The complete report of experiment genetic and Evolution with title ³Giant Chromosome´ created by: Name Reg.No Group : Andi Nurlaeli : 071404159 : IV (Fourth)
Have been checked and consulted by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator and this report is accepted. Makassar, November Assistant Coordinator, Assistant, 2009
Nur Muhajirah Yunus Reg.No: 061404049
Known by: Lecturer of responsibility
Hartati, S.Si, M.si ID: 1974 04 05 2000 003 2002
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background Human as the organism, has as specialize from the other organism. The specialized include mind and idea. Science that study about organism and the relationship between one organism and the other organism called biology science. Biology is central science. This now biology can be relation from all natural science, and can meet of natural science, humaniora and social science. Biology is science that invited a person to can doing inspiration. Biology not only about human, but study about plant and animal. Genetic is science that study about heredity. Genetic have large veil, have academic and practice characteristic, likes discuss about the function of chromosome, heredity and anthropology characteristic, happen of body and mental deformed that caused by chromosome apartness, appear of diseases because innate metabolism wrong, several of response variety toward medicines, transplantation, autoimmune diseases and blood groups. In the diploid number, chromosomes are always found in pairs. In each pair there are two identical chromosomes, called homologous chromosomes. These chromosomes are identical in size, appearance and position of the centromeres. Apart from this, the two homologous chromosomes are genetically identical, carrying the same number of genes, controlling the same characters. One member of each pair is called paternal chromosome since it comes from the male parent and the other member is called maternal chromosome since it comes from the female parent. So that the numbers of chromosome in the body cells called diploid (2n). Sex cells (gamete) just contain a half from the chromosome number that found in the somatic cells, because the number of chromosome in the gamete called haploid (n). One pack of haploid chromosome in the species called
genome. Chromosome divided between autosom (body chromosome) and sex chromosome. Fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) that usually used to observation of genetic have 8 chromosomes that consist of 6 autosom and 2 sex chromosomes. Because of that easily of our doing observation about the giant chromosome at Drosophila melanogaster. B. Purpose The purpose of this practicum is observed of giant chromosome at Drosophila melanogaster larvae. C. Benefit The benefit of this practicum is we can know shape and the parts of giant chromosome at Drosophila melanogaster larvae.
CHAPTER II PREVIEW OF LITERATURE
There are chromosomes which are extremely large compared to normal chromosomes. Such chromosomes, called giant chromosomes occur in some animal cells. The types of giant chromosome are lampbrush and polytene chromosomes.
At lampbrush chromosomes these chromosomes occur in the oocytes (germ cells in the ovary) of amphibians and in some insects. They are extremely large synapsed homologous chromosomes which can be seen in the diplotene stage of prophase-I in meiosis. They measure about 1500 to 2000 in length. A lampbrush chromosome
consists of an axis from which paired loops extend in opposite directions, giving the appearance of a lamp brush. The axis consists of chromomeres (nucleosomes) and interchromomere regions. The loops consist of transcriptional active DNA which can synthesize large amount of mRNA, necessary for the synthesis of yolk. Polytene chromosomes these are giant chromosomes found in the salivary gland cells of the fruitfly Drosophila. They are many times larger than the normal chromosomes reaching a length of 2000 and are visible even under a compound microscope.
The polytene chromosomes appear to contain five long and one short arm radiating from a central point called chromocentre. It is formed by the fusion of centromeres of all the eight chromosomes found in the cell. (Anonyma, 2009). To increase cell volume, some specialized cells undergo repeated rounds of DNA replication without cell division (endomitosis), forming a giant polytene
chromosome. Polytene chromosomes form when multiple rounds of replication produce many sister chromatics that remain synapse together. In addition to increasing the volume of the cell's nuclei and causing cell expansion, polytene cells may also have a metabolic advantage as multiple copies of genes permits a high level of gene expression. In Drosophila melanogaster, for example, the chromosomes of the larval salivary glands undergo many rounds of endoreplication, to produce large amounts of glue before pupation. Polytene chromosomes have characteristic light and dark banding patterns which can be used to identify chromosomal rearrangements and deletions. Dark banding frequently corresponds to inactive chromatin, while light banding is usually found at areas with higher transcriptional activity. The banding patterns of the polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster were sketched in 1935 by Calvin B. Bridges, in such detail that his maps are still widely used today. The banding patterns of the chromosomes are especially helpful in research, as they provide an excellent visualization of transcriptional active chromatin and general chromatin structure (Anonymb, 2009). At the high level organism, somatic cells (body cells, except sex cells) contain one pack of cells that receive from the parental. The chromosome from the female parental has form that similar from male parental. So that the pair of this chromosome called homolog chromosome. So that the numbers of chromosome in the body cells called diploid (2n). Sex cells (gamete) just contain a half from the chromosome number that found in the somatic cells, because the number of chromosome in the gamete called haploid (n). One pack of haploid chromosome in the species called genome. Chromosome divided between autosom (body chromosome) and sex chromosome. Fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) that usually used to observation of genetic have 8 chromosomes that consist of 6 autosom and 2 sex chromosomes (Suryo, 2005). Genome is the term used to describe the sum total of all the genes in one haploid set of chromosomes. Sum total at every somatic cells same with all of group species. Like human somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes, tobacco cells contain 48,
cow 60, Pisum sativum 14 and Drosophila melanogaster 8 chromosomes. Chromosome arranged from DNA that associated with several kinds of protein. DNA complex ant it protein usually see in the cell as chromatin (namely like that because it complex easy given of color with colorations). The groups member of protein called histon, can organized the chain of DNA long become a structure that usually called nucleosomes. Centromeres that divide of chromosome become two arms that have long variety, there are or not and the area place that large called chromomeres, there are or not of length in the tip part chromatin called satellite (Elrod, 2007). Chromosome base of centromeres place consist of metasentric, if the centromeres place in the central, divide the both arm chromosome (p arm and q arm) same long. Submetasentric, if the centromeres divide chromosome arm not same long, p arm shorter that q arm. Telosentric, if centromeres place in the top chromosome, there are length that called satellite. Base of chromosome morphology, know that every chromosome have pair chromosome that same of shape. The pair of it chromosome called pair of homologous chromosome (Tim dosen Unhas, 2007). The organism that choice by Morgan for experiment is fruitfly species Drosophila melanogaster, kinds of insect that generally not dangerous and eater of fungi at fruit. Fruitfly is insect that easy to multiply. One of breeding ca result hundreds offspring, and new generation can multiply every two weeks. This characteristic become organism fruitfly that correct for genetic experiment. The other advantages from Drosophila melanogaster is this fruitfly just have four pairs chromosome, can with easy divided through light microscope. Found three pairs autosom chromosome and one pair sex chromosome. The female fruitfly have one pair X chromosome that homologue, than the male fruitfly have one chromosome X and one Y chromosome (Campbell, 2002).
CHAPTER III PRACTICUM METHOD
A. Time and Place Day / Date : Monday / November 16th 2009 Time Place : At 13.20 until at 14.20 pm : Laboratory FMIPA Biology department floor II west part Makassar State University (UNM) B. Tools and Materials 1. Tools a. Microscope b. Object glass and deck glass c. Pincer d. Bunsen burner e. Cutter f. Petri dish 2. Materials a. Drosophila melanogaster larvae b. NaCl physiology c. Aceto carmine d. Aquades C. Work Procedures 1. Took Drosophila melanogaster larvae, soaked in the NaCl physiology. 2. Lifted of larvae and leaked, then soaked in the aquades. 3. Then cut anterior part, put in the object glass, pressed and closed with deck glass. 4. Filled aceto carmine in the peripheral part of deck glass and fixation. 5. Observed in under microscope.
CHAPTER IV OBSERVATION RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Observation result Drosophila melanogaster larvae
Giant chromosome at Drosophila melanogaster larvae
Explanations: 1. Arm 2. Centromeres 3. Chromatic 4. Satellite 5. Dark band 6. Light band
B. Discussion At this observation we observated with using Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Where the anterior part of larvae is cut and then soaked in NaCl physiology then in the aquades and next given aceto carmine. The function of NaCl physiology is to easy pressed of larvae and function of aceto carmine is given of color at larvae until the chromosome is clear if see in under microscope. Then the function from fixation is attached of deck glass at object glass. At this observation we use Drosophila melanogaster larvae because its have chromosome just four pairs chromosome, until with can easy to observated in under microscope. Base observation we can found giant chromosome at Drosophila melanogaster larvae and its parts. There are centromeres, arm chromosome and satellite. Giant chromosome is chromosome that active to fission without joined cells fission. The giant chromosome has the different size with normal body chromosome. At the giant chromosome have longer chromosome than normal body chromosome. At observation we can see there are light area and dark area, this match with theory that said giant chromosome consisting of dark band and light band. These are giant chromosomes found in the salivary gland cells of the fruitfly Drosophila. They are many times larger than the normal chromosomes reaching a length of 2000 and are visible even under a compound microscope. The
polytene chromosomes appear to contain five long and one short arm radiating from a central point called chromocentre. It is formed by the fusion of centromeres of all the eight chromosomes found in the cell. Of the 6 arms, the short arm represents the fused IV chromosome and the longest represents the fused sex chromosomes. These arms contain numerous chromonemata resulting from repeated replication of DNA, without separation into daughter
chromosomes. The arms show characteristic dark bands and light bands. The dark bands are euchromatic regions. Some of the dark bands temporarily swell up and
form enlargements called chromosomal puffs or Balbiani rings. These regions contain actively transcribing DNA involved in the synthesis of RNA types. Polytene chromosomes are a peculiarity of rather unspecialized cells. They occur in some animal and plant groups (e. g. in some dipteran species, in protozoa and beans). Normal chromosomes consist of one or two, polytene chromosomes of a whole range of chromatides (around 1000). The polytene character is kept during interphase. Often, but not always, are homologous chromosomes paired (in Drosophila, for example). The X-chromosome of the males is easily spotted, since it has only half the thickness of the others due to the missing homologous chromosome. All polytene chromosomes of Drosophila are connected at their centromeres. The centromeres domains are strongly heterochromatic and are also called chromocenters. Polytene chromosomes can be recognized by their clear and regular bands, the pattern is highly specific. In Drosophila , every band has been identified, classified and numbered. The bands of the polytene chromosomes have nothing to do with the bands of ordinary chromosomes about which we have just talked. They can be seen without any staining. The bands of normal chromosomes however are a kind of artifact they can only be observed after staining. Polytene chromosomes became a suitable specimen for the study of changes of the chromosomal structure and its consequences. The salivary gland cells in the larvae stages of Drosophila contain large, multistranded polytene chromosomes. Polytene chromosomes are produced by repeated replication during synapsis without separation into daughter nuclei. This laboratory procedure outlines the mechanism by which salivary glands are removed and prepared so that the polytene chromosomes may be observed. Drosophila virilis is used instead of Drosophila melanogaster because D. virilis is much larger and it is easier to dissect and remove the salivary glands from the larvae of this species.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion Giant chromosome is chromosome that active to fission without joined cells fission. At Drosophila melanogaster larvae there are found giant chromosome with it parts like satellite, centromeres, chromatic, dark band, light band and arm chromosome. Giant chromosome at larvae Drosophila melanogaster have longer size. B. Suggestion 1. Hoped to the practicing must active and attend the explain from assistant about giant chromosome at Drosophila melanogaster larvae until don¶t happen mistake. 2. The tools that use must clear like microscope so that we can get result is be better. 3. Hoped to assistant must guidance of practicing do observated until not happen mistake.
Anonyma, 2009. Giant Chromosomes. http://www/Autorvista.com/sitemap.php. Acessed at November 20th2009. Anonymb. 2009. Politone Chromosome. http:// www.wikipedia.com Accessed at November 20th2009. Campbell, Reeche, Mitchell. 2002. Biologi Jilid I Edisi Ke Lima. Jakarta. Erlangga. Suryo. 2005. Genetika Strata 1. Yokyakarta. Gajah Mada University Press. Elrod, Susan. 2007. Genetika Edisi Ke Empat. Jakarta. Erlangga. Tim dosen Unhas. 2007. Biologi Dasar. Makassar. Bidang Biologi Program TPBUnhas