defined observation as a technique to directly and indirectly investigate the ongoing phenomenon both inside and outside school. In conducting the research, using literal observation is the only way to have more intimate situations with the students. It also facilitates the researchers to direct feel what the students feel and to fairly judge the performances performed by students from both elementary school and senior high school. Getting involved and sitting in the same classes enacted like we are the real pupil was the way to gain some experiences and to keep the validity of the data collected. The observation is done firstly in collecting data in order to provide the researchers a general condition on the learning process of introduction material conducted in the first grade of senior high school. Since an observation of the same class in the elementary school is also needed, a teacher from one of elementary schools in Subang interested to get involved in this research and try to conduct this material to her students. Introduction material is taught to them in term of finding out the children responds to this kind of new material. it is caused by the result of the previous observation when elementary children are just taught about numbers, colors, things, and others without relating it into their daily lives. The observation is done to measure the class performances shown by the students from each level. Then the result of each observation
would be compared to know the differences of them and as the material to answer the first research question addressed by the researchers. The result of their performances was presented in the percentage scale in order to facilitate the readers in understanding the result. We use the scale from 10%-100%. It was classified deeper into: 10%- 25% = poor performance 25%-50% = average performance 50%-80% = good performance 80%-100% = awesome performance
3.2.2 Interview The last source of data was interviews with the students. An interview has been defined as “an interaction between two people, with the interviewer and the subject acting in relation to each other and reciprocally influencing each other” (Kvale, 1996, p.35). This enabled the researchers “to check the accuracy of-to verify or refute-the impressions we had gained through observations” (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2000, p.509). The interview was conducted to 40 respondents, 20 respondents were from elementary school and the rest were from senior high school. Both interviews were done after the students got the introduction material. The form of the questions being investigated was presented in different languages for each level. Students of elementary school were asked in bahasa concerning that English questions would not be understandable for them as they just have learnt few things in English. Considering that senior high school students were already taught many
things in English and the questions asked are simple, so, the researchers questioned them in English. After the class, the students were asked to stay in a room to be called later in turn and the researcher asked about their opinions after having introduction material. 3.3 Data Instrument
The data instruments are the observation sheet and the interviews questions written in a paper. 3.4 Data Analysis
Data are collected from the interview used to investigate twenty students from both senior high schools and elementary schools. The questions asked are same for both levels of schools. The researchers just differentiate it in the language used. Indonesian questions are used to investigate the elementary school students in informal way, whereas the English questions in a quite formal way are used to the other level. They all answer the questions in a good way, so it does not render collecting data difficult. Literal observation is also employed on this collection data work. Initially, both researchers participated as a learner, sitting with different character of children and teenagers. We learned and practiced with them and they watched us struggle with similar jobs in the class, specifically in this material. Bellow is the results of the data collected as well as its analysis. According to the observation done, the data are the following: No . 1. Active Class Participation Level of each value (Percentage) High School Elementary school 30% 60%
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Students enthusiasm Teachers and students interaction Students practice actively Good students’ responds to “introduction” material Good students attention This material affects students motivation in improving speaking ability positively Students willingness to learn Followed up by doing practices outside the class
20% 40% 50% 35% 45% 25% 45% 5%
95% 65% 85% 85% 80% 95% 75% 100%
In doing the observation, the researchers attempt to be completely objective in viewing the students’ performance of both school levels, elementary and the senior high school. To show the researcher perspectives, the students’ performance of senior high school will be firstly discussed in the findings part. The senior high school students are seems not interested in learning this material. It is proven by their less attention when their English teacher explained it to them. Chatting, doing something with their cell phones, silent joking, are such activities they did in the class when Introduction material is conducted. The interaction between teacher and the students is wide apart. They are in the same room working on different business. However the goodness found by the researcher is that in the practice session, most of the students take easy on it. Some of them pointed to come forward and practice show very small amount of difficulties on doing that. They already know how to introduce themselves. Well done. Perceiving “no matter” for this material leads them to the lack of practice outside. Understanding the material before teacher’s explanation affects students’ motivation negatively. The ease of this actually causes a weak willingness to learn other English materials. Secondly is what the researcher has found in the fourth grade of elementary school students. This observation result shows significant differences of percentage from both elementary school students’ performances and senior high school ones. The children involve
actively in each activity of learning this material. When first time the teacher introduces herself, they begin to mumble, trying to say what she said. It is one of the indicators that they start to be attracted on. It is a kind of very good interaction done between teacher and students, because the students do what the teacher ask to them. Listening and repeating loudly what is being taught run smoothly in that class. All children want to be able to do the same thing. When the teacher asks them to practice introducing themselves, one by one in front of the class, they’d be happy to. They perform as well as they can. Sometimes, even the mousy one, willing to come to the front, and speaks very slow and soft. Almost everyone in the class enjoy this material. Every time the teacher asks for practicing many of them directly raise their hands. Answering teacher’s question does not become their fear any longer. Hobbies and dreams are their favorite things to share. Smile and even laugh fill that classroom; it is a fresh class. No one want to be silent, they do it repeatedly without feeling bored. This is a very active classroom since the students show very big enthusiasm by repeating the entire teacher said loudly. After the class dismiss, they ask the teacher when they are going to learn English again. It is very good news. It indicates their motivation and interest to learn English especially to speak this language. As a nature of children, they love to show off themselves, who they are, or how smart they are. That happens after this class; outside the class. When they meet other friends from other classes they directly introduce themselves in English. Most of others who listen to them look like they wanted to do what they have done. Not only those students taught this material but also students from other classes want to be able to speak English. The researcher found that the class participation of the senior high school students is less than the elementary ones. The observation result shows that the elementary school students have bigger interest in learning the “introduction” material than the other ones. Then it
gives them more motivation to speak English than it is for the senior high school students. These are question used to investigate twenty students of senior high school: 1. Do you like speaking English? 2. Do you like learning “introduction” material? 3. Does learning this material bring any impacts toward your speaking ability? 4. Is it difficult for you to learning this material? 5. Does learning this material motivate you to speak English better? TABLE 3.4 a
The interview is employed as one of the ways to dig the information
Before going further, let’s firstly discuss the data collected from one by one specific answer delivered by the twenty respondents. For the first question, more than half of the respondents respond it positively. Speaking English is something they like to do. Good beginning. It means that they already have good start to learn speaking English. Teachers just
need to support them appropriately by giving them, in this case, more challenging material than just a little of “introduction”. Then the second question answered by the students dislike dominating it. In fact, the ignorance of this material begins to appear here. It is one of the reasons of why learning introduction material does not bring any impacts toward their speaking ability. Unfortunately their likes to speak English are cut down by the easy material given to them. The data show that learning an introduction material is not a big deal for them so why teachers should teach something the students already able to do. The materials should be to appropriately support the development of motivation so that there is a proper foundation for optimal educational growth. However the data collected from the senior high school interview negate the statement before. According to Ryan and Deci (2000), ‘intrinsic motivation generally refers to motivation to engage in an activity because that activity is enjoyable and satisfying to do.’ Class activities are on occasion of the materials of it. Indeed, because they already know the stages of self introduction, learning this material become as just as flashing something the usually do. It leads them to feel bored immediately in class. Repeating something usual in a formal condition make them ignore it, not watch in from academic perspective and its senses. The boring atmosphere in the class will not bring them to have an enjoyable and satisfying activity to do, for instance, practice to introducing yourself. Any betterment becomes unobtainable for them. They lose their focus to learn their motivation and finally abolish their own spirit to learn. At this point, nothing can be expected from the introduction material taught to the first grade students of senior high school. Having known the senior high school students respond to this material, the elementary students might show different. The nature of both different ages, at least in this case, strongly affected their interest and ways to learn something. After having discussion for this long in senior high school area, the next one to be presented will be the discussion
presented after conducting interview to the fourth grade students of elementary school.
TABLE 3.4 b
The data above were collected after the researchers try to conduct such experiment by giving them introduction material. The result is totally different with those from senior high school where almost all students responded negatively on the questions given. The elementary school students, on the other hand, gave positive respond to the questions. It is along with one of the characteristics of young learners characterized by Brumfit (1997: v) who stated that young learners tend to be keen and
fromhttp://peni.staff.uns.ac.id/2008/10/10/young-learner-characteristics/). The surprising results occur when respondents answered the third and fifth question. All of them said ‘yes’ in responding the two questions indicating a high interest in learning English, the introduction material particularly. Showing the existence of motivation among students themselves, according to Ball (ibid), motivated students refer to those who wish to do things that teachers expect. Creating kinds of situation that can emerge students motivations are often hard to do. However, the researchers found any other situation supporting his statement. Students’ The attractiveness to perform in front of the class introducing themselves and to obey the teachers’ instructions is parts of this situation. elementary students’ performances in the class indicate their big willingness to speak English better and better. By their eagerness to be actively participating in the class activities when they were given the introduction material, they feel nothing difficult with English. It’s going to be greatly affecting their perspectives in viewing English as many people consider it very hard to learn. Their motivation will transform to be a continuity of speaking English as it is proven by the answers of fifth question. Just as it was found in Song (2004) that elementary school children indicated that they are motivated to study English because it is a compulsory subject at school. The situations the researchers underwent when implementing it to the senior high school students were no longer happen in the elementary school. All students seem to be focus on teacher instruction, and they respond enthusiastically to every activity along the introduction material. It again, proves that this material already touch the natures of children, which are different from adults. The characteristics cover their ways of thinking, their attitude, their aptitude, et cetera. They also prevail to the children’s ways of learning language. This, of course, influences the ways of teaching them. To give the best quality of teaching English to the
CHAPTER IV FINDINGS
4.1 Findings Every time adult learners see a child who speaks a foreign language fluently, the learners regret not having started learning the foreign language earlier because the learners' speech necessarily involves a foreign accent. It is widely believed that the earlier people start learning a second language, the more successful they will be. If there is 'a period, during which language can be acquired more easily than at any other time (Richards, Platt and Platt 1992:92),' language learning after that period should be more difficult. It is related with the findings of the researcher through this mini research. The researcher found that it is very essential to motivate children to learn English since their children age. Giving material which is relevant with
their live is applicative for them. Applicative material is easy to be implemented anywhere, anytime and with anyone. One of the applicative materials found useful to be learnt since children age is “introduction material” which is now given in the senior high school level. It is also found that teaching introduction material to the fourth grade students of elementary school brings many advantages to its students. They are able to make people know who they are to say in English. Since it is very applicative material, it is going to be hard for them to forget this material. There are no longer the words of “English is hard” which make students reluctant to learn English. Showing easier material makes them have big enthusiasm to learn English which lead them to the betterment of their English especially on the speaking ability that the researcher concern from the very first beginning. The disadvantages also found in this experimental research, after having an easy material, it is difficult to move them to the next stage which is not interesting for them. From the data collected, we found a very significant value (shown in percentage) of motivation gained by the elementary and the senior high school students. The children aged- students show that this introduction material attracts them to learn English again and again. In contrast we found less interest from the senior high school students. They tend to be boring in the class which makes it run ineffectively. The result also shows that most of them already recognize well “how to introduce”. The last, the researcher found that the students of elementary school need this material more than the students of senior high school. According to the condition above in the first paragraph, it is important for them to learn English since children age. So, the introduction material, in term of motivating children in the earlier age to speak English for the sake of learning effectiveness, is more needed to be share in the fourth grade of elementary school.
Stimulation (introductio n material)
After completing this research, the researcher also found a cycle exists. Based on the researchers’ observation, most of teachers come to the classes without big plan on how they are going to teach. The big plan in this case is not simply as the lesson plan. Teachers need to develop an overall plan that covers the entire aspects of learning processes. In status quo, teachers generalize the students’ capabilities and performances that make them restricting students right to gain more knowledge in the class. What teachers demanded is only the students understand what they have explained in classrooms. Expecting students to obtain high scores in his/her lesson is usual. No more educative practice. No wonder if the education does not increase significantly. One thing that seldom to be touched is to build students motivation; how to make the students attractively involve in the English learning process. Students are commonly forced to be active in the classroom without any stimulant before. Stimulant to increase the students motivation to speak English are rarely thought by teachers. Then this research comes up with a new cycle above, motivation cannot be built without the existence of the stimulant. The stimulant can be everything. The ways teachers deliver the materials, even the materials itself can be the stimulant to build students motivation. Why the motivation becomes so important by the way, stated by Harmer 1998, while real motivation comes from within each individual, young learners rarely have clear motivation; they may come to class simply taking it for
granted, or because they like the teacher. So, through studying the elementary students’ performances in the classroom, the researchers determine that materials play important role in stimulating students’ motivations. The introduction material is considered as an applicative and relevant material for children and their lives. Then, implementing it in the classroom, and providing appropriate method to improve it made the students feel interested in learning this. This interest, then, leads them to practice more and more since it is can be performed easily. This motivation will encourage them to perceive the next materials for sure with more enthusiasm perhaps. The more practice done makes them has a good ability in speaking English; it is then the next motivation for them. Added by the compliments from others, just affect nicely to their motivation to speak English.
CAHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion To sum up, it is very important for the Indonesia government to pay more attention on how children learn language and how to meet the learner needs. In accordance with the result, the researcher expects that the government be willing to reconsider the education policy. Since the result of this mini research prove to you that the English material given to the students in various levels does not meet yet the need of the students. Another thing which is important is that students should be able to use the language since the earlier age. Then they will not have any barrier to learn it in the adult age. Giving the easy material and motivate them from the children age should be done well to increase their willingness in learning language. 5.2 Recommendation Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommended it for three parties who are taking part in the flow of education. Thus, it is addressed for the government, teachers, and students. First, the government is suggested to be more selective in deciding the materials given from each level of education. The researchers suggest that the material should touch the nature of learners in order to make them eager to learn English better. The materials themselves are emphasized as such kind of applicative materials which are appropriate to be implemented not only in the teaching learning process but also in students’ daily life. The students are hopefully able to apply it everywhere, every time, and with everyone they deal with. To English teachers, the researchers have a big expectation of the betterment on their ways of teaching. They should be able to find an effective ways of teaching certain materials in an attempt to raise students’ motivation. In addition, teachers are expected to be able to organize the intended materials into the useful one by giving them a
relevant method in delivering the material. Teacher education therefore must urgently provide better models for teaching English. The students’ perceptions toward the materials given should be in positive ways, don’t let the students perceive that the material being present means nothing for them, for their lives, just because the teachers give no feedback to the students. It is what we called as meaningful learning. Regarding students as the main subject of this research, it is also recommended for them not to be rebel in receiving the material. Whatever the material given, they must be able to take more advantages. They must enable themselves to engage well with any material they got. Moreover, for the recommendation of further study, the researchers suggest other researchers who have a big concern in enhancing students’ motivation to focus on more specific detail since this study has a limited setting; it may not be appropriate to be implemented in other settings.
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