(teD;acwf Armjynf edik if aH &;vSKy&f mS ;rSK ordik ;f tusO;f

)
(1948-2000)

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf
(teD ; acwf Armjynf Ed k i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ ord k i f ; tusOf ; )
(1948-2000)

0if ; wif h x G e f ;
a&;om;jyKpk o nf

pmtk y f r S w f w rf ;
pmtkyt
f rnf
tarSmifMum;u Armjynf
( teD;acwf ArmjynfEikd if aH &;vSKy&f mS ;rSKordik ;f tusO;f 1948-2000 )
ûypka&;om;ol
0if;wifx
h eG ;f

pDpOfol
pGrf;NrdKif
yxrtBurd f
27 &uf? arv ? 2007 ckEpS f
tkyaf & (1000)
av;atmuftjyiftqif
udak rmifEikd f
pmpDpm&du
k f
ud0k if;ode;f ? yDuEl
xkwaf 0ol
vl h abmifopf'rD u
kd &ufwpfygwD (jyefMum;a&;Xme)ESihf
tvif;tdrpf mapmif&aJ bmfrsm; (*syefEikd if )H
qufo,
G rf mS ,lvykd gu

vdypf m

information@dpns.org
alinneain@hotmail.com
aalinneain@yahoo.com
swammyaing@yahoo.com

PO Box 50
AP Maesot
TAK 63110
THANLAND

wefz;kd -10 a':vm (pmydk ch ryg)

&nfp;l yef-um; aus;Zl;pum;

&nf p l ; csuf
trdEikd if aH wmftwGuf pGe@f vw
$ t
f epfemcH &Guaf qmifo,fy;kd oGm;=uol tmZmenftm;vk;H udk
±kdaoav;pm;pGm OD;!¸wf&if; teD;acwf ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ordkif;udk pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm avhvm
ok;H oyf =unfjh rifv=kd uoltm;vk;H eJ@/ ArmjynfEikd if aH &;ordik ;f udk tvG,q
f ;Hk tusO;f ±k;H òcHio
Hk &d edS m;vnf
vdk=uol tm;vkH;odk h æ

yef - um;csuf
ArmjynfEikd if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_ ordik ;f pOfukd jyefajymif;wl;azmf ±_ar#mEf ikd =f ua&;twGuf tkww
f csyf
oJwyGifhtjzpf ESvkH;oGif; ðypka&;om;rdygw,f? c|wf,Gif;r_/ wdrf;apmif;r_/ vpf[m vdktyfr_rsm;tay:
yGifhyGifhvif;vif; a0zeft}uHay;=ur_rSefor#udk av;pm;pGmóudqdk&if;/ aemif ydkrdkjynfhpkHatmif óud;yrf;
jznfhqnf;oGm;yghr,f?

aus;Zl ; rS w f w rf ;
'Dpmtkyf jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf tzufzufrS 0dkif;0ef;ulnDcJh=uoltm;vkH;eJ@ xkwfa0Ekdif&ef
tultnDay;=uaom “vlŒabmifopf'Drdku&ufwpfygwD jyef=um;a&;Xme ESifh tvif;tdrfpmapmif
&Jabmfrsm;” tygt0if (txl;ojzihf) tyifyrf;cH wm0ef,l pDpOfvkyfudkifaqmif&Gufay;cJhwJh
armif ‘pGrf;òrdif’ udk txl;aus;Zl; Oyum&wif&Sdyga=umif;?
0if ; wif h x G e f ;

pDpOfol.pum;
2006 ckEpS x
f rJ mS q&m*suaf umh usaemfxo
H @kd vlóuHyg;vmaom pmESihf
twl a&muf&Sdvmygw,f? pmudk zGifhzwf=unfhawmh q&m0if;wifhxGef;xHrSpm
jzpfygw,f? q&mpmxJrmS vGecf ahJ omoH;k ESpcf ef@xu
J a&;xm;+yD;wJh ‘tarSmif=um;u
Armjynf’ vd@k acgi;f pOfay;xm;wJh pmrlEiS yhf wfouf+yD; qufvufaqmif&u
G af y;zd@k
usaemfhudk tultnDawmif;vmygw,f?
pmrlrsm;udk usaemfzwf=unfv
h u
kd af wmh q&m0if;wifx
h eG ;f u Armjynfordik ;f
1948-2000 vd@k ajymxm;ayr,fh 1938 ckEpS u
f ae 2000 ckEpS t
f xd twGi;f u
ordik ;f qdik &f m Ekid if aH &;tjzpftysuaf wG/ xdu
k mv Ekid if aH &;jzpfpOfawG/ xdu
k mvawG
twGi;f u Ekid if aH &;orm;awG&ŒJ aemufu,
G u
f twGi;f a&;awGukd Edu
_ Ef u
_d cf |wcf |wf
csOf;uyfjrifjy/ awG;jy/ aumufcsufjyxm;csufawG jzpfaewmawGŒ&ygw,f?
q&m0if;wifx
h eG ;f u usaemfu
h kd pmtkyt
f jzpf zGŒJ pnf;ay;zd@k / yHEk ydS pf ufwifEikd f
wJt
h qifh r[kwaf wmif rdwLW pmtkyjf zef@Eidk &f ifyJ awmfyg+yD? 'Dpmrlukd pmtkyjf zpfatmif
udk&ifyJ =unfhvkyfay;ygvdk@ wm0efay;tyfvmygw,f?
usaemfvnf; usaemfxrf;&GuEf idk w
f hJ tcef;u¾uae awmfveS af &;wm0ef
w&yftjzpf tav;teufxm;+yD; xkwaf 0vdo
k /l tultnDay;vdo
k rl sm;udk &atmif
&Sm+yD; yHEk ydS pf ufwif jzef@csEd idk o
f nftxd wwfEidk o
f r# tjrefq;kH jzpfatmif vufcv
H yk f
aqmifygrnfhta=umif; *wdðycJhygw,f?
,ckuo
hJ @kd q&m0if;wifx
h eG ;f ðypka&;om;onfh “tarSmif=um;u Armjynf
(teD;acwf ArmjynfEidk if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_ordik ;f tusO;f 1948-2000” pmtkyu
f kd yHEk ydS f
jzef@cs&d mwGif owfyo
kH wf!e¸ ;f tustaygurf sm; &Syd gvrd rhf ,f? od@k aomf twwfEidk q
f ;kH
ordkif;qdkif&m ta=umif;tcsuftvuf/ t"dy`m,fwdk@udk xdcdkufysufpD;apaom
owfyo
kH wf!e¸ ;f wd@k uo
kd m tav;xm; pDppf=unf±h r_ r_ sm;avmufom pma&;olEiS hf
usaemfwdk@ n‡dEd_if;wdkifyifum yxrt}udrftjzpf yHkESdyfjzef@csdvkduf&jcif;jzpfygw,f?

pG r f ; òrd i f
2007 ckESpf/ arv (1) &uf?

xkwfa0olwkd‹&JŒpum;
ordkif;trSefawGudk azmfxkwfcGifh vkH;0ray;bl;?
ordkif;trSm;awGudk ausmif;okH;jyÏmef;w,fqdkwJh uae@umvvdk tarSmif
acwf}uD;twGif;rSm æ
ordkif;trSefawGudk ajymjy axmufjyEdkifpGrf;wJh/ wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifwJh ouf&Sd
ordik ;f tbd"mef}uD;awG wOD;+yD;wOD; qk;H yg;uG,v
f eG af e&wJh 'Dae@vakd cwfq;dk
acwf=uyf}uD;xJrSm æ
q&m0if;wifhxGef;a&;om;ðypkvdkufwJh‘tarSmif=um;u Armjynf’qdkwJh
“teD;acwf ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ordkif;tusOf;(1948-2000)” [m
jrefrmEdkifiHudkcspfwJh/ jrefrmjynfolawGudkcspfwJh/ jrefrmjynfopfudk xkqpf
wnfaqmufcsif=uwJh rsKd;qufopfvli,fawGtwGuf/ ordkif;trSefawGudk
&SmazGw;l azmfcsio
f w
l @dk twGuf wpkw
H &m aus;Zl;ðyygvrd rhf ,fv@dk ar#mv
f if,
h Hk
=unfygw,f?
q&m}uD; a'gufwmoef;xGef; !¸efjyajymqdkcJhzl;wJh “ordkif;oifwm rt
atmifvkd@” qdkwJhpum;udkvnf; tvGefudkyJ tav;teufðyygw,f?
q&m0if;wifhxGef;&JŒ tm;xkwfvkH;yrf;r_awG/ ordkif;qdkif&m b¾mwdkuf}uD;
twGif; q&m0if;wifhxGef;&JŒ jznfhpGufcsufawGudk *k%fðywefzkd;xm;pGmESifh
avhvmvdkolwdkif;twGuf tcuftcJawG=um;xJuyJ 'Dpmtkyfudk xkwfa0
jzpf=uwm jzpfygw,f?
ordkif;trSefrsm; rsm;rsm; azmfxkwf zl;yGifhEdkif=uygap?
vl Πabmif o pf ' D r d k u &uf w pf y gwD (jyef = um;a&;Xme)
tvif ; td r f p mapmif & J a bmf r sm; (*syef )
2007ckESpf arv(1)&uf?

rmwdum 
&nfpl;yef=um; aus;Zl;pum; 
pDpOfol.pum; 
xkwfa0olwdk@pum;

1? ed'gef; .............................................................................................................................. 11
2? ordkif;aemufcHum;csyfrsm; ............................................................................................... 15

tydkif; ( 1 )
1948 - 1958 umv
1? vGwfvyfa&;udka=unmjcif; ............................................................................................. 72
2? vGwfvyfa&;&ump ArmEdkifiHtajctae ........................................................................ 75
3? vGwfvyfaom jrefrmEkdifiHawmfacgif;pOfatmufrSm ............................................................ 81
4? jynfwGif;ppf}uD; pwifaygufzGm;vmjcif; .......................................................................... 87
5? jynfwGif;ppfudk b,folp ................................................................................................. 90
6? jynfwGif;ppftp EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ESifh qufwdkuf
ay:xGufvmcJhaom ppfrD;v#Hrsm; ...................................................................................... 98
7? u&ifhvufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;eJ‹ &efukeftpdk;& ............................................................ 120
8? 1951 - 52 ygvDref'Drkdua&pD taxGaxGa±G;aumufyJG ............................................... 139
9? jynfawmfompDrHudef;/ w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHawmf .................................... 142
10? 1955/ zqyv/ Auy/ yrnw eJ‹ jrefrmEkdifiHawmf .................................................... 162
11? +idrf;csrf;a&;/ tðywfwkdufa&;eJ‹ jrefrmEkdifiHawmf .......................................................... 169
12? 1956 ckESpf ygvDref'Drdkua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG/
tm%m& zqyv tuGJeJ‹ jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;aºuG;a=umfoH ..................................... 175
13? zqyv òyduGJjcif;/ yxrqkH;aom ppfwyftm%modrf;r_eJ‹
zqyv q,fESpfq,frdk; ed*kH;csKyfcsuf ........................................................................... 197
14? zqyv q,fESpf q,frdk;acwf ed*kH;csKyf ...................................................................... 226

tyd k i f ; (2)
1958-1962 umv
1? ppftkyfpk}uD;arG;zGm;jcif;/ ppftm%m&SifpepftwGuf Zmwfwdkufjcif; odk‹r[kwf
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&acwf ................................................................................................... 232
2? 1960 jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJ/ yxp/ OD;-Adkvf-ocif-q&m eJ@ ygvDrefacwfae0ifcsdef
jrefrmEkdifiHawmf&JΠtajctae ..................................................................................... 252
3? ygvDref'Drdkua&pDacwfed*kH;csKyfcsuf ............................................................................... 291

tyd k i f ; (3)
awmf v S e f a &;aumif p D a cwf
1962-1974
1?
2?
3?
4?

1962 ckESpf ppfwyftm%modrf;r_ESifh Armjynfppftm%m&Sifpepf ed'gef; .......................
rqv/ acwfajymif;awmfvSefa&;eJ‹ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;tajctae .....................................
7 &ufZlvdkifta&;tcif; (odk‹) ppftpdk;&&JŒvlowfyGJ .....................................................
jrefrmhenf;jrefrmh[ef pyful;rwful;umveJ‹ ppftm%m&Sifpepf&JŒ
yGJOD;xGufajcvSrf;rsm; ....................................................................................................
5? awmfvSefa&;aumifpDacwf yxrESpftwGif; ArmEdkifiHtajctaetusOf;csKyf ..................
6? jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;eJ‹
EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;&JŒtoH/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpD&JŒoabmxm;trSef ........................
7? +idrf;csrf;a&; awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;udk ed*kH;csKyf=unfhjcif; ...................................................
8? +idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;ysufjym;+yD;aemuf ppftpdk;&&JŒajcvSrf;rsm;eJ‹
ppftm%m&Sifpepfatmufu Armjynf ..........................................................................
9? awmfvSefa&;aumifpDacwf (okd‹r[kwf) ppftm%m&Sifpepf (yxrykdif;) ed*kH;csKyfcsuf .......

304
310
317
324
330
336
356
359
408

tyd k i f ; (4)
jref r mh q k d & S , f v pf v rf ; pOf y gwD a cwf (ok d ‹ r[k w f )
wygwD t m%m&S i f p epf a cwf (od k @ r[k w f )
ppf t m%m&S i f p epf a cwf ('k w d , yk d i f ; )
(1974-1988)
1? wygwDtm%m&SifpepfeJ‹ tqufrjywfay:xGufvmwJh vlxkwkdufyGJrsm; .......................
2? 1974 ZGef (6) tvkyform;oydwf}uD; ..........................................................................
3? OD;oef@psmyeta&;tcif; ..............................................................................................
4? 1975 ZGef (6) tvkyform;ESpfvnfoydwf}uD; .............................................................
5? rd_if;&mjynfh ...................................................................................................................
6? rqv wGif;uae xGufay:vmwJhrD;awmufrsm; ...........................................................
7? rqvtkyfpkd;r_tapmykdif;umv&JΠjynfwGif;tajctae/ EkdifiHwumhtajctae ..............
8? rqvwygwDtm%m&Sifpepfacwf aemufykdif;umv .....................................................
9? 1985 ckESpf 0ef;usiftajctae .....................................................................................
10? rqvacwfae0ifcsdef ESifh a'0gvDcHoGm;&aomEkdifiHawmf ...............................................
11? &Spfav;vkH;ta&;awmfykH}uD; ay:xGef;vmjcif; ...............................................................
12? ppftm%m&Sifpepf/ wygwDtm%m&Sifpepf (26) ESpfwm ed*kH;csKyf ................................

413
416
418
423
426
427
430
439
445
448
451
466

tyd k i f ; (5)
e0w/ etz acwf
1988-2000
1? e0w +idrfydvrf;pOfeJ‹ ta&;awmfykH}uD;&JŒ r+yD;qkH;ao;aomwkdufyGJpOf ............................ 480
2? EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ay:aygufvmjcif;eJ‹ EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ............................................. 487
3? 1989 ckESpf Armjynftajctae ................................................................................... 494
4? Auy }uD; òyduGJjcif;eJ‹ +idrf;tzGJŒawGpwifjcif; .................................................................. 498
5? wif;rmvmr_rsm;/ uGefz&efaw;&Sif;eJ‹ ArmjynfEkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ............................ 500
6? 1990 jynfha&G;aumufyGJ}uD; .......................................................................................... 510
7? 90 jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJ+yD;aemuf Armjynf ................................................................ 513

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

8? ajymif;vJvmwJh EdkifiHwumtajctaeeJ‹ e0w acwfOD; Armjynf&JŒ
pD;yGm;a&;/ EdkifiHa&;/ ppfa&;/ vlr_a&; bufaygif;pHktajctae .......................................... 522
9? trsKd;om;nDvmcH/ ppfwyf&JŒtm%mavmbeJ‹ ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;tajctae ................ 527
10? ppftpkd;&&JŒajcvSrf;rsm;/ azmufjyef,kwfrmr_rsm;/ EkdifiHa&;t=uyftwnf;rsm;eJ‹
'Drkdua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ tjzpftysufrsm; ................................................................. 538
11? etzacwf EdkifiHa&; xdyfwdkufyGJrsm;/ wif;rmr_rsm;eJ‹ Armjynf ...................................... 547
12? ouU&mZf 2000 ukeftxd e0w/ etz acwf ed*Hk;csKyfcsuf ...................................... 556

ed*kH; .................................................................................................................................. 558

usrf ; ud k ; 
&nf!¸ef;udk;um; pmtkyfrsm; ....................................................................................... 560 
t*FvdyfbmomeJ‹pmtkyfrsm; ........................................................................................ 561 
*sme,fr*~Zif;pmapmifpmwrf;rsm; ................................................................................. 561

10

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ed'gef;
20 &mpk Armjynfordkif;udk t=urf;zsif;=unfhvdkufr,fqdk&if - 1901 ckESpfrS 1947 ckESpftxd[m udkvdkeDacwfArmjynfordkif;/
- 1948 ckESpfrS 2000 jynfhESpftxd[m vGwfvyfa&;a=unm+yD;acwf Armjynfordkif;/
wenf;tm;jzifh rsufarSmufacwf teD;acwf Armjynfordkif;vdk@ ajym&ygvdrfhr,f?
udv
k ekd aD cwf Armjynfordik ;f [m ‘u|eaf cwfArmjynfordik ;f ’vd@k ajym&rSmjzpfovd/k vGwv
f yf
a&;a=unm+yD;acwf Armjynfordik ;f [mvnf; ‘tarSmifacwf Armjynfordik ;f ’ vd@k yJ xyfqifzh iG q
hf &kd rSm
jzpfygw,f?
tckazmfjyr,fh ordik ;f [m ‘tarSmifacwfArmjynfordik ;f ’ jzpfygw,f? tarSmifacwf Armjynf
ordkif;[m tarSmifxJuArmjynfta=umif;yJjzpfygw,f? tarSmifacwf Armjynfordkif;udk jyefvnf
=unfhvdkufwJhtcg - ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk pwifa=unmvdkufwJh 1948 ckESpfuae/ 1958 ckESpftxd
zqyv (10)ESpf q,frdk;acwf/
- 1958 ckESpfuae 1960 txd tdrfapmihftpdk;& ppftpdk;&acwf/
- 1960 uae 1962 txd yxpacwf/
- 1962 uae 1988 txd rqv ppftpdk;&acwf/
- 1988 ckESpfuae 2000jynfhtxd e0w/ etzacwf/
'DacwfawGudk xyf+yD;csKyf=unfhvdkuf&if
- zqyvacwf eJ@ yxpacwfu ygvDref'Drdkua&pDacwf/
- rqvacwfeJ@ e0w/ etzacwfu ppftm%m&Sifacwf/
- aemufq;kH tcsKyfu ygvrD ef'rD u
kd a&pDacwfe@J ppftm%m&Sipf epfacwf qdw
k mudyk J awGŒ&
vdrfhr,f?
ygvrD ef'rD u
kd a&pDacwf}uD;atmufrmS arSmife@J rrJ J jzpfc&hJ wJh Armjynf[m ppftm%m&Sipf epf
acwfatmufrSm ydef;ydwfatmifarSmifwJhb0 usa&mufcJh&ygw,f?
ppftm%m&Sipf epf tarSmifatmufrmS Armjynf}uD;[m tqif;&Jq;kH / tiwfjywfq;kH / ±kyt
f
qdk;qHk;/ temusif&qHk; jzpfcJhygw,f? tarSmifqHk;jzpfovdk t&Snf=umqHk;vnf;jzpfcJhygw,f? jzpfaeyg
w,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

11

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

Armjynf jynforl sm;&JŒ nnf;nLoH/ idak ºu;G oH/ tH}uw
d o
f /H wufacguo
f /H ±ke;f uefo/H v_y&f mS ;
oHawG[mvnf; w&Hrvyf =um;ae&ygw,f? ppfreS w
f hJ vGwv
f yfa&;&JΠt&om Armjynf jynforl sm;
rcHpm;&ao;yg? at;jrwJh +idrf;csrf;a&;tppf&JŒ&o Armjynf jynfolrsm; rxdawGŒ&ao;yg? wef;wlnD
r#whJ tcGit
hf a&;eJ@ ppfreS w
f hJ trsK;d om;aoG;pnf;nD!w
G af &; rwnfaqmufEikd af o;yg? bma=umifv
h /J
b,fvdkvJ/ bmawGjzpfcJh=uovJ?
rSefrSefuefuef jynfvnf=unfhjrif=uzdk@ oHk;oyf=uzdk@vdkygr,f? twdwfudk jyef=unfhwm[m
ordkif;udk jyef=unfhwmjzpfygw,f? ordkif;udk jyef=unfhvdkufwJhtcg æ

12

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

_idrf;csrf;a&;zcif}uD; a'gufwm ocifudk,fawmfrd+if;

vGwfvyfa&;ydokum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

13
13

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

1930 = 1941

wdk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;tvH

ocifu,
kd af wmifri_d ;f
ocifatmifqef;

ocifjr

ocifp;kd

ocifoef;xGef;

ocifA[def;
14

ocifodef;az
(odef;azjrifh)

ocifEk

14
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ordkif;aemufcHum;csyfrsm;
ordkif;udk jyefvnf=unfh±_ŒwJhtcg ordkif;aemufcHum;csyfrsm;udkyg jyefvnf,SOfwGJ qufpyf
=unfhzdk@vdkygw,f? 'grSvJ ydkrdkjynfhpHkyDovmrSmjzpfovdk obm0usus awG@Ekdif jrifEdkif ±_ŒrdEdkifrSmjzpf
ygw,f?
tjzpftysuw
f ikd ;f [m ta=umif;&if;cH&=dS uygw,f? ordik ;f tjzpftysuw
f ikd ;f [m a&Smifwcif
jzpfay:vm=uwmr[kwyf g? ta=umif;&if;cHawGuv
kd nf; awGŒatmif&mS / aemufcu
H m;csyaf wGe@J vnf;
wGJzuf=unfh/ obm0usus =unfhEdkifavav trSefw&m;eJ@ eD;avavjzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;acwf Armjynfordkif;udk=unfhzdk@ vGwfvyfa&;pwif a=unmr,fh (1948) ckESpf
eJ@wqufwnf; teD;qHk; (10) ESpfwmumvavmufqD aemufjyef=unfhzdk@ vdkygr,f? wenf;tm;jzifh
(1938) ckESpfavmuftxd jyefvnf=unfhzdk@ vdkygr,f?
1938 ckESpf[m ‘axmifhoHk;&mjynfhta&;awmfyHk}uD;’ ay:xGef;cJhwJhESpfyg? axmifhoHk;&mjynfh
ta&;awmfy}kH uD;udk 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }uD;u acgi;f aqmifcw
hJ mjzpfygw,f? a&eHajrtvkyo
f rm;xk&ŒJ
oydwfwdkufyGJawGeJ@ pwifvdkuf+yD;/ tvkyform;/ ausmif;om;/ &[ef;oHCm/ òrdŒaevlwef;pm;awGeJ@
awmifolv,form;awGyg wcJeuf wufwufºuGºuG yg0ifqifEGJcJh=uwJh +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒ qef@usifa&;/
trsKd;om;a&;eJ@ 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ ta&;awmfyHk}uD;jzpfygw,f? +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;rsm;[m
'Dta&;awmfyHk}uD;udk t=urf;zuf ESdyfpufòzdcGif;cJhygw,f? tvkyform;awG/ ausmif;om;awG/ &[ef;
oHCmawG/ ocifacgi;f aqmifawG tajrmuftrsm; zrf;qD;ESyd u
f yG cf &H ygw,f? ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmif
udkatmifausmf usqHk;cJh&ygw,f? rE Wav;rSm tmZmenf (17) OD; ypfcwfowfjzwfcHcJh&ygw,f?
'Dta&;awmfyHk}uD; ay:xGef;cJhwJhumv[m +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;&JŒvufatmuf/ (91) Xme
tkyfcsKyfa&;umvtwGif;rSmyg? 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyHk}uD;aemufydkif; 1939 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (15)
&ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD ay:aygufvmygw,f? yxrqHk; taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;[m
ocifatmifqef;yg? v#KdŒ0SufygwDtjzpf &yfwnfcJh&ygw,f? ra&S;raESmif; ay:aygufvmwmu jynf
olŒta&;awmfyHkygwDyg? ajratmuftzGJŒtpnf;wcktjzpfeJ@yJ pwifcJh&wmyg?
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J jynfo@l ta&;awmfyykH gw[
D m 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }u;D uae jzmqif;
vmcJ=h uwJh tzGŒJ tpnf;ESpcf jk zpf+y;D / v#KŒd 0Sut
f jzpfe@J yJ &yfwnfc=hJ uum ESpyf gwpD vH;k &JΠacgi;f aqmifrsm;
[mvnf; yifr 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }u;D xJrmS ta&;}u;D wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifae=uolawG jzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ocifatmifqef;[m 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;&JŒ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;
jzpfcJhovdk jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwDudk acgif;aqmifzGJŒpnf;cJhol ocifjr[m 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;&JŒ
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

15

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

OuUÏ jzpfcyhJ gw,f? tJ't
D csed rf mS 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }u;D [m ESpjf crf;uG+J y;D +yjD zpfygw,f? ocifApde/f ocif
xGef;tkyfOD;pD;wJh 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk; eJ@ q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; OD;pD;wJh 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;?
ocifatmifqef;/ ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f / ocifA[de;f / ocifoed ;f az/ ocifE/k ocifjr/ ocif
AaqG (OD;AaqG) wdk@[m ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;uyg?
uGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwDeJ@ yifr'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;wdk@[m 1300 jynfh
ta&;awmfyHk}uD;+yD;uwnf;u +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒtkyfpdk;oludk vufeufeJ@yg jyefvnfwGef;vSef wdkufcdkuf
EdkifrSjzpfr,fqdkwm av;av;eufeuf oabmaygufcJh=uygw,f? tJ'DtwGufvnf; tav;xm;jyif
qif=uygw,f?
1939 ckEpS rf mS 'kw,
d urBmppf}uD;vnf; pwifc+hJ yDjzpfygw,f? Oa&myrSmyJ jzpfymG ;aeqJjzpf+yD;
tm&Sukd ppfr;D ra&mufao;yg? ‘t*Fvyd t
f cufArmtcsu’f aºuG;a=umfox
H u
G af y:vmygw,f? 1939
ckESpf atmufwdkbmvxJrSm ‘ArmhxGuf&yf*dk%f;’ udk a'gufwmAarmf&JŒ qif;&Jom;tzGJŒ/ ig;yGifhqdkif
tzGJ@eJ@ 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;wdk@ aygif;+yD;zGJŒvdkuf=uwmjzpfygw,f? 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk; tr_aqmif
tzGJŒ0ifawGjzpfwJh ocifatmifqef;/ ocifjr/ ocifEk/ ocifoef;xGef;wkd@ yg0ifvm=uovdk a'gufwm
Aarmf OuUÏ/ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;u ocifatmifqef;/ e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;wyfaygif;pktjzpf
zGJŒpnf; vdkuf=uwmjzpfygw,f?
'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k &JŒ vuf±;kH wyfrsm;eJ@ ausmif;om;or*~&ŒJ oHr%dwyfzŒJG rsm;[mvJ t*Fvyd f
udk vufeufuikd w
f u
kd cf u
kd Ef idk &f ef &nf&,
G +f y;D ppfa&;avhusirhf a_ wG wd;k +y;D avhusijhf yifqifvm=uygw,f?
‘Apdef-xGef;tkyf’ ocif*dk%f;uvnf; vufeufudkifwdkufcdkufEdkifa&; oabmxm; csrSwfjyif
qifvmygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;tquftoG,f&SmazG+yD; ppful,lrSjzpfr,fvdk@vJ qHk;jzwfxm;=uygw,f?
Edik if aH &;tzGŒJ tpnf; awmfawmfrsm;rsm;[m aAmfvw
H ,
D mwyfawG xlaxmifxm;=uygw,f?
a'guw
f mAarmf&ŒJ qif;&Jom;ygwu
D "g;rwyf/ OD;apm&JŒrsK;d cspyf gwu
D *VKefwyfz@JG xm;ygw,f? "m;rwyf
wdk@ *VKefwyfwdk@[m oufqdkif&mygwD&JŒ cg;ydkufaqmifwyfawGomjzpf+yD; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;&JŒ
vuf±Hk;wyfeJ@ ausmif;om;or*~&JŒ oHr%dwyfuawmh &nfrSef;csufjywfom;ygw,f? t*Fvdyfudk
vufeufudkifwdkufcdkuf&r,fvkd@ cH,lxm;ygw,f?
1940 ckEpS /f rwfv (29) &ufrmS ocifatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f wd@k acgi;f aqmifwhJ 'd@k Arm
tpnf;t±Hk;XmecsKyf tvkyftr_aqmifudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ[m tdENd,jynfuGef*&ufnDvmcHudk oGm;
wuf=uygw,f? tdE,
dN jynftv,fyikd ;f &rf;*g;òrŒd rSmusi;f ywJh &rf;*g;nDvmcHyg? tdE,
dN jynf uGe*f &uf&ŒJ
vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk avhvmcJ=h uovdk ‘uGe*f &uf’ acgi;f aqmif ae±l;eJ@vJ awGŒqHak qG;aEG;cGi&hf cJyh gw,f?
tdENd,jynf ‘vm[dk’òrdŒ uGef*&ufu }uD;rª;usif;ywJh w&m;yGJrSmvJ ocifatmifqef; pum;ajymcGifh
&cJhygw,f? ocifatmifqef;u ‘&rf;*g;’rSm ‘+Adwdo#e,fcsJŒpepfudk tdENd,eJ@Arm vufwGJtwlwdkuf
=urnf’ vdk@ ajymcJhovdk ‘aoG;xGufoH,dkr_r&SdbJ vGwfvyfa&;r&Edkif’vdk@ vm[dkòrdŒrSm ajymcJhygw,f?
ocifatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f wd@k tzGŒJ tdE,
dN ujyefa&mufwt
hJ cg tdE,
dN roGm;cif ocif
atmifqef; a&;cJhwJhpmwef;udk 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;}uD;u xkwfjyefa=unmygw,f? Armhta&;eJ@ywf
ouf+y;D ‘Armjynftm; u|et
f jzpfcsKyfcs,x
f m;onfh Ekid if cH sJŒpepfòydysurf u
_ kd tm;xkw&f rnf? xked ,fcsJŒ
pepf. cHwyf}uD;jzpfaom (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;udk wdkufzsufI Armrsm;tvdkus ArmhtkyfcsKyfa&;udk
16

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tjrefq;kH &&S&d ef óu;d pm;&rnf? &nf&,
G cf suw
f l Ekid if aH &;tzGŒJ rsm;ESiyhf ;l aygi;f I aqmif&u
G =f urnf? xk@d a=umifh
vnf; qif;&Jom;tzGŒJ / ig;yGiq
hf ikd t
f zGŒJ ponfw@kd EiS yhf ;l aygi;f I Armhxu
G &f yf*%
kd ;f udk axmif+yD;+yD’ vd@k
azmfjyxm;ovdk ‘ArmjynfopfwiG f tvkyo
f rm;/ v,form;rsm;. b0udk jr‡iw
hf ifay;&rnf? v,fr
vkyfaom v,fydkif&Sifpepf zsufodrf;rnf? opfawm/ rD;&xm;/ a&a=umif;o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;/ owWK
wGi;f / pufrv
_ yk if ef;}u;D rsm;/ b%fvyk if ef;ponfw@kd ukd jynfoyl ikd v
f yk &f rnf? vlra_ &;wGif rde;f r a,musmf ;
wef;wltcGifhta&; cHpm;Ekdif&rnf? bmoma&;wGif vGwfvyfpGm ,Hk=unfudk;uG,fEkdif=u&rnf? tcrJh
ynma&;ESihf vli,frsm;.ynma&;ESihf vli,frsm;.,Ofaus;r_ pm&dwjW r‡iw
hf ifa&;udk txl;apmihaf &Smuf
tm;ay;&rnf? vlenf;pkrsm;twGuf ,Ofaus;r_vGwfvyfcGifh&&Sd&aprnf’ vdk@vnf; azmfjycJhygw,f?
tJ'Dwkef;u jzpfay:vmp urBmppf}uD;udk e,fcsJŒtcsif;csif;wdkuf=uwJhppfvdk@ yxr oabm
xm;cJh=uygw,f? Armjynfudk e,fcsJŒppfyGJtwGif; qGJtoGif;rcH&zdk@ v_HŒaqmfv_yf&Sm;cJh=uygw,f?
'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k }u;D xJu ta&;ygwhJ xufjrufwufºuw
G hJ acgi;f aqmiftrsm;pk[m rmhupf f
0g' vuf0J0g'udk wdrf;!Gwfolrsm;/ ,Hk=unfolrsm; jzpfae=uyg+yD? rmhufpf0g'/ vuf0J0g'[m Arm
jynfudk (1931) ckESpfavmufrS pwifa&muf&Sdvmwmjzpfayr,fh pwifavhvm vufcH jzefcsdolrsm;&JŒ
tm;xkwfr_a=umifh vuf0Jt,ltq wdrf;!Gwf,Hk=unfolrsm; OD;pD;wnfaxmifcJhwJh e*g;eD pmtkyf
toif;&JŒaus;Zl;a=umifyh g? awmfawmfysŒH ES@H prd 0hf ifus,jf yef@pðyaeyg+yD? txl;ojzifh ArmjynfueG jf rLepf
ygwD zGJ@pnf;ay:aygufvm+yD;wJhaemufydkif; ydkrdkus,fjyef@euf±_dif;vmcJhygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u Armjynf
Ekid if aH &;orm;rSeo
f r# rmhupf v
f eD if0g'/ uGejf rLepfq&kd ,
S v
f pf vuf00J g'rsm;eJ@ ywfoufqufpyfc=hJ u
zl;olcsn;f jzpfygw,f? trsm;pk}u;D [m vdv
k v
kd m;vm;vufccH =hJ uygw,f? óuu
d Ef pS o
f ufvaS =umif; enf;
trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ azmfjycJh=uzl;ygw,f?
a'gufwmodef;armifu e,l;bm;rm;owif;pmrSm rmhufpf0g' t,ltqaqmif;yg;rsm; a&;
om;cJo
h vdk aemifrmS uGejf rLepfqef@usiaf &;tzGŒJ udk twdtvif; aºuG;a=umfxal xmifr,fh ocifApdef
vdk yk*~Kdvfuawmif uGefjrLepfa=unmpmwrf;}uD;udk bmomjyefqdkcJhbl;ygw,f? ocifpdk;u ‘qdk&S,f
vpf0g'’/ ocifAv
kd u
f ‘um;vfrmhupf ’f / ocifoef;xGe;f u vDeifta=umif;jzpfwhJ ‘usrcspv
f if’/ ocif
A[def;u ‘"e&Sifavmu’ pwJh pmtkyfrsm;udk a&;om;xkwfa0cJh=uovdk ocifodef;azu ‘bHk0g'ESifh
'dk@Arm’ udk wnf;jzwfcJh+yD; ±k&Sm;qdk&S,fvpfawmfvSefa&;ta=umif;udk ocifEku ‘vlrGJwdk@&JŒxGuf&yf
vrf;’ tjzpf a&;om;cJyh gw,f? tJ't
D csed w
f ek ;f u ocifE[
k m ‘u|eaf wmfbo
kH rm;’ vd@k a=unmcJ+h yD;/
ocifAaqG (OD;AaqG) uvnf; ‘avmuedAmŠ efwnfaqmufaeol pwmvif’ vd@k usL;&ifzh iG q
hf kd a&;om;
cJhygw,f?
ocifatmifqef;udk,fwdkifuvnf; ajratmufygwD ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JΠtaxGaxG
twGi;f a&;rSL;jzpfovdk ‘urBmppfe@J Arm’ rSmæ vGwv
f yfa&;rSm v$waf wmftwGi;f wGif tqdo
k iG ;f ±Hrk #
ESifhr&? v$wfawmftqdkrSm 0g'jzef@±Hkavmufom&Sdonf? tvkyfvkyf&ayrnf?
e,fcsŒJ pepf/ "e&Sipf epf jzpfwkH ysuw
f kH wnfwkH wnf;[laom avmu"Hw&m;rS rvGw?f "e&Sif
pepfonf tvkyform;rsm;udk zefwD;&.? e,fcsJŒpepfonf yxr rdrdtwGuf taptcdkif;rsm;vdkI
acwfynmwwfrsm;&Sv
d matmif pDr&H .? od@k aomf xkt
d vkyo
f rm;rsm;ESihf ynmwwfrsm;onf tqifh
twef;jrifhvmaomf ‚if;wkd@udk zefwD;cJhaom e,fcsJŒpepfudk jyefIawmfvSef=uay.?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

17

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

vGwv
f yfa&;wdu
k yf t
JG wGuf jyifqif&mY vlrsK;d tcsi;f csi;f ? vlwef;pm;tcsi;f csi;f ruGo
J ifo
h nfh
tcsed w
f iG f ruGx
J u
kd o
f nfo
h rl sm;ESihf ruGu
J aJG tmif vkyw
f wfaom e,fcsŒJ pepf. y&d,m,fukd owdðy?
TuJo
h @kd tcsed af umif; tajcaumif;wGif igw@kd .vGwv
f yfa&;twGuf tjyif;txef tm;xkwf
=uygpdk@ &Jabmfwdk@[k aqmf=owyfvSef@cJhygw,f?
1940 ckESpf/ arvwGif om,m0wDrSm q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;
nDvmcHusi;f yygw,f? &J&aJ wmuf ajyma[mqH;k jzwf=uygw,f? 'Dom,m0wDnv
D mcH qH;k jzwfcsuef @J
tnD nDvmcHt+yD;rSm c±dkifrsm;udk vSnfhvnfwifjya[majymwmawG vkyf=uygw,f?
1940 ckEpS /f ZGev
f rSm [oFmwc±dik f ZvGeòf rŒd a[majymr_e@J ywfouf+y;D c±dik &f mZ0wf0ef ‘aZAD;
,m;’ u ocifatmifqef;udk zrf;qD;zd@k 0&rf;xkwyf gw,f? odumQ cswt
hJ aeeJ@ zrf;qD;ay;Edik o
f u
l kd qkaiG
‘ig;usyf’ay;r,fvdk@vnf; xkwfjyefa=unmvdkufygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefup+yD; ocifatmifqef; ajr
atmufv#Kd;+yD; v_yf&Sm;&ygawmhw,f?
1940 Zlvikd v
f xJrmS &efuek w
f uUov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;or*~ (wuo) taqmuftODxrJ mS
'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k acgi;f aqmif/ uGejf rLepfacgi;f aqmif/ ausmif;om;or*~acgi;f aqmifrsm; v#K@d 0u
S af wGŒ
qH=k u+yD; Armjynfvw
G v
f yfa&;twGu/f vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;twGuf aqG;aEG;n‡Ed id_ ;f =uygw,f?
tJ'aD qG;aEG;yGrJ mS yg0ifoal wGuawmh ocifatmifqef;/ ocifp;kd / ocifvaS z (aemif Adv
k v
f usmf )/ ocif
cifatmif/ ocifausmfpdef/ ocifA[def;/ udkAaqG/ udkxGef;tkyf/ udkvSarmif (aemif AdkvfaZ,s)/ rpPwm
*dk&S,f wdk@jzpfygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;twGuf vufeufeJ@t}uH^m%f&,lzdk@ w±kwfjynf uGefjrLepfygwD
XmecsKyf&Sd&m ,iftef;udkoGm;zdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufygw,f? tJ'DtwGuf vuf&Sd ajratmufudk v#Kd;ae&+yD
jzpfwhJ ocifatmifqef;eJ@ ocifausmpf ed u
f kd wm0efay; a&G;cs,o
f abmwlncD =hJ uygw,f? 'gayrJh wu,f
oGm;wJt
h cg ocifausmpf ed f rvku
d jf zpfawmhyJ ocifausmpf ed t
f pm; ocifvòS rdif (aemif Adv
k &f efatmif)
jzpfoGm;ygw,f?
1940 Zlvikd f (26) &ufrmS Armhxu
G &f yf*%
kd ;f acgi;f aqmif a'guw
f mbarmf udk tpd;k &t=unf
!dyk suaf tmif a[majymr_e@J zrf;+yD; rE aW v;rSm ±H;k wifw&m;pGq
J ykd gw,f? t*Fvyd &f ŒJ ±kyaf o;tpd;k &u
awmh eef;&if;0ef *VKefOD;apm tpdk;&yg?
ocifacgi;f aqmifawGawmfawmfrsm;rsm; om,m0wDnv
D mcHt+yD; a[majymv_aH qmfra_ wGe@J
wa,muf+yD;wa,muf qufwu
dk t
f zrf;cH=u&ygawmhw,f? ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f / ocifE/k ocif
wifw@kd tzrf;cH=u&ygw,f? ‘xGe;f tky-f Apde’f *d%
k ;f bufuvnf; ocifn/D ocifcifarmifw@kd tzrf;cH
=u&ygw,f? emrnf}uD; ocifacgi;f aqmifawG axmifoiG ;f tusO;f csxm;cH&wm te,fe,ft&yf&yf
rSm jzpfvmygw,f?
ocifatmifqef;eJ@ ocifvSòrdifwdk@ESpfa,muf ±kyfzsuf+yD; ‘[kdifvD’ oabFmeJ@ (8-8-1940)
ae@rSm w±kwfjynfc&D;udk pwifygw,f? (24) &ufae@rSm w±kwfjynf ‘trGdKif’òrdŒudk qdkufa&mufoGm;
ygw,f? w±kwu
f rl ifwefe@J *syefa&wyfyikd ef ufteD; trGKd irf mS pwnf;cs+y;D w±kwu
f eG jf rLepfygweD @J tquf
toG,f&zdk@ óud;pm;ae=uwkef;rSm ygvmor#aiGukef+yD; aiGa=u;t=uyftwnf; óuH=uygw,f? Arm
jynfvSrf;+yD; aiGa=u;tultnDawmif;awmh b¾ma&;wm0efcH ocifvSaz (Adkvfvusfm) u vdkuf
tvSLcH&mrSm Armhxu
G &f yf*%
dk ;f }uD;udv
k nf; tvSLcHryd gw,f? *syefvv
kd m;ol a'guw
f mode;f armif
18

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

odomG ; +yD; a'gufwmodef;armifu ‘qlZluD;’ udk ajymjywJhtwGuf ocifatmifqef; eJ@ ocifvSòrdif
"mwfyHkudk qlZluD;u ,loGm;+yD; trGdKifuae wdkusKdydk@Ekdifa&; pDpOfygawmhw,f? tJ'ga=umifh Armjynf
vGwfvyfa&;twGuf vufeufeJ@ tultnD&a&;/ w±kyfjynfuGefjrLepfygwDqD oGm;cJh=uwJh ocif
atmifqef;eJ@ ocifvSòrdifwdk@[m aemufqHk; *syefudka&mufoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
1940 ckEpS t
f wGi;f rSm ‘Apde-f xGe;f tky’f *d%
k ;f uvnf; *syefe@J tquftoG,&f zd@k óud;pm;ae
=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? *syefeJ@ tquftoG,f&+yD;wJhtcg tultnDtwGuf *syefu ,dk;',m;bufudk
ul;yg? [drk mS jynfjh ynfph pkH kH pDpOfaqmif&u
G af y;r,fajymwJt
h wGuf ocifApdeu
f ,
kd w
f ikd f ,d;k ',m;oGm;&ef
óud;pm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh vrf;rSmyJ t*Fvdyftzrf;cHvdkuf&+yD; axmifwESpfusoGm;&ygw,f? ocif
Apdef tzrf;cH&+y;D aemuf usev
f rl sm;u qufóu;d pm;=u&if; ocifatmifoef; (aemif Adv
k pf }umf ) wa,muf
,dk;',m;udk acsmacsmarmarm a&mufoGm;ygw,f? aemifrSm *syefudk ppfynmoifrsm; v$wfEkdifa&;
tcdkiftrm aqmif&GufEdkifcGifh&oGm;=uygawmhw,f?
1941 ckEpS f ESpq
f ef;ydik ;f a&mufawmh ocifjracgi;f aqmif+yD; t*Fvyd u
f kd vufeufuikd af wmfveS f
zd@k A[dak jratmufawmfveS af &;tzGŒJ awG v#KŒd 0Suf zGŒJ pnf;ygw,f? A[kad jratmufawmfveS af &;tzGŒJ &JŒ
OuUÏtjzpf ocifjru wm0ef,l+yD; c±dkif (20) cGJ+yD; zGJŒpnf;ygw,f? 'DtzGJŒcGJawGxJrSm yg0ifcJh=uwJh
wcsKŒd aomacgi;f aqmifawG[m ‘'d@k Armtpnf;t±H;k ’ udpeP @J tzrf;tqD;cH=u&wmawGvnf; ay:vm
ygw,f? tzrf;qD;cH=u&wJh ocifacgif;aqmifawG axmifawGxJrSm renf;awmhyg? usefacgif;aqmif
trsm;pk[mvnf; v#KŒd 0Su+f yD; ajratmufvy_ &f mS ;r_awGuykd J tav;xm;+yD; vkyu
f ikd v
f y_ &f mS ;ae=u&yg
awmhw,f?
tJ'DvkdtcsdefrSm 1941 ckESpf rwfvxJrSm ocifatmifqef; *syefuae &efukefudk v#KdŒ0Suf+yD;
wacgufjyefvmcJhygw,f? ykodrfudk qefwifzdk@vmwJh ukefwifoabFmwpD;rSm oabFmt&m&Sda,mif
aqmif+yD; vdkufvmwmjzpfygw,f? ykodrfuae &efukefudkqif;csvm+yD; ouFef;u|ef;wae&mrSm
jynfo@l ta&awmfyykH gwD (yDtmyD) u ocifcspf (aemif ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwt
D wGi;f a&;rSL;) eJ@ awGŒqHk
ygw,f? ocifcsp/f q&mxGe;f a&$w@kd &ŒJ tpDtpOfe@J jynfo@l ta&;awmfyykH gwu
D acgi;f aqmifrsm;eJ@ aqG;aEG;
=uygw,f? *syefuay;r,fh tultnDta=umif;/ ArmrsK;d cspv
f il ,fawGukd *syefvw
$ +f yD; ppfynmoif
,la&;tpDtpOfawGta=umif; tao;pdwfaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? ocifatmifqef; oabFmeJ@tjyefrSm
ocifu,
kd af wmfrid_ ;f 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k u ocifvaS z (aemif Adv
k v
f usmf )/ ocifA*sr;f (aemif Adv
k v
f
a&mif)/ ocifat;armif (aemif Adv
k rf ;kd )/ ausmif;om;or*~u udx
k eG ;f &Sed f (aemif Adv
k &f efEidk )f wk@d yxr
tokwftjzpf vdkufygoGm;jzpf=uygw,f?
aemifr=umrDrSmyJ 'kwd,tokwf/ wwd,tokwfawG qufvufydk@v$wfEkdif+yD; aemufqHk;
tokwf pwkwo
ˆ w
k f (11) OD;rSmawmh ‘Apde-f xGe;f tky’f *d%
k ;f u acgi;f aqmif ocifxeG ;f tkyt
f ygt0if
(6) OD;eJ@ q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;tzGJŒu (5) OD;yg0ifygw,f? ocif±_armif
(aemif Adv
k af e0if;) [m tJ'aD emufq;kH okwrf mS ‘Apde-f xGe;f tky’f *d%
k ;f &JŒtzGŒJ 0ifwOD;tjzpf ygvmwm
jzpfygw,f? ,d;k ',m;udjk zwf+yD; a&mufvmcJw
h hJ Apde-f xGe;f tkyf *d%
k ;f u ocifatmifoef; (Adv
k pf }umF )/
ocifoef;wif (Adv
k o
f ef;wif)/ *syefukd ynmoiftjzpf a&muf&Sdae+yD;jzpfwJh udkaqmif; (aemif-Adkvf
xdef0if;) wdk@yg tm;vHk;aygif;vdkufawmh vl (30) jzpfoGm;ygw,f? ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

19

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

t±Hk;u (21) OD;eJ@ Apdef-xGef;tkyf 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;u (8) OD;jzpfygw,f? 'D (30) [m aemif
&JabmfoHk;usdyfvdk@ Armjynfordkif;rSm trnfxif&Sm;vmygw,f?
&JabmfoHk;usdyf[m ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf e,fcsJŒt*Fvdyfudk vufeufeJ@wdkufcdkufzdk@
*syefqDu&wJh ppfa&;tultnDudk &,lvufcH+yD; ppfynmudk oif,l=uygawmhw,f?
1941 ckEpS /f ZGev
f (22) &ufae@rmS *smrefemZDawG[m qkAd ,
D uf,el ,
D u
H kd 0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
kd f
ygw,f? qdAk ,
D uf,el ,
D H emZD*smrefw@kd &ŒJ vufatmuf us rus[m wurBmvH;k eJ@ oufqikd w
f hJ ta&;
jzpfvmygw,f? qdkAD,ufom 'DwdkufyGJrSmusqHk;oGm;cJh&if urBmhtem*wf[m emZDzufqpfrsm;vuf
atmuf jym;jym;arSmufoGm;&awmhr,fh taetxm;rsKd;jzpfygw,f?
1939 ckESpf pufwifbmvu pwifjzpfyGm;cJhwJh 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;[m qkdAD,ufudk emZD*sm
refwdk@u 0ifa&mufwkdufcdkufjcif; rðyrDtxd e,fcsJŒorm;tcsif;csif;=um; jzpfyGm;aewJhppf e,fajrvk
ppfuae/ vuQ%mwpwp pwifajymif;vJ oGm;ygawmhw,f? e,fcsJŒorm;csif;wdkufwJhppfuae
urBmzh ufqpftm%m&Sirf sm;u wzuf/ vGwv
f yfciG rhf sm; 'Dru
kd a&pDe@J qk&d ,
S v
f pfpepfukd umuG,w
f hJ
tiftm;pkrsm;uwzuf t}udwfte,f,SOfòydif=uwJh urBmhppfyJG}uD;tjzpf ul;ajymif;oGm;ygawmh
w,f? urBmzh ufqpfpepfqef@usiaf &;twGuf urBmjh ynfot
l m;vH;k eJ@qidk w
f hJ ppfy}JG uD;toGijf zpfvmyg
w,f?
tJ'D 1941 ckESpf/ ZGefv pwkwWywfxJrSmyJ tif;pdefaxmifxJ a&muf&Sdae=uwJh ocifacgif;
aqmifawGjzpfwJh ocifpdk;/ ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifEk/ ocifvSabmf/ ocifav;armif/ ocifausmfpdef/
ocifcifatmif wkd@wawG[m urBmhtajctae/ ArmhtajctaeawGudk awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;=uygw,f?
ppfwrf;xkw=f unf=h uygw,f? tJ'pD pfwrf;[m Armhordik ;f rSm ta&;ygwhJ ‘tif;pdepf pfwrf;’ yg? tJ'D
ppfwrf;&JΠtcsKyfoabmuawmh urBmzh ufqpf0g'udk wdu
k zf suaf &;/ urBmph pf}uD;twGi;f rSm r[mrdwf
rsm;eJ@ wGJzufwdkufcdkuf+yD; ArmhvGwfvyfa&;udk t&,la&;jzpfygw,f?
tif;pdepf pfwrf;yg oabmxm;udk tJ'aD xmifwiG ;f a&muf ocifacgi;f aqmifrsm;[m t*Fvyd f
tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfolrsm;qDudkvnf; pmwapmifa&;ydk@cJh=uovdk tjyifrSm&SdaewJh ocifacgif;rsm;qDudk
vnf; enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ ay;ydk@cJh=uygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm ocifatmifqef;eJ@ ArmhrsKd;cspfvli,f ocif
acgif;aqmiftcsKŒd [m *syefe@J qufr+d yD; *syefuakd wmif a&muf&adS e=u+yDjzpfygw,f? *syefukd ppfynm
oifrsm; apv$waf &;twGuf t"duwm0ef,lcJhwJh ocifjr/ ocifcspfwdk@acgif;aqmifwJh jynfolŒta&;
awmfyHkygwD}uD;[m *syefeJ@qufoG,frd=u&if; vufvGefaerdcJh=u+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifh 1941 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f v,frmS usi;f ywJh 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k uGe@f z&ifh (A[dak umfrwD
tpnf;ta0;) rSm axmifuvGwfcgp ocifoef;òrdif (ausmufqnf)/ ocifv_dif (a&eHacsmif;) wdk@vdk
yk*~KdvfawGu tif;pdefppfwrf;yg oabmxm;tjrifopfudk wifjyaqG;aEG;=uayr,fh ocifjr/ ocif
A[def; pwJhacgif;aqmifawGu rlvay:vpDtwdkif; ‘yxr t*Fvdyfe,fcsJŒudk qef@usifwdkufckduf/
aemufrS *syefwdk@. ajcvSrf;udk=unfh+yD; *syefudkygwdkufqdkwJh oabmxm;udkom twnfðyoifh
a=umif; &Sif;vif;wifjy+yD; vufcHvdkuf=uygw,f?
1930 ckEpS u
f wnf;u w±kwjf ynfuw
kd u
kd +f y;D w±kwjf ynfxaJ &muf&adS ewJh *syef[m ‘tm&Swu
kd f
omwlnrD #a&;’ aºuG;a=umfoeH @J urBmt
h a&SŒjcrf;wckv;kH udk pd;k rd;k odr;f ydu
k Ef idk zf Œkd tcdik t
f rm=uH&,
G x
f m;
20

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

+yD;yg+yD? 'gayr,fh 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;twGif; *syef[m w&m;0ifrygao;yg? tar&duefvnf;
w&m;0if rygao;yg?
qdkAD,ufudk emZD*smrefwdk@ 0ifwdkufcsdefup+yD; urBmppf}uD;&JŒta&;}uD; vuQ%majymif;vJ
vmovdk urBmppfrD;&JΠt&Sdef[mvnf; ydkrdkjyif;xefvmygw,f? ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf enf;
rsKd;pHkeJ@ óud;yrf;tm;xkwf v_yf&Sm;r_awG[mvnf; ododomom jrifhrm;vmcsdefrSm t*Fvdyf&JŒ ±kyfao;
tpdk;& *VKefOD;apm[mvnf; ol&JŒEkdifiHa&;t&Sdeft0g vdrfnmpdkufxlxm;Ekdifa&;twGuf Armjynf
bk&ifcH qma':refprpfeJ@ tay;t,lvkyf+yD; Armhta&;udkqdk&ef vef'efoGm;zdk@jyifygw,f? atmufwdk
bmvxJrSm tdkifpDtuf OD;wifxGwfudk twGif;0eftjzpfac:oGm;+yD; Armjynfqdkif&m twGif;0ef
‘atr&D’ eJ@awGŒ ‘csmcsD’ eJ@awGŒ vkyfygw,f? t*Fvdyfu ppf}uD;+yD;&if Armjynfudk 'dkrDeD,Htqifhxd
jr‡ifhwifay;ygr,fqdkwJh uwdukdawmifray;yg? yg;pyfuwdav;awmif r&cJhyg?
*syefa&muf ocifatmifqef;acgif;aqmifwJh &JabmfoHk;usdyf[m *syefodrf;xm;wJh [dkifeef
u|ef;rSm 1941 ckESpf/ =o*kwfvu atmufwdkbmvv,ftxd/ xkdif0rfu|ef;rSm atmufwdkbmv,f
uae 'DZifbmvqef;txd *syefuay;wJh ppfynmudk tcuftcJtrsK;d rsK;d yifyrf;qif;&Jr_ tzHzk =kH um;
uae oif,lae=uygw,f?
1941 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmrSm tar&duefydkif ‘[m0dkif,Du|ef;’ ykvJqdyfurf;udk tvpftidkuf AHk;
}uJwdkufcdkuf+yD; *syef[m urBmppf}uD;twGif; 0ifa&mufvmygawmhw,f? 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae@rSm
*syefu t*Fvyd /f tar&duefw@kd ukd w&m;0ifppfa=unmovd/k tar&duefuvnf; w&m;0if*syefukd
ppfa=unm+yD; urBmppf}uD;xJa&mufvmygawmhw,f? 'DZifbm (11) &ufae@rmS tar&duefu *smref
eJ@ tDwvDudkvnf; ppfa=unmygawmhw,f?
zufqpfemZDrsm;jzpf=uwJh *smref/ tDwvD/ *syef 0if±;kd pGe;f oH;k Ekid if H tiftm;pkuwzuf/ t*Fvyd /f
jyifopf/ tar&duef/ qkdAD,ufr[mrdwf tiftm;pkrsm;uwzuf/ wurBmvHk;v$rf;òcHwJh urBmppf}uD;
[m urBmhjynfoltm;vHk;eJ@ ywfoufvm&ygawmhw,f?
1941 ckEpS /f 'DZifbm (9) &ufae@rmS t*Fvyd t
f pd;k &u 'd@k Armtpnf; t±H;k }u;D udk rw&m;oif;
tjzpf a=unm+yD;/ ocifacgif;aqmiftm;vHk;udk vdkufvHzrf;qD;ygw,f? t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk jywfjywf
om;om; qef@usi=hf uwJh ocifacgi;f aqmifreS o
f r# axmifxaJ &muf&ifa&muf/ ra&muf&if ajratmuf
tjzpf v#dKŒ0Sufvkyfudkifv_yf&Sm;=u&ygawmhw,f? ay:ay:xifxif aexdkifvdk@r&awmhyg?
*syefzufqpfrsm;[m tvsit
f jref ppfqiford ;f ydu
k rf a_ wGvyk +f y;D tm&Sppfr;D udk t&Sed jf ri‡ v
hf u
kd f
ygw,f? zdvpfydkifEkdifiHeJ@ ypdzdwfork'N&mwGif;&Sd u|ef;}uD;u|ef;i,fawGudk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufygw,f?
t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ orm;&JŒ ta&SŒzsm;a'oppfbuf tcdik t
f rmpcef;}u;D jzpfwhJ puFmylcw
H yf}u;D udk t*Fvyd f
rsm;ud,
k w
f ikd f wkev
f y_ t
f =hH ooGm;&avmufatmif taocH+yD; &ufyikd ;f twGi;f odr;f ypfvu
kd Ef ikd yf gw,f?
'DZifbm (23) &ufe@J (25) &uf c&pPrwfae@rmS &efuek òf rŒd udk *syefu pwifA;kH }uw
J u
kd cf u
kd yf gawmhw,f?
Armjynf}uD;[m ppfrD;v#H=um; twdtvif;a&muf&SdoGm;yg+yD?
t*Fvdyftpdk;&[m atmufArmEkdifiH&Sd tusOf;axmifawGxJ a&muf&Sdae=uwJh ocifacgif;
aqmifawGudk txufArmjynfaxmifawGqDcGJ+yD; ae&mtESH@ydk@ygw,f? *syeftultnDe@J ppfynmoif
=um;+y;D =uwJh &Jabmfo;kH usyd [
f m xkid 0f rfu|e;f uae befaumufòrdŒudk a&muf&Sdae=uyg+yD? *syefwdk@&JŒ
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

21

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

awmifydkif; ppfwyftrSwf (15) ppfwyf}uD;[mvnf; xkdif;EdkifiHxJa&muf&Sdaeyg+yD? trSwf (15) vuf
atmufcH 'D0DZHwyf (5) [m befaumufòrdŒrSm &JabmfoHk;usdyf a&muf&SdaepOfrSmyJ a&muf&Sdvm+yDjzpf
ygw,f?
1941 ckEpS /f 'DZifbm (26) &ufae@rmS befaumufòrdŒrSm ocifatmifqef;/ ocifxeG ;f tkyw
f @kd
acgif;aqmifwJh &JabmfoHk;usdyf[m ArmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf aoG;udkazmuf opPma&aomufyGJusif;
y+y;D Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;wyfrawmf (bDtikd af t) udk pwifzŒJG pnf;vdu
k =f uygw,f? bDtikd af t[m Armh
vufeufuikd w
f yfrawmf&ŒJ rlvtpjzpfygw,f? Adv
k af tmifqef;[m 'D bDtikd af tudk pwif acgi;f aqmif
zGJŒpnf;ay;cJholppfppfjzpfvdk@ wyfrawmf&JŒ zcift&if;ppfppfjzpfygw,f? ocifxGef;tkyfvnf; &Jabmf
oH;k usyd rf mS acgi;f aqmifwa,mufjzpfcahJ yr,hf ol[m ppfynmtpm; tkycf sKyfa&;ynmudo
k m tav;
xm; oif,cl o
hJ jl zpfygw,f? Adv
k b
f ŒJG cH,o
l wfrw
S =f uawmhvnf; Adv
k b
f ŒJG awmif rcH,cl yhJ g? bDtikd af t
pwifxlaxmif&mrSm yg0ifcJhwJh *syefAdkvf ‘qlZluD;’ uawmif Adkvfrdk;óud;tjzpf cH,lcJhygw,f?
bDtikd af t zGŒJ pnf;+yD;wmeJ@ ArmjynftwGi;f a&SŒajy;0ifa&muf+yD; jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gweD @J
qufoG,fbdk@/ ajratmufawmfvSefa&;tzGJŒ0ifrsm;eJ@ qufoG,fzdk@ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvfwm&m/ Adkvfvif;
,kef/ Adkvfrdk;!dkwdk@yg0ifwJh tzGJŒwckudk wm0efay; apv$wfvdkufygw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvqef;ydkif;rSmyJ Adkvfatmifqef;acgif;aqmifwJh bDtdkifat (ArmhvGwf
vyfa&;wyfrawmf) [m *syefwyfrawmfeJ@twl ppfa=umif;oHk;a=umif;cGJ+yD; xdkif;Arme,fpyfuae
ArmjynftwGi;f atmifjrifpmG 0ifa&muf=uygawmhw,f? bDtikd af t pwifzŒJG pnf;wke;f u &m*%ef;r#
om&Sdayr,fh a&;/ +rdwf/ xm;0,f/ armfvòrdifòrdŒawGudk odrf;ydkuf+yD;wmeJ@ tiftm;tqrwef wdk;yGm;
vmygw,f? ay;EkdifwJh vufeuftiftm;xuf vltiftm;u tqrwefrsm;jym;ae+yD; ppfcsD&mvrf;
wav#mufu &&mvufeufpGJudkif vdkufygvm=uwJh bDtdkifatwyfrawmf}uD;[m &efukefòrdŒudk
ra&mufao;ciftwGif;rSm oHk;aomif;ausmfav;aomif;eD;yg; wyfrawmf}uD;jzpfaeyg+yD?
*syefbufu ArmjynfppfyGJtwGuf t"duwm0ef,l&wJhwyfu trSwf (15) wyfrawmf
jzpfygw,f? trSwf (33) wyfreJ@ trSwf (55) wyfr[m/ trSwf (15) wyfrawmf}uD;xJrSm yg0ifyg
w,f? 'DtrSwf (15) wyfrawmf}u;D xJrmS yg0ifygw,f? 'DtrSwf (15) wyfrawmf}u;D wckv;kH udk OD;pD;
olu vufzwifeif *sife&,ftD;'g;jzpfygw,f?
1942 ckESpf ESpfqef; *syeft0ifrSmyJ e,fcsJŒt*Fvdyfrsm;[m olwdk@&J@ wynfhausmf ‘qmay:
xGef;’ Armjynftpkd;&udkyg olwdk@eJ@ wyg;wnf;ac:aqmif+yD; atmifjrifpGmqkwfcGmjcif;udk jyifqifyg
awmhw,f?
1941 ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbmvxJu vef'efa&muf+yD; 'drk eD ,
D t
H yk cf sKyfa&;ay;zd@k awmif;aewJh eef;&if;
0ef OD;apm[m 'dkrDeD,Hr&yJ vef'efuae tar&duefbuf vSnfht0if tar&duef&JΠ[m0dkiftDu|ef;
[dEk v
dk v
l òl rdŒudk *syefu AH;k vm}uJomG ;vd@k òrdŒ}uD;wckv;kH ysupf ;D aewmudk jrifvu
kd &f w,f? tm&Sa'o
udv
k nf; ppfr;D ul;ae+yq
D w
kd mudv
k nf; odvu
kd &f w,f? 'ga=umifh Oa&mybufjyefvn
S &hf if; ay:wl*jD ynf
vpPbGef;òrdŒta&muf *syefaumifppf0efcsKyf±Hk;oGm;+yD; olŒudk,fusKd;twGuf Armjynfudk *syef0ifr,f
qd&k if olu ulnyD ;l aygi;f r,fv@kd ajymowJ?h 'ga=umifh ygvufpwdik ;f / [dik zf mòrdŒudk OD;apmwd@k ta&muf/
toifah pmifah ewJh t*Fvyd af xmufvrS ;f a&;awGu OD;apmeJ@ OD;wifxw
G u
f kd zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f vdu
k =f uyg
22

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

w,f? Armjynfudk jyefrydk@awmhbJ ppfumvwav#mufvHk; ,l*ef'grSm tus,fcsKyfeJ@ xm;vdkufyg
w,f? 'ga=umifh ArmjynfrSm eef;&if;0ef OD;apmtpdk;&&JŒae&mrSm qmay:xGef;tpdk;&jzpfaewmjzpfyg
w,f?
'Dumvw0du
k rf mS ‘jrif;jcpH pfwrf;’ xGuaf y:vmygw,f? ‘jrif;jcpH pfwrf;’[m ‘tif;pdepf pfwrf;’
&JΠtqufjzpfygw,f? tif;pdeaf xmifuae Ekid if aH &;orm; ocifacgi;f aqmifawGukd txufArmjynf
axmifawGqcD yGJ @kd wt
hJ cg jrif;jcHaxmifa&mufomG ;&wJh ocifp;kd u axmifxrJ mS a&;om;wJh ppfwrf;jzpfyg
w,f? tJ'pD pfwrf;ygoabmxm;tjriftwdik ;f ocifp;kd [m axmifx&J dS &JabmfawG Ekid if aH &;orm;awG
udv
k nf; csjywm aqG;aEG;wm oifwef;ay;wmawGuv
kd nf; vkyyf gw,f? uGejf rLepf&aJ bmfrsm;eJ@ ocif
acgif;aqmif awmfawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; vufcHoabmuscJh=uw,fvdk@qkdygw,f? jrif;jcHppfwrf;&JŒ
oabmxm;tjrifu 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;jzpfwJh t*Fvdyftar&duefeJ@ uGefjrLepf±k&Sm;aygif;+yD;
r[mrdwfzGJ@um zufqpfemZD *smref/ tDwvDwdk@udk wdkufcdkufovdk/ ArmjynfrSm ArmawGuvnf;
zufqpf*syefudk eHywfwpf&efoltjzpf owfrSwf+yD; t*Fvdyftar&duefawGeJ@ twlwGJwdkuf&r,f?
r[mrdwfzGJΠyl;aygif;wdkuf&r,fqdkwmygyJ?
'ga=umifh tJ't
D csed u
f ArmjynfEidk if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;&J@ taetxm; udck jJG crf;pdwjf zm=unfh
vdu
k rf ,fq&kd if t,ltq (3) ckawGŒ&ygr,f? tJ't
D ,l tq (3) cktwdik ;f OD;wnfvy_ &f mS ; jzpfay:ae
=uwmudkvJawGŒ&ygr,f?
‘ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf’ qkdwJh t"du&nfrSef;csuf[m ruGJjym;=uayr,fhæ
yxrt,ltqu ‘Armjynfudk u|efðyxm;ol t*Fvdyfudkwdkuf&r,f? *syeftultnD&,l
+yD; t*Fvdyfudk t+yD;wdkif wdkufxkwfypf&if; Armjynf&JŒvGwfvyfa&;udk &,lEdkifvdrfhr,f’ qdkwmjzpf
w,f? jynfo@l ta&;awmfyykH gw&D ŒJ t,ltqjzpfovd/k tJ't
D ,ltq oabmxm;twdik ;f um,uH
ajrmuf aqmif&Gufae=uolawGu ocifatmifqef;/ ocifvSaz (Adkvfvusfm)/ ocifvSòrdif (Adkvf&ef
atmif) eJ@ &JabmfoHk; usdyftiftm;pkawG jzpfygw,f?
'kw,
d t,ltqu ‘Oa&myrSm qkAd ,
D ufu r[mrdwrf sm;eJ@aygi;f +yD; zufqpfawGukd t"du
xm;wdu
k w
f mrSew
f ,f? ArmjynfrmS 'Dtajctaer&S?d vufawGŒrSm t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ [m igw@kd tm; r[m
rdwðf ycGirhf ay;? vGwv
f yfa&;ay;r,fuwdðyyg? ppftwGi;f rSm cifAsm;wd@k e@J yl;aygi;f aqmif&u
G f ygr,fv@kd
'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k &JŒ awmif;qkcd suu
f kd y,fcs±rkH u/ ocifawGukd zrf;qD;axmifcsw,f? 'ga=umifh t*Fvyd f
awGukd raxmufcEH idk ±f rkH u jynfwiG ;f ppfðy&r,f? *syefusL;ausmaf &;orm; zufqpfrsm;udv
k nf; ckcH
wdkufcdkuf&r,f’ qdkwmjzpfygw,f? ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh)/ ocifA[def;wdk@[m 'Dt,ltq&SdcJh
=uygw,f? 'Dt,ltqudk udkifpGJolawGvJ awmfawmfrsm;rsm;&SdcJhygw,f?
wwd,t,ltqopfu ocifp;kd eJ@ jrif;+cHppfwrf;axmufco
H rl sm;&J@ (t*Fvyd u
f zrf;qD;xm;
vdk@ axmifxJa&mufae=u&ol ocifacgif;aqmif trsm;pk&JŒ) oabmxm;tjrifjzpfygw,f?
‘qdAk ,
D ufukd *smrefw@kd 0ifwu
dk cf sed u
f p+yD; urBmppf}uD;&JŒvuQ%m[m tajccHup+yD; ajymif;
oGm;+y?D 'ga=umifh zufqpfqef@usiaf &; trsK;d om;vGwaf jrmufa&; vrf;pOftwdik ;f aqmif&u
G =f u&r,f?
t*Fvdyfe,fcsJŒorm;udk zufqpfwdkufzsufa&;rSm r[mrdwfðyxm;Ekdif&r,f’ qdkwJh t,ltqjzpfyg
w,f? 'Dt,ltqudk tjyifrSm&Sdae=uwJh EkdifiHa&;orm;awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u ±kwfw&uf vufcH
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

23

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

Edkif=ujcif;r&Sdyg? t*Fvdyf&JΠzdESdyftkyfcsKyfr_atmufrSmom ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmaexkdifvmcJh&bl;olawGjzpf
awmh t*Fvyd u
f /kd jyefvnf wGe;f vSew
f u
kd cf u
kd af &; pdwaf pmae=uwmuwa=umif;/ *syefta=umif;udk
t*Fvyd t
f a=umif;avmuf vufawGŒrod=uao;wmuwa=umif;/ *syeftay: ar#mv
f ifch sux
f m;ol
awG&Sdaeao;wma=umifhwa=umif; 'Dt,ltq[m topftpdrf;ozG,fjzpfaeygw,f?
bDtikd af twyfe@J *syefw@kd &ŒJ trSwf (55) wyfr}uD; armfvòrdiu
f kd odr;f +yD;csed u
f p+yD;/ *syefawG
u Armjynfudk vGwfvyfa&;a=unmay;r,f/ tkyfcsKyfa&;udkvnf; ArmawGudkyJtyfr,fqkdwJh uwd
udk pwifcsKd;azmufygawmhw,f?
bDtikd af twyfrsm;u ArmjynftwGi;f 0ifvmpOf odr;f ydu
k rf w
d hJ a'owdik ;f rSm &yf&mG at;csr;f
a&;eJ@ +idrf0yfydjym;a&;twGuf tkyfcsKyfa&;awG zGJŒay;ygw,f? tJ'Daus;&Gm/ òrdŒe,f/ c±dkiftkyfcsKyfa&;
tzGŒJ awGukd ocifawG oufqidk &f ma'ou =oZmtm%m&So
d al wG t&m&Sad [mif;awGe@J oifah vsmo
f
vdk zGJ@pnf;ay;cJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh tJ'Dacwfumvudk bDtdkifat tkyfcsKyfa&;acwfumvvdk@ac:a0:
=uygw,f?
bDtdkifatwyfawG[m 1942 ckESpf rwfv (8) &ufae@rSm &efukefòrdŒudk odrf;ydkufrdygw,f?
bDtdkifatwyfu &efukefòrdŒudk t0ifapmayr,f *syefwyf trSwf (15) wyfrawmfu tvHk;t&if;
tiftm; ydkrdk}uD;wma=umifh trSwf (15) wyf&JŒvufatmufusa&mufoGm;ygw,f? trSwf (15)
wyfu/ bk&ifcHtdrfudk odrf;ydkuf+yD; rwfv (15) &ufae@rSm ume,fempl (Clolnee Yoshio Nasu)
acgif;aqmifwJh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk pzGJŒygawmhw,f?
t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ orm;uawmh ol&ŒJ eef;&if;0ef qmay:xGe;f tpd;k &udyk g wygwnf;ac:aqmif+yD;
&efukefu jynf/ rE Wav;/ aròrdŒ/ ppfudkif;c&D; taxmufaxmuf ajymif;a&$Œ±Hk;pdkuf&if; ‘atmifjrifpGm
qkwfcGmjcif;’ udk atmifjrifpGm ðyvkyfoGm;ygw,f?
‘bDtdkifat’ eJ@twlygvmwJh Adkvfrdk;óud;eJ@ olŒ&JŒ rDemrDuDuef;tzGJ@0if trsm;pk}uD;[m
Armjynf&ŒJ vGwv
f yfa&;udk tjrefq;kH a=unmay;csiaf yr,fh Armjynfppfqifa&;udk t"du wm0ef,l
xm;wJh trSwf (15) wyfrawmf[m tapmydkif;u ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk oabmwlcJh&muae
oabmxm;ajymif;+yD; uef@uu
G w
f t
hJ wGuf ‘bDtikd af t’ twGi;f rSmomru Adv
k rf ;kd óud;wd@k vkd ‘rDemrD
*syef’ rsm;uyg rauseyfjzpfcJh&ygw,f? ‘bDtdkifat’ &JŒ vGwfvyfa&; a=unma&; ar#mfvifhcsuf[m
taumiftxnf razmfEikd af wmhwb
hJ 0 a&mufomG ;&ygw,f? 'gayr,fh bDtikd af t[m bDtikd af todr;f
ydu
k rf &d mwav#mufukd ‘+idr;f csr;f a&;aumfrwD’ awGzŒJG +yD; bDtikd af ttkycf sKyfa&;tzGŒJ awG xlaxmifay;
cJhygw,f? bDtdkifat tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@awG[m oufqdkif&ma'orSm tm%m&tzGJŒawGozG,fjzpfwJh
twGuf &mxl;tm%m&vdkolawGvnf; enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ 0ifa&mufyg0ifvm=uwm&Sdygw,f?
bDtikd af ta=umifh &yf&mG at;csr;f wm/ olc;kd "m;jy awma=umifawG rxEkid w
f m&So
d vd/k bDtikd f
attkyfcsKyfa&;umvxJrSm bDtdkifata=umifh rsufESmysufp&m/ tjrifr=unfvifp&mawGvnf;
ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? ‘bDtdkifat’ u ajcvGefvufvGefvkyfcJhwmawGvnf;&Sdygw,f? txl;ojzifh
jrpf0u|ef;ay:a'owcsKdŒrSm jy\emay:cJhygw,f? +idrf0yfydjym;a&;twGufqdk+yD; vufeufawGvdkuf
odr;f wm/ ttyfcikd ;f wmvky&f if; u&iftrsK;d om;awGe@J jy\emjzpfc=hJ uygw,f? u&if-ArmvlrsK;d a&;
t"du±k%f;ay:cJh&ygw,f? u&iftrsKd;om;awGbufu =unfhr,fqdk&if tJ'D ‘bDtdkifat’ qdkolawG
24

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

[m EkdifiHa&;tay:pD;&r_tay:uae *syeftm;udk;eJ@ u&iftrsKd;om;awGtay: Adkvfusvmwm vlrsKd;
a&;zdESdyfowfjzwf/ t=urf;zufvmwmvdk@ jrif=uwmawG jzpfay:vmcJhw,f? ‘tdrfrJ’ e,frSm u&if
trsKd;om; ‘ref;a&$xGef;=um’ OD;pD;wJh trsKd;om;ckcHumuG,fr_ vufeufudkifwdkufyGJawG ay:cJh&w,f?
ajrmif;jre,frSmvJ Adkvfrdk;óud;wynfh uDrmwm; (Kimata) qdo
k u
l kd u&ifawGu owfjzwf
vdu
k =f uw,fqw
kd o
hJ wif;tay:rSm ‘Adv
k af usmaf Zm’ &JŒwyfuv
kd w
$ +f yD; ESrd ef if;cdik ;f wJt
h wGuf jy\em
ay:cJh&ygw,f? &Srf;jynfbufrSmvnf; bDtdkifatAdkvfwa,mufu wyfwwyfeJ@ &rf;um;oGm;wJht
wGuf rsufESmysufp&mjzpfcJh&w,f?
*syefwyfrsm;uvnf; ArmjynfwGif;a&mufwJh tcsdefup+yD; olwdk@wyfa&muf&m t&yfwkdif;
rSm zufqpfbDvl;±kyfudk tpG,fwjyL;jyL;eJ@ jyovmw,f? yg;±dkuf/ em;±dkuf/ vufonf;cGHcGm a&aEG;yl
avmif;/ aeylvSef;/ ouf}uD;&G,ftkdrSef; rod bkef;}uD;&[ef;rSef;rod ±dkif;±dkif;pdkif;pdkif; ðyrlqufqHwm
nOf;yef;ESdyfpufwmawG vkyfvm=uygw,f? atmufArmjynfwckvHk;uawmh *syefatmufa&muf
oGm;+yDjzpfayr,fh txufArmjynfuawmh t*FvdyfvufxJ &SdaeqJjzpfygw,f?
xif&Sm;wJhEkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmif trsm;pk}uD;[m txufArmjynf tusOf;axmifawGxJu
rxGufEkdifao;yg? rE Wav;axmifxJrSm ocifpdk;/ ocifA[def;/ ocifEk/ ocifjroGif/ ocifausmfpdefwdk@
wawG&+dS yD; rH&k mG axmifrmS ocifoef;xGe;f / ocifav;armif/ ocifApde/f ocifcifatmifw@dk wawG &S=d u
w,f? rdk;ukwfaxmifrSmu a'gufwmbarmf?
w±kwjf ynf cseaf u&Sw
d t
f pd;k &ud,
k pf m;vS,f ‘*sief &,f0rf;’ u ocifEu
k kd axmifxo
J mG ;awGŒ
+y;D ‘w±kyjf ynfvu
kd cf yhJ g? [dak &muf&if twlwv
l yk &f atmif’ vd@k zw
d af c:awmh ocifEu
k ‘*sief &,f0rf;’
udk “ppf}uD;+yD;oGm;&if ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;ay;r,fvdk@ t*Fvdyftpdk;&u a=unmygap? Armjynfol
tm;vHk;u *syefudk wdkufcdkuf=uvdrfhr,f” vdk@qdkygw,f?
ocifpdk;/ ocifEk/ ocifA[def;eJ@ ocifausmfpdefwdk@awG w±kwfjynf ‘csKHuif;’ txd vdkufzdk@
tpDtpOfvkyf+yD;wJhtcsdefrSm *syefu w±kwf-Arm vrf;r}uD;udk jzwfawmufydwfqdk@xm;vdkuf+yDjzpf
vdk h tpDtpOfysufoGm;cJhygw,f?
*syefu &efukefudk odrf;ydkuf+yD;wJhtcg txufArmjynfòrdŒ}uD;awGqD csDwufodrf;ydkufyg
w,f? bDtdkifatwyfawGuvnf; *syefwyfawGeJ@,SOf+yD; wufygw,f// txufArmjynfòrdŒawGudk
vnf; *syef[m ava=umif;uae AHk;}uJwdkufcdkuf&if; atmifjrifpGmqkwfcGmae=uwJh t*Fvdyfwyf
r[mrdwfwyfrsm;tay: jyif;jyif;xefxef xkd;ppfqifygw,f? t*FvdyfawG rE Wav;uae qkwfcGm+yD;
rE Wav;axmif}uD;ay:rSm AHk;uscsdefrSm axmifrª;}uD;eJ@ tay;t,lvkyf+yD;/ ocifEk/ ocifpdk;/ ocif
A[def;/ ocifjroGif/ ocifausmfpdefwdk@wawG axmifuvGwfvm=uygw,f?
t*FvdyfwyfawGqkwf&if; ppfudkif;wHwm;}uD;udk csKd;+yD; rHk&Gmudk ta&muf *syefu AHk;t}uJrSm
rHk&GmaxmifudkzGifh+yD; v$wfypfvdkufvdk@ ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifav;armif/ ocifApdef/ ocifcifatmif
wdk@awGvnf; rHk&Gmaxmifuae vGwfvm=uygw,f?
ppftwGi;f rSm txufArmjynfrmS Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmifawG tjyeftvSef tquftoG,&f +yD;
pkpnf;rdae=uygw,f? ocifodef;azeJ@ udkausmf+idrf; (OD;ausmf+idrf;) wdk@ESpfa,mufvnf; rE Wav;udk
a&mufaeygw,f? ocifodef;azu jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD &efyHkaiGeJ@ t*FvdyfeJ@ *syefe,fcsJŒwdk@udk
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

25

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

wòydifeuf wkduf&r,fqdkwJh oabmxm;pmwrf;rsm; a&;om;+yD; ‘wdkif;cspf’ ocifodef;az&JŒ wdkif;cspf
yHEk ydS w
f u
kd u
f ae v#KŒd 0Suf ±du
k Ef ydS x
f w
k af 0wmawG pwifvyk af eygw,f? udak usm+f idr;f u jynfoŒl ta&;
awmfyHkygwD &efukefXmecsKyf&JΠwm0efay;csufeJ@ rdk;ukwfaxmifxJa&mufaewJh a'gufwmbarmfeJ@
awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;zdk@jzpfygw,f?
ocifoed ;f azeJ@ udak usm+f ird ;f [m tJ'w
D ek ;f u a&$bu
kd kd ppfajy;tjzpf a&mufaewJh 'D;'kwOf ;D bcsKd
eJ@vnf; oGm;awGŒ=u+y;D Ekid if aH &;aqG;aEG;=uygw,f? rE aW v;em;u ‘uydik ’f &Gmudv
k nf; wkid ;f cspf ocif
odef;azwdk@rdom;pk ajymif;a&$ŒoGm;=uvdk@ vdkufoGm;jzpf=uygw,f? tJ'D uydkif&GmrSmyJ axmifuvGwf
vm+yD; a&mufvm=uwJh ocifE/k ocifp;kd / ocifausmpf ed /f ocifjroGiw
f @kd e@J twl ocifoed ;f az/ udak usmf
+idrf;wdk@ qHk=uygw,f? t*Fvdyfajy;±HkeJ@ vGwfvyfa&; ta&;awmfyHkr+yD;ao;? vGwfvyfa&;twGuf
qufvufwkdufyGJ0ifa&;udpPudk aqG;aEG;=uygw,f?
ocifEk/ udkausmf+idrf;wdk@u ArmjynfrSmae+yD; *syefeJ@yl;aygif;/ tm%mcGJa0,lum vHk;0vGwf
vyfa&;txd wdu
k yf 0JG ifa&;oabmxm;udk udik pf w
JG ,f? ocifp;kd / ocifoed ;f az/ ocifausmpf ed /f ocifjr
oGif wdk@u w±kwfwyfawGeJ@ twlvdkuf+yD; Armjynftjyifudk xGuf=ur,f? tJ'DurS w±kwf/ t*Fvdyf/
tar&duef pwJh r[mrdwfwyfawGeJ@ yl;aygif;+yD; *syefudkjyefwdkuf&if; vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&wJhtxd
wdkufoGm;=ur,fvdk@ qHk;jzwf=uw,f? tJ'DqHk;jzwfcsufeJ@tnD ocifpdk;/ ocifodef;az/ ocifjroGif
wkd@ vdkufoGm;=uayr,fh aemufqHk; ratmifjrifyJ jyefvSnfhvm=u&w,f?
1942 ckEpS /f arv (13) &ufae@rmS a'guw
f mbarmf[m *syefawGe@J qufo,
G rf +d yD;jzpfw,f?
ol@red ;f r a':cifrreJ@ wynfw
h csKŒd u axmifr;ª / axmifq&m0efawGtultnDe@J rd;k ukwaf xmifuxkwf
vm+yD;wJhaemufydkif; a'gufwmbarmf[m *syefeJ@ qufoG,frdwmjzpfw,f? *syefu eef;&if;0ef
‘wd*k sK’d uvnf; a'guw
f mbarmfvkd Ekid if aH &;orm;udk toH;k ðycsiaf ecsed f Armjynf&dS *sief &,f ‘tD'g;’
uvnf; Adv
k rf ;kd óud;/ ocifxeG ;f tkyef @J bDtikd af ttkycf sKyfa&;/ +idr;f csr;f a&;aumfrwDqw
kd mawGukd rsuf
aphaemuf+yD; ArmjynftkyfcsKyfa&;udk zGJŒpnf;csifaecsdef a'gufwmbarmftwGuf tuGufaumif;qdkuf
vmygw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ arvrSm rE Wav;/ ZGefvrSm wjynfvHk;udk *syefwyfawG[m xdef;csKyfodrf;ydkuf
vdkufEdkif+yDjzpfygw,f? ZGefv (3) &ufae@rSm ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk xlaxmifvdkufwma=umifh bDtdkifat
tkycf sKyfa&;acwf[mvnf; edÏw
d o
H mG ;&ygawmhw,f? 'ga=umifh bDtikd af t tkycf sKyfa&;acwf[m 1942
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Duae arvukeftxd (5) vavmufyJ =umcJhygw,f?
ocifodef;az[m ‘wdkif;cspfocifodef;az’ udk *syefawGu zrf;qD;ESdyfpuf+yD;/ olŒudk teH@cH
vdkufaewma=umifh ajratmufv#Kd;ae&wmuae jynfyqDxGufzdk@ cyfokwfokwfjyif&ygawmhw,f?
ocifoef;xGef;uvnf; ‘tdEdN,udkoGm;+yD; r[mrdwfrsm;eJ@ tquftoG,f&a&;twGuf óud;pm;zdk@’
ocifoed ;f azudk wdu
k w
f eG ;f aqG;aEG;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh ocifoed ;f az[m ocifwifa&$ (ausmufqnf)
eJ@twl tdE,
dN udk xGucf mG oGm;jzpf+yD;/ 1942 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f xJrmS tdE,
Nd udk a&muf&o
dS mG ;+yDjzpfygw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (10) &ufae@rSm *syeftpdk;&u rDemrDuDuefudk zsufodrf;ypfvdkuf+yD;
Adkvfrdk;óud;udkvnf; ar*sm*sife&,f&mxl;wdk;ay;um *syefjynfjyefac:vdkufw,f? Adkvfrdk;óud;udk Arm
26

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jynfrSm rxm;csifawmh/ Adkvfrdk;óud;tcef; ukefoGm;+yDjzpfygw,f? ‘bDtdkifat’udkvnf; &rf;&rf;um;
um;vkycf w
hJ mawG emrnfysucf w
hJ mawGukd vufnK‡ ;d xk;d jy+yD;/ pnf;urf;r&Sd ta=umif;jycsuef @J tzsuf
odr;f cdik ;f w,f? 1942 ckEpS /f Zlvikd f (27) &ufae@rmS *syef{u&mZf trde@f t& *se&,ft;D 'g;u bDtikd af t
(ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf) udk bD'Dat (ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf) tjzpf ajymif;vJzGJŒpnf;ap
w,f? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf zGJŒpnf;ay:aygufcJhwJh wyfrawmfudk ArmhumuG,fa&;twGufyJ
&nfpl;wJh wyfrawmfjzpfatmif ajymif;vJypfvdkufwmjzpfw,f? Armjynfuae t*FvdyfawG xGufcGm
oGm;&+yDjzpfvdk@ t*FvdyfawG jyefr0ifvmatmif umuG,fzdk@omvdkawmhw,fqdkwJh oabmt"dy`m,f
eJ@ zGJŒpnf;apwmjzpfw,f? ta&twGufudkvnf; (3000) cef@txdyJ&Sdap+yD; AdkvfawZudk ppfaoem
ywd cef@w,f? AdkvfawZu ‘AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;’ qdkwJh emrnf&if;udkyJ jyefvnfoHk;pGJcJhygw,f?
Adkvfatmifqef;acgif;aqmif+yD; wyf&if; (3) ckudk rwnfum ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf (bD'Dat)
ay:ayguv
f m ygw,f? wyf&if; (3) ckv;kH udv
k nf; ysO;f rem;rSmyJ tajcpdu
k af pcJyh gw,f? &efuek rf mS awmh
ppfOD;pD;XmecsKyf ppf±Hk;eJ@ r*Fvm'HkppfwuUodkvfwdk@ ay:aygufvmygw,f? &Jabmf (134) a,mufudk
a&G;+y;D r*Fvm'HAk v
kd o
f ifwef; (yxrywf) tjzpfwufapcJyh gw,f? *syef ‘um0g&;DS rm;’ [m ppfwuUov
kd f
ausmif;tkyfjzpfvmw,f?
'DAdkvfoifwef; (yxrywf) rsm;[m Armjynfordkif;rSm aemif ppfwyfordkif;rSm ‘&JabmfoHk;
usdyf’ +yD;&if ta&;ygt&ma&mufqHk;jzpfvm=ur,fh yk*~KdvfawGjzpfygw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufae@rSm *syefppftkyfcsKyfa&;vufatmufcH Armtpdk;&tzGJŒudk
*syefu zGJŒpnf;ay;ygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf a'gufwmbarmf? *syefudk vdkvm;oljzpfcJhwJh a'gufwm
odef;armifu b¾m0ef}uD;/ ocifxGef;tkyfu opfawmESifhowWKwGif;0ef}uD;/ ocifApdefu vrf;yef;
qufoG,fa&;0ef}uD;jzpfcJhovdk ocifjru jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;/ ocifoef;xGef;u v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;
0ef}uD;jzpfcJhygw,f? tm;vHk; (10) OD; &Sdygw,f?
*syefppftyk cf sKyfa&;umvtwGi;f rSm vli,frsm;tpnf;t±H;k wckvnf; zGŒJ pnf; ay:ayguv
f m
ygw,f? wdkif;&if;om;vli,frsm; Avig;wefjynfh0a&;twGuf avhusifhðypkay;&efqdkwJh ta=umif;jy
csufeJ@ ay:vmwmyg? tJ'guawmh ‘tm&Svli,ftpnf;t±Hk;’ vdk@ vlodrsm;wJh ta&SŒtm&Swdkuf
vli,frsm; tpnf;t±Hk;yg? OuUÏu yk*HOD;b*srf;?
'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;uawmh ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; 'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;a&m/ Apdef-xGef;tkyf
'dk@Armtpnf;t±Hk;yg a'gufwmAarmf&JŒ qif;&Jom;ygwDeJ@yl;aygif;+yD; 1942 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (27)
&ufae@uwnf;u ‘'dk@Armqif;&Jom;tpnf;t±Hk;’ tjzpf xlaxmifvkdufygw,f? XmecsKyft}uD;
tuJtjzpf ocifEku wm0ef,lygw,f? 'ga=umifh *syefppftkyfcsKyfa&;&JΠvufatmufcH Armtpdk;&
tjzpf ay:ayguv
f mwJt
h cg 'd@k Armtpnf;t±H;k ESpjf crf;pvH;k u acgi;f aqmifrsm;a&m a'guw
f mbarmf
&JΠqif;&Jom;ygwDua&m yg0ifaewmjzpfygw,f?
w±kwfjynfudkvnf; rvdkufjzpf tdENd,udk ocifodef;azeJ@ twloGm;zdk@udkvnf; zsufypfvdkuf
&wJh ocifpdk;uawmh tif;pdefppfwrf;/ jrif;+cHppfwrf; oabmxm;udkyJ +rJ+rJqkyfum *syefqef@usifha&;
ajratmufawmfvSefa&;vk;yfief;rsm;udk ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk udk,fpm;ðy+yD; qufvufvkyfudkif
aeygw,f? *syefuifaywdik pf pfyv
k yd af wGu ‘ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw’D udk teH@c+H y;D vku
d af eovdk ocifp;kd
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

27

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

udkvnf; vdkufaewJhtwGuf ocifpdk;[m jrpf0u|ef;ay:/ zsmyHk/ a';'&J/ usKdufvwfe,fawGrSm vSnfh
vnf wdr;f a&Smif ajratmufcakd e&if;/ uGejf rLepfEikd if aH &;oifwef;yd@k cswm/ *syefqef@usiahf &; tiftm;pk
aqmif;wmawG vkyfae jyifqifaeygw,f?
axmifxrJ mS uwnf;u qdAk ,
D ufabmf&ADS pf&mZ0ifpmtkyu
f kd bmomjyefc+hJ yD; tJ'pD mtkyu
f ykd J
vufudkifðy&if; axmifwGif;rmhufpf0g'oifwef; ydk@csvmcJhwJh/ tif;pdefppfwrf;t,ltqrSm udk,fwdkif
ud,
k u
f s yg0ifazmfaqmifow
l OD;jzpfcw
hJ hJ ocifoef;xGe;f uawmh tpd;k &tzGŒJ xJ 0ef}uD;tjzpf ±kyjf yvkyf
udkifae&if; ocifpdk;eJ@ v#KdŒ0SufqufoG,fum ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDacgif;aqmifwOD;taeeJ@ *syef
qef@usifa&;tiftm;pkawGudk e,fy,faygif;pHkrSm ðypkysKd;axmifaecJhygw,f?
k hJ
ocifoed ;f azu tdE,
dN rSm ‘ArmjynfwiG f jzpfysucf o
hJ r#’ (What happened in Burma) qdw
pmtkyu
f kd t*Fvyd v
f akd &;om;+yD; 1942 ckEpS t
f wGi;f rSmyJ xkwaf 0vdu
k yf gw,f? tm&SppfrsuEf mS awGrmS
ajymufusm;ppfqifa&;twGuf t"duzGŒJ pnf;xm;wJh ‘zd@k 136 tzGŒJ ’ (Force 136) eJ@vnf; tquft
oG,frjywf vkyfaecJhygw,f? oleJ@twloGm;cJhwJh ocifwifa&$ (ausmufqnf) udkvnf; Armjynfw
acgufjyefv$wf+yD; tckdiftrmjyifqifr_awG vkyfaecJhygw,f?
1943 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvrSm *syefeef;&if;0ef *sife&,fwdk*sKdu *syeftxufv$wfawmf t}udrf
(80) ajrmuf tpnf;ta0;rSm Armjynfvw
G v
f yfa&;udk ESprf ul;rD a=unmay;r,fv@kd a=unmvdu
k +f y;D
rwfvxJrmS a'guw
f mbarmfacgi;f aqmifwhJ ArmtzGŒJ udk wdu
k sKv
d mzd@k zdwaf c:w,f? a'guw
f mbarmf/
ocifjr/ Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ a'guw
f m ode;f armif/ OD;ausm+f idr;f / Adv
k &f efEidk yf g (8) OD;tzGŒJ wdu
k sKu
d o
kd mG ;
=uw,f?
1942 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufrSm pwifcJhwJh *syefppftkyfcsKyfa&; wESpfjynfhwJh 1943 ckESpf
=o*kwfv (1) &ufae@rSm *sife&,ftD;'g;u ppftkyfcsKyfa&;±kyfodrf;a=umif; a=unm+yD;/ tJ'Dae@rSmyJ
ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk a=unmcGifhay;vdkufw,f?
*syefay;wJv
h w
G v
f yfa&;twke@J twl *syefppfwyfu csKyfuikd x
f m;jcif;cH&wJh *syefacwf ±kyaf o;
tpdk;&tzGJŒ[mvnf; vGwfvyfaomtpdk;&w&yftoGif zGJŒpnf;ay:aygufvmcJhw,f? a'gufwm
barmf [m t"dywdbŒJG udck ,
H &l if; 0ef}uD;csKyfwm0efukd ,lvu
kd w
f ,f? ocifjru 'k0ef}uD;csKyf/ Adv
k cf sKyf
atmifqef;u umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;/ a'gufwmodef;armifu b¾ma&;0ef}uD;/ ocifEku EkdifiHjcm;a&;
0ef}uD;/ ocifoef;xGef;u ajrESifhv,f,mpdkufysKd; a&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmw,f? tpdk;&tzJGŒudk ‘ArmhxGuf
&yf*kd%f;’ 0ifawGe@J zGŒJ pnf;vdu
k w
f o
hJ abmjzpfw,f? *syefacwfrmS Armhvw
G v
f yfa&;udk todtrSwðf y
wJo
h abm vkyfcJhayr,fh *syefppftm%mydkifawGuyJ ae&mwum óud;udkifAdkvfus=uw,f? *syef
ppfwyfutvdk&SdwJh pm;eyf&duQm u|J/ EGm;/ =uuf/ 0ufawGomru ‘ac|;wyfom;’ vdk@ ac:wJh tvkyf
orm; axmifaygif;rsm;pGmudkawmif tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&SdawGu zrf;qD;ay;=u&jyefw,f? t*F
vdyfudkvdkeDorm;awGae&mrSm *syefudkvdkeD0g'orm;awGu vma&mufaoG;pkyf=uw,f? umvwdk
twGif;rSmyJ trfbDaueJ@ trftufpfaupwJh *syefb¾mt&if;&Sif ukr`%Daygif; (50) avmuf[m
ArmhpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;awGxJvma&muf aoG;pkyfcJh=uw,f? Armjynf&JŒpD;yGm;a&;[m *syefacwf
twGif;rSm tqdk;0g;qHk;tajctaea&mufcJh&+yD; tppt&m&m &Sm;yg;jywfvyf =uyfwnf;rGJaw
cJh&w,f?
28

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

*syefuifaywdik af wG&ŒJ vufoaH jymifajymifEydS pf ufr/_ *syefppfom;awG&ŒJ zufqpfyyD D &rf;um;
vlrqefra_ wGatmufrmS wjynfv;kH ae&mtES@H 0Éf'u
k cQ =H u&w,f? *syefay;wJv
h w
G v
f yfa&;[m b,f
vdkvGwfvyfa&;vJqdkwm ezl;awGΠ'l;awGΠawGΗuH=u&yg+yD?
*syef0ifpuwnf;u *syefqef@usifa&; tjrif&Sdxm;=u+yD;om; uGefjrLepfawG[m *syefudk
wGef;vSefarmif;xkwfEkdifzdk@ wdk;+yD; jyifqiftm;xkwfwmawG vkyf=uygw,f? v#KdŒ0Sufajratmufenf;
awGeJ@yJ vkyfae=u&wmjzpfygw,f? *syefuvnf; *syefqef@usifa&;orm;rSefor#udk ykdufpdyfwdkuf+yD;
ESdyfuGyfzdk@ óud;pm;ygw,f?
‘*syefov
l #K’d qdw
k hJ pmtkyef @J ‘qk&d ,
S v
f pf0g'ESiehf o
d #n;f ’ qkw
d hJ pmtkyu
f kd bmomjyefqckd w
hJ hJ
‘vufyHwef;OD;bwif’udk *syefzufqpfawGu zrf;qD;ESdyfpuf owfjzwfvkduf=uygw,f?
Armjynfvw
G v
f yfa&;twGuq
f w
kd hJ &nfreS ;f csurf mS twlwjl zpfc=hJ uayr,fh 1942 ckEpS f 0ef;usif
avmuftxd tjrift,ltq oabmxm;uGjJ ym;aecJ=h uwJh Armjynf trsK;d om;Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmif
awGt=um;rSm wjznf;jznf;eJ@ *syefukd OD;wnfwu
kd &f r,fqw
dk hJ tjrifopfqD OD;wnfa&GŒvsm;pðyvm
yg+yD? tif;pdefppfwrf;t,ltqqD pkpnf;rdpðyvmyg+yD?
uGejf rLepfygwu
D kd ud,
k pf m;ðy+y;D ocifp;kd &JŒ vGwv
f yfa&;a=unmpmwrf; trSwf (1) eJ@ trSwf
(2) [m Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pkawG=um; us,u
f s,jf yef@jyef@ ysŒH ESv
H mcJw
h ,f? tJ'D ArmvGwv
f yfa&; a=unm
pmwrf;awG[m urBmhtiftm;pkawG&JΠtaetxm;/ *syefzufqpfpepfudk wdkufzsufzkd@twGuf &Ekdif
or#aom r[mrdwfawGeJ@ yl;wGJvkyfaqmif=u&r,fh wm0efawGyg azmfjyxm;wJhtjyi/f zufqpf0g'
rkcsusqHk;&r,fqdkwmudkvnf; cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm oHk;oyfjyEdkifcJhygw,f?
ArmhwyfrawmftwGif;rSmvnf; uGefjrLepfygwD0ifawG uGefjrLepfvkdvm;olawG tHkeJ@usif;eJ@
&Sdaeovdk/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD&JŒ ,lepf0ifawGvnf; &Sdae=uygw,f? ay:ay:xifxifr[kwfyJ
v#KdŒv#KdŒ0Suf0SufeJ@ wnf&Sdae=uwmjzpfayr,fh udk,fhtpkeJ@udk,f EkdifiHa&;aqG;aEG;=uwm/ oifwef;
oGm;wuf=uwm/ v#KdŒ0Sufpmapmifpmwrf;awG jzef@a0=u avhvm=uwmawG us,fus,fjyef@jyef@
jzpfay:aeygw,f? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;vkyfaewJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkif ArmjynfuGefjrLepf
ygwD&JΠA[dkaumfrwD0ifwa,muftjzpf (1942) txd jzpfaeao;wmudk=unfh&if wyfrawmfxJrSm
uGejf rLepfygwt
D iftm; b,favmuf}u;D cJo
h vJqw
kd m vG,v
f ,
G u
f u
l l pOf;pm;=unfv
h @kd &ygw,f? tJ'D
wke;f u Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;&JŒv#KŒd 0Suef mrnfu (udak emifcsK)d ? ocifoef;xGe;f emrnfu udb
k armif?
wyfrawmfxrJ mS t}u;D tuJawGjzpfae=uwJh *syefjyef &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f ifawGukd jyef=unfrh ,f
qd&k ifvnf; ‘uGejf rLepf’ awGjzpfaewm renf;yg? Adv
k &f efatmif/ Adv
k af Z,s/ Adv
k &f x
J w
G w
f k@d [m uGejf rL
epfawGyg? Adkvfvusfm[mvnf; uGefjrLepfygwD pwifxlaxmifolwpfOD;jzpfygw,f? bD'DatAdkvfoif
wef; yxrywf/ 'kw,
d ywfawGtwGi;f rSmvnf; uGejf rLepfawGtrsm;}u;D yg? Adv
k Af xl;wd@k Adv
k t
f mVm0u
wdk@[m uGefjrLepf}uD;awGjzpfovdk/ Adkvfpdk;armif (Adkvfrª;cspfaumif;)/ Adkvfyk/ Adkvf&Jarmif/ Adkvfrif;'if/
Adkvfoef;a&$ pwJholawG[m uGefjrLepfawGyg?
jynfo@l ta&;awmfyykH gwb
D ufu OuUÏtjzpf ocifjr OD;aqmifyg0ifaeayr,fh t"duv_y&f mS ;
aeolawGu ocifcspf (aemif ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwb
D ufajymif;oGm;)/ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wd@k jzpfyg
w,f? wyfrawmfxJrSm jynfolŒta&;awmfyHk ,lepf0ifawGuawmh Adkvfarmifarmif/ Adkvfatmif}uD;/
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

29

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

Adv
k af tmifa&$/ Akv
d cf spcf ikd /f Adv
k =f unf0if; pwJh Adv
k af wGjzpfygw,f? Adv
k af e0if;[m *syefjyeftyk pf u
k ae
yJhxGufvm+yD;/ tJ'D,lepftkyfpkrSm acgif;aqmifozG,f ae&m&vmcJhygw,f? ,lepftkyfpk[m AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;udk pdwrf csyJ *syefjyefxu
J yJx
h u
G v
f mwJh Adv
k af e0if;udk tm;ud;k w}u;D eJ@ q&marG; acgi;f aqmif
wifxm;wmvdk@qdkygw,f?
*syefppfwyfu tdENd,EkdifiHbufqDtxd csDwuf0ifa&mufEkdifzdk@ óud;pm;xm;ygw,f? +Adwdo#
wyf/ tar&duefwyfawGeJ@ &ifqdkifwdkufyGJqif&+yD; wyfvef aemufqkwfvm&ygw,f?
t"dywd}uD; a'gufwmAarmfu ‘waoG;woHwrdef@’ atmfaeayr,fh zufqpf[m urBmh
jynfoltm;vHk;&JΠqef@usifr_udkcH&+yD; tusbufqD ajymif;vJvmaeyg+yD?
tJ't
D csed rf mS ocifApdeef @J ocifxeG ;f tkyv
f nf; *syefu vdr+f y;D ac:wmcH&&if; puFmyle@J *smAm;
u|ef;rSm wa,mufwae&mqDcGJ+yD; tus,fcsKyfcsxm;wm cHae&yg+yD? *syefudkqef@usifvdk@r[kwfyg?
*syefukd ,H=k unfveG ;f +yD; *syefe@J aygi;f +yD; olw@kd tm%m&atmif=uHpnf=u&if; *syeftvdrcf o
H mG ;&wm
jzpfygw,f? t"dywd a'gufwmAarmfudk ðzwfcs+yD; olwdk@tm%m&a&; }uHpnf=upOf a'gufwmAarmf
udkom acgif;aqmiftjzpfvdkcsifaewJh *syefu olwdk@udk jynfyydk@+yD; z,f&Sm;vdkufjcif;yg?
tJ't
D csed w
f ek ;f u &Sad ewJh Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkawG&ŒJ tajctaeudk =unfv
h u
kd rf ,fq&kd if *syef
ay;wJh vGwfvyfa&;twkta,mif qdkif;bkwfatmufrSm ‘'dk@Armqif;&Jom;tpnf;t±Hk;’ }uD;[m
tm%m&tzGŒJ tpnf;}uD;ozG,jf zpfygw,f? tqifq
h ifah om tkycf sKyfa&;tzGŒJ tpnf; }uD;i,fawGukd
‘'d@k Armqif;&Jom;tpnf;t±H;k ’ 0ifawGe@J yJ t"duxm;zGŒJ pnf;xm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh wu,ft
h m%m
uawmh *syefppfwyfvufxJrSmyJ&Sdygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwDuawmh ajratmuftjzpfeJ@ &yfwnf
v_y&f mS ;ae=u&ygw,f? 'DygwED pS cf [
k m oabmobm0csi;f rwln=D uovdk jzpfwnfzŒJG pnf; ay:ayguf
vmyHkcsif;vnf;rwl=uyg? 1300 jynfhta&;awmfyHkt+yD;rSm ‘ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD’ tOD;qHk;ay:
ayguv
f mygw,f? vlwef;pm;udt
k ajccH+yD; tvkyo
f rm;vlwef;pm;&JΠwyfO;D ygwt
D jzpf ay:ayguv
f m
wmjzpfovdk/ rmhufpfvDeif0g'udk vrf;!¸eftbd"rRmtjzpf udkifpGJ+yD; EdkifiHwumuGefjrLepfv_yf&Sm;r_
}u;D &JŒtpdwt
f ydik ;f w&yftjzpfvnf;cH,u
l m/ tqH;k wae@rmS vlwef;pm;rJh avmu}u;D qDtxd tquf
rjywf csDwufoGm;zdk@ ar#mfrSef;xm;wJh EdkifiHa&;ygwDjzpfygw,f?
jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDaemufrSm ay:aygufvmcJh+yD;/ EkdifiHa&;
ygwDwckqdkwmxuf EdkifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufwck/ EkdifiHa&;vkyfief;aqmifwmwckudk owfrSwf+yD;/ tJ'D
owfrw
S x
f m;wJh vkyif ef;aqmifwmudk umvwcktwGi;f rSm twly;l wGaJ qmif&u
G o
f mG ;=uzd@k tav;
ay; zGJŒpnf;xm;wJh tpktpnf;}uD;wck&JŒoabmudk ydk@aqmifygw,f? vlwef;pm;ygwDtjzpf wnf
axmifxm;wmr[kwfovdk vrf;!¸eftbd"rRmtjzpf jyÏmef;udkifpGJxm;wmvnf;r&Sdyg? 'gayr,fh
trsm;pk}uD;[m rmhufpfvDeif0g'udk ,Hk=unfolawG wdrf;!¸wfolawG/ vdkvm;olawG/ ,kH=unfwdrf;
!¸wfw,fvdk@ qkdolawGjzpfygw,f? 'D*&Dtedrfhtjrifhcsif;awmh rwlnD=uyg? t"duu t*Fvdyf
udkvdkeDtpdk;&udk vufeufpGJudkifðzwfcsEkdifa&;twGuf &nf&G,fzGJŒpnf;cJhwmjzpf+yD; ArmjynfvGwfvyf
a&;twGufudkyJ yef;wdkiftjzpf owfrSwfxlaxmifcJhwmjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh ocifA[def;vdk uGefjrL
epf xdyfoD;acgif;aqmifwOD;[m ‘jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD’ rSmvnf; ta&;}uD; acgif;aqmifwOD;
30

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tjzpfyg0ifaewmud=k unf&h if xif&mS ;ygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;vnf; ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD taxG
axGtwGif;a&;rª; eHygwf (1) jzpfvsufeJ@ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD xlaxmif&mrSm ta&;}uD;acgif;
aqmifwOD;tjzpf yg0ifaecJhygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;a&m ocifA[def;yg 1942 ckESpf aemufydkif;
jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD tpktwGif; rawGŒ&awmhyg?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD+yD;&if ta&;}uD;tiftm;pkwcktoGif jzpf
ay:wnf&v
dS mwmu ‘Armhwyfrawmf’ yg? &Jabmfo;kH usyd ef @J pcJ+h yD; 1942 ck/ ESpq
f ef;ydik ;f rSm tiftm;pk
w&yftoGif tcdik t
f rmwnf&adS eyg+y?D Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;tygt0if &Jabmfo;kH usyd q
f w
kd mudk jyef=unfh
r,fqdk&ifvnf; oHk;yHkESpfyHkausmf[m rmufpf0g' vDeif0g' qdk&S,fvpftawG;tac: ,Hk=unfvufcH
ESpo
f ufoal wG jzpfae=uwJt
h jyif/ trsm;pk}u;D [m ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw/D jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gwD
awGeJ@ wenf;r[kwf wenf; ywfoufae=uygw,f? bDtdkifatacwf/ bD'Datacwfwavsmuf
jzpfay:wnf&SdvmwJh ArmhwyfrawmftwGif;&Sd t=uyf/wyfAdkvf/ wyfom;awGxJrSmvnf; uGefjrLepf
ygwDeJ@ywfoufolawG/ jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwDtpkeJ@ ywfoufolawG tHkeJ@usif;eJ@&Sdaeygw,f?
b,fe@J rS rywfoufwhJ t=uyf/ wyfAv
kd /f wyfom;/ wyfrawmfom; oufouf[m tifrwef enf;yg;
ygw,f? wyfrawmfudk,fwdkif trsdK;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_a=umifh ay:xGufvmwmjzpfawmh rsKd;cspfpdwf&Sd
olwdkif;[m trsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;eJ@ ywfoufaeygw,f? EdkifiHa&;eJ@ ywfoufae&ygw,f? EdkifiHa&;eJ@
ywfoufae+yDqdkuwnf;u tJ'Dwkef;u a&SŒwef;ta&mufqHk;jzpfaewJh uGefjrLepfygwD/ 'grSr[kwf
jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gww
D @kd e@J wck od@k r[kwf wcke@J ywfouf+yD;om;jzpfomG ;ygw,f? ESpyf gwpD vH;k u
vnf; wyfrawmfwiG ;f pnf;±H;k a&;vkyif ef;udk tav;xm;vky=f uygw,f? txl;ojzifh Ekid if aH &;/ oabm
w&m;a&;udk avhvmvd=k u/ qnf;yl;jznfph nf;vd=k uwJh wyfrawmfom;awG[m olw@kd avhvmqnf;yl;
vdkwJh EdkifiHa&;oabmw&m;awGtwGuf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDqDudkom OD;wnf&ygawmhw,f?
bmvdk@vJqdkawmh tJ'Dvdk EdkifiHa&;oabmw&m;a&;udk oifwef;ay;Edkifwm/ a[majymydk@csEdkifwm
t"dutm;jzifh “uGejf rLepfygw”D eJ@ uGejf rLepfacgi;f aqmifawGyJ &Sw
d t
hJ wGujf zpfw,f? Adv
k &f efatmif
vdk yk*Kd~ vfuawmif “ocifA[de;f udk awGŒ&ifajymay;yg/ ole@J awGŒ&if olŒudk (Adv
k &f efatmifu)kd Edik if aH &;
oifwef;ay;ay;yg?” vd@k vdv
k ckd sicf sif wufwufºuGºuGe@J Adv
k af usmaf Zmuwqifh rSmcJzh ;l owJ?h tJ'v
D kd
oifwef;yd@k csEikd o
f l oabmw&m; ydik Ef ikd af =unufoal wG[m uGejf rLepfawGcsn;f omvd@k qd&k ravmuf
jzpfcw
hJ ,f? ocifA[de;f uvnf; oifwef;yd@k csay;Edik w
f ahJ e&mrSm emrnf}uD;/ ocifoef;xGe;f uvnf;
oifwef;jy oifwef;cs emrnf}uD;? ocifpdk; uvnf; a&mufav&m oifwef;zGifh+yD; oabmw&m;
oifwef;ay;avh&o
dS ?l wyfrawmfwiG ;f u wyfr;ª wyfAv
kd w
f pfcsKd@[m pepfwus pDpOfv#Kd@0u
S +f y;D uGejf rL
epfygwu
D yd@k cswhJ EdkifiHa&;oifwef;/ oabmw&m;a&;oifwef;rsm;udk oGm;wuf=uavh&Sdygw,f?
wyfrawmf}uD;wckvHk;&JΠt"duacgif;aqmifuawmh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;?
1944 ckEpS f azazmf0g&/D rwfva&mufawmh tdE,
dN a&mufaewJh ocifoed ;f az[m ocifoef;xGe;f
eJ@ tcdkiftrm tquftoG,f&ae+yDjzpfygw,f? ocifodef;az[mvnf; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ
acgi;f aqmifwa,mufjzpfygw,f? ocifoef;xGe;f uwqifh ocifp;kd / Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifEw
k @kd e@J
vnf; v#dKŒ0SufqufoG,frd+yDjzpfygw,f?
*syef0ifpuwnf;u *syefe@J jyoemay:cJh bDtikd af teJ@ jyoemay:cJzh ;l wJh u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

31

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

[m *syefqef@usifa&; pdwf"mwfwavsmufvHk; &SdaecJhw,f? a'gufwm pHpDzdk;/ apmpHzdk;oif/ apmbOD;/
apm[ife&D/ *|efqif/ uH}uD; wdk@[m xif&Sm;wJh u&iftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifawGjzpf=uw,f? apmpHzdk;
oif[m awmifib
l ufrmS cd+k yD; ajymufusm;wyfpnf;±H;k aewJh t*Fvyd af r*smqD;*&if;eJ@ tquftoG,f
&Sdaew,f? Adkvfp}uFmuawmif olŒudk tdENd,bufudk ydk@ay;ygvdk@ pum;urf;vSrf;cJhzl;ygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u apmpHz;kd oife@J apm=um'k;d udk wyfrawmfwiG ;f odr;f oGi;f yg0ifapcJw
h ,f?
apmpHzdk;oif[m wyfrawmfwGif;rSm Adkvf}uD;jzpfvmcJhovdk/ qif;[wf ppfwuUodkvfqif; apm=um'dk;
[m ppf0ef}uD;±Hk;rSm 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;jzpfvmcJhw,f? u&ifwyf&if;zGJŒ+yD; jrpf0u|ef;ay:udkvnf; u&ifArm
cspf=unfa&;tzGJŒawG apv$wf=uw,f? ocifEk eJ@ Adkvfvusfmwdk@&JŒ cspf=unfa&;c&D;awG atmifjrifcJh
w,f? Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f eJ@ apm=um'd;k / apm[ife&D/ *|eq
f ifu}H uD;wd@k vkd u&ifacgi;f
aqmifawG usdwf0dkif;aqG;aEG;=u+yD; *syefudk rawmfvSefrD u&ifArmaoG;pnf;a&;udk &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&Sd
wnfaqmufcJh=uw,f?
1944 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufae@rSm *syefay;wJh ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; wESpfjynfhajrmufyGJ
*sLAvDa[mrSm usif;yw,f? t"dywda'gufwmbarmf rdef@cGef;ac|t+yD;rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u
“vGwfvyfa&;[m tay:,HvGwfvyfa&;yJ &Sdaeao;w,f? usKyfwdk@a&SŒquf+yD; pcef;oGm;EdkiftHk;rS
vGwfvyfa&;taumiftxnfudk jrif&vdrfhr,f” vdk@ zGifh[ajymqdkoGm;w,f?
*syefudk qef@usifwGef;vSef=uzdk@ Armhajray:uae 'DzufqpfawGudk t+yD;ydkif armif;xkwfEdkifzdk@
vufawGΠb0awGuae awmif;qdkvmaeyg+yD?
*syefawG ArmjynfwiG ;f ajceif;0ifa&mufrvmEdik cf ifuwnf;u *syefawG[m zufqpfawGjzpf
w,f? 'DzufqpfawGudk OD;wnfqef@usifwdkufckduf&r,fvdk@ EkdifiHa&; a&csdef&Sd&SdeJ@ óudjrifcJhwm[m
uGefjrLepfawGjzpfcJhw,f? óudjrifwJhtwdkif; óudvJajymcJhw,f? tif;pdefppfwrf;[m tcdkiftrmouf
aoygyJ?
óudjrifwJhtwdkif; zufqpf0g'udk qef@usifzdk@/ zufqpfawGwdkufxkwfzdk@ óudjyifcJhwmvnf;
uGejf rLepfawGyjJ zpfygw,f? tapmqH;k jyifqifpnf;±H;k aecJw
h m/ tpDtpOf&&dS dS tiftm;pkaqmif; vkyaf qmif
aecJhwm uGefjrLepfawGjzpfaew,f?
1944 ckEpS x
f aJ &mufawmh uGejf rLepfawG&ŒJ 'Dtjrifukd a,bk,stm;jzifh tm;vH;k vdv
k u
kd od&dS
oabmayguf vufcHae&+yDjzpfygw,f? oabmw&m;a&;tajccHtm;jzifhawmh zufqpfqef@usifa&;
tjrif[m wpkwpnf; wnDw!Gwx
f q
J D a&muf&v
dS mcJyh g+y?D oabmw&m;a&;tjrifuae vufawGŒ
qDoGm;zdk@vnf; pwifjyifqif=uyg+yD?
'kw,
d urBmph pf}uD; wckv;kH &JŒtajctaeudk jyef=unfrh ,fq&dk ifvnf; qkAd ,
D ufppfrsuEf mS rSm
qdAk ,
D uf[m cHppfuae xd;k ppfu;l ajymif;vmaeyg+yD? *smrefemZDawGukd qkAd ,
D uftjyifa&mufatmif
wdkufxkwfypfvdkufEkdifyg+yD? tDwvDzufqpfawGvJ ±_H;edrfhoGm;+yDjzpfygw,f? w±kwfjynfrSmvnf;
*syefawGa&SŒrwdk;EkdifawmhyJ cHae&+yDjzpfygw,f?
±k&Sm;ppfrsufESmtjyif *smrefawGtay: 'kwd,ppfrsufESm topfwckudkvnf; r[mrdwf
ppfwyfawGu atmifjrifpGm zGifhvSpfEkdifcJh+yDjzpfygw,f? jyifopf ‘aemfref'D’ urf;ajcudk atmifjrifpGm
urf;wuf EkdifcJh+yD; jyifopf/ b,fvf*sD,Hwdk@udk csDwufwdkufcdkufae+yDjzpfygw,f?
32

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

1944 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f (4) &ufae@rmS Adv
k af usmaf Zm (&Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f if) OD;pD;wJh yJc;l pHjywyf
&if;xJrSm AdkvfausmfaZmtdrf tdyfcef; AdkvfausmfaZm&JΠukwifay:rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwD taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; ocifpdk;wdk@ v#KdŒ0Suf+yD; awGŒqHkEkdifcJh=uw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmif
qef;&JΠtxl;wm0efay;csuef @J Adv
k af usmaf Zm ud,
k w
f ikd f a';'&Je,f *Guav;&Gmta&mufomG ;+y;D zuf
qpfqef@usiaf &; ajratmufvyk if ef;awG v#KŒd 0Suv
f yk af ewJh ocifp;kd udk ppft&m&Sid ,f ,leaD zmif;0wfqif
ap+yD; ac:xkwfvmcJhjcif;jzpfygw,f? ocifpdk;udk oGm;ac:a&;twGuf a';'&Jc&D;pOfudk tao;pdwfpDpOf
ay;olu ocifoef;xGe;f jzpfygw,f? Adv
k af usmaf Zmtdrt
f xd ocifp;kd udk ac:xkwv
f mEdik +f yD;csed af &muf
rS Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u yJc;l udv
k ma&muf tem;,lvnfywfw[
hJ efe@J yJc;l udak &mufvm+yD; ocifp;kd eJ@
awG@=uwmjzpfygw,f? AdkvfausmfaZm tdyfcef;xJrSm AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ ocifpdk;wdk@ oHk;&ufquf
wdkuf v#KdŒ0SufaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? 'Dordkif;0ifaqG;aEG;yGJ}uD;&JŒ &v'fuawmh zwyvtzGJŒ}uD; atmif
jrifpmG zGŒJ pnf;Ekid jf cif;jzpfygw,f? tJ'aD emuf Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f wd@k aqG;aEG;
n‡dE_dif; wdkifyif=u+yD; zufqpfwdkufzsufa&; jynfol@vGwfvyfa&; (zwyv) tzGJŒ}uD;&JŒ OD;pD;tzGJŒudk
zGŒJ Edik cf yhJ gw,f? wm0efcaJG 0,l=uwJt
h cg Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u ppfa&;/ ocifp;kd u Edik if aH &;/ ocifoef;
xGef;u EkdifiHjcm;qufoG,fa&; jzpfvmygw,f? yxrqHk; yJcl;rSm pwifaqG;aEG;=upOfu ocifpdk;[m
uGejf rLepfygwu
D kd uk,
d pf m;ðy+yD;/ Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;uawmh jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gwaD &m wyfrawmf
a&mudk udk,fpm;ðyaqG;aEG;=uwmjzpfygw,f? t"dutm;jzifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m wyfrawmfudk
udk,fpm;ðyaqG;aEG;cJhwm jzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwDeJ@ ArmwyfrawmfqdkwJh t"dutiftm;pk
(3) pkudk tajccH+yD; (zwyv) qdkwJh trsKd;om;wyfaygif;pk}uD;udk zGJŒpnf;vdkufawmh wzGJŒv#if (3)
OD;pDeJ@ (9) OD;[m yxrqHk;aom ‘zwyv’ A[dkOD;pD;tzGJŒ0ifawGjzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDrS ocifpdk;/ ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifA[def;/ wyfrawmfrS AkdvfcsKyfatmif
qef;/ Adv
k v
f usmf / Akv
d af e0if;? jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gwrD S ocifcsp/f OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f ? ocifp;kd u
Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmif/ Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u ppfa&;acgi;f aqmif/ ocifoef;xGe;f u taxGaxGtwGi;f
a&;rª;eJ@ r[mrdwfrsm;eJ@ qufoG,fa&; wm0efudkyg,lygw,f?
zwyvzGŒJ +y;D wmeJ@ wòyid ef uf/ pnf;urf;avsm&h &J jJ zpfaevd@k pHjywyf&if;awGzŒJG +y;D wnfaqmuf
ae&wJh wyfrawmfukd awmfveS af &;twGuf tcsed rf D jrefjrefajymif;vJ vmapzd@k Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u
uGefjrLepfygwDrS EdkifiHa&;au'gawGawmif;+yD; wyftoD;oD;xJ v#KdŒ0SufoGif;wmvkyfygw,f?
ocifoef;xGef;eJ@ n‡dE_dif;+yD; t"duwyfrª;/ wyf=uyf acgif;aqmifawGudk EdkifiHa&;eJ@ awmfvSefa&; ynm
ay;a&;awGudk vkyfaqmifapygw,f?
‘tm&Svil ,ftpnf;t±H;k ’ xJuv
kd nf; wcsKŒd vli,frsm;udk ðryfEaHS e&mcsxm;ay;+y;D tpDtpOf&&dS dS
v_yf&Sm;apygw,f? r[mrdwfrsm;eJ@ qufoG,fa&;wm0efudkyg,lxm;wJh ocifoef;xGef;[m tdENd,
rSm&SdaewJh ocifodef;azrSwqifh (zwyv) taeeJ@ Force 136 (t*FvdyfwyfzGJΠ136) eJ@ tquf
toG,f w&m;0if&&Sdvmygw,f? ‘zwyv’ taeeJ@ tdENd,a&muf ocifodef;azeJ@ 0dkif,mvuf
tquftoG,f vkyEf ikd v
f movdk Force 136 eJ@ zwyv wd@k wywf (2) }udrf 0dik ,
f mvuf qufo,
G f
a&; yHkrSefvkyfEkdifvmcJhw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

33

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

zwyv tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;&JŒ ‘e,fcsŒJ zufqpf'jr *syefv±l ikd ;f rsm;udak rmif;xkw=f u’ qkw
d ahJ =unm
pmwrf; trSwf (1) udk v#KdŒ0Suf+yD; xkwfjyefjzef@jzL;vdkufygw,f?
*syefawG 0ifvmpuwnf;u ajratmufawmfvSefa&; enf;emawGeJ@ zufqpfqef@usifa&;
vkyif ef;awGvyk af ecJw
h hJ uGejf rLepfygwaD =umifh oabmw&m;a&;0g'jzef@csad &; ynmay;a&;awG twdik ;f
twmwcktxd jynfhpHkae+yD;jzpfygw,f? ta&;}uD;vSwJh ajymufusm;tajccHa'o azmfxkwfa&;eJ@
ajymufusm;wyfzGJŒawG zGJŒpnf;a&;udkvnf; jyifqifEdkifcJh+yD; vdktyfwJh ppfoifwef;rsm;udkvnf;
aus;vuf awm&Gm a'oawmfawmfrsm;rsm;txd pnf;±Hk;ydk@csxm;Ekdif+yD;jzpfygw,f?
'Dvkd a&&Snaf jratmufawmfveS af &; enf;emawGe@J vkyu
f ikd af qmif&u
G &f wma=umifh awmfveS f
a&; rqifEEJ$ ikd af o;rDtcsed t
f wGi;f rSmudk ay;cJ&h wJh t&if;tES;D awGvnf;&Scd yhJ gw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepf
ygwD0if &JabmfcspfwD; (ac: ) &Jabmfodef;wef (ppfudkif;) (Adkvfrª;}uD;apmjrifh&JŒtudk&if;) [m *syef
uifaywdik af wG&ŒJ tzrf;cH&+yD; n‡O;f yrf;ESyd pf ufrr_ sK;d pHu
k kd owW&d &dS &dS ifqikd &f if;/ ppfuikd ;f wHwm;}uD;ay:rSm/
*syef"m;csufatmufrSm {&m0wDjrpf}uD;twGif; vnfjywf+yD; acgif;uscJh&ygw,f? &uf&ufpufpuf
towfccH &hJ ygw,f? 1942 ckEpS t
f wGi;f rSmyg? *syefqef@usiaf &;v_y&f mS ;r_awGa=umifh tapmqH;k zrf;qD;
cH&olawGxrJ mS ocifausmpf ed /f ocifazaX;/ ocifjroef;/ q&m&m*sef wd@k vnf; ygcyhJ gw,f? olw@kd [m
vnf; uGejf rLepfawGjzpfcyhJ gw,f? awmifi/l jzL; ocifoef;azvnf; &uf&ufpufpuf tESyd pf ufccH &hJ w,f?
1944 ckESpf/ pufwifbm/ atmufwdkbmvxJrSm ocifoef;xGef;&JΠpepfwus tpDtpOfeJ@
±kyfjy0ifvkyfaewJh 0ef}uD;qdkwJh tumtuG,feJ@ ocifAdkvf/ ref;0if;armifwdk@OD;aqmifwJh rsKd;cspf&Jabmf
wodkufudk ppfynmavhvmzdk@ awmfvSefa&;vkyfief;awGvkyfaqmifzdk@ tdENd,EdkifiH ocifodef;azqD
v$wEf ikd cf yhJ gw,f? u&ifrsK;d cspw
f a,mufvnf;jzpf wd;k wufwt
hJ jrif&o
dS v
l nf;jzpfwhJ ref;0if;armif[m
ocifoef;xGef;udk,fwdkif arG;jrLa&G;cs,fcJhwmyg? txufArmjynfwdkif;rª;jzpfwJh Adkvfrª;Axl;eJ@ ocif
oef;xGe;f csw
d q
f ufrrd d pDpOf+yD; tdE,
dN yd@k a&;udk wokw+f yD;wokwf pDpOfaqmif&u
G Ef ikd cf yhJ gw,f? Adv
k rf ;ª
cspaf umif;/ Adv
k t
f ;kH armif/ OD;ausm&f if (aemif ygarmuQO;D ausm&f if) wd@k [m tJ'v
D ekd nf;eJ@ tdE,
dN a&muf
cJ=h uwJo
h al wGyg? &cdik Af v
kd !
f x
kd eG ;f wd@k tzGŒJ ryg/ tm;vH;k (30) &Sw
d ,fqykd gw,f? 'D&aJ bmfawG[m aemif
(avxD;) &JabmfawGvdk@ trnfxif&Sm;vmcJh=uygw,f? Armjynfordkif;rSm ta&;ygolawGjzpfcJh=uyg
w,f? trsm;pk}uD;[m uGefjrLepfawGjzpf=uygw,f?
pufwifbmvxJrSmyJ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf;/ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvf&JxGËfwdk@ a';'&JudkoGm;+yD;
zwyv}uD;&JŒ EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif ocifpdk;eJ@ awGŒ=u+yD; pnf;±Hk;a&;qdkif&m tao;pdwfvkyfief;awG
xyfnEd‡ id_ ;f aqG;aEG;jzpf=uygw,f? atmufwb
kd mvxJrmS Adv
k af tmif}uD;/ Adv
k af rmifarmif/ ocifcspef @J
&efukefbaqGwdk@ ocifpdk;eJ@ v#KdŒ0SufawGŒqHk=uum uGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD/ wyfr
awmfw@kd wygww
D nf;tjzpfy;l aygi;f +y;D ‘awmfveS af &;wyfO;D ’ zGŒJ =ujyefygw,f? zwyv}u;D [m v#KŒd 0Suf
trsKd;om; wyfaygif;pktzGJ@csKyf}uD;tjzpf ajcvSrf;&Sd&Sd ouf0ifv_yf&Sm;aeyg+yD?
1944 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvxJrSm *syefudk qef@usifwdkufcdkufwJh vufawGŒwdkufyGJawGuawmh
&cdkifwdkif;rSm pwifay:aygufvmygw,f? &cdkifwdkif;[m yx0Dtaetxm;t& r[mrdwf+Adwdo#awG
tckdiftrmwyfcsxm;wJh tdENd,eJ@ e,fedrdwfcsif;qufpyfae+yD; zufqpfawmfvSefa&;twGuf 1942
ckESpf ESpfv,favmufuxJu ocifodef;az/ ocifwifa&$wdk@ tdENd,rul;cif ocifpdk;/ ocifwifjrwdk@
34

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

rif;jym;bufa&mufvm&if;/ tapmqHk; pnf;±Hk;jyifqifcJh=uovdk Adkvf&efatmifwdk@ a&mufvmawmh
vnf; pnf;±Hk;a&;vkyfcJh±Hkru vufeufwcsKdŒeJ@ &HyHkaiGawGyg ay;tyfxm;cJhwJh wdkif;jzpfygw,f? &cdkif
wd@k Armqif;&Jom; tpnf;t±H;k acgi;f aqmifawG[m ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J tquftoG,,
f x
l m;
=u+yD; AkHaygufomausmf/ udkvSausmfwdk@[m jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwDeJ@ qufoG,fxm;=uygw,f?
OD;!dkxGef;/ OD;ausmfjr/ OD;bpH/ OD;pdE Wm/ OD;ynmoD[/ OD;atmifomOD;/ OD;ausmf&ifwdk@[m &cdkifawmf
vSefa&;acgif;aqmifawGjzpfygw,f? zwyv eJ@ qufoG,fvkyfudkifae=uolawGvnf;jzpf=uygw,f?
r[mrdwaf wGbufuvnf; ArmjynfppfrsuEf mS zGizhf @kd yxrqH;k wdu
k o
f ifw
h w
hJ ikd ;f vd@k owfrw
S f
xm;+yD;/ 1944 tukefrSm ppfawGc±dkif ar,k/ ukvm;wefjrpfzsm;teD;rSm&SdwJh *syefawGudk pwifxkd;
ppfqifygw,f? r[mrdwfawG ukvm;wefjrpfzsm;teD;rSm&SdwJh *syefawGudk pwifxdk;ppfqifygw,f?
r[mrdwaf wG ukvm;wefjrpfjzwfrul;Edik cf if Adv
k =f umvSatmif acgi;f aqmifwhJ &cdik u
f muG,af &;wyf
awGu *syefudk aoewfajymif;vSnf+yD; wdkufygw,f? &cdkifzufqpfawmfvSefa&;eJ@ acgif;aqmiftjzpf
wm0ef,lxm;wJh Adkvf!dkxGef;[m r[mrdwf (136) acgif;aqmif ar*smu±l;eJ@twl avxD;óudqif;
a&muf&Sdae+yDjzpfygw,f? Adkvf=umvSatmifeJ@aygif;rd+yD; wyfopfawGzGJŒvdkuf=uygw,f? OD;pdE WmeJ@
AHkaygufomausmf wdk@udk rif;jym;bufrSm avxD;eJ@csay;+yD; vdkif;,if; (LION) tzGJŒemrnfeJ@
wdkuf=uygw,f? ausmufjzLbufrSmvnf; ocifodef;azv$wfvdkufwJh OD;bapmwdk@tzGJŒ[m 1945
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DrSm avxD;eJ@qif;Edkifvm+yD;jzpfygw,f? oHwGJudkwm0ef,l&wJh OD;ausmf&ifu &efukef
ajymif;wm0ef,l&vdk@ ol@vufatmuf usefvlrsm;u qufwm0ef,l=uygw,f? azazmf0g&DvrSm
rif;jym;/ ajryHkbufrSm wdkufyGJawG wdkufyGJawG pdyfvmyg+yD?
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;udk wjynfvHk;qifE$Jzdk@ aemufqHk;awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;qHk;jzwfr_awGvkyfzdk@
1945 ckESpf/ rwfvqef;rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tdrfrSm awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifawG v#KdŒ0SufawGŒqHk
aqG;aEG;=uygw,f? (3) &ufqufwdkuf npOfaqG;aEG;=u+yD;aemuf wjynfvHk;&JΠEdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif
ocifp;kd / wjynfv;kH ppfa&;acgi;f aqmif Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ wjynfv;kH &JΠEdik if jH cm;qufo,
G &f ;wm0efcH
ocifoef;xGe;f tjzpf owfrw
S +f yD;wJt
h jyif/ ppfwikd ;f }uD;awG owfrw
S cf aJG 0ydik ;f jcm;=u+yD; wdik ;f tvdu
k /f
a'otvdkuf EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif ppfa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;udkyg owfrSwfcGJa0 wm0efcsxm; zGJŒpnf;
vdkuf=uygw,f? t"dutm;jzifh wdkif;}uD; (7) wdkif;/ a'ooHk;ckcGJ+yD; wjynfvHk;twGuf zufqpfawmf
vSeaf &;}uD; qifEzJ$ @kd rwfv (27) ae@tjzpf owfrw
S v
f u
kd yf gw,f? ppfwikd ;f rsm;&JΠEdik if aH &;acgi;f aqmif
awG[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDucsnf;jzpf+yD; ppfa&;acgif;aqmifawG[m Armhwyfrawmfucsnf;
jzpfygw,f? wdkif;tvdkuf EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifawG[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfucsnf;jzpfygw,f? wdkif;
tvdu
k f Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmifawG[m ocifp;kd / ocifA[de;f / ocifcsp/f ocifAode;f wif/ ocifwifxeG ;f /
ocifwifjr/ udkpH!Gef@wkd@jzpf=u+yD; ppfa&;acgif;aqmifawG[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ Adkvfarmifarmif/
Adkvfapm=um'dk;/ Adkvfae0if;/ AdkvfausmfaZm/ AdkvfwifxGef;/ Adkvf&JxGËf/ AdkvfrSL;atmif/ AkdvfrSL;Axl;/
Akdvfcif!dk wdk@jzpf+yD; wdkif; (2)/ wdkif; (3) qufoG,fa&;wm0efcHu Akdvfvusfmjzpfygw,f? OD;AaqGeJ@
OD;ausmf+idrf; u &efukefwm0efcHjzpfygw,f?
&cdkifawmfvSefa&;orm;awG&JΠpGrf;yum;eJ@ 1944 ckESpf ESpfukefydkif;u pwifvdkufwJh zufqpf
awmfveS af &;atmifyaJG wGa=umif/h r[mrdww
f yfawG[m &cdik w
f ikd ;f udjk zwf+y;D ArmjynftwGi;f atmifjrif
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

35

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

pGm0ifa&mufvmEdkif+yDjzpfygw,f? rHk&GmeJ@ a&$bdkbuftxd r[mrdwfwyfawG xdk;ppfqifvmcJh+yDjzpfyg
w,f? AHk;=uJav,mOfawGeJ@ AHk;}uJwdkufcdkufvdkuf tajrmuf}uD;awG wifhum;awGeJ@yg ypfvdkuf wuf
vdkufeJ@ 0ifvmcJhygw,f? &efukefòrdŒudkvnf; r[mrdwfwyfu AHk;}uJwdkufcdkufwmawG tqufrjywf
vkyfvmygw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dvqef;ydkif;a&mufawmh txufArmjynf a&0ifwZ,fe,fbufrSm
*syefawGu a[mf0pfZm ajrjyifypftajrmuf}uD;awG jzef@cGJcsxm;+yD; t}uD;tus,f ckcHae=uwm
a=umifh/ r[mrdwfwyfawG a&SŒrqufwufEdkifjzpf=uygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u ppfudkif;e,frSm
‘ygwDwyf’ qdkwm&Sdygw,f? zufqpfqef@usifa&; awmfvSefa&;qifE$JEdkifa&;twGuf EdkifiHa&; ppfa&;
oifwef;ay;+yD; v#KŒd 0Supf mG zG@J pnf;xm;wJh ajymufusm;wyfjzpfygw,f? a'ocHawGuawmh ‘ygww
D yf’
vd@k yaJ c: =uygw,f? tJ'D ‘ygww
D yf’ rSmEkid if aH &;rSL;/ 'k Ekid if aH &;rSL;eJ@ ppfa&;wm0efc/H 'kppfa&;wm0efc&H dS
ygw,f? wyf&JŒ t"duyk*~dKvf (4) OD;yg? tifzmppfrsufESmudk ydk@ay;aewJh *syef&JŒ v#KdŒ0Sufaxmufydk@
pcef;xJu vufeufawGudkyg enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ &,lpkaqmif;wJhwm0efudkvnf; 'DwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;[m
tpDtpOf&&dS dS vkyu
f ikd af e=uygw,f? Adv
k rf LS ;Axl;eJ@vnf; csw
d q
f ufrrd d qufo,
G x
f m;ygw,f? Adv
k rf LS ;
Axl; uvnf; uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmif wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifwa,mufjzpfovdk/ ygwDwyfu ta&;
}uD;yk*K~ v
d f (4) OD;vH;k [mvnf; uGejf rLepfawGjzpf=uygw,f? &Jabmfvid_ /f Adv
k o
f rd ;f OD;/ Akv
d u
f siaf rmife@J
&JabmfjrifhaqG wdk@jzpfygw,f?
zufqpfqef@usiaf &;awmfveS af &;orm;awGukd ae&mray;csiaf yr,fh a&SŒrwufEikd f tcuftcJ
jzpfaewJh r[mrdww
f yfuwyfrLS ;[m ygww
D yfukd ‘aqG;aEG;n‡Ed id_ ;f &efwufvmyg’ vd@k ta=umif;=um;
ygw,f? tdE,
dN a&muf ocifoed ;f azeJ@ rH&k mG wm0efcu
H qufo,
G &f ef emrnfaygux
f m;wJw
h yfu Edik if H
a&;rSL; &Jabmfv_dif vdkufoGm;ygw,f? aqG;aEG;r_ tqifrajyjzpf+yD; &Jabmfv_difudk r[mrdwfwyfu
zrf;xm;vdkufygw,f? &Gmopf}uD;rSmcsKyfxm;vdkufygw,f? t*FvdyfawGu “ppfa&;udpPom aqG;aEG;
csiw
f m/ 'ga=umifh vufeuf&a&;udp/P yl;aygi;f wdu
k af &;udpaP wGukd ppfa&;wm0efcH vmaqG;aEG;yg” vd@k
xyfta=umif;=um;vmvd@k ppfa&;wm0efcH Adv
k o
f rd ;f OD;eJ@ 'kppfa&;wm0efcH Adv
k u
f siaf rmifw@kd xyfvu
kd f
oGm;=uygw,f? t*Fvyd w
f yfu ume,fwa,mufu vufcaH wGŒqHyk gw,f? ppfa&;wm0efcH ESpOf ;D u
*syefwyf&JΠwyfcsxm;yHkeJ@ axmufydk@pcef;awGta=umif; tao;pdwfajymjywJhtjyif ajryHkygqGJjyyg
w,f? t*Fvyd w
f yfume,fu *syefawG&w
dS hJ ppfuikd ;f awmif±;kd udk AH;k =uJ+yD;&Si;f vif;zd@k pDpOfxm;a=umif;
ajymjyvmwJhtwGuf/ ppfajy;'kuQonf jynfolvlxk odef;csD&SdaewJh ppfudkif;awmif±dk;udk AHk;r=uJzdk@
ta=umuftuef jiif;cHkaqG;aEG;&ygw,f? aemufqHk;rSm *syefuifaywdkif±Hk;&SdwJh usKdufvwfacsmifudk
om AHk;=uJzdk@ t*Fvdyfbufu tav#mhay;oGm;ygw,f? ppfa&;udpPawG aqG;aEG;=u&mrSm tqifajy
ae+yD; aemufqHk; ume,fu “cifAsm;wdk@ EdkifiHa&;&nf&G,fcsufubmvJ” vdk@ ar;w,fqdkygw,f?
ppfa&;wm0efcH Adkvfodrf;OD;eJ@ Adkvfusifarmifu “vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; csufcsif;&zdk@yJ” vdk@ ajzvdkuf=u
awmh/ ume,f}u;D u “wqifch si;f 'drk ed ,
D q
H kd awmfa&mayg’h vd@k tajym/ ‘'drk eD ,
D [
H m t*Fvyd &f ŒJ udv
k ekd yD ”J
vdk@wkef@jyefajymqdkvdkuf=uwJhtwGuf/ ume,f}uD; aqGŒaqGŒckef+yD; 0kef;ueJx&yfum a'goeJ@ }udrf;
armif;qJqdkygawmhw,f? +yD;awmh “rif;wdk@[m *syefppfAdkvfawGjzpfvdk@ ckcsdefup+yD; oHk@yef;tjzpf
zrf;vdu
k +f yD” wJ?h aemufrS ppfa&;wm0efcEH pS af ,muf odvu
kd &f wmu 'Dume,f}uD;[m +Adwo
d #tifyg
36

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

,mtwGi;f 'drk eD ,
D t
H qifeh @J yg0ifae&wJh =opa=w;vsEikd if o
H m;wOD; jzpfaew,fqw
kd mygy?J Adv
k o
f rd ;f OD;
eJ@ Adkvfusifarmifu aemufqHk; vufeuftjzpf tdENd,&Sd ocifodef;azwdk@qDydk@aeus pum;0Sufudk
xkwfoHk;ajymqdkayr,fh “pum;0Suf [kwfr[kwf txufwifjyr,f? ckawmhzrf;w,f” qdk+yD; a&$bdkeJ@
tke;f awm t=um;u qm;awmif&mG udk wef;yd@k vu
kd yf gw,f? ‘qm;awmif’ &Gmudak &muf+yD;aemufyikd ;f
“pum;0SufrSefw,f? 'gayrJh ppfAdkvfawGjzpfvdk@ ppfoHk@yef;yJ” qdk+yD;/ yg;udkufvdk@ em;udkufwJhoabm
npf+yD; qufcsKyfxm;vdu
k yf gw,f? ‘qm;awmif’ uae usm;rif;}uD;&Gmem;&Sd tcsKyfpcef;udk ae&ma&$Œ
+yD; ajymif;csKyfxm;ygw,f?‘ygwDwyf’ &JŒ ta&;}uD;yk*~dKvf (4) OD;rSm (3) OD;u tcsKyfcHae&yg+yD?
Adkvfodrf;OD;eJ@ Adkvfusifarmif[m ‘usm;rif;}uD;’ &Gmem;u tcsKyfpcef;rSm tcsKyfcHae&wkef;
tjyifxGuf acs;yHk; ao;yHk;oGefcGifht&rSm usefaecJhwJh 'kEkdifiHa&;rª;qD pmwapmifa&;+yD; ydk@vdkuf=uyg
w,f? “'dk@awmhtzrf;cHae&+yD vufeufapmifhraeeJ@ &SdwmeJ@yJwdkuf=u” qdkwJh ta=umif;=um;pmyg?
pmu 'k Edik if aH &;rSL;qD qdu
k q
f u
kd òf rduòf rduf a&mufomG ;ayr,fh 'kEikd if aH &;rSL;[m olŒzmom rqH;k jzwfEidk ?f
ppfudkif;u xwdkufwm rE Wav;uóudrod&if rE Wav;emEdkifwma&m/ wdkif;rSL;cGifhðycsuf&,lzdk@vdkwm
a&ma=umifhyg/ wdkif;rSL; AdkvfrSL;Axl;qD tpD&ifcHvdkufygw,f? Adkvfrª;Axl;eJ@ txufArmjynfqdkif&m
ygwaD cgi;f aqmifawG n‡Ed id_ ;f =u+yD; wnDw!Gww
f nf; qH;k jzwfcsucf svu
kd =f uygw,f? tJ'q
D ;kH jzwfcsuf
uawmh txufArmjynftaeeJ@ wwdkif;vHk; wdkufyGJ0if&r,fh (,-&uf) [m rwfv (8) &ufvdk@
owfrSwfvdkuf&jcif;yJjzpfygw,f?
'Dvdk owfrSwfvdkuf&wm&JΠwjcm;ta&;}uD;tcsuf wcsufuawmh r[mrdwfwyfawG[m
csi;f wGi;f udjk zwf+yD; rH&k mG bufu xd;k qif;vmr,fh ppfa=umif;wa=umif;/ a&$bv
kd iG jf yifujkd zwf+yD; a&$bkd
bufu xdk;qif;vmr,fh ppfa=umif;wa=umif;eJ@ ppfudkif;bufudk OD;wnfxdk;ppfqifvmae+yDjzpfwJh
twGuf/ r[mrdwfwyfawG ppfudkif;udk rodrf;ydkufEkdifrD ArmhawmfvSefa&;tiftm;pku awmfvSefa&;
pzdk@ vdktyfvmwmvJygygw,f?
wjynfvHk;twGuf owfrSwfxm;wJh rwfv (27) &ufae@rwdkifrD txufArmjynfwdkif;u
AdkvfrSL;Axl; acgif;aqmifwJh awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pk[m rwfv (8) &ufae@udk ajymif;vJowfrSwf+yD;
awmfvSefa&;udk apm+yD; qifvdkuf=u&ygw,f?
tJ'Drwfv (8) &ufae@nrSmyJ ppfudkif;ygwDwyfu 'kEdkifiHa&;rSL;&Jabmf[m ppfudkif;&JΠyxr
qH;k aom zufqpfqef@usiaf &; wku
d yf aJG c:oHukd vufypfA;kH eJ@ziG +hf yD; atmifjrifpmG pwifvu
kd Ef ikd yf gw,f?
*syefawG&JΠtajrmufpcef;udk vufypfAHk;awGudkyJ tqufrjywfoHk;+yD; &JabmfjrifhaqG acgif;aqmifwJh
awmfvSefa&;wyfu atmifjrifpGm odrf;ydkufvdkuf=uygw,f? tajrmufawGtm;vHk;udkvnf; zsufqD;
ypfvdkufEdkifygawmhw,f?
tJ'DusawmhrS zrf;qD;xm;wJh Adkvfodrf;OD;eJ@ Adkvfusifarmifudkvnf; r[mrdwfwyfu jyef
v$waf y;±Hrk u wyfcw
JG cGeJ @J ac:vmcJ=h uygw,f? um;oGm;r&wJah e&mrSm xrf;pifukd a0gvyk +f yD; ukvm;
ppfom;awGu xrf;yd;k yd@k =uw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? tJ'aD emuf ppfuikd ;f a'owckv;kH wdu
k yf aGJ wGe@J v#o
H mG ;
ygw,f? r[mrdwfwyfawGvnf; *syefawGr&SdawmhwJh ppfudkif;udk atmifjrifpGm 0ifa&mufvm=uyg
awmhw,f?
rwfv (8) &ufae@ukd awmfveS af &;&uftjzpf owfrw
S v
f u
kd &f +y;D Adv
k rf ª;Axl; ud,
k w
f ikd f wyfawG
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

37

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

jzef@csum *syefawGudk wdkufcdkuf&if; ausmufqnfbufqD xGufvkduf=uygw,f? wyftoD;oD;[m
rE aW v;òrdŒ vrf;ay:rSm/ r[mjrwfrek b
d &k m;}uD;tem;rSm/ &efuif;awmifajcw0du
k rf mS wdu
k yf aJG wGwu
kd f
cJ=h uygw,f? tcsed af pm+yD; qifEv
J$ u
kd &f wJt
h wGuf wjynfv;kH &JΠawmfveS af &;tpDtpOf rxdcu
kd &f av
atmif Adkvfrª;Axl; u “a'gufwmAarmfeJ@wuG AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; wdk@onf *syef±kyfao;rsm;jzpfae
onf? jynfolwdk@udk *syefzufqpfwdk@u ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;ae=uonfudk vufydkufIom =unfhae=u
onf? xdk@a=umifh olwdk@.acgif;aqmifr_udk r,Hk=unfawmhyJ jynfolŒtultnDjzifhom *syefudk
awmfvSefvdkuf+yD” qdkwJhoabmyg a=unmcsufudkvnf; xkwfjyefa=unmvkdufygw,f?
AdkvfAxl;&J@ *syefawmfvSefa&;owif;a=umihf &efukefrS *syefawG v_yfv_yf &Sm;&Sm;jzpfoGm;=u
ygw,f? AdkvfAxl; a=unmwJhtwdkif; “olŒpdwful;eJ@ol awmfvSefwmvm;/ ArmhwyfrawmfwckvHk;
awmfveS af &;a&SŒajy;vm;” qdw
k m ok;H oyf=uw,fqykd gw,f? *syefppfXmecsKyfu ArmhwyfrawmfwiG ;f
&Sd *syeft=uHay;t&m&SdcsKyf ar*sm*sife&,f q0grdkwdkeJ@ uDwm*sD;rm;wdk@u Armhwyfrawmf[m wkduf
&nfcdkuf&nf&Sdw,f? tpGrf;jycsifaew,f? 'ga=umifh Armhwyfrawmfudk vufeufodrf;r,fhtpm;
,Hk=unftm;ay;wJhtaeeJ@ vufeufcJ,rf;awmifxyfay;+yD; ppfrsufESmawGrSm edyGefwyfawGeJ@twl
,SOf wm0efay;oifhw,fvdk@ t=uHay;wifjy=uygw,f? *syefppfaoemywd vufzwifeif *sife&,f
u0gbDu tJ'Dtqdkudk vufcHvdkufygw,f?
awmfvSefa&;twGuf jyifqifxm;+yD;+yDjzpfwJh AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ Akdvfvusfm/ Adkvfae0if;/
AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvf&efEdkif/ Adkvfva&mif/ Akdvf&efatmif pwJh wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifawG[m tJ'DtcGifh
ta&;udk toH;k cs+yD; rwfv (17) &ufae@rmS a&$w*d b
kH &k m; taemufr'k f tqif;uGi;f jyif;rSm &efow
l u
kd f
zdk@ ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ Armhwyfrawmf ppfxGuftcrf;tem; usif;yygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u
teD;qH;k &efol a&G;wdu
k =f uqdw
k hJ t"dyg` ,yf gyg ppfxu
G rf ed @f ceG ;f ajym+yD; wyfawGukd tpDtpOf&&dS dS txGuf
cdkif;vdkufygawmhw,f? oludk,fwdkifvJ (22) &ufae@rSm aetdrfuxGuf+yD; owfrSwfxm;&mwyfqD
vdkufygoGm;ygawmhw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ rwfv (27) &ufae@rSm jynfvHk;u|wfordkif;0if zufqpfawmfvSef a&;}uD;udk
pwifqifE$Jvdkuf=uyg+yD?
t*Fvdyf zdk@136 eJ@ armifhbufwef&JΠppfXmecsKyfudkvnf; 0dkif,mvuftquftoG,feJ@
ta=umif;=um;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
ocifoef;xGe;f uvnf; olŒ&JŒ Edik if jH cm;qufo,
G af &;wm0efuykd g xrf;aqmif&if; ocifA[de;f /
ocifoef;azwkd@eJ@twl awmifilc±dkifbufrSm awmwGif;ajymufusm;wyfzGJŒrsm;udk OD;pD;um zufqpf
awmfvSefa&; wdkufyGJawG=um; udk,fwdkifudk,fus yg0ifqifE$Jygawmhw,f?
u&iftrsKd;om;rsm;[mvnf; zufqpf*syefqef@usifa&;wdkufyGJtwGif; zwyv }uD;eJ@twl
wufwufºuGºuG yg0ifcJh=uygw,f? woD;yk*~vtjzpf yg0ifcJh=uolawGvnf; trsm;}uD;yg? jynfolvl
xkw&yfv;kH yg0ifc=hJ uwJh jynfv;kH u|wv
f uQ%maqmifwhJ *k%af jymifwhJ zufqpfawmfveS af &;}uD;[m
Armjynfordkif;rSm ta&;}uD;wJh tvSnfhtajymif;}uD;wckvJyJ jzpfygw,f?
zufqpfawmfvSefa&; tiftm;pktm;vHk;udk ‘zwyv’qdkwJh wpkwpnf;wnf;aom trsKd;
om;wyfaygif;pktzGJŒcsKyf}uD;tjzpf tcdkiftrmwnfaqmuf+yD; zufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD;udk tus,f
38

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jyef@qHk; qifE$JcJh=uwmjzpfygw,f? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD; qifE$JpOfrSm zufqpfawmfvSefa&;atmif
vHawmftjzpf owfowfrw
S rf w
S f toH;k ðycJ=h uwmu teDa&mifatmufcaH y:rSm =u,fjzLwyGihf tvH
awmfjzpfygw,f? ArmjynfzufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD;[m urBmhzufqpfawmfvSefa&;&JΠtpdwftydkif;
w&yftjzpfvnf; *k%f,lp&mjzpfcJhygw,f? r[mrdwfwyfrsm;eJ@ ajcvSrf;&Sd&Sd yl;aygif;wdkufyGJqifEdkif±Hk
ru/ r[mrdww
f yfrsm;ud,
k w
f ikd u
f tH=h o& rSww
f rf;wif&avmufatmif &Gy&f yG cf |ecf |ef wdu
k yf q
JG ifEikd f
cJhygw,f? vufawGŒppfajrjyifrSm Armhwyfrawmf[m rsKd;cspfArmhwyfrawmftjzpf wdkufpGrf;&nfudk
jyEkdifcJhovdk Armjynf te,fe,ft&yf&yfu ajymufusm;wyfzGJŒrsm;/ ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifA[def;/
ocifoef;azwdk@ OD;pD;wJh jzL;/ awmifil/ ±dk;rwa=umu &Jacgifajymufusm;rsm;[mvnf; zufqpf*syef
awGudk pHcsdefwif&avmufatmif rsKd;ðzwfacsr_ef; okwfoifwdkufyGJqifEdkifcJhygw,f?
avxD;&JabmfawGuvnf; owfrw
S x
f m;&m awmfveS af &;a'otwGi;f r[mrdww
f yfawGe@J
twlqif;+y;D wdu
k yf 0JG ifEidk cf =hJ uygw,f? ArmjynfppfajrjyiftwGi;f ar*sm *sief &,fpvif;&JΠ'D0ZD H (14)
wyfrsm;/ ar*sm*sief &,f0if;*dw&f ŒJ wyfrsm;/ tar&duef txl;wyfzŒJG acgi;f aqmif ume,fr&J &D ŒJ wyfzŒJG
rsm;/ tar&duef *sife&,fpwD;0Jvf&JŒwyfrsm;/ tdENd,wyfrsm;/ w±kwfwyfrsm;/ zdk@(136) wyfzGJŒrsm;
yg0ifwdkufcdkufcJh=uygw,f? t*Fvdyfrsm;[m ava=umif;uvnf; t}uD;tus,f AHk;}uJwdkufcdkufwm
awGvkyfcJhygw,f?
*syefawmfveS af &;tprSm *syefawG&ŒJ zrf;qD;jcif;cHvu
kd &f wJh OD;AaqG vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf
vHk;yef;tm;xkwfzdk@ wm0efus&m wdkif; (3) udk rvkdufEdkifawmhwJh OD;ausmf+idrf;[m &efukefrSmyJ vSnfh
vnfa&Smifwdrf;&if; &efukefwm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifygw,f?
*syefrsm;[m {+yDv (23) &ufae@rSm t"dywda'gufwmAarmftpdk;&tzGJŒudk ac: +yD; &efukef
òrŒd uae qkwcf mG ygw,f? a'guw
f mAarmfe@J twl vdu
k o
f mG ;=u&olawGuawmh ocifjr/ ocifE/k AE<Kv
OD;pdef/ OD;xGef;atmif/ Adkvf&efEkdifeJ@ a'gufwmb[efwdk@ wawG jzpfygw,f? *syefawGu &efukefuae
qkwfcGm+yD; armfvòrdifrSm ±Hk;pkduf/ aemuf rk'Hkajymif;±Hk;pdkuf&if; qkwfcGmygw,f? rk'Hkta&mufrSmawmh
ocifjr/ ocifEkwdk@ aomifwifusef&pfcJh+yD; a'gufwmAarmfom *syefjynftxd ygoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ {+yDv (30) &ufrSm rsKd;cspfwyfrawmfu &efukefudk pwif0ifa&mufygw,f?
t*Fvdyfwyfu arv (3) &ufrS &efukefudk 0ifa&mufvmEdkifayr,fh/ olwdk@odrf;wmtjzpf tom;,l
a=unmygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm *syefeJ@wdkufyGJawGuawmh t}uD;tus,f qifEJ$ae&qJjzpfygw,f? jynf
olŒta&;awmfyHkygwDu “ArmhawmfvSefa&;wyfrawmfu &efukefòrdŒudk xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufxm;+yD
jzpfa=umif;/ òrdŒolòrdŒom;tm;vHk;. vHkòcHa&;twGuf wm0ef,la=umif;” a=unmcsufxkwfygw,f?
Akv
d af e0if;[m arv (6) &ufae@rS jrpf0u|e;f ay:wyfrsm;udk Akv
d w
f ifazxHtyfE+HS y;D &efuek u
f q
kd if;vm
wmjzpfayr,fh Adkvfae0if;wynfhausmf Akdvfatmif}uD;u Adkvfae0if;eHrnfeJ@ &efukefòrdŒudk Armhwyfr
awmfu odrf;ydkufvdkufa=umif; a=unmcsufudk Armvdk t*Fvdyfvdk (2) bmom eJ@arv (7) &ufae@
ae@pGJeJ@ vufjrefajcjrefvkyf+yD; urBmudk a=unmygw,f? t*Fvdyfvdkbmomjyefcsufudkawmh *sme,f
ausmfOD;cspfarmifeJ@ OD;cifarmifvwfwdk@u jyefqdka&;om;ay;&w,fvdk@qdkygw,f? ‘&efukef tprf;
toHvi$ ±hf ’kH vd@k trnfwyf+yD; toHvi$ Xhf me ,m,DziG +fh yD; a=unmvdu
k w
f hJ tJ't
D oHvi$ ahf =unmcsuf
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

39

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

udk tdENd,a&'D,dkeJ@ bDbDpD toHv$ifhXmeawGuwqifh xyfqifh toHv$ifhay;vdkufwma=umifh urBmh
udka=unm+yD;jzpfoGm;ygw,f? Akdvfatmif}uD;&JΠAdkvfae0if; od'<dwifay;csufjzpfygw,f?
tJ'v
D dk zufqpfawmfveS af &;umv}uD;twGi;f rSm awmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;=um;rSm/ txl;
ojzifh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwD=um;rSm EkdifiHa&;t,ltqESpfck jzpfay:
uGJjym;vmjyefygw,f?
wcku “zufqpfwdk@udk tºuGif;rJhwkdufcdkufacsr_ef;a&;onfomy"me/ zufqpf wdk@udk
tjywftowf wdkufcdkufEkdifwmeJ@tr# t*Fvdyfwdk@eJ@ vGwfvyfa&;twGuf pm&if;&Sif;&mrSm
+idrf;csrf;pGm+yD;pD;Ekdifvdrhfr,f” jzpf+yD; tjcm;wckuæ
“zufqpfw@kd ukd tºuGi;f rJw
h u
kd cf u
kd af csre_ ;f a&;[m y"mer[kw/f olw@kd um; ±_;H zd@k aocsmae+yD?
udk,fhtm;udk,fðzef;wD;ovdk vkyfzkd@rvdk? jyefvmr,fh t*Fvdyfe,fcsJŒudk ckcHwdkufcdkufa&;om y"me/
xkdwdkufyGJtwGufom óudwifjyifqifxm;&r,f” qdkwmjzpfygw,f?
t,ltqESpcf k jyif;xefvmwJt
h cg wzufu avmavmq,f wdu
k x
f w
k &f r,fh *syefukd wdu
k f
rxkwfyJ rvmao;wJh t*Fvdyfudkjyefcszdk@ vufeufpkxm;&r,f ajymaeolawG[m um,uHajrmuf
tm;jzifh *syefolv#KdŒ? *syefudk rwdkuf&Jvdk@ a&Smifae&ef qifajcay;jcif;vdk@jrifovdk/ wzufuvnf;
t*Fvdyfvufu +idrf;csrf;pGmvGwfvyfa&;&,lEdkifw,fajymum *syefudkwdkufxkwfa&;wckwnf; rJae
olawG[m t*Fvdyfudk vufeufcst±_H;ay;r,fholawGjzpfw,f/ t*Fvdyfudk vufeufcst±_H;ay;r,fh
olawGvdk@ pGyfpGJajymqdk=uygw,f?
*syefawGqkwfcGmoGm;&vdk@ &efukefòrdŒay:udk EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifawG awmfawmfrsm;rsm;
a&mufvm=uygw,f? t*Fvdyfppfwyfu *sife&,fcsdef;Am; (General Chambers) uvJ &efukefòrdŒudk
ppftkyfcsKyfa&; tm%mydkiftjzpf olu tkyfcsKyf&vdrfhr,fvdk@ w&m;0ef}uD;a[mif; OD;jrbl;/ OD;bOD;wdk@
a&SŒrSm a=unmajymqdkvmygw,f?
urBmrSm qkdAD,ufwyfeDawmf&JΠtifrwef}uD;us,fwJh wkdufyGJatmifyGJ owif;awGa=umifh
qdkAD,uf,leD,H[m EdkifiHwumjynfolrsm;=um; *k%foduQm}uD;rm;vmcJhovdk/ ArmjynfrSmvnf;
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m jynfolawG=um; *k%ftwufqHk;tcsdefjzpfvmcJhygw,f? ArmjynfrSm
*syefzufqpfawGudk wdkufypf&r,fvdk@ pjrifcJhwm[m uGefjrLepfawGjzpfcJh+yD;/ wdkufyGJawGtwGif;rSm
vnf; &Gyf&Gyfc|efc|efwkdufjycJh=uEkdifawmh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkawG=um;
=oZmt&Sdef}uD;rm;vmcJhygw,f?
‘awmfvSefa&;wyfOD;’ uae wygwDwnf;jzpfa&; aqG;aEG;=uwJhtcg uGefjrLepfygwDu
jynfolŒta&;awmfyHkygwDacgif;aqmifwpkudk wygwDwnf;jzpfcsif&if uGefjrLepfygwDwGif;odk@ jynfolŒ
ta&;awmfyHkygwD0ifrsm; wOD;csif;0if=uzdk@eJ@ ocifcspf/ ocifAaqG (OD;AaqG) wdk@udk vufcHEdkifayr,fh
OD;ausmf+idrf;udkawmh vufrcHEkdifbl;vdk@qkdowJh? aemufqHk;rSm wygwDwnf; rjzpfEkdifawmhyJ ysufoGm;
cJhygw,f?
*syefawmfvSefa&;+yD;&if EdkifiHa&;wdkufyGJawG[m ta&;}uD;vmawmhr,fvdk@ jrifwmu
wa=umif;/ wav#mufvHk; ajratmuftjzpfeJ@ &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;vm&wmuae w&m;0ifvlxk=um;
&yfwnfv_yf&Sm;vmEdkifwmudku }uD;us,fwJhatmifyJGwckjzpfw,fvdk@ odjrifcH,lvdkufwma=umifhyg/
40

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

1945 ckESpf/ arv (3) &ufae@rSm &efukefòrdŒ Am;u&mvrf;rSm ‘ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD’ qdkwJh
qdkif;bkwfudk uGefjrLepfygwDu w&m;0ifwifvdkufygawmhw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwD&JŒt&Sdef[m tifrwef}uD;cJhovdk uGefjrLepfygwDwGif; 0ifvdkolawGvnf;
tvGerf sm;wJu
h mvyg? ArmjynfrmS xif&mS ;wJh Ekid if aH &;acgi;f aqmifreS o
f r# uGejf rLepf0g'eJ@ ywfouf
cJh=ubl;ovdk uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@vnf; ywfouf,SufEG,fcJh=uzl;ygw,f? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifawGxJrSm
qdk&if Akdvf&efatmif/ Adkvfvusfm/ AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvf&JxGÉf/ AdkvfausmfaZm/ Adkvfva&mif/ Adkvfwm&m
pwJholawG[m uGefjrLepfygwD0if awGjzpfcJh=uygw,f? Adkvfae0if;awmif uGefjrLepfygwD0iftjzpf
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;umvtwGif;rSm ocifpdk;qD tqdkðycJhzl;ygw,f? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifr[kwfwJh
AdkvfawGxJrSmqkd&ifvnf; AdkvfAxl;/ AkdvftmVm0u wdk@utp Adkvfcspfaumif; (AdkvfrSL;cspfaumif;)/
Adkvfyk/ Adkvfoef;a&$/ Akdvf&J'if/ Akdvfrif;'if/ oHr%dAdkvfarmifarmif/ Adkvfodef;wef/ Adkvfatmifrif;/
Adv
k rf sK;d jrif/h Adv
k af t;aiG/ Akv
d af tmifaz/ Adv
k w
f u
kd af tmif/ Adv
k t
f ;kH armif (avxD;) wd@k awG[m uGejf rLepf
ygw0D ifawGyg? Adv
k pf aH iG (OD;cspv
f id_ f rqv A[dEk ikd if aH &;wuUov
kd af usmif;tky}f uD;) vnf; uGejf rLepfyg
wD0ifczhJ ;l ovd/k Adv
k af omif;'ef (umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf-av) wd@k vnf; uGejf rLepfygweD @J ywfoufc=hJ u
zl;ygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygwu
D ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwq
D ikd ;f bkwu
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kd w
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tcg OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;AaqGwdk@uvvnf; ocifjrudk OuUÏ tjzpfwifajr‡muf+yD; jynfolta&;awmfyHk
ygwDtpk0ifrsm;udk pkpnf;um ‘Armjynfqdk&S,fvpfygwD’ qdkif;bkwfudk ra&S;raESmif;wifzdk@ óud;pm;
tm;xkwfvm=uygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ Armjynfqdk&S,fvpfygwD tòydiftqdkif wnf&Sdvmyg+yD? Armjynf
uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ acgi;f aqmifawGtjzpf vlx=k um;xif&mS ;vmwmu ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f / ocif
odef;az (odef;azjrifh)/ ocifA[def;/ ocifAodef;wif/ &Jabmfbwif ac: *dk&S,f/ ocifoef;òrdif/ ocif
oef;az (awmifil)/ ocifZif/ ocifwifxGef;/ ocifjroGif/ ocifwifjrwdk@ jzpf=uygw,f?
Armjynfqdk&S,fvpfygwD&JŒ acgif;aqmifawGtjzpf wufwufºuGºuG v_yf&Sm;ay:vGifvm
wmu OD;ausm+f idr;f / OD;AaqG/ OD;udu
k }kd uD; (aemif-ode;f av;q,fuu
kd }kd uD;)/ ocifwif/ ocifausm'f eG ;f /
OD;vSarmif/ Adkvfcifarmifav;/ &efukefAaqGwdk@ jzpf=uygw,f? Akdvfae0if;/ Akdvfarmifarmif/ Adkvf
atmif}uD;/ bHkaygufomausmfwkd@vnf; acgif;aqmifawGtjzpf yg0ifvm=uygw,f// uGefjrLepfygwDu
rmhufpfvDeif0g'udk vrf;!¸eftbd"rRmtjzpf twdtvif;cH,lusihfoHk;+yD; tvkyform;vlwef;pm;&JŒ
wyfOD;ygwDtjzpf tcdkiftrm &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;ygw,f?
‘qdk&S,fvpfygwD’ uawmh &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; wdwdyy cH,lxm;wm rawGŒ&yJ qdk&S,fvpfa&;
&nfrSef;csufawGudk aºuG;a=umfae=uwmawmhawGŒ&ygw,f?
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D rmhuv
f eD if0g' oabmw&m;oifwef;awGay;+yD;/ qdAk ,
D uf,el ,
D H
uGefjrLepfygwD (abmfvf&SDApf) orkdif;tusOf;csKyfudkydk@cs&if/ qkd&S,fvpfygwDuvnf; qdkAD,uf,leD,H
(abmfvf&SDApf) ordkif;tusOf;csKyfudkyJ r&&atmif&Sm+yD; oifwef;ydk@csw,fvdk@qdkygw,f?
Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkawGt=um; pnf;±H;k a&;eJ h wyfrawmfwiG ;f pnf;±H;k a&;yg tòyid t
f qdik f pnf;±H;k
v_yf&Sm;=uygw,f? jynfol@ta&;awmfyHkygwD&JΠta&;}uD;acgif;aqmif (&JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifjzpf=ur,fh
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

41

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

yk*~dKvfawGudk *syefydk@a&;udpP aqmif&GufcJhwJh t"duacgif;aqmif) ocifcspfuawmh qdk&S,fvpfyg
wDbufrSmraeyJ ArmuGefjrLepfygwDbuf w&m;0ifa&mufvmcJhygw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ arv (17) &ufae@rSm qif;rvm;pDrHudef;ac: puULjzLpDrHudef; xGufay:vmyg
w,f? *syefawGt0ifrSm e,fcsJŒt*Fvdyfwdk@eJ@twl vdkufygxGufajy;oGm;+yD; tdENd,EkdifiH ‘qif;rvm;’
òrdŒrSm ±Hk;pdkufaecJhwJh qif;rvm;tpdk;& (Armjynfppfajy; tpdk;&) u a&;qGJcJhwJh pDrHudef;jzpfygw,f?
('kwd,urBmppf}uD;+yD;&if/ usifhokH;zdk@ +Adwdo#ygvDrefudk wifjytwnfðycsuf&,lxm;+yD; jzpfw,fqdk
wJh) 'DpuULjzLpDrHudef;&JŒ tcsKyfoabmuawmh Armjynfudk t*Fvdyfu qufvufu|efðyxm;a&;jzpf
ygw,f?
t*FvdyfwyfawG[m olwkd@odrf;ydkufxm;or# ae&ma'oawGtm;vHk;rSm ppfbufqkdif&m
òrdŒjytkyfcsKyfa&;udk xlaxmifxm;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? ArmEdkifiHqdkif&m òrdŒjytkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJŒawGudk
t*Fvdyfvdk (Civil Affairs Service Burma) vdk@ac:ygw,f? twdkaumuf CASB jzpfwma=umifh
uufpbDtkyfcsKyfa&;vdk@ac:ygw,f? uufpbDtkyfcsKyfa&;udk +Adwdo#AdkvfcsKyf ‘[l;bwf&ef@’ u OD;pD;
tkyfcsKyfygw,f? 1944 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D (1) &ufup+yD;/ uufpbDudk/ ta&SŒawmiftm&Sqkdif&m r[m
rdwfwyfrsm;&JΠaoemywd armifhbufwefvufatmufrSm v$Jajymif;+yD;/ r[mrdwfwyfrsm;&JΠvuf
eufudkifwyfawG tcdkiftrm&Sdaeovdk/ wzufu zwyvtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;eJ@ ArmvufeufudkifwyfawG
vnf; wnf&Sdaeygw,f? 1945 ckESpf/ arvukefrSm ta&;}uD; EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmiftm;vHk; &efukefudk
jyefvnfa&muf&v
dS m=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? zufqpfawmfveS af &;wdu
k yf aJG wGuawmh a'oawmfawmfrsm;
rsm;rSm qufqifEaJG e&qJjzpfygw,f? weoFm&Dwikd ;f wwdik ;f vH;k [m zufqpfatmufrmS yJ &Sad eygao;
w,f? *syefrsm;[m ppfawmif;jrpf ta&SŒbufurf;wav#muf cHppfa=umif;rsm; wnfaqmuf+yD;
acgi;f rmrm wdu
k cf u
kd =f uqJjzpfygw,f? yJc;l ±d;k rawmifwef;eJ@ awmtkyaf wGtwGi;f pk±;kH rdaewJh trSwf
(28) *syefwyfr}uD;&JΠ*syefwyfom;rsm;[m r[mrdwfwyfr}uD;rsm;eJ@ ArmzufqpfawmfvSefa&;
tiftm;pkawG ydwq
f @kd xm;wJh &efuek -f rE aW v; vrf;r}uD;twdik ;f twif;xd;k azmuf+yD; ppfawmif;jrpf
ta&SŒbufurf;qD jzwful;Edkifzdk@ óud;pm;ae=uqJ jzpfygw,f?
1945 ckEpS /f ZGev
f xJrmS +Adwo
d #vufeufuikd w
f yfrsm;&JŒ aoemywd/ ta&SŒawmift&Sqikd &f m
r[mrdwfwyfrsm;&JΠppfaoemywdcsKyf armifhbufwef[m t&yf&yftajctaersm;udk ppfaq;avh
vmzd@k &efuek òf rdŒudk a&mufvmygw,f? ZGev
f (16) &ufae@rmS Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f wd@k
eJ@ awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;ygw,f? t"du aqG;aEG;wmu ArmvufeufudkifwyfawG&JŒ tem*wfta&;jzpfyg
w,f?
1945 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (20) &ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ygwD&JΠ'kwd,t}udrf
uGef*&ufudkusif;yw,f? ocifoef;xGef;u obmywdtjzpfaqmif&Guf+yD; usif;yygw,f? udk,fpm;
vS,feJ@ {nfhonfaygif; (200) ausmfavmuf wufa&muf=u+yD;/ olŒrdef@cGef;xJrSm zufqpfwdkufzsuf
a&;eJ@ jyefvnfxal xmifa&; tvky}f uD; (2) ck&w
dS ,fqw
kd mudk tav;wifazmfjyoGm;&if; 'Dtvky}f uD;
ESpfckudk +yD;atmifvkyfzdk@ ‘trsKd;om;tpdk;&’ w&yfvdkw,f? trsKd;om;tpdk;&w&yfay:aygufzdk@ ppftkyf
csKyfa&; tjrefqHk;&yfpJzdk@ vdkw,fqdkwm &Sif;jyygw,f? (1) ppftkyfcsKyfa&;tjref&yfpJzdk@/ (2) ,m,D
trsK;d om;tpd;k &zGŒJ pnf;/ a&G;aumufyt
JG jrefq;kH usi;f y+y;D wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf}u;D ac: zd@k / (3) wdik ;f ðy
42

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jynfðyv$wfawmf}uD;u ArmEdkifiHtkyfcsKyfa&; a&;qGJzdk@qdkwmudk xkwfazmf&Sif;vif;oGm;w,f? taxG
axGtwGi;f a&;rª; ocifp;kd u ‘Edik if aH &;vkyif ef;pOf’ udk zwf=um;wifoiG ;f ygw,f? uGejf rLepfygw[
D m
wdik ;f &if;om;"e&Sirf sm;eJ@ yl;aygi;f +yD; vGwv
f yfa&;vkyif ef;udk aqmif&u
G &f mrSm b,fawmhrS rpGe@f vw
$ f
tyfwhJ tcsuf (3) csuu
f kd twGi;f a&;rª; tpD&ifcpH mxJrmS azmfjyoGm;ygw,f? tJ'guawmh (1) uGejf rL
epfygwD oD;jcm;xlaxmifciG &fh jdS cif;/ (2) tvkyo
f rm;/ v,form;rsm;tusK;d twGuf pnf;±H;k &mrSm uGejf rL
epfygwu
D kd "e&Sirf sm;u taESmuft,Surf ay;a&;/ (3) vlrsK;d a&;nD!w
G rf t
_ wGuf xlaxmifxm;aom
tzGJŒcsKyfwGif tvkyform; v,form;wdk@udk,fpm; uGefjrLepfygwDu vGwfvyfpGm a0zefcGifh&Sdjcif;wdk@
jzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JΠ'kwd,uGef*&ufudk (20) &ufuae (27) &ufae@txd usif;yyg
w,f? usif;yaewJhumvtwGif; Zlvdkif (26) &ufae@rSm t*Fvefa&G;aumufyGJrSm ‘tufwvD’
acgi;f aqmifwhJ avbmygwD tEdik &f wufvmygw,f? avbmygwD tEkid &f wufvmjcif;[m Armjynf/
tdENd,jynfwdk@&JΠvGwfvyfa&;twGuf aumif;wJhtvm;tvmyJvdk@ ,lqcJh=uygw,f? Zlvdkif (27)
&ufae@ uGef*&ufaemufqHk;ae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[dkaumfrDwDtopfudk a&G;cs,fwif
ajr‡muf=uygw,f? A[dkaumfrwD0if (22) OD;eJ@ A[kdaumfrDwD pnf;±kH;a&;rSL; (9) OD; / aygif; (31) OD;
jzpfygw,f// uGefu&ufu ygwDtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ocifpkd;ukd tdrfaxmifa&; pnf;rsOf;azmuf
ysufr_eJ@ ygwD0iftjzpfu (2) ESpf&yfpJxm;zkd@ qkH;jzwfvkdufwJhtwGuf taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf
‘ocifoed ;f az’ jzpfvmygw,f// ocifoed ;f az tdE,
dN u a&mufrvmao;cif ‘ocifjroGi’f ukd ,m,D
wm0efay;ygw,f//
'DuGefu&ufu qkH;jzwfvkdufwJh EkdifiHa&;vrf;pOfuawmh +idrf;csrf;pGmajymif;vJa&;vrf;pOf
(ba&muf'gvrf;pOf) jzpfcyhJ gw,f// 'kw,
d urBmppf}uD;t+yD; ay:ayguv
f mwJh Ekid if w
H um tajctae
ajymif;vJvmr_udk ta=umif;ðy+yD; +Adwed Ef idk if rH mS wufvmwJh avbmtpk;d &eJ@ aphpyfaqG;aEG;um Arm
jynf&JΠvGwfvyfa&;ukd &,la&;jzpfygw,f//
uGefu&uf usif;yaewJh Zlvkdif (20) &ufrSmawmh awmifileJ@yJcl;=um; &xm;vrf;/ um;vrf;
wav#muf zufqpfawmfveS af &; tiftm;pkrsm;eJ@ *syefw@dk &ŒJ wku
d yf aGJ wG t}uD;tus,f ay:ayguaf e
ygw,f? Zlvkdif (20) uae =o*kwfv (4) &ufae@txd jzpfyGm;cJhwJh 'DwkdufyJGawGukd ‘ppfawmif;jrpf
0Sr;f wku
d yf ’GJ tjzpf ppforkid ;f rSm armfueG ;f wifc&hJ ygw,f? zufqpf*syefaygi;f (6272) a,muf usq;Hk cJh
&mrSm (3500) ausm[
f m ArmhawmfveS af &;tiftm;pkrsm;u acsre_ ;f okwo
f ifcw
hJ mjzpf+yD; *syefo@Hk yef;
aygif; (740) ukd zrf;qD;&rdw,fvkd@ r[mrdwfppfXmecsKyfukd,fwkdifu todtrSwfðy a=unmcJh&yg
w,f//
1945 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (6) &ufeJ@ (9) &ufae@rSm *syefjynf [D±kd&SD;rm; eJ@ e*gpuDòrdŒukd
tar&duefu tEkjrLAk;H }uJygw,f// vlaygi;f ode;f eJ@csD aoqk;H cJ&h +yD; wurBmvk;H wkv
H y_ o
f mG ;cJ&h ygw,f?
qkAd ,
D ufuvnf; *syefudk =o*kwv
f (8) &ufae@rmS ppfa=unm+yD; *syeford ;f xm;wJh refcsL;&D;,m;ukd
0ifa&mufwu
dk cf u
dk cf yhJ gw,f// =o*kwv
f (8) &ufae@rmS ppfa=unm+yD; *syeford ;f xm;wJh refcsL;&D;,m;
ukd 0ifa&mufwkdufckdufcJhygw,f? =o*kwfv (12) &ufae@rSm ppfyGJt±_H;}uD; ±_H;ae+yDjzpfwJh *syef[m
vufeufcszkd@ enf;vrf;&Sm+yDjzpfygw,f// tJ'Dae@ =o*kwfv (12) &ufae@rSmyJ Armhwyfrawmf acgif;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

43

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

aqmif (10) OD;&JŒ xkwjf yefa=unmcsuf ArmjynfrmS xGuaf y:vmcJyh gw,f/ “ArmEkid if t
H wGi;f acgi;f aqmif
=ur,fh yk*~Kdvftaygif;eJ@ wkdif;oljynfom;taygif; pdwf0rf;uGJjym;jcif;r&SdyJ/ zufqpfwkdufzsufa&;
jynfolŒvGwfvyfa&;tzJG@csKyftwGif; 0ifa&mufvkyfukdifum ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;eJ@ jyefvnfxl
axmifa&;vkyfief;t&yf&yfukd wnDw!Gwfwnf; aqmif&Guf=u&ef jyif;xefpGm wkdufwGef;vkdufyg
a=umif;” vkd@ azmfjyE_d;aqmfxm;ygw,f? AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ AkdvfcsKyfvusFm/ AkdvfaZ,s/ Akdvfae0if;/
Akdvfarmifarmif/ Akdvfatmif}uD;/ AkdvfausmfaZm/ Akdvf&JxGËf/ AkdvfrSL;atmif/ AkdvftmVm0u/ wkd@ (10)
OD;u vufrSwfa&;xkd; xkwfjyefcJhwmjzpfygw,f//
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuvJ ‘vGwfvyfa&;eJ@ jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;’ ukd aºuG;a=umfcJhovkd/
wyfrLS ;}u;D (10)OD;uvJ ‘vGwv
f yfa&;eJ@ jyefvnfxal xmifa&;’ ukyd J aºu;G a=umfwu
dk w
f eG ;f xm;ygw,f?
1945 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f (14) &ufrmS zufqpf*syefu ¹cGi;f csurf &Sv
d ufeufcsa=umif; a=unm
vkdufygw,f// 'kwd,urBmppf}uD; w&m;0if+yD;qkH;oGm;yg+yD? wurBmvkH; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om jzpfoGm;
=uygw,f//
AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ wuG zwyv A[kdOD;pD;tzJGŒ0ifawG =o*kwfv (16) &uf (17) &uf
ESpf&ufwkdifwkdif tpnf;ta0;awGxkdif=uygw,f? A[ef; ‘aeol&def’ ±kyf&Sif±kHrSm vlxktpnf;ta0;
yGJ}uD;udk ‘zwyv’ u OD;pD;usif;yzkd@ qkH;jzwfvkduf=uygw,f//
1945 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (19) &ufrSm orkdif;0if ‘aeol&def’ vlxktpnf;ta0;}uD; ay:xGef;
vmcJyh gw,f? jyifqifcsed f (2) &ufom&cJah yr,fh vlxak omif;csD wufa&mufcw
hJ hJ aeol&ed f vlxt
k pnf;
ta0;yGJ}uD;[m +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;udk twdtvif; pdefac:vkdufwJh vlxkqENjyyGJ}uD;vnf;jzpfyg
w,f? zwyv tzGJ@csKyf OuUÏ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u obmywdvkyf+yD; zwyv taxGaxGtwGif;
a&;rSL; ocifoef;xGef;u twGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf aqmif&GufcJh=uygw,f? ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif
tm;vHk;avmufeD;yg; wufa&mufcJh=uygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD0ifrsm;a&m Armjynfqdk&S,f
vpfygwED ,
G rf sm;yg wufwufºuGºuG wufa&mufc=hJ uygw,f? e,fcsŒJ +Adwo
d #&ŒJ puULjzLtkycf sKyfa&;udk
tjyif;txef uef@uGufcJh=uygw,f? trsKd;om;tpdk;&zGJŒay;&ef/ ppftkyfcsKyfa&;&yfpJ+yD; òrdŒjytkyfcsKyf
a&;xlaxmif&ef/ trsK;d om;,m,Dtpd;k & tkycf sKyfaepOftwGi;f t&G,af &mufow
l ikd ;f rJay;Edik w
f phJ epfe@J
a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf jzpfay:vmr,fh wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu tajccHOya'a&;qGJ&ef/ twWvef
wma=unmcsufudk axmufcH+yD; tJ'Da=unmcsufeJ@tnD ArmEdkifiHudk tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif vGwf
vyfwEhJ idk if t
H jzpf todtrSwðf y&ef pwJh ta&;}uD;awmif;qdck surf sm;udk yGiyhf iG v
hf if;vif; az:xkwcf =hJ u
ygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh (1) ,m,Dtpd;k &zGŒJ pnf;a&;eJ@ wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmfac:a&;/ (2) wEdik if v
H ;kH
trsK;d om;nD!w
G af &;eJ@ (3) rsK;d cspAf rmhwyfrawmfukd todtrSwðf y+y;D ArmhwyfrawmfopfzŒJG a&;jzpfyg
w,f?
'Daeol&deftpnf;ta0;}uD;rSmyJ zwyv tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udk vuf&SdA[dkOD;pD; tzGJŒ0if (21) OD;
uae (36) OD;txd wd;k csŒJ zGŒJ pnf;vdu
k yf gw,f? apmbOD;/ ref;bcdik /f b&momwd@k vkd u&iftrsK;d om;acgi;f
aqmifrsm;yg0ifc=hJ uovdk OD;atmifZaH 0/ OD;ausm&f ifw@dk vkd &cdik t
f rsK;d om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;vnf; yg0ifchJ
=uygw,f? OD;baz/ OD;yk/ aysmb
f ,
G f OD;jrwk@d vkd vusmf Edik if aH &;orm;a[mif;}uD;awGuv
kd nf; xnfo
h iG ;f
zGŒJ pnf; yg0ifapcJyh gw,f? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u obmywdred @f ceG ;f tzGirfh mS udk &Si;f vif;oGm;wmuawmh
44

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

“zwyvtzG@J csKyf[m ygwt
D zGŒJ tpnf;r[kw/f vGwv
f yfa&;udk t&,lwu
kd yf 0JG ifv=kd uwJh wyfrawmf/
uGejf rLepfygw/D jynfoŒl ta&;awmfyykH gww
D @kd yl;aygi;f +yD; 1944 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f u pwifzŒJG pnf;cJjh cif;jzpf
a=umif;/ tzGŒJ csKyfo@kd vlrsK;d bmomra&G; wdik ;f oljynfom;wdik ;f yg0ifEikd af =umif;/ tzGŒJ csKyf[m b,ftzGŒJ
tpnf; b,fygwD&JŒ rlydkiftzGJŒrSr[kwfa=umif;/ wdkif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf wwdkif;jynfvHk; aoG;
pnf;zdk@ zGJŒcJhjcif;jzpfa=umif;/ tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;taejzifh r[mrdwftiftm;pkrsm;eJ@ qufoG,fcJha=umif;/
rwfv (27) &ufup+yD; zufqpfudkawmfvSefcJh=ua=umif;/ &cdkifbufrSmvnf; &cdkifawmfvSefa&;
orm;rsm;u zufqpfuakd wmfveS cf =hJ ua=umif;/ awmfveS af &;rSm ucsi/f csi;f / u&if trsK;d om;rsm;vnf;
yg0ifc=hJ ua=umif;” jzpfygw,f? wqufwnf;rSm ‘wyfrawmfe@J aysmufusm;rsm;&JŒ wdu
k cf u
kd rf a_ =umifh
r[mrdww
f yfrsm; &efuek u
f t
kd a&mufjrefcjhJ cif;jzpfa=umif;/ aemufq;kH ppfawmif;jrpf0rS ;f wav#mufrmS
&Gyf&Gyfc|efc|ef wdkufcJha=umif;/ zufqpfawmfvSefa&;wdkufyGJrsm;udk r[mrdwfrsm;u todtrSwfðy
cs;D usL;cJ&h a=umif;/ 'Dwu
kd yf aJG wGa=umifh Armjynfukd vkycf siw
f ikd ;f vkyv
f @kd r&bl;qdw
k m odvmwJt
h wGuf
+Adwo
d #tpd;k &u cifAsm;wd@k csi;f om nD!w
G +f yDajym=u? vGwv
f yfa&;vdck siaf wmif ay;r,fqw
kd hJ pum;
rsK;d ajymvm&a=umif;/ urBmt
h ajctae[m odyaf umif;vm+yDjzpfa=umif;’ awGuv
kd nf; &Si;f jyajymqkd
cJhygw,f? zwyv taxGaxGtwGif;a&rSL; ocifoef;xGef;uvnf; 'kwd,urBmppf+yD;aemuf urBmh
+idr;f csr;f a&;wnfaqmuf&efe@J Armjynfvw
G v
f yfa&;udk t&,l&ef&nf&,
G af =umif; ajym=um;+yD; urBmh
+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vGwfvyfaom Armjynfacgif;pOfeJ@ azmfjyxm;wJh zwyvtzGJŒcsKyf&JŒ oabmxm;
a=unmcsufudk zwf=um;cJhygw,f?
tJ'ga=umifh aeol&deftpnf;ta0;}uD;[m/ zwyv}uD;uOD;aqmif+yD; jynfolvlxkw&yf
vH;k u qef@usiu
f ef@uw
G v
f u
kd w
f hJ vlxt
k iftm;jyyG}J u;D jzpfovd/k Armjynfvw
G v
f yfa&;twGuf tvdk
tyfq;kH awmif;qdck surf sm;udk csrw
S af zmfxw
k f aºuG;a=umfEikd cf w
hJ hJ ordik ;f 0if Ekid if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_}uD; jzpfchJ
ygw,f? zwyv tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udk,fwdkif&JŒ oabmxm;tjrifuvnf; vGwfvyfa&;udk +idrf;csrf;wJh
enf;eJ@ &&SdEdkifvdrfhr,fvdk@ ,lqar#mfvifhxm;cJhygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD 'kwd,uGef*&ufu
csrSwfvdkufwJh EdkifiHa&;vrf;pOfeJ@ qef@usifuGJjym;r_ r&Sdwm awGŒEdkifygw,f?
‘aeol&ed ’f acwf}uD;xJrmS ‘zwyv’ tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;[m tiftm;cdik rf mawmifw
h if;vSwhJ trsK;d
om;wyfaygif;pk}uD; tppftrSefjzpfcJhygw,f? OuUÏtjzpf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u wm0ef,l+yD; taxG
axGtwGif;a&;rSL;tjzpf ocifoef;xGef;u aqmif&Guf&if; OD;yJhnDnD xrf;EdkifcJh=uygw,f? 'ga=umifh
tJ'aD cwfukd taemufwikd ;f owif;pmawGuawmif ‘qef;ESio
hf ef;acwf’ vd@k uifyeG ;f wyfa&;om;cJ=h u
ygw,f?
aeol&ed t
f pnf;ta0;}uD;&JΠt&Sed ef @J Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGe;f / armifb
h ufwefw@kd
&JΠaqG;aEG;xm;cJhcsuftquftjzpf Armhvufeufudkifwyfrsm;ta&; aqG;aEG;zdk@ r[mrdwfppfaoem
ywdcsKyfvnf;jzpf/ uufpfbD tkyfcsKyfa&;&JŒ tjrifhqkH;tm%mydkifvnf;jzpfwJh ‘armifhbwfwef’ u
‘zwyv’ ud,
k pf m;vS,af wGukd olŒppfXmecsKyfwnf&&dS m uEND (oD[)kd udk vma&mufz@kd zdw=f um;vm
ygw,f?
1945 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (4) &ufae@rSm armifhbufwefeJ@aqG;aEG;zdk@ zwyv udk,fpm;vS,f
tzGJŒtjzpf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ ocifoef;xGef;/ Akdvfae0if;/ Akdvfvusfm/ AdkvfaZ,s/ AdkvfausmfaZm/
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

45

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

Akv
d af rmifarmif/ Adv
k af Zmfrif; (aemif-Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf armifarmifausm0f if;)/ OD;baz/ apmbOD;}u;D / OD;!dx
k eG ;f
(&cdkifAdkvf!dkxGef;) wdk@ (11) OD; uENDòrdŒudk oGm;=uygw,f? pufwifbm (6) &uf/ (7) &uf ae@awGrSm
awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? tJ'DaqG;aEG;yGJudk Armjynfppfajy;tpdk;& (qif;rvm;tpdk;&) &JŒ
t=uHay;yk*~Kdvftjzpf OD;wifxGÉfvnf; vma&mufwufygw,f? tJ'DaqG;aEG;yGJ&JŒ &v'ftjzpf
‘uENDpmcsKyf’ xGufay:vmygw,f? ‘uENDpmcsKyf’ t& rsKd;cspfArmhwyfrawmfrS vufa&G;pifwyfom;
(5200)/ t&Hwyfom; (3000)/ Adkvf (200)/ t&HAdkvf (200) udk Armjynf +Adwdo#vufatmuf&Sd
Armhwyfrawmftjzpf zGJŒpnf;zdk@ armifhbwfwefu oabmwlcJhovdk/ usefArmhvufeufudkifwyfom;
rsm;udk &Sif;vif;zsufodrf;ay;zdk@‘zwyv’ }uD;eJ@ wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifawGu oabmwlnDcJh=u
ygw,f? tiftm; (2) aomif;avmuf&w
dS hJ ArmhawmfveS af &;rsK;d cspw
f yfrawmf wyfzŒJG }uD;udk zsuo
f rd ;f
+yD; t+rJwef; ‘Armhwyfrawmf’ tjzpf uENDpmcsKyft& ajymif;vJzGJŒpnf;&ygawmhw,f?
t+rJwef; w&m;0if Armhwyfrawmf}uD;tjzpf ajymif;vJzGJŒpnf;wJhtcg AdkvfcsKyf atmifqef;
udk,fwdkif wyfudkqufvufOD;pD;+yD; ppfa&;acgif;aqmifrvm;/ zwyv tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udkyJ OD;pD;+yD; EdkifiH
a&;acgi;f aqmifvyk rf vm;/ wckcu
k ykd J jywfjywfom;om; a&G;cs,&f awmhr,ft
h ajctaejzpfvmygw,f?
Armjynf&JŒtaetxm;t& EdkifiHa&;wdkufyGJawG ta&;}uD;vmawmhr,fvdk@ ,Hk=unf,lqwJhtwGuf
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m EdkifiHa&;udkyJ a&G;cs,fvdkufygw,f?
wyfuxGufr,fvdk@ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m a&G;cs,fqHk;jzwfvdkufayr,fh oludk,fwdkif OD;pD;
wnfaxmifcw
hJ hJ ppfwyftay: oHa,mZOf}uD;vSwma=umihf olŒtpm;wyfukd OD;pD;Edik rf ,haf cgi;f aqmif/
wyfrawmf}uD;udk Edik if aH &;&nfreS ;f csurf eS rf eS ef @J rSerf eS u
f efuef a&SŒaqmifweG ;f wifEikd rf ,fh acgi;f aqmif
udk tav;teufxm;+yD; &SmazGcJhygw,f? tJ'Dvdk t&nftcsif;jynhf0wJh acgif;aqmifrsKd;vufxJudkyJ
wyfut
kd yfEcHS sicf yhJ gw,f? 'ga=umifh Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;[m yxrqH;k uGejf rLepfacgi;f aqmif ocifA[de;f
udk a&G;cs,fcJhygw,f? ocifA[def;udk wyfudkOD;pD;a&;twGuf v$Jay;zdk@ uGefjrLepfygwDudk w&m;0if
awmif;wJhtcg uGefjrLepfygwDuvnf; ygwD&JΠta&;}uD;EdkifiHa&;vkyfief;awGa=umifh v$Jray;EdkifcJhyg?
ocifA[de;f udrk ay;Edik &f if 'kw,
d ol@pw
d óf uu
d f ‘ocifoef;az (jzL;)’ udk v$aJ y;zd@k awmif;qdjk yefygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygwu
D ocifoef;azudv
k nf; ray;Ekid af =umif; ta=umif;jyefcyhJ gw,f? 'ga=umifh ocifA[de;f
a&m ocifoef;azyg r&wJhtwGufa=umifh aemufqHk;rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m AkdvfvusfmudkyJ
wyfrawmfacgif;aqmiftjzpf a&G;cs,f wm0efay;vdkuf&ygw,f? Adkvfae0if;udk AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;
,H=k unfrr_ &Scd yhJ g? ppf+yD;puqd&k if Adv
k af e0if;udðk zwfypfz@dk awmif Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; pOf;pm;qHjk zwfczhJ ;l
w,fqdkygw,f? EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifwcsKdŒudkawmif xkwfazmfwdkifyifcJhygw,f? twdkifyifcH&wJh EdkifiH
a&;acgif;aqmifawG (ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifAodef;wif) wdk@u uae@vdktcsdefrSm nD!Gwfa&;ta&;
}uD;a=umif; azsmif;zsajymqdck =hJ uwJt
h wGuf Adv
k af e0if;udk xkwzf ,fypfwhJ tqifx
h d ra&mufcw
hJ mvd@k
qdkygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; wyfuxGuv
f u
kd w
f t
hJ wGuf Armhwyfrawmf&ŒJ t}u;D tuJ[m Adv
k v
f usmf
jzpfvmcJyh gw,f? topfjyefvnfzŒJG pnf;vdu
k w
f hJ wyf&if;awGxrJ mS uGejf rLepfygw0D if/ qk&d ,
S v
f pfygwD
0ifawG qufvuf&SdaecJhygw,f?
46

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m wyfuxGufvdkuf&ovdk wyfrawmf[mvnf; ‘zwyv’ tzGJŒcsKyf
}uD;twGif;uae w&m;0ifxGufvdkuf&ygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm uENDpmcsKyft& wyfuxGufvdkuf&ol
awG trsm;}uD;ay:cJhovdk EkdifiHa&;udkyJ aZmufcsvkyfzdk@ wyfuxGufvdkufolawGvnf; awmfawmfrsm;
rsm; ay:cJhygw,f? r=umrDrSmyJ zufqpfwdkufzsufa&;jynfolŒvGwfvyfa&; (zwyv) tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udk
vnf; zufqpfqef@usiaf &;jynfoŒl vGwv
f yfa&; (zqyv) tzGŒJ csKyf}u;D vd@k trnfajymif;vJac:ygw,f?
zqyvtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;[m wrsKd;om;vHk;&JŒ wyfaygif;pktzGJŒcsKyf}uD;tjzpf &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;cJhyg
w,f? 'DtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;twGif;rSm t"dutiftm;pktjzpf wnf&Sdaewmu vuf0Jtiftm;pk jzpfcJhyg
w,f? vusfmtiftm;pkrsm;[m aemufrS us,fus,fjyef@jyef@zGifh+yD; zGJŒpnf;vdkufwJhtcgrS ygvm=u/
a&mufvm=uolawGjzpfygw,f? vuf0t
J iftm;pkawGxrJ mS vnf; t"du tckid t
f rmwnf&adS ewmu
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J Armjynfq&kd ,
S v
f pfygwjD zpfygw,f? 'DygwED pS cf [
k m ‘zqyv’ tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;
twGi;f rSm twlwnf&adS eovd/k tòydit
f qdik t
f jzpfvnf; wnf&adS ecJ=h uygw,f? vusmf orm;Edik if aH &;
orm;a[mif;}uD;awG[m trsm;tm;jzifh EdkifiHa&;usm;ao}uD;awGjzpfygw,f?
zqyv tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;&JŒ tzGŒJ cGaJ wG[m ArmjynftES@H tjym; w&m;0ifzŒJG pnf; ay:ayguv
f mcJh
ovdk uGefjrLepfygwD/ qdk&S,fvpfygwDwdk@&JŒ tzGJŒcGJawG[mvnf; a'otESH@ zGJŒpnf;ay:aygufvmcJhyg
w,f? 1945 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (29) &ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ jynfolŒtm%m*sme,f
pwifxkwfa0 xGufay:vmygw,f?
atmufwdkbmvv,frSm ppfajy;bk&ifcH qma':refprpf &efukefudk jyefa&mufvmygw,f?
wjynfv;kH u qef@usiu
f ef@uu
G af ewJh puULjzLpDru
H ed ;f udk tpG,x
f w
k zf @kd óu;d pm;ygw,f? atmufwb
kd m
(16) &ufae@rSm tkyfcsKyfa&;wm0efawGudk pwifvufcH aqmif&Gufygw,f? ppftkyfcsKyfa&;eJ@ ppfzuf
qdkif&mòrdŒjytkyfcsKyfa&; ±kyfodrf;vdkufwJhtwGuf uufpfbDtkyfcsKyfa&;acwf tqHk;owfoGm;ygw,f?
qma':refprpfu bk&ifcHwOD;wnf;tm%mydkifwJh puULjzLtkyfcsKyfa&;udk pwifygw,f?
ppf}uD;twGi;f ysupf ;D qH;k ±_;H cJ&h wJh +Adwo
d #e,fcsŒJ ydik f ukex
f w
k v
f yk if ef;rsm;/ o,f,yl @kd aqmifa&;vkyif ef;
rsm;eJ@ pufr_vufr_vkyfief;rsm;udk t"duxm;+yD; ‘jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;’ vkyfzdk@jyifygw,f? cspfwD;
awGeJ@ ajr&Sif}uD;i,fawGuvnf; olwdk@ydkifqdkifcJhwJh ajr,mawGeJ@ v,faxmufcpyg;awGudk v,fo
rm;awGqDu twif;t=uyf jyefvnfvk,uf ,liifzdk@ tm;xkwfvm=uygw,f?
qma':refprpfu bk&ifc&H ŒJ twdik yf ifcH tr_aqmiftzGŒJ eJ@ twdik yf ifcH Oya'ðyv$waf wmfzŒJG zd@k
jyifygw,f? todtrSwfrðy&if rjzpfawmhwJh zqyv tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udk puULjzLpDrHudef;rSm yl;aygif;
aqmif&Gufzdk@ bk&ifcHu zdwf=um;aqG;aEG;ygw,f?
‘zqyv’u Ekid if jH yefvnfxal xmifa&;eJ@ w&m;r#wwJah &G;aumufyJG tjrefusi;f yEkid af &;udk
&nf&G,f+yD; tr_aqmifaumifpDrSm yg0ifzdk@ oabmwlygw,f? atmufwdkbm (19) &ufrSm bk&ifcHeJ@
oGm;a&mufawGŒqH+k yD; zqyv 0ef}uD;avmif; (11) OD;pm&if;udk ay;tyfygw,f? bk&ifcu
H oabmrwl
yJ jiif;y,fvdkufygw,f? bk&ifcHeJ@ zqyvwkd@ xdyfwdkuf yÉdyuQ pwifygawmhw,f?
bk&ifcu
H ‘zqyv’ wGi;f a&mufae=uwJh vusmf Ekid if aH &;orm;a[mif;}u;D rsm;udv
k nf; &mxl;
jy+y;D zJx
h w
k &f if; olŒpdwóf uu
d f ‘tr_aqmifaumifp’D zGŒJ vdu
k yf gw,f? ppfajy;tpd;k &tzGŒJ 0ifa[mif; qmay:
xGe;f / qmxGe;f atmifausmef @J qm*|e0f u
kd /f qmruf';l *Jw@kd ukd tr_aqmifaumifp0D ifawGtjzpf cef@tyf
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

47

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

vdu
k yf gw,f? zqyv uaexGu+f yD; &mxl;,l=ur,fh rsK;d cspyf gwu
D OD;btke;f / OD;at;/ OD;yke@J ref;bcif
wd@k uv
kd nf; aumifp0D iftjzpfcef@tyfygw,f? rsK;d cspyf gwu
D yJjzpfwhJ OD;vGe;f / qif;&Jom;ygwu
D OD;om
,m0wDarmifarmife@J OD;&efatmifqo
kd w
l @kd tjyif r=umcifurS Armjynfjyefa&mufvmwJh ocifxeG ;f tkyf
udkvnf; tr_aqmifaumifpD0iftjzpf cef@tyfa&G;cs,fvdkufygw,f? olŒpdwfóuduf ‘Oya'ðyaumifpD’
qdkwmudkvnf; zqyv tjyifbufa&muf&Sdae=uwJh vusfmEdkifiHa&;orm;}uD;rsm;eJ@ zGJŒpnf;vdkufyg
w,f? (1945 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbm (1) &ufae@rSm cg;ydkufaqmif bk&ifhtwdkifyifcH ‘tr_aqmifaumifpD’
xGufay:vmcJh+yD; 'DZifbm (31) &ufae@rSm ykwfoif!dk ‘Oya'ðyaumifpD’ jzpfwnfvmcJhygw,f?)
1945 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (1) &ufae@rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;acgif;aqmif+yD; ‘jynfolŒ&Jabmf
wyfzGJŒ) zGJŒpnf;ay:xGef;vmygw,f? +Adwdo#vufatmufcH ‘Armhwyfrawmf’udk uENDpmcsKyft&
zGJŒpnf;&mrSm yg0ifcGifhr&wJh &Jabmfa[mif;awGudk tajccH+yD; bDtkdifat/ bD'Dat&Jabmfa[mif;awG/
awmfvSefa&;orm;awGeJ@yg pkpnf;zGJŒpnf;vdkufwm jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh 0g'tm;jzifh uGefjrLepf0g'
,Hk=unfola&m r,Hk=unfolyg yg0ifvmcJhygw,f? ppfwyfzGJŒpnf;yHktwdkif; zGJŒpnf;cJh+yD;/ ppfaoemywd
eJ@ OuUÏtjzpf Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;/ 'kw,
d aoemywdtjzpf Adv
k rf LS ;atmif jzpfygw,f? OD;pD;aumfrwD
0ifawGuawmh AdkvfxGef;vif;/ Adkvfva&mif/ Adkvfzdk;uGef;/ AdkvfAwif/ AdkvfvSat;/ Adkvfwiftkef;/
Adkvfodef;wef/ Adkvfatmifrif;/ Akdvfykwdk@wawGjzpfygw,f? jynfolŒ&JabmfwyfzGJŒxJudk &Jabmfa[mif;
awGomru/ &JabmfopfawGyg 0ifa&mufvm=uwJhtwGuf umvr=umrDtwGif;rSmyJ wyfzGJŒ0if
wodef;ausmf&SdvmcJhygw,f? ppfa&;avhusihfr_awGvkyf=uygw,f? ppf,leDazmif;awG 0wfqif=uyg
w,f? òrdŒ&GmtESH@ ay:aygufvmygw,f?
bk&ifcu
H ‘jynfo@l &aJ bmf’ udk zqyv&JŒ cg;ydu
k af qmifwyfzŒJG vd@k ,lqygw,f? wdik ;f jynfqyl l
atmif v_yf&Sm;aeolawGvdk@ orkwfygw,f? ,leDazmif;r0wf&/ ppfa&;ravhusifh&trdef@awGxkwf+yD;
trdef@qef@usifolawGudk zrf;qD;ta&;,lygw,f? jynfolŒ&Jabmfudk ysufatmifzsufygw,f? 'gayrJh
ysufatmifrzsufEdkifyg?
zqyv}uD;xJudk jynfolŒ&Jabmf[m tiftm;pkwcktjzpf yg0ifvmcJhygw,f? zqyv}uD;eJ@
bk&ifct
H pd;k &=um; wif;rmr_awG[m wqif+h yD;wqifh wd;k vmcJyh gw,f? bk&ifc&H ŒJ ‘tr_aqmifaumifp’D
eJ@ ‘Oya'ðyaumifpD’ [m vlxk=um;=oZmr&Sdyg? zqyv }uD;&JŒ =oZmom wkd;wufjrifhrm;vmcJhyg
w,f? bk&ifcHtpdk;&[m puULjzLpDrHudef;t& jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;tay: wdk;+yD; zdESdyfwmawGvkyfyg
w,f? zqyv tzGJ@csKyf}uD;u ,m,D=um;jzwftpdk;&zJGŒpnf;a&;/ wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf ay:xGef;
a&;/ puULjzLpDrHudef;yg pD;yGm;a&;y±dk*sufrsm; zsufodrf;a&;pwJh rlvawmif;qdkcsufawGudk vlxktif
tm;eJ@zdzdpD;pD; qufvufawmif;qdk v_yf&Sm;ygw,f?
1946 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&D (21) &ufae@rmS wrsK;d om;vH;k &JŒ wyfaygi;f pk}uD;jzpfwhJ zqyv tzGŒJ csKyf
}uD;u vlxw
k ode;f ausmw
f ufa&mufwhJ puULjzLtkycf sKyfa&; uef@uu
G yf }JG uD;udk usi;f yygw,f? 'Duef@
uGuq
f ENjyyG}J uD;[m bk&ifct
H yk cf sKyfa&;udo
k m udik v
f y_ v
f u
kd Ef ikd w
f mr[kw/f t*Fvefavbmtpd;k &udyk g
wkefv_yfoGm;apcJhygw,f? OuUÏ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; ocifoef;xGef;wdk@
OD;pD;wJh ‘zqyv’ &JŒ yxrqHk;nDvmcHudkvnf; a&$wd*Hktv,fypP,HrSm wcrf;wem; usif;yygw,f?
48

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vlxw
k ode;f ausmef @J wjynfv;kH ud,
k pf m;vS,f (1200) ausmf wufa&mufwn
hJ v
D mcH}uD;rSm vH;k 0vGwf
vyfa&;twGuf qufvufwdkufyGJ0ifa&;/ ajr,mjy\emajz&Sif;a&;/ e,fcsJŒt&if;tESD;rsm;udk jynf
olyikd o
f rd ;f a&;/ touf (18) ESpf jynfo
h w
l ikd ;f rJqENay;cGi&hf a&;/ wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf ac:,lusi;f y
Ekid af &; pwJh ta&;}uD;qH;k jzwfcsuaf wG csrw
S Ef ikd cf =hJ uygw,f// 'Dnv
D mcH}uD;rSmyJ Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk
wrsKd;om;vHk;&JŒacgif;aqmif OuUÏtjzpf wifajr‡mufcJhygw,f?
1946 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&DvrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[dkaumfrDwDtpnf;ta0; usif;yyg
w,f? +idrf;csrf;pGmajymif;vJa&;jzpfwJh ‘ba&muf'g0g'’ udk w&m;0ify,fzsufypfvdkuf=uygw,f//
ba&muf'g0g'trSm;/ ygwDwGif;a&mufvmcJhykHZmpfjrpfudk/ &SmazGazmfxkwfokH;oyfa0zef=u&if;u/
ud,
k w
f ikd f wufwufºuGºuG vufcjH zef@cscd o
hJ w
l OD;jzpfcw
hJ hJ ocifp;kd [m wjcm;olrsm;tay:om jypfwif
±_wcf sa0zef+y;D *d%
k ;f cGx
J u
G o
f mG ;ygw,f? uGejf rLepfygwD (Armjynf) qkw
d hJ ‘tvHeyD gw’D udk cG+J y;D xlaxmif
vdkufygw,f? ocifpdk;eJ@twl ocifwifjr/ a':apmjr pwJh A[kdaumfrDwD0if (7) OD; ygoGm;ygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygwD uGrJ oGm;a&;twGuf ocifA[de;f ud,
k w
f ikd f twefwefóud;pm;cJah o;ayr,fh ocifp;kd wd@k
u “tacsmiform;awGe@J jcm;em;r_onf t}u;D qH;k aomawmfveS af &;vkyif ef;jzpfonf?” vd@k aºu;G a=umf
+yD; cGJxGufoGm;ygw,f? tvHeDygwDudk ‘zqyv’ uvnf; vufcHjcif;r&SdwJhtwGuf tvHeDtpk0if
rsm;[m zqyv}uD;&J@ tjyifbufukd a&muf&o
dS mG ;ygw,f? tvHeyD gw[
D m “tvHeu
D u
kd ikd +f yD; wyfO;D
a&SŒuxGuu
f m &Gy&f yG cf |ecf |ef awmfveS af &;wdu
k yf aJG wGukd qifEjJG y&r,f” qdw
k hJ tmabmfe@J twl vuf0J
pGef;v_yf&Sm;r_awGudk tqufrjywf azmfaqmifygawmhw,f?
1946 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&v
D (28) &ufae@rmS bk&ifc&H ŒJ ‘Oya'ðyaumifp’D tpnf; ta0;usi;f y
ygw,f? bk&ifcHu vuf!dk;xkd; cef@tyfxm;wJh Oya'ðyaumifpD0iftm;vHk;vdkvdk[m ‘zqyv’
qef@usifa&;orm;awGjzpf=u+yD; ‘zqyv’ tzGJŒcsKyfudk tjyif;txef a0zefwdkufcdkuf=uygw,f?
bk&ifcHudk,fwdkifuvnf; zqyvudk òzdcGJzdk@ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk ppftwGif;vlowfr_eJ@
zrf;qD;ta&;,lzdk@ uvdrfuuspf^m%feJ@ =uHpnftm;xkwfvmygw,f? 'Dt=uH,kwfudk vufawGŒ
taumiftxnfazmfEdkifa&;twGuf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr,fh e,fcsJŒtvdkus yk*~KdvfwOD;vnf; ay:
aygufvmygw,f? tJ'Dyk*~Kdvfuawmh ‘ocifxGef;tkyf’ ygyJ?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ twl ppfcsDcJhwJh ocifxGef;tkyf[m AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk oxHkc±dkif
aygifòrdŒe,f oJjzLukef;aus;&Gm ukvm;ol}uD;owfcJhr_eJ@ ta&;,lzdk@ bk&ifcHxHwifjyygw,f? Oya'ðy
aumifprD mS vnf; bk&ifcu
H kd wdu
k w
f eG ;f wJt
h jyif w&m;±H;k wif ppfaq;ta&;,lr,fq&kd if rsujf rifouf
aotjzpf oludk,fwkdif oufaocHygr,fvdk@ ,kwf,kwfrmrm tqdkðyvmcJhygw,f? t*Fvdyfbk&ifcH&JŒ
trsKd;om;pDrHudef;0ef}uD;jzpfwJh ocifxGef;tkyf&JŒ e,fcsJŒtvdkus trsKd;om;opPmazmufvkyf&yf[m
wjynfvHk;udk tHh=ooGm;apcJhygw,f?
ocifoef;xGef;u AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;bufrS jywfjywfom;om;&yfwnfum ppftwGif;u
ocifxeG ;f tkyf ud,
k w
f ikd af &;cJw
h hJ ‘u|Eykf .
f pGe@f pm;cef;’ pmtkyx
f u
J qDavsm&f mtcef;awGukd t*Fvyd f
bmomjyefqkd+yD; +Adwdo#ygvDrefu ygvDreftrwf '±dkif;bwf (Tom Driberg) wdk@qD ydk@vdkufygw,f?
ocifxeG ;f tkyu
f ,
kd w
f ikd f ppfajrjyifrmS / b,fvkd ud,
k x
f v
d ufa&muf vkyu
f ikd cf w
hJ ,fqw
kd mawG/ tm;yg;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

49

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

w& pmtkyfxJ a&;oGif;azmfjyxm;cJhcsufawGudk xkwfE_wf+yD; wdwdusus bmomjyefqdkay;vdkufwm
jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh ‘ocifxeG ;f tky&f ŒJ ppftwGi;f &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfrr_ sm;a=umifh olŒudk tr_aqmif
aumifpDu xkwfy,fypfr,fvm;’ vdk@ tudk;tum;ðy ar;EkdifcJhw,fqkdygw,f?
aemufq;kH rSm Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk zrf;qD;ta&;,lr,fq&kd if jynfow
l &yfv;kH tHºk uGvmrSm/
tHºk uGvmcJ&h if tHºk uGru
_ Ekd rdS ef if;ypfz@kd tdE,
dN wyfawGuv
kd nf; ac:,lv@kd r&Edik rf mS wGucf surf +d yD;/ bk&ifcH
[m t=uHtpnfukd vufav#mv
h u
kd &f ygw,f? bk&ifc&H ŒJ t=uH,w
k f ±_;H edro
hf mG ;&ovdk ocifxeG ;f tkyf
vnf; tJ'Dtcsdefup+yD; &moufyef EkdifiHa&;aooGm;&ygawmhw,f? vlxkcsOfzwf jzpfoGm;&ygawmh
w,f?
1946/ arv (18) &ufae@rSm tif;pdefc±dkif ‘xef;wyifta&;tcif;’ }uD;ay:aygufvmyg
w,f? ‘jynfol@&Jabmf’ wcsKdŒ tzrf;cH&wmudk rauseyfwJhtwGuf jynfol@&Jabmfrsm;/ awmifol
v,form;rsm;u pDwef;vSnfhvnf qENjy=uwmudk ykvdyfu aoewfeJ@ ypfcwfòzdcGif;cJhygw,f?
v,form;}uD; (4) OD; aoewfxdrSef aoqHk;cJh&wJhtwGuf vlxktHkºuGr_}uD; jzpfvmcJhygw,f?
zqyvtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;u bk&ifcHtpdk;&&JŒ vkyf&yfudk tjyif;txef uef@uGuf±_wfcswJhtjyif
pHpk rf;a&;tzGŒJ wckvnf; apv$wyf gw,f? uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ jynfo@l tm%m*sme,fuvnf; ‘xef;wyif
aoewfypfr_ ta&;tcif;}uD;’ ta=umif; jyif;jyif;xefxef uef@uGufa&;om;ygw,f? &efukefvlxk
}uD;[m armfawmf,mOfor*~u um;rsm;eJ@ xef;wyifudk csDwufoGm;a&muf+yD; tiftm;jy=uyg
w,f?
vlwef;pm;toD;oD;&JŒ rauseyfcsufawG 'D*&Djrifhoxuf jrifhvmygw,f? v,form;rsm;&JŒ
tiwfjy\emajz&Sif;a&;/ vufikwfv,fajrvufrvGwfa&;/ trawmfa=u;&&Sda&;/ t&m&Sdqdk;
ol}uD;qdk;wdk@&JŒ !‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_u vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJawG ay:aygufvmygw,f?
rcHr&yfEdkifwJh a'oawGrSmqdk&if &&mvufeuf pGJudkifykefuefr_awGawmif ay:aygufvmcJhyg
w,f? ‘&ckdifolykef’ eJ@ ysOf;rem;e,frSm ‘v,fa0;v,form;olykef}uD;’ ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f?
+Adwo
d #avabmtpd;k &[m 0rf;udu
k af ew,fqw
kd hJ qma':refprpfukd t*Fvef jyefac:vdu
k &f
+yD; ArmtrsKd;om;acgif;aqmifawGeJ@ tqifajyEdkifr,fh bk&ifcHopfudk &SmazGa&G;cs,f&ygawmhw,f?
bk&ifco
H pf rcef@Eikd rf D ‘qm[ife&DEu
d_ ’f qdo
k u
l kd acwWb&k ifct
H jzpfvw
$ yf gw,f? zqyvtzGŒJ }uD;&JŒ
=oZm[m vlxk=um;rSm wufaeygw,f? e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;rSm tajccHpdwf"mwfcsif; wlnDae=uay
r,fh zqyvwGi;f &Sd uGejf rLepf-qk&d ,
S v
f pfawG&ŒJ tm;òydirf e_ @J tjrifqikd &f m oabmxm;qkid &f m uGjJ ym;
r_awGuawmh xkeJ@xnfeJ@ jzpfay:vmaeygw,f? zqyv qdkwJh wyfaygif;pkqdkif;bkwfwckwnf;
atmufrSmjzpfayr,fh t"du ygwD}uD;ESpfckjzpfwJh uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ qdk&S,fvpfygwD[m olŒpnf;±Hk;a&;
eJ@ol/ olŒtiftm;eJ@olvnf; tòydiftqdkif wnf&Sdae=uygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ OD;aqmifr_
atmufrSm vlwef;pm;tvdkufqdkif&m or*~awG&Sdae=uovdk qdk&S,fvpfygwDatmufrSmvnf;
vlwef;pm;tvdkuf zGJŒpnf;xm;wJh ‘tpnf;t±Hk;’ awG pifòydifwnf&Sdaeygw,f? aemufxyf zqyv
tzGJŒcsKyftwGif;rSm ta&;}uD;tiftm;pkwcktjzpf jzpfwnfyg0ifvmwmuawmh 1945 ck 'DZifbm
(1) &ufae@rSmrS pwifzGJŒpnf;vdkufwJh jynfolŒ&JabmfwyfzGJŒjzpfygw,f?
50

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ qkd&S,fvpfygwD/ jynfolŒ&Jabmf tzGJŒ (3)
zGŒJ &J@ nD!w
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J !
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G af &;’ udk tcdik t
f
rmzGJŒpnf;vdkcJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh taumiftxnfray:cJhyg?
zqyvtzGŒJ csKy}f u;D twGi;f rSm ygwt
D zGŒJ tpnf;rsm;tjyif OD;Ek/ OD;baz/ 'D;'kwOf ;D bcsK/d [oFmw
OD;jr/ OD;wifxGÉfwdk@vdk xif&Sm;wJh woD;yk*~vrsm;vnf; ta&;}uD;ae&mawGrSm yg0ifae&m&xm;yg
w,f? 1946 ckESpf pufwifbmvrSm ordkif;0if taxGaxGoydwf}uD; pwifygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@
qkd&S,fvpfawGu oydwfudkqdkif;iHxm;csifwJh oabmt,ltq&Sdygw,f? wzufu vufeufpk
aqmif;jyifqif+yD;rS taxGaxGoydwf}uD;udk ykvdyfoydwftxd jr‡ifhwifqifE$Jvdkw,fvdk@ ta=umif;jy
ygw,f?
uGejf rLepfawGu vufeufpak qmif;+yD;atmif apmifzh rkd vd/k taxGaxGoydw}f uD;udk euf±id_ ;f ap
&r,f? ykvdyfoydwftxdomru ppfwyfoydwftxd jr‡ifhoGm;&r,fvdk@ awmif;qdkaºuG;a=umfygw,f?
v,form;ta&;rSmvnf; OD;ausm+f ird ;f / ocifwif wd@k u awmifov
l ,form;awG awmif;qdck su&f atmif/
v,f,mrvkyfyJ oydwfarSmuf&r,fqdkygw,f? uGefjrLepfawGu awmif;qkdcsuftwdkif; vufikwf
vuf&if; v,ftwif;0ifxGefa&; ajr&Siftdrf0dkif;a&;/ y±kd*sufqefawGvk,l+yD; tiwfjy\em ajz&Sif;
a&;udk ‘wdkufyGJvrf;pOf’ tjzpf wifygw,f? vlxkwdkufyGJvrf;pOfqdkwmudk csrSwfygw,f?
pufwifbmv (5) &ufrSm acwftqufquf udkvdkeDvufyg;aptac:cH toHk;awmfcHcJh&wJh
ykvdyfrsm;uawmif oydwfarSmuf+yD; vlxkwdkufyGJtwGif; yg0ifvmygw,f? ykvdyfoydwf}uD; atmif
jrifpGmay:vmcJhygw,f? pufwifbm (23) &ufrSm OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;bazwdk@ wm;qD;aewJh=um;xJu
tr_xrf;aygif;pHk oydwf}uD; xyfrHxGufay:vmygw,f? pufwifbmwvvHk; oydwfawG wvHk;+yD;w
vHk; tqufrjywf ay:aygufcJhygw,f? ausmif;om;awGuvnf; oydwfarSmuf+yD; ppfulay;=uyg
w,f? taxGaxGoydwf}uD;[m ordkif;wGifavmufatmif }uD;us,fcJhovdk udkvdkeD,E W&m;}uD;[m
vnf; wcgwnf;&yfpJoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
a':refprpfae&mrSm wm0ef,lzdk@ bk&ifcHtopftjzpf qm[l;bwf&ef@ Armjynf a&mufvm
wJhtcg pufwifbm taxGaxGoydwf}uD;eJ@ óudqdk+yD;om;jzpfoGm;ygw,f? qm[l;bwf&ef[m
zqyv &JΠt&Sdef=oZmudk wGufcsufrd+yD;jzpfovdk/ taxGaxGoydwf}uD;&JΠ'Dv_dif;t[kefa=umifhyg
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twdik yf ifcH tr_aqmifaumifpo
D pf zGŒJ pnf;a&;udk tay;t,lvyk yf gw,f? tr_aqmifaumifpaD [mif;
udk zsufodrf;ypf+yD; tr_aqmifaumifpDopfrSm zqyv udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifa&; zdwf=um;ygw,f?
t&if zqyv u awmif;qdkcJhwJh twdkifyifcH0ef}uD; (11) ae&mtxd ray;ayr,fh zqyv OuUÏ
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk twdkifyifcH tr_aqmiftzGJŒrSm 'kwd,OuUÏtjzpf ay;ygw,f? umuG,fa&;eJ@
jynfyqufoG,fa&;XmeawGudkvnf; OD;pD;zdk@ay;ygw,f? bk&ifcH&JŒoabmeJ@ zqyv qef@usifa&;
Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;twGi;f u yk*K~ v
d t
f csKŒd udv
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h iG ;f zGŒJ pnf;
apygw,f? zqyv acgi;f aqmifawGu taxGaxGoydw}f uD;udk jyefveS &f iS ;f vif;ay;zd@k wm0ef,cl &hJ yg
w,f? qm[l;bwf&ef&JŒ ajz&Sif;yHk[m =oZmt&SdqHk; zqyvtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;udkvnf; auseyfatmif
tqifah e&mrSet
f wdik ;f todtrSwðf yvdu
k +f yD; jzpfomG ;ovd/k +Adwo
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

51

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

oydwf}uD;udkvnf; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;acgif;aqmifwJh zqyv}uD;eJ@ acgif;wnfay;vdkuf+yD;om;jzpf
oGm;ygw,f?
tr_aqmifaumifpDwGif; 0ifa&; oabmwl+yD;wJhtcg zqyvtzGJŒ}uD;twGif; ae&mcGJa0r_
jy\em ay:vmygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu uGefjrLepfESpfa,muf/ qdk&S,fvpfESpfa,muf/ AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef;eJ@ =um;wa,mufjzpfa&; tqdkðyygw,f? (uGefjrLepf ESpfa,mufjzpf&if ocifodef;azeJ@
ocifoef;xGef;0ifa&;vdk@ qdkygw,f?) OD;ausmf+idrf; wkd@u uGefjrLepfwa,muf/ qdk&S,fvpfwa,muf/
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ =um;wa,mufvdk@ tqdkðy+yD; zsufvdkufygw,f? (&nf&G,fcsufu tpdk;&tzGJŒ
twGif; uGefjrLepfawG tm;}uD;rvmEdkifa&;vdk@qdkygw,f)? uGefjrLepfygwDuzqyv =um;jzwftpdk;&
zGJŒEkdifa&;omt"du/ uGefjrLepfESpfa,muf 0ef}uD;jzpfa&;[m t"dur[kwfqkdwJh tjrifeJ@tav#mhay;
vdu
k w
f ,fqydk gw,f? ocifoed ;f azudk wm0efay;vdu
k yf gw,f? tJ't
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f ek ;f u ocifoef;xGe;f [m
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JΠtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;jzpfaeyg+yD? ygwDtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;wm0ef
udk zdzpd ;D pD; aqmif&u
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ta&G;cH=u&if; OD;ausm+f idr;f u tEkid &f um zqyvtaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; jzpfaeyg+yD? ocifoed ;f az
u zqyv&JΠwGJzuftaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; jzpfygw,f?
pufwifbm (27) &ufrmS bk&ifct
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D pf (tpd;k &tzGŒJ opf) w&m;0if zGŒJ pnf;
ay:aygufvmygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ ocifjr/ ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh)/ OD;baz/ ref;bcdkif/
OD;atmifZaH 0/ qmarmif}u;D / OD;wifxÉG w
f @kd yg0if=uygw,f? uGejf rLepfygwu
D ocifoed ;f az (ode;f azjrif)h
[m v,f,meJ@opfawm0ef}uD; jzpfvmygw,f? Ekd0ifbmrSm ocifApdef/ *VKefOD;apm/ aysmfbG,fOD;jr/
apmbOD;}uD;wd@k xyfryH g0ifvmygw,f? Ekid if jH cm;u jyefvnfa&mufvm=uwJh ocifApdeef @J *VKefO;D apm
wdk@[m bk&ifcHcef@awGjzpf=uygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m olŒt&SdefeJ@ taxGaxGoydwf}uD;udk
jyefveS af tmifvyk &f &if; tcuftcJawG óuH&ovdk wnf&adS e+yD;jzpfwhJ ‘v,form;olyek ’f awG tay:
vnf; t=urf;zufESdyfuGyf&r_awGvkyf&&if;/ a0zefvuf!dk;xdk;p&mawG ay:aygufvmcJh&ygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwDu AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tay: a0zefwmawG ay:xGufvmygw,f? a0zefcsuf
awG[m wpxufwp jyif;xefvmygw,f? tvkyform;vlwef;pm;&JΠwyfOD;ygwDtjzpf cH,lxm;wJh
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zGJŒpnf;&ef óud;pm;=uwkef;u ‘ausmf+idrf;udkawmhvufrcHEdkif’ vdk@ jiif;y,fjcif;cHcJh&wJh OD;ausmf+idrf;u
“uGejf rLepfawG[m Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef;udak wmif opPmazmuftjzpf xdyg;wdu
k cf u
kd af e=u+yD; zqyv
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wGif;rSm wdwdvif;vif;ajymqdkvmygw,f? wufwufºuGºuGvnf; tm;xkwfjyifqifygw,f? “rvdk
52

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vm;tyfwJh om;i,fudkr&&Sdzdk@ udk,f0efaqmifaepOftwGif;rSmudk ae@aphvaphtxd }uD;&ifhcGifhrðyyJ
zsucf s&r,f? om;av#musap&r,f” qdw
k hJ t,ltq&Sw
d hJ OD;ausm+f idr;f [m vufO;D r_&&dS dS ajcvSr;f vSr;f
ygw,f? “uGefjrLepfygwD[m =um;jzwftpdk;&zGJŒpnf;a&;udk olwdk@ygoabmwl+yD;rS ,ck raxmufcH±Hk
ru Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef;udk e,fcsŒJ eJ@y;l aygi;f oGm;ol opPmazmufyrm olw@kd *sme,fu a&;om;ajymqdk
aewm[m tvGe}f uD;rm;wJt
h jypfjzpfwt
hJ wGuf zqyv tvkyt
f r_aqmiftzGŒJ u ta&;,l&r,f”
vd@k wifjyygw,f? OD;bazeJ@ 'D;'kwOf ;D bcsKw
d @kd u OD;ausm+f ird ;f udk axmufc=H uygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;
udk,fwdkifuawmh =um;ujzefajzvdkygw,f?
‘jynfo@l tm%myg a&;om;csuaf wGukd ±kyo
f rd ;f +yD; awmif;yef&r,f’ vd@k zqyv tvkyt
f r_
aqmiftzGJŒu uGefjrLepfygwDudk awmif;qdkygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu r±kyfodrf;yg? rawmif;yefyg?
'kwd,uGef*&ufuwnf;u twdtvif;azmfjya=unmxm;cJhzl;+yD; ‘ygwD oD;jcm;xlaxmif
wnf&cdS iG &hf jdS cif;’ qdw
k hJ tajccHru
l u
dk ikd pf +JG yD; ‘ygwo
D nf vGwv
f yfpmG a0zefciG Ehf iS hf oD;jcm;&yfwnfciG &hf &dS
rnf? zqyv. vufatmufcHtzGJŒtpnf;tjzpfrcHEdkif’ vdk@ wkef@jyef&yfwnfvdkufygw,f? aemuf
qHk;rSm 1946 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm (10) &ufae@rSm zqyvtzGJŒcsKyf}uD;twGif;uae uGefjrLepfygwD
udk xkwfy,fa=umif; a=unmvdkufygw,f?
zqyv}uD; ay:xGe;f jzpfwnfvma&;twGuf óud;yrf;tm;xkw&f mrSm t"du pwifyg0ifcw
hJ hJ
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m olóud;yrf;wnfaxmifcJhwJh zqyv tzGJŒ}uD;&JŒ tjyifbufudk a&muf&Sd
oGm;&yg+yD? z,fxkwfjcif;udkcHvdkuf&yg+yD? wyfaygif;pk}uD;&JŒ nD!Gwfa&; pwifòyduGJjcif;jzpfovdk
wdkif;jynf&JŒ trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ pwifòydtufjcif;jzpfygw,f?
ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh) vnf; =um;jzwftpdk;&tzGJŒu E_wfxGufvdkuf&ygw,f? +Adwdo#
tpd;k &[m zqyv udk tm%mwd;k wd;k +yD; ay;vmygw,f? bk&ifc&H ŒJ tr_aqmifaumifpD oabmuae
uufbdeufoabm ajymif;vJay;vmygw,f? wjznf;jznf; ‘zqyv =um;jzwftpdk;&’ ozG,f
jzpfvmygw,f? 'k OuUÏ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m 0ef}uD;csKyfoabmjzpfvmcJhygw,f? qdk&S,fvpf
OD;ausmf+idrf;[mvnf; jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; jzpfvmygw,f?
uGefjrLepf-qdk&S,fvpf yÉdyuQ[m ydkrdkjyif;xefvmygw,f? zqyv wyfaygif;pk}uD;xJu
uGefjrLepfawGudk xkwfy,fvdkufEdkif+yD;wJhtcg zqyv twGif;rSm qdk&S,fvpfawG tompD;&vmyg
w,f? ae&mwum wGifus,fvmygw,f? zqyvxJu uGefjrLepfawGudk xkwfy,fypfvdkufwJh
*,uf[m jynfolŒ&JabmfawG=um; t}uD;tus,f ±dkufcwfygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfawG&JŒ tompD;,lr_
tay: rauseyfcsuaf wGvnf; jyif;xefvmygw,f? jynfoŒl &Jabmfvnf; ESpyf ikd ;f uGo
J mG ;&ygawmhw,f?
Akv
d o
f ed ;f wef/ Adv
k af tmifrif;wd@k acgi;f aqmifwt
hJ ydik ;f u wyfet
D jzpfcaJG xmifygw,f? wyfeeD @J jynfoŒl
&Jabmf pifòydifjzpfvm=uygw,f? ysOf;rem;bufrSm t&ifuwnf;u wnf&Sdae+yD;jzpfwJh ‘v,form;
wyfrsm;’ eJ@ wyfeDaygif;+yD; wyfeDtjzpf yl;aygif;zGJŒpnf;vdkufygw,f? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if Adkvfwm&m
wdk@[m wyfeDjzpfvmygw,f? wyfeDeJ@ jynfol@&Jabmf[mvJ &efolozG,f jzpfvm=uygw,f?
ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;rSm a&SŒwef;ta&mufqHk;jzpfwJh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m 1946 ckESpf
azazmf0g&DvxJrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ tvHeDygwDtjzpf (2) ydkif;uGJ oGm;cJh&ovdk/ atmufwdk
bm (10) &ufae@rSm zqyv}uD;xJuae uGefjrLepfygwDudk xkwfy,fvdkufjcif;tm;jzifh zqyv
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

53

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

}uD;vnf; pwifòyduGJvmcJh&ygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuae tvHeDygwDtjzpf cGJxGufr_a=umifh
ygwDtuGJ pdwfxdcdkufcJh&wJh ocifA[def;[m usef;rma&;qdk;0g;vm+yD; rE Wav; rdb&yfxH jyefaq;0g;
ukocHae&wke;f / aq;±Hw
k uf ae&wke;f / aygirf ek @f xyk v
f mwJh owif;pmjzwfyikd ;f xJu ‘uGejf rLepfygwu
D kd
zqyv}uD;xJu xkwfy,fvdkufjcif;’ owif; trSwfrxif zwfrdoGm;&mu t}uD;tus,f pdwfxd
cdu
k o
f mG ;&&Smygw,f? tJ'o
D wif;udk odvu
kd &f wm[m Ek0d ifbm (19) &ufae@yg? Ek0d ifbm (20) &ufae@
rSm Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; rE aW v;a&mufvm+yD; ocifA[de;f udk vlrrmvm=unfrh ,fqw
kd o
hJ wif; ocif
A[de;f odvu
kd &f wJt
h cg “igoŒl udrk awGŒcsib
f ;l ? vmcGirhf ay;yge@J ” vd@k olŒZeD;udk wzGzaG jym&if; wnvH;k
rtdyaf wmhy/J pum;rajymawmhyJ jyif;jyif;xefxef a=uuGeJ musn;f cHpm;oGm;&if; Ek0d ifbm (20) &uf
t±k%w
f ufrmS uG,v
f eG q
f ;kH yg;oGm;&&Smygw,f? (20) &ufae@ Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef; a&mufvmwJt
h cg
tavmif;udyk J jrifciG &hf ygawmhw,f? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ud,
k w
f ikd v
f nf; a=ua=uuGu
J JG cHpm;oGm;cJ&h yg
w,f?
uGejf rLepf-qd&k ,
S v
f pf yÉdyuQ[m qd&k ,
S v
f pfrsm;u zqyvqdw
k hJ pnf;±H;k a&; vufeufenf;
eJ@a&m zqyv =um;jzwftpdk;&qdkwJh tm%mvufeufenf;eJ@a&m toHk;ðy wdkufcdkufwJhtwGuf
‘zqyv-uGefjrLepf’ yÉdyuQtoGif ay:vGifcJh&ygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwDu olwdk@&JΠrlv&Sd+yD; rltwdkif; v,form;xGefwHk;wdkufyGJ/ qefvkyGJ/ tvkyf
orm; oydww
f u
kd yf aJG wGukd oufqikd &f m or*~awGuae t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &;tjzpf azmfxw
k f
qifE$Jygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;u jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; tm%mudkoHk;+yD; òzdzsuf[ef@wm;ESdyfuGyfygw,f?
e,fcsJŒorm;&JŒ pmtkyfpifacsmif=um;uae ‘yDtdkyDat (POPA) ac: jynfolŒ+idrf0yfydjym;r_ xdef;odrf;
a&;tufOya' yk'rf (5) udk zqyv pm;yGaJ y:,lvm+y;D / vufeufozG,f toH;k ðycJyh gw,f? OD;ausm+f ird ;f
eJ@ yk'fr (5) [m cGJr&atmif jzpfvmygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkif bk&ifcH&JŒ tr_aqmifaumifpD tpdk;&tzGJŒtwGif; 0ifoGm;&wJh
twGuf zqyv XmecsKyfudk ocifEku OD;pD;tkyfcsKyfaeygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;[m ðryfae+yD; vGwfvyf
a&;wdkufyGJ0ifzdk@ vufaES;ae&if EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifr_ tqifhae&m uGefjrLepfvufxJ a&mufoGm;Edkif
w,f? vGwv
f yfa&;udk uGejf rLepfawGu ,lay;wmrjzpfyJ zqyv u ,lay;wmom jzpfcsiw
f ,fqw
kd hJ
oabmxm;tjrifeJ@ OD;Eku OD;ausmf+idrf;eJ@aygif;+yD; AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;qD tqdkwckwifygw,f? tJ'D
tqdkuawmh wESpftwGif; ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk t*Fvdyfu a=unmay;zdk@/ a=unmray;&if
zqyv ud,
k pf m;vS,af wG tpd;k &tzGŒJ wGi;f uae E_wx
f u
G +f y;D tEkenf;eJ@ tm%mzDqefz@kd jzpfygw,f?
+Adwo
d #e,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &; vGwv
f yfa&;twGuf OD;wnfóud;yrf;wJah e&mrSm Edik if aH &;tiftm;
pkawG=um;xJrmS 1946 ckEpS /f atmufwb
kd mvup+yD; t,ltqESp&f yf vrf;pOfEpS &f yftjzpf uGjJ ym;pGm
jzpfwnfay:ayguv
f mcJyh gw,f? zqyvtzGŒJ csKyf}uD;&JŒ ‘aygi;f vnf;aygi;f rnf/ wdu
k v
f nf;wku
d rf nf’
udkvdkeDpepf qef@usifa&;vrf;pOfeJ@ uGefjrLepfwdk@&JŒ “udkvdkeDorm;rsm;udk vlxkvlwef;pm; v_yf&Sm;r_
rsm;/ wdu
k yf rJG sm;/ aemufq;kH rv$rJ a&Smifomjzpfvmv#if vufeufuikd w
f u
kd yf rJG sm;jzifh qef@usiw
f u
kd cf u
kd f
&rnf” qdkwJh udkvdkeDpepfqef@usifa&;wdkufyGJvrf;pOfjzpfygw,f? 'Dvrf;pOfESpf&yf tjrifESpf&yf&JŒ
yËdyuQ[m yk*~Kdvfa&;yËdyuQ/ tzGJ@tpnf;csif;qdkif&m tòydiftqdkif yËdyuQawGeJ@twl jyif;xefonf;
xefvmcJhygw,f?
54

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef;acgi;f aqmifwhJ zqyv tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;[m awmif;qdck suf (3) &yfukd bk&ifcH
uaewqifh +Adwdo#tpdk;&qD Edk0ifbmvxJrSmyJ ay;ydk@vdkufygw,f? awmif;qdkcsuf (3) &yfuawmh
(1) vuf&Sdtr_aqmiftzGJŒudk vHk;0tm%m&Sdaom =um;jzwftpdk;&tjzpf ajymif;vJay;&rnf? (2)
wdkif;ðyjynfðy v$wfawmfzGJŒpnf;a&;twGuf a&G;aumufyGJ}uD; usif;y&rnf? (3) Armjynftm; vHk;0
vGwv
f yfaom wdik ;f jynftjzpf wESpt
f wGi;f jzpfap&rnf[k a=unmay;&rnfqw
kd mjzpfygw,f? 1947
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D (31) &ufae@ aemufqHk;xm;+yD; a=unmay;&ef rvdkufavsmygu tpdk;&tzGJŒrS E_wf
xGufr,fvdk@vnf; azmfjyvdkufygw,f?
zqyv&JΠwESpt
f wGi;f vGwv
f yfa&;aºuG;a=umfoeH @J vGwv
f yfa&;wku
d yf t
JG wGuf uGejf rLepf
ygwDu axmufcHcJhygw,f? yËdyuQawG uGJvGJr_awG=um;xJuae axmufcHvdkufwmjzpfygw,f?
1946/ 'DZifbmrSm +Adwdo#tpdk;&u Armtpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒudk vef'efvma&muf
aqG;aEG;zdk@ zdwf=um;&ygw,f? 'DZifbm (20) &ufrSm eef;&if0eftufwvDu “u|Ekfyfwdk@onf "eo
[m,e,ftwGif;Y raevdkolrsm;tm; ae&rnf[krwm;vdkyg? Armjynfolwdk@onf olwdk@qENt&
olw@kd . aemifa&;udk qH;k jzwfprD =H u&efjzpfygonf?” vd@k ygvrD efatmufvw
$ af wmfrmS a=unmay;&yg
w,f?
vef'efukd roGm;cif Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u jynfo/l zqyv/ wyfrawmfw@kd ukd toif&h =dS uyg/
pnf;vH;k nD!w
G =f uygv@kd rSm=um;owday;ygw,f? jynfoŒl &Jabmfuv
kd nf; toifjh yifz@kd rSm=um;xm;cJh
ygw,f? 1947 Zefe0g&D (2) &ufae@rmS Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;wd@k tzGŒJ tdE,
dN jynf e,l;a'vDukd av,mOf
eJ@ pwifc&D;xGufygw,f? e,l;a'vDrSm owif;pmq&mawGu “ArmhvGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_rSm tEk
enf;oHk;rvm;/ t=urf;enf;oHk;rvm;” ar;=uygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfu “tajctaet&yJ/ u|efawmfwdk@
uawmh vufraES;ygb;l ” vd@k ajzcJyh gw,f? Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef; acgi;f aqmifwhJ ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f zGŒJ rSm
yg0ifolawGuawmh/ ocifjr/ OD;baz/ OD;wifxGËf/ ocifApdefeJ@ *ÏKefOD;apmwdk@jzpfygw,f? ocifApdefeJ@
*ÏKefOD;apm[m bk&ifcHu a&G;cs,fv$wfwmjzpfygw,f? t=uHay;tjzpf vdkufygoGm;=uolawGu
awmh OD;ausmf+idrf;/ Akdvfp}uFm/ ocifcspf (a';'&J)/ OD;b&if rdwˆDvmwkd@ jzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ OD;wnfcsuftwGuf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuvnf; 1947 ckESpf
Zefe0g&v
D xJrmS yJ ‘aemufq;kH wdu
k yf v
JG rf;pOf’ udck srw
S +f y;D ‘zqyv uGejf rLepf nD!w
G af &;wnfaqmuf
oGm;&ef’ qH;k jzwfvu
kd yf gw,f? e,fcsŒJ orm;udk t+y;D wdik f wdu
k x
f w
k af &;twGuf jyifqifygw,f? e,fcsŒJ
orm;wdu
k x
f w
k af &;twGuf vGwv
f yfa&;v_y&f mS ;r_reS o
f r#ukd yl;aygi;f tm;jznfzh @kd oabmxm; csrw
S f
ygw,f?
Zefe0g&D (9) &ufae@rmS vef'efukd Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;wd@k a&mufygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;
wdk@&JŒ vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf; ta&;qdkr_udk tm;jznfhbdk@ ArmjynfwGif;uae vGwfvyfa&;eJ@ e,fcsJŒqef@
usifa&; tiftm;jyyGJ}uD; usif;yqifEGJygw,f? (10) &ufae@rSm v,form;ae@/ (11) &ufae@rSm
jynfolŒ&Jabmfae@/ (12) &ufae@rSm vcpm; tr_xrf;aygif;pHkae@/ (13) &ufae@ trsKd;orD;ae@/ (14)
&ufae@ tvkyo
f rm;ae@/ (15) &ufae@ ausmif;om;ae@/ (16) &ufae@ zqyv ae@ pojzifh ae@tvdu
k f
cGJ+yD; qENjy tiftm;jyv_yf&Sm;=uygw,f? tJ'Dv_yf&Sm;r_awGxJrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuvnf;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

55

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

yl;aygif;tm;jznfh yg0ifcJhygw,f? tJ'DumvtwGif;rSm ‘&&if&r&&ifcs’ aºuG;a=umfoH xGufay:vmcJh
ygw,f?
Zefe0g&D (13) &ufae@rmS Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;eJ@ tufwvDw@kd pwifaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? aqG;aEG;
aepOfumvtwGi;f rSm ‘Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;onf &Sr;f jynfvx
l .
k ud,
k pf m;vS,rf [kw’f vd@k &Sr;f jynf
apmfbGm;tcsKdŒu vef'efudk oHóud;±dkufygw,f? &Srf;jynfu OD;bZH (tif;av;)/ OD;azcif/ OD;xGef;jrifh
pwJh vli,fawGu vlxktpnf;ta0;ac: +yD; &Srf;jynfvlxkudk,fpm;vS,fjzpfw,fqdkwJh qHk;jzwfcsuf
udkcsrSwf+yD; oHóud;jyef±dkufygw,f?
Zefe0g&Dv (27) &ufae@txd aqG;aEG;yGJ (10) }udrfusif;y+yD; ‘atmifqef;-tufwvDpm
csKyf’ xGuaf y:vmcJyh gw,f? pmcsKyfukd ud,
k pf m;vS,w
f zGŒJ wnf; twlyg0ifaqG;aEG;cJ=h uwJh ocifApdeef @J
*ÏKefO;D apmwd@k u yg0ifvuf rSwx
f ;kd jcif;rðyyJ uef@uu
G cf =hJ uygw,f? (Armjynfjyefa&mufwahJ emufvJ
0ef}uD;tjzpfuae E_wfxGufoGm;=uygw,f)
pmcsKyfyg oabmwlnDcsufawGt& tr_aqmifaumifpD[m =um;jzwftpdk;&tjzpf todt
rSwðf ycH&+yD; =um;jzwftpd;k & tm%m&vmygw,f? +Adwo
d #vufeufuikd f wyfawGrt
S y/ umuG,af &;
qdkif&m vufeufudkifwyfawGeJ@ EkdifiHjcm;a&;Xmeudk AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; acgif;aqmifwJh =um;jzwf
tpdk;&u tkyfcsKyfcGifh&ygw,f? udk,fydkif b¾ma&;tkyfcsKyfr_udk &&Sdygw,f? Armtpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,f
r[mrif;}uD;wOD; vef'efrSm xm;cGifh&ygw,f? jynfreJ@awmifwef;a'o tem*wf ta&;twGuf
awmifwef;a'o&JŒqEN,l&ef oabmwl=uygw,f? t&G,fa&mufolwdkif; rJay;EkdifwJhpepfeJ@ a&G;
aumufwJh wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf ac:cGifh&cJh&ygw,f? wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf&JŒ tqHk;tjzwfudk
+Adwdo#ygvDrefrSm twnfðyzdk@ wifoGif;&r,fvdk@ oabmwlcJh=uygw,f?
azazmf0g&v
D qef;rSm Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; Armjynfjyefa&mufvmygw,f? Armjynf jyefa&muf
a&mufcsi;f atmifqef;-tufwvD pmcsKyfe@J ywfouf+yD; wdik ;f jynfukd wm0ef,l &Si;f vif;ajym=um;&m
rSm ‘vGwv
f yfa&;r&cJah o;a=umif;/ od@k &mwGif enf;vrf;udo
k m&&Scd ahJ =umif;/ ,if;enf;vrf;udk taumif
txnfazmf&eftwGuf wwdkif;wjynfvHk; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfzdk@vdka=umif;’ vdk@ twdtvif; xkwfazmf
oGm;cJhygw,f?
1947 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&D (5) &ufae@txd &efukefòrdŒ Aifweftxdrf;trSwf cef;rrSm u&if
trsKd;om;uGef*&uf usif;yygw,f? u&iftrsKd;om; (700) ausmf wufa&mufygw,f? tJ'DrSm
u&ifA[dktzGJŒcsKyf (KCO) eJ@ u&ifvli,frsm;tpnf;t±Hk; (KYO) aygif;+yD;/ ‘u&iftrsKd;om;tzGJŒ
csKyf’ (KNU) zGJŒpnf;EdkifcJhygw,f? uGef*&ufrSm autif,luvJ atmifqef;-tufwvDpmcsKyfudk
uef@uGufa=umif; +Adwdo#eef;&if0efqDudk oHóud;±dkufygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;[m Ekid if w
H 0ef;oGm;+y;D wdik ;f &if;om;rsm; pnf;vH;k a&;/ twlwuG jynfaxmif
pk}u;D xlaxmifa&; a[majymygw,f? yifvn
kH v
D mcH}u;D ay:vmygw,f? &Sr;f jynfyifvòkH rŒd rSm &Sr;f / ucsi/f
csif; udk,fpm;vS,fawG pka0;=uygw,f? u&ifeJ@ u&ifeDu avhvmoltjzpfyJ wufa&mufygw,f?
autif,lu z'dk0D&Dausmf/ oxHk OD;vSaz/ apmpHau;eJ@ OD;cspfwD;wdk@ avhvmoltjzpf wufa&mufyg
w,f? yifvHknDvmcH}uD;&JΠ&v'ftjzpf ordkif;0if yifvHkpmcsKyf xGufay:vmcJhygw,f? azazmf0g&Dv
(12) &ufae@rmS yifvpkH mcsKyfukd vufrw
S af &;xd;k +yD; awmifwef;eJ@ ajrjyef@ waygi;f wnf; vGwv
f yfa&;
56

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

&,la&; qHk;jzwfEkdifcJh=uygw,f? yifvHkpmcsKyfudk ArmEkdifiHtpdk;&udk,fpm; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ &Srf;/
ucsif/ csif; udk,fpm;vS,f (22) OD;u vufrSwfa&;xdk;chJygw,f?
yifvHknDvmcHusif;yaepOftwGif;rSmyJ &Srf;/ ucsif/ csif; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;[m “awmifwef;
om;rsm;pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;OD;pD;tzGJŒ’ udkvnf; zGJŒpnf;cJh=uygw,f? OuUÏ [m pyfa&$odkufjzpf+yD;
'k OuUÏ u qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif jzpfygw,f?
tJ'u
D mvtwGi;f rSm wzufu trsK;d om;aoG;pnf;nD!w
G af &;twGuf óud;yrf; tm;xkwrf _
awGawGŒ&ovdk/ rSefrSefuefuefvrf;a=umif;qDa&muf&Sda&;udk wGef;wifEdk;aqmfay;r_awG awGŒ&ovdk/
tjcm;wzufrSm aoG;uGJr_awG tm%mòydifqdkifr_awG *dk%f;*%v_yf&Sm;r_awG[mvnf; tqufrjywf
qufvufjzpfay:aecJhygw,f?
atmifqef;-tufwvDpmcsKyfa=umifh uGejf rLepfygwu
D ‘rdwaf qGatmifqef;b,fv’J qkw
d hJ
pmtkyfudk xkwfa0+yD; owday;&if; EkdifiHa&;t,ltqawGudk wifjyygw,f?
tm%mwydik ;f &jzpfaewJh zqyvtzGŒJ }uD;twGi;f rSm qd&k ,
S v
f pf-jynfoŒl &Jabmf yËdyuQ[m
ay:ay:xifxif jzpfwnfvmae+yD; qdk&S,fvpfygwDuvnf; “atmifqef; cg;ydkufaqmifwyf jynfolŒ
&Jabmf” “zufqpfatmifqef;b,fvJ”pwJh a=unmcsufawG xkwfjyefvmwmawGŒ&ygw,f? e,f
awGrSm uGefjrLepf-qdk&S,fvpfyËdyuQ xdyfwef;a&mufaeovdk/ jynfol@&Jabmf-qkd&S,fvpf&efyGJawG
vnf; xdy+f yJ acgi;f uGt
J ajctae ay:ayguaf eygw,f? jynfoŒl &Jabmfbufu Adv
k pf ed rf eS f acgi;f aqmif
+yD; ‘iSufzsm;wdkufzsufa&; jcifrsKd;ðzwfa&;pDrHudef;’ vdk ‘qkd&S,fvpfrsKd;ðzwfa&;pDrHudef;’ awmif toH
xGuv
f mcJyh gw,f? qd&k ,
S v
f pfawG&ŒJ npfywfrr_ sK;d pHu
k kd rcHEikd v
f eG ;f vd@k vd@k qykd gw,f? tJ'pD rD u
H ed ;f ocifEk
em;aygufoGm;+yD; aròrdŒa&mufaewJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk ta&;w}uD; ac:,lwdkif=um; ajz&Sif;cJh&
w,fqdkygw,f? AdkvfpdefrSefu jynfol@&JabmfwyfzGJŒudk EdkifiHa&;ygwDw&yftoGif ajymif;vJwnf
aqmufz@kd Adv
k cf sKyfukd wifjyem;ylwt
hJ cg Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u cg;cg;oD;oD; jiif;y,fc±hJ rkH u “uGejf rLepf
ygww
D &yf&+dS yD;jzpf&if aemufxyfygwo
D pf raxmif&bl;? rif;wd@k vkd oabmxm;rsK;d igrh mS &Scd &hJ if tapm
}uD;uwnf;u pifòydiyf gwaD xmifcrhJ mS ayg?h raxmiftyfraxmifaumif;vd@k raxmifyaJ ecJw
h mjzpfw,f?
rif;wdk@vnf;raxmif&bl;?” vdk@ jywfjywfom;om; ydwfyifwm;jrpfcJhygw,f? wqufwnf;rSmyJ
“wm;r&vd@k ZGwaf xmifcsiw
f ,fq&kd ifvnf; axmif=uayg?h 'gayrJh iguawmh b,fawmhrS rygEikd b
f ;l ?”
vdk@ ,wdjywf ydwfajym+yD; olŒ&yfwnfcsufudk azmfxkwfjyocJhw,fvdk@qdkygw,f?
1947 ckESpf/ rwfvrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD OD;pD;wJh ‘jzL;awmifolv,form; uGef*&uf’
jzL;e,frmS usi;f yygw,f? Zefe0g&/D azaz:0g&x
D rJ mS yJc;l e,frmS awmifov
l ,form;rsm;&JΠqeford ;f yG/J
qefvkyJG/ v,form;wkdufyGJawG ay:ayguf+yD;cgp tajctaerSm usif;ywmjzpfygw,f? yJcl;e,f/
ykodrfe,f ‘qefodrf;yGJ’ ‘qefoydwfxm;jcif;’ wdk@udk jynfolŒ&JabmfeJ@ qdk&S,fvpfrsm; zqyvrsm;
ud,
k w
f ikd f yg0ifqifEcJG =hJ uygw,f? tJ'v
D y_ &f mS ;r_rsm;udk uGejf rLepfygwu
D axmufccH +hJ yD; jzL;uGe*f &ufrmS
ygwDtoD;oD;&JŒ &duQmwdkufyGJtajctaeawGudk qef;ppf+yD; &duQmwdkufyGJrsm; z±dkz&Jrjzpfap&? pepf
wuspnf;±Hk;+yD; wdkufwJhwdkufyGJrsm;jzpfapa&;/ y±dk*sufbkwfwdk@udkom t"duOD;wnfwdkufwJh e,fcsJŒpD;
yGm;a&;pepfudkom OD;wnfwdkufwJh wkdufyGJrsm;jzpfapa&;wdk@twGuf EdkifiHa&;&nf&G,fcsufudk csrSwf
qHk;jzwfwm vkyfygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

57

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

qdk&S,fvpfawGu 'DqefvkyJGawG[m zqyvtpdk;&udk t=uyftwnf;jzpfatmif uGefjrLepf
awGu vkyfaqmifapwm/ wcsKdŒe,fawGrSm qdk&S,fvpfeJ@ jynfolŒ&JabmfawG[m vlxk}uD; uGefjrLepf
awGbuf ygroGm;apa&;twGuf tzGJŒcsKyfu !¸ef=um;csufr&rDtwGif; qefvkyGJawGrSm a&m¹yGrf;+yD;
yg0ifaqmif&u
G cf w
hJ m/ {+yDv a&G;aumufyeJG m;eD;+yDr@kd zqyveJ@ vlxu
k kd vSn&hf efwu
dk af y;+yD; uGejf rLepf
awG vlxkaxmufcHr_&atmif &nf&G,fcsuf&Sd&Sd vkyfaqmifwmvdk@ jrif=uygw,f? twdtvif; pGyfpGJ
ajymqdkwmawGvnf; vkyfygw,f?
atmifqef;-tufwvD oabmwlncD sut
f & ppf+yD;acwf Armjynf&ŒJ yxrqH;k aom ‘wdik ;f ðy
jynfðy v$waf wmfa&G;aumufy’JG udk 1947/ {+yDvrSm usi;f yygw,f? pkpak ygi;f ae&m (255) ae&m&Scd ahJ y
r,fh (182) ae&mtwGufyJ jynfrrSm,SOfòydif a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf=u&wmjzpfygw,f? usef (73)
ae&m[m vlrsKd;pkrsm;eJ@ ujym;rsm;twGuf oD;oef@ csefxm;cJGa0ay;cJh&ygw,f? u&iftrsKd;om;rsm;
(24) ae&m/ &Srf;trsKd;om;rsm; (23)/ ucsiftrsKd;om;rsm; (7)/ csif;trsKd;om;rsm; (7)/ u&ifeDtrsKd;
om;rsm; (2)/ tjcm; awmifwef;a'o wdik ;f &if;om;rsm; (6) ae&meJ@ t*Fvyd -f Arm ujym;rsm; (4)
ae&m/ pkpkaygif; (73) ae&mjzpfygw,f?
'Dwdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJudk *VKefOD;apm/ ocifApdef/ a'gufwmbarmfwdk@
‘apmpdefarmf’ *dk%f;u oydwfarSmufovdk/ ocifpdk;&JŒ tvHeDygwDuvnf; oydwfarSmufygw,f?
apmbOD;}uD; acgi;f aqmifwhJ autif,u
l vnf; oydwaf rSmuf uef@uu
G cf yhJ gw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepf
ygwDu ygw&D ŒJ vrf;pOfcsjyEkid af &;eJ@ v$waf wmfwiG ;f rSm ygw&D ŒJ toH azmfxw
k Ef idk af &;twGu&f nf&,
G +f y;D
0ifa&muf ,SOòf ydif ta&G;cs,cf yH gw,f? ae&mtm;vH;k rSm r,SOòf ydiyf /J ae&mtenf;pkuav;rSmyJ vuf
a&G;piftrwfawGeJ@ ,SOfòydifygw,f? ysOf;rem;c±dkif (&rnf;oif;c±dkif) rSm (6) ae&m ,SOfòydifta&G;cs,f
cH&m rSm (4) ae&m tEdkif&cJhw,fqdkygw,f?
ArmjynfrtwGuf ae&m (182) ae&mrSm zqyvu (171) ae&m/ Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwD
u (7) ae&m/ woD; yk*~vu (4) ae&m tEdkif&&Sda&G;cs,fcHcJh=u&ygw,f?
arv (23) &ufae@rmS zqyvu ‘y%mrjyifqifrn
_ v
D mcH}uD;’ udk usi;f yygw,f? zqyv
tvkyt
f r_aqmif (11) OD;/ A[dOk ;D pD;0if (25) OD;/ c±dik u
f ,
kd pf m;vS,f (30) OD;/ zqyv trwf (45) OD;/
aygif; (111) OD;yg aumfrDwDzGJŒpnf;+yD; tajccHOya'rl=urf; a&;qGJa&;udk pDpOfygw,f?
1947 arvxJrmS yJ u&iftrsK;d om;rsm; tusK;d pD;yGm;udk umuG,af pmifah &Smufz@kd / u&iftrsK;d
om;rsm;&JΠautif,'l t
D kd tzGŒJ }uD;ay:ayguv
f mygw,f? (=o*kwv
f rSm autif,'l t
D u
kd ae autif
'Dtdk vdk@ emrnfajymif;vJ ac:a0:ygw,f)
ZGefvrSm wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf tpnf;ta0;}uD; pwifusif;yygw,f? zqyv }uD;xJu
jynfolŒ&Jabmftrwfrsm;u ,leDazmif;0wfeJ@ v$wfawmfwufvmovdk qdk&S,fvpfygwD0iftrwf
rsm;uvnf; umuD,el aD zmif;0wf+yD; v$waf wmfwufvm±Hrk u vnfp;D teDawmif wyfqifvmvdu
k f
=uygao;w,f? uGefjrLepftrwf (7) OD;vnf; yg0ifwufa&mufygw,f? ocifEkudk v$wfawmf OuUÏ
tjzpf a&G;cs,fygw,f? tajccHOya'a&;qGJa&; aumfrwDawGzGJ@=uygw,f? zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccH
Oya'rlawGukd Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;u ZGev
f 16 &ufae@rmS wifoiG ;f +yD; v$waf wmfu wnDw!Gwx
f J
twnfjyKygw,f? zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk Oya'rl=urf;udk aqG;aEG;=uwJhtcg uGefjrLepftrwfawGvJ
58

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

yg0ifaqG;aEG;cJhygw,f? wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu a&;qGJxm;wJhtkyfcsKyfa&;rSm AsL±dkua&pD
taqmufttHkudk rzsufyJ rlvtwdkif;xm;wmeJ@ ywfouf+yD; uGefjrLepfygwD&JΠudk,fpm;vS,f
uGejf rLepftrwfrsm;u ‘jyifqifcsu’f wifoiG ;f cJ=h uygw,f? 'gayr,fh zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w
G af &;
r&&Sdao;csdefrSm e,fcsJ@orm;eJ@ azmufjyefa&;orm;awGudk toHk;cs&ef vufeufay;ovdk jzpfrSm
pdk;vdk@qdk+yD; ‘jyifqifcsuf’awGudk ±kyfodrf;cJhw,fqdkygw,f?
1947 ckESpf/ ZGefv (18) &ufae@rSm ‘ArmEdkifiHudk vGwfvyfaom orRwEdkifiHawmftjzpf
xlaxmif+yD; +Adwdo# "eo[m,tkyfpktjyifbufwGif oD;jcm;vGwfvyfpGm aexdkifjcif;ðyrnf’ qdkwJh
qHk;jzwfcsufudk wnDw!Gwfwnf; qHk;jzwfcJh=uygw,f? tJ'DqHk;jzwfcsufudk udkvdkeDe,fcsJŒorm;
t*Fvyd af wG rcHr&yfEikd jf zpf=uw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? +Adwo
d #ygvrD efrmS ‘c&Geb
f -D jr’ b¾ma&; oabm
wlnDcsuft& ArmEdkifiH&oHk;aiG&JΠvdkaiGtwGuf axmufyhH&efxm;cJhwJh uwdudkawmif jyefvnfzsuf
odr;f zd@k atmf}uD;[pfus,f ajymcJ=h uw,fqykd gw,f? wu,fu ‘c&Geb
f -D jr’ pmcsKyf[m Armjynfu
emwJph mcsKyfjzpfygw,f? (wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmfa&G;aumufyJG jyifqifusi;f yaecdu
k u
f mvrSm csKyfqckd hJ
wJh pmcsKyfjzpf+y;D / Armjynfbufu =um;jzwftpd;k & b¾ma&;0ef}u;D ocifjreJ@ +Aw
d o
d #bufu ‘c&Geb
f ’D
qdo
k l ud,
k pf m;ðyvufrw
S x
f ;kd cJw
h hJ b¾ma&;qdik &f m pmcsKyw
f ckjzpfygw,f? ppf+y;D acwf ArmEdik if x
H al xmif
a&;twGuf +Adwed u
f a&$'*F g; (18) oef; acs;iSm;ay;a&;eJ@ Armjynfu òrdŒjytkycf sKyfa&;omru Arm
Edik if rH Smusef&SdcJhwJh taxGaxGypPnf;rsm;&JΠukefusaiGudkyg +Adwdeftm; jyefvnfay;oGif;&ef oabm
wlnDcsufjzpfygw,f?)
+Adwo
d #e,fcsŒJ orm;awG[m Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef;vdk trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmifwa,mufukd jref
jrefqefqef z,f&Sm;csifvm=uygw,f? ppf+yD;puvnf; vlowfr_eJ@zrf;qD;+yD; z,f&Sm;a&; ratmifr
jrif jzpfcJh+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;uvnf; +Adwdo#wdk@&JŒajcvSrf;udk wae@wjcm; ydkrdkod&Sdae+yD jzpfygw,f?
zqyv wGif; azmufjyefa&;orm;wcsKdŒ&JŒ ajcvSrf;awGudkvnf; odjrifem;vnf aecJh+yDjzpfygw,f?
(om"utm;jzifh +Adwo
d #e@J y;l aygi;f a&;udk tjyif;txeftm;xkwaf ewJh ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&; 0ef}uD;
OD;bazudk zqyvtzGŒJ csKyfuae xkwyf ,fc&hJ +y;D +yD jzpfygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyftud&k if; OD;atmifoef; qd&k ,
S f
vpfygw0D ifwek ;f uvnf; Adv
k cf sKyu
f “urBmrSm qd&k ,
S v
f pfygwq
D w
kd m tacsmiform;awGAs” vk@d ajym+y;D
rESpfòrdŒa=umif; jyocJhzl;w,fqdkygw,f?)
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m e,fcsJŒorm;&JŒajcvSrf; azmufjyefa&;orm;rsm;&JŒ ajcvSrf;awGudk
wm;qD;zd@k ‘nD!w
G af &;vufeuf’ eJ@ wm;qD;ckczH @kd jyifygw,f? zqyv-uGejf rLepfn!
D w
G af &;udk jyefvnf
wnfaqmufzdk@ pdkif;jyif;pDrHvmcJhygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDuvnf; 1947 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvuwnf;u
aemufqHk;wdkufyGJvrf;pOfcs+yD; zqyv-uGefjrLepf nD!Gwfa&; wnfaqmuf&ef aºuG;a=umfxm;+yD;
jzpfygw,f?
+Aw
d o
d #e,fcsŒJ orm;&JŒ ppfwyftwGi;f vufeufwu
kd u
f b&if;*ef; (200) eJ@ cJ,rf; rD;ausmuf
tajrmuftrsm; cdk;xkwfcH&wJhowif;/ aysmufqHk;aea=umif;owif; ZGefv (24) &ufae@rSm xGufay:
vmygw,f? (t*Fvdyfppfwyf&JΠppfOD;pD;csKyf vufzwifeif *sife&,fb&pf udk,fwdkif b&if;*ef;awG
OD;apmvufxJ a&mufoGm;a=umif; od+yD;jzpfygw,f?)
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

59

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

t*Fvyd pf pfwyftwGi;f u b&if;*ef;tvuf (200) eJ@ cJ,rf;rD;ausmufawG cd;k xkwcf &H a=umif;
owif;udo
k wif;pmrsm;uvnf; pmvH;k rJ}u;D awGe@J azmfjycJ=h uygw,f? jynfoŒl tm%m*sme,f/ uGejf rL
epfowif;pmwk@d uvnf; 'Dowif;udk ta&;}u;D owif;tjzpf tav;wifazmfjycJ=h uygw,f? om,m0wD
e,fbufrmS vnf; 'Dowif;[m ysŒH ES@H aecJyh gw,f? t*Fvyd pf pfwyfe@J wm0ef&t
dS &m&S}d u;D rsm;[m olw@kd
udk,fwdkif yl;aygif;yg0ifvkyfaqmifxm;cJhwJh udpPjzpfwJhtwGuf vlxk=um;rSm 'Dowif;[m awmrD;
yrmysHŒESH@aeayr,fh bmrSta&;,laqmif&Gufr_ rvkyfyJ rodusKd;u|H vkyfaecJh=uygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;[m ‘aygi;f jcif;aygi;f v#if uGejf rLepfygwED iS o
hf m aygi;f rnf’ qdw
k hJ rde@f ceG ;f udk
twdtvif;ajym=um;vm+yD; uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ nD!Gwfa&;wnfaqmufzdk@ jyifqifvmcJhygw,f?
Zlvdkifv (13) &uf òrdŒawmfcef;rrSm rdef@cGef;ac|wJhtcgrSmvnf; ‘ArmjynfrSm vltrsKd;rsKd;
tcsif;csif;ruGJzdk@/ vli,fydkif;jzpfwJh vuf0Jorm;tcsif;csif; ruGJ=uzdk@ owday;vdkw,f’ vdk@
xyfqifhzGifh[jyef ygw,f? òrdŒawmfcef;r aemufqHk; rdef@cGef;&Snf}uD; ajym=um;t+yD;rSm zqyv
uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&; twGuf aqG;aEG;=uzdk@ ocifoef;xGef;qDudkvnf; w&m;0if&ufcsdef;ay;
zdwf=um;vdkufygw,f?
Zlvikd v
f (19) &uf reuf 10 em&D 37 rdepfrmS trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmif}uD; Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;
wd@k wawG vl,w
k rf mrsm;&JΠvky=f uHowfjzwfjcif;udk cHvu
kd =f u&ygawmhw,f? =um;&olwikd ;f wkev
f y_ f
oGm;=u&ovdk 0rf;enf;yufvuf ,lóuH;r&jzpfcJh=u&ygw,f?
tJ'Dae@naerSmyJ aysmufqHk;aew,fqdkwJh vufeufawGudpPeJ@ywfouf+yD; *VKefOD;apmtdrf
udk aomif;use;f r_ ESrd ef if;a&;wyfe@J &Jrsm;u 0ifa&muf&mS azGygw,f? vufeufawGuv
kd nf; azmfxw
k f
&SmazG odr;f qnf;rdc+hJ yD; OD;apmeJ@ OD;apmtdr&f dS vltm;vH;k udv
k nf; zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f cJyh gw,f? 'gayr,fh
tJ'Dtcsdeftxd AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ@ acgif;aqmifawGudk b,folvkyf=uHowfjzwfcJhovJqdkwm
wdwu
d susrajymqdEk ikd =f uao;ygb;l ? qd&k ,
S v
f pfawGu “'gæuGejf rLepfawGvufcsuaf erSmvd@k wD;wd;k
0g'jzef@ pGypf =JG uovdk jynfoŒl &Jabmfrsm;uvnf; aoewfwjyifjyif jzpfc=hJ uw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? tajc
tae[m twdr;f tapmif;rcHEikd af vmufatmif ±_yaf xG;aecJ+h yD; ajcwvSr;f rSm;v#if owf=ujzwf=ueJ@
jynfwGif;ppfrD; xawmufvmEdkifwJh taetxm;jzpfygw,f? tJ'DtajctaerSm AdkvfcsKyfwdk@vkyf=uH
cH&+yD; aemufw&ufrmS yJ awmufavmifvmvke;D jynfwiG ;f ppfuw
kd m;qD;zd@k uGejf rLepfygwD taxGaxG
twGi;f a&;rSL; ocifoef;xGe;f u “wu,fvyk }f uHrw
_ &m;cH[m e,fcsŒJ orm;eJ@ e,fcsŒJ vufyg;aprsm;
omjzpfa=umif; vufrSwfa&;xdk; xkwfjyefa=unmvdkufygw,f? w&m;cHtppftrSef e,fcsJŒorm;udk
rD;armif;xdk;jy+yD; EdkifiHa&;tjrif &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;eJ@ rSefrSefuefuefaxmufjyay;cJhygw,f? ypfrSwfrSef
&Smr&yJ od@k avm od@k avm jzpfae=uwJh jynforl sm; 0if;ueJ&iS ;f ueJ jzpfomG ;+yD; e,fcsŒJ tay: rke;f wD;r_
aZmif; [kef;ceJa&mufoGm;oavmuf e,fcsJŒorm;wdk@tzdk@ xdwfvef@wkefv_yfoGm;cJh&ygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@ vkyf=uHcH&+yD;+yD;csif; bk&ifcHqm[l;bwf&ef@u OD;Ekudk tpdk;&zGJΠcdkif;yg
w,f? ocifEkacgif;aqmifwJh tpdk;&tzGJΠay:aygufvmygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@ vkyf=uHowfjzwfcH&r_}uD; aemufuG,frSm +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;awG
trSefyJ twGif;usus ywfoufcJhygw,f? t*Fvdyfppfwyfudk,fwdkif yg0ifywfoufcJhygw,f? Armjynf
&Sd t*Fvdyfppfwyf t&m&Sdrsm;u vufeufawG cdk;xkwfay;jcif;eJ@ywfoufcJhovdk t*Fvdyfppfwyf&JŒ
60

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

wm0eft&Sq
d ;kH Akv
d cf sKyf/ Adv
k rf LS ;csKyf}u;D rsm; axmufvrS ;f a&;tzGŒJ &JŒ t}u;D qH;k wm0ef&o
dS rl sm;[m aysmuf
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tvdw
k l tvdyk gvyk cf =hJ uwmjzpfygw,f? &nf&,
G cf sut
f rSeu
f Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef;vdk e,fcsŒJ qef@usif
a&;tjrif&Sdol ppfrSefwJh wdkif;cspfjynfcspfpdwf&Sdol trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifwa,mufudk z,f&Sm;ypf+yD;/
OD;apmvdk tm%m±l; tvkad wmf&w
d a,mufvufxJ Armjynfukd xm;csicf w
hJ mjzpfygw,f? qufvuf
+y;D udv
k ekd ðD ycsiaf ecJ=h uwmjzpfygw,f? tJ'v
D kd wm0efukd vuf&ZJ uf&J xrf;aqmifEikd rf ,fo
h [
l m OD;apm
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kd m ,H=k unf+yD; ,l*ef'guae Armjynfjyefac:vm/ a&mufa&mufcsi;f tpd;k &tzGŒJ wGi;f oGi;f
ay;/ wav#mufv;kH Adv
k cf sKyfw@kd ukd twdu
k t
f cHvyk af eapcJw
h m jzpfygw,f? yxrqH;k t}udrf vlowfr_
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ppfwyfu ppfwyfenf;eJ@ óud;yrf;zd@k vufeufawGxw
k af y;+yD; vky=f uHa&;vrf;udk taumiftxnfay:
apcJhwmjzpfygw,f? vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; &,l+yD; "eo[m,xJvnf; rae&efqHk;jzwfvdkufwJhtay:
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k =f uwmjzpfygw,f?
vkyf=uHr_a=umifh OD;apmtpdk;& wufvmEkdifv#if wufvm/ rwufvmEdkifawmif OD;apmwdk@vdk
vlawGvufxJ vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmufawG tajrmuftrsm;&Sdaeapjcif;tm;jzifh jynfwGif;ppfrD;
awmufavmifvmap&ef &nf&G,fcJhyHkvJ&ygw,f? vkyf=uHa&;oufoufavmuftxdqdk&if vufeuf
tenf;i,f usnftenf;i,f xkwfay;±HkeJ@ vHkavmufEdkifrSef;odygvsuf tJ'Dacwfu taumif;qHk;
avmufjzpfaewJh b&if;*ef; pwif;*ef; tvuf (200) ausmfeJ@ usnfqH odef;csD xkwfay;cJhwmudk
=unfhr,fqdk&if e,fcsJŒorm;awG&JŒ oabmxm;[m jynfwGif;ppfjzpfa&;qdkwm &Sif;aecJhygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ azmfxw
k af xmufjycsuaf =umifh wkev
f y_ o
f mG ;cJ&h wJh e,fcsŒJ bk&ifc[
H m ocifEk
udk tpd;k &zGŒJ ap+y;D wmeJ@wòyid ef uf t*Fvyd q
f ef@usiaf &; vlxt
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}uD;wGif t*Fvyd w
f @kd yg0ifywfoufaeonft
h a=umif;udk owif;pmrsm;rSjzpfap/ vlxak [majymr_rsm;
rSmjzpfap vH;k 0pGypf aJG jym=um;jcif;rðy=u&ef owday;cJo
h vdk ta&;ydik f (c±dik 0f ef) rsm;udv
k nf; txufyg
twdkif; ajymqdkpGyfpGJolrsm;tm; vdktyfovdkta&;,l&ef !¸ef=um;xm;cJhw,fvdk@qdkygw,f? (tajc
taerSefawGudk odvmygvsuf/ zHk;zHk;zdzd vkyfay;cJhwm[m “vGwfvyfa&;twGuf taESmuft,Suf
jzpfrSmpdk;vdk@qdkygw,f? t*Fvdyfwdk@&JΠppfwyfyg0ifywfoufaer_udk t*Fvdyfwdk@u zHk;zHk;zdzd atmif
atmifjrifjrif vkyEf ikd o
f mG ;cJjh cif;[m tJ'w
D ek ;f u ocifEak cgi;f aqmifwhJ Edik if aH &;acgi;f aqmifrsm;uvnf;
jynfoludk todray;yJ zHk;zdxm;cJh=uwma=umifhjzpfygw,f)
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

61

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

nD!Gwfa&;a&mifjcnfudk jyefvnfjrif&csdefrSmyJ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; vkyf=uHcHvdkuf&wm[m
wwdkif;wjynfvHk;&JΠuH=urRmudk qdk;0g;oGm;apcJhovdk uGefjrLepfygwD twGufvnf; tifrwef}uD;rm;
wJh qH;k ±_;H epfemr_}u;D jzpfcyhJ gw,f? uGejf rLepfygwu
D Zlvikd f (30) rSm ‘vH;k 0vGwv
f yfa&;od@k ’ pmwrf;xkwf
ygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu ‘zqyv nD!Gwfa&;’ twGuf olwdk@&JŒ (47) ckESpf Zefe0g&D qHk;jzwfcsuf
aemufq;kH wdu
k yf v
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±_wfcsyGJw&m;awG ysOf;rem;e,frSm a[mygw,f? ‘nD!Gwfa&;’ w&m;yGJawGvnf; e,ftESH vdkuf+yD;
a[mygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;wd@k r&Sad wmhwt
hJ cg zqyvtzGŒJ }uD;xJrmS qd&k ,
S v
f pfawG yd+k yD;wGiu
f s,f
vmcJhygw,f? tm%m&t0dkif;t0ef;rSm qkd&S,fvpfawG trsm;pkjzpfvmcJhygw,f? ocifEku 0ef}uD;
csKyfjzpfayr,fh zqyvtzGJ@csKyf OuUÏ jzpfayr,fh ygwDvufudkifr&Sd jzpfygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwD&JΠoabmxm;u zqyv-uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&;t&trd wnfaqmuf+yD;
nD!Gwfa&;tm;eJ@ e,fcsJŒorm;udk jywfjywfom;om; wdkufxkwfa&;/ vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;jzpfygw,f?
zqyv-uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&; wnfaqmufEdkifzdk@ &Edkifor#enf;vrf;pHkukd &SmazG+yD;/ ocifoef;xGef;
uae zqyvOuUÏ ocifEq
k D vdyrf +l y;D zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w
G af &;twGuf =o*kwv
f (14) &ufae@
ae@pGJeJ@ yxrqHk;w&m;0if ay;pm ay;ydk@urf;vSrf;ygw,f? zqyvtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; OD;AaqGu
vufrw
S af &;xd;k +yD; OD;Ekqu
D wqifh uGejf rLepfygwu
D kd ‘zqyv&JŒjyefpm’ =o*kwv
f (25) &uf ae@peJG @J
jyefygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu vkdufem&r,fh nD!Gwfa&;tajccHtcsuf (5) csufudkvnf; azmfjyxm;
ygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu pufwifbm (8) &ufae@pGJeJ@ zqyv&JŒjyefpmudk jyefvnf&Sif;vif;wJhpm
('kwd,ay;pm) tjzpf ocifEku wqifh ay;jyefygw,f? zqyvu awmif;qdkwJh nD!Gwfa&;tajccH
(5) csuq
f w
kd mudk wke@f jyef&iS ;f vif;jy+yD; nD!w
G af &;twGuf aqG;aEG;=uzd@k tcsed f ae@&uf csed ;f qdak &;udk
wdkufwGef;awmif;cHxm;ygw,f?
'Dumv=um;xJrSm (47) =o*kwfv (29) &ufae@rSm ‘vusfmz&D;rif;’ pmcsKyf ay:xGufvmyg
w,f? vusfmz&D;rif;pmcsKyfu umuG,fa&;oabmwlnDcsuf pmcsKyfjzpfygw,f? 'D umuG,fa&;
oabmwlncD supf mcsKyf[mvnf; c&Geb
f -D jr b¾ma&;oabmwlncD supf mcsKyfvkd Armjynfbufu
emcJh&wJhpmcsKyfjzpfygw,f?
1947/ pufwifbm (24) &ufae@ nae (3) em&D (29) rdepfrSm wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf
OuUÏ pyfa&$ou
kd u
f aemufq;kH twnfðyvufrw
S af &;xd;k vdu
k +f yD;/ Armjynf&ŒJ yxrqH;k aom zGŒJ pnf;
tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya' (1947) ay: xGuv
f mcJyh gw,f? v$waf wmf yxrnDvmcH (9-6-47) ae@uae
wwd,t}udrfnDvmcH (24-9-47)ae@txd (108) &uftwGif; +yD;pD;atmifa&;qGJcJh=uwJh zGJŒpnf;
tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'jzpfygw,f? 'DtajccHOya'xJrSm tm;enf;csufawGvnf; yg0ifaecJhw,fvdk@qdk
ygw,f?
+Adwo
d #tpd;k &JΠzdwaf c:csut
f & atmufwb
kd mvxJrmS Armjynf =um;jzwftpd;k & 0ef}uD;csKyf
ocifEk vef'efudkoGm;a&mufygw,f? ocifEkacgif;aqmifwJh udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒrSm umuG,fa&;0ef
}uD; AdkvfvusfmeJ@ AkdvfxGef;vif;wdk@wawGvnf; vdkufygoGm;=uygw,f? ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;
twGuf t+yD;tydkif aqG;aEG;vufrSwfa&;xdk;=uzdk@jzpfygw,f? ArmEdkifiHqdkif&m tm%mydkiftzGJŒudk
eef;&if;0eftufwvDu acgif;aqmifaqG;aEG;jyygw,f?
62

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

atmufwdkbm (17) &ufae@rSm ‘Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf’ udk vufrSwfa&;xdk;zdk@ oabmwlnD
vdkuf=uygw,f? 'DpmcsKyft& +Adwdo#tpdk;&u udkvdkeDArmEdkifiHudk vGwfvyf+yD; tcsKyftcsmtm%m
ydkifwJh ‘jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEdkifiH’ tjzpf oabmwlvdkuf&+yD; jrefrmEdkifiH,m,Dtpdk;&uvnf;
ukv
d ekd aD cwf ArmEdik if o
H rdik ;f wav#muf +Adwo
d #tpd;k &u ArmEdik if u
H ,
kd pf m; csKyfqx
kd m;cJw
h hJ Edik if w
H um
oabmwlncD suf pmcsKyfreS o
f r#ukd qufcw
H m0ef,v
l u
kd &f ygw,f? pmcsKyfaygi;f (170) ausm&f ydS gw,f?
pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ywfouf+yD;awmhvnf; +Adwo
d #uv
kd ekd o
D rm;rsm;&JΠpD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk vGwf
vyfwJh jrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&u ta&;,laqmif&Gufr,fqdk&if +Adwdo#tpdk;&eJ@ a&S;OD;pGm wdkifyifn‡dE_dif;+yD;
w&m;r#wwJh av#mfa=u;ay;ygr,fvdk@ wm0ef,lcJh&ygw,f? b¾ma&;eJ@ywfouf+yD;awmhvnf;
udkvdkeDacwfwav#muf ArmEdkifiHeJ@ywfouf+yD; ukefuscJh&w,fqdkwJh aºuG;+rDudpPtm;vHk;udk jrefrm
EdkifiHu jyefqyfzdk@ wm0ef,lcJh&ygw,f? +Adwdefudkqyfzdk@ usyfaiG (35) ukaÉ (6) oef;/ tar&duefudk
tacs;tiSm;ypPnf;rsm;twGuf a':vm (5) oef; jyefqyfa&;tjyif tdENd,tifyg,mrS jrefrmEdkifiHudk
cGx
J w
k jf cif;rðycif tr_xrf;cJ=h uwJh tdE,
dN eJ@ygupPwef tr_xrf;awGtwGuf ay;qyf&ef&w
dS hJ yifpifvpm
(6 ukaÉ 9oef;) udkvnf; wm0ef,lcJh&jyefygw,f?
umuG,af &;twGuv
f nf; vusmzf &D;rif;pmcsKyft& +Adwed Ef ikd if u
H jrefrmEdik if u
H kd a&a=umif;
oGm;vma&;eJ@ umuG,af &;qdik &f m ppfoabFmeJ@ ppfarmfawmf (37) pif; v$aJ jymif;ay;zd@k oabmwlc+hJ yD;/
jrefrmtpdk;&u +Adwdo# "eo[m,0if ppfrpf&SiftzGJŒrsm;eJ@ "eo[m,tzGJŒ0if ppfoabFm ppfav
,mOfrsm; jrefrmEdkifiHrSmqdkufuyfcdk0ifcGifhudk vufcHoabmwlcJh&ygw,f? umuG,fa&;qufqHr_udk
(3) ESpfom uef@owfoabmwlcJhygw,f?
Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf[m ‘vGwfvyfa&;’ todtrSwfðycH&wmmuvJGvdk@ Armjynfbufu
epfem&r_awG tajrmuftjrm;&Scd w
hJ mawmif atmufwb
kd m (23) &ufae@rmS +Adwo
d #ygvrD efrmS ‘jynf
axmifpo
k rwjrefrmEdik if v
H w
G v
f yfa&; Oya'=urf;’ wifoiG ;f wJh tcg/ Armjynfukd u|eðf yxm;a&;om
vdv
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w,f? Armjynfukd vGwv
f yfa&;ay;vdu
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a[mudef;xkwfvdkufygw,f? +Adwdo#ygvDrefrSm Oya'=urf;udk twnfðyzdk@ rJcGJqHk;jzwfcJh=uygw,f?
(228) rJ (114) rJeJ@ qHk;jzwf twnfðycJh=uygw,f?
tJ'aD tmufwb
kd m (23) &ufae@rmS yJ ArmjynfrmS vnf; zqyvqd&k ,
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f pfrsm;u uGejf rLepf
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dk ufrcHEikd af =umif; zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w
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kd =f uygw,f? qd&k ,
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f pfacgi;f
aqmif ocifomcifu vufrSwfa&;xdk;+yD; ‘jyef=um;pm’udk ay;ydk@ ta=umif;jyefcJhygw,f?
zqyvtzGJŒ}uD;u Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfeJ@ ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;a=unmzdk@ jyifygw,f?
Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyf csKyfqakd &;twGuf ocifEk vef'efroGm;cifuwnf;u ‘vGwv
f yfa&;tcrf;tem;
pDpOfr_aumfrDwD’udk zGJŒpnf;xm;+yD;jzpfygw,f?
Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyf w&m;0ifxGufay:vmwJhtcg ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu jyif;jyif;xef
xef uef@uGufygw,f? Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf[m ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk todtrSwfðycH&wmuvGJ
vd@k pD;yGm;a&;t&/ b¾ma&;t&/ umuG,af &;t& wzufowf tav#mah y;vdu
k af vsmcJ&h wJh pmcsKyf
vdk@jrifygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

63

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@ usqHk;cJh&t+yD; (11) &uftuGmrSm xkwfjyefa=unmcJhwJh Armjynf
uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ ‘vH;k 0vGwv
f yfa&;od@k ’ pmwrf;ygoabmxm;tajccH Edik if aH &;tESpo
f m&wd@k e@J vnf;
ajzmifhajzmifh}uD; qef@usifaewJh pmcsKyfjzpfygw,f? e,fcsJŒorm;ydkif vkyfief;}uD;rsm;udk jynfolydkifvkyf
v#if avsmfa=u;ay;ygr,fvdk@ oabmwlxm;&jcif;/ t*Fvdyfppfrpf&Sifrsm;udk qufvufxm;&Sdzdk@
oabmwlxm;jcif;/ t*FvdyfppfoabFm/ ppfav,mOfrsm;udk ArmjynfrSm qdkufuyfcGifhðyxm;&jcif;/
ppfavsmfa=u;rsm; ay;&jcif;wdk@tay:rSm wcsufcsif; axmufjya0zefcJh+yD; ArmhtusKd;pD;yGm;udk xdcdkuf
epfemapwJh pmcsKyftjzpf av;av;eufeuf qef@usifuef@uGuf=uygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ‘e,fcsJŒorm;udk qufvufwdkufyGJqif/ zqyv-uGefjrLepf
nD!Gwfa&;udk t&trdwnfaqmuf udk,fhtiftm;eJ@udk,f Armjynf&JŒvGwfvyfa&;udk a=unm&,l
a&;jzpfygw,f? Edik if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ umuG,af &; bufaygi;f pHk trScD u
kd if;wJh vGwv
f yfa&;/ wenf;tm;jzifh
vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;udk azmfaqmifcsifcJhygw,f?
zqyvu =um;jzwftpdk;& tm%mudkqkyfudkif&if; Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfudk csKyfqdk/ aphpyf
vdu
k af vsmwJh enf;udu
k sio
hf ;kH / vGwv
f yfwhJ tcsKyftcsmtm%mydik f Edik if w
H cktjzpf todtrSwðf ycH+yD;
vGwfvyfa&;udk&,lzdk@ vufawGΠvkyfudkifaqmif&GufcJhygw,f?
‘zqyv’wd@k &,lvufc=H ur,fh vGwv
f yfa&;[m Ekid if aH &;t& vGwv
f yfayr,fh vGwv
f yfa&;
a=unmcGi&hf Edik af yr,fh pD;yGm;a&;t&rvGwv
f yf/ udv
k ekd aD ESmifóu;d awG wJxm;jcif;cH&wJh vGwv
f yfa&;vd@k
uGefjrLepfygwDu ±_jrifoHk;oyfxm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh EdkifiHa&;t& vGwfvyfr_uae pD;yGm;a&;t&yg
vGwv
f yfa&; udv
k ekd aD ESmifóud;rSeo
f r# t+yD;tydik f jzwfawmuf ±ke;f xGuEf ikd af &;awGtwGuf qufvuf
csDwufEdkifzdk@ zqyv-uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&; wnfaqmufEkdifa&;[m ta&;}uD;w,fvdk@ qufvuf
oabmxm;cJhygw,f? zqyvuGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&;twGuf qufvufóud;yrf;v_HŒaqmfygw,f?
1947/ Ekd0ifbm (7) &uf trsKd;om;ae@rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku “jynfol@&Jabmf/ qdk&S,fvpf/
uGejf rLepfawG aygi;f rdatmif u|eaf wmfu,
kd w
f ikd f tpGr;f uke}f udK;pm;r,f”vd@k rde@f ceG ;f ac|jyvdu
k w
f t
hJ cg
wjynfvHk;vef;vef;qef;qef; jzpfrd=ujyefygw,f?
1947/ Edk0ifbm (17)&ufrSm zqyv XmecsKyfu zqyv-uGefjrLepf nD!Gwfa&;vkyfief;
&yfpv
J u
kd +f yDv@kd a=unmygw,f? “uGejf rLepfygwu
D aemufausmudk "m;eJ@x;dk aoma=umif”h vd@k vnf;
pGyfpGJxm;ygw,f?
'D=um;xJuyJ uGefjrLepfygwDu zqyvtzGJŒcsKyfu nD!Gwfa&;udky,fcsapumrl nD!Gwf
a&;udk r&raeóud;pm;rnf” vd@k azmfjy+yD;/ taxGaxGtwGi;f a&rSL; ocifoef;xGe;f &JŒ aemufq;kH jyefpm
tjzpf jyef=um;vdkufygw,f? jyef=um;wJh&uf[m 47 ckESpf/ 'DZifbm (8) &ufae@jzpfygw,f?
'DZifbm (20) &ufae@rmS zqyv jynfv;kH u|wf 'kw,
d nDvmcHrmS uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ nD!w
G f
a&;urf;vSr;f csuu
f kd vufrcHEikd af =umif; aemufq;kH twnfðyvdu
k =f uygw,f? tJ'n
D v
D mcHrmS OD;ausm+f ird ;f
u uGefjrLepfygwDudk }udrf;0g;±Hkru “vGwfvyfa&;&wm[m bdvyfavbmtpkd;&&JŒ aus;Zl;a=umifh”
vdk@ qdkygw,f? qkd&S,fvpfacgif;aqmif OD;udkudk}uD;uvnf; pm;yGJudkvufoD;eJ@xk+yD; uGefjrLepfygwDudk
ppfa=unmcJw
h ,fqykd gw,f? qk&d ,
S v
f pfacgi;f aqmif}uD; ‘ocifwif’ uvnf; Akv
d v
f usmf udk twif;
oufaoxl+yD; uGefjrLepfygwDudk pGJcsufwifcJhw,f qdkygw,f?
64

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w
G af &;urf;vSr;f csuf zsuo
f rd ;f cHvu
kd +f y;D wJah emuf uGejf rLepf-qk&d ,
S f
vpfwdk@&JŒ yËdyuQ[m ydkrdkonf;oefjyif;xefvm&muae EdkifiHw0Srf;vHk; ysHESH@v$rf;òcHoGm;cJhygw,f?
txufrSm azmfjycJhwJhtwdkif; 1938 ckESpfuae 1947 ckESpfukeftxd (10) ESpfwm/ wenf;
tm;jzifh vGwv
f yfa&;a=unmcge;D umv/ ArmjynfEikd if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_ordik ;f &JΠta=umif;&if;jrpf tjzpf
tysuf tcsufaemufcH ordkif;rSefor#awGudk pkpnf;aygif;csKyf ed*Hk;csKyf=unfhr,fqdk&if/ yxrqHk; Arm
jynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ tJ'Daemuf jynfolŒta&;awmfyHktzGJŒ}uD; ay:xGef;vmwmawGŒ&ygr,f? 'dk@Arm
tpnf;t±Hk;}uD;xJrSm ðryfESHyg0ifae&if;/ t*Fvdyfe,fcsJŒorm;vufatmufuae ArmjynfvGwfvyf
a&;twGuf ajratmuftzGJŒtpnf;}uD;ESpfcktjzpf v#KdŒ0Suf&yfwnf+yD; óud;yrf;tm;xkwf aqmif&Guf
cJh=uygw,f?
ArmjynfEikd if aH &;rSm vuf0t
J iftm;pkrsm;&JŒ tcef;[m a&SŒwef;ta&mufq;kH jzpfvmcJo
h vdk
rmhufpfvDeif0g'/ qdk&S,fvpf0g'/ vuf0JtawG;tac: t,ltqrsm;[m us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ jzpf
wnf&SifoefvmcJhygw,f? rmhufpfvDeif0g'udk vrf;!¸eftawG;tac:tjzpf ckdifcdkifrmrm cH,lqkyf
udkifolawG tzGJŒtpnf;awGay:vmovdk/ a&yef;tpm;qHk;0g'wckudk ay: jyLvmtjzpf udkifpGJvmol
awG tzGJŒtpnf;awGvnf; ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? ,Hk=unfol/ wdrf;!¸wfol/ vdkvm;ol toHk;csol
awGvnf; toGifo¿mefrsKd;pHkeJ@ jzpfwnfay:aygufvmcJhygw,f?
t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ tpd;k &udk qef@usiw
f u
kd cf u
kd zf @kd vufeufuikd t
f iftm;pkwckvnf; ay:xGuv
f m
cJyh gw,f? tJ'guawmh ‘wyfrawmf’ yg? *syefzufqpfawG&ŒJ tultnDe@J Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmif
+yD; xdkif;e,fajray:rSm pwifarG;zGm;cJh&wJh wyfrawmfyg?
'kw,
d urBmppf}uD;twGi;f rSm t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ tpd;k &udk armif;xkwzf @kd óud;pm;=u&if; zufqpf
*syefwdk@&JŒvufatmuf (3) ESpfavmufusa&mufcJh&jyefygw,f? *syefawGay;wJh a&$&nfpdrfvGwfvyf
a&;&JŒ t&omudk Armjynfjynfolrsm; ezl;awGŒ 'l;awG@ óuHawGŒcHpm;cJh&zl;ygw,f? zufqpf*syefawG
udk qef@usifwGef;vSefarmif;xkwfzkd@ uGefjrLepfawGu pwifóud;yrf;v_HŒaqmf tm;xkwfcJh=uygw,f?
‘uGejf rLepfygw-D jynfoŒl ta&;awmfy-Hk wyfrawmf’ tiftm;pk (3) ck pkpnf;+y;D ‘zwyv’ }u;D ay:xGe;f
vmcJyh gw,f? zwyv wyfaygi;f pktvHawmf}uD;udk v$ix
hf +l yD; u&if/ ucsi/f csi;f wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;tyg
jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk; tnD!GwfqHk; qifE$JcJh=uwJh ordkif;0if zufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD; ay:xGef;cJhyg
w,f? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;}uD;rSm r[mrdwftiftm;pkrsm;eJ@vnf; vufwGJEdkifcJhygw,f?
zufqpfawmfveS af &; atmifjrifpmG qifE+J$ yD;csed rf mS / Armjynfukd jyefvnfu|eðf yzd@k udv
k ekd t
D &Sif
ocifa[mif; t*Fvyd rf sm; jyefvnfa&muf&v
dS mygw,f? ta&SŒtm&SrmS tcsKŒd aom udv
k ekd v
D ufatmuf
cHEkdifiHrsm; 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;t+yD; udk,fhEdkifiH&JŒvGwfvyfa&; udk,fh[mudk,fa=unm+yD; &,lEdkifcJh=u
wm&Sdygw,f? urBmppf}uD;twGif; zufqpfrsm;udkwdkufxkwf&if; jyefvnf0ifa&mufvmwJh udkvdkeD
t&Siaf [mif;rsm;udv
k nf; wqufwpyfwnf; qufvufwu
kd yf 0JG if armif;xkw+f yD; ud,
k v
hf w
G v
f yfa&;
udk,fa=unmEdkifcJh=uwJh EdkifiHrsm;vnf;&Sdygw,f? 'gayr,fh ArmjynfrSm tJ'DvdkrvkyfEdkifcJh=uyg?
puULjzLpDrHudef;eJ@ jyef0ifvmwJh e,fcsJŒt*Fvdyfrsm;udk vufcHcJh&ygw,f? uufpfbDacwfudk
jzwfoef;cHcJh&ygw,f? 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;t+yD;rSm/ jynfolŒta&;awmfyHktzGJŒ[mvnf; Armjynfqdk
&S,fvpfygwDtjzpf ay:aygufvmygw,f? zwyv wyfaygif;pk}uD;[m ‘zqyv’ trnfajymif;+yD;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

65

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

tiftm;t}uD;qHk;jzpfvmygw,f? rlv uGefjrLepf/ qkd&S,fvpf/ wyfrawmftiftm;pktjyif vusfm
EdkifiHa&;orm;}uD;awG[mvnf; ‘zqyv’ xJ tHkeJ@usif;eJ@ a&muf&Sdvmygw,f? zqyv}uD;[m
=oZmt}uD;qHk; wyfaygif;pk}uD;jzpfvmygw,f?
e,fcsŒJ t*Fvyd af wG[m ‘zqyv’ }uD;&JŒ nD!w
G af &;udk ròydòydatmifczJG @kd enf;rsK;d pHek @J óud;pm;
cJyh gw,f? bk&ifct
H r_aqmifaumifp&D mxl;jy+yD; cGyJ gw,f? tenf;pkygomG ;ygw,f? zqyvtzGŒJ }uD;&JŒ
OuUÏ vnf;jzpf/ trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD;vnf; jzpfvmwJh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ukd z,f&Sm;Edkifzdk@
óud;pm;ygw,f? aumufuspfwJh EdkifiHa&;enf;emudkoHk;+yD; ‘w&m;±Hk;Oya'a=umif;’ t& ppftwGif;
vlowfra_ wGe@J óud;pifwifa&; =uHpnfygw,f? ratmifjrifcyhJ g? ocifxeG ;f tkyv
f kd tm%mavmb}uD;
olwa,mufukd Edik if jH cm;tusO;f axmifxJ xnfx
h m;&muae jyefac:/ 0ef}uD;wae&may;/ e,fcsŒJ tvdk
us opPmazmufwa,mufjzpfatmif vkyEf ikd cf ahJ yr,fh vlxt
k ºkH uGEikd w
f hJ tajctaea=umifh vufav#mh
cJ&h ygw,f? 'gayr,fh Edik if aH &;enf;emeJ@ rvkyEf ikd cf w
hJ hJ Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; z,f&mS ;a&;[m/ t*Fvyd pf pf
wyfu ppfwyfenf;emoHk;+yD; vufeufawGcdk;xkwfay;/ vkyf=uHa&;vrf;a=umif;eJ@ taumiftxnf
azmfapcJhwJhtcg AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@wawG a&wdrfepfcJh&ygw,f? e,fcsJŒvufyg;apvkyfoGm;wJh
OD;apm[mvnf; tm%mavmb}uD;ol wa,mufjzpfcJh+yD; ,l*ef'gtusOf;axmifuae e,fcsJŒwdk@
udk,fwdkifjyefxkwfvm/ 0ef}uD;wae&may; arG;jrLxm;jcif;cHcJh&oljzpfygw,f? e,fcsJŒwdk@ AdkvfcsKyf
atmifqef; udk z,f&Sm;csifwm[m zqyv}uD;udk òzdcGJzdk@tjyif ppfrSefwJh trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif
wa,mufukd z,f&mS ;+yD; aphpyfa&;orm;awGvufxJ tm%ma&mufaeapcsiw
f mtjyif uGejf rLepfe@J
nD!Gwfa&;wnfaqmufoGm;rSm a=umuf&GHŒwJhtwGuf jrefjrefqefqef ,kwfrmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkawG tajctaeudk =unfhvdkufwJhtcg/ EdkifiHa&;tpOftvmt}uD;qHk;
uGejf rLepfygw}D u;D [m ocifp;kd &JΠtm%mavmb *d%
k ;f *%0g'a=umifh ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J tvHeD
ygwt
D jzpf uGo
J mG ;cJ&h ygw,f? vuf0pJ eG ;f rif;rJv
h yk [
f efawGusio
hf ;kH cJw
h hJ tvHe[
D m tapm}u;D uwnf;
u rw&m;oif;a=unmcHcJh&+yD;aemufqHk;rSm/ tOD;qHk;aom awmcdktzGJŒtpnf;jzpfaecJhygw,f?
t+rJwef;vufeufudkifwyfrawmftjzpf ay:aygufvmcJhwJh wyfrawmf[mvnf; ‘uEDN’
pmcsKyft& jyifqifzGJŒpnf;cJh&+yD; t*FvdyfvufatmufcH ppfwyftjzpf oGwfoGif;cHcJh&um/ zqyv&JŒ
tjyifpnf;a&mufomG ;cJ&h wJh wyfrawmfom;rsm;/ bDtikd af t/ bD'aD t a[mif;rsm;/ &Jacgiaf jymufusm;
awmfvSefa&; &Jabmfa[mif;rsm;udk pkpnf;+yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u ‘jynfolŒ&JabmfwyfzGJŒ’ tjzpf
ay:aygufapcJhygw,f? jynfolŒ&Jabmf[m zqyv tzGJŒ}uD;xJrSm tiftm;pkwcktjzpf ay:aygufvm
cJhygw,f?
qkd&S,fvpf OD;ausmf+idrf; wdk@&JΠtm;xkwfr_eJ@ zqyv trsKd;om;wyfaygif;pk}uD;xJuae
uGefjrLepfygwD z,fxkwfcH&wJhtcg zqyv}uD;xJu jynfolŒ&Jabmf[mvnf; (2) ydkif;uGJoGm;cJhyg
w,f? wydik ;f u ‘wyfe’D tjzpfcaJG xmif+yD; t*Fvyd u
f q
kd ef@usiaf e=uwJh v,form;wyfrsm;eJ@ oGm;yl;
aygif;ygw,f? trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ òyduGJcJh&ygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;wdk@ usqHk;+yD;wJhtcg
trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ wdk;wdk;+yD; òyduGJcJh&ygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;wd@k vky=f uHrcH&cifrmS Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;&JΠacgi;f aqmifre_ @J wkid ;f &if;om;
aoG;pnf;nD!w
G af &;twGuf yifvpkH mcsKyf csKyfqEkd ikd cf yhJ gw,f? vGwv
f yfa&;twGuf atmifqef;-tuf
66

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

wvDpmcsKyf csKyfqckd yhJ gw,f? atmifqef;-tufwvD pmcsKyfe@J ywfouf+yD; ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D
axmufjya0zefcJhygw,f? ‘rdwfaqGatmifqef; b,fvJ’ vdk@ owday;cJhygw,f? autif,luvnf;
uef@uGufcJhygw,f? atmifqef;-tufwvD pmcsKyft& ay:xGef;vmwmuawmh wdkif;ðyjynfðy v$wf
awmfa&G;aumufyGJeJ@ wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfjzpfygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; usq;kH +y;D wJah emuf ocifEk =um;jzwftpd;k & ay:ayguv
f mygw,f? zqyv
tzGJŒ}uD;xJrSm aemufqHk;usef&Sdwmuawmh qkd&S,fvpf/ jynfolŒ&JabmfeJ@ qdk&S,fvpf=oZmcH tpnf;
t±Hk;rsm;/ woD;yk*~vausmfEdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;jzpfygw,f? zqyv}uD;udk t"dutkyfpD;v$rf;rdk;
xm;wmu qkd&S,fvpfrsm;jzpfygw,f? zqyv-uGefjrLepf nD!Gwfa&;udk y,fcsqef@usifcJhwm[m
vnf; t"dutm;jzifh qdk&S,fvpfrsm;yJjzpfygw,f? qkd&S,fvpfxJrSmu vusfmqdk&S,fvpf*dk%f;u
t"dujzpfygw,f?
+Adwdo#e,fcsJŒvufatmufuae vGwfvyfa&;t&,l=ua&;rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD
OD;wnfa&SŒ±_ tm;xkwfóud;yrf;oGm;wJh vrf;a=umif;u ba&muf'g0g'vufcHcJhwJh (6) vavmufu
vJ+G yD;/ e,fcsŒJ orm;udk jywfjywfom;om; wdu
k yf q
JG ifomG ;a&;/ vlxw
k u
kd yf JG enf;aygi;f pHek @J a&m/ zqyv
=um;jzwftpdk;& tm%mudkifpGJ+yD; e,fcsJŒorm;udk armif;xkwfypfEdkifa&;jzpfygw,f? e,fcsJŒorm;eJ@
raphpyfyJ awmfveS af &;enf;eJ@ ud,
k v
hf w
G v
f yfa&;udk ud,
k af =unmEdik af &;jzpfygw,f? aemufq;kH umv
rSm Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; eJ@awmif n‡Ed id_ ;f wdik yf ifxm;wmu wdik ;f ðyðynfðyv$waf wmfukd olyek v
f w
$ af wmf
tjzpftoGiaf jymif;/ toHviG ±hf u
kH o
kd rd ;f ydu
k u
f m awmfveS af &;enf;eJ@ vGwv
f yfa&;udk urBmudk a=unm
zdk@vdk@qdkygw,f? zqyv-uGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&;udk jyefvnfwnfaqmuf+yD;+yD;csif;/ taumift
xnfazmf=uzdk@awmif pDpOfn‡dE_dif;xm;+yD;+yDqdkygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwD wav#mufvHk;aecJhwJh vrf;
a=umif;[m ba&muf'g (6) vavmufuvG+J y;D wdu
k yf v
JG rf;a=umif;twdik ;f jzpfygw,f? uGejf rLepfw@kd &ŒJ
aemufq;kH wdu
k yf v
JG rf;pOfqw
kd m[mvnf; e,fcsŒJ orm;udk tðywfwu
kd af &;yJjzpfovd/k ‘vH;k 0vGwv
f yf
a&;odk@’ qkdwJh A[dkaumfrDwD qHk;jzwfcsufqdkwm[mvnf; e,fcsJŒorm;udk tav#mhray;a&; raphpyf
a&;eJ@ EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ umuG,fa&; vHk;0O\Hk trSDtcdkuif;wJh wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk; udk,fh=urRm
ud,
k zf efw;D cGi&hf w
dS hJ vGwv
f yfa&;udk awmif;qdak ºuG;a=umfxm;ygw,f? Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfukd uGejf rL
epfygwDu qef@usif±_wfcscJhwm[m EdkifiHa&;t& vGwfvyfa&; a=unmEdkifwmu vGJvdk@/ EdkifiHa&;t&
vGwv
f yfwmuvGv
J @kd usew
f mawG tav#mah y;cJ&h epfemcJ&h w,fv@kd ,lq=unfjh rif oabmxm;cJv
h @kd
jzpfygw,f?
OD;Ektygt0if qkd&S,fvpfvusfm*dk%f;om;rsm; tompD;&cJhwJh zqyv}uD;&JΠvGwfvyfa&;
&,la&;vrf;a=umif;u wckv;kH taeeJ@ òcHi+kH yD; oH;k oyf&r,fq&kd if wdu
k yf rJG qifyJ e,fcsŒJ orm;eJ@ aphpyf
+yD; at;aq;nifompGmeJ@ &,la&;jzpfygw,f? zufqpfawmfveS af &;+yD;ump vufeufawG t*Fvyd q
f D
rtyfyJ odk0Sufxm;/ vdktyf&if vufeufudkifwdkufcdkufzdk@ tqifoifhjyifxm;&r,fvdk@ pum;tm;jzifh
aºuG;a=umfcJhbl;ayr,fh um,uHajrmuf OD;wnfaqmif&GufoGm;wmu ‘aphpyfa&;enf;eJ@ vGwfvyf
a&;’ vrf;a=umif;u t"dujzpfcyhJ gw,f? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;ud,
k w
f ikd v
f nf; tJ'v
D rf;a=umif; xJrmS
tapmydik ;f umvawGrmS a&muf&adS ecJyh gw,f? “yHo
h ulom;rpm;bl;vm;/ vnfv;DS om;rSpm;rSmvm;”
vdk@ ar;cJhzl;w,fqdkygw,f? aemufydkif;rSm e,fcsJŒorm;&JŒ ajcvSrf;udk wp wp wdk;wdk;+yD; jrifvm&+yD;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

67

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

wJt
h cgrmS / Adv
k cf sKyfu zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w
G af &;vky+f yD; awmfveS af &;enf;qD a&SŒ±_vmwmawGŒ
&ygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; r&Sad wmhwahJ emufyikd ;f rSm/ qk&d ,
S v
f pfrsm; tompD;&cJw
h hJ zqyv}uD;[m
e,fcsJ@orm;eJ@ aphpyfa&;vrf;udkyJ vdkufcJh+yD; wpdkufrwfrwf EdkifiHa&;tm%mudkyJ zufwG,fxm;cJhyg
w,f? zqyv =um;jzwftpdk;&tm%meJ@ vlxkwdkufyGJawGudk òzdcGJcJhygw,f? qef@usifbuf EdkifiHa&;
tiftm;pkawGtay: vufOD;r_&Sd&Sd ESdyfuGyfEdkifzdk@ =uHpnfvHk;yrf;aecJhygw,f? vGwfvyfa&; ra=unm&
ao;ayr,fh/ zqyv [m tm%m& tzGJŒtpnf;toGif jzpfaecJhygw,f? +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒrsm;[m
Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyfeJ@ zqyv vufxJ tm%mv$Jay;rSmjzpfygw,f?
ud,
k af xmifxm;cJw
h hJ ql;ajimifah wG ud,
k o
f x
d m;vd@k vm;/ ud,
k zf efw;D xm;wJh tcsut
f vuf
awG udk,fóudwifodaevdk@ vm;awmhrajymwwfyg? e,fcsJŒorm; xdyfoD;}uD;jzpfwJh 0ifpwefcsmcsDu
“Armjynfudk vGwfvyfa&;ay;vdkuf&if aoG;acsmif;pD; jynfwGif;ppf}uD;ay:vmvdrfhr,f” vdk@ óudwif
edrdwfzwfay;+yD; jzpfygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwDu zqyvuGefjrLepfnD!Gwfa&;udk wnfaqmufzdk@ wzufowf tvHv$ifhxl
xm;wm awGŒ&ygr,f? trsKd;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_ òyduGJaewJhvuQ%mawG wae@wjcm; xGufay:
vmaewJh=um;u wifxm;wJhtvHjzpfaeygw,f? uGefjrLepf-qkd&S,fvpf yËdyuQ/ qkd&S,fvpf-jynf
olŒ&Jabmf yËdyuQawG ay:vGifvmaeygw,f? ‘1947 ckESpf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'’ }uD;[m
vnf; tqifoifh&Sdae+yDjzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;a=unmzdk@twGuf &ufa&G;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?

68

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEkdifiHawmftvH (1948)
yxrqHk; jynfaxmifpkorwjrefrmEkdifiHawmftpdk;&
acgif;aqmifwcsdKΠ(1948 = 1951)

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH
yxrqHk;orw}uD; pyfa&$odkuf

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH yxrqHk;
'k0ef}uD;csKyf Adkvfvusfm

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH
yxrqHk;0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek

jynfxJa&;ESifhw&m;a&;0ef}uD;Xme
OD;ausmf+idrf;

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

69
69

1952 ckESpf a&G;aumufyGJrSay:xGufvmaom tpdk;&tzGJŒ0iftcsdKŒ

EdkifiHawmforw a'gufwm OD;bOD;

OD;baqG
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;Xme

OD;cifarmifvwf
w&m;a&;ESifh
jynfol@0efxrf;Xme0ef}uD;

EdkifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek

Adkvfcifarmifuav;
jynfxJa&;Xme0ef}uD;

ref;0if;armif
o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;ESifh
vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;Xme0ef}uD;

ocifwif
v,f,majrjynfolydkifðy
vkyfa&;Xme0ef}uD;
70

1956 ckESpf a&G;aumufyGJrSay:xGufvmaom tpdk;&tzGJŒ0iftcsdKŒ

EdkifiHawmforw ref;0if;armif

OD;baqG
'k0ef}uD;csKyf
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;Xme0ef}uD;

Adv
k cf ifarmifav;
b¾ma&;ESihf
tcGefawmfXme0ef}uD;

EdkifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek

ocifwif
'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifh
jynfol@vkyfief;Xme0ef}uD;

ocifomcif
jynfxJa&;Xme0ef}uD;

OD;ausmf+idrf;
'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifh
trsdK;om;pD;yGm;a&;Xme0ef}uD;

OD;cifarmifvwf
w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
71

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

tydkif; ( 1 )
1948 = 1958 umv
vG w f v yf a &;ud k a -unmjcif ; /
jrefrmouU&mZf 1309 ckeSpfjymodkvqkwf (9) &uf/
c&mZfouU&mZf 1948 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (4) &uf/
eHeuf (4) em&D rdepf (20) tcsdefrSm æ
vGwfvyfaomjrefrmEdkifiHtjzpf urBmudka=unmvdkufygw,f? t±k%fwufcgp ESif;zGJzGJav;
awGusaeqJ aumif;uifatmufrmS òrdŒawmf&efuek &f ŒJ bk&ifct
H rd af wmf0if;a&SŒrSm tm%mvGaJ jymif;wJh
tcrf;tem;usif;yygw,f//
Armajray:rSm ESpfaygif; (120) ausmfv$ifhxlxm;cJhwJh +Adwdo#udkvdkeDorm;wdk@&JΠ,leD,H*suf
tvH[m wjznf;jznf; rav#mcsif av#mcsifeJ@ av#muscJh&+yD;/ 1947 ckESpf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccH
Oya'eJ@twl ay:ayguv
f mcJw
h hJ jrefrmEdik if aH wmf&ŒJ tvHopf[m wjznf;jznf; jrifw
h ufviG x
hf l ae&m
,lvdkufygw,f?
wdkif;ðyjynfðy v$wfawmftwGif;usif;ywJh vGwfvyfa&;tcrf;tem;yGJukd ArmjynfuGefjrLepf
ygwD taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; ocifoef;xGef;eJ@ uGefjrLepftrwfrsm;vnf; wwfa&muf=uygw,f?
tpdk;&tzGJŒ0iftrwfrsm;vnf; wwfa&muf=uygw,f//
vGwv
f yfa&;tcrf;tem; usi;f ywJt
h cg tcrf;tem;pifjrifah y:rSm ÁajENou
d mQ xnf0gpmG eJ@
cef@cef@}uD;xdkifae=uoltrsm;pkum;/ ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;wdkufyGJw
avsmuf a&SŒwef;tcef;u wdkufyGJqifzl;olawGr[kwfyJ/ EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:t&/ pnf;±kH;a&;t&
vnf; xif&Sm;=uolawGr[kwf/ tpOftvmt&vnf; xufjrufxif&Sm;=uolawGr[kwfyg// ppfppf
ayguaf yguf a&wGu=f unfrh S ocifEt
k ygt0if vGwv
f yfa&;wdu
k yf t
JG wGi;f a&SŒwef;tcef;u yg0ifczhJ ;l
ol vufwzufpmawmifr&Sdbl;qdkygw,f//
vGwfvyfa&;a=unmt+yD;rSm xGufay:vmcJhwJh EdkifiHawmf[m ‘jynfaxmifpkorw jrefrm
EdkifiHawmf’ jzpfygw,f?
72

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vGwv
f yfaom jrefrmEdik if &H ŒJ tvHawmf[m teDa&mifaemufcaH y:rSm vuf0aJ 'gihf tjyma&mif
pwk*HeJ@/ tjyma&mifpwk*HuGufxJ =u,fyGifh (6) yGifh&SdwJh tvHawmfjzpfygw,f/ tv,f&Sd =u,fyGifh
}uD;wyGifhudk =u,fyGifh (5) yGifhu 0ef;&Hxm;ygw,f// =u,fyGifh}uD;u jrefrm/ rGef/ &cdkif udk&nf!¸ef;+yD;/
=u,fyiG hf (5) yGiu
hf &Sr;f / csi;f / ucsi/f u&if/ u,m;udk &nf!e¸ ;f w,fv@kd qykd gw,f? tajccH+y;D vdu
k ef m
usifhoHk;rJh Oya'u “1947 ckESpf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'” jzpfygw,f//
wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfudk ,m,DygvDreftjzpf owfrSwf+yD;/ ygvDref'Drdkua&pDpepftwdkif;
taumiftxnfazmf usifhoHk;tkyfcsKyfoGm;r,fjzpfygw,f//
EdkifiHawmf[m jynfaxmifpkorwEdkifiHawmfvdk@ uifyGef;wyfac:a0:ayr,fh/ 1947 ckESpf
zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkajccHOya'vm ‘jynfaxmifpk’ ykHo¿mef[m “wjynfaxmifqefwJh jynfaxmifpk”
yHo
k ¿mefrsKd ;jzpfaew,fv@kd zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'qdik &f m u|r;f usio
f rl sm;u tuJjzwfc=hJ uyg
w,f//
yxrqH;k orw}u;D tjzpf anmifa&$apmfbmG ;}u;D p0fa&$ou
kd u
f akd &G;cs,+f y;D / yxrqH;k 0ef}u;D csKyf
‘ocifEk’ jzpfvmygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEktpdk;&tzGJŒrSm æ
Adkvfvufsm
- 'k0ef}uD;csKyfeJ@umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;/
OD;wifxÉG f
- EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;Xme0ef}uD;/
OD;ausmf+idrf;
- jynfxJa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
OD;wif
- b¾ma&;eJ@ tcGefawmfXme0ef}uD;
OD;b*srf;
- w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
ocifwif
- pdkufysdK;a&;eJ@ aus;vufpD;yGm;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
Adkvfzdk;uGef;
- jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;0ef}uD;Xme0ef}uD;
OD;jr([omFw)
- trsdK;om;pDrHudef;Xme0ef}uD;
OD;ndKxGef;
- jyef=um;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
OD;udkudk=uD;
- ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;eJ@ axmufyHha&;Xme0ef}uD;
ref;0i;farmif
- pufr_vufr_eSifh tvkyform;Xme0ef}uD;
OD;xGef;jrifh
- &Srf;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;
apmpHzdk;oif
- u&ifjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;
qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif
- ucsifjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;
p0f0À
- u&ifeDjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;
OD;0rf;ol;armif
- csif;a&;&mXme0ef}uD;
AdkvfpdefrSef
- Xmevufudkifr&Sd0ef}uD; - wdk@jzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;ae@rSm “atmifapownf;” vdk@O'gef;csDwJh vGwfvyfa&; a=unmpmwrf;udk
xkwfjyefa=unmvdkufygw,f?
TtcsdefrSpI igwdk@. rlvtydkifjzpfaom vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;ukd igwdk@jyef,l+yD; wdkif;&if;om;
taygif;wdk@ aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfvsuf tcGifhta&; tqifhtwef;wlnDonfh jynfaxmifpkorwEdkifiH
awmf}uD;udk wnfaxmif+yDvdk@vnf; a=unmaºuG;a=umfvdkufygw,f//
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

73

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

orwp0fa&$odkuf&JŒ o0%fv$m 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk&JŒ o0%fv$m/ 'k0ef}uD;csKyf Adkvfvufsm&JŒ
o0%fv$mwdk@udkvnf; zwf=um; a=unmvdkufygw,f//
orw}uD;&JŒ o0%fvmG rSm “,ck u|Eyfk w
f @dk vufqyk v
f ufuikd f tydik &f &S+d yDjzpfaom vGwv
f yf
a&; qkx;l r*Fvm}uD;onfum; vufeufpu
JG ikd I
f tiftm;jcif;òydiu
f m t=urf;zufrj_ zif&h &Sad om vGwf
vyfa&;qk}uD;r[kwfrlI +AdwdefEdkifiHESifh rdwfo*F[tjzpfodk@ a&muf=uonfESifhtnD cspf=unfav;
jrwfpGm aphpyfnd‡E_dif;I &&Sdtyfaom vGwfvyfa&; r*Fvmqk}uD;yifjzpfawmhonf?” vkd@ azmfjycJh+yD;/
0ef}uD;csKyf&JŒ o0%fvGmrSm “,ck u|Efkyfwdk@. EdkifiHawmf}uD;Y vlrsdK;a&;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/vlrsdK;pk
tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ EkdifiHa&;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ wOD;jcif;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif; rnD!Gwfr_rsm;
roifhwifhr_rsm; &SdzG,frvdk+yD? u|Ekfyfwdk@. Zmwdjzpfaom TEkdifiHawmf}uD;. tusdK;udka&SŒ&_I jynf
axmifpkEdkifiHawmfol EdkifiHom;wdk@tm; udk,fusdK;udkriJhuGufyJ/ nD!Gwf=u&efESifh óud;yrf;=u&ef ,ck
u|Efkyfwdk@u wdkufwGef;Ekd;aqmftyfygonf” vdk@ aºuG;a=umf azmfjyxm;ygw,f?
'k0ef}uD;csKyf Adkvfvufsmuawmh olŒ&JŒo0%fvGmxJrSm EdkifiHawmf&JŒopPmukd apmifhod±kdao
a&;eJ@ywfowf+yD; “tu,fI EdkifiHawmf&Sd vuf0Jtiftm;pkwdk@ wnDw!GwfxJ&Sdygu ajymifajrmuf
atmifjrif&ef ruGmvSrf;vSawmhaom qdk&S,fvpf0g'}uD;twGuf aqmif&GufusifhoHk;=ujcif;omv#if
EdkifiHawmf.opPmudk apmifhod±dkaoonfrnfownf;” vdk@ teufzGifh azmfusL;oGm;ygw,f//
wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf (,m,DygvrD ef) rSmvnf; orw}u;D eJ@ 0ef}u;D csKyfw@kd u rde@f ceG ;f pum;
awG ajym=um;=uygw,f? orw}uD; p0fa&$odkufu tpdk;&&JΠ0g'vrf;pOfeJ@ywfowf+yD; &Sif;vif;rdef@
=um;&mrSm ‘jrefrmjynfaxmifpw
k iG f t&if;&Si0f g'udk ydwyf ify,fzsuI
f Edik if aH wmf. vkyif ef;aqmifwm
t00udk wdkif;oljynfom;rsm;om ydkifqdkifcGifh&Sdaom qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHwnfaqmuf&efjzpfayonf//”
qd+k yD; twdtvif; azmfjyoGm;ovdk ‘Tjynfaxmifpjk refrmEdik if w
H iG f &S&d o
dS r#aom Edik if o
H m;rsm;onf
zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'wGiyf g&o
dS nft
h wdik ;f wOD;ESiw
hf OD; tcGit
hf a&;csi;f wln=D uap” vd@k vnf;
orw&JΠtm%mpufukd usio
hf ;kH +y;D xkwjf yefa=unmoGm;ygw,f? 'Ge;f p¾m;/ olawmif;pm;/ bk&m;u|ef
ausmif;u|ef/ oifcsdwdk@udkvnf; ‘,ae@rSpI a&S;trif;rif;wdk@. tm%mpufudk u|Efkyfy,fzsufI
xdo
k w
l @kd . oabmtwdik ;f vkyv
f akd om tvkyrf sKd ;pHu
k kd vGwv
f yfpmG vkyu
f ikd Ef ikd =f uap’ vd@k trde@f csrw
S f
a=unmvdkufygw,f//
Edik if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEu
k vnf; vGwv
f yfa&;rde@f ceG ;f }uD;udk wcrf;wem;ajym+yD; ‘u|Eyfk f
wdk@wawG[m 'Dae@up+yD; EdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;wckwnf;udkom &wmr[kwfygbl;// jynfaxmifpkjrefrm
EkdifiHwdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;&JŒ pnf;vHk;r_udkyg xyf=uyfruGm&jcif;jzpfygw,f’ vdk@ teuft"dy`g,fzGifhqdk
vdu
k yf gw,f? vGwv
f yfa&;ausmufwikd f tkwjf rpfcsyu
JG v
kd nf; vGwv
f yfa&;ae@rmS yJ ðyvkycf +hJ y;D 0ef}u;D csKyf
ocifEku tkwfjrpfcsyGJ rdef@cGef;ay;cJhjyefygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;ausmufwdkif tkwfjrpfcsyGJxJrSmawmh
“,ae@&&SdwJh vGwfvyfa&;[m toif;tzGJŒwckwnf;&JŒ vGwfvyfa&;r[kwfyg? jynfolŒ&Jabmf/
qdk&S,fvpf/ uGefjrLepf/ vli,f/ trsdK;orD;/ awmifolv,form; tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk; or*~
tp&SdwJh toif;tzGJŒtpnf;toD;oD;u udk,fqdkif&m e,fedrdwftwGif;rSaeI e,fcsJŒ}uD;udk 0dkif;tHk
wdu
k cf u
kd cf =hJ uwma=umifh &&Sv
d mwJh vGwv
f yfa&;jzpfwt
hJ wGuf ,ck vGwv
f yfa&;[m jynfoŒl &Jabmf
qdk&S,fvpf/ uGefjrLepf/ vli,f/ trsdK;orD;/ awmifolv,form;/ tvkyform;/ tpnf;t±Hk; or*~
74

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tp&Sw
d hJ rsm;ajr‡mifvpS mG aom toif;tzGŒJ tm;vH;k . vGwv
f yfa&;jzpfw,f” vd@k zGi[
hf ajymqdo
k mG ;yg
w,f//
tòrdŒòrdŒte,fe,fawGrSmvnf; vGwfvyfa&;atmifyGJobifawG usif;yapcJhygw,f//
vGwfvyfaom jrefrmEdkifiHawmf&JŒ zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'uvnf; 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEk
tqdt
k & ‘vuf0’J rsKd ;aphawG tajrmuftjrm;yg&o
dS vd/k 'DzŒJG pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
Hk ajccH Oya'tkwjf rpf}uD;
ay: wnfaqmufr,fh jrefrmEdkifiHawmf}uD;[m vuf0Jbufudk ,drf;aewJh EdkifiHawmfygvdk@ awmfawmf
apmapmuxJu aºuG;a=umfxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f?
EkdifiHawmforw}uD;&JΠvGwfvyfa&;ae@rdef@cGef;/ Adkvfvufsm&JΠvGwfvyfa&;ae@ o0%fv$m
awGuvnf; qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHawmftjzpf csDwufa&;qD OD;wnfaewmawGŒ&ygw,f?
‘Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyf’/ ‘aphpyf,lcJh&wJhvGwfvyfa&;’ eJ@ wnfaxmifcsifw,fqkdwJh ‘qdk&S,f
vpfEdkifiHawmf’ [m b,fvdktoGifay:vmr,fqdkwmawmh qufvuf=unfh=uzdk@yJjzpfygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu 'DvGwfvyfa&;[m EdkifiHa&;tm;jzifh vGwfvyfaomfvnf; pD;yGm;
a&;tm;jzifh rvGwfvyfao;a=umif;/ pD;yGm;a&;vGwfvyfr_twGufyg qufvufwdkufyGJ0if=u&OD;rnf
jzpfa=umif; owday;E_d;aqmfygw,f?

vG w f v yf a &;&ump ArmEd k i f i H t ajctae
vGwv
f yfa&;a=unmEdik v
f u
kd af yr,fh vGwv
f yfa&;&ump ArmEdik if t
H ajctae[m vGwv
f yf
a&;eJ@twl tcuftcJaygi;f pH/k t=uyftwnf;aygi;f pHk yËdyuQaygi;f pHv
k nf; uyfygvmcJ+h yD;/ &ifav;p&m
taetxm;jzpfygw,f?
pD;yGm;a&;t& =unfrh ,fq&kd ifvnf; vGwv
f yfa&;a=unmzd@k taºuG;eJ@pcJ&h ovdk jzpfygw,f?
Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyft& jyefay;ygr,f/ oabmwlygw,fv@kd tmrbaE cW x
H m;&wJh taºu;G u +Aw
d o
d #
udkay;qyf&ef usyfaiG (35 ukaÉ 6 oef;)/ tar&duefudkay;qyf&ef a':vm (5oef;)/ +Adwdo#wdk@
jrefrmEdkifiHudk udkvdkeDðy tkyfcsKyfzdk@ac:,lcef@xm;cJh=uwJh tdENd,eJ@ ygupPwefom; tr_xrf; t&mxrf;
awGtwGuf yifpifvpmtjzpfay;zd@k u (wenf;tm;jzif)h udv
k ekd ðD yc aºu;G u usyaf iG (6 ukaÉ 9 oef;)
jzpfygw,f? Armjynf}uD;udk ESpaf ygi;f (120) avmufu|eðf y aoG;pkyf tjrwfxw
k v
f mcJ=h uolawGqu
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tavsm&f zd@k aeaeomom/ aoG;pkycf =hJ uolawG&ŒJ t&if;tES;D vkyif ef;udik if ef;awGu/kd ArmEkid if t
H pd;k &u
vdktyfovdk ta&;,laqmif&Gufr,fqdk avsmfa=u;ay;yghr,fvdk@awmif uwdcH pmcsKyfxm;&ygw,f?
tJ'Dt&if;tESD;uvnf; usyfaiGukaË (60) ausmf&Sdygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;a=unmwJhtcsdefrSm Armjynf&JŒvlOD;a&[m (17) oef;ausmf&Sd+yD; ukvm;u
woef;ausmf&Sdygw,f? tJ'Dh ukvm;woef;ausmf[m e,fcsJŒ+Adwdo#wdk@ udkvdkeDðyaoG;pkyfzdk@/ 1908
ckESpfuae 1929 ckESpftwGif; qGJoGif;vmwmudk vufcHcJh&wJh ta&twGufjzpfygw,f?
v,f,mpdu
k yf sKd ;a&;udyk J tajccH&wJh Edik if jH zpfwt
hJ wGuf (70) &mcdik ;f E_e;f ausm[
f m aus;vuf
awm&Gmae v,form;rsm;jzpf=uygw,f? v,fajr (19) oef;cGaJ usm&f ydS gw,f? t"du pyg;pdu
k yf sKd ;wJh
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

75

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

c±dkif 'dp}udwf (13) ckrSm (50) &mcdkifE_ef;[m ajr&Sif}uD;rsm; ydkifajrawGjzpfygw,f//tJ'Dh ajr&Sif ydkifajr
awGudk=unfhvdkuf&if (50) &mcdkifE_ef;[m cspfwD;ydkifajrawGjzpfygw,f?
Armjynf}uD;[m 1942 uae 1945 ckESpf (3) ESpf twGif;rSmudk t}uD;tus,f ppfab;
ppf'%f ESpaf usmjh yef cHxm;&ygw,f? *syefawG0ifvmumpu AH;k }uJwu
kd cf u
kd +f yD; 0ifvmwmcHc&hJ ovdk
t*Fvyd af wGjyef0ifvmawmhvnf; t}uD;tus,f AH;k }uJwu
kd cf u
kd +f yD; 0ifvmwmcHc&hJ ygw,f? *syefawG
0ifwkef;u atmifjrifpGmqkwfcGmw,fqdkwJh udkvdkeDt*FvdyfawG[m ta&;}uD;vrf;wHwm;rSefor#
csdK;zsuf/ a&eHwGif; owWKwGif;awGukdvnf; pdwf&Sdvuf&Sd ±dkufcsdK;zsufoGm;=uovdk/ *syefzufqpfrsm;
r±_rvS qkwfcGmxGufajy;&awmhvnf; vrf;wHwm;rSefor# csdK;zsuf/ rD;&xm;vrf;eJ@ &xm;acgif;wGJ
awGudkyg zsufqD;oGm;=ujyefygw,f? e,fcsJŒ+Adwdo#eJ@ zufqpf*syefwdk@&JŒ t0ifzsuf txGufzsuf
ESpaf usmjh yefzsuq
f ;D ajrvSeyf pfcjhJ cif;udk r±_rvSccH &hJ wJh jrefrmjynf}uD;[m =unfrh aumif; jrifraumif;
'%f&m'%fcsuaf wGe@J jzpfygw,f? vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;taeeJ@ ta&;}uD; vrf;wHwm;rsm; csKd ;zsucf H
xm;&wJt
h wGuf raumif;yg? ppfuikd ;f wHwm;/ *kwx
f yd w
f w
H m;/ ppfawmif;wHwm;rsm; csKd ;zsucf x
H m;&
ygw,f? rD&xm;vrf;eJ@ &xm;acgi;f wGt
J rsm;pk[mvnf; ysupf ;D aeygw,f? tzsucf x
H m;&wJh a&eHwiG ;f /
owWKwGif;rsm;[mvnf; tjynfht0 jyefvnfxkwf,ltoHk;csEdkifjcif; r&Sdao;yg?
EdkifiHa&;t&=unfhr,fqdk&ifvnf; vGwfvyfa&;a=unmEkdifwmuvGJvdk@ ta&;}uD;qHk; trsdK;
om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;[m òyduGJaeygw,f? tm%m& zqyv }uD;twGif;rSmudk EdkifiHa&;oabm
xm;/ EdkifiHa&;tjrif t,ltqawG rwlnDEkdif=uovdk *dk%f;*%tkyfpk yËdyuQawG tajccHusus
jzpfwnfaeygw,f? txl;ojzifh qdk&S,fvpfeJ@ jynfolŒ&Jabmf yËdyuQ jzpfay:wnf&Sdaeygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wrH óud;yrf;tm;xkwfcJh=uolawGtrsm;pk[m/ tm%mt0ef;
t0dik ;f &JΠtjyifbuf uefxw
k x
f m;jcif;cH&ygw,f? e,fcsJ Œt*Fvyd f armif;xkwaf &;/ zufqpf *syefawmf
vSefa&;awGrSm b,fwkef;urS a&SŒqHk;ur&SdcJholawG[m acgif;aygif;pwaxmifaxmifeJ@ tpdk;&tzGJŒ
twGif;rSm ae&m,lxm;=uygw,f? tpdk;&tzGJŒtwGif;rSm t"du tompD;&xm;wmu qdk&S,fvpf
awGjzpfygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;tay:rSmudk tm%m& zqyv}uD;u ‘vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;’ ‘'if;jynfh
usyjf ynfv
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f yfa&;’ vdk ch ,
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f yfayr,fh pD;yGm;a&;t&
rvGwv
f yfao;/ udv
k ekd aD ESmifóu;d wJxm;or#ukd t+y;D tydik jf zwfawmufjypfz@kd vdak o;w,fv@kd qykd gw,f?
c&Geb
f -D jrpmcsKyf/ vufsm-z&D;rif;pmcsKyf eJ@ Ek-tufwvDpmcsKyfyg tcsut
f vufawGukd axmufjyyg
w,f?
EdkifiHawmf’ yHko¿mefuvnf; jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmfvdk@ac:a0:ayr,fh jynfaxmifpkxJyg
‘jynfe,frsm;’ udpP/ e,fedrdwfowfrSwfa&;udpP &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; rowfrSwf&ao;yg// t=urf;jzif;
tm;jzifh &Sr;f rsm;twGuf &Sr;f jynfe,feJ h ucsirf sm;twGuf ucsijf ynfe,fom&Sad o;+y;D / rGef ESihf &cdik f
twGuf jynfe,fr&Sdyg? &mrnwdkif;/ &cdkifwdkif;tjzpfom owfrSwfxm;ygw,f? csif;udkvnf; ‘0dao
owdkif;’ tjzpfom owfrSwfxm;ygw,f? zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'u u&ifrsm;twGuf
‘aumfo;l av’ txl;a'o zG@J pnf;ay;xm;ayr,f/h e,ferd w
d u
f pd P &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; jywfjywfom;om;
owfrSwfEdkifr_r&Sdao;yg? u&ifeDjynfe,f(u,m;jynfe,f) uawmh a&S;Armrif;rsm;vufxufuxJ
u jrefrm-t*Fvdyf pmcsKyfukd 1875 ckESpf/ ZGefv (21) &ufae@rSmvufrSwfa&;xdk;+yD; udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf
76

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

a&;eJ@ oD;jcm;&yfwnfapcJhwJh jynfe,fjzpfygw,f? u&if/ rGef/ &cdkif rsm;twGuf wdusaom jynfe,f
rsm;r&Sdao;yg?
umuG,af &;bufuae =unfrh ,fq&kd ifvnf; vGwv
f yfcgp jrefrmEdik if aH wmf}uD;rSm +Adwo
d #&ŒJ
ppfrpf&SiftzGJŒudk qufvufvufcHxm;&ygw,f? Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyft& "eo[m,0ifrsm;&JŒ
ppfav,mOf/ a&,mOfrsm; 0ifxu
G f qdu
k u
f yfem;cdck iG u
hf kd cGiðhf yvufcx
H m;&ygw,f? umuG,af &;0ef}uD;
tjzpf Adkvfvufsmuwm0ef,lxm;+yD;/ wyfrawmfwckvHk;&JΠppfOD;pD;csKyfuawmh AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef;
jzpfygw,f? 'kw,
d ppfO;D pD;csKyfu Adv
k rf ª;csKyfapm=um'd;k jzpfygw,f? ppfaxmufcsKyfu Adv
k rf ª;}u;D apm'Geef D
jzpf+y;D / Adv
k rf ª;csKyfapmcspcf if/ 'kAv
kd rf ;ª }u;D apmv,f'g/ 'kAv
kd rf ª;}u;D apmatmif'if/ 'kAv
kd rf ª;}u;D apmatmif
pdefwdk@vdk u&iftrsdK;om;wyfrawmft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;vnf; wyfrawmfxJrSm &Sd=uygw,f? 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;
aZ,s/ 'kAv
kd rf ;ª }uD; &JxÉG f / 'kAv
kd rf ;ª }uD;ausmaf Zmwd@k vkd &Jabmfo;kH udsy0f if uGejf rLepfygw0D ifwyfrawmf
t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;uvnf; wyfrawmfxJrSm w&m;0if&Sd=uovdk Adkvfpdefwif/ AdkvfoufxGef;/ Adkvfrif;'if/
Adkvfodef;/ AdkvfvSarmf/ Adkvf&Jarmif/ Adkvfatmifjrifh/ Adkvfat;az pwJh uGefjrLepfygwD0if wyfrawmf
t&m&Srd sm;[mvnf; wyfrawmf&ŒJ wyf&if;toD;oD;rSm&S=d uygw,f// Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfatmifoif; u awmif
ydkif;wdkif; wdkif;rª;jzpf+yD; Adkvfrª;csKyfae0if;u ajrmufydkif;wkdif; wdkif;rª;jzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;a=unmcgptcsdefrSm wyfrawmfxJrSm Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if; (6) ck&Sdw,f?
u&ifaoewfudkifwyf&if; (3) &if;/ csif;aoewfudkifwyf&if; (2) &if;/ ucsifaoewfudkif wyf&if; (3)
&if;eJ@ a*:&cg;aoewfuikd w
f yf&if; (1) &if;vnf;&Syd gw,f? tJ't
hD csed rf mS ‘wyfrawmf’ xJu r[kww
f hJ
wjcm;vufeufudkifwyfzGJŒrsm;vnf; w&m;0ifwnf&Sdaeygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh +Adwdo#vufxuf
uxJuzGJŒxm;cJh+yD;jzpfwJh u&ifppf&Jwyfrsm;/ vdktyf&if t*FvdyfudkawmfvSefzdk@ &nf&G,fzGJŒpnf;xm;cJh
wJh jynfoŒl &JabmfwyfzŒJG rsm;/ wyfrawmftwGuf vdt
k yf&if wd;k csŒJ zGŒJ pnf;Ekid &f ef &nf&,
G zf ŒJG pnf;xm;cJh
wJh aomif;usef;r_ ESdrfESif;a&;wyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;eJ@ autif,l (KNU) u zGJŒpnf;xm;wJh autif'Dtdk
(KNDO) wyfzGJŒrsm;/ rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;u zGJŒpnf;xm;wJh trftif'Dtdk (MNDO) wyfzGJŒrsm;/ apmf
bGm;rsm;&JŒ cg;ydkufaqmifwyfzGJŒawGjzpfwJh ‘&Srf;ykvdyfrsm;’ jzpf=uygw,f? aomif;usef;r_ESdrfeif;a&;
wyfuae ‘jynfaxmifpkppf&Jwyf’ (UMP) jzpfvmwJhtcg tJ'Dh ,ltrfyDwyf&if;awGxJrSmvnf;
jynfolŒ&Jabmfrsm; yg0ifaecJhygw,f?
vGwfvyfa&;ra=unmEdkifcifuxJu Armjynfa'otoD;oD;rSm &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;ae=uwJh
tiftm;pkrsm;/ vufeufuidk w
f yfzŒJG rsm;vnf; Armjynfvw
G v
f yfa&; a=unm+yD;ptcsed rf mS tcdik t
f rm
wnf&Sdaeygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh tvHeDwyf/ wyfeD/ &cdkifuGefjrLepf/ &cdkifvli,ftpnf;t±Hk;eJ@
rl*sm[pfrsm;jzpf=uygw,f? ocifpdk;&JŒ tvHeDygwDeJ@ tvHeDygwDwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;[m 1946 uwnf;u
rw&m;oif; a=unmcHxm;&+yD;/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; =um;jzwftpdk;&vufxufrSm rw&m;oif;rS
±kwo
f rd ;f ay;cJah o;ayr,f/h r=umrDrmS yJ rw&m;oif;tjzpf qufvufxw
k jf yef owfrw
S jf cif;jyefvnf
cH&um zsmyHke,fw0dkufrSm &yfwnfv_yf&Sm;aecJh=uygw,f?
wyfeDrsm;u ysOf;rem;e,f/ &cdkifuGefjrLepfrsm;u oHwGJe,f/ OD;pdE Wm/ AHkaygufomausmf wdk@&JŒ
&cdik v
f il ,ftpnf;t±H;k u &cdik af wmifyikd ;f eJ@ tAŠ'u
l mqifacgi;f aqmifwhJ ‘rl*sm[pf’ rsm;u &cdik f
ajrmufyikd ;f bl;oD;awmifarmif;awme,fwdk@rSm toD;oD;v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

77

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

Armjynf&ŒJ vGwv
f yfa&;a=unm+y;D ptajctaeudk csKyf=unfrh ,fq&kd if/ Armjynf[m +Aw
d o
d #
e,fcsJŒorm;rsm;&JŒ ESpfaygif; (120) ausmf=um udkvdkeDðyaoG;pkyfjcif;udk &uf&ufpufpufcHcJh&wJhtjyif/
'kwd,urBmppf}uD;&JŒ ppfab;ppf'%fudkvnf; xyfqifhcHpm;cJh&wJhtwGuf bufaygif;pHk qHk;±_H;epfemr_
awG }uD;rm;rsm;jym;vSygw,f? trsKd ;om;aoG;pnf;nD!w
G rf u
_ kd tcdik t
f rmwnfaqmuf+yD; wdik ;f jynf
jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;udk OD;wnfvkyfaqmif&r,fhtpm;/ trsKd;om;aoG;uGJr_awGudk &if=um;raphEdkifyJ
yËdyuQavmifpmawG[m xkeJ@xnfeJ@ wnf&Sdaeygw,f? e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;/ zufqpfawmfvSefa&;
awGrmS a&SŒwef;tcef;u OD;aqmifco
hJ t
l rsm;pk[m ab;udak &mufae=u+y;D / +Aw
d o
d #e,fcsŒJ orm;rsm;u
,H,
k =kH unf=unf tm%mvGaJ jymif;ay;tyfwmudk &,lvufccH o
hJ al wG trsm;pk}uD;[m *d%
k ;f *%pdwf
}uD;rm;olawG/ acwfrDatmif vuf0Judkatmf+yD; vufsmudkoGm;csifwJh vufsmorm;}uD;awGjzpf
aewmudk awGŒ&ygw,f? tm%m& ‘zqyv’ tzGŒJ }uD;twGi;f rSm *d%
k ;f *% yËdyu/Q vuf0-J vufsm
yËdyuQawG tkHeJ@usif;eJ@ wnf&Sdaeygw,f?
jzpfwnfay:aygufvmwJh tpdk;&tzGJŒudk =unfhvdkufr,fqdk&ifudk tajccHrwlnDolawGudk
qGpJ pk yfxm;wmawGŒ&r,fjzpfygw,f? zqyv-uGejf rLepf nD!w
G af &; wnfaqmufa&;/ wzufowf
zsufodrf;jiif;y,fxm;jcif;cH&+yD; zqyv xJrSm qdk&S,fvpfwdk@u tompD;&xm;ygw,f? qdk&S,fvpf
pepfudkoGm;r,fvdk@ twdtvif; aºuG;a=umfxm;ygw,f? jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmftjzpf aºuG;a=umf
xm;ayr,fh/ tajccH jynfaxmifpkzGJŒpnf;yHk yHko¿mefeJ@ywfouf+yD;udkyJ rausvnfr_awG&Sdaeovdk/
jynfaxmifpkwGif;&Sd vlrsdK;pktcsdKŒ&JŒ uef@uGufr_/ rauseyfr_/ apm'uwufr_awG tpuwnf;u
wnf&Sdjzpfay:aecJhygw,f?
jynfwGif;EdkifiHa&;tif;tmpkawGtm;vHk;&JŒ taetxm;udk t=urf;zsif; òcHiHk=unfhr,fqdk&if/
tm%m& zqyv}uD;eJ@twl wnf&Sdae=uwJh EdkifiHa&;ygwD/ tzGJŒtpnf;/ or*~rsm;vnf; pifòydif
wnf&adS ewm awGŒ&ygw,f? wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pktzGŒJ tpnf; toif;tyif;awGxrJ mS awmif tm%m&
zqyv eJ@twl&yfwJh tzGJŒtpnf;/ toif;tyif;eJ@ zqyv udkqef@usif+yD; twdkuftcHtjzpf
&yfwnfwJh tzGJŒtpnf;/ toif;tyif; ESpfydkif;uGJjym;aewmawGŒ&ygw,f? twdkuftcHoabm/ EdkifiH
a&;tiftm;pkawGxrJ mS ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygw[
D m tiftm;t}uD;qH;k eJ@ =oZmt}uD;qH;k jzpfygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;tpOftvmt& tjrifhqHk;jzpfovdk/ ygwDoufwrf;t&vnf; oufwrf;t&ifhqHk;jzpfygw,f?
tm%m& zqyv}uD;eJ@twl &yfwnf wnf&SdaewJh EkdifiHa&;tzGJŒtpnf;awGtwGif;rSmawmif
uGefjrLepfvdkvm;olawG &SdaewJhtxd EdkifiHa&;=oZm}uD;vSygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ Edik if aH &;t&Sed =f oZmudk todtrSwrf ðy&ifrjzpfwt
hJ wGuf Edik if aH wmf0ef}u;D csKyf
ocifEk uawmif zqyv xJu trwf (10) OD;avmufudk txGufcdkif;/ tJ'Dhae&mawGrSm uGefjrLepf
awGe@J tpm;xd;k a&G;cs,/f ocifoef;xGe;f udk twdu
k t
f cHacgi;f aqmiftjzpf wifajr‡muf+yD;/ v$waf wmf
twGi;f yg0ifEikd af tmif pOf;pm;pdwu
f ;l zl;w,fqykd gw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ't
hD csed u
f ocifEk [m Edik if aH wmf
tpd;k &tzGŒJ &JŒ 0ef}u;D csKyfqakd yr,fh ygwv
D ufuikd rf &Sw
d hJ woD;yk*v
~ omjzpfae+y;D / zqyv }u;D twGi;f rSm
tiftm;trsm;qHk;[m qdk&S,fvpfawGjzpfaeygw,f? tm%m&tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;xJrSm tiftm;
t}uD;qHk; qdk&S,fvpfrsm;[m/ olwdk@tm%mudk udkiftv_yfEdkifqHk; tzGJŒtpnf;u ‘uGefjrLepfygwD’
qdkwm &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;odjrifxm;+yD; wavsmufvHk;vnf; olwdk@&&Sdxm;wJh tm%mvufeufudk
78

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

xdxrd rd d qkyu
f ikd t
f oH;k cscyhJ gw,f? zqyv-uGejf rLepf yËdyuQqw
kd m tESpo
f m&tm;jzifh uGejf rLepfqdk&S,fvpfyÉdyuQomv#ifjzpfygw,f?
+Aw
d o
d #uv
kd ekd o
D rm;rsm; vufatmufu/ zufqpf*syefrsm;vufatmufwek ;f u/ u|eðf yaeol
e,fcsJŒrsm;udk qef@usifawmfvSef+yD; wkdif;jynf}uD;wckvHk;&JŒ ‘vGwfvyfa&;’ twGuf OD;wnfóud;yrf;
v_y&f mS ;cJ=h uwJh Edik if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;[m (txl;ojzifh uGejf rLepf-qd&k ,
S v
f pf rsm;[m) vGwv
f yfa&;
ukd&&Sdatmif b,fvdkenf;eJ@ tm;xkwf=urvJ/ vGwfvyfa&;rkcfOD;qD b,fvrf;eJ@oGm;=urvJ qdkwJh
tajccHay:rSm rwljcm;em;wJhtjrif t,ltqoabmxm;awGeJ@ yËdyuQawG ay:aygufcJh=uygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;yËdyuQawG=um;xJrSm *dk%f;*%yËdyuQ/ yk*~dKvfa&;yËdyuQawGvnf; qifhyGm;jzpfwnfay:
aygufcJh&ygw,f?
+Aw
d o
d #e,fcsŒJ orm;rsm;u Armjynfvw
G v
f yfa&;udk a=unmcGiðhf y+y;D Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfe@J
ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;udk todtrSwfðyvdkufwJhtcg/ wenf;tm;jzifh vGwfvyfa&;ay;vdkufwJhtcg/
&&SdwJh vGwfvyfa&;tay: ‘vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;’ jzpfw,fqdkwmeJ@ ‘vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; tppftrSef
r[kwaf o;’ qdw
k hJ tajccH tjrift,ltq oabmxm;qdik &f m yËdyuQ ay:ayguv
f mcJw
h ,f? 'Dtcg
rSmvnf; *dk%f;*% yËdyuQ/ yk*~dKvfa&;yËdyuQawG qifhyGm;ay:aygufvm&jyefygw,f? txl;ojzifh
tm%mudk usifhoHk;cGifh&ol tm%mvufukdif&Sdolrsm;u tm%mudk zdzdpD;pD; ukdifwG,ftoHk;ðy=uwJh
twGuf ‘yËdyuQ’ awG[m wdk;wdk;+yD;om jzpfwnfus,fjyef@vmcJhygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;tm;jzifh ajym&&if vGwfvyfa&;a=unmjcif;rðy&ao;cifu +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒorm;eJ@
ArmjynfEikd if aH &;tiftm;pkawGtygt0if vlrsKd ;aygi;f pHk Armjynfov
l x
l }k uD;w&yfv;kH =um;yËdyuQ[m
t"duyËdyuQjzpfygw,f?
vGwv
f yfa&;a=unm+yD;csed rf mS +Adwo
d #e,fcsŒJ orm;wd@k &ŒJ wdu
k ±f u
kd f tkycf sKyf u|eðf yr_atmuf
uae vGwaf jrmufciG &hf &Sv
d m=u+yDjzpfwt
hJ wGuf Armjynf&ŒJ Edik if aH wmfvuQ%m[m udv
k ekd ED ikd if t
H jzpf
uae/ udkvdkeDwydkif; ya'o&mZfwydkif;EkdifiHtjzpf ajymif;vJvmygw,f? udkvdkeDwydkif;vdk@ owfrSwf
wmu EdkifiHa&;tm;jzifhomvGwfvyf+yD; pD;yGm;a&;ppfa&;qdkif&m e,fy,fawGrSm +Adwdo#wdk@&JΠudkvdkeD
aESmifóud;wJxm;r_awG &Sdaeao;wJhtwGufa=umifhjzpfygw,f? Ek-tufwvD pmcsKyfudk om"uwck
tjzpf=unfEh ikd o
f vd/k wdik ;f jynfwckv;kH &JΠukex
f w
k v
f yk if ef;eJ@ pufrv
_ ufrv
_ yk if ef;}uD;tm;vH;k avmuf
eD;yg;[m e,fcsŒJ orm;ydik /f wdik ;f &if;om;r[kww
f hJ vlrsKd ;jcm;rsm;ydik af wGcsn;f yJjzpfygw,f? ya'o&mZf
wydkif;vdk@ owfrSwf&wmuawmh wdkif;jynfwckvHk;&JŒ vufawGŒpD;yGm;a&;b0[m acwfaemufuswJh
ya'o&mZf ajr&Sifukefxkwfpepftwdkif;yJ qufvufwnf&Sdaeao;wJhtwGufjzpfygw,f? wenf;
tm;jzifh qufvufcdkif+rJaeqJ ya'o&mZfajr&SifpepfeJ@ ya'o&mZf ajr&Sifukefxkwfpepfudk t+yD;
tydkif zsufodrf;ypfEdkifjcif;r&Sdao;wJhtwGufjzpfygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

79

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif}uD;
OuUÏ apmbOD;}uD;

u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif}uD;
OuUÏ apmAdkvfjr

80

0if;wihfxGef;

u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif}uD;
OuUÏ ref;bZH

u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif}uD;
OuUÏ y'dkapmboif

80
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vG w f v yf a omjref r mEk d i f i H a wmf a cgif ; pOf a tmuf r S m
vGwv
f yfaomjrefrmEdik if aH wmf&ŒJ yxrOD;qH;k aom wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf/ ygvrD ef tpnf;
ta0;udk 1948 Zefe0g&Dv (8) &ufae@rSm pwifusif;yygw,f?
27-1-48 ae@rSm jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmfygvDrefu qufoG,for# pmrsm;udk
‘jrefrmpm’ ESifhtoHk;ðyEdkifa=umif; w&m;0ifa=unmygw,f?
wdik ;f jynfrmS w&m;0if twnfðyvufcu
H sio
hf ;kH aewJh ‘zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya'’ tay:
vufco
H abmusjcif;r&Sw
d hJ u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;&JŒ ‘u&ifjynfe,f’ &&Sad &; awmif;qdo
k [
H m ydrk jkd rnf
[de;f vmygw,f? autif,t
l rSL;ðywJh u&ifacgi;f aqmifawG&ŒJ u&ifjynfe,f oD;jcm;&&Sad &; awmif;
qdo
k [
H m tckrS a&Smifwcifay:xGuv
f mwmr[kwyf g? 1947/atmufwb
kd m (3) &ufuae (4) &ufae@
xd usi;f ycJw
h hJ autif,t
l rSL;ðy u&ifacgi;f aqmifrsm; ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;&JŒ ‘armfvòrdin
f v
D mcH’rSm
uwnf;u w&m;0if aqG;aEG;qH;k jzwf twnfðyxm;cJw
h hJ awmif;qdo
k jH zpfygw,f? wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$wf
awmfu a&;qGJxm;wJh zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'udk u&ifnDvmcH}uD;u vufrcHEdkifa=umif;/
u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;twGuf auseyfavmufwJh u&ifjynfe,feJ@ u&iftpdk;& &&Sdr_ rygjcif;a=umifh
vufrcHEdkifa=umif; xkwfazmfajymqdkcJh=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? 'gha=umifh vGwfvyfa&;a=unm+yD;ptcsdefrSm
u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JΠu&ifjynfe,f&&Sda&;awmif;qdkoH[m ydkrdkjrnf[def;vmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
1948 azazmf0g&D (1) &ufae@rSm u&iftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmif apmbOD;}uD;/ o&momxdk eJ@
tzGJŒ[m/ oxHk&JXmeydkif tif;0dkif;&GmrSm u&ifjynfe,f oD;jcm;&&Sda&; w&m;a[m=uygw,f? azazmf
0g&D (3) &ufae@rSm u&ifjynfe,fzGJŒay;zdk@ autif'Dtkd tzGJŒ}uD;u awmif;qkdygw,f? azaz:0g&Dv
(11) &ufae@rmS u&ifwrsKd ;om;vH;k &JΠqENazmfxw
k jf yor_ukd u&iftrsKd ;om;xk&&dS m t&yfa'owdik ;f
rSm wcrf;wem; usi;f yðyvkyaf e=uygw,f? autif't
D t
kd zGŒJ }uD;u }uD;rSL;+yD; tif;pderf mS u&iftrsKd ;
om;rsm; tiftm;jyyGu
J kd usi;f yðyvkyo
f vd/k usKd ufxt
kd xufwef;ausmif;0if;twGi;f rSmvnf; usi;f y
ðyvkyyf gw,f? (12) &ufae yh o
k rd ef @J anmifwek ;f rSmvnf; u&iftrsKd ;om; tiftm;jyyGJ qENxw
k af zmf
yGJawG usif;y=uygw,f? u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JΠu&ifjynfe,f&&Sda&; EkdifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;[m
'Da&yrmwufvmygw,f? autif,l/ autif'DtdktzGJŒ}uD;rsm;u }uD;rSL;usif;ywJh u&iftrsdK;om;
rsm;&JΠEdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ qENazmfxkwfjyoyGJ}uD;awGtwGif;rSm
1// u&ifjynfe,f csufcsif;ay;
2// u&ifwusyf Armwusyfcsufcsif;jy
3// vlrsdK;a&; t"du±k%f; tvdkr&Sd
4// jynfwGif;ppftvdkr&Sd - qdkwJh aºuG;a=umfoH (4) &yfyg0ifcJhygw,f? tm%m& zqyv
tpd;k &u u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;&JŒ awmif;qdck suf aºuG;a=umfou
H kd csucf si;f wH@k jyefrr_ vkyyf J ESmap;aecJyh g
w,f//
wqufwnf;rSm wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;oGm;cJhygw,f//
1948 azazmf0g&v
D xJrmS yJ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; ocifoef;xGe;f
[m ygwaD y:vpfAsL±d0k if ocifAode;f wife@J twl tdE,
dN jynf uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ 'kw,
d t}urd u
f eG *f &uf
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

81

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

udk oGm;wuf=uygw,f? tdENd,uGefjrLepfygwDu zdwf=um;vdk@ nDaemifygwDawGtjzpf oGm;wuf=u
jcif;jzpfygw,f//
tJ'DhtcsdefrSm urBmrSm txl;ojzifh 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;t+yD; udkvdkeDxrf;ydk;atmufu vGwf
ajrmufvmumpEdkifiHawGrSm uGefjrLepf0g' a&yef;pm;vSovdk uGefjrLepfygwDawG&JŒtcef;[m tifr
wefta&;ygygw,f?
tm%m& Armjynf zqyv tpd;k &ud,
k w
f ikd u
f vnf; qd&k ,
S v
f pfvrf;a=umif;twdik ;f csw
D uf
r,fv@kd vGwv
f yfa&;ae@red @f ceG ;f awG o0%fvm$ awGrmS azmfjycJ+h yD;jzpfovd/k zqyv twGi;f tm%m&
xdyfoD;}uD;rsm;udk,fwdkifuvnf; olwdk@udk,folwdk@ vuf0Jorm; qdk&S,fvpf0g'D}uD;rsm;toGif yHkazmf
aºuG;a=umfae=uqJjzpfwma=umifh tajctaetcsdeftcg tcsuftvufawGeJ@ [yfpyfr_&Sdatmif
tpdk;&tzGJŒ&JŒ w&m;0ifajcvSrf;opfwcsdKŒudk pwifazmfaqmifvmygw,f? tJ'guawmh Armjynf
wjynfvHk;&JΠtus,fjyef@qHk; tiftm;t}uD;qHk;jzpfwJh aus;vufawm&Gmae awmifol v,form;
rsm;eJ@ywfowfwhJ ‘v,f,majr Edik if yH ikd ðf yvkyaf &; tufOya'’ udak =unmvdu
k jf cif;eJ@ Ekid if jH cm;om;ydik f
vkyfief;}uD;wcsdKŒudk EdkifiHydkifðyzdk@ =uH&G,ftm;xkwfvmjcif;jzpfygw,f? tpdk;&u ‘EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;
ra&$Œrajymif;Ekdifaom ypPnf;rsm; ta&mif;t0,frvkyf&’ Oya'udkvnf; jyÏmef;a=unmygw,f?
v,f,majr EdkifiHydkifðyvkyfa&;tufOya'=urf;udk ajr&Sif}uD;awGu qef@usif=uovdk
apmfbGm;}uD;awGawmfawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; rvdkvm;Ekdifjzpf=uygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;twGuf
ra&$Œajymif;Edik af om ypPn;f rsm; ta&mif;t0,frvky&f Oya'jyÏmef;vmwmeJ@ywfowf+y;D a&m Edik if jH cm;
ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;rSm tpdk;&udk,fwdkif 0ifygvmwmeJ@ywfouf+yD;a&m t*Fvdyfwdk@u uef@uGuf
=uygw,f? jynfolydkifodrf;a&;ajcvSrf;udk [ef@wm;Ekdifzdk@jyif=uygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuawmh olŒ&JŒrlv&yfwnfcsufjzpfwJh EdkifiHjcm;om;ydkif pufr_vkyfief;
}uD;rsm;udk jynfolydkifodrf;,l&mwGif avsmfa=u;ray;a&;/ +Adwdo#tpdk;&udk ay;qyf&eftaºuG;rsm;udk
ray;qyfa&;/ +Adwdo#ppfrpf&SiftzGJΠapv$wfwmudk vufrcHa&;wdk@udkyJ qufvuf &Sif;vif;wifjy
awmif;qdkaecJhygw,f? ajr,meJ@ywfoufwJh uGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ oabmxm;uawmh ‘v,fvkyfol
v,fydkifa&;’ jzpfygw,f?
azazmf0g&DvxJrSmyJ tm%m&zqyvtzGJŒ}uD;twGif;rS qdk&S,fvpfygwD[m ArmjynfuGef
jrLepfygwDeJ@ awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;vdka=umif; avoHypfvmygw,f? w&m;0iftm;jzifh tqdkðywmr[kwfyJ
qdk&S,fvpfygwD xdyfoD;}uD;wOD;jzpfwJh OD;ausmf+idrf;uae ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh)/ocifAodef;wif
wdk@uwqifh ocifoef;xGef;eJ@ awGŒqHka&;/ uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ aqG;aEG;Edkif&ef &ufcsdef;awmif;wmjzpfyg
w,f? vGefcJhwJh wvcGJavmufuyJ zqyv jynfvHk;u|wfnDvmcHrSm uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ nD!Gwfa&;
urf;vSr;f csuu
f kd vH;k 0vufrcHEikd af =umif; ,wdjywfy,fcsc=hJ uwJh zqyv qd&k ,
S v
f pfrsm;[m bmha=umifh
aqG;aEG;&ef urf;vSrf;vm=uygovJqdkwm pdwf0ifpm;p&mjzpfygw,f?
u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JŒ u&ifwusyf Armwusyf aºuG;a=umfoHv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;/ v,f,majr
EdkifiHydkifðyvkyfa&;tufOya'=urf;tay: ajr&Sif}uD;rsm;&JŒ qef@usifuef@uGufoHrsm;/‘u&ifv,fudk
rodr;f eJ@’ aºu;G a=umfwek @f jyeforH sm;eJ@/ apmfbmG ;}u;D rsm;&JŒ rvdv
k m;oHrsm;udk óuaH wGŒae&&if;/ t*Fvyd f
rsm;&JΠzdtm;ay;uef@uGufr_awGudkyg &ifqdkifae&csdefrSm uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ aqG;aEG;Edkifa&; &ufcsdef;
82

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

awmif;oH xGufay:vmwmjzpfygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@ tqdkt&uawmh ‘jynfolacwf (People'sAge) *sme,fyg *dk&S,f&JŒ aqmif;yg;t& ‘*dk&S,fppfwrf;’ qdkwmt& jynfwGi;fppfqDoGm;a&; OD;wnf
aewJh uGefjrLepfygwDudk olykefrxatmif wm;qD;&ef aphpyfaqG;aEG;zdk@qdkygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDu
‘nD!w
G af &;urf;vSr;f csuu
f kd y,fcsjcif;udk igw@kd vufrcHyJ r&raeóu;d pm;rnf’ vd@k aºu;G a=umf+y;D quf
vuftm;xkwfwmudkawmif y,fcscJh=uwJh qdk&S,fvpfrsm;[m 'Dwcg olwdk@u aqG;aEG;zdk@ &ufcsdef;
awmif;wmudk uGefjrLepfrsm;u &ufcsdef;ray;Edkifao;wmtay: awmfawmf rausreyfjzpf=uygw,f?
u&ifjy\emajz&Sif;a&;twGuf ^m%feD^m%feufxkwf+yD; jyifqifr_awGvkyfae&wJh zqqdk&S,f
xdyfoD;}uD;rsm;[m uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ awGŒqkHnd‡Ed_if;zdk@ wzufu &ufcsdef;awGawmif;aeayr,fh/wzuf
u b,fvdktjywf&Sif;ypf&rvJqdkwmudkvnf; trsdK;rsdK;tzkHzkH pOf;pm;}uHpnfaeygw,f? ‘igwdk hpdwfr
&Snfawmhbl; odef;az (Desperate) jzpfae=u+yD? 'gayr,fh wdk@u vuf,mzufawmhroGm;csifbl;?
vuf0o
J moGm;csiw
f ,f? wzufu t*Fvyd f ukr%
R }D uD;awGuo
kd rd ;f / v,form;awGukd ajrawGa0ypf/
wzufu *dk&S,f-oef;xGef; uGefjrLepfygwDudk xa&mfpuD0g'orm;awGvdk@ a=unm+yD; acsr_ef;ypf/
wdk@ygwDudk uGefjrLepfygwDvdk@a=unm? tJ'Dvdkawmif wdk@xJrSm pdwful;olu pdwful;ae=uw,f’
vd@k qckd w
hJ hJ OD;ausm+f idr;f &JŒpum;[m om"uwckyrmjzpfygw,f? wzufu vdt
k yfcsut
f & ‘!Ge@f aygi;f
tpd;k &rl’ eJ@ aphpyfr,fv@kd ajymaejyifqifaepOftwGi;f rSmyJ acsre_ ;f ypfcsif vufO;D r_,cl siw
f hJ oabmu
vnf; wzufrSm&Sdaeygw,f?
azazmf0g&D (26) &ufae@u ukefonf}uD;rsm;toif; ESpfywfvnftpnf;ta0;rSm
0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku “tpdk;&[mqdk&S,fvpf0g'rS wdrf;apmif;rnfr[kwfa=umif;” xyfavmif;ajym
qdkygw,f//
rwfvxJrSmyJ Armjynf&Sd +Adwdo#ukr`%D}uD;awGu ppftwGif; ysufpD;qHk;±H_;cJh&jcif;awGt
wGuf avsmaf =u;aiG&vkad =umif; ppfavsmaf =u;awmif;=uygawmhw,f? tpd;k &udk zdtm;ay;wJt
h aeeJ@
vef'efu txnftvdyfrsm; a&mif;csay;&mrSmvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHudk (10) &mcdkifE_ef;om a&mif;csay;
r,fq+kd yD;/ oD[/kd tdE,
dN / ygupPwefw@kd uo
kd m ydrk akd &mif;csay;ygw,f? 'gah =umifh Armjynfu ukvm;ukef
onfawG[m ygupPwefEdkifiHt0,feJ@ t0,fjy+yD; wifoGif;a&mif;cs=u&ygw,f?
‘jrefrmjynfv;kH qdik &f m ajrydik &f iS rf sm;toif;’ u &efuek òf rdŒrSm jynfv;kH u|wf uGezf &ifh usi;f y
+yD;/ ‘zqyv’ &JŒ ajr,mðyjyifa&;vkyfief;rsm;udk uef@uGufqENjy=uygw,f? &cdkifbufu t}uD;qHk;
aom &Jausmfol rdom;pkajrydkif&Sif}uD;rsm;uvnf; wufa&mufyg0if=uygw,f?
rwfv (10) &ufae@rSm autif,l apmbOD;}uD;/ apmom'ifeJ@tzGJŒ 0ef}uD;csKyf±kH;rSm ocifEk
eJ@awGŒqHk+yD; u&ifjynfe,foD;jcm;&&Sda&;udpP aqG;aEG;=uygw,f?
rwfvxJrSm rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;uvnf; u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;enf;wl rGefjynfe,f&&Sd a&;v_yf
&Sm;vm=uygw,f? rGefwdkif;&if;om;tpnf;t±Hk; tvkyftr_aqmiftpnf;ta0;u rGefjynfe,f
awmif;qdk&ef qHk;jzwfygw,f?
'Dvqef;ydkif;rSmyJ qdk&S,fvpfygwDxdyfoD;}uD;wOD;jzpfwJh ‘ocifwif’ &JŒowif;/ tdk;a0/
jynfolŒ[pfwdkif/ pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ uGefjrLepfae@pOfowif;pmwkd@rSm òydifwlygvmcJh+yD;/ 'Dowif;twGuf
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

83

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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84

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

85

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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q&mrsm;toif;u tcdkiftrm&yfwnfygw,f?
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86

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

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ynm&Sifqdkolawmfawmfrsm;rsm;uvnf; 'Dtmabmftwdkif;yJ qifhyGm;yJhwifxyfavh&Sdygw,f? Arm
jynf tkypf ;kd oltqufquf&ŒJ ausmif;oH;k ordik ;f pmtkyf pmrsuEf mS awGay:rSmvnf; jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;udk
pwifcJhwm uGefjrLepfawGtjzpf &nf!¸ef;azmfjy vuf!dk;xdk;avh&Sdygw,f? ordkif;udk xdefcsif&mxdef/
ðryfcsif&mðryf/ azmfcsif&mazmf+yD; wzufowfusus ajymqdkwifjy aumufcsufcsavh&Sdygw,f? tJ'Dvdk
‘Armjynf jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk pwifcJhwm uGefjrLepfawGjzpfygw,f?’ ‘uGefjrLepfawGu jynfwGif;ppf
vrf;pOftwdik ;f avsmufvrS ;f cJ=h uw,f’/ ‘uGejf rLepfawGu jynfwiG ;f ppfvrf;pOfukd wGe;f wif+yD; vuf
eufuikd v
f rf;pOfukd taumiftxnfazmfomG ;r_a=umifh jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;pcJ&h w,f’ qdw
k hJ ajymqdck suf
wifjycsuf qGo
J m;csuaf wGwikd ;f rSm wlnw
D hJ azmfxw
k cf suw
f ck&ydS gw,f? wenf;tm;jzifh olw@kd &ŒJ tqdk
rSefuefa=umif; vufqkyfvufudkif oufaotjzpf wifjyavh&SdwJh azmfxkwfwifjycsuf}uD;wck&Sdyg
w,f// tJ'guawmh ‘*dk&S,fppfwrf;’ qdkwmyJjzpfygw,f?
*dk&S,fppfwrf;qdkwJh t"duoufaocH azmfxkwfwifjycsuf}uD;eJ@twl 'Doufaojycsuf}uD;
udk ydrk ckd ikd rf matmif t&Hoabm odik ;f 0dik ;f wifjyavh&w
dS mu/ tdE,
dN uGejf rLepfygwu
D t*Fvyd b
f mom
eJ@ a&;om;xkwaf 0wJh (Peoples' Age) jynfoŒl acwfpmapmifyg &JabmfAwif (*d&k ,
S )f a&;om;w,fqkd
wJh aqmif;yg;jzpfygw,f? 1948 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufae@xkwf pmapmifyg aqmif;yg;jzpfygw,f?
(wcsKdŒuvnf; azazmf0g&Dv (4) &ufae@ xkwfvdk@qdkygw,f?)
tJ'&D aJ bmfAwif (*d&k ,
S )f a&;w,fqw
kd hJ aqmif;yg;eJ@ tpysKd ;/ ‘*d&k ,
S pf pfwrf;’ qdw
k mudk t"du
vufqkyfvufudkifoufaoeJ@ wifjy+yD; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;uwnf;u
vufeufudkift=urf;zufenf;eJ@ tm%mudkodrf;,lzdk@ *dk&S,f&JŒ jynfwGif;ppfðya&;vrf;pOfudk qkyfudkif
+yD; jynfwiG ;f ppfvrf;a=umif;twdik ;f av#mufvrS ;f oGm;cJw
h ,fv@kd aumufcsuq
f jJG yavh&ydS gw,f? Arm
jynf EdkifiHa&;ordkif;/ jynfwGif;ppfordkif;udk a&;om;ajymqdkwifjywdkif;/ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu
pwifcJhwmtjzpf tJ'DtcsuftvufawGudkyJ qkyfudkif+yD; enf;vrf;trsdK;rsdK;eJ@ yHkazmf0g'jzef@csdcJh=uyg
w,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

91

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D ‘jynfwiG ;f ppfjzpfa&;’ qdw
k m b,fwek ;f urS ygw&D ŒJ vrf;pOfrjzpfchJ
ygbl;? tJ'Dhwkef;u ygwD&JŒ ‘aemufqHk;wdkufyGJvrf;pOf’ qdkwmuvnf; jynfwGif;ppfr[kwfcJhygbl;?
tJ'Dhwkef;u (vGwfvyfa&;ra=unmcifteD;umv) ygwD&JΠvufeufudkifwdkufyGJrsm; r#m;OD;[m
aemufq;kH tcsed t
f xd t*Fvyd ef ,fcsŒJ orm;yJ? jynfwiG ;f ppfr[kwyf gb;l ? tJ'aD emufq;kH wdu
k yf v
JG rf;pOf
udkvnf; wjynfvHk;tESH@ w&m;0ifjzef@csdxm;wmygyJ/’ vdk@qdkygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfvrf;pOfrcsrSwfcJh
a=umif; twdtvif; jiif;qdkygw,f? 'gjzifh t"duoufaocHjzpfwJh ‘*dk&S,fvrf;pOf’ qdkwmbmvJ/
b,fvdkvJ?
*smreDEkdifiH [ef;bwfòrdŒrSm odrf;qnf;xm;wJh okawoe tcsuftvufzdkifwGJrsm;txJrSm/
‘ArmjynfueG jf rLepf0g'ESihf ywfowfaom pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm; 1945-1977 ckEpS ’f qdw
k hJ zdik w
f w
JG wG&J dS
ygw,f? tJ'DhzdkifwGJ&JŒ pmrsufESm (83) rSm ‘Armjynf rsufarSmuf EdkifiHa&;tajctaeESifh u|efkyfwdk@.
vkyfief; wm0efrsm;’ a&;ol Awif/ 1948 ckESpf/ rwfv ( ? ) qdkwJh pmwrf;wapmifvnf; &Sdw,fqdkyg
w,f? tJ'pD mwrf;udk &nf!e¸ ;f ud;k um;=uwmqdyk gw,f? *d&k ,
S pf pfwrf;qdw
k m[m tJ'guakd jymqd=k u
wmqdkygw,f?
wu,fu ‘*d&k ,
S ’f a&;cJw
h hJ tJ'h D ‘*d&k ,
S pf pfwrf;’ qdw
k m[m pmtm;jzifah omfvnf;aumif;/
E_wftm;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif; vHk;0r&Sdbl;qdkygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDordkif;eJ@ywfowf+yD;
jynfwGif;jynfy azmufjyefa&;orm;awGu vkyf}uHvnfq,fxm;=uwm renf;bl;qdkygw,f?
uGefjrLepfygwD tqdkt& *dk&S,fom tJ'D *dk&S,fppfwrf;udk trSefwu,fa&;cJhr,fqdk&if/
1948 ckEpS /f rwfvxJrmS awmufav#mufvyk af ewJh (nwdik ;f avmufvyk af ewJ)h A[kad umfrwDtpnf;
ta0;awGrmS *d&k ,
S u
f ‘oydwpf rkH o
S yl ek x
f ’ a&; t,ltqudk bmvd@k wifaervJ? vufeufuikd af wmf
vSefa&;vkyfzdk@qdkwJh *dk&S,fppfwrf;qdkwmxJuyg t,ltq pdwf"mwfeJ@ ‘oydwfpHkrS olykefx’ qdkwJh
t,ltq pdwf"mwf[m wjcm;pDjzpfw,f? qef@usifbufjzpfw,fqdkygw,f? rwfv (28) &ufae@
rSm &efolu vufeufeJ@ pwifzdESdyfvmvdk@ rv$Jra&Smifom vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; qif;vmcJh&wJh
aemuf ausmuf}uD;aygu/f pG,af wmfòrdiw
f @kd rmS ðyvkyw
f hJ A[dak umfrwDtpnf;ta0; (4) }udrrf mS awmif
&JabmfAwif[m ‘aus;vuftajccH òrdŒ0dkif;a&;’ vrf;pOfcsrSwfzdk@ aqG;aEG;=uwmudk awmufavsmuf
qef@usiaf ew,fqykd gw,f? qdv
k w
kd mu tpuwn;fu &JabmfAwifrmS vufeufuikd jf ynfwiG ;fppfðy
a&; t,ltq&SdcJh+yD;om;qdk&if/ wenf;tm;jzifh vufeufudkifjynfwGif;ppfðya&; oabmxm;yg0ifwJh
‘rsufarSmufEdkifiHa&;tajctaeESifh u|Ekfyfwdk@.vkyfief;wm0efrsm;’ pmwrf; (*dk&S,fppfwrf;) qdkwm
udk trSew
f u,fa&;om;cJo
h jl zpfw,fq&kd if ‘aus;vuftajccHòrdŒ0dik ;f ’ vrf;pOfcsrw
S af &;rSm qef@usif
p&m ta=umif;r&Sdyg? oydwfpHkrSolykefxudkvnf; awmufav#muf qufvufwifaep&mta=umif;
r&Sdyg? &JabmfAwif[m tpnf;ta0; (4) }udrfvHk;rSm awmufav#mufqef@usifaecJhw,fqdkygw,f?
csKyf+yD;ajym&&if ‘*dk&S,fppfwrf;’ qdkwm *dk&S,fa&;cJhwmr[kwf/ *dk&S,fa&;w,fqdkwJh *dk&S,fppfwrf;qdk
wm[m wOD;OD;u vky=f uHvnfq,fcjhJ cif;omjzpfw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwrD mS b,f
wkef;urS jynfwGif;ppfðya&;vrf;pOfr&SdyJ tkyfpkd;olu vufeufudkift=urf;zufvmvdk@ vufeufudkif
enf;udk a&G;cs,fcJh&wmjzpfw,fvdk@qdkygw,f?
92

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

*d&k ,
S pf pfwrf;qdw
k mudk azmfxw
k cf =hJ uwJh t"duyk*Kd~ vf (2) OD;&Syd gw,f/// tJ'w
D ek ;f u Edik if aH wmf
0ef}uD;csKyfOD;EkeJ@ ocifodef;az (odef;azjrifh) jzpfygw,f?
Edik if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Eku olŒ&JŒud,
k w
f ikd af &;txˆKywWd ‘wmawpaeom;’ xJrmS ocifoef;
xGef;eJ@ *dk&S,fwdk@ tdENd,EdkifiHu jyefa&mufvm+yD;wJhaemufydkif; &uftenf;i,ft=umrSm jynfxJa&;
0ef}uD; OD;ausm+f idr;f [m olŒudv
k mawGŒ+yD; pmwrf;wapmifjyow,fv@dk qykd gw,f? jyoyHk jyoenf;udk
vnf; a[m'Dvdka&;om;xm;ygw,f?
‘u|efawmfwdk@ vlwa,muf uGefjrLepfay:vpfAsL±dkxJrSmoGif;xm;w,f/ olŒqDu 'Dpmwrf;
udk&wm?’
‘atmfæ’
‘'Dv[
l m b,fov
l q
J w
kd m txdawmh rar;yge@J awmh0ef}u;D csKyf u|eaf wmfawmif;yefygw,f’
OD;ausmf+idrf;[m ocifEkudk olŒvufxJu pmwrf;vSrf;ay;w,f? ocifEkzwf=unfhwJhtcg
“jrefrmEkid if aH wmf. vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;tajctaeESihf u|Eyfk w
f @kd .vkyif ef;pOf” qdw
k ahJ cgi;f pOfuakd wGŒ&ygw,f?
‘'DudpPudk u|efawmfwdk@ jywfjywfom;om;vkyfrSjzpfvdrfhr,f 0ef}uD;csKyf/ csDwHkcswHk vkyfaevdk@
rjzpfbl;/ 'DuGefjrLepfawG olykefxrSm{uefyJ?’
‘rif;b,fvdkjywfjywfom;om;vkyfzdk@ pdwful;xm;ovJ ausmf+idrf;?’
‘uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifawG tckvdk &efukefrSmpkaewkef;/ olwdk@udk ðAef;ueJzrf;+yD; axmifxJ
xnfhxm;csifw,fæ’ vdk@azmfjycJhygw,f?
OD;ode;f azjrifu
h awmh ol@&ŒJ ‘ausm+f idr;f ’ txˆKywWpd mtkyx
f rJ mS / OD;ausm+f idr;f ud,
k w
f ikd f trSm
pma&;om;xm;wJh pmtkyfxJrSm tckvdka&;om;xm;wmawGŒ&ygw,f?
ausmf+idrf;rSm jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;jzpfojzifh ,ck u|efawmhfxH,lvmaom aqmif;yg;omru/
*d&k ,
S f u ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD A[dak umfrwDwiG ;f rSm v#Kd Œ0Supf mG a0xm;aom ppfwrf;}uD;udv
k nf;
&xm;onf[kod&onf? ygwDu u|efawmfhtm; xdkppfwrf;udkay;onfr[kwfacs? ygwDrS xGuf+yD;
aemuf twef=umrS ausmf+idrf;u ,lvmIzwf&onfæ vdk@azmfjyxm;ygw,f?
tJ'v
hD kd OD;Ek eJ@ OD;ode;f azjrifh &JΠazmfxw
k af &;om;xm;csuaf wGukd axmuf±o
_ ;kH oyf=unf&h r,f
qdk&if ‘*dk&S,fppfwrf;’ qdkwm}uD;udk &&Sd=unfhjrifzwf±_&zl;ol ESpfOD;&Sdygw,f? ocifEk eJ@ OD;odef;azjrifh
jzpfygw,f? tcsdefu azazmf0g&Dv odk@r[kwf rwfvqef;xJyg// zwf±_&ol ESpfOD;vHk;&JŒazmfjycsuft&
tJ'Dh *dk&S,fppfwrf;qdkwm}uD;udk ay;oluawmh wOD;xJyg? tJ'Dyk*~dKvfuawmh OD;ausmf+idrf;yg?
OD;ausmf+idrf;u 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk udk tJ'Dhpmwrf;udkjyo+yD; zwf±_aepOfu ‘u|efawmfwdk@
vlwa,muf uGefjrLepfygwD ay:vpfAsL±dkxJrSm oGif;xm;w,f? olŒqDu 'Dpmwrf;udk&wm’ vdk@ajym
+yD; tJ'v
hD l b,fob
l ,f0gjzpfa=umif; xyfrar;zd@k E_wyf w
d cf ikd ;f xm;cJyh gw,f? tifrwefpw
d 0f ifpm;p&m
aumif;ygw,f?
tJ'Dhae&mrSm tcsuftvuftrSefawGxJuae trSefw&m;udk&Smzdk@ vdktyfvmygw,f? tJ'D
tcsed w
f ek ;f u ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwx
D rJ mS Edik if aH &;OD;aqmiftzGŒJ 0if ay:vpfAsL±d0k if[m (3) OD;xJy&J ydS g
w,f? taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r_;ocifoef;xGef;/ &JabmfAwif ac: *dk&S,feJ@ ocifAodef;wifjzpfygw,f
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

93

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

ocifoef;xGef; [m eHygwfwpfacgif;aqmifjzpfygw,f// ocifAodef;wif[m aemifwcdsefrSm
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ OuUÏtxdjzpfvmcJh+yD; uG,fvGefcsdeftxd b,fvkd&yfwnfoGm;cJholvJ
qdkwm oufaojycJh+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? ‘*dk&S,f’ [mvnf; 'Dppfwrf;}uD; ‘*dk&S,fppfwrf;’ qdkwm}uD
a&;om;olygvdk@ t"duxm;ajymqdkcHcJh&ol um,uH&Sifppfppfjzpfygw,f? tcsuftvufrSefawGudk
owWKcs=unfhvdkuf&if 'D ‘*dk&S,fppfwrf;’ qdkwm}uD;[m jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; OD;ausmf+idrf;qDrSmyJ pwif
awGŒ&Sd&+yD; OD;ausmf+idrf;qDrSmyJ vrf;qHk;aecJhygw,f?
aemif Armjynfordik ;f a&;=uolawGtm;vH;k [mvnf; txufrmS azmfjycJw
h hJ ocifE&k ŒJ a&;om;
csufeJ@ OD;odef;azjrifh&JŒ a&;om;csuftay:rSmyJ wnfrSD+yD; udk;um;&nf!¸ef;=uwmcsnf;jzpfygw,f?
t&HoabmrsdK; azmfxkwfcJh=uwJh tdENd,uGefjrLepfygwD tmabmf ‘jynfolŒacwf’ pmapmifyg *dk&S,f
a&;w,fqdkwJh aqmif;yg;uaum b,fvdkjzpfysufcJhwmygvJ? uGefjrLepfygwDtqdkt& tJ'Dh
aqmif;yg;[mvnf; *dk&S,f trSefwu,fa&;om;cJhwmr[kwfyg?
1948 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvxJrSm &JabmfAwif (*dk&S,f) [m tdENd,c%oGm;csifw,fvdk@wifjyvdk@
usefay:vpfAsL±dk0if ESpfOD;u oabmwlvdkuf=uw,fqdkygw,f? *dk&S,f tdENd,a&muf+yD;wJhaemuf
tdENd,uGefjrLepfygwDuxkwfwJh ‘jynfolŒacwf’ xJrSm &JabmfAwifa&;w,fqdkwJh aqmif;yg;ygvmcJh
w,fqdkygw,f? tJ'Dhaqmif;yg;xJrSm ‘ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ vrf;pOf[m vusfmusaeygw,f?
'ga=umifjh yif&r,f’qdw
k hJ oabmrsKd ;vnf; yg0ifaew,fqykd gw,f? *d&k ,
S jf yefvmwJt
h cg tJ'ahD qmif;yg;
[m ygwDudktodray;yJ ygwDvrf;pOfukd qef@usifa&;om;xm;wmjzpfvdk@ ygwDA[dkaumfrDwDu jyif;
jyif;xefxefa0zef=uwJt
h cg/ &JabmfAwif[m 'Daqmif;yg;udk ola&;om;cJw
h mr[kwaf =umif;/ tdE,
dN
uGefjrLepfygwDacgif;aqmifwa,mufu ol@emrnfeJ@a&;wmjzpfygw,fvdk@ jyef vnf&Sif;vif;wifjycJ
vd@k tJ'u
hD pd P tJ'ahD vmufe@J +yD;jywfomG ;cJ=h uw,fqykd gw,f? qdv
k w
kd mu tJ'ahD qmif;yg;yg oabmxm;
[mvnf; uGefjrLepfygwD&JΠoabmxm;r[kwfyg? uGefjrLepfygwDu csrSwfxm;wJh w&m;0ifvrf;pOf
eJ@ udkufnDcJhwmr[kwfbl;qdkygw,f?
tJ'v
hD kd tcdik t
f rmr[kww
f hJ udprP sm;udq
k yk u
f ikd +f yD; vdt
k yfovdyk }kH uD;csŒJ um yHak zmfum/ trSef
wu,f r&Scd w
hJ hJ ‘*d&k ,
S pf pfwrf;’ qdw
k m}uD;udk vnfqnfvyk =f uH vuf!;kd xk;d +yD;/ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfyg
wDu jynfwGif;ppfvrf;pOfukd pwifcJhwmvdk@ wzufowfajymqdkcJh=ujcif; jzpfw,fqdkygw,f?
jiif;r&Edkifavmufatmif tcdkiftrmjzpfysufcJhwmuawmh rwfv (27) &ufae@ zufqpf
awmfveS af &;ae@ txdr;f trSwt
f crf;tem;t+yD;/ noef;aumifausmf rd;k rvif;ao;rD tcdset
f awm
twGif; tm%m& zqyvtpdk;&u tvpftidkuf uGefjrLepfzrf;yGJ vkyfaqmif taumiftxnfazmf
cJw
h muae/ rwfv (28) &ufae@rmS Armjynf jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD; pwifc&hJ wmjzpfygw,f? tapm}uD;u
wnf;u }udw+f yD; }uHpnfjyifqifaecJw
h hJ jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; OD;ausm+f idr;f &JŒ vufawGŒtaumiftxnf
azmfr_uae jynfwGif;ppf}uD; pwifcJhwmjzpfygw,f? tJ'g wu,fhtjzpftysufrSef ordkif;jzpfygw,f?
aemufxyf t&HoabmrsKd ; ajymqdak &;om;ud;k um;ae=uwJh ‘qd&k ,
S v
f pft±d;k awGe@J Am;u&m
acsmuf}uD;zd;k ypfr,f’ ‘at;at;aq;aq;aecsiw
f hJ ocifEk =uHawmocsiô ;f oGm;aeyg’ qdw
k hJ uGejf rLepf
acgi;f aqmif ocifoef;xGe;f &JΠjyif;xefrmausmvGe;f vSwhJ }udr;f armif;ajymqdo
k aH wGqw
kd m[mvnf;
b,ftay:rSmajymqdkcJhwmvJ/ bmtjzpftysufawGeJ@ qufpyfajymqdkcJhwmvJqdkwmuawmh rSefrSef
94

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

uefuef=unfjh rif=uzd@k vykd gw,f? tm%m&qd&k ,
S v
f pfrsm;u rkq;kd rowif;pmwdu
k af wmif raxmuf
xm;/ &rf;&rf;um;um; vltyk }f uD;eJ@ tEdik u
f sichf w
hJ mtay: owif;pmwdu
k f (3) wdu
k v
f ;kH udk pufawGyg
rcsef ±du
k cf sKd ;zsuq
f ;D ypfc=hJ uwmtay:/ tJ'gawGe@J wqufxJ ajymqdck w
hJ mjzpfw,fqw
kd m owdrzl @kd vkd
ygw,f? ta&;}uD;vSwJh wu,fhaemufcHtjzpftysufawGudk azsmuf+yD;ajymvdk@rjzpfyg? jynfxJa&;
0ef}uD; OD;ausm+f idr;f ud,
k w
f ikd f trde@f ay;cdik ;f appDpOfcw
hJ mjzpfygw,f? t&uf ud;k armif;wdu
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95

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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

97

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t*Fvdyf/ tar&duef/ qdkAD,uf,leD,H pwJh EdkifiHwumeJ@ wef;wl&nfwl EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;
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( High Treason Bill)

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

99

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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100

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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udk tjywfòzda&;om t+rJO;D xdyx
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tajccHOya'yk'fr (199) eJ@ yk'fr (200) t& aumfolav;e,ferdwfowfrSwfa&;aumfrwDwckudk
{+yDv (6) &ufae@rSm zGJpnf;ay;+yD; ,m,Dac|;odyfxm;vdkufygw,f? uGefjrLepfrsm;udkom t"du
xm;+yD; OD;atmif&iS ;f ypfz@kd óud;pm;tm;xkwcf yhJ gw,f? w0ufwysuo
f m zrf;qD;axmifoiG ;f vdu
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jynfwGif;ppf}uD;pcJh&ygw,f? uGefjrLepfrsm;udk awmwGif;armif;xkwf+yD;csdefrSm u&iftrsdK;om;
jy\emudk udkifwG,fajz&Sif;a&;[m ta&;w}uD; aqmif&Guf&r,fhudpPjzpfvmygw,f? u&iftrsdK;
om;udpPeJ@twl tòydifa&SŒwef;a&mufvmwJhudpPu &JabmfjzL udpPjzpfygw,f? &JabmfjzL udpP[m
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jzpfay:vmcJhygw,f? yJcl;c±dkif &pfuef}uD;&GmwdkufyGJ/ jrpfusKd;wdkufyGJ / aZ,s0wD o=um;puftpD;cH&r_/
aròrdŒ BEME wyf tpD;cH&r_/ a0gòrdŒtpD;cH&r_eJ@ OuUH "mwfacsmif;awmif±dk;wdkufyGJ pwmawG ay:ayguf
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(3) pD;udkyg pwifoHk;pGJ wdkufcdkufcJhygw,f?
ZGefv (26) &ufrSm zqyv xJ&Sd ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m vli,frsm;tpnf;t±kH; OD;pD;nDvmcH
usif;yygw,f? tJ'DnDvmcHrSmvnf; Armjynf&JΠvuf&SdEdkifiHa&;tajctaeudk aqG;aEG;oHk;oyf=uyg
w,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

101

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

vufaxmufyv
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tm%m& zqyv tzGJŒ}uD;twGif;rSmvnf; rnD!Gwf/ zqyv wGif;u ta&;}uD;tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;
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D kd emrnfajymif;oifh rajymif;oifh aqG;aEG;
&wJhtajctaetxd jzpfay:vmygw,f? emrnfawmhrajymif;awmhbJ ygwD&JŒvrf;pOfudkyJ aqG;aEG;
nd‡Ed_if; qHk;jzwfcJh=uw,fqdkygw,f?
Zlvdkifv (10) &ufaerSm zqyv tzGJŒcsKyfeJ@ oabmxm;uGJvGJovdk Ekrl eJ@vnf; qef@usif
jcm;em;=uwJh &JabmfjzLrsm; zqyv tzGJŒcsKyfu EkwfxGuf=uovdk/ tpdk;&tzGJŒ0iftjzpfuvnf;
EkwfxGuf=uzdk@ jyifygw,f? ( 16 &ufae@rSm tpdk;&tzGJŒu w&m;0ifEkwfxGufygw,f)? Adkvfr_;atmif/
AdkvfpdefrSef acgif;aqmifwJh &Jabmf0gawGbJ tpdk;&eJ@twl usefcJhygawmhw,f?
102

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tJ'D Zlvdkif (10) &ufae@rSmbJ EdkifiHa&;jcm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;wifxGwfuvnf; 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk
eJ@twl Zlvdkif (20) &ufup+yD; &mxl;rS EkwfxGufr,fjzpfa=umif; ajymqdkvmygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf
ocifEu
k vnf; Zlvikd f (20) &ufae@rmS Ekwx
f u
G zf @kd jyifqifovd/k Adv
k v
f usmF uvnf; 'kw,
d 0ef}u;D csKyf
tjzpfua&m umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;tjzpfuyg EkwfxGufzdk@pDpOfygw,f?
trsdK;om;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_awG qufwdkufòyduGJvmovdk EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awG wpxuf
wp t&Sed jf yif;xefvmwJt
h wGuf zqyv tpd;k &ud,
k w
f ikd v
f nf; rwnfr+idrjf zpfvm&wJh oabmjzpf
ygw,f//
Zlvdkifv (13) &ufae@rSm EdkifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk u atmifqef;tm;upm;uGif;}uD;rSm
vlxktpnf;ta0;yGJ}uD;usif;y+yD; (15 csufvkyfief;pOf) vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;r_udk trsdK;om;vkyfief;pOf
tjzpf a=unmvdu
k yf gw,f? tJ'v
D yk if ef;pOfukd taumiftxnfazmfz@kd qd&k ,
S v
f pf/ jynfo&l ŒJ abmfe@J
uGefjrLepfrsm; nD!Gwfa&;vkyf&r,fvdk@qdkum vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;udk zdwfac:vdkufygw,f? tpurSm
tòydifjzpf+yD; uGJvGJaewJ &Jabmfrludk vHk;0z,fcsypfvdkufwJh oabmjzpfygw,f?
ocifEk&JŒ Ekrl (15) csuf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;rl[m vef'ef/ 0g&SifwefeJ@ taemufEdkifiHwcsdKŒrSm
*,uf±u
dk o
f mG ;cJyh gw,f? taemufwikd ;f owif;pmwcsKd Œu Armjynf eDomG ;+yDv@kd a&;=uom;=uovdk
vef'ef wdkif;owif;pmu ppfaoG;ºuGuGefjrLepfrsm;eJ@ aphpyfIrjzpfEkdifvdk@ a&;om;ygw,f? +Adwdo#
EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; bDAif u jrefrmEdkifiHwGif jzpfay:vmaomtajctaea=umifh jrefrmEdkifiHtay:
+Adwdo#wdk@.oabmxm; vrf;pOfajymif;vJ&vdrfhrnfvdk@ +Adwdo#ygvDrefrSm ajym=um;vmovdk/
vef'ef&dS jrefrmoHtrwf}uD;udk csucf si;f qifah c:+yD; tJ'v
D uf0n
J !
D w
G af &;vrf;pOfta=umif; &Si;f jycdik ;f
ygw,f? bk&ifcHa[mif; qma':refprpf acgif;aqmifwJh jrefrmEdkifiH awmifay:om;rsm; vGwfajrmuf
a&;aumfrwDuvnf; ta&;}uD;+yDjzpfwJtwGuf vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJtwGuf toifh&Sdae&ef
a=unmygw,f? +Adwdo#wdk@u jrefrmjynf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;jzpfrSm awmfawmfpdk;&drfcJh=uygw,f?
avoHav;avmufawmif em;cHEdkifpGrf;r&Sda=umif; jyocJh=uygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk udk,fwdkifu
vnf; +Adwo
d #txifvrJG mS pd;k &drw
f t
hJ wGuf olwŒkd vuf0n
J !
D w
G af &;rl[m b,fvv
kd uf0n
J !
D w
G af &;
rlvnf;qdkwm ywfywfeyfeyf &Sif;vif;jyzdk@ EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;wifxGwf udk t*Fvefv$wf+yD; &Sif;
vif;ajymjyapygw,f? rmhu(f pf) 0g' jzef@jzL;r,fqw
kd hJ tcsuw
f csuðf zwf+y;D Ekrl (14) csut
f jzpf &Si;f vif;
cJh&ygw,f? rlv Ekrl (15) csufuae aemifrSm Ekrl (14) csuftjzpf ajymif;vJoGm;chJygw,f?
wyfrawmftwGif;rSmvnf; vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;udpP[m ta&;}uD;acgif;pOfwck jzpfvmcJhyg
w,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD awmcdo
k mG ;wJah emufyikd ;f wdu
k cf u
kd &f r,fh wdu
k yf rJG sm;rSm wyfzŒJG wcsKd Œudk
apv$wfwm0efay;zdk@ tcuftcJ&Sdvmw,fvdk@qdkygw,f? bmvdk@vJqdkawmh wcsdKŒwyfcGJrª;rsm;[m
uGefjrLepfEG,f0ifawGjzpfaevdk@qdkygw,f/ 'ga=umifh wjcm;wyfzGJŒawGeJ ajymif;+yD; wm0efay;&wm/
vlrsK;d pkwyfzŒJG awGeaJ &G;+yD; apv$w&f wmawG&v
dS mw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f/ tJ'v
D kd wm0efay;cH&wJwyfawG
u aus;&GmwcsKd Œudk jyefvnford ;f ydu
k &f mrSm &Gmom;eJ olyek f rcGjJ cm;bJ ypfcwfwu
kd w
f m ajrvSepf epfe@J
&Gmudrk ;D ±dŒ_ wmrsKd ;awG jzpfay:vm+yD;/ Armaoewfuikd w
f yf&if;rsm;u ra=ureyfjzpf=u/ ajymqdv
k m=u
wmawG&w
dS ,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? tJ'v
D kd a0zefajymqdrk a_ wGxu
G v
f mvd@k umuG,af &;0ef}uD; Adv
k v
f usmF
u Adkvfae0if; tygt0if Armt&m&Sd}uD;rsm;udk tpnf;ta0;ac:,lajymqdkwJhtcg Adkvfae0if;tyg
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

103

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

t0if Armt&m&S}d uD;rsm;u jyefveS af 0zefajymqd=k uw,fqykd gw,f? rcHr&yfEikd jf zpfvmwJh Adv
k v
f usmF
u tJ't
D &m&S}d uD;rsm; vuf0n
J !
D w
G af &;vkyaf qmif=uzd@k pdeaf c: cJw
h hJ twGuf Adv
k af e0if;wd@k wawGu
0ef}uD;csKyfudkcGifhawmif;+yD; vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;twGuf wyfrawmf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrwD
azmfaqmifc=hJ uw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? tJ'D wyfrawmfvuf0n
J !
D w
G af &; (9) OD;aumfrwDrmS Adv
k af e0if;/
Adv
k af Z,s/ Adv
k &f x
J w
G /f Adv
k w
f ifO;D / Adv
k w
f ifarmif? Adv
k cf spòf rdi/f Adv
k x
f eG ;f pde/f Adv
k Af pdef pwJh olawGyg0ifchJ
=uygw,f?
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; AdkvfvusFmeJ@ Adkvfae0if;[m wOD;eJwOD; tjrifr=unf=ubl;vdk@vnf;
qdkygw,f//
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u olwyfuxGufcdsefrSm wyfudkOD;pD;zdk@ Adkvfvusfmudk aemufqHk;a&G;cs,f
wm0efay;cJh+yD;uwnf;u Adkvfae0if;[m Adkvfvusfmtay: òydifbufvdkoabmxm;+yD; remvdkpdwf
0ifcw
hJ mvd@k vnf;qd=k uygw,f? 'ga=umifh tJ'w
D ek ;f uvnf; Adv
k v
f usfm&JŒ trde@f ay;r_wcsKd Œudk Adv
k af e0if;
[m remcHbJ olvkyfcsifovdk vkyfcJhwmawG&SdcJhw,fvdk@qdkygw,f? tJ'D yk*~dKvfa&;uGm[r_[m wdkif;
jynfvGwfvyfa&;a=unm+yD;csdef ta&;}uD;umvwav#muf qufvufjzpfay:aecJhygw,f? wyfr
awmfvuf0JnD!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrwDu Adkvfvusfm udk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;u EkwfxGufay;a&;
awmif;qdkzdk@ qHk;jzwfxm;w,fvdk@qdkygw,f? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; Adkvfvusfm &mxl;uEkwfxGufzdk@
qH;k jzwfjyifqif&wJh ta=umif;&if;awGxrJ mS wyfrawmfvuf0n
J !
D w
G af &;aumfrwDu olurkd vdv
k m;
bl;qdkwmuvnf; ta=umif;wckjzpfcJhygw,f?
Zlvdkif (15) &ufae@ ae@vnf (2) em&DrSm 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEk eJ@ 0ef}uD;tzGJΠEkwfxGuf+yD;
tJ'Dn (7) em&DausmfrSmbJ jyefvnfzGJŒpnf; usrf;opPmusdefqdk=ujyefygw,f?
qd&k ,
S v
f pf-&JabmfjzL yËdyuQa=umifah &m/ Ek-rl &Jabmfrl uGjJ ym;r_a=umifah &m/ jynfxaJ &;udk
tjywfudkifxm;wJh qdk&S,fvpfawGu &JabmfjzLawG&JΠvufeufawGukd odrf;vdrfhr,fqdkwJh xGufay:
vmwJh toHawGa=umifhyg &JabmfjzLwcsdKΠZlvdkif (16) &ufae@rSm awmcdk=uygw,f?
Zlvdkif (16) &ufae@rSmyJ vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpD zGJŒpnf;ay:aygufvmygw,f? tzGJŒ0if
(21) OD;&Sdygw,f?
1? Adkvfae0if;
OuUÏ
wyfrawmf
2? AdkvfApdef
tzGJŒ0if
?
3? AdkvfapmxGef;pdef
?
?
4? Adv
k &f x
J ÉG f
?
?
5? AdkvfaZ,s
?
?
6? Adkvfrª;atmif
?
jynfol@&Jabmf
7? AdkvfpdefrSef
?
?
8? Adkvfva&mif
?
?
9? Adkvfrif;acgif
?
?
10? Adkvf!Gef@armif
?
?
11? Adkvfatmif!Gef@
?
?
104

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;
12? Adkvfbkef;atmif
13? OD;vSarmif
14? OD;AaqG
15? OD;ausmfjidrf;
16? ocifwif
17? Adkvfatmif}uD;
18? Adkvfodef;wef
19? Adkvfatmifrif;
20? Adkvf&efatmif
21? OD;odef;azjrifh

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf
?
?
?
qdk&S,fvpfygwD
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
uGefjrLepfygwD
?
?
?
?
twGif;a&;rª; - wdk@jzpfygw,f?

'Dae&mrSm &Si;f vif;p&m&Syd gw,f? OuUÏ tjzpfaqmif&u
G w
f hJ Adv
k af e0if;yg wyfrawmft&m&Sd
}uD; (5) OD;[m wyfrawmfvuf0n
J !
D w
G af &;aumfrwD0if (9) OD;xJujzpfygw,f wyfrawmfvuf0n
J D
!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrwDudk udk,fpm;ðyxm;wJhoabmjzpfygw,f?
uGefjrLepfvkd@acgif;pOfwyfay;xm;wJh Adkvfodef;wef/ Adkvfatmifrif;/ Adkvf&efatmif wdk@(3)OD;
[mvnf; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk w&m;0ifudk,fpm;ðyxm;olawGr[kwfyg? ( Adkvfodef;wef [m
rwfv (28) &ufae@ vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &; rv$rJ a&Smifom ay:ayguv
f mwJt
h cg vdu
k o
f mG ;cGi&hf cJh
ygvsuf vdu
k rf oGm;cJo
h jl zpfygw,f?) jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;OD;ausm+f idr;f u rwfv (28)&ufup+yD; wjynf
vHk; odrf;usHK;+yD; uGefjrLepfzrf;yGJ}uD; qifE$JwJhtcg tzrf;cH&ol (3) OD;jzpfygw,f? vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;
aumifpzD @JG pnf;prSm axmifxu
J aexkw+f yD; aqG;aEG;apwmjzpfygw,f? Zlvikd v
f (18)&ufae@rmS vuf0J
nD!Gwfa&;aumifpD&JΠqHk;jzwfcsuft& OD;ausmf+idrf;u axmifuv$wfay;cJ+yD; vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;
aumifpDrSm yg0ifapcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
tJ'v
D kd Adv
k af e0if;OuUÏ tjzpf aqmif&u
G w
f hJ vuf0n
J !
D w
G af &;aumifpD zGŒJ pnf;ay:ayguv
f m
csdefrSm wdkif;jynfrSmjzpfysufaewJhtaetxm;u ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD[m rwfv (28) &ufae@u
wnf;u awmcdkae&+yD;jzpfovdk/ &JabmfjzLrsm;vnf; vufeufodrf;cH&/ tzrf;tqD;cH&rSmpdk;vdk@
wpdww
f ydik ;f awmcdak e=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;&JΠv_y&f mS ;r_awG[mvnf; odoo
d mom
jzpfay:ae+yD; u&ifppf&Jrsm;u oxHkudkodrf;ydkufwm óuHawGŒ&+yD;csdefjzpfygw,f? tpdk;&tzGŒJ twGif;&Sd
vusFmtiftm;pkrsm;udk,fwdkifuvnf; tpDtpOfwckudk jyifqifae=uw,fqdkygw,f? tJ'guawmh
qd&k ,
S v
f pfjynfolŒ&Jabmfrsm;ryg0ifwhJ tdraf pmift
h pd;k &zGŒJ pnf;ay;a&; tpDtpOfjzpfygw,f? umuG,f
a&;0ef}uD; Adkvfvusfm/ wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef;/ &JcsKyf OD;xGef;vSatmif/
jynfxaJ &;XmetwGi;f 0if OD;umpDw@kd yg0ifwhJ Edik if aH wmfvðkH cHa&;aumifpu
D 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEu
k kd qd&k ,
S f
vpfe@J jynfolŒ&Jabmfw@kd ryg0ifwhJ tdraf pmift
h pd;k &zGJŒpnf;ay;&ef awmif;qdck =hJ uygw,f? Edik if jH cm;a&;
0ef}uD; OD;wifxGwfuvnf; vHkðcHa&;aumifpDeJ@ woabmwnf;jzpfw,fvdk@ qdkygw,f? vHkðcHa&;
aumifpu
D tckvkd uGejf rLepfawG olyek x
f jcif;eJ@ u&ifoyl ek x
f &ef v_yv
f y_ &f &G jG zpfae&jcif;[m qd&k ,
S f
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

105

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

vpfawGudkrkef;vdk@jzpfw,f? tpdk;&xJrSm ygwDorm;awGryg&if at;oGm;vdrfr,fvdk@ ta=umif;jy=u
w,fqdkygw,f?
rdwˆDvmrSm wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcHeJ@ ykvdyft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;nDvmcHusif;y+yD;/ tJ'DnDvmcHawGrSm
Adv
k cf sKyfprpf'eG ;f eJ@ OD;xGe;f vSatmifw@kd u vH;k òcHa&;aumifp&D ŒJ qH;k jzwfcsuo
f abmxm;twdik ;f ajym=u
qdk=u jyifqif=uw,fqdkwJh toHawGxGufay:vmcJhygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;eJ@ vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumif
pD0ifawGu 'DvkòH cHa&;aumifp&D ŒJ qH;k jzwfcsuo
f abmxm;[m wdik ;f ðyjynfðyv$waf wmf ,m,DygvrD ef
udk ab;z,fxm;+yD; ppfwyf/ ykvdyfeJ@ tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;u tm%modrf;&ef=uHjcif;om
jzpfw,fv@kd ,q
l =uwJt
h jyif ppfwyfxrJ mS &Sad ewJh t*Fvyd pf pfrpf&iS &f JŒacgi;f aqmifwOD;u aemufu,
G f
uae =oZmay;aew,fvdk@ rouFmjzpf=uw,fqdkygw,f? vHkòcHa&;aumifpD&ŒJ tpDtpOfomatmif
jrifoGm;&if e,fcsJŒvkyf}uHr_}uD;atmifjrifoGm;Edkifw,fvdk@vnf; ,lq=uw,fqdkygw,f? 'ga=umifh
vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDudk zGJŒvdu
k +f yD; vHkòcHa&;aumifpD&JŒ ygwD0ifawGrygaom tdrfapmifhtpdk;&zGJŒ
pnf;a&;t}uHtpnfudk wdkufzsuf&efpOf;pm;=uygw,f? vusfmtE W&m,ftjzpf ±_jrifoHk;oyfylyef=u
w,fqdkygw,f? vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDu ocifEkudk quf+yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfvkyfap&ef/ rvkyfvdk
u Adkvfvusfmudk vkyfap&ef/ Adkvfae0if;udk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;cef@&ef/ OD;wifxGwf tm; EdkifiHa&;jcm;
a&;0ef}uD;ae&mu z,f&Sm;+yD; OD;tkef; odk@r[kwf vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDu a&G;cs,folwOD;OD;udk
cef@xm;&efvnf; qHk;jzwf=uw,fqdkygw,f?
vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpD xJrSmvnf; txufazmfjyygqHk;jzwfcsufawGudkom vufcH
oabmwlnDae=uayr,fh rwlnDwmawGvnf; trsm;}uD;vdk@qdkygw,f? wcsdKŒu vusfm tE W&,f
udkomwdkufzsufvdk+yD;/ uGefjrLepfeJ@ r& &wJhenf;eJ@ aphpyfvdkolawGjzpf+yD;/ wcsdKŒu vusfmtE W&m,f
kd &f r,fv@kd cH,x
l m;=uw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? OD;ausm+f ird ;f
a&m/ uGejf rLepftE &W m,fa&m ESpcf pk vk;H tðywfwu
uawmh ESpfckpvHk; tðywfwdkufa&;orm;jzpfygw,f?
tJ'DtcsdefrSm yk*~dKvfa&;yÉdyuQawG[mvnf; ay:aygufvmjyefw,f/ Adkvfae0if;eJ@ ywfouf
wJhyÉdyuQjzpfygw,f? Adkvfvusfm u olumuG,fa&;0ef}uD;&mxl;u EkwfxGufoGm;&ifawmif/
Adkvfae0if; umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmrSmudk rvdkvm;ovdk/ umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf prpf'Gef;
uvnf; 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEu
k kd csO;f uyf+yD; Adv
k af e0if;udk umuG,af &;0ef}uD;tjzpf vufrcHEikd af =umif;
wifjycJw
h ,fv@kd qykd gw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f uawmh Adv
k af e0if;udv
k v
kd m;+yD; umuG,af &;0ef}uD;jzpfapcsif
ygw,f? qd&k ,
S v
f pftEG,0f ifjzpfwhJ Adv
k af e0if;udk olŒvltjzpfvnf; tcdik t
f rmarG;jrLxm;csiyf gw,f?
Adv
k v
f ufusmf uawmh umuG,af &;0ef}uD;tjzpf Adv
k af Z,sukd jzpfapcsiw
f ,fqykd gw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f
u Adkvfae0if; ae&m&a&;twGuf tpGrf;ukeóf ud;pm;cJhygw,f?
Zlvikd v
f ukeyf ikd ;f rSm jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;OD;ausm+f idr;f u 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEq
k v
D m+yD; Akv
d af e0if;
udkjzpfjzpf/ AdkvfaZ,sudkjzpfjzpf/ umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; cef@ay;zdk@ awmif;qdkae=u+yD? tajctaeawGu
awmh ta&;}uD;ae+yDqdkwJhta=umif; wifjyygw,f? ocifEku 'Davmufta&;}uD;aewJhtcsdefrSm
'Dvakd wmif;qdv
k mwm[m t=uyfuikd w
f mbJv@kd cpH m;+yD; b,fou
l rkd S rcef@b;l / olw@kd vyk cf si&f mvky=f u
ygap? 'dk@rSmvnf; ajcrJhvufrJhrSr[kwfbJvdk@ jiif;y,fw,fqdkygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;u 'Dvdkqdk olwdk@udk
106

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

c%avmufrawGŒEdkifbl;vm;vdk@ xyf+yD;ajymawmh ocifEku rawGŒbl;vdk@ xyfjiif;w,fqdkygw,f?
tJ't
D cg OD;ausm+f idr;f u 0ef}uD;csKyfa&SŒrSmyJ rsuaf &awG awGawGus+yD; idjk yw,fqykd gw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f
rsuf&nfuswmjrif&+yD; pdwfxdcdkufvmwJh ocifEku/ a[hausmf+idrf; rif;taumifawGac:csifac:cJh
igawGŒr,fv@kd jyefjyif+yD;ajzwJt
h cgr/S OD;ausm+f idr;f u u|eaf wmfw@kd tpd;k &tzGŒJ rSm wu,ftm;ud;k Edik w
f hJ
Armwyf[m Adkvfae0if;&JΠwyf&if; (4) wwyfyJ&Sdw,f? tJ'Dawmh 'DvlawGvm&if Adkvfae0if;udk
umuG,af &;0ef}uD;cefah pcsiw
f ,fv@kd wdu
k w
f eG ;f ajymqdyk g w,f? tJ'v
D kd tcdik t
f rmjyifqif+yD;wJah emuf
OD;ausm+f idr;f u Adv
k af e0if;/ Adv
k af Z,s OD;ode;f azjrifw
h @kd ukd ocifEq
k aD c:vmygw,f? ODausm+f idr;f eJ@twl
qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifwcsdKŒvnf;ygvm=uygw,f? ppfAdkvfESpfOD; oHk;OD;vnf;ygvmw,fqdkygw,f?
ppfAkdvfwOD;&JŒcg;rSm ajcmufvHk;jyL;aoewfxdk;vmwm udkjrifvdkuf+yD; pdwfawG axmif;ueJjzpfvmwJh
ocifEku/ tif;bmvJajymygtHk;vdk@ Adkvfae0if;eJ@ AdkvfaZ,sudkar;awmh ESpfOD;pvHk;u bmr#rajymbJ
+idrfae=uw,fqdkygw,f? vuf0JnD!Gwfa&; aumifpDtwGif;a&;rª; OD;odef;azjrifhu Adkvfae0if;udk
jzpfjzpf AdkvfaZ,sudkjzpfjzpf 0ef}uD;csKyf óuduf&mvludk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;cef@zdk@ wifjy+yD; 0ef}uD;csKyf
pOf;pm;zdk@ tcsdef(3)&ufay;r,fvdk@ ajymw,fqdkygw,f? 'gudk&mZmoHay;vmwm +cdrf;ajcmufvm
wmvd@k ,lq+yD; ocifEu
k a'goeJ@ oH;k &ufrajymeJ@ oH;k rdepfawmif tcsed rf ,lb;l / b,fou
l rkd S rcef@b;l
vdk@ajym+yD; tm;vHk;jyefv$wfvdkufygw,f? tpu OD;ausmf+idrf;ajymxm;wJhtwdkif; Adkvfae0if;udkyJ
cef@r,fvdk@ pDpOfxm;wm a'goa=umifh ysufoGm;&w,fqdkygw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@wtkyfvHk; jyefoGm;
+yD;aemuf (15) rdepfavmuft=umrSm Adv
k v
f usmf eJ@ Adv
k af Z,su 0ef}uD;csKyfe@J awGŒcsiw
f t
hJ a=umif;
ajymvmjyefw,fqdkygw,f? yxr ocifEk u jiif;ygw,f? Adkvfvusfmu awGŒcGifhðyoifhygw,fvdk@
awmif;yefwJhtwGuf ocifEku vufcH+yD;awGŒjyefygw,f? AdkvfaZ,su olŒudk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;
cef@zdk@ajymwJhtcg ocifEku xyfrHjiif;y,fvdkuf+yD; tJ't
D a=umif;udk OD;ausm+f idr;f qD zk;H qufajymjy
vdu
k w
f ,fqykd gw,f? t}ut
H pnf&x
dS m;wJh OD;ausm+f ird ;f u atmif+yDv@kd ajymw,fqykd gw,f? ocifEu
k
ausmf+idrf;a& bmatmifwmvJvdk@ar;awmh 0ef}uD;csKyf rodygbl;/ aemufrS u|efawmfvm&Sif;jyr,f
qdk+yD; w,fvDzkef;udkcsvdkufw,fqdkygw,f? tJ'Daemuf OD;ausmf+idrf;u Adkvfae0if;udk csufcsif;ac:
+yD; Adkvfae0if;/ AdkvfaZ,s qdkwJhvl[m cifAsm;udktodray;bJ 0ef}uD;csKyfqD olwa,mufxJoGm;+yD;
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;cef@zdk@ajymae+yD? 0ef}uD;csKyfutckyJ usaemhfudk w,fvDzkef;eJ@ta=umif;=um;
w,fvdk@ ajymvdkufwJhtcg Adkvfae0if;vnf; a'goykefxoGm;+yD; Adkvfae0if; eJ@ AdkvfaZ,s t=um;
tJ'Dtcsdefup+yD; yl;aygif;r&Edkifavmufatmif uGJ+yJoGm;&awmhw,f qdkygw,f? wyfrawmf vuf0J
nD!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrDwDvnf; r=umrDysufjym;oGm;&ygw,f?
qdk&S,fvpfjynfxJa&;Xmeu &JabmfjzL awG&Jh vufeufawGudkodrf;jyD; zr;fawmhr,fqdkwJh
ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ Zlvdkifv (16) &ufae@rSm awmcdkoGm;=uwJh &JabmfjzLawG&JŒpum;[mvnf;
aoG;xGuaf tmifreS v
f mcJyh gw,f? Zlvikd v
f (29) &ufae@/ reuf (5) em&DrmS OD;ausm+f idr;f &JΠjynfxaJ &;
Xmeu jynfolŒ&JabmfXmecsKyfudk 0dkif;um acgif;aqmifawGudk zrf;qD;ygawmhw,f? Adkvfzdk;uGef;vGwf
oGm;+yD; 'kw,
d OuUÏ Adv
k v
f a&mif wd@k wawGvnf; wdr;f a&SmifomG ;&ygawmhw,f? ajray: &Sd &JabmfjzL
rsm; ajratmufb0a&mufoGm;=u&ovdk/ &JabmfjzLtrsm;pk}uD;[m Zlvdkifv (29) &ufae@up+yD;
vufeufudkifawmcdkb0a&mufoGm;&ygawmhw,f? tpdk;&[m wenf;tm;jzifh qdk&S,fvpfrsm;[m
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

107

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

rwfv (28) &ufae@rmS uGejf rLepfrsm;udk awmwGi;f armif;yd@k co
hJ vdk Zlvikd v
f (29) &ufae@rmS &JabmfjzL
rsm;udk awmwGif;armif;ydk@vdkufjyefwmjzpfygw,f? jynfolŒ&Jabmfrsm;[m tpuwnf;u w&m;0if
vufeufuikd af qmifciG &hf xm;olrsm;jzpfwt
hJ wGuf vufeufuikd af wmcd=k uwJt
h cg tqifo
h ifh vufeuf
wyfqif+yD;om; wyfzGJŒrsm;jzpfoGm;=uygawmhw,f? tiftm;vnf; ydkrdkrsm;jym;+yD;om;jzpfygw,f?
=o*kwfv (1) &ufae@rSm Adkvfae0if;[m wyfrawmf 'kwd,ppfOD;pD;csKyfeJ@ 'kwd,ppfaoem
ywdjzpfvmygw,f? Adkvfae0if; umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;jzpfa&;twGuf OD;ausmf+idrf;rSm rsuf&nfusjywJh
enf;a&m 0ef}uD;csKyfudk aoG;aqmifem;cswJhenf;ygrusef tpGrf;ukeftokH;ðycJh+yD;/ Adkvfae0if;udk tydkif
udkifxm;Edkifa&; olŒvljzpfa&;twGuf trsdK;rsdK; ukvm;zefxdk;cJhayr,fh umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;awmhr&yJ
'kwd,OD;pD;csKyfomjzpfvmcJhygw,f?
Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;wifxw
G [
f mvnf; uGejf rLepfudk ud,
k w
f ikd Of ;D pD;+yD; vufeufuikd w
f u
kd cf sif
vdk@yJvm; 'grSr[kwf vufeufudkif wyfydkifwckck&Sdxm;rS 'DvdktajctaerSm aumif;vdrhfr,fvdk@ ,lq
vdk@yJvm;/ ruGJjym;yg? EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;tjzpfu E_wfxGufcGifhawmif;pOfu orRw}uD;u vufcHyg
v#if ArmhwyfrawmfrSm tr_xrf;vdka=umif; av#mufxm;cJhwJhtwGuf wyfxJrSmae&m&oGm;+yD;
'kwd,Adkvfrª;}uD;&mxl;udk pwiftay;cH&ygw,f? (EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;tjzpfuawmh =o*kwfv (16)
&ufae@rSmrS E_wfxGufjzpfygw,f?) r=umrD wyfrif;}uD;jzpfvmygw,f?
=o*kwv
f (3) &ufae@rmS oxHb
k ufrmS &Sw
d hJ autif't
D rkd sm;u oxHck ±kid u
f kd odr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd yf g
w,f? e,fbufrmS &Sad e=uwJh u&ifppf&rJ sm;&JΠv_y&f mS ;vmr_/ autif't
D rkd sm;&JΠvufeufuikd v
f y_ &f mS ;
vmr_awG[m wae@wjcm; 'Da&jrifhwufvmcJhygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku owif;pmq&mawGudk
zdwf=um;+yD; +idrf0yfydjym;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ jynfaxmifpkwnfwHha&;awGudk =o*kwfv (5) &ufrSm
&Sif;vif;ajym=um;vmygw,f?
autif,l tzGJŒcsKyf}uD;u vufeufudkifyÉdyuQ ydkrdkus,fjyef@rvmapa&;twGuf Zlvdkifv
(25) &ufae@pGJeJ@ arwWm&yfcH yef=um;csufwapmifxkwfjyefcJh+yD; t=urf;zuf0g'/ vufeufudkif0g'udk
vufrcHEikd af =umif; xkwaf zmfjyocJah yr,fh u&iftrsKd ;om;xk&&dS m e,fbufawGrmS vufeufuikd v
f y_ f
&Sm;r_'aD &[m w&dy&f yd o
f mwufvmaeygw,f? tpd;k &&JŒajz&Si;f yHrk rSeu
f efra_ wGa=umifh uGejf rLepfrsm;/
&JabmfjzLrsm; awmcdv
k y_ &f mS ;vm&wm odjrifae=uovdk awmcdak e=uolawG&ŒJ vufxrJ mS vufeufpJG
udik x
f m;=u+yD; tqufrjywfvy_ &f mS ;vm=ucsed rf mS u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;vnf; vufeufuikd x
f m;Edik zf @kd
vdktyfw,fvdk@ cH,lxm;=uygw,f? vGefcJhwJh ig;ESpftwGif;u óuHawGŒcJh&bl;wJh vlrsKd;a&;t"du±k%f;
tjzpftysufrsm;/ vufeufodrf;a&;óud;yrf;r_eJ@ ay:aygufcJh&wJh vufeufudkifyÉdyuQ tawGŒtóuH
rsm;[m vwfvwfqwfqwfyJ&Sdae=uygao;w,f? wufvmwJh tpdk;&tay:vnf; b,fvdkrS
,Hk=unfvdk@r&atmif jzpfaecJh=uygw,f?
=o*kwfv (7) &ufae@rSm autif'DtdkeJ@ u&ifppf&Jrsm;[m rtlyifaiGwdkuf/ tdrfrJaiGwdkuf
wd@k uakd zmuf+yD; aiGrsm;udo
k rd ;f ,lum awmcd=k uygw,f? wjynfv;kH vufeufuikd w
f u
dk yf o
JG aH wG nHvm
ygw,f?
tpdk;&u awmcdkvufeufudkifv_yf&Sm;r_awGudk ESdrfeif;zdk@ bDwDtuf(z)( Burma Territorial
Force) wyf&if; (52) &if;zGJŒpnf;zdk@ pDpOfpdkif;jyif;ygw,f? autif,ltzGJŒ}uD;u bDwDtuf(zf)wyf
108

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

&if; 'Davmufrsm;rsm;zJŒG pnf;zd@k pdik ;f jyif;vmjcif;[m u&iftrsKd ;om;awGukd ESyd u
f yG zf @kd v@kd ,lqw,fqkd
ygw,f? tJ'DvdktcsdefrSm vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDxJygolwcsdKΠv_yf&Sm;vm=uovdk@/ wyfrawmf
twGif;rSmvnf; v_yfv_yf&G&Gjzpfvmygw,f?
wyfrawmftwGi;f rSm v_y&f mS ;vmolrsm;[m vuf0EJ ,
G o
f rl sm;eJ@ trsKd ;om;a&;pdwf jyif;xef
olrsm;jzpfaeygw,f? olwdk@u tcsdef&Sdwkef; xºuGv_yf&Sm;=urS awmfvdrfhr,fvdk@ ,lqvm=uygw,f?
aESmifah ES;ae&if; vuf,morm;rsm;u Armwyfukd vufeufawGord ;f vmrvm;/ vuf,morm;awG
vufrOD;cif olwdk@u t&if;OD;atmifodrf;oifhw,fvdk@ wyfwGif;u aqG;aEG;vm=uygw,f/ umuG,f
a&;ODpD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef;/ avwyf AdkvfcsKyf &SD;±_d/ b&D;a*;'D;,m; apm=um'dk;/ Adkvfrª;}uD;jzpfvmol
OD;wifxw
G /f ar*sm*sief &,fppf&mxl;ay;xm;wJh &JcsKyfO;D xGe;f vSatmif pwJyh *k K~ v
d af wGu Edik if aH wmfvkH
òcHa&;aumifpDudk óud;udkifcs,fvS,fae=uw,fvdk@ ,lqxm;=uovdk tJ'Dtkyfpkudk vuf,morm;
rsm;vdk@vnf; owfrSwfxm;=uygw,f? wyfrawmftwGif;rSm &mxl;}uD;}uD;&xm;oltcsdKΠu&if
trsdK;om;awGjzpfae=uwmudkvnf; trsdK;om;pdwfjyif;xefolawGu r,Hkr&Jjzpfae=uygw,f? tJ'D
vdktajctaeawGaygif;vdkufwJhtcg wyfrª;wyfom;wcsdKŒu tm%modrf;zdk@ aqG;aEG; }uHpnfvm=u
awmhw,fqykd gw,f? Adv
k cf sKyfae0if;udk acgi;f aqmifxm;+yD; tm%modr;f zd@k wdu
k w
f eG ;f olawGvnf;ay:
vmw,f?
tJ'Dvdk wyfrawmftwGif;u pwifjzpfay:vmwJh tm%modrf;a&;t}uHtpnf[m bmrS
atmifatmifjrifjrifjzpfrvmwJh vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDwcsdKŒqD ul;puf±kdufcwfvmygw,f?
tm%modrf;a&;tpDtpOfudk jynfolŒ&Jabmfu Adkvfva&mifuvnf; oabmwlovdk/ uGefjrLepf
a[mif;rsm;jzpfwhJ Adv
k o
f ed ;f wef/ Adv
k af tmifrif; wd@k uvnf; oabmusw,fqykd gw,f? OD;ode;fazjrif/h
AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvf&JxGÉf wdk@uvnf; oabmwl=uovdk qdk&S,fvpfwcsdKŒuvnf; axmufcH=uw,fqdk
ygw,f? vuf0JnD!Gwfa&;aumifpDu =oZm&SdwJh vufeufudkifwyfrsm;eJ tm%modrf;+yD; vuf0JnD
!Gwfa&; !Gef@aygif;tpdk;&zGJŒpnf;&efjzpfygw,f? tJ'D vuf0JnD!Gwfa&; !Gef@aygif;tpdk;&rS uGefjrLepf
olykefrsm;eJ +idrf;csrf;a&;vkyfum tpdk;&xJ xnfhoGif;zGJŒpnf;+yD;/ ygwD0ifawGrygwJh tpdk;&zGJŒpnf;&ef
}uHpnfae=uwJh vuf,mtiftm;pkawGukd OD;wnfwu
kd cf u
kd o
f mG ;zd@k tm%mrJah tmifvyk jf ypfz@dk vd@k qykd g
w,f? +yD;awmhrSm OD;ausmf+idrf;uae ocifoef;xGef;txd yg0ifEdkifr,fh us,fjyef@wJh vuf0Jtiftm;pk
awGudk odrf;oGif;pkpnf;+yD; tm%mtyf&efvdk@qdkygw,f?
tJ'v
D kd pdwu
f ;l eJjyif=uqif=uygw,f? tm%modr;f zd@k yg0if=ur,fh awmfveS af &;wyf&if;rsm;
[m =o*kwfv (10) &ufae@ &efukefòrdŒta&muf csDwufvm=u+yD; &efukefòrdŒrSmqHk+yD;wJhaemuf
tm%modrf;=u&efjzpfw,fqdkygw,f? Adkvfpdefwifacgif;aqmifwJh o&ufòrdŒu Armhaoewfudkifwyf
&if; (1) [m &efuek òf rdŒudk tcsed rf q
D if;vm+yD;/ r*Fvm'Hrk mS &Sw
d hJ Adv
k &f x
J ÉG f &JŒ wyf&if; (3) eJ@ aygi;f =uzd@k
jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvdk wyfrawmftwGif;u wyfrsm;&JŒv_yf&Sm;vmwJh owif;[m vufawGŒrqifEJ$Edkif
ao;rDrmS yJ óudwifowif;aygurf j_ zpfay:vmcJw
h ,f? awmifyikd ;f wdik ;f rª; Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfatmifoif; u Adv
k rf ;ª
cspfòrdifudkac:,l+yD; wyf&if; (3) u uGefjrLepf Adkvfodef;[m tcsufjyqufoG,fa&;wyfudk vma&muf
pnf;±kH;jcif;/ axmufyHydk@aqmifa&;wyfu armfawmfum;rsm;pDpOfjcif;awGudkaxmufjy+yD; wyf&if; (3)
u &efukefòrdŒudkodrf;zdk@ }uH&G,faea=umif; pGyfpGJajymqdkw,fqdkygw,f? Adkvfcspfòrdifu tJ'Dvdk owif;
aygufaewmudk Adkvf&JxGÉfudk jyefvnfajymqdkw,fqdkygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

109

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

wu,ftm%modr;f zd@k tcdik t
f rmjyifqif=uawmhvnf; Adv
k af e0if;ujiif;y,fco
hJ vdk ygr,f
ajymxm;wJh wcsdKŒwyf&if;rª;rsm;[m rygawmhbl;vdk@qdkygw,f? Adkvfae0if; rygawmhbl;vdk@qdkwmu
rydik rf Edik b
f J awmfveS =f u&if vuf,mtkypf u
k tóuduaf wGŒoGm;vdrrf ,f? Edik if jH cm;ppfu,
l +l yD; vuf0J
tkypf rk eS o
f r#ukd òz;d cGi;f jypfEikd w
f ,fv@kd ,lqwJt
h wGuaf =umifq
h ykd gw,f? wyf&if; (3) xJrmS vnf; tm%m
odrf;,la&;t}uHtpnfudk vufcHoleJ@ vufrcHol ESpfydkif;uGJoGm;ygw,f? wyf&if;rª; 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;
&JxÉG u
f tm%modr;f a&;t,ltqudk qkyu
f ikd +f yD; 'kw,
d wyf&if;rª; Adv
k rf ;ª cspòf rdiu
f tm%modr;f a&;
qef@usifoljzpfvmygw,f? yJcl;rSm&SdwJh wyf&if; (6) rSmvnf; vufcHoleJ@ vufrcHol&Sdvmygw,f?
wyf&if;rª; 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;wifOD;eJ@ Adkvfrª;wifarmifwdk@u tm%modrf;,la&;udk vufrcHolawGjzpfvm
ygw,f?
Adv
k &f x
J ÉG ef J Adv
k af Z,s [m tm%modr;f a&;tpDtpOf owif;aygu=f um;ae+yD;jzpfwt
hJ wGuf
awmcdzk @kd qH;k jzwfvu
kd yf gw,f? Adv
k af Z,s[m ppf±;kH u ppfO;D pD;t&m&Sd yxrwef;jzpfygw,f? Adv
k &f x
J ÉG f
u wyf&if;(3) wyf&if;rª;jzpfygw,f?
=o*kwv
f (8)&ufae@rmS o&ufòrdŒu Armhaoewfuikd w
f yf&if; (1) eJ@ r*Fvm'Hk u wyf&if;(3)
wjcrf;[m awmcdkwyfjzpfoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
o&ufu Adkvfpdefwif acgif;aqmifwJh wyf&if; (1) [m &efukef&ŒJ ajymif;vJoGm;wJh tajc
taeudkrodbJ x&yfum;awGeJ@ &efukefudkqif;vm=uygw,f? om,m0wDrSmawGŒ&wJh tapmifhwyf
wwyfqu
D vufeufawGord ;f ,lc=hJ u+yD; vrf;rSm tusO;f axmifawGziG +hf yD;/ Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awGukd
v$waf y;cJ=h uygw,f? tpd;k &u qif;vmwJh Adv
k pf ed w
f if&ŒJ wyfukd qD;wdu
k zf @kd avwyfu av,mOfEpS pf ;D
udv
k w
$ +f yD; pufaoewfe@J typfcikd ;f ygw,f? av,mOfEpS pf ;D 0Jvmwmudk tóudvmw,fxif+yD; wyf&if;
(1) u vufjya0&rf; E_wq
f uf=uw,fqykd gw,f? pufaoewfe@J av,mOfysaH y:uae tqufrjywf
ypfawmhrS ykef;a&Smifajy;v$m;=u&w,fqdkygw,f?
AdkvfaZ,s Adkvf&JxGÉf wdk@ awmcdkzdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufwJhtcg tm%modrf;a&;tpDtpOftwGuf
t"du ZmwfaumifwaumifjzpfcJhwJh OD;odef;azjrifh [m awmxJudkrvdkuf&JawmhbJ r*Fvm'Hkuae
vSnfhjyefoGm;ygw,f?
r*Fvm'Hkwyf&if; (3) eJ@ trSwf (2) *sDtD;wyfcGJu t&m&Sd t=uyfwyfom;wcsdKΠyJcl;wyf&if;
(6) u t&m&SdeJ@ &JŒabmfwcsdKŒ pkpkaygif;tif;tm; (350) avmuf[m ppfum; (32) pD;eJ@ awmcdk=u
ygw,f? AdkvfaZ,seJ@ Adkvf&JxGÉfwdk@ uOD;pD;ygw,f? wyf&if; (3) [m Adkvfpdefwif OD;pD;wJh wyf&if;(1)
eJ@aygif;zdk@ jynfvrf;r}uD;twdkif; ajrmifzufudk OD;wnfcsDwufvmygw,f? tpdk;&eJ@ wyfrawmf (av)
u av,mOfrsm;eJ@ 0g;eufacsmif;teD;rSm vdkufvHwdkufcdkufacsrªef;zdk@ óud;pm;ygw,f?
awmcd&k mudv
k u
kd rf oGm;awmhwhJ OD;ode;f azjrifu
h kd vuf0n
J !
D w
G af &;aumifprD mS tzGŒJ 0ifwOD;
tjzpf yg0ifcJhzl;wJh jynfxJa&0ef}uD; OD;ausmf+idrf;u wyf&if; (3) udk ajr‡mufay;cJhw,fqdkwJh pGyfpGJcsuf
eJ@twl zrf;qD;+yD; axmifxo
J iG ;f vdu
k yf gw,f? tpnf;ta0;&Sv
d @kd vdu
k cf zhJ @kd vdrn
f mrSm=um;+yD; olŒtdrf
u um;udak wmif aoaocsmcsmv$waf y;+yD;rS ODausm+f idr;f u olŒtdrt
f aygu0f ra&mufrrDS mS ykvyd rf sm;
udk toifhapmifhzrf;apcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
110

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

'DvdkeJ@ wyfrawmfvuf0JnD!Gwfa&; (9) OD;aumfrDwDqdkwm ysuft+yD; r=umcifrSmyJ vuf0J
nD!Gwfa&;aumifpDqdkwmvnf; edXdwHoGm;ygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;a=unmt+yD; (7) v ausmfausmf
twGi;f rSmyJ vufeufuikd af wmcdo
k mG ;=u&wJh tzGŒJ tpnf;awG[mvnf; rsm;oxufrsm;vm&ygawmh
w,f? yxrqHk; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ tJ'Daemuf &JabmfjzL/ u&ifppf&J/ autif'Dtdk/ awmcdkwyf
rawmfqdkwmawG jzpfvm&ygawmhw,f?
awmcdkwyfrawmfay:vm+yD;wJhaemuf u&ifrsm;&JŒv_yf&Sm;r_[m ydkrdkjyif;xefvmcJhygw,f?
'g[mvnf; obm0uswu
hJ pd w
P ckv@kd qd&k ygvrd rf ,f? ArmvlrsKd ;tzGŒJ tpnf;pH&k ŒJ vufeufuikd t
f iftm;
pkrsKd ;pHak y:ayguv
f mcsed rf mS u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm; vufeufuikd v
f y_ &f mS ;vm=uwm[mvnf; obm0uswhJ
udpw
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k t
hf iftm;pkukd ud,
k }f uD;xGm;atmifvyk =f uovdk ud,
k =hf oZm&Sd
atmif xlaxmifvm=u csJŒxGifvm=uwmawG qufwdkufjzpfay:vmygw,f?
=o*kwfv (11) &ufae@rSm &efukefòrdŒ e,ferdwftwGif; nrxGuf&trdef@ xkwfjyefvdkuf&yg
w,f? Armwyfrawmfxu
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hJ wGuf wyfrawmfppfO;D pD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyfprpf'eG ;f u u&if
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f yf&if;awGukd vufeuf}uD;eJ@ pufaoewfawG zG@J pnf;yHx
k ufausmv
f eG +f yD; xkwaf y;w,f
vdk@qdkygw,f? =o*kwfv (14) &ufae@rSm u&ifppf&Jrsm;u wHGaw;òrdŒudk odrf;ydkufygw,f? =o*kwfv
(16) &ufae@rmS Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;wifxÉG f 0ef}uD;&mxl;u w&m;0ifEw
_ x
f u
G +f yD; ppfwyfxaJ &muf
oGm;ygw,f? ujym;aygi;f pHek @J zGŒJ pnf;xm;wJh ,lattuf(zf)rSm wyfrif;}u;D jzpfomG ;ygw,f? =o*kwv
f
(20) &ufrmS armfcsD;rdkifudk autif'Dtdkrsm;u odrf;ydkufvdkuf=uovdk oxkHc±dkifwckvHk;[mvnf;
autif'Dtdkrsm; vufatmufa&muf&SdoGm;ygw,f?
u&iftrsdK;om;wdk@&JŒ v_yf&Sm;vmr_eJ@twl a&SŒqifhaemufqifh v_yf&Sm;vmwmu rGeftrsdK;
om;rsm;jzpfygw,f?
rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;[m &mrnwdkif;vHk;qdkif&m rGeftoif;/ rGeftzGJŒaygif;csKyf/ rGefwdkif;&if;om;
tpnf;t±kH;/ rGeftrsdK;om;tzGJŒ/ rGefvlrsdK;a&;&mtzGJŒ/ rGefqdk&S,ftoif;/ jynfaxmifpkrGeftoif;/
rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJŒ/ jynfaxmifpkrGeftzGJŒcsKyf pwJhtoif;tzGJŒ}uD; (9)zGJŒeJ@ EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awGudk
aqmif&u
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k y_ &f mS ;vm=ucsed rf mS /
e,fajrcsi;f wqufwpyfwnf;jzpfwhJ rGet
f rsKd ;om;rsm;uvnf; rGejf ynfe,f&&Sad &;udk aqmif&u
G v
f m
=ujcif;jzpfygw,f? oxHkc±dkifrSm autif'Dtdkrsm; awmfvSefv_yf&Sm;vm=uwmeJ@wòydifeufrSm rGef
vufeufudkiftzGJŒrsm;jzpf=uwJh rGefwdkif;&if;om;tpnf;t±Hk;eJ@ rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJŒ awmcdkv_yf&Sm;
vm=uygw,f? rGefvGwfvyfa&;tzGJŒ[m autif'Dtdkrsm;eJ@yl;aygif;+yD; oxHkc±dkifudk odrf;ydkufygw,f?
armfvòrdifbufrSmvnf; ppfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awG oGufoGufvufvuf taumiftxnfazmfygw,f?
jynfolŒv$wfawmftrwfjzpfwJh awmfcdk&JabmfjzL AdkvfpdefxGef;u jynfaxmifpkppf&J wyf&if;
(16) eJ@aygi;f +yD; anmifwek ;f / yef;waemf/ "EkjzL wd@k ukd odr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd yf gw,f/ =o*kwv
f (21) &ufae@rmS
oxHkeJ@ usdKufcrD&Sd u&ifppf&Jrsm; twdtvif;ykefuef+yD; tpkd;&udk qef@usifwdkufcdkufvmygw,f?
OD;wifxÉG f Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;u w&m;0ifEw
_ x
f u
G o
f mG ;+yDjzpfwt
hJ wGuf ,m,DEikd if jH cm;a&;
0ef}uD;jzpfvmwJh pyfceG cf sKd [m xdik ;f -jrefrm rdwq
f ufc&D;tjzpf befaumufuo
kd mG ;a&muf+yD; =o*kwf
v (24) &ufae@rSm xdkif;-jrefrm oHwrefqufqHa&;udk pwifygw,f? =o*kwfv (25) &ufae@rSm
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

111

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

u&ifeDjynfe,f&JΠtajctae[mvnf; v_yf&Sm;vmwJhtwGuf rm&S,favmppfOya' xkwfvdkuf&yg
awmhw,f? (30) &ufae@rSm yef;vHkeJ@ vG,fvif&Sd jynfaxmifpkppfwyfu u&ifppf&Jrsm; awmcdk=uyg
w,f? tpdk;&u trf;ykvdyf (Armed Police) vdk@ac:wJh vufeufudkif oD;oef@wyfzGJŒeJ@ aomif;usef;r_
ESrd Ef iS ;f a&;wyfzŒJG awGuakd ygi;f +yD; jynfaxmifppk pf&w
J yfrsm;tjzpf zGŒJ pnf;ay;xm;wmjzpfygw,f? vuf
eufudkiftHkºuGr_rsm; tawmrowfEdkifatmif aygufuGJay:xGufvmcsdefrSm jynfaxmifpkppf&Jwyf&if;
(20) &if;&Syd gw,f? o,f,yl @kd aqmifa&;wyf&if;eJ@ tcsujf y qufo,
G af &;wyf&if;awG udzk ,fvu
kd &f if
wdkufcdkufa&;wyf&if;csnf; (16) &if; zGJŒpnf;+yD;om;&Sdygw,f?
&Srf;ya'o&mZfapmfbGm;rsm;&JΠESdrfeif;acsr_ef;r_udk cHcJh&zl;wJh ytdk0fhrsdK;cspfrsm;vnf; jyefvnf
v_yf&Sm;vm+yD; autif'Dtdkrsm;eJ@ aygif;qufrdum vufeufudkifvm=uygw,f? &Srf;jynfe,fxJrSm
v_yf&Sm;Edk;ºuGvmwJh ytdkifhvufeufudkifwyfzGJŒrsm;[m &Srf;ya'o&mZfapmfbGm;rsm;eJ@ e,fajrawGudk
wdu
k cf u
kd o
f rd ;f ydu
k =f uwJt
h wGuf wcsKd ŒapmfbmG ; òrdŒpm;rsm;[m olw@kd &ŒJ a[mfeef;awGrmS awmif rae0Hh
avmufatmif jzpfay:vmygw,f? oxkHbufu ytdk0fhrsm;u autif'DtdkeJ@ aygif;qufv_yf&Sm;vm
ovdk &Sr;f jynfbufu ytd0k rhf sm;[mvnf; autif't
D rkd sm;eJ@ wGq
J ufrv
d m+yD; olw@dk &ŒJ trsKd ;om;a&;
qdkif&m v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk vufeufudkifenf;eJ@ aqmif&Gufvm=uygw,f?
u&ifeDjynfe,frSmvnf; u&ifeDv_yf&Sm;r_eJ@ ya'gif;tHkºuGr_}uD;rsm; ay:aygufvmygw,f?
pufwifbm (1) &ufae@rSm u&ifppf&Jrsm;u rGef/ autif'Dtdkrsm;eJ@twl armfvòrdifòrdŒudk odrf;ydkufyg
w,f? tpdk;&uvnf; tHkºuGvmr_awGudk ESdrfeif;zdk@ jynfaxmifpkt&Hwyf&if; (ucsif) eJ@ (csif;) udk
pwifzŒJG pnf;jyefygw,f? wzufu +idr;f csr;f a&;pum;awGajymae=uayr,fh tjcm;wzufu tjyeft
vSef tiftm;pkaqmif;ae=uygw,f? awmifydkif;wdkif; ppfe,fajrwckvHk;twGif;rSm vufeufudkiftif
tm;pkrsm;u òrdŒ&Gme,fy,fa'oawGudk odrf;ydkufvdkuf/ tpdk;&wyfrsm; jyefvnfxdk;ppfqifodrf;ydkuf
vdkufeJ@ aoewfoHawGnHaecJhygw,f?
pufwifbm (2) &ufygvDrefxJrSm ocifEku Auy [m tdENd,uGefjrLepfygwD&JΠ=oZmcHjzpf
aeyHk &Sif;vif;ajymqkd ±_wfcsygw,f? tJ'Dae@rSmyJ Auy u xef;wyifudk0ifwdkufygw,f?
autif't
D rkd sm;u/ uavmteD; v,fjyifbw
l m/ yifavmif;e,f vkjH yif wk@d ukd 0ifwu
kd o
f vdk
aumhu&dwf/ zmyGef/ a&$usif/ ausmuf}uD; wdk@udkvnf; 0ifodrf;ygw,f?
1948-49 b¾ma&;ESpt
f wGuf buf*suv
f akd iG (10) ukaÉausmw
f ,fv@kd b¾ma&;0ef}uD;
u ygvDrefrSmwifjyygw,f? v,f,majr EdkifiHydkifvkyfa&;Oya'=urf;udk ygvDrefu a=unmygw,f?
a'oqdkif&m autif'DtdkwyfzGJŒrsm;&JŒ v_yf&Sm;wdkufcdkufodrf;ydkufr_awGudk autif'Dtdk A[dk
acgif;aqmifrsm;u xdef;odrf;zdk@óud;pm;=uwmawGvnf;&Sdygw,f? apmbOD;}uD;eJ@ autif'Dtdkacgif;
aqmifrsm;u tpdk;&eJ@ oxHk&Sd autif'DtdkawG=um; em;vnfr_&atmif aphpyfjzefajzay;ygw,f?
tJ'h t
D csed t
f xd autif't
D t
kd zGŒJ csKy[
f m vufeufuikd ef nf;eJ@ u&ifjynfe,fjy\emudak jz&Si;f zk@d OD;wnf
aqmif&Gufvdkjcif;r&Sdao;yg?
pufwifbmv (17) &ufae@rSm ykodrfòrdŒrSm autif'Dtdk ta&;ay:nDvmcHusif;yygw,f?
oD;jcm;u&ifjynfe,f&&Sad &;udk av;av;eufeuf awmif;qdyk gw,f? vufeufuikd af omif;use;f r_awG
udk ±_wfcsa=umif;eJ@ vlrsdK;a&;t"du±k%f;rsm;udk qefusifa=umif; w&m;0if azmfxkwfwifjycJhygw,f?
112

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tJ'aD e@rmS yJ vuf,morm;vd@k ,lqxm;jcif;cH&wJh t*Fvyd af cwftpd;k & tzGŒJ rsm;twGi;f rSm
vnf; ta&;}uD;ae&mrsm;rSm yg0ifcJhzl;wJh vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;+yD;csif; EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfcJh+yD;/ avm
avmq,fyJ Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;u E_wx
f u
G u
f m wyfx0J ifa&mufc+hJ yD;/ ,lattuf(zf) wyfrif;}uD;jzpf
wJh OD;wifxw
G f &efuek òf rdŒv,facgif pywfvrf;rSm um;AH;k cGw
J u
kd cf u
kd v
f yk }f uHjcif;cH&ygw,f? '%f&m&+yD;
aemufw&ufrmS aoqH;k ygw,f? (aemufyikd ;f rSm Adv
k cf sKyfae0if;vuf&mruif;vd@k ,lq=uwm&Syd gw,f?)
OD;wifxw
G f AH;k uG'J %f&meJ@ aoqH;k wJh pufwifbm (1)&ufae@rmS yJ a';vD;ar;vf owif;axmuf
tvufZef;'g;uif;bJ(vf) udk &efukefòrdŒrSm tpdk;&u zrf;qD;vdkufygw,f? tr_u autif'DtdkeJ@
ywfoufrj_ zpfygw,f? olv#Kd vkyrf j_ zpfygw,f? uif;bJ(vf) [m owif;axmufa,mifaqmif &efuek f
a&mufvm+yD; autif't
D kd udu
k n
l w
D hJ t*Fvyd o
f v
l #Kd vkyif ef;awGvyk af qmifw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? u&if
awGukd olyek x
f zd@k tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufvyk af ewJh t&if (136) wyfzŒJG rSm tr_xrf;cJzh ;l +yD; umvuwWm;
òrdŒrSm&Sad ewJh ume,fw;l avmufe@J u&ifawG=um; uif;bJvf u t"duquf oG,af y;aew,fv@kd qykd g
w,f? uif;bJvu
f ae wl;avmufqaD &;wJph mudk azmfxw
k Ef ikd cf w
hJ ,fqykd gw,f? tJ't
D a=umif;awGukd
bDtdkatpD ava=umif;ukr`%Du av,mOftrlxrf;wa,mufjzpfwJh +Adwdo#qdk&S,fvpfwOD;vnf;
jzpfol tdkif'DqdkifrGef qdkolqDu wqifhod&Sd&+yD; pufwifbmv (18)&uf ae@rSm uif;bJvf udkzrf;qD;
vdkuf=uygw,f? uif;bJvfwl;avmuf ta&;tcif;[m owif;pmrsm;uae urBmudk csufjcif;ysHESH@
oGm;ygw,f? +Adwdo#tpdk;&u u&ifawGudk tultnDray;a=umif; csufcsif;wkef@jyef jiif;qkdygw,f?
uif;bJvf wl;avmufudpP[m tpdk;&eJ@ bmr#rqdkifa=umif; +Adwdo#ygvDrefxJ aqG;aEG;=u&mrSm
&Sif;vif;ajymqdkygw,f? (aemufydkif;rSm tpdk;&u uif;bJvfudk zrf;qD;xm;&muae jyefv$wfay;+yD;
t+yD;tydkif armif;xkwfvdkufygw,f?)
u&ifppf&yJ ek u
f efrr_ sm;/ autif't
D v
kd y_ &f mS ;r_rsm;eJ@ u&ifta&; a&SŒwef;wufvmwJt
h wGuf
pufwifbm (29) &ufae@rSm armfvòrdifc±dkifudk ppftkyfcsKyfa&;a=unmygw,f?
wzufuvnf; vufeufudkifv_yf&Sm;aer_aygif;pHkudk ac|;odyf[ef@wm;zdk@ tpdk;&eJ@ vufeuf
udkifykefuefaeolawGt=um; =um;0ifajz&Sif;aphpyfay;zkd@ zqyv tpkd;&u a&$jynfat;+idrf;csrf;a&;
tzGJŒawG zGJŒpnf;ay;ygw,f? a&$jynfat;tzGJŒudk qmOD;oGif eJ@ [oFmwOD;jr wdk@u acgif;aqmifyg+yD;
+idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJawGvkyfygw,f? 'ga=umifh a&$jynfat;tzGJŒudk qmOD;oGif+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒvdk@
vnf;ac:ygw,f? t"dutm;jzifh tòrdŒòrdŒte,fte,fukd oGm;a&muf+yD; &JabmfjzLacgi;f aqmifawGe@J
awG@qw
kH mawG vkyyf gw,f? oabmwlnrD ,
_ w
l mawGvyk yf gw,f// tpd;k &[m wzufuvnf; wyfukd
wdk;csJ@zdk@/ vufeuftopfawG vHkvHkavmuf wyfqifay;Edkifzkd@ vufeuf0,f,la&;udk enf;enf;trsdK;
rsdK;eJ@ óud;yrf;aqmif&Gufygw,f?
emrnfq;kd eJ@a=umf=um;aewJh jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; OD;ausm+f idr;f udk jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;tjzpfuae
Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;tjzpf ae&majymif;a&$Œay;vdu
k w
f t
hJ wGuf Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmwJh OD;ausm+f idr;f
[m vufeufudkifaomif;usef;olawGudk tjywfwdkufzdk@twGufqdk+yD; aoewf0,fxGufygw,f?
uif;bJvw
f ;l avmuf ta&;tcif;+yD;wJah emuf t*Fvefukd ud,
k w
f ikd u
f ,
kd u
f somG ;+yD; vufeufa&mif;cs
ay;zd@k wifjyaqG;aEG;ygw,f? atmifwb
kd mv (7) &ufae@rmS vef'efuakd &mufygw,f? +Adwo
d #Eikd if jH cm;
a&;0ef}uD;u OD;ausm+f idr;f udk ud,
k w
f ikd af wmif vufcaH wGqjkH cif;r&Syd g? Edik if jH cm;a&;±k;H t+rJwrf;twGi;f
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

113

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

0efuom OD;ausmf+idrf;udk vufcHawGŒqHk+yD; uif;bJvfudkzrf;qD;jcif;twGuf qlyl}udrf;armif;v$wf
vdkufw,fqdkygw,f? vufeufvnf; a&mif;ray;vdkufvdk@qdkygw,f? wjcm;EdkifiHawGuvnf; Arm
jynfudk +Adwdo#=oZme,fxJrSmyJ xnfhoGif;xm;+yD; vufeufa&mif;ray;=ubl;qdkygw,f?
t*Fvdyfu vufeufa&mif;ray;awmh OD;ausmf+idrf;u tar&duefudktm;udk;+yD; vufeuf
a&mif;csay;a&; tm;xkwfjyefygw,f? yg&D rSmusif;ywJh ukvor*~taxGaxGnDvmcHudk oGm;wuf
&if; tar&duefEikd if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD; rm&S,ef @J awG+yD; vufeufc,
J rf;rD;ausmuf a&mif;csay;a&;aqG;aEG;
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vmcHrSm ta=umif;&Sm+yD; tar&duefudk rJay;cJhw,fqdkygw,f? Armjynfjyefa&muf+yD; tar&duefoH
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114

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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jzpfay:usif;yapcJhygw,f? Edkif0ifbmv (22) &ufae@rSm qmOD;oGifaetdrfrSm +idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒ0if
vl}uD;rsm;eJ@ awmcdk&JabmfjzLacgif;aqmifawG awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;=uwmvkyfygw,f?
Edk0ifbm (24) &ufae@rSm jynfwGif;ppf&yfqJa&;/ jynfolŒ'Drdkua&pDwyfaygif;pkzGJŒpnf;a&;eJ@
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

115

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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ta=umif;u vbef*a&mif;udk u&ifo[m,uvyfudk vma&mufzdk@ zdwf=um;+yD; uvyfrSm
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116

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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azmfjyxm;jcif;rcH&ao;wJhtwGuf *k%feJ@j'yfeJ@udkufnDwJh u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JΠpdwfqENeJ@vnf;
avsmfnDwJh u&ifjynfe,f&&Sdcsifwmjzpfygw,f? zqyv tpdk;&ay;csifwmu odk@r[kwf ay;Edkifw,f
qdkwmu u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JŒ pdwfqENeJ@ trsm;}uD;a0;uGmjcm;em;aeygw,f? u&ifjynfe,fzGJŒ
pnf;ay;r,f? zG@J pnf;cGiu
hf v
kd ufcw
H ,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'zD ŒJG pnf;vdu
k w
f hJ u&ifjynfe,f[m jynfaxmifpk
xJu cGx
J u
G v
f u
kd cGx
J u
G yf ikd cf iG &hf &dS r,fqw
kd hJ autif,&l ŒJ awmif;qdck suu
f kd vufrcHEikd v
f @kd qykd gw,f?
u&ifjynfe,fxrJ mS yg0ifr,fh e,fajra'oudprP mS vnf; Armjynfw0ufavmufe;D yg;&Sad evd@k oabm
rwlEikd v
f @kd qykd gw,f? aumfoal v;e,ferdwo
f wfrw
S af &;aumfr&Siu
f axmufcrH ,fh a'orsm;udo
k m
u&ifjynfe,fxJ xnfah y;zd@k tpd;k &uqH;k jzwfxm;w,fqykd gw,f? (wu,fu e,fajra'oudp[
P m
e,fajra'owGif;&Sd jynfolvlxktm;vHk;&JŒqENudk azmfxkyf+yD; qENcH,l+yD; oufqdkif&m um,uH&Sif
tm;vHk;eJ@ n‡dE_dif;qHk;jzwf taumiftxnfazmf&if tcsdefumvwckrSm +yD;pD;ajz&Sif;EdkifwJh udpPjzpfyg
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

117

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

w,f? wzufu ‘&udk&&r,f’/ tjcm;wzufu ‘ay;udkray;Edkifbl;’ vdk@ ajymvdk@qdkvdk@jzpfwJhudpP
r[kwfpaumif;yg?) tJ'Dawmh ‘cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufcGifhray;Edkif’ qdkwJhtcsufeJ@ ‘e,fajrudpP’[m
tc&mjzpfusecf yhJ gw,f? ‘e,fajrudp’P [m tcsed w
f ckct
k wGi;f ndE‡ i_d ;f ajz&Si;f zd@k ,m,Dz,fxm;=unfh
r,fq&kd if ‘cGx
J u
G v
f u
kd cGx
J u
G yf ikd cf iG ’hf qdw
k muaum zqyvtpd;k &u vH;k 0rvdu
k af vsmEdik w
f t
hJ csuf
tjzpf owfrSwfxm;cJhygw,f? zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya't& ‘&Srf;jynfe,feJ@ u&ifeD (u,m;)
jynfe,f ESpfckuvGJ+yD; cGJxGufydkifcGifhudk todtrSwfðyxm;wmr&Sdvdk@qdkygw,f? 'ga=umifh tJ'Dvdk
oabmxm;tjrifut
kd ajccH+yD; ‘u&ifjynfe,f’&&Sad &;v_y&f mS ;r_/ awmif;qdrk /_ óud;yrf;tm;xkwrf a_ wG
tay: zqyvtpdk;&u ‘rjzpfEdkifaomawmif;qdkr_’ ‘vdkufavsmvdk@rjzpfEdkifaomawmif;qdkr_’ vdk@
aumufcsufqGJowfrSwfvdkufygw,f? tJ'Dvdk aumufcsufowfrSwfr_awGtay:uae ajz&Sif;zdk@ a&G;
cs,fvdkufwJhvrf;a=umif;uvnf; vufeufudkifv_yf&Sm;vmr_awGudk acsr_ef;a&;qdkwmyJjzpfoGm;yg
awmhw,f? ‘rvdkufavsmEdkifwJhawmif;qdkr_’ tjzpf owfrSwfqGJudkifxm;+yD;/ tJ'D pGJudkifxm;wJh rl
atmufuae vkyfaqmifw,fqdkwJh +idrf;csrf;a&; aphpyfajy+idrf;a&;awG rSefor#[m twif;em;cswm
odk@r[kwf wzufvSnfheJ@ vSnfhywf+yD; vufcHcdkif;wmomjzpf&ygawmhw,f? ppfrSefr#wwJhtajzudk
b,fvdkr# ra&mufEdkifawmhyg?
1948 ckEpS u
f ek t
f xd tajctaeud=k unfv
h u
kd rf ,fq&kd if zqyvtpd;k &&JΠvkyaf qmif taumif
txnfazmfcJhcsufrsm;[m bmrS r,fr,f&& atmifjrifwdk;wufvmwmrawGŒ&yJ trsdK;om;aoG;uGJ
r_}uD;om ydrk }kd uD;rm;us,jf yef@vmwmawGŒ&ygw,f? jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD; ayguzf mG ;vmcJ&h +yD; jynfov
l x
l k
w&yfvHk; ppfab;ppf'%foifh=u&ygw,f? ppfudk zefwD;cJhwJholawGudk,fwdkif ppfrD;v#Hrsm;&JΠavmif
òrduf0g;òrdr_/ ppfrD;jyef[yfvmr_'%f óuHawGŒ&ifqdkifvm&ygw,f? uGefjrLepfrsm;udk awmwGif;armif;ydk@
vdkufwJhtwGuf jzpfay:vmwJh vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;udk ESdrfESif;Edkifzdk@ tm;xkwfvm&ygw,f?
ta&;ay:vufeufudkif vJ+AD;wyf&if; (18) &if;zGJŒ+yD; jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;Xme vufatmufxm;&SdcJh&m
uae/ wyfrawmfae&m tpm;xd;k toH;k ðyEdik zf @kd atmufwb
kd m (1) &ufae@up+yD; umuG,af &;0ef}uD;
Xmeatmuf v$aJ jymif;ay;cJ&h ygw,f? uGejf rLepfawGukd jywfjywfom;om;wdu
k Ef ikd af &;twGuf ‘oH;k v
twGi;f tðywfwu
kd rf nf’ ‘ajcmufvtwGi;f tðywfwu
kd rf nf’ ‘wESpt
f wGi;f tðywfwu
kd rf nf’ qdw
k hJ
aºuG;a=umfoaH wGukd ajymif;ajymif;ajymum azmfxw
k w
f u
kd yf q
JG if&if; tpd&k ud,
k w
f ikd v
f nf; &efoal wG
omydkrdkrsm;rsm;vmcJh+yD;/ t=uyftwnf;awG óuHvm&ygw,f? uGefjrLepfawGudkwdkufzdk@ tpdk;&udk,f
wdkif&JŒ xyfrHwyfqifay;vdkufwJh vufeufawGeJ@ &JabmfjzLawGawmcdk=uwmjrif&+yD;/ tpdk;&wzGJŒvHk;
rsufvHk;jyL; rsufqHjyL;jzpfcJh&ygw,f? udk,fhtukodkvf udk,fhjyeftusdK;ay;wm jrefjrefqefqefóuHawGŒ
cJ&h ygw,f? uGejf rLepfuw
kd u
kd zf @kd topfxw
k w
f yfqifay;xm;wJh vufeufawGukd tjynft
h 0udik af qmif
xm;wJh ‘u&ifppf&J’rsm; ykefuefv_yf&Sm;vm=uawmhvnf; ajcrudkifrDvufrudkifrD xyfjzpf=u+yD;
bDwDtuf(zf)wyf&if;awG wdk;zGJŒ&jyefygw,f? 48 ckESpf ESpfukefrSm ppf0efxrf;wyf&if;aygif; (100)
ausmfoGm;cJh&ygw,f? +idrf;csrf;a&;pum; nD!Gwfa&;pum;awG wzGzGajymae&if;=um;u/ +idrf;csrf;wJh
t&dyt
f a&mif nD!w
G rf ,ft
h &dyt
f a&mif rawGŒjrif&bJ ppfwyfawGom wd;k wd;k zGŒJ vmwm wd;k wd;k +yD;ay:
vmwmjrif&ygw,f? vufeufudkiftiftm;pkawG ykefuefqef@usifol tzGJŒtpnf;awGom wae@
wjcm; rsm;jym;vmcJh+yD; awma&mòrdŒyg ae@pOfnquf aoewfoHawGqufvmcJhygw,f?
118

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ysOf;rem;òrdŒe,ftwGif; A[dkXmecsKyfxm;&Sd+yD; &rnf;oif;c±kdif/
awmifilc±dkif/ a&$usifausmuf}uD;a'o/ yJcl;c±dkifta&SŒbufe,frsm;rSm tiftm;tawmftwefeJ@
v_yf&Sm;ae=u+yD; [Hom0wDc±dkif/ ykodrfc±dkifawGrSmvnf; v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f? txufArmjynfrSm
vnf; rwW&m/ 0uf0H/ jrif;+cH/ yckuUL/ ppfudkif;/ a&$bdk wdk@rSm v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f?
&JabmfjzLrsm;u ykodrf/ rtlyif/ [Hom0wD/ jynf/ yJcl;c±dkifawGrSm v_yf&Sm;=uovdk acsmuf/
a&eHacsmif;/ rif;bl;/ rauG;/ a&eHajrwav#mufrmS vnf; tiftm;&Sad e=uygw,f? awmcdw
k yf&if;(1)u
jynfòrdŒtxufydkif;udk odrf;,lxm;+yD; aemufydkif;rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDxJ yl;aygif;oGm;ygw,f?
tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwDu tiftm;raumif;vSayr,fh jrpf0u|ef;ay:zufrSma&m &cdkifa'o
tcsdKŒrSmyg&Sdae=uygw,f? &cdkifbufrSmu &cdkifuGefjrLepfrsm;a&m/ wjcm;tzGJŒtpnf;aygif;pHk ajymuf
usm;tzGJŒaygif;pHkvnf; v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f? r[mrkeduae ajryHktxd/ bHkaygufomausmfacgif;
aqmifwJh ajymufusm;rsm;v_yf&Sm;ae=u+yD;/ &rf;+AJu|ef;rSmu udka&$atmif/ udkb[ef wdk@OD;aqmifwJh
ajymufusm;tzGJŒawG&Sdygw,f? &cdkifawmifydkif;rSm OD;pdE Wm wdk@ajymufusm;tzGJŒawG&Sdygw,f? bl;oD;
awmifarmif;awme,fa'orsm;udk rGwfpvifoD;jcm;e,fajrjzpfxdkufw,fvdk@ ,lq+yD; oDjcm;e,f
awmif;qdak e=uwJh ‘rl*sm[pf’ rsm;[mvnf; &cdik jf ynfe,fajrmifyikd ;f rSm v_y&f mS ;ae=uygw,f? &rnf;oif;
c±dkifzufrSm Adkvfwm&macgif;aqmifwJh wyfeDrsm;[m uGefjrLepfygwDwyfrsm;jzpfvm=uygw,f?
u&ifppf&w
J csKd Œ[m ykeu
f efjcm;em;=u+yD; autif't
D ekd @J yl;aygi;f vdu
k =f u+yD; u&ifjynfe,f ae&mtES@H
v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f? awmcdkautif'Dtdkrsm;uvnf; oxHk/ armfvòrdifbuf/ a&$usifausmuf}uD;/
oHawmif awmifilbuf/ tdrfrJ/ rtlyif/ yef;waemf/ jrpf0u|ef;ay:buf/ [Hom0wDc±dkif uGrf;+cHukef;/
wGHaw;/ oHk;cG/ oHvsifzuf/ om,m0wD/ wdkuf}uD;/ om&a0gzufwifru weoFm&Dwdkif;twGif;/
u,m;jynfe,ftwGif;/ &Srf;jynfe,ftwGif;xdyg ysHESH@v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f? rGefvufeufudkiftzGJŒ
rsm;u rGejf ynfe,ftwGi;f eJ@ weoFm&Dwikd ;f twGi;f rSm ya'gi;f tHºk uGre_ @J u&ifev
D ufeufuikd t
f zGŒJ rsm;
u &Srf;jynftwGif;rSm v_yf&Sm;ay:aygufaeygw,f?
tpdk;&u 'Dvufeufudkiftiftm;pk ykefuefjcm;em;ae=uoltm;vHk;udk odrf;óuH;+yD; a&mifpHk
aomif;use;f olrsm;vd@k ac:a0:orkwyf gw,f? vufeufuikd f ykeu
f efwu
kd yf q
JG ifae=uolawGtm;vH;k udk
t=urf;zsif;cGJjcm;=unfhvdkufr,fqdk&if ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒ&Jabmf
(&JabmfjzL)/ wyfeD/ awmcdkwyf&if;qdkwmawGu ArmawGjzpf=u+yD;/ autif'Dtdk/ u&ifppf&J/ trf
tif(ef)'Dt/kd ytd0k /hf u&ife/D &cdik af jymufusm;aygi;f pHk pwmawGu Armr[kww
f hJ vlrsKd ;pk trsKd ;om;rsm;
jzpf=uygw,f? (rl*sm[pf uawmh bmoma&;,Hk=unfr_eJ@yg ywfoufae+yD; ppfwaumif;e,frS
a&muf&Sdvm=uol tquftEG,frsm;jzpfygw,f?)
zqyvtpkd;&u vufeufudkifawmfvSefae=uolawG toD;oD;&SdwJhtxJrSm Arm tzGJŒ
tpnf;awGeJ@ ywfouf&if txl;ojzifh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk t"du OD;wnfwdkufygw,f?
Edik if aH &;t& òyid b
f uftjzpf oabmxm;+y;D / t"duOD;wnfwu
kd &f rnfo
h /l t"du&efot
l jzpf owfrw
S f
xdk;ppfqifavh&Sdygw,f? vlrsdK;pk trsdK;om;tzGJŒtpnf;awGeJ@ ywfouf&if u&ifudk autif'Dtdkudk
t"du OD;wnfwdkufavh&Sdygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

119

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

tm%m& ‘zqyv’ tzGŒJ }u;D [mvnf; wyfaygi;f pktjzpf/ tzGŒJ csKyftjzpfuae wjznf;jznf;
‘wzGŒJ ydik f wtkypf yk ikd f ygww
D ck’ yHo
k ¿mefyakd qmifvmcJyh gw,f? tzGŒJ csKyftjzpf emrnfyu
J seaf wmhwhJ
oabmajymif;vJvmcJhygw,f?
zqyv tzGŒJ csKyfxu
J ae jynfoŒl &Jabmfukd ESpyf ikd ;f uGo
J mG ;ap+yD;/ tiftm;t}uD;qH;k tydik ;f jzpf
wJh &JabmfjzLudkvnf; armif;xkwfvdkuf+yD;wJhtcg qdk&S,fvpfrsm;&JΠzqyvtjzpf ydkrdkay:vGifvmcJh
ygw,f? &Jabmf0gqdkwmu rnfumrwW avmufyJusefygawmhw,f? ‘zqyv’tzGJŒcsKyfxJrSm yg0if
aewJh ‘ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f mvli,frsm;tpnf;t±k;H ’ uvnf; txl;nDvmcHac:,l+yD; 'DZifbmv (26)
&ufae@rSm ‘zqyv’ uae E_wfxGufvdkufygw,f? (27) &ufae@rSm ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mvli,frsm;
tpnf;t±kH; OuUÏ OD;b*srf; [m 0ef}uD;tjzpfua&m/ zqyv tzGJŒ0iftjzpfuyg E_wfxGufvdkufyg
w,f? zqyv xJrSmusef&Sdyg0ifaecJhwJh tpnf;t±kH;aygif;pHk[mvnf; qdk&S,fvpfygwDeJ@ ygwDvuf
udkifr&Sd woD;yk*~vawGomusefygawmhw,f?
1948 ckESpf[m ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;a=unmEdkifcJhwJhESpfjzpfovdk jynfwGif;ppf}uD; awmuf
avmifc&hJ wJEh pS v
f nf;jzpfwt
hJ wGuf ppfo;kH p&dwaf wG w[kex
f ;kd wufvmwmvnf; awGŒ&ygw,f? ppfwyf
awG wdk;csJŒzJGŒpnf;&wJhtwGuf ppfoHk;p&dwfawGrsm;vmcJh&ovdk tpdk;&rSmvnf; bwf*sufvdkaiGjyr_
awG ar#mfvifhxm;wmxuf tqrwefydkvmcJh&ygw,f? 'gayr,fh tm%m&qdk&S,fvpf acgi;f aqmif
rsm;[m wdik ;f jynfrsuEf mS udk wpufuav;r# raxmufco
hJ vdk olw@kd &ŒJ tm%mrmef *d%
k ;f *%rmef
udkvnf; eJeJav;rS jyefvnfav#mhcsvdkpdwfr&SdcJh=uyg? ‘wdkif;jynfudkaygifI wdkuf&vsifawmif
wdkufr,f? uGefjrLepfygwDESifhum; b,faomtcgrS raphpyfpwrf; acsr_ef;&vdrfhrnf’ vdk@ oabmxm;
csrSwfxm;=uw,fvdk@awmif qdkygw,f?

u&if h v uf e uf u d k i f a wmf v S e f a &;eJ ‹ &ef u k e f t pd k ; &
1949 ckESpf/ ESpfqef;ydkif;rSm autif'DtdkwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm; tif;pdefw0dkufrSm pwifv_yf&Sm;vm
=uygw,f?
tif;pdef/ c0J+cH/ usdKuUvm;/ óudŒukef;/ apmfbGm;}uD;ukef; wdk@rSm aexdkif=uwJh u&iftrsdK;om;
rsm;[m wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ t&yf&yftajctaet& ppfwyfrsm;uwdu
k cf u
kd v
f m&if umuG,zf @kd q+kd y;D 48 ckEpS f
atmufwdkbmv avmufup+yD; óudwifjyifqifr_awGvkyfxm;=uygw,f? aexdkifwJh&yfuGufawGudk
wdk;raygufatmif tumtuG,frsm;ðyvkyfxm;=uovdk &GmpGef&Gmzsm;rsm;rSm ajruwkwfusif;rsm;/
tdraf tmufrmS usi;f rsm;wl;+yD; jyifqifxm;=uygw,f? umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf prpf'eG ;f &JΠvufeufuikd f
aqmifcGifhvufrSwfeJ@ w}udrfv#if vufeufudkif (80) udk wGHaw;wl;ajrmif;uwqifh armfawmfeJ@
tacguaf cgut
f cgcg cG+J yD; tif;pderf mS pk±;Hk a&muf&adS pcJw
h ,fv@kd tpk;d &&JŒbufu qdyk gw,f? uGejf rLepf/
&JabmfjzL/ awmcdw
k yfrawmfw@kd qufwu
kd v
f y_ &f mS ;vm=u+yD;aemufyikd ;f autif,rl sm;u oufqikd &f m
rdrdwdk@a'orsm;udk umuG,fzdk@&ef vufeufudkifaqmifcGifh awmif;qdk=uwJhtcg wGHaw;rSm AdkvfcsKyf
prpf'Gef; &JŒvufrSwfeJ@ vufeufudkifaqmifcGifh w&m;0if &&Sdxm;cJhw,fqdkygw,f? tJ'D udkifaqmif
120

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

cGiu
hf t
kd oH;k ðy+y;D tif;pderf mS tcdik t
f rmpk±;Hk a&muf&v
dS mw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? jrpf0u|e;f ay:c±dik f wcsKd Œu
autif'Dtdk wyfrsm;a&m/ oxHkc±dkifbufu autif'Dtkdwyfrsm;yg wHGaw;/ pmbl;awmif;wdk@u
wqifh tif;pdefudka&muf&Sdvm=uw,fqdkygw,f? tif;pdefrSm&SdwJh u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;&JΠtultnD
awmif;csut
f & umuG,af pmifah &Smufay;Edik zf @kd pk±;Hk a&muf&adS e=uw,fv@kd qdyk gw,f// tJ'v
D kd tajct
aejzpfay:vmaewmudk tpdk;&uvnf; vufrcHEdkifbJ ‘ppf0efxrf;’ wyfwcsdKŒ tif;pdefudk apv$wf+yD;
aiGwu
kd ef @J tpd;k &taqmuftOD;awGukd apmihaf &Smufz@kd wm0efay;ygw,f? tJ'v
D kd ppf0efxrf;wyfawG
a&muf&Sdvmjcif;udk autif'Dtkd wdk@uvnf; olwdk@udkESdyfuGyfzdk@vdk@ ,lqygw,f? tJ'ga=umifh tif;pdef
rSm ppf0efxrf;wyfeJ@ autif'Dtdk wdk@t=um; roifhrjrwf jzpfvm=uygw,f? yÉdyuQawG ay:vm
cJhygw,f?
tpdk;&u tpdk;&xdyfwef;t&m&Sdrsm;/ wyfrawmft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;/ autif'Dtdk acgif;aqmif
rsm;yg yg0ifwhJ &SpOf ;D aumfrwDz@JG +yD; aphpyfajz&Si;f zd@k óud;pm;w,fqykd gw,f? tJ'D (8)OD;aumfrwD&ŒJ t"du
wm0efu tif;pderf mS autif't
D akd wG pk±;kH a&muf&adS ejcif;[m ta&;tcif;}u;D wck jzpfyGm;ay:ayguf
ap&ef ta=umif;&Sdvdk@ oufqdkif&mae&mrsm;odk@ autif'Dtdk wyfzGJŒ0ifawGudk jyefydk@zdk@jzpfygw,f?
wif;rmvmaewJh roifjh rwfra_ wG=um;rSm &SpOf ;D aumfrwD&ŒJ aqmif&u
G cf suaf wGvnf; ratmifjrifEikd f
atmifjzpfcJhygw,f?
Zefe0g&v
D (16) &ufae@rmS Armha&wyfrawmfu u&iftrsKd ;om; Adv
k af pm*suf acgi;f aqmif
+yD; a&wyfoabFmESppf ;D ykeu
f ef+yD;/ autif't
D kd (2000) avmuf ykord u
f kd wdu
k cf u
kd zf @kd óud;pm;ygw,f?
awmifirl mS pcef;csxm;wJh trSw(f 1) u&ifaoewfuikd f wyf&if;uvnf; w&if;vH;k ykeu
f ef+yD; Zefe0g&D
(27)rSm awmifiludkodrf;ygw,f?
Zefe0g&D (30) &ufrSmawmh tif;pdefw0dkufu ordkif;/ c0J+cH/ apmfbGm;}uD;ukef; pwJh qifajczHk;
&yfuGufawGrSm wdkufyGJi,fawG pwifjzpfyGm;vm+yD; ‘&SpfOD;aumfrwD’ óud;yrf;csufvnf; ysufjym;
oGm;ygawmhw,f? (31)&ufae@rSm AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef; eJ@ 'kwd,Adkvfr–;}uD;eJ@ txuft&m&Sd}uD;awG
‘jynfaxmifpk ppf±Hk;’rSm qlylrlawGeJ@ywfouf+yD; tpnf;ta0; w&ufusif;yygw,f? tpnf;ta0;
u wyfrawmf[m zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'eJ@ Edik if aH wmftpd;k &tay: opPmapmifo
h &d ef/ vlrsKd ;a&;
t"du±k%f;rsm; ray:aygufatmif wm;qD;&ef qHk;jzwf=uygw,f? ‘vufeufudkifppfwyfrsm;eJ@ wdkif;
jynf&JŒajctae’ qdkwJhpmwrf;udkvnf; jzef@a0aqG;aEG; =uw,fqdkygw,f? 'gayr,fh tpdk;&[m
wyfrawmf twGi;f &Sd u&ift&m&S}d uD;awGukd ,H=k unfrr_ &Sad wmhyg? u&if&aJ bmfrsm;udv
k nf; ,H=k unf
r_r&Sdawmhyg? tpdk;&u u&ifwyfrsm;u vufeufawG jyefvnf;odrf;,lzdk@ Zefe0g&D (31) &ufae@rSmyJ
trde@f xw
k jf yef+yD; pwifvy_ &f mS ;ygw,f? tJ'aD e@rmS bJ r*Fvm'Hk qufo,
G af &;wyf&if;u u&if&aJ bmf
rsm;[m vufeuftðzwfrcHbJ t&m&Sw
d OD;udk ypfowf+yD; vufeufawG,al qmifum tif;pdeòf rdŒwGi;f
u autif'DtdkawGqD 0ifa&mufoGm;=uygw,f?
1949 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D (31)&ufae@rmS yJ emrnfausmt
f if;pdew
f u
kd yf }JG u;D pwif&ygawmhw,f?
Adkvfrª;pdk;&/ Adkvf!Gef@0if;/ AdkvfpHvSabmf/ Adkvfausmf'ifwdk@ OD;pD;wJh jynfaxmifpk ppf&Jwyf&if;u ordkif;/
c0J+cHudk 0dkif;xm;+yD; u&ifrsm;udk vufeufcscdkif;ygw,f? vufeufrcsbJ usdKufuvm;eJ@ tif;pdef
vrf;axmifh &xm;wGJysufrsm;&Sd&m ae&mtxd wdkufyGJrsm;jzpfyGm;+yD;/ ppf&Jwyfu e*g;/ ol&d,/
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

121

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

a&$jynfat; pwJh oHcsyfum; (8) pD;eJ@ pwifwdkufcdkufygw,f? u&ifrsm;uvnf; tjyif;txef
jyefvnfwdkufcdkufygw,f?
'Dvekd @J u&ifah wmfveS af &;[mvnf; tcdik t
f rm pwifay:ayguv
f m&ygawmhw,f? azazmf0g&v
D
(1)&ufae@rSm ppfOD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef;udk OD;pD;csKyfppfaoemywd tjzpfuae tem;ay;vdkuf+yD;/
AdkvfcsKyfae0if;udk OD;pD;csKyftjzpf zqyv tpdk;&u wm0efay; cef@xm;vdkufygw,f? aomif;usef;r_
rSefor#udk tjrpfðywfwdkufcdkufzdk@qdk+yD; tm%mtyfESif;ay;vdkufygw,f?
Adkvfae0if; wm0efpwifxrf;aqmifwJh azazmf0g&Dv (1)&ufae@rSmyJ txufArmEdkifiH
aròrdŒrSm &SdwJh u&ifwyfrsm;udk vufeufodrf;+yD;/ t&m&SdawGudk Adkvfoifwef;ausmif;/ usefolawGudk
tif*sifeD,mwyfxJ xnfhxm;vdkufygw,f? rE Wav;rSm&SdwJh u&ifaoeyfudkifwyf&if; (3) udkvnf;
vufeufodrf;vdkufygw,f? yckuUL eJ@ vdGKifaumfydk@xm;wJh wyfcGJrsm;rSty tm;vHk; vufeufodrf;cH
vdkuf=u&ygw,f? wyfrawmftwGif;&Sd u&ift&m&SdeJ@ wyfom;rSefor#udk vufeufodrf;+yD; cGifh&uf
&Snaf y;um tem;,lcikd ;f wJt
h pDtpOfukd wufow
k ±f u
kd f taumiftxnfazmfygw,f? tpurS trsKd ;
om;a&;jy\emjzpf+yD; v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;jzpfae=uwJh wyfrawmfwGif;u u&ifaoewfudkif wyfzŒJG
rsm;[m ydkrdkv_yf&Sm;vm&ygawmhw,f? vufeufawGtodrf;cHrvm;/ tpdk;&udkykefuefjcm;em;+yD;
awmfvSefa&;vkyfrvm;/ ajzp&mar;cGef;[m ESpfckxJbJ &Sdygawmhw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfae0if; ppfOD;csKyfjzpfvm+yD;aemuf w&ufrSmyJ/ autif'Dtdk tzGJŒ}uD;udk w&m;r0if
tzGJ@tjzpf a=unmygw,f? tJ'D azaz:0g&Dv (2)&ufae@rSmyJ &efukef/ tvHk u&if&yfuGuf jy\em
}uD;vnf; ay:aygufvmjyefygw,f? tvHk[m tif;pdef/ c0J+cH wdk@+yD;&if u&iftrsdK;om;awG aexdkif
=uwJh &efukefòrdŒay:u t"du u&if&yfuGuf}uD; wckjzpfygw,f? tpdk;&&JŒ rSefrSefuefuef rajz&Sif;
Edkifr_a=umifh jrpf0u|ef;ay:a'owcsdKŒrSm u&ifArm vlrsdK;a&;jy\emvdk toHAvHawG xGufay:ae&
cdkufrSm tvm;wljy\em ay:aygufvm&wm jzpfygw,f? tvHk u&if&yfuGufxJu uav;/ vl}uD;/
a,musfm;/ rdef;r pkpkaygif; u&iftrsdK;om; (100) ausmfavmufudk ArmawGu zrf;oGm;+yD;/ rpf&Sif
rD;&xm; blwm±Hkem;u c&pf,mef0wfðyausmif;xJrSm ydwfavSmifxm;w,fqdkwJh udpPjzpfygw,f?
tJ'v
D akd y:ayguv
f mwJh tvHk u&if&yfuu
G f jy\emrSmvJ tpd;k &[m rSerf eS u
f efuef rajz&Si;f Edik cf yhJ g?
tvHk u&if&yfuu
G f rD;wdu
k cf &H ygw,f? uav;/ vl}uD;/ a,mufsm;/ rde;f r awmfawmfrsm;rsm; touf
qHk;±H_;cJh&ygw,f? tvHk &yfuGufjy\emudk xdrf;odrf;apmifha&Smufay;zdk@ wm0efcsay;jcif; cH&olu
awmh Adkvfr–;}uD; atmif}uD; ( aemif- Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD;jzpfvmol) jzpfygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfygwD
acgi;f aqmifwOD;tjzpfuae wyfrawmfxJ tavmoH;k q,f jyef0ifvmptcsed jf zpfygw,f? vrf;rawG
ay:txd u&iftavmif;awG jyef}uJaeatmif towfcH=u&/ toufqHk;±_H;cJh=u&w,fqdkygw,f?
ppfwyfu ypfcwfowfjzwfcJhwmvdk@ qdkygw,f?
bmyJjzpfjzpf u&iftrsKd ;om;rsm;twGuf emusn;f a=uuGpJ &mjzpfc&hJ ygw,f? tJ'D azazmf0g&D
v (2) &ufae@rmS bJ autif't
D kd uvnf; tif;pdeu
f kd odr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd yf gw,f? tif;pdeu
f kd autif't
D kd
u odr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd w
f meJ@ tvHk u&if&yfuu
G f rD;wdu
k zf suq
f ;D cH&wm[m a&SŒqifah emufqifh w&ufxJ
yJjzpfygw,f? u&iftrsdK;om;wyfrawmf ppfOD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfprpf'Gef&mxl;u tem;,lvdkuf&+yD;/
122

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

AdkvfcsKyfae0if; ppfOD;pD;csKyfjzpfvmwmeJ@ wòydifeuf u&iftrsdK;om; jy\em[mvnf; wjznf;jznf;
jrifhwufvm ae&muae w[kefxdk; xdyfa&mufoGm;ygawmhw,f?
azazmf0g&v
D (5)&ufae@rmS jynfòrŒd rSm&Sw
d hJ trSw(f 2) u&ifaoewfuikd w
f yf&if;[m vufeuf
odrf;rcHbJ tpdk;&udk ykefuefjcm;em;vdkuf+yD; jynfòrdŒudk,m,D odrf;ydkufvdkufygw,f? u&ifaoewf
udkifwyf&if; (3) &if;rSm (2) &if; ykefuef+yD; jzpfoGm;ygw,f? trSwf (1) u&ifaoewfukdifwyf&if;/
trSwf (2) u&ifaoewfuidk w
f yf&if;eJ@ trSwf (3) u&ifaoewfuidk f wyf&if;qk+d yD; u&ifaoewfuikd f
wyf&if; (3) &if;&Sd&mrSm/ wyf&if; (2)&if;u twdtvif; ykefuefjcm;em;vkduf+yD; wyf&if;pcef;cs&m
òrdŒrsm;ukd odrf;ykdufxm;vkduf=uygw,f? trSwf (3) u&if aoewfukdifwyf&if;uawmh yckuULeJ@
vdKG ifaumfuydk @dk xm;wJh wyfcrGJ sm;rSty ppfO;D pD;csKyf Akv
d cf sKyfae0if;&JΠtpDtpOfe@J tm;vk;H vufeuford ;f
wm cHvkduf=u&ygw,f?
1949 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D (31) &ufae@uwnf;u twdtvif; pwifay:aygufcJhwJh tif;pdef
ppfrsufESmwkdufyJGrsm;[m azazmf0g&Dvqef;xJrSm ykdrkdjyif;xef onf;oefvmcJhygw,f? wyfrawmf
ppfO;D pD;csKyfwm0efudk tjynft
h 0vufc&H ,l+yD; Akv
d cf sKyfae0if;[m u&iftrsK;d om;wk@d &ŒJ vufeufuidk f
awmfvSefa&;ukd t+yD;tykdif acsr_ef;ypfEkdifzkd@ enf;aygif;pkHeJ@ óud;yrf;tm;xkwfygawmhw,f?
azazmf0g&Dv (1) &ufae@rSm u&ifukef;rSm tjyif;txefwkdufyJGjzpf=uygw,f? azazmf0g&Dv
(2) &ufae@rmS autif't
D u
dk tif;pdeu
f o
dk rd ;f yku
d cf +hJ yD; óudŒuke;f rSm t}uD;tus,f wku
d yf jGJ zpfygw,f?
azazmf0g&v
D (4) &ufae@rmS ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f wkid ;f r–; Akv
d rf –;}u;D ausmaf Zm (Akv
d rf –;csKyf ausmaf Zm)ukd
awmifykdif;wkdif; wkdif;r–;tjzpf wm0efv$Jajymif; vufcHapcJhygw,f? awmifykdif;wkdif; wkdif;r–;Akdvfrª;
csLyfatmifoif;qDuae wm0efukd v$Jajymif;vufcH&,lapygw,f?
zqyvtpkd;&[m &efukefòrdŒawmfwckvkH; autif'Dtkdwkd@ vufxJrusa&mufapa&;
twGuf tjyif;txef jyefvnfxkd;ppfqifzkd@ óud;pm;ygw,f? awmckdaewJh &JabmfjzL wcsKdŒeJ@ rajy
ajyvnfatmif !dSEd_if;+yD; tvif;0ifvkyfapum u&ifukdwkdufzkd@ &efukefukdumuG,fzkd@ pDpOfygw,f?
'ga=umifh &efuek ef @J teD;w0ku
d f oHvsi/f ausmufwef;/ ok;H cGe,fu &JabmfjzLwcsK@d &efuek u
f dk 0ifa&muf
vm=uwJt
h cg ‘u&ifom;pm;csiw
f ,f’ vk@d aºuG;a=umfvm=uvk@d ocifEu
k ,
dk w
f idk f wm;,lc&hJ w,fqdk
ygw,f? t&yfom;/ ausmif;om;wpfcsKdŒukdvnf; pnf;±kH;+yD; wkdufyJGxJrSm yg0ifwkdufckdufapcJhygw,f?
tif;pdefppfrsufESm enf;AsL[mÏmecsKyfukd orkdif;rSmzGifhxm;+yD; tjyif;txef wkdufyJGqifygw,f?
&efukefjynfaxmifpk t&Hwyf&if;/ trSwf (18) jynfaxmifpkppf&J/ trSwf (21) jynfaxmifpk
ppf&J/ trSwf (15) jynfaxmifpkppf&J/ t&Hppf&Jwyfrsm;/ ppf0efxrf;wyf/ csif; aoewfukdifwyf&if;(1)/
trSwf(1)ajcvsifwyf&if;/ trSwf(4)ajcvsifwyf&if;/trSwf(5) Armhaoewf ukdifwyf&if;wkd@ukd yg0if
wkdufckdufapovkd ausmif;om; &JacgifeJ@ oHr%dwyfrsm;/ a&wyfrS atmfvDuGefpuftajrmufeJ@ (25)
aygif'g tajrmufwyfzJGŒukdvnf; tokH;ðycJhygw,f?
tpk;d &ukd ykeu
f efjcm;em;vku
d w
f hJ u&if aoewfuidk w
f yf&if;(1) uvnf; awmifiu
l dk odr;f yku
d f
xm;&muae awmifit
l a&SŒbuf oHawmifa'o/ 'ku
d Of ;D taemufbufe@J yJc;l w0ku
d u
f autif't
D dk
rsm;eJ@yg yl;aygif;vkduf+yD; pkpkaygif;tiftm; (1000) ausmfavmufeJ@ &efukefukd OD;wnf csDwufvmcJhyg
w,f? azazmf0g&D (4)&ufrSm anmifav;yif ausmfvmcJhygw,f? yJcl;ukdodrf;ykduf+yD; yJcl;awmifbuf
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

123

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

xkH;}uD;òrdŒrS autif'Dtkdrsm;eJ@yg xyfrHyl;aygif;+yD; tif;pdefppfrsufESmu autif'Dtkd rsm;udk tm;jznfh
ulnDEkdifzkd@ &nf&G,fxm;w,fqkdygw,f? awmifilu qif;vmwJh'Dppfa=umif;ukd 'kwd,Akdvfr–;}uD;
apmrif;armifu tkyfcsKyfygw,f?
jynfòrdŒukd odrf;ykdufxm;wJh u&ifaoewfudkifwyf&if;(2)uvnf; azazmf0g&D(5)&ufae@rSm
&efuek u
f dk jynfvrf;twkid ;f OD;wnfqif;vmcJyh gw,f? u&if'w
k ,
d Akv
d rf –;}uD; apmjrarmifu tkycf sKyf
uGyfuJ+yD; csDwufvmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
trSwf (1) u&if aoewfuidk w
f yf&if; ppfa=umif;udk 'kw,
d Akv
d rf –;}uD; wifO;D acgi;f aqmifwhJ
tpkd;&wyfu yJcl;e,fuaejzwf+yD; ckcHwdkufckdufòzdcJGygw,f? ‘yJcl;bk&m;}uD; ppfrsufESm’ wdkufyJGawG
tjzpf aoewfoHawG aomaomnHcJh&ygw,f? tpkd;&bufu trSwf(6) Armh aoewfukdifwyf&if;/
trSwf(4)jynfaxmifpk ppf&J/ ppf0efxrf;wyf/ trSwf(3) jynfaxmifpk ppf&Jwyf&if;rsm;tjyif
&JabmfjzLeJ@ qk&d ,
S v
f pf ajymufusm;qko
d l wpfcsKŒd yg yg0ifwu
dk cf u
kd cf =hJ uygw,f? yJc;l ‘oeyfyif’a'ou
ausmif;om; (100) avmufukd vufeufwyfqifay;+yD;/ òrdŒwGif;vkHòcHr_eJ@ qufom;udpPrsm;twGuf
tokH;cscJhovkd/ axmifwGif;u xkwf,l&&SdvmwJh olawGtygt0if &JabmfjzL (500) avmufukd
vufeufwyfqifay;+yD; bk&m;}uD;&Gmtaemufbufukd ae&m,lapcJhygw,f? azazmf0g&D (5)&ufae@
rSmyJ oeyfyifbufu &JabmfjzLtiftm; (2000) ausmfavmufa&muf&Sd+yD;/ tiftm;jznfhwif;
ay;cJhjyefygw,f? azazmf0g&D (7) &ufrSm bk&m;}uD;&Gm ppfrsufESmrSm u&ifvufeufudkifwyfrsm;eJ@
tpkd;&bufu vufeufudkifwyfrsm; t}uD;tus,f wkdufyJGjzpfyGm;+yD; u&ifvufeufudkifwyfzJG@rsm;
aemufqkwfay;vkduf&ygw,f?
jynfuqif;vmcJhwJh u&ifaoewfudkifwyf&if; (2) ppfa=umif;ukdawmh/ tpdk;&bufu
om,m0wD ppfrsufESmuae+yD; tjyif;txef wkdufyJGqifygw,f? jrpf0u|ef;ay:/ zsmykHuae ac:,l
vmcJw
h hJ trSw(f 3) Armhaoewfuidk w
f yf&if;/ trSwf (1) ajcv#iw
f yf&if;rS wyfzŒGJ rsm;tjyif ‘tajrmuf
wyfzJGŒ’ rsm;eJ@yg ,SOfòydifwkdufckdufapcJhygw,f// om,m0wDe,f/ aygif;wnf/ ewWvif;/ ZD;ukef; pwJh
a'oawGrmS Akv
d pf ed rf eS u
f a'oE &W Akv
d rf –;}uD;tqifeh @J ppf&/J ppf&J ppf0efxrf;wyfawGuykd g tkycf sKyf+yD;
tjyif;txef wkdufckdufcJhygw,f? azazmf0g&D (8) &ufrSm u&ifaoewfudkifwyf&if; (2) ppfa=umif;
ZD;uke;f txd a&muf&v
dS mygw,f? (9)&ufae@rmS armfawmf,mOfwef;}uD;eJ@ csw
D ufc=hJ u+yD; wku
d yf aGJ wG
tjyif;txefjzpfyGm;ygw,f? tpkd;&bufu pdefajymif;wyfzJGŒrsm;/ tajrmufwyfzJGŒrsm;eJ@yg jyefvnf
wku
d cf u
kd f òzcd iG ;f ygw,f? (11)&ufae@rmS wyf&if;(3) wyf&if;r–;[m awmcdw
k yfrsm;&JŒwyfr–; Akv
d &f x
J ÉG ef @J
awGŒqkaH qG;aEG;+yD; u&ifrsm;ukd ZD;ukeu
f ae ydwq
f @kd ay;zk@d oabmwlnaD pcJw
h ,fqydk gw,f? azazmf0g&D
(13) rSm wyf&if; (3) u xkd;ppf qifwkdufckdufwJhtcg tpkd;& wyfrawmf (av) u av,mOfuvnf;
ava=umif;uae ypfual y; wdu
k cf u
dk cf yhJ gw,f? trSw(f 2) u&ifaoewfuikd w
f yf&if;ppfa=umif; tus
tqkH;rsm;cJh&+yD; aemufqkwfay;cJh&w,f?
t"duppfrsufESmjzpfwJh tif;pdefppfrsufESmrSmvnf; azazmf0g&D (11) &uf c0J+cHwkdufyGJ/ (13)
&ufae@ orkdif; OD;aomf yef;uefpufwkdufyJG/ (14)&uf &mbm+cHwkdufyJG/ (15) &ufae@ apmbifqif+cH
wkdufyJG/ ‘OD;pudUefausmif;wkduf’ wkdufyJGawG tqufrjywf jyif;jyif;xefxefjzpfyGm;cJhygw,f? ESpfbuf
tus tqkH;awGvnf; tifrwefrsm;jym;cJh&ygw,f?
124

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

trSwf (2) u&ifaoewfukdifwyf&if;ppfa=umif; aemufqkwfay;&csdefrSm om,m0wD/
0ufaumfwu
dk yf rGJ mS t"du OD;pD;wdu
k cf w
hJ hJ trSwf (3) Armaoewfuikd w
f yf&if;udk &efuek o
f @kd jyefvnf
ac:,l+yD; tif;pdefppfrsufESm ykd@vkdufygw,f? azazmf0g&D(19)&ufae@rSm óudŒukef;udk wkdufyJGqifapyg
w,f?
azazmf0g&Dv v,fxJrSmyJ uGefjrLepfrsm;udk tjywftowfacsr_ef;zkd@ wm0efcsay;xm;wJh
om0wW&d dS trSw(f 1) ucsif aoewfuidk w
f yf&if;u tiftm; w0ufausmef @J trSw(f 3) ucsiw
f yf&if;u
wGzJ ufay;xm;wJh wyfcu
GJ kd ucsit
f rsK;d om;Akv
d af emfqidk ;f u acgi;f aqmif+yD;/ zqyv tpk;d &ukd ykeu
f ef
jcm;em;vku
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(20) &ufae@rSmyJ rdwDˆvmukd u&ifwyfrsm;eJ@ Akdvfaemfqkdif;&JŒ ucsifwyfrsm;u odrf;ykdufvkduf=u
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

125

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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tpkd;&jzpfaewmawmifrS jzpfay:aewJh jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk EkdifiHa&;t&tajz&Sm+yD; rSefrSefuefuef
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126

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

127

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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128

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

129

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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130

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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jyef=um;vdkufygw,f? {+yDv (8) &ufae@jzpfygw,f?
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{+yDv (6) &uf nrSm tpd;k &wyfrsm;u txufArmjynf/ rE aW v;òrdŒukd jyefvnford ;f ,lEidk cf hJ
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awmifbufe,fajrawGudk AkH;}uJwkdufcdkuf&if; ar,kppfoabFmukd toHk;ðy+yD; pufr_ausmif;e,fajr/
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jynfolŒ&Jabmf AkdvfpdefrSef usqkH;oGm;ygw,f? AHk;}uJzkd@ av,mOfeJ@vkdufygoGm;wJh AkdvfpdefrSef[m
AHk;}uJaewkef; atmufuae jyefvnfypfcwfvkdufwJh uGefjrLepfolykefawG&JΠusnfoifh+yD; av,mOf
xkdifcHkay:rSmyJ toufaysmufcJh&wmjzpfygw,f? ESpfzufpvHk;[m tustqHk;awGrsm;cJh&ygw,f?
yJcl;ukd {+yDv (26) &efukefukd arv (1) &ufae@ odrf;r,fvkd@ aºuG;a=umf&nfrSef; csDwufvm
cJhwJh Akdvfaemfqkdif;wyfeJ@ autif'Dtkdrsm;[mvnf; awmifilukd jyefqkwfoGm;&ygw,f? tif;pdefudk
&+yD;wJhaemuf tpdk;&[m ykdrkdxkd;ppfqifEdkifzkd@ yHkatm+yD; óud;yrf;vmygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

131

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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t&Sdefwkd;jr‡ifh wkdufckdufapygw,f?
1949 ckESpfukd csKyf=unfhvkduf&if wjynfvkH; ppfrD;[kef;[kef;awmufcJh&wJhESpfjzpfygw,f?
tpkd;&vnf; ‘&efukeftpdk;&’ jzpfoGm;&wJhESpfjzpfygw,f? u&ifhawmfvSefa&;}uD; twdtvif;ay:
aygufvmcJh&+yD; zqyvudk rsufjzLqkdufoGm;apcJhwJhESpfjzpfygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD/ jynfolŒ
&Jabmf/ awmckdwyfrawmf wkd@tjyif autif,l/ autif'Dtkd/ trftif'Dtkd/ ytkd@vufeufukdifwyf/
Akv
d af emfqidk ;f wyf pwJh vlrsK;d pkvufeufuikd f awmfveS af &;v_y&f mS ;r_awGyg qufwu
dk af y:xGuv
f mcJ+h yD;
aoewfoHawG aomaomnHoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
òrdŒawGukd odr;f yku
d x
f m;&muae aemufqw
k af y;vku
d &f wJh tpk;d &qef@usiaf &; olyek t
f iftm;
pkrsm;[m aus;vufawm&GmawGudk tajcðy+yD; awmfvSefa&;udk qufvufqifE$J=uygw,f? Adkvfaemf
qkdif;wyfzJGŒuawmh awmifiluae u,m;jynfe,fxJ0if/ &Srf;jynfe,fxJ0if/ awmif}uD;udkodrf;/
132

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

awmif}uD;uqkwaf y;&awmh vm;¶d;_ udo
k rd ;f / tJ'u
D rS uGwcf idk /f erfch rf;bufqD ajymif;a&$Œa&muf&o
dS mG ;
ygw,f?
tpd;k &[m vufeufopfawG wd;k csŒJ wyfqifay;Ekid v
f mwJt
h cg trSwf (1) u,m;aoewfuikd f
wyf&if;/ trSwf (1) &Srf;aoewfudkifwyf&if;wkd@ukd wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;wJhtjyif awmckdoGm;=uwJh trSwf
(1) Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if;eJ@ trSwf (3) Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if;rsm;udk tpm;xkd;jyefvnfzJGŒpnf;
wmawG vkyfapygw,f? trSwf (1) (2) (3) u&ifaoewfudkifwyfrsm;udk zsufodrf;+yD; trSwf (2)
(3) (5) ajcvsifwyf&if;awG tpm;xkd;zJGŒpnf;wmvkyfygw,f? jynfaxmifpkt&Hwyf/ ucsifwyf&if;/
csif;wyf&if;awGudk zsufodrf;+yD; trSwf (1) (2) ta&;ay: ucsifwyf&if;/ trSwf(1) (2) csif;wyf&if;
qkdwmawG ajymif;vJzJG@pnf;ygw,f? Akdvfoifwef;ausmif;eJ@ ppfOD;pD;wuUokdvfudkvnf; jyefvnf
zGifhvSpfum ppfoifwef;rsm;ukd jyefvnfykd@csapwmvkyfygw,f? 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyfvnf;jzpf umuG,f
a&;0ef}uD; vnf;jzpfwJh AkdvfcsKyfae0if;[m ppfwyfudk olŒpdwfóuduf taumiftxnfazmf zJGŒpnf;
jyifqifwmawG pwifvkyfcGifh&cJhygw,f?
tpkd;&&JΠjynfwGif;ppftwGuf umuG,fa&;toHk;p&dwfqkdwJh acgif;pOfeJ@ azmfjywJh ppfoHk;
p&dw[
f mvnf; b,fwek ;f ueJ@rrS wlatmif tqaygi;f rsm;pGmckew
f ufomG ;cJyh gw,f? wjynfv;Hk toH;k
p&dwf pkpkaygif;&JŒ (20µ) ausmfjzpfcJhygw,f?
‘a&mifpo
kH yl ek w
f @dk &ŒJ vk,ufzsuq
f ;D jcif;udck &H aom a&mifpo
kH yl ek w
f @kd a=umifh ysupf ;D qk;H ¶H;_ cJ&h aom
wjynfvHk;wefzkd; pkpkaygif;[mvnf; usyfaiG ukaÉ (3) &mausmfygw,f’ vkd@ 0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku
w&m;0ifajymqkad =unmcJyh gw,f? 'Dysupf ;D qk;H ¶H;_ r_awG[m olyek af wGa=umifv
h @dk ocifEu
k wzufowf
tjypfwifvu
dk yf gw,f? jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;a=umifh t}uD;tus,yf supf ;D qk;H ¶H;_ cJ&h wmuawmh trSeyf jJ zpf
ygw,f?
1950 jynfhESpfxJa&mufawmh zqyvtpdk;&[m ‘&efukeftpdk;&’tjzpfuae vGwfajrmuf
vm+yDjzpfv@dk touf¶a_ csmifvmygw,f? olyek af wGord ;f yku
d x
f m;cJw
h hJ òrdŒawGtm;vk;H udv
k nf; jyefvnf
xkd;ppfqifodrf;ykduf+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? òrdŒawGukd jyefvnfodrf;ykdufEkdifayr,fh jynfwGif;ppf}uD;uawmh
t&Sdeft[kefjyif;jyif; qufvufawmufavmifaecJhygw,f?
aoewfoaH wG aomaomnHaeqJumvrSm xyfróH uaH wGŒvm&wJjh y\emuawmh w¶kwjf zL
usL;ausmfvmr_jzpfygw,f? jynfyvufeufudkifwyfrsm; ArmjynftwGif; usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmr_
jzpfygw,f? 1949 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmv (1) &ufae@ rSm w¶kwfjynfuGefjrLepfygwDOuUÏ armfpDwkef;
acgif;aqmifwJh w¶kwfjynfolŒorRwEkdifiH ay:xGef;vmygw,f?
csefau&Sdwfacgif;aqmifwJh ulrifwefw±kwfjzLtpkd;&[m w¶kwfjynfr}uD;uae t¶_H;eJ@
xGufajy;&ygw,f?
w¶kwjf ynf ,leefe,fawmifyidk ;f rSm&Sw
d hJ w¶kwjf zLulrifwefwyfrsm;[m w¶kwjf ynfoŒl wyfr
awmf (wyfeaD wmf)&JΠxk;d ppfqifacsre_ ;f wku
d cf u
dk rf '_ %fukd r¶_rvS cHvu
dk &f +yD; ,leefjynfe,fawmifyidk ;f
uae ArmjynfxJ vSdrfh0ifvm=uwmjzpfygw,f? 1950 jynfh Zefe0g&Dvqef;rSm w¶kwfjzLwyfom;
(200) avmuf[m usKdif;wHke,f rkdif;,ef;ukd0ifa&mufwyfpJG+yD;/ rwfvxJrSm tiftm; (2000) ausmf
avmuf usKdif;wHke,ftwGif; xyfrH0ifa&mufusL;ausmfvm=uygw,f? {+yDveJ@ arvxJrSm usKdif;wHk
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

133

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

e,ftwGif;&Sd òrdŒawGudk w¶kwfjzLwyftcsKdŒu 0ifa&mufodrf;ykduf=uovkd w¶kwfjzLwyftcsKdŒu
usKdif;wHkta&SŒbufuae jzwfausmf+yD; }wd*Ha'oxJpk+yD; wyfpJG=uygw,f?
w±kwfjzLwyfwcsKdŒu arv (25) &ufae@rSm Armjynfe,fpyfòrdŒ wòrdŒjzpfwJh ‘=uLukwf’udk
wku
d cf u
dk zf suq
f ;D =uygw,f? w¶kwjf zLwyfawGukd OD;pD;acgi;f aqmifvmolawGuawmh ulrifweftrSwf
(8) wyfawmfu AkdvfcsKyf}uD; vDrD/ trSwf (26) wyfawmfu 'kAkdvfcsKyf}uD; vludkc|rf;eJ@ trSwf
(93) wyfru AkdvfcsKyfrmacsm,DeJ@ AkdvfcsKyfvlcsif;qGef; wkd@jzpf=uygw,f?
1950 jynfh ZGev
f xJrmS usKid ;f wHak 'o&Sd Armhwyfrawmftm%mydik af wGu w¶kwjf zLwyfzŒGJ 0if
awGukd vufeufcs&ef okd@r[kwf Armjynfykdifeufe,fajrtwGif;u xGufcGgoGm;&ef &mZoHay;cJhyg
w,f? 'gayr,fh w¶kwfjzLulrifwefwyfawGu eJeJav;rS rvkdufem¶Hkru Armhwyfrawmfu olwkd@ukd
wkdufcdkufvm&if jyefvnfwdkufcdkuf&ef toifh&Sda=umif; jyef=um;ygw,f?
w¶kwjf ynf[m Armjynfe@J e,ferd w
d cf si;f t&Sn}f uD;qufpyfwnf&adS ewJh tdref ;D csi;f wkid ;f jynf
wckjzpfwt
hJ wGuf w¶kwjf ynf&ŒJ ‘w¶kwjf ynfopf’ xlaxmifay:ayguv
f mr_[m ArmjynfEidk if aH &;e,f
udv
k nf; *,uf¶u
dk cf yhJ gw,f? t¶H;_ eJ@ajy;vmcJo
h l w¶kwjf zL ulrifwefwyfrsm;&JŒ usL;ausmcf sO;f eif;0if
a&mufvmwmukd cHvkduf&wJhtwGuf ArmjynfvHkòcHa&;twGufvnf; ta&;}uD;jy\emwckjzpfvm
&ygw,f? w¶kwjf zLusL;ausmv
f mr_jy\em[m ArmjynftwGuf yx0DEidk if aH &;jy\emavmufwif
ru urBm@EkdifiHa&; &moDOwktajymif;tvJeJ@yg qufqkdifywfoufvm&wJh jy\emjzpfygw,f?
'kw,
d urBmppft+yD;rSm urBmEh idk if aH &;e,fy,frmS t&if;&Sief ,fcsŒJ *k%
d ;f }uD;eJ@ qk&d ,
S v
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dk f
}uD;&,fvkd@ *kd%f}uD;ESpf*kd%f; twdtvif;ay:xGufvmygw,f? t&if;&Sif;e,fcsJŒ*kd%f;ukd tar&duef
u acgif;aqmifygw,f? qkd&S,fvpf*dk%f;ukd qkdAD,ufu acgif;aqmifygw,f? e,fcJsŒEkdifiHrsm;vuf
atmufu vGwfajrmufvmpEkdifiHawGeJ@ vGwfajrmufzkd@óud;yrf;tm;xkwfae=uwJh EkdifiHawGtm;vkH;
avmufeD;yg;[m qkd&S,fvpf*kd%f;}uD;udk axmufcHvkdvm;=uygw,f? awmfvSefwdk;wufwJh EkdifiHa&;
ygw/D Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;[m e,fcsŒJ t&if;&Si*f %
dk ;f ukd qef@usi=f uygw,f? e,fcsŒJ t&if;&Si*f %
dk ;f &JŒ
acgi;f aqmifjzpfwhJ tar&duef[m qk&d ,
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dk ;f }uD;}uD;rm;rm;us,jf yef@vmrSm atmifycGJ v
H mrSmudk
tpGrf;ukef wm;qD;ydwfyif acszsufzkd@óud;pm;aeygw,f?
urBmrSm e,fajrtus,ft0ef; t}uD;qkH;jzpfwJh qkdAD,ufu uGefjrLepfEkdifiHjzpfae&wJhtxJ/
urBmrSm vlO;D a&trsm;qk;H jzpfwhJ w¶kwu
f uGejf rLepfEidk if t
H jzpf xyfraH y:ayguv
f mwJt
h cg t&if;&Sif
e,fcsJŒ*kd%f;}uD;&JŒ xdyfoD;tar&dueftzkd@ ykdrkdpkd;&drfwkefv_yfp&mjzpfvmcJhygw,f?
'ga=umifh 1950 jynfEh pS x
f rJ mS tar&duefw@dk &ŒJ 'krd ED o
dk 0D &D xGuaf y:vmcJyh gw,f? tar&duef
orRw tku
d q
f ifa[mif0gup+yD; ajymwmjzpfygw,f? ('krd ED dk zJupm;enf;rSm 'krd ED zdk cJ syaf v;awGpx
D m;
+yD;/ wckeJ@wck qufpyfaewJhtwGuf zJcsyfav;wckus&if usefwJh[mawGyg qufwkdufusavh
&Sdygw,f? 'kdrDEdkzJcsyfav;awGvkd qdk&S,fvpfEkdifiHawG wck+yD;wckray:&atmif umuG,fxm;zkd@
ajymwmjzpfygw,f?)
tar&dueftzdk@ w¶kwfjynfuGefjrLepfEkdifiHjzpfvmwmukd rvkdvm;ovdk/ tm&SwdkufrSm
aemufxyfuGefjrLepfEdkifiHawG qufwkdufay:xGufvmrSmudkvnf; r¶_pdrfhwJhtwGuf wm;qD;ydwfyif
a&;awG tpDtpOf&Sd&Sdvkyfygw,f? w¶kwfeDukd qef@usifzkd@ w¶kwfjzLudktm;ay;ygw,f? w¶kwfjynfeJ@
134

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

e,ferd w
d cf si;f qufpyfaewJt
h wGuf Armjynf[m tar&duefw@dk twGuf ta&;ygvmygw,f? 'ga=umifh
ArmjynfxJ a&muf&SdusL;ausmfvm=uwJh ulrifwefw¶kwfjzLwkd@&JŒaemufuG,frSm tar&duef
yg0ifywfoufaeygw,f? wzufuvnf; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;udk t"duOD;wnfvkyfaewJh
Armjynftpkd;&ukd acsmhjrLodrf;oGif;Ekdifzkd@ vdktyfaeygw,f?
Armjynf zqyvtpkd;&[m jynfyu usL;ausmfvmoljzpfwJh w±kwfjzLudk tjywftowf
jyefvnfwkdufxkwfa&;xuf/ jynfwGif;u wEkdifiHwnf;om;csif;jzpfwJh vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;
tiftm;pkawGudkyJ rJ+yD; acsr_ef;okwfoifypfEkdifzkd@ vkyfaeygw,f?
1945 ckESpfu ‘aAmf&SDApforkdif;tusOf;csKyf’ pmtkyfudk r&&atmif&Sm+yD; qkd&S,fvpfygwD
Ekid if aH &;oifwef;awGrmS oifwef;yk@d cscw
hJ hJ OD;ausm+f idr;f uawmh ok;H av;ESpt
f wGi;f a'giaf 'gijf rnf uGejf rL
epfqef@usifa&;orm;}uD;tjzpf ajymif;vJvmcJhygw,f? 1949 ckESpftukefrSm w±kwfjynfol@orRw
EkdifiHtjzpf ay:aygufvmwJhtcg Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfygwD tr_aqmifrsm;eJ@ 'kwd,acgif;aqmifrsm;
tpnf;ta0;vky+f y;D óuq
d adk xmufcaH =umif; a=unmcsux
f w
k yf gw,f? tJ'aD =unmcsuu
f kd uef@uu
G f
ajymqkdol[m OD;ausmf+idrf; wa,mufwnf;yJ&Sdw,fvkd@ qkdygw,f? t*Fvdyf/ tar&duefòidjiifrSm
a=umufwmeJ@ jynfwiG ;f olyek af wG ESrd Ef iS ;f a&;twGuf tultnD r&rSmpk;d &drw
f ma=umifv
h @dk qkyd gw,f?
1950 jynfhESpfxJrSm tm%m& zqyv }uD;xJu tm%m& qkd&S,fvpfygwD}uD;twGif;
ywfww
k rf &Ekid w
f hJ tuGt
J +y}J u;D wck xyfraH y:ayguv
f mcJyh gw,f? t"duuawmh OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f ird ;f
wk@d acgi;f aqmifwhJ vusmf qd&k ,
S v
f pfrsm;eJ@ rm@upf f vDeif0g'ukd ouf0if,=kH unfygw,fv@dk aºuG;a=umf
xm;=uwJh ocifcspfarmif (0d"l&) / ocifvGif/ ocifvSau|wkd@acgif;aqmifwJh vuf0J,drf; qkd&S,fvpf
rsm;t=um;/ tJ'Dwkef;u ay:aygufvmwJh urBmhEkdifiHa&; tajctaeawGtay: ±_jrifoHk;oyf oabm
xm;=uykcH si;f rwln&D muae twdtvif; cGm+yo
J mG ;=uwmjzpfygw,f? qk&d ,
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qkd&S,fvpfrsm;eJ@ vuf0J,drf;qkd&S,fvpfrsm;[m tm%mukvm;xkdifay: twlarS;+yD;xkdifae=u
&muae ajymif;vJvmwJh Ekid if w
H umhtajctaeawGatmufrmS uk,
d &hf yfwnfcsuu
f dk uk,
d af zmfjy&if;
arS;aevkd@r&awmhyJ uJGoGm;=uwmjzpfygw,f?
yxrtjzpftysufu (WFTU) yg0ifa&;udpPeJ@ywfoufygw,f? zqyv tzJG@csKyf tvkyf
tr_aqmifvnf;jzpf/ tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;rsm;tzJG@csKyf OuUÏvnf;jzpfwJh ‘ocifvGif’[m
tzJŒG csKyf&ŒJ =um;aea&;0g'eJ@ qef@usi+f yD;/ vuf0,
J rd ;f WFTU (World Federation of Trade Union) ac:
urBm@tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;rsm;tzJGŒcsKyfeJ@ qufoG,f0ifa&muf&eftqkdeJ@ qkH;jzwfcsufw&yfukd
zqyv tzJ@G csKyf tvkyt
f r_aqmiftzJŒG &JŒ cGiðfh ycsurf &bJ 1950 jynfh ara';ae@ vlxt
k pnf;ta0;rSm
wifoGif; csrSwfajymqkdw,f qkdygw,f?
'kw,
d tjzpftysuu
f uk&d ;D ,m;ppfyGJ udpeP @J ywfoufygw,f? 1950 jynfEh pS x
f rJ mS / uk&d ;D ,m;
ppfyJG tjyif;txef ay:aygufvmygw,f? w±kwfeJ@ qkdAD,ufwkd@u ajrmufudk&D;,m;bufu tckdif
trm&yfwnf=uygw,f? tar&duefacgi;f aqmifwhJ t&if;&Sit
f yk pf u
k awmifu&dk ;D ,m;bufu ae=u
ygw,f? tar&duef[m ukvor*~qkdif;bkwfeJ@ udk&D;,m;ppfyJG twGif;0if+yD; ygvmygw,f? awmifajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;ppfyrGJ mS ukvor*~vòHk cHa&;aumifpu
D ‘urBm@+idr;f csr;f a&;ukd xdyg;aprnfh tE &W m,f
vkd@owfrSwf+yD; ukvor*~u 0ifa&muf+yD; tajctaeudkxdef;odrf;&ef’vkd@ qkH;jzwfygw,f? tJ'DqkH;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

135

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

jzwfcsufudk jrefrmtpdk;&u axmufcHcJhygw,f? 1950 jynfh pufwifbm (5) &ufae@ Armjynf
ygvrD efvw
$ af wmfrmS 0ef}u;D csKyfocifEk wifoiG ;f wJh uk&d ;D ,m;tqked @J ywfouf+y;D tvkyo
f rm;tpnf;
t±Hk;rsm;tzJGŒcsKyf 'kOuUÏ vnf;jzpf ygvDreftrwfvnf;jzpfwJh ocifvSau|u a0zefygw,f? a0zef
&mrSm tqkdudkawmh axmufcHayr,fh ajrmufukd&D;,mtay: tjypfwifajymqkdwmeJ@ ywfouf+yD;
uef@uu
G af jymqkyd gw,f? ud&k ;D ,meJ@ywfoufwhJ zqyv tpd;k &&JΠrl0g'&yfwnfcsut
f ay:/ ocifviG /f
ocifcspfarmifwkd@uvnf; jypfwifa0zef=uygw,f?
tJ'ga=umifh tJ'Dvkdjzpfay: ajymqkdcJh=ur_awGtay: zqyv tvkyftr_aqmiftzJG@u
ocifviG ef @J ocifvaS u|ukd ta&;,lygw,f? ocifviG ef @J ocifvaS u|ukd ‘rdr&d ŒJ ygwjD zpfwhJ tm%m&
ygwDtpkd;&&JŒ rl0g'ukd a0zef±_wfcscJhwJhtwGuf’ zqyvu c%xkwfy,fypfcJhw,fvkd@ qkdygw,f?
vufwkef@jyefwJhtaeeJ@ atmufwkdbm (16) &ufae@rSm ocifvGif/ ocifvSau|wkd@ tzJG@[m
tvkyform;tpnf;t±Hk;uae E_wfxGufvkduf=uygw,f? 'DZifbm (7) &ufae@rSmawmh ocifvGif/
ocifvSau|/ ocifcspfarmif (0d"l&)/ ocifvlat;eJ@ qdk&S,fvpfygwD0if (43) a,mufwkd@[m qkd&S,f
vpfygwDuae t+yD;tykdifE_wfxGufvkduf=uygawmhw,f?
aemufw&uf 'DZifbm (8) &ufae@rSm “tvkyform;/ v,form;ygwD” udk twdtvif;
xlaxmifvkduf=uygawmhw,f?
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dk &ufwpfygwD jzpfvm
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t"duqkd&S,facgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfwJh 0d"l&ocifcspfarmifu qkd&S,fvpfygwD twGif;uae
olwkd@xGufcGmvm&ykHe@J ywfowf+yD;æ
“1950 ckESpfokd@a&mufaomtcg u|Ekfyfwdk@ qkd&S,fvpfygwD a&SŒwef;acgif;aqmiftcsKdŒonf/
zqyv OD;EkEiS ahf ygi;f I tar&duef tD;pDatudp/P wDpaD tudp/P ud&k ;D ,m;udp/P tar&duefEiS hf t*Fvyd f
ESpfOD;t=um;rSmom Asmrsm;ae&aom =um;ae0g'udpP ponfwkd@jzifh e,fcsJŒESifhaygif;pyfI uGefjrLepf
ygwo
D mru uGejf rLepf0g'udyk g tjywftowfacsre_ ;f &ef wdwv
d if;vif; jyifqifvmayonf? xk@d a=umifh
u|Ekfyfwdk@&Jabmfrsm;onf tjypfuif;pifpGmjzifh EkdifiHa&;vrf;a=umif;t&om 1950 ckESpf/ 'DZifbm
(8) &ufae@wGif oduQm&Sd&Sd vrf;cJGvmjcif;jzpfayonf?” vkd@ xkwfazmf aºuG;a=umfa&;om;cJhygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygwD ESpjf crf;uJo
G mG ;wke;f u tvHe-D tvHjzLvd@k epfe-D epfjzLvk@d uifyeG ;f wyfc=hJ uwJh
qk&d ,
S v
f pfawGudk olw@dk u,
kd w
f idk f ESpjf crf;uGo
J mG ;&wJt
h cg/ qd&k ,
S ef -D qk&d ,
S jf zLvd@k vlxu
k uifyeG ;f wyf
ay;vkdufygw,f? qkd&S,feD-qkd&S,fjzLwkd@tuJG ykdqdk;wmuawmh qkd&S,fvpfygwD[m tm%m&ygwD
jzpfwJhtwdkif; tm%mudkudkif+yD; ajAmifusus&rf;um;owfjzwfr_awG usL;vGefjyjcif;jzpfygw,f?
qdk&S,feDawG&JŒ ygwDopfudkzJG@pnf;a=umif; a=unm+yD;wmeJ@ wòydifeuf qkd&S,feDygwD&JŒ ygwDopfudk
zJGŒpnf;a=umif; a=unm+yD;wmeJ@ wòydifeuf qkd&S,feDygwD&JŒ OD;pD;tzJGŒ0ifawGjzpfwJh ysOf;rem;c±kdifu
136

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&JabmfAcsKdeJ@ &JabmfvS'if}uD;wkd@ukd vuf,mqkd&S,fvpf *kd%fom;awGu vlykHtv,frSm armfawmf
um;eJ@ &uf&ufpufpuf wkdufowfypfcJh=uygw,f?
Oya'udk av;pm;vkdufema&;/ 'Drkdua&pDudk umuG,fa&;vkd@ wzGzG rem;wrf;ajymvmcJhwJh
zqyv tpk;d &[m Oya'ukd ajymifajymifwif;wif; csK;d azmuf±rkH u 'Dru
dk a&pDtcGit
hf a&;awGuv
dk nf;
uef@owfcsKyfcs,fol jzpfvmcJhygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEkukd,fwkdif tm%m&Sifqefqef ðyrl/ usifh}uHvmwmawG&Sdovkd qkd&S,fvpf
xdyo
f ;D }uD;rsm;jzpfwhJ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f / ocifwif/ ocifausmx
f eG ;f wk@d uvnf; vlru
dk af rG;/ wynfh
arG;+y;D olw@dk tydik t
f pm;&&m e,fy,ftoD;oD;rSm tm%maZmif;xufc=hJ uygw,f? tm%m& zqyv
}uD;udk xifovkdcs,fvS,fcJh=uygw,f?
zJŒG pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
Hk ajccHOya'udk acgi;f ay:&Gu+f yD; zJŒG pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
Hk ajccHOya'yg jyÏmef;csuf
awGe@J rudu
k n
f w
D mawGuadk wmif cyfwnfwnf vkyaf qmifc=hJ uygw,f? zJŒG pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
Hk ajccHOya'
(116) rSm a±G;aumufwifajr‡mufcH&ol jynfolŒv$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,fr[kwfbJ (6) vxufydkrkd+yD;
tpkd;&tzJG@0if 0ef}uD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcGifhr&Sda=umif; jyÏmef;csuf twdtvif;&Sdayr,fh
0ef}uD;csKyfocifEku OD;at;armifudk (8) v ausmf 0ef}uD;tjzpf qJGcef@cJhygw,f? OD;at;armif[m
Ekid if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;ru w&m;a&;0ef}uD;yg jzpfcyhJ gw,f? Akv
d cf sKyfae0if;[m (18) veD;yg; umuG,af &;
0ef}u;D ru 'kw,
d 0ef}u;D csKyfyg jzpfcyhJ gw,f? ocifEjk ynfyc&D;oGm;aewke;f rSm ,m,D0ef}u;D csKyfawmif
wufvkyfcGifh &cJhygao;w,f?
AkdvfcsKyfae0if;[m 1949 ckESpf/ {+yDv (1) &ufae@uae 1950 jynfhESpf pufwifbm (9)
&ufae@txd tpdk;&tzJG@rSm 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyf/ umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;vkyfcJh+yD;rS ppfwyfudkjyefygw,f?
AkdvfcsKyfae0if; umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;eJ@ 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyf jzpfaewkef;rSm ppfwyfukd wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;wm/
ppfwyfukd ykrd ckd idk rf mawmifw
h if;atmif jyifqifwm/ ppfwyfukd ta&;ygatmifvyk w
f mawG tpDtpOf&&dS dS
aqmif&GufcJhygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfrD;}uD;uvnf; t&Sdefw+iD;+iD; awmufavmifaeqJjzpfwJhtwGuf
jynfwGif;ppfudkjy+yD; ppfwyfudk ol@pdwfóuduf wnfaqmufjyifqifEkdifcJhygw,f? 1950 jynfhESpfxJrSm
trSwf (6) ajcvsifwyf&if;/ trSwf (7) ajcvsifwyf&if;/ trSwf (8) ajcvsifwyf&if;awG wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;
EkdifcJh+yD;/ trSwf (2) ajcjrefwyfr[mXmecsKyf (awmifil)/ trSwf (3) ajcjrefwyfr[mXmecsKyf (yJcl;)
eJ@ trSwf (4) ajcjrefwyfr[m XmecsKyf (usKdif;wkH) wkd@ zJGŒpnf;ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? r*Fvm'kHtrSwf
(2) oHcsyfum um;wyfcJGeJ@ tif*sifeD,mwyfzJGŒrsm;udkvnf; zJGŒpnf;cJhygw,f?
1950 jynfh/ Zefe0g&D (20) &ufuae (30) &ufae@txd ‘wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcH’udkvnf;
AkdvfcsKyfae0if; OD;pD;+yD; usif;yðyvkyfcJhygw,f? armif;jyefvufeufi,feJ@ usnfqefrsm;xkwfvkyfEkdifwJh
umuG,fa&;ypPnf;puf±Hkukd (Burma Army Godown) qkdwJh emrnf0SufeJ@ tif,m;uefapmif;rSm
wnfaqmuf+yD; 1950 jynfh/ {+yDv (26) &ufae@rSm w&m;0if zJG@pnf;ay;cJhygw,f? trSwf (1)
umuG,fa&; ypPnf;puf±Hkudk tDwvDEdkifiHu pufrsm;eJ@ wyfqifcJh+yD; bDat (52) tayghpm;armif;jyef
aoewfawG xkwv
f yk &f ef pDpOfcyhJ gw,f? 1950 jynfh =o*kwv
f rSm +yD;pD;+yD;/ atmufwb
dk mrSm prf;oyf
vnfywf xkwfvkyfapygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

137

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'yk'fr (233) t& (18) vtwGif; usif;yðyvkyfay;&r,fh ‘ygvD
refa&G;aumufy’GJ [m 1949 ckEpS /f Zlvidk v
f twGi;f usi;f yay;&rSmjzpfayr,fh zqyvtpk;d &[m usi;f y
ay;jcif;rðyEkdifbJ (18) vuae (28) vtjzpfajymif;+yD; yxrqkH;t}udrf a&$Œqkdif;cJhygw,f? (28)
vjynfhwJh tcg rSmvnf; usi;f yray;Ekid jf yefbJ 'kw,
d t}urd f zJŒG pnf;ykt
H ajccHOya'ukjd yif+y;D v (40)
txd a&$Œqdkif;cJhwJhtwGuf 1950 jynfhESpfxJrSmvnf; ygvDref'Drkdua&pDa&G;aumufyJG[m ay:aygufr
vmcJhyg? 'g a=umifh vGwfvyfa&;a=unm+yD;csdefup+yD; ocifEk wa,mufwnf;u 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf
awmufav#muf tkypf ;dk vmcJo
h vkd zqyv tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;u tm%m& Ekid if aH &;tzJŒG tpnf;}uD;tjzpf
qufwkduf wGifus,faecJhygw,f? zqyv xJrSmvnf; qkd&S,fvpfygwDu tkyfpkd;xm;wmjzpfwJh
twGuf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;[m òydifbufr&Sd tm%m&rsm;jzpfvmcJhygw,f?
yxrqHk;t}udrfa&G;aumufyJGudkawmif rusif;y&ao;vkd@ wkdif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfudk ,m,D
ygvDreftoGifajymif;+yD; tkyfcsKyfae&ayr,fh tm%m&xm;olrsm;uawmh tm%mrmef0ifhae=uyg
w,f? ygvDref[mvnf; awmckdjynfol@&Jabmftrwfrsm;/ uGefjrLepftrwfrsm;pkpkaygif; (44) OD;ukd
xkwfy,fxm;&wJhtwGuf t&G,ftpm;tm;jzifh ao;i,fae+yDjzpfygw,f? qkd&S,fvpfygwDuae
cGJxGuf+yD; qkd&S,feDygwDaxmif=uwJh ocifvGif/ ocifcspfarmif/ ocifvSau|wkd@ (43) OD;tzJGŒ[m
twkduftcHtiftm;pkrsm;jzpfvm=uygw,f?
vGwv
f yfa&;&+yq
D rdk S wdik ;f jynf}u;D uawmh jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D v#t
H wGi;f wae@wjcm; ykyd +dk y;D usqif;
avmifòrducf aH e&+yD; ydrk q
kd if;&J =uyfwnf;vmcJyh gw,f? Akv
d cf sKyfae0if; acgi;f aqmifwhJ ppfwyfuawmh
ydkydk}uD;vmcJh+yD;/ ppftokH;p&dwf[mvnf; wdk;wdk;rsm;vmcJhygw,f? 1948-49 ckESpftwGif; ppftokH;
p&dwf[m wEkdifiHvkH;toHk;p&dwfpkpkaygif;&JŒ (20µ) ausmfuae 1949-50 ckESpfrSm ppfoHk;p&dwf[m
wEkdifiHvHk;toHk;p&dwf pkpkaygif;&JŒ (25µ) ausmfjzpfvmygw,f?
1948-49-50 twGi;f jynfwiG ;f ppfa=umifh wEkid if v
H ;Hk pku
d yf sK;d Ekid w
f hJ ajr{&d,m&JŒ ( 35µ)[m
yvyfajrawGjzpfoGm;&ygw,f? vlOD;a& (3) oef;avmuf tkd;rJhtdrfrJh jzpfoGm;&ygw,f? jynfolvlxk
(22000) ausmfeJ@ ppfbufòrdŒjybuf tr_xrf; (5700) ausmf toufqkH;±_H;=u&ygw,f? tpkd;&
ypPnf;wefzkd; a':vm (5) oef;eJ@ jynfolvlxkypPnf;wefzkd; a':vm (95) oef;zkd;avmuf qkH;±H_;cJh&yg
w,f? 'Dudef;*%ef;wefzkd;awG[m Armjynfta=umif; pmtkyfawGa&;om;wJh tar&duefpma&;
q&m}uD; Awf0J (Butwell) &JΠpkaqmif;azmfjycsufjzpfygw,f? wu,fu 'Dxufykd+yD;awmif rsm;jym;
cJhygw,f?
tm%m& zqyvtpdk;&u “aomif;usef;ol tjrpfjywfacsr_ef;a&;” “a&mifpHkaomif;usef;
olrsm;ESdrfeif;a&;” qkdwJh tvHudk tjrifhqkH;wif+yD; wkdufckdufovdk/ t"du EdkifiHa&;ygwD}uD;jzpfwJh
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDuvnf; rvJ$om ra&Smifom udk,fhukd,fudk ckcHumuG,f&if; vufeufudkif
awmfvSefa&;ukd qifE$Jvkduf&wmjzpfayr,fh “zqyvtpkd;&tðywfwdkufa&;” “(2) ESpftwGif;
ppfEkdifa&;” qkdwmawG aºuG;a=umf+yD; jyefvSefwkdufyJGqifygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfrD;=um;rSm jynfolrsm;
uawmh ajrZmyifjzpfcJh&ygw,f? 1950 jynfhESpfxJrSm 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEk[m ‘ocif’udk ðzwfvkduf+yD;
OD;EkjzpfvmcJhygw,f?
138

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

1951=52 ygvD r ef ' D r k d u a&pD taxG a xG a& G ; aumuf y J G
zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya't& zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'twnfjzpf+yD; (18) v
tuGmrSm usif;yðyvkyfay;&r,fh ygvDref'Drkdua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;[m 1949 ckESpf
xJrSmvnf; rusif;yEkdif/ 1950 jynfhESpfxJrSmvnf; rusif;yjzpfbJ 1951 ckESpf/ ZGefvxJrSm yxrqkH;
t}udrftjzpf usif;yay:aygufvmygw,f?
ZGev
f rSm pwif;usi;f yjzpfw,fqadk yr,fh wjynfv;Hk wòydief ufwnf; usi;f yEkid w
f mr[kwyf g?
wkdif;jynf vkH;0at;csrf;om,mao;wmr[kwfqkdwJh ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ ‘qmbOD;’ acgif;aqmif+yD;
OD;at;armif yg0ifwhJ a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Siu
f a&G;aumufyGJ usi;f yEkid +f yDv@dk owfrw
S w
f hJ e,fajrawG
rSmom we,f+yD;we,f usif;yay;wmjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh qmbOD;eJ@ OD;at;armifwkd@u zqyv
wk@d Eikd af jc&Sw
d hJ e,fajrawGuo
kd m OD;pGmowfrw
S af y;+yD; usi;f yapwmjzpfw,fv@dk wcsKŒd u pGypf aGJ jymqdk
=uygw,f?
a&G;aumufyrGJ mS tm%m& qk&d ,
S v
f pfzqyvtzJŒG csKyfe@J ,SO+f yD; tòydit
f qkid f ,SOòf ydiaf &G;cs,f
cH=uwJh EkdifiHa&;tzJGŒtpnf;awGuawmh qkd&S,feDac: Armjynftvkyform;/ v,form;ygwD/
AkdvfxGef;pdef&JŒ jynfol@&JabmftzJGŒ/ AdkvfcsKyftudk OD;atmifoef;&JŒ jynfol@+idrf;csrf;a&;tzJGŒaygif;pk/
a'gufwmbarmf&JŒ r[mArmtzJGŒ/ ocifApdef&JŒ Armjynf'Drdku&ufwpfygwD/ OD;baz&JŒ jynfcspf
r[mrdwftzJGŒ/ woD;yk*~v &ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;tzJG@/ Arm-rGwfpvifuGef*&uf/ ‘AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;
tzJ@G atmifygw’D / tif'yD if;'ifyh gwD pwJt
h zJŒG awG jzpfygw,f? woD;yk*v
~ rsm;vnf; 0ifa&muf ,SOòf ydif
=uygw,f? tm%m& zqyvqkd&S,ftzJG@csKyfeJ@ twkduftcH EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pk[m tiftm;tcsKd;
tpm;t& tifrwefuGmjcm;vGef;vSygw,f?
twkduftcH tiftm;pkbufu EkdifiHa&;ygwDtzJGŒtpnf;rsm;&JŒ EkdifiHa&;t,ltqrsm;[m
vnf; trsKd;rsKd;tzHkzHk taoG;ta&mifpHkjzpfaecJhygw,f? twkduftcHtiftm;pkawGxJrSm EkdifiHa&;
t&Sdeft0g&Sdwm/ EkdifiHa&;ygwDqefwmqdkvkd@ qkd&S,feDygwD avmufyJ&Sdygw,f?
'Davmuftiftm;tcsKd;tpm;uGm+yD; wzufowf tay: pD;&aewmawmifrS‘zq-qkd&S,f’
rsm;[m rauseyfEidk af o;bJ enf;vrf;aygi;f pko
H ;kH +y;D npfywfc=hJ u/ &rf;um;cJ=h uygw,f? zq-qk&d ,
S rf sm;
tEdkif&a&;twGuf cg;ydkufaqmifwyfzJGŒawG/ aomif;usef;olESdrfeif;a&;twGufqdk+yD; zJGŒpnf;xm;wJh
aysmuf=um;jzLwyfawGokH;+yD; twkduftcHawGtay: tpGrf;ukefzdESdyf&efðycJh=uygw,f? zq-qkd&S,f
awG&ŒJ cg;yku
d af qmifwyfawGjzpfwhJ ,ltrfyD (UMP) wyfzJGŒrsm;eJ@ umuG,fa&;wyfzJGŒrsm;[m twkduf
tcHawGtay:om rw&m;zdEydS &f ef&mS wmr[kw/f jynfov
l x
l t
k ay:vnf; rw&m; +cdr;f ajcmuf tEkid f
usi+hf y;D rJxnfah pwm/ rJ0,fwmawG ae&mawmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm ðyvkycf yhJ gw,f? vufeufe@J +crd ;f ajcmuf
jcif;/ tm%meJ@ +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;awGvkyfcJh=u±Hkru a'otcsKdŒrSm ajymifajymifwif;wif; zrf;qD;csKyf
aESmifwm/ &uf&ufpufpuf owfjzwfz,f&Sm;wmawGyg usL;vGefcJh=uygw,f? tEkdif&a&;twGuf
tjywf&Sif;/ owfjzwfcJh=uwmjzpfygw,f?
zqyv trwfavmif; tEkid &f a&;twGuf rJ0,fwm/ rJvrd w
f m/ rJc;dk wmawGvnf; enf;rsK;d pkeH @J
vkyfcJh=uygw,f? a&G;aumufyJGusif;y+yD;vkd@ rJa&wGufwJhtcg tm%m& zqyvrsm;[m rJykH;awGudk
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

139

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

csucf si;f rzGib
hf J rJy;Hk awGazmuf rJc;kd +yD;rS rJa&wGuw
f mrsK;d / rJy;Hk awGukd vkòH cH&mae&mudk a&$Œajymif;o,f
,l&if; vrf;c&D;rSm rJjym;awG a&$Œajymif;&,l+yD; aemufae@rS a&wGuw
f mrsK;d awG/ rEkid Ef ikd af tmifvyk w
f m
rsKd;awGvnf; ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f?
a&G;aumufyu
GJ dk (3) &pfc+GJ yD; usi;f ywmjzpfv@dk a'owckrmS ±_;H cJw
h hJ zqyv trwfavmif;udk
aemufw&pfrmS tjcm;a'owckrmS a&$Œajymif;+yD; ta±G;cs,cf aH p&if; rEkid Ef idk af tmif/ r&&atmifvyk cf hJ
wmrsKd;vnf; ay:aygufcJhygw,f? yxrt&pf a&G;aumufyJGrSm ajrmif;jrrSm ±_H;cJhwJh trwfavmif;udk
'kw,
d t&pf rdwv
ˆD mrSmusi;f ywJt
h cg 0if,OS òf yid af p+y;D rdwv
ˆD mtrwftjzpf tEkid &f oGm;cJw
h m&Syd gw,f?
cg;ykdufaqmifwyf (UMP) wyf/ umuG,fa&;wyfpwJh vufeufukdifwyfrsm;uom zqyv
qkd&S,fvpfrsm;bufu enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ rEkdifEkdifatmif ulnDcJh=uwmr[kwf/ wyfrawmf udk,fwkdif
uvnf; zq-qkd&S,frsm;bufu yif;cJh/ ulcJh/ axmufyHhcJh=uw,f?
a&G;aumufyJG}uD; usif;yaepOftwGif; xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tjzpftysufuawmh u&iftrsKd;om;
acgif;aqmif autif,l OuUÏ apmbOD;}uD; taoypfowf zrf;qD;cHvkduf&jcif;jzpfygw,f? 1951
ckESpf/ =o*kwfvxJrSm usqkH;cJh&ygw,f? vd_if;bJGŒòrdŒe,ftwGif;rSmjzpfygw,f? 'kAkdvfrª;}uD; at;armif
(aemif Akv
d rf ;ª }u;D ) eJ@ Akv
d rf ;ª pdev
f iG f (aemif orRw) wk@d acgi;f aqmifwhJ Arm@aoewfuikd f wyf&if; (3)
u autif't
D pdk cef;wckukd 0kid ;f 0ef;wdu
k cf u
dk f odr;f yku
d &f if; wku
d yf x
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uqkdygw,f? u&iftrsKd;om;acgif;aqmif apmbOD;}uD; tavmif;udk armfvòrdiftxd o,fvm+yD;rS
ajrjrK‡ yfo+*Kõvcf iG rhf ay;bJ ppfa&,mOfay:wifum (4) em&D=um ckwaf rmif;&wJh yifv,f0txd o,fomG ;
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wmjzpfygw,f?
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usL;ausmfa&;orm;rsm; tHkeJ@usif;eJ@ ArmjynftwGif; 0ifa&mufwyfpGJae=u±Hkru oHvGifjrpfta&SŒ
bufurf;uae taemufzufurf;txd xkd;azmuf0ifa&muf v_yf&Sm;vm=ujcif;yJjzpfygw,f? 0e,f/
ukd;uef@e,/f rdkif;vif;e,fwkd@omru usKdif;wkH/ rkdif;quf/ rkdif;yef;wkd@wGifru rdkif;yef;uwqifh
armufr,feJ@ u,m;jynfe,fxJtxd usL;ausmfa&muf&Sdvm=uygw,f? rkid ;f ,ef;e,frmS XmecsKyfwck
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tiftm;jznfhxm;EkdifcJh+yDjzpfygw,f? w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;[m a&muf&mae&mwdkif;rSm cdk;qkd;vk,uf/
owfjzwfwmawG vkyfae=uygw,f?
a&G;aumufyu
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taumiftxnfazmfzkd@ pwifygw,f? 48-50 twGif; ratmifjrifcJhwJh pD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef; (2 ESpfpDrH
ude;f ) udk jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D a=umifv
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140

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tajctaeuvnf; enf;enf;yg;yg;awmh &Sdae+yDjzpfygw,f? 1950 jynfhrSm jzpfyGm;wJh udk;&D;,m;ppfyJG
*,ufa=umifh urBm@qefaps; xkd;wufwJhtwGuf qefukdyJ t"du xkwfvkyf wifykd@a&mif;cswJh
ArmEkdifiH[m aps;aumif;rdcJh+yD; aiG,m;av;&Sdvmcsdefjzpfygw,f? 'DaiG,m;av;awGudk udkif+yD;
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oGm;a&;vma&; vG,fulwJhae&mawGrSmom tcsuftvufawG jynfhjynfhpkHpkH pkaqmif;+yD;/ trsm;
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w,f? ppfwyfppfonfrsm; oufomacsmifcsda&;twGufqkd+yD; ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ pwifzJGŒpnf;cJhwm
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cyfao;ao; DSI [m tifrwef}uD;rmwJh ppfwyfpD;yGm;a&; t&if;tESD;pkaqmif;&mXme}uD; jzpfvm
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1951-52 ygvrD ef'rD u
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awmh t*~r[moa&pnfol a'gufwmbOD; jzpfygw,f? ‘qmbOD;’ jzpfygw,f? orRwa&G;aumufyJG
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

141

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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tpk;d &tzJŒG &JŒ &yfwnfcsuo
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a&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmygw,f? acgif;rmqkd&S,fvpfxdyfoD;}uD;awGjzpfwJh OD;ausmf+idrf;/ Akdvfcifarmifav;/
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a&;eJ@ tvkyform;Xme0ef}uD;jzpfvmol OD;&m&Spf wkd@vnf; yg0ifcJh=uygw,f?
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armifcsed /f ucsijf ynfe,fXme0ef}uD;u qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif/ u,m;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;u pyf0À/
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142

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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uwd}uD;[m jynfawmfompDrHudef;pwifzkd@ jyifqifvkdufwJh y%mrtzGifhjzpfygw,f?
1952 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (4) &ufuae (17) &ufae@txd tpnf;ta0;usif;y+yD; jynfawmf
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usif;ygw,f? 0ef}uD;awGuvnf; 'DpDrHudef;}uD;udk rpm;&0cref; ajym=uqkd=u wifjy=uygw,f?
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pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeudk ppfóudacwftajctaetxd jyefvnfa&muf&Sdapa&;jzpfygw,f? tar&duef
ukr%
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tpDt&D csrSwfazmfjyxm;ygw,f?
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

143

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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(u) v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;
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(u) qdyfurf;eJ@a&a=umif;oGm;vma&;
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H m;ygw,f?
tJ'DtajccHay:uae jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD; aygufzGm;vmwmjzpfygw,f? OD;Ektygt0if zqyv
tpdk;&tzJGŒ}uD;[m auwDat pDrHudef;}uD;tay: tm;udk;,Hk=unfcJh=uovkd/ tar&duefwkd@&JŒ pD;yGm;
a&;tultnDudkvnf; &,lxm;+yD;jzpfwJhtwGuf onfhxufonf ykdrkdar#mfvifhxm;cJh=uygw,f?
‘jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f }uD;’ [m (8) ESpf pDru
H ed ;f jzpf+yD;/ ESpEf pS pf rD u
H ed ;f ay:rSm tajccH+yD;a&;qJyG gw,f?
pDrHudef;&JŒukefusaiG[m usyfukaÉ (750) cef@jzpfr,fvkd@ cef@rSef;+yD;/ ukefusaiGtwGuf ukaÉ (500)
avmufudk jynfwiG ;f rSm&Sm}uH/ ukaÉ (250) avmufukd jynfyutultnD,zl @dk &nf&,
G x
f m;ygw,f?
vkdtyfwJhaiGudk EdkifiHjcm;u acs;iSm;+yD;yJjzpfjzpf/ axmufyHa=u;,l+yD;yJjzpfjzpf/ *syefppfavsmfa=u;aiGu
,liifoHk;pJGvkd@jzpfjzpf }uHzef&,l+yD; okH;pJGtaumiftxnfazmfoGm;zkd@ qkH;jzwfxm;ygw,f?
jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f }uD;&JΠpDru
H ed ;f toD;oD;udk taumiftxnfazmfz@dk ‘ajr,maus;vuf
_ ufrz_ ŒHG òzd;wk;d wuf
}uD;yGm;wkd;wufa&;aumfydka&;&Sif; wenf;tm;jzifh ajraus;&Sif(A.R.D.C)/ pufrv
a&;aumfyadk &;&Si;f (IDC) eJ@ "mwfowWKzGŒH òzd;wk;d wufa&;aumfyadk &;&Si;f (M.R.D.C) wd@k ukd tòydit
f qkid f
wnfaxmifzJGŒpnf;vkdufygw,f?
ARDC udk 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Eku,
kd w
f idk f OuUÏ tjzpfaqmif&u
G zf ŒGJ pnf;+yD; IDC udk OD;ausm+f idr;f u
OuUÏ/ M.R.D.C udk OD;wifu OuUÏ tjzpf acgif;aqmifzJGŒpnf;vkduf=uygw,f? ppfwyftwGufu
(BEDC) jzpfvmygw,f?
144

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

1952 ckEpS t
f ukerf mS Ekid if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek&ŒJ jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f }uD; tawmiftvufpkH
vmovkd ArmjynftwGif; rw&m;ojzifh 0ifa&mufvm=uwJh w±kwfjzL (KMT) usL;ausmfr_}uD;[m
vnf; omrefusL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmr_}uD;r#omru EkdifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufawG pGufzufa&;ajcvSrf;
awG tar&duef pDtkdifat ausmaxmufaemufcHðyr_awGyg a&m,SufayGvdrfyg0ifaewJh tpDtpOf&Sd&Sd
usL;ausmfr_}uD;tjzpf zHk;rEkdifzdr& ±kyfvkH;ay:pðyvmcJhygw,f?
1949 ckESpfuwnf;u pwif0ifa&mufvmcJhwJh w±kwfjzL (KMT) usL;ausmfr_udk OD;Ektpkd;&
[m cyfaygah yhgyJ oabmxm;cJyh gw,f? ppf±;_H vk@d e,ferd w
d cf si;f qufa'oawGtwGi;f ajy;0ifcu
dk yfvm
olawG tcsed w
f ef azmfrq
dk mu jyefac:oGm;r,fo
h al wGavmufom oabmxm;cJ+h yD; jyif;jyif;xefxef
jyefvnfwHk@jyefcJhjcif;/ oabmxm; w&m;0ifxkwfazmfcJhjcif; rvkyfcJhyg? jynfwGif;vufeufukdif awmf
vSefa&;tiftm;pkawGtay:om a&mifpkHaomif;usef;olawG a&mifpHkolykefawGtjzpf trsKd;rsKd; tzHkzHk
pGyfpJG/ enf;vrf;aygif;pHkusifhoHk;+yD; rD;ukef,rf;ukef wkdufckdufESdrfeif;cJhygw,f? tjywfacsr_ef;Ekdifa&;udk
OD;wnfaqmif&u
G cf yhJ gw,f? usKid ;f wkpH pfqifa&;/ za&mhp/f armf/ yefvpkH pfqifa&;/ rk;d óud; txl;ppfqifa&;
qkw
d hJ ppfqifa&;awGe@J wyfrawmfu jyefvnfweG ;f vSew
f u
dk cf u
kd w
f mawG vkycf ahJ yr,fh t"dutm;jzifh
Auy/ autif'DtkdeJ@ jynfwGif;vufeufudkifolykeftiftm;pkawGtay:om ppfqifa&;}uD;awG
tqufrjywfazmfxw
k +f yD; tðywfwu
kd af &;udk óud;yrf;cJyh gw,f? &ef&iS ;f / vGwaf jrmufa&;/ atmifrmC/
jynfaxmifp/k rk;d óud; pwJh ppfqifa&;}uD;awGe@J Auy tay: tjyif;txefwu
dk cf yhJ gw,f? txufArm
jynfrSm a&$vDppfqifr_vkyf+yD; Auy udk OD;pm;ay; ypfrSwfðyacsr_ef;cJhovkd atmufArmjynf&Sd AuyeJ@
autif't
D rdk sm;tay: armf0if;pde/f vGe;f pdeaf rmf/ 0if;ausmpf pfqifa&;awGe@J tqufrjywfx;dk cJyh gw,f?
1950/ 51-52 rsm;[m ppfwyfu ppfqifr_awGtrsm;qkH;ðyvkyfcJhwJh ESpfawGjzpfygw,f? &ckdifwkdif;&Sd
&JabmfjzL/ rl*sm[pfeJ@ Auy awGudk awmifydkif;wkdif;u OD;pD;acsr_ef;r_awGvkyfovkd weoFm&Dwkdif;
twGif;&Sd autif'Dtkd/ trftif'DtkdeJ@ Auyrsm;ukdvnf; trSwf (5) ajcvsifwyfr[mXmecsKyfu
tjyif;txefwkdufckdufwmawG vkyfcJhygw,f? jynfwGif;vufeufudkif tiftm;pkawGtay: acsr_ef;
wku
d cf u
dk zf @dk óud;yrf;wmawGe@J Edi_ ;f ,SO=f unf&h if jynfyusL;ausmo
f l w±kwjf zLawGtay: wku
d cf u
dk w
f m
[m tifrwefenf;yg;vSygw,f? 'ga=umifh w±kwfjzLawG[m wpxufwp tiftm;ykdrdktm;aumif;
vm twifh&Jvm+yD; 1952 ckESpf ESpfvnfavmufup+yD; &Srf;jynfe,feJ@ ucsifjynfe,fwckvkH;udk
odrf;ykduf&efeJ@ ajrmufzufe,fpyfwav#mufrSm t+rJwrf;ppfpcef;wck wnfaqmuf&efyg ajcvSrf;usJ
usJ óud;yrf;jyifqifvm=uygw,f? rdik ;f qwfukd w±kwjf zLrsm;u av,mOfuiG ;f ðyvkyx
f m;+yD; av,mOf
jzifh wywfv#if ESp}f udrv
f ma&mufcsay;wJh vufeufc,
J rf; rD;ausmufawGe@J wk;d csŒJ vufeufwyfqif
wm/ ppfa&;avhusiahf y;wmawGyg tckid t
f rmðyvkyv
f m=uygw,f? w±kwjf zLusL;ausmaf &;wyfawG&ŒJ
aemufrSm azmfrkdqm/ xdkif0rfwdk@omru tar&duefe,fcsJŒorm;eJ@ ‘pDtkdifat’ wkd@yg twGif;usus
yg0ifywfoufaewmudk wk;d wufwhJ Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pkawGtm;vk;H u axmufjya0zefvm=uygw,f?
'kw,
d urBmppft+yD; pwifvmcJw
h hJ ppfat;wku
d yf [
GJ m urBmrSm ay:ayguv
f mcJw
h hJ *k%
d ;f }uD; (2)*k%
d ;f
tiftm;òydiyf [
GJ m Armjynfuv
dk nf; *,uf±u
dk cf wfvmcJyh gw,f? w±kwjf ynfrmS cseaf u&Sw
d x
f u
G af jy;
&+yD; w±kwfuGefjrLepfawGatmifyJGcH+yD; w±kwfjynfopftjzpf ay:xGef;vmwm[m tar&dueftzkd@
tcH&cufvSovkd tar&duefwkd@&JΠ'kdrDEkdoD0&Dt& tm&SrSm uGefjrLepfEkdifiHwck ay:aygufvmwm[m
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

145

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

aemufxyftm&SrmS uGejf rLepfEidk if aH wG qufvufay:xGuv
f mzk@d a&cHajrcHjzpfaewmudk zsuq
f ;D ypfcsif
aecJhygw,f? 1950 jynfh udk&D;,m;ppfyJGay:aygufvmwJhtcg tar&duef[m ukvor*~ emrnfudk
toHk;ðy+yD; wkduf±kduf ppfyJGxJrSm yg0ifywfoufvmcJhygw,f? tm&SrSm uGefjrLepfEkdifiHawG ray:ayguf
a&;twGuaf &m w±kwjf ynf}uD;udk 0kid ;f ywfacsre_ ;f Ekid af &;twGuyf g ppfa&;/ Ekid if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ oHwref
a&;/ enf;emawGtm;vk;H udk &Ekid w
f hJ axmifah ygi;f pHu
k ae enf;emaygi;f pHek @J toH;k ðy yg0ifywfoufvmcJh
ygw,f? ud&k ;D ,m;ppfyu
GJ ae tEkjrLppfyt
JG xd jzpfay:vmEkid w
f t
hJ E &W m,fukd wurBmvH;k u pk;d &dryf yl ef
aecJh=u&ygw,f? Armjynf[m w±kwfjynfeJ@ e,fedrdwfcsif;qufpyfaewJhtwGuf tar&duef&JŒ
uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; aoe*FAsL[mtwGuf tifrwefta&;}uD;wJh a'owckjzpfvmcJhygw,f?
wzufu Armjynfzqyv&JŒ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;vkyf&yfawGudk tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufðywm pD;yGm;
a&;tultnDawGay;wm/ tar&duefypPn;f awGukd (Special Account) eJ@ 0,f,cl iG ðhf ywm/ ppfzufqidk f
&m avhvma&;ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f zJŒG awGukd vufcw
H mawGvyk cf o
hJ vk/d wzufu w±kwjf zLusL;ausmo
f l
awGukd aemufuG,fuae tm;ay;+yD; w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfa&;wyfawG ArmjynfrSm tckdiftrm tajc
pkdufwnf&Sdaewm[m tar&duefppftiftm;pkwck w±kwfjynfem;uyf+yD; csxm;cGifh&wmeJ@rjcm;
tusKd;&Sdw,fvkd@ ,lqxm;ykH&ygw,f? tJ'Dvkd tar&duefwkd@&JΠuGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; ppfa&;/ EkdifiH
a&;/ aoe*FAsL[mawGeJ@ qufpyf+yD; w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_rSm tar&duefawGvnf; yg0ifywfouf
aecJhygw,f?
zqyv tpkd;&[m udk&D;,m;ppfyJG jy\emrSmvnf; tar&duefbufu&yfcJh+yD; tar&duef
pD;yGm;a&;tultnDawGukd &,lvufc&H if;/ tar&duefurk %
` D auwDatudk iSm;&rf;+yD; jynfawmfom
pDrHudef;ukd taumiftxnfazmfzkd@ pdwful;,OfaecsdefjzpfwJhtwGuf w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfa&;udk jywf
jywfom;om; qef@usifa&;xuf uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;udkom tav;ay;vkyfaqmifaecJhygw,f?
jynfyusL;ausmfr_u ta&;r}uD; jynfwGif;aomif;usef;r_u ta&;}uD;w,fvkd@,lq+yD; jynfwGif;
aomif;usef;olrsm; tðywfwkdufa&;eJ@ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;tvHukdom tjrifhqkH;v$ifhxlxm;yg
w,f?
vuf0J0g'/ bkH0g'/ qkd&S,fvpf0g'udk óudufESpfoufvSa=umif;/ vufcH,kH=unfa=umif; wzGzG
ajym=um;cJ=h uwJh OD;Ek/ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wk@d wawG[mvnf; avoHajymif;pðyvmygw,f? zqyv
tzJGŒcsKyf}uD;xJuae uGefjrLepfygwDudk xkwfy,fvkdufcsdef (1946) u ‘uGefjrLepf0g' t"Gef@&Snfygap/
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDusqkH;ygap’ vkd@ xatmfcJhwJh OD;Ek[m ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD qef@usifa&;
omru/ uGejf rLepfpepfqef@usiaf &;yg ajymif;vJatmf[pfvmpðyygw,f? qk&d ,
S v
f pfygwD xdyo
f ;D }uD;
OD;AaqGeJ@ OD;ausmf+idrf;uvnf; rmuQ(pf) 0g'/ vDeif0g'udk óudufESpfoufa=umif; wav#mufvkH;aºuG;
a=umfajymqkdvm&muae uGefjrLepf0g'wckvkH;udkyg ykwfcwfwkdufckduf qef@usif ajymqkdpðyvm=uyg
w,f? OD;ausmf+idrf;uqdk&if rmuQ(pf) 0g'ukd vufrcHa=umif; uGefjrLepf0g'udk róudufa=umif;/ olwkd@
qk&d ,
S v
f pfygw&D ŒJ vufcu
H ikd pf w
GJ 0hJ g'[m rmuQ(p)0g'r[kwf qk&d ,
S 'f rD u
kd &ufwpf0g'omjzpfa=umif;
ajymqkdvmygw,f? uGefjrLepf0g'tE W&m,f[m e,fcsJŒtE W&m,fxuf ykda=umufp&m aumif;w,f
vk@d awmif twdtvif; cH,al zmfxw
k v
f mygw,f? tJ'v
D dk tjrift,ltq/ ajymif;vJvmr_awGtay:
uae uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;udkom oJ}uD;rJ}uD; vkyfudkifaqmif&Guf&if; vufawGŒoabmtm;jzifh
146

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tar&duefbuf rSDcdk,drf;,kdifcJh=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh OD;Ek/ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf; eJ@ qdk&S,fvpf
awGtm;vHk;[m qdk&S,fvpf0g'qdkwmukdawmh wGifwGifatmfae=uqJjzpfygw,f?
tJ'DtcsdefrSm ArmjynfEkdifiHa&;orkdif;rSm t"duygwD}uD;wckvnf;jzpf/ twkduftcHEkdifiHa&;
tiftm;pkawGxrJ mS Ekid if aH &;t&Sed =f oZmt}uD;qk;H vnf;jzpf/ vufeufuidk af wmfveS af &; qifEa$J e&ol
vnf;jzpfwJh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ EkdifiHa&;vrf;pOfuawmh ‘'Drdkua&pD +idrf;csrf;a&;!Gef@aygif;
tpkd;&vrf;pOf’ jzpfygw,f? 1951 ckESpf/ pufwifbm A[kdaumfrDwDtpnf;ta0;uae w&m;0ifcs
rSwfxm;wJhvrf;pOfjzpfygw,f? ESpfESpftwGif; ppfEkdifa&;vrf;pOf+yD;wJhaemuf ay:aygufvmwJhvrf;pOf
jzpfygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ awmwGif;&Sd jynfol@&Jabmf/ tvHeDuGefjrLepfwkd@ okH;ygwDnD
!Gwaf &;wnfaqmufz@kd awGŒqk=H uwJt
h cg tJ'+D idr;f csr;f a&;!Ge@f aygi;f tpk;d &vrf;pOf[m +idr;f csr;f a&;ESihf
nD!Gwfa&;vrf;pOf’ vkd@ trnfwGifcJhygw,f?
1952 ckESpf/ Zlvkdif (4) &ufuae (15) &ufae@txd a,me,f ykHawmifykHnma'orSm Arm
jynfueG jf rLepfygw/D jynfoŒl &Jabmf/ tvHeu
D eG jf rLepfygww
D @dk [m ‘ok;H ygwn
D !
D w
G af &;uGezf &if’h usi;f
yygw,f? EkdifiHwumhtajctae jynfwGif;tajctaeawGudk okH;oyf=uygw,f? tar&duefe,fcsJŒ
orm;&JŒ tajctaeeJ@ ArmjynfrSmjzpfay:aewJh w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_ jy\emawGudk av;av;
eufeufokH;oyf=u+yD; pufwifbm (15) &ufae@ ae@pJGeJ@ oHk;ygwDa=unmcsufudk xkwfjyefcJhygw,f?
jynfolvlxktaygif;wkd@vkd@ tpcsD+yD; tar&duefe,fcsJŒorm;u a&SŒaqmifv_HŒaqmfaeonfh
urBmhtEkjrLppfudk wm;qD;=uavmh/ urBmh+idrf;csrf;a&;uGef*&uf qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk vkdufemaqmif
&Gu=f uavmh/ jynfwiG ;f a&;0ifa&mufpu
G zf ufaeonfh Ekid if jH cm;ppfwyfrsm; ±kyo
f rd ;f a&;udak wmif;qk=d u
avmh/ jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfp+J yD; wrsK;d om;vH;k aoG;pnf;a&;jzifh xm0&+idr;f csr;f a&;udk t&,l=upk@d v@dk azmfjy
aºuG;a=umfxm;ygw,f? uGefz&ifhxkwfjyefa=unmcsufudk ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ocifoef;xGef;/
ocifoef;òrdif/ ocifZif/ ocifcspf/ &JabmfaX;/ tvHeDygwDu ocifpkd;/ &JeDjrifhatmif/ &JeDxGef;pdef/
&JeDatmifvif;/ &JeDxl;/ jynfolŒ&Jabmfu &JabmfxGef;vif;/ &Jabmfatmif!Gef@/ &JabmfatmifEkdif/
&Jabmfqef;armif/ &Jabmfbkef;atmifwkd@u vufrSwfa&;xkd;xm;=uygw,f?
‘'Drkdua&pD +idrf;csrf;a&;!Gef@aygif;tpkd;& wnfaqmuf=u’ +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh nD!Gwfa&;udk
wnfaqmuf=u’ qkdwJh aºuG;a=umfoHawG us,fus,favmifavmifxGufay:cJhayr,fh tm%m&
zqyv tpkd;&uawmh tðywfwkdufa&;twGuf ppfwyf}uD;ukdyJ }uD;oxuf}uD;atmif csJŒxGifwnf
aqmufaecJhygw,f?
1952 ckESpftwGif;rSm trSwf (13) rS trSwf (24) txd ajcvsifwyf&if; (12) &if; xyfrHzJGŒ
pnf;cJhovkd/ ta&;ay: trSwf (1) csif;aoewfudkifwyf&if;udk ykHrSefaoewfukdifwyf&if;trSwf (4)
csif;aoewfukdifwyf&if;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ trSwf (1) ta&;ay:u&ifeDwyf&if;udk trSwf (1)
u,m;aoewfudkifwyf&if;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ trSwf (1) u,m;aoewfukdifwyf&if;tjzpf
vnf;aumif;/ trSwf (1) ta&;ay:ucsifwyf&if;udk trSwf (4) ucsifaoewfukdifwyf&if;tjzpf
vnf;aumif;/ trSwf (2) ta&;ay:ucsifwyf&if;udk trSwf (5) ucsifaoewfudkifwyf&if;tjzpf
vnf;aumif; wk;d csŒJ zJŒG pnf;cJyh gw,f? trSwf (1) wifu
h m;wyf&if;udk zJŒG pnf;cJo
h vkd tif*sief ,
D mwyf/
aq;wyf/ qufoG,fa&;wyfrsm;udkvnf; wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;cJhygw,f? ajcjrefwyfr[mXmecsKyftopfwck
vnf; ay:aygufvmygw,f? tJ'guawmh trSwf (8) ajcjrefwyfr[mXmecsKyf (ykodrf) jzpfygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

147

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

trSwf (1) tajrmufwyf&if;udk zJŒG pnf;cJw
h t
hJ jyif/ &S+d yD; trSwf (1) avhusiahf &;wyfwckwnf;
eJ@ rvkaH vmufawmhv@dk ajcvsiw
f yfom;awGudk wk;d jri‡ o
hf ifwef;ay;avhusizhf @dk rdwv
ˆD mrSm trSwf (2)
avhusiahf &;wyfuv
kd nf; pwifzŒGJ pnf;vku
d yf gw,f? 1950 jynfEh pS u
f &efuek òf rdŒ abmif'&D ("rRapwD)
vrf;rSm pwifzŒGJ pnf;cJw
h hJ ‘Military Intelligence Training Centre’ qkw
d hJ ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;oifwef;
ausmif;ukv
d nf; 1952 ckEpS rf mS ppfaxmufvrS ;f a&;twwfoifwyf” qk+d yD; ajymif;vJw;kd csŒJ zGŒJ pnf;cJyh g
w,f? ppfwyfawGudk wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;jcif;/ ppfqifa&;awGudk wkd;jr‡ifhðyvkyfjcif;wkd@omru jynfwGif;vuf
eufukdiftiftm;pkawGukd òzdcJGzkd@ pdwf"mwfppfqifa&;tzJGŒrsm;vnf;zGJŒum ‘pdwf"mwfppfqifa&;’
0g'jzef@csda&;vkyfief;awGyg wkd;csJŒvkyfukdifcJhygw,f?
aomif;usef;olqef@usifa&;/ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; pm&Gufpmwef;awG odef;eJ@csD±kdufESdyfcJh+yD;
ppfqifa&;e,fajrawGay:omru wEkid if v
H ;Hk tES@H ysŒH atmif jzef@csad 0iScyhJ gw,f? pdw"f mwfppfqifa&;OD;
wnfcsufeJ@ pmaytEkynme,ftwGif;okd@yg ajcukwf,lEkdif&ef ppfwyfuae OD;pD;+yD; r*~Zif;wapmif
xkwfa0jzef@csdvmygw,f? tJ'guawmh 1952 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmvrSm pwifxkwfa0vkdufwJh ‘jr0wD’
r*~Zif;jzpfygw,f?
umuG,af &;Xme0ef}uD;u OD;AaqG/ umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfu 'kAv
dk cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;? OD;AaqGu
qkd&S,fvpfygwDtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;jzpfovkd Akdvfae0if;uvnf; qkd&S,fvpfygwD&JŒ wyfwGif;tpk
0ifwa,mufjzpfcJhygw,f? Akdvfatmif}uD;/ Akdvfarmifarmif/ Akdvfatmifa&$/ Akdvfcspfckdif/ Akdvf=unf0if;
pwJh wyfrawmfwGif;&mxl;}uD;}uD;&xm;olawGuvnf; qkd&S,fvpfygwD0ifawGjzpfcJhawmh wyfr
awmf[m qk&d ,
S v
f pfawGp;D xm;wJh wyfrawmfjzpfae+yD;/ ppfa&;ppf&mudpP umuG,af &;qkid &f mudpaP wG
[m qkd&S,fvpfygwDtvkdusozG,fjzpfaecJhygw,f? (Akdvfarmifarmifvnf; autif'Dtkdwkd@ zrf;qD;
jcif;cHxm;&&mu ‘tvif;a&mif’ ppfqifa&;vky+f yD; jyefvnfu,fwifEidk cf v
hJ @dk 1952 ckEpS x
f rJ mS wyfr
awmfwGif;rSm ta&;}uD;yk*~Kdvfwa,mufjyefjzpfvmygw,f?)
1952 ckESpftukefrSm zqyvtpkd;&taeeJ@ txl;ojzifh wyfrawmftaeeJ@ pOf;pm;vm&
wmu Armjynfvw
G v
f yfa&;a=unmcge;D csKyfqx
dk m;cJw
h hJ +Aw
d o
d #-jrefrm umuG,af &;pmcsKyf (vusmf z&D;rif;pmcsKyf) udk aemufxyfoufwrf;wdk;rvm;/ rwkd;bl;vm;udpPjzpfygw,f? vusfm-z&D;rif;
pmcsKyft& yxroufwrf; (3) ESpf[m (3-1-51) ae@rSm ukefqkH;cJh+yD; aemufxyfoufwrf; (2)ESpf
wkd;jr‡ifhcJh=u&m/ tJ'Doufwrf;[mvnf; (3-1-53) ae@rSm ukefqkH;awmhrSmjzpfygw,f? tJ'DtwGuf
umuG,af &;pmcsKyftay: jyefvnfpOf;pm;=u&if; Armjynfbufuom epfemcJ&h wmawGudk vufawGŒ
t& awGΗuHcJh&+yD;jzpfwJhtwGufh +Adwdo#-jrefrm umuG,fa&;pmcsKyfudk oufwrf;rwkd;awmhyJ tJ'D
pmcsKyftpm; pmcsKyftopfw&yf csKyfqkda&;udkom qkH;jzwfvkduf=uygw,f?
Armjynf tm%m& zqyvtpk;d &[m vusmf -z&D;rif;pmcsKyfukd wavsmufv;Hk zH;k zH;k zdzv
d yk f
vmcJhor# tckrSyJ zsufodrf;ypfzkd@/ 'kwd,t}udrf oufwrf;rwkd;awmhzkd@/ tJ'DpmcsKyftpm; vufeuf
0,f,la&;pmcsKyfopfw&yfeJ@ tpm;xkd;&efjyifqifcJhygw,f//
1952 ckEpS u
f ek rf mS Armjynf&ŒJ pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeukd =unfrh ,fq&dk ifawmh pyg;aps;aumif;
wJt
h wGuf t&HEidk if jH cm;aiGyrm%mjrifw
h ufvmcJw
h ,f? 51 u qefwwef ukd pwmvifaygif (60)aps;
148

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

wufc&hJ m uae (52) rSm aygif (80) txd aps;jrifw
h ufcw
hJ t
hJ wGuf 1952 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmrSm t&Hxm;
&SdwJh EkdifiHjcm;aiGyrm%m[m ukaÉ (100) txd pkaqmif;rd+yD;jzpfygw,f?
tpkd;&taeeJ@ aiG&Sdvmw,f qkdayr,fh jynfolvlxktzkd@uawmh pm;0wfaea&; tqifht
wef; ododomom ajymif;vJvmcJhwm bmrSr&Sdao;oavmufjzpfygw,f? aus;vufawm&Gmae
v,form;trsm;pk}uD;eJ@ òrdŒaetvkyform; qif;&Jom; eif;jym;rsm;[m rGJ+rJ rGJ qif;&J+rJ qif;&JqJjzpf
+y;D jynfwiG ;f ppf}u;D a=umifh tdyaf umif;jcif; rtdy&f / pm;aumif;jcif; rpm;&/ us;D vef@pmpm;b0rsK;d awmif
tykad qmif; cHpm;ae=u&ygw,f? aus;vufrmS tm%m&ygwb
D ufom;/ tm%m&tzJŒG tpnf; trsK;d
rsK;d &JŒESyd pf ufr/_ Akv
d u
f sra_ wG wzufowfc=H u&±Hrk u tm%m&ygw&D ŒJ cg;yku
d af qmifwyf/ umuG,f
a&;/ ajymufusm;qkdolrsm;&JŒ vufeufeJ@&rf;um;r_/ ESdyfpufapmfum;r_awGyg ae@w"l0 óuHawGŒ&ifqkdif
ae&ovkd vufeufukdiftzJGŒtpnf;trsKd;rsKd;&JŒ vSnf;qifh avSqifh xrif;xkyfqifhwmawGudkvnf;
remcHcsirf jzpf emcHxrf;aqmifc=hJ u&ygw,f? jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D w[ke;f [ke;f a=umifh v,fypf ,mypf tdrf
ypf+yD; òrdŒay:wufajy;vm=u&wJholawGvnf; wae@wjcm; rsm;jym;vmcJhygw,f? òrdŒay:a&mufawmh
óuH&musbrf; vkyfudkifpm;aomuf&&if; tajcrJh taerJh ysHusjzpf=u&olawGvnf; òrdŒwkdif; e,fwkdif;
vkv
d rdk mS ay:aygucf yhJ gw,f? w±kwf ukvm; ajr&Sirf sm;eJ@ csr;f omolawGom wk;d wk;d +yD; jynfawmfomcJh
=uygw,f? tm%m&So
d al wGe@J aygi;f oif;+yD; pD;yGm;a&;vkyu
f idk cf iG &hf olawG ae@csi;f ncsi;f cgawmfro
DS al X;
awGjzpfvmcJh=uygw,f//
tm%m& qk&d ,
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f pfygw[
D m tm%m,pfr;l vmovkd tm%m& qk&d ,
S v
f pftcsi;f csi;f =um;
rSmvnf; tm%mòyid rf a_ wG pwifay:ayguv
f mygw,f// rmufpQ 0f g'D ode;f av;q,f OD;uku
d }dk u;D udv
k nf;
xkwyf ,fypfvu
dk Ef idk +f yD;+yD? vuf0,
J rd ;f orm;awGjzpfwhJ ocifviG /f ocifcspaf rmif (0d"&l )/ ocifvaS u|
wkd@tkyfpk}uD;wckvkH;[mvnf; qkd&S,feDtjzpf cJGxGufoGm;+yD;+yDjzpfvkd@ vuf,mqkd&S,fvpfawGcsnf;
omuseaf wmhwt
hJ csed rf mS vuf,morm;csi;f uGt
J ufra_ wG pwifvmjyefw,fjzpfygw,f? 'DtuGu
J dk
awmh ‘aumvdyfqkd&S,fvpftkyfeJ@ bkef;}uD;ausmif;qkd&S,fvpftkyftuGJ’ vkd@ uifyGef;wyf=uygw,f?
OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wk@d &ŒJ ynmwwfq&dk ,
S v
f pftyk ef @J ocifwif/ ocifausmx
f eG ;f wk@d &ŒJ ynmtajccH
enf; qk&d ,
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f pftyk t
f =um; tuJt
G +yJ[m tm%m& qk&d ,
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f pf tcsi;f csi;f =um; tm%mòydiyf t
GJ jzpf
ykHay: jzpfwnfvmcJhygw,f?
OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f tkyu
f ArmEkid if rH mS pufrE_ idk if x
H al xmifa&;ukd OD;pm;ay;csi+f yD; ocifwif/
ocifausmx
f eG ;f tkyu
f awmh v,f,mpku
d yf sK;d a&;ukyd J OD;pm;ay;vkycf siw
f ,fv@dk qydk gw,f? wu,fu
‘jynfawmfompDrHudef;’ udk arG;xkwfay;vkdufwJh ‘auatwDpDrHudef;’ &JŒ tESpfom& OD;wnfcsufukd
u Armjynf pufr_EkdifiHjzpfvma&;/ pufr_wkd;wufxGef;um;vma&;r[kwfyg? Armjynf pufr_xGef;
um;vmrSmukdvnf; rvkdvm;cJhyg? tar&duef tygt0if pufr_xGef;um;wJh t&if;&SifEkdifiH}uD;awGqD
rScD akd eapa&;om &nf&,
G cf w
hJ ,fv@dk qydk gw,f? auwDat pDru
H ed ;f t& aiG&if;ES;D ðryfErHS &_ ŒJ (8µ) uko
d m
pufrv
_ yk if ef;twGuf axmufcaH zmfjycJ+h yD; v#ypf pf"mwftm;xkwv
f yk af &;twGuf (8µ) ygaygi;f vku
d rf S
(16µ) om pufr_vkyfief;twGuf v#mxm;cJhw,fqkdygw,f? vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;twGuf (20µ)
ðryfESHzkd@ t}uHðycJh+yD; useftm;vkH;ukd pkdufysKd;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&; wkd@rSm okH;pJGzkd@ tqkdðycJhw,fvkd@
qdyk gw,f? t}uHay;yk*K~ v
d yf nm&Sif ‘a&mbwfeoef’ wd@k uqk&d if ukeaf ps;E_e;f rwufatmif jynfwiG ;f
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

149

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

aiGazmif;yGrr_ &Sad tmifq+dk yD; Ekid if jH cm;ypPn;f awG atmwku
d +f yD; oGi;f zk@d avmufuo
dk m tav;xm;wku
d f
wGef;ajymqkdaecJhw,fvkd@ qkdygw,f?
'ga=umifh jynfawmfompDrHudef;eJ@twl acwfpm;vmcJhwmu oGif;ukef xkwfukef pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;jzpfygw,f? tpkd;&u oGif;ukef xkwfukef vkdifpifawGcsay;ygw,f? vkdifpif&olawG tyG}uD;
yG=uygw,f? tm%m&yk*Kd~ vf tm%m&tzJŒG tpnf;awGe@J ta=umif; taygi;f oifah wG vkid pf if&=uovkd
tm%m&yk*Kd~ vf}uD;awGwcsKŒd vnf; enf;trsK;d rsK;d eJ@ vkid pf if&awG jzpfae=uw,fqydk gw,f? +yD;awmhrS
&xm;wJv
h idk pf ifudk pD;yGm;a&;orm; w±kwf ukvm;awGujdk yefa&mif; vufvcJ$ s t&if;rpku
d &f yJ tjrwf
usefcJh=uw,fqkdygw,f?
tm%m& qk&d ,
S v
f pfygw&D ŒJ aumvdyq
f &dk ,
S v
f pftyk pf rk mS OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f / ocifomcif
wk@d u tkypf x
k yd o
f ;D }uD;awGjzpf=uovkd bke;f }uD;ausmif;qk&d ,
S v
f pftyk rf mS awmh ocifwif/ ocifausmf
xGef;/ ocifyef;òrdif wkd@u tkyfpkxdyfoD;}uD;awG jzpfae=uygw,f?
OD;AaqGu tvkyform;OuUÏ tjzpf tvkyform;tpnf;t±kH; wD,lpDbDukd udkifxm;+yD;
ocifomcifu trsK;d orD;tpnf;t±k;H awGtay: =oZm&S&d dS ukid x
f m;ygw,f? OD;ausm+f idr;f u zqyv
a'oaumfrw
D aD wG/ umuG,af &;awGudk tkypf ;D xm;Ekid w
f t
hJ jyif zqyv vli,fuv
dk nf; ukid x
f m;Ekid f
cJhygw,f?
ocifwife@J ocifausmx
f eG ;f u awmifov
l ,form; tpnf;t±k;H awGudk ukid w
f ,
G x
f m;Ekid +f yD;
ocifyef;òrdifu pD;yGm;ukefoG,fa&;tzJGŒcsKyf (pyuo) ukd tkyfpD;ukdifwG,fxm;ygw,f?
jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;udk taumiftxnfazmf=uawmh !Sd!SdEd_if;Ed_if;r&SdbJ ukd,foef&m
oef&m OD;pm;ay;vkyf=uygw,f? ukd,fhtkyfpkeJ@ukd,f xifovkd OD;aqmifóudd;ukdif=uygw,f?
OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;xGef;0if;/ ocifcspfarmif/ ocifomcif wkd@wawGu puf±kH tvkyf±kHrsm; wnf
aqmufa&;vkyfief;/ a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;awG aZmif;ay;vkyf=uygw,f? OD;AaqGu
"mwfowWK&SmazGa&;eJ@ umuG,fa&;bufvkyfygw,f? ocifwif/ ocifausmfxGef; wkd@awGuawmh
v,f,majr EkdifiHykdifðya&;eJ@ ‘pkdufysKd;a&;rkcfOD;qDokd@’ vkd@ aºuG;a=umftaumiftxnfazmfygw,f?
ocifEk/ OD;wif/ OD;0if;/ OD;&m&Spf wdk@tkyfpkuawmh usef;rma&;/ vlr_qufqHa&;/ ynma&;/ bmoma&;
pwJh ay: jyLvmvkyfief;awGudk azmfxkwfvkyfukdif=uygw,f?
n‡dnd‡E_dif;E_dif;vnf;r&Sd/ pDrHudef;wckeJ@wck csdefom;udkufatmifvnf; raygif;pyf/ OD;pm;ay;
tjrift,ltqcsif;uvnf; wuGJwjym;pDjzpfawmh pDrHudef;awG[m atmifjrifoifhoavmuf
ratmifrjrifjzpfc=hJ uygw,f? ylyal EG;aEG; óuHawGŒcJ&h wJh ocFe;f pmawGuv
kd nf; r,lbJ xif&mpkid ;f ae=u
ovkdjzpfcJh=uygw,f? jynfawmfompDrHudef;rprDrSm ocFef;pm,lp&mESpfck&SdcJhygw,f? wcku r*Fvm'kH
av,mOfuiG ;f ðyjyifwnfaqmufa&;vkyif ef;/ aemufwcku orkid ;f csnpf ufupd /P r*Fvm'kaH v,mOfuiG ;f
ðyjyifwnfaqmufa&;pDrHudef;rSm 'def;rwfukr`%Dwckukd (2&) odef;eJ@ uefx±kdufay;/ jrefrmtpkd;&
uk,
d pf m;vkyif ef;}uD;=uyfppfaq;zk@d tar&dueftif*sief ,
D mwOD;Xm;&rf;+yD; aqmif&u
G cf w
hJ m pDru
H ed ;f u
atmifatmifjrifjrif taumiftxnfray:vmcJhbJ wESpftwGif; wkdif;jynf&JŒb¾mawG tajrmuf
trsm;qk;H ±_;H cJ&h ygw,f? tar&dueftif*sief ,
D m vufajr‡muf+yD; tvkyu
f aexGuo
f mG ;rS v#Kd Œ0Sucf ±Hk ;Hk
150

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

zGJŒppfaq;awmh (2&) odef; okH;pGGJcGifhðyxm;wJh pDrHudef;[m usyfaiG (505) odef;awmif&Sdae+yDqkdwm
awGŒ=u&+yD; t±H_;}uD;±_H;cJh=u&ygw,f?
tJ'DvkdyJ ordkif;csnfpuf udpPrSmvnf; (1951) xJ puf±kHpvnfwJhtcg ArmjynfrSmwnfwJh
puf/ ArmjynfuxGufwJh csnfr#ifwkd@ 0gwdk@ okH;vkd@r&wJhpuf jzpfaewmawGŒ=u&ygw,f?
tJ'Dvkd ocFef;pmawG&SdygvsufeJ@ jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD; pwJhtcgrSmvnf; wkdifwkdifyifyif
ndn
‡ E‡d id_ ;f E_id ;f r&S?d ppfppfaq;aq; avhavhvmvmr&Sb
d J uk,
d t
hf yk pf ek @J u,
dk f oef&moef&m taumift
xnfazmf=uwJhtwGuf aºuG;a=umfoHeJ@ vufawGŒ[m puwnf;u ,OfoukdjzpfaecJhygw,f?
vGwv
f yfa&;a=unm+yD;uwnf;u aºuG;a=umfjyÏmef;cJw
h hJ v,f,majr Ekid if yH idk ðf yvkyaf &;ukd
(1953) ckESpfxJrSm ocifwif/ ocifausmfxGef;wkd@ acgif;aqmif+yD; pwifvkyfaqmifygw,f? jynfawmf
ompDrHudef;}uD;eJ@twl taumiftxnfazmfygw,f? emrnfuom v,f,majrEkdifiHykdifðywmqkday
r,fh ajr&Sif}uD;awGqDu ajrawGukd avsmfa=u;ay;+yD; odrf;&wmjzpfygw,f? Oya't& odrf;,lvkduf
wJhajr{u (7) oef;eD;yg;twGuf avsmfa=u;aiG oef; (150) eD;yg;ay;cJh&ygw,f? 'D ‘v,f,majrEdkifiH
ykdifðyvkyfa&;’ ay:vpD[m ajr&Sif}uD;pepfukd wpkHw&mcsdeJ@oGm;apcJhayr,fh ajr&Sifpepfukd t+yD;tykdif
zsufodrf;ypfEkdifcJhwmr[kwfyg? zsufodrf;vkdwJh &nf&G,fcsufvnf;r&SdcJhyg?
zqyv tpkd;&vufatmufrSm t"du vlxkvlwef;pm; tzJGŒtpnf;}uD;oabmrsKd; (3)ck&Sd
ygw,f? ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m awmifolv,form; tpnf;t±kH; (Awvp)/ tvkyform;tpnf;t±kH;
tzGJŒcsKyf - ArmEkdifiH (wD,lpDbD) eJ@ pD;yGm;ukefoG,ftzJGŒcsKyf (pyuo) wkd@jzpfygw,f?
awmifov
l ,form;awGe@J qidk w
f hJ ‘Awvp’ u trawmfa=u;udp/P pyg;ta&mif;t0,fupd /P
v,form;udpPawGukd wkduf±kdufukdifwG,faqmif&Gufygw,f? trawmfa=u;xkwfacs;&mrSm zqyv
tpk;d &u awmifov
l ,form;awGudk wku
d ±f u
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k rf acs;yg? Awvp u wqifx
h w
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zqyv vufatmufcH Awvp tzJGŒ0ifawGom trawmfa=u;&ygw,f? Awvp tr_aqmifawG
u a'otoD;oD;rSm trawmfa=u;aiGawG xifovkb
d ;Hk =uwm/ v,form;ppfppfu trawmfa=u;
rjzpfpavmufom&+yD; v,form;tppfr[kwo
f al wGu trawmfa=u;yk&d wmrsK;d awG ae&mtES@H ay:
cJhygw,f? Awvp eJ@ ajr,maumfrDwDqkdwmawG&JŒ =oZmremcHol v,form;awGtay: zdESdyfn‡if;
yef;wm/ tcGet
f wkwf rw&m;aumufcw
H mawG &uf&ufpufpuf vkyu
f idk cf =hJ uwJt
h wGuf wjynfv;Hk rSm
Awvp awG emrnfysufcJh=uw,f?
tvkyform;tzGJŒtpnf;jzpfwJh wD,lpDbD uvnf; tvkyform;awGtusKd;twGufqkdwm
xuf uk,
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hf muk,
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hf al wGu,
dk &f mxl;ay; ae&mcsxm;ay;xm;wmawGom
vkyu
f idk cf =hJ uygw,f? tpk;d &eJ@ tvkyo
f rm;=um; tpk;d &bufu ‘qJcG s’ oabmvkyaf qmif&if; tvkyf
orm;tcGifhta&;awGukd vpfvsL±_cJh=uygw,f? ‘Awvp’ u v,form;awGtay: acgif;ykHjzwf
ovdk/ wD,lpDbDuvnf; tvkyform;awGtay:acgif;ykHjzwfwm ae&mtESH@ay:aygufcJhygw,f?
pD;yGm;ukeo
f ,
G t
f zJŒG csKyf ‘pyuo’ uvnf; pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;/ ukeo
f ,
G af &;vkyif ef;awGtay:
cs,v
f ,
S }f uD;pk;d zk@d tjrwfxw
k zf @dk om vkyu
f idk af qmif&u
G cf yhJ gw,f? ‘Awvp’/ ‘wD,pl b
D ’D /‘pyuo’
awG[m qkd&S,fvpfygwD&JŒ vufatmufcHtzGJŒtpnf;}uD;awGomjzpf+yD; 'DtzGJŒtpnf;}uD;awG&JŒ
xdyfoD;OD;aqmifolrsm;[mvnf; qkd&S,fvpf}uD;awGcsnf;yJjzpfygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

151

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

tzJGŒtpnf;toD;oD;/ a'otoD;oD;u qkd&S,fvpf}uD;rsm;&JŒ tykyfeH@awG[m wae@wjcm;
waxmif;axmif;xvmcJhygw,f? ‘qkd&S,fvpf}uD; vm'fpm;vkdufjyef+yD’ ‘qkd&S,fvpf}uD; aiGawGbkH;
vku
d jf yef+yD’ ‘aemufxyfq&dk ,
S v
f pf rk'rd ;f r_wckay: jyef+yD’ ‘aemufxyf qk&d ,
S v
f pf vlowfr}_ uD;wck’
qkdwJh acgif;pOfawGeJ@ owif;pmawGay:rSm r=umc% ygygvmcJhygw,f? qkd&S,fvpfrsm; vlxkcsOfywf
jzpfvmcJhygw,f?
qkd&S,fvpfacgif;aqmif OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf;wkd@wawG AsL±kdu&uf t&m&Sd}uD;awGozG,f
ðyrlusio
hf ;Hk vm=uovkd qk&d ,
S v
f pfrsm; tm%m,pfr;l vm=uovk/d Ekid if aH wmf0ef}u;D csKyf OD;Ek [mvnf;
wae@wjcm; tm%m&Sifqefvmw,fvkd@qdk=uygw,f?
tm%m& tpk;d &tzGŒJ }uD;atmufu ‘Awvp’ ‘wD,pl b
D ’D wk@d e@J tòydiu
f awmh qk&d ,
S v
f pf
ygwu
D cJx
G u
G o
f mG ;cJw
h hJ qk&d ,
S ef w
D @dk &ŒJ ArmEkid if aH wmifov
l ,form;nD!w
G af &;tpnf;t±k;H (wvnp)
eJ@ Armjynftvkyform;tpnf;t±kH;rsm;tzGJŒcsKyf (bDwD,lpD) (Burma Trade Union Congress)
wkd@jzpfygw,f? ‘wvnp’ ukd ocifcspfarmif (0d"l&) uacgif;aqmif+yD; ‘bDwD,lpD’udk ocifvGifu
OD;aqmifygw,f// ‘Awvp’eJ@ ‘wvnp’ [m tòydifjzpfovkd wD,lpDbD (TUCB) eJ@ ‘bDwD,lpD’
(BTUC) [m tòydifjzpfygw,f? Awvp eJ@ wD,lpDbD u tm%m& tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;awGjzpfygw,f?
wvnp eJ@ bDw,
D pl D uawmh tm%mrJh twku
d t
f cHtzGŒJ oabmrsK;d pifòyid w
f nf&adS ewmjzpfygw,f?
1953 ckESpf ESpfqef;rSm w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_jy\em[m zkH;rEkdif/ zdr& tqifhavmufwifr
uawmhyJ xdyu
f adk &muf&v
dS mygw,f? ArmjynftwGi;f rw&m;ojzifh 0ifa&mufusL;ausmw
f yfpx
JG m;
±kHru ajymifajymifwif;wif; Akdvfusrif;rlv_yf&Sm;ae=uwJh w±kwfjzLtiftm;[m tqrwef wkd;yGm;
ae+yDjzpfygw,f? tar&duefu aemufuG,fuyg0if+yD; azmfrkdqmu wdkuf±dkuf tiftm;jznfhwif;
pDpOfaqmif&u
G af ewma=umifh w±kwjf zLtiftm; waomif;ESpaf xmifausmrf S waomif;ig;axmifcef@
txd&Sdae+yDjzpfygw,f? tpdk;&umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;Xme&JŒ w&m;0ifcef@rSef;csuft& oHvGifjrpf ta&SŒ
zufjcrf; rkdif;±_; yef,ef;a'owa=umrSm tiftm; (4000) cef@/ ta&SŒajrmuf rlq,f/ erfhcrf; tyg
a'owav#muf tiftm; (3000) cef@/ rkid ;f qwf/ rkid ;f wk/H rkid ;f yefa'otyg e,fajrwav#muf tiftm;
(4000) cef@ armfcs;D / v_id ;f bJŒG / u±kyad` 'orsm;rSm tiftm; (1000) cef@/ pkpak ygi;f tiftm; (12000)cef@
wyfjzef@vy_ &f mS ;ae=uygw,f? a0zefo;Hk oyfoal wGtqdt
k &uawmh 'dxufrsm;w,fv@dk q=dk uygw,f?
'ga=umifh 1953 ckESpf/ rwfv (1) &ufae@rSm autrfwD (KMT) w±kwfjzL usL;ausmfr_
jy\emukd ukvor*~tzJGŒcsKyf}uD;xHwifjyzkd@ zqyv tpkd;&tzJGŒu rvJ$omra&Smifom qkH;jzwf
vkduf&ygw,f? 1953 ckESpf/ {+yDvrSmusif;ywJh ukvor*~tzGJŒ}uD;&JŒ (7) }udrfajrmuf taxGaxGnD
vmcH}uD;rSm jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒu wifjywkdifwef;ygw,f? wkdifwef;wJhtcg tar&duef yg0if
ywfoufwJh w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfolrsm;vkd@awmif wdwdyy azmfjywkdifwef;0Hhjcif;r&SdyJ ‘jynfyusL;
ausmfolrsm;’ ‘EkdifiHjcm;wyfrsm;’ vkd@om azmfjywkdifwef;cJh=uygw,f?
{+yDv (22) &ufae@rSm “jrefrmhe,fajray: usL;ausmfaom EkdifiHjcm;wyftm;vkH; tjrefqkH;
xGufcGgoGm;&ef” tqkdukd rJcJGqkH;jzwfwJhtcg EkdifiHaygif; (60) teuf axmufcHrJ (59) rJ/ =um;aerJ
(1) rJeJ@ tjrefqkH;xGufcGgay;&ef qkH;jzwfcJhygw,f? azmfrdkqmu csefau&Sdwftpkd;&ukd,fpm;vS,fu
rJray;yJaecJhygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u ukvor*~}uD;[m w±kwfjynfopf (w±kwfjynfr}uD;) ukd
ukvor*~0ifEkdifiHtjzpf todtrSwfðyrxm;wJh tcdsefjzpfygw,f?
152

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ukvor*~ taxGaxGnv
D mcH}uD;&JΠqk;H jzwfcsut
f & jrefrmEkid if t
H wGi;f uae w±kwjf zLusL;
ausmfa&;wyftm;vkH; xGufcGgoGm;a&;twGuf tar&duef/ xkdif;/ jrefrmeJ@ w±kwf orRwEkdifiH
(w±kwfjzL) wkd@yg0ifwJh av;EkdifiH ppfzufukd,fpm;vS,f aqG;aEG;yGJusif;yzkd@ tar&duefu urux
vkyyf gw,f? xkid ;f Ekid if H befaumufòrdŒ tar&duefo±H ;Hk rSm arv (22) &ufae@rmS pwifusi;f yygw,f?
tar&duefEkdifiHu autrfwD (w±kwfjzL ulrifwef) udpP oleJ@rywfoufygvkd@om cyfwnfwnfjiif;
aeayr,fh ukvor*~qkH;jzwfcsufxGufvm+yD;wJhtcg tar&duefuyJ uruxðy+yD; ‘(4) EkdifiH
befaumuftpnf;ta0;’ udk uruxðy pDpOfwmjzpfygw,f? jrefrmEkdifiHukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒu
yxrawmh w±kwfjzLukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒeJ@ rsufESmpkHnD xkdifraqG;aEG;Ekdifvkd@qkdwJhtwGuf tar&duef
eJ@ xkdif; ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;[m jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒeJ@ w}udrf w±kwfjzL udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒeJ@
w}udr/f udp&P yfwckudk ESp}f udraf qG;aEG;&ygw,f? jrefrmuk,
d pf m;vS,t
f zGŒJ ukd Akv
d rf ;ª }uD; atmif}uD;u
acgif;aqmifwufa&mufygw,f?
tjrefqkH;xGufcGga&;twGuf aqG;aEG;=uwJhtcg qkwfcGgay;&r,fh usL;ausmfol w±kwfjzLrsm;
u ArmjynftESH@tjym;&Sd olwkd@wyfrsm;tay: Armhwyfrawmfu typftcwf&yfpJa&;udk csufcsif;ðy
vkyfay;&r,fvkd@ ppcsif;awmif;qkdygw,f? jrefrmbufu ‘jrefrmEkdifiHrS trSefwu,fxGufcGgoGm;
onfhtcsdefwGif oufqkdif&ma'orsm;ESifh oufqkdif&mvrf;a=umif;rsm;ukd vkHòcHaoma'orsm;tjzpf
owfrSwfay;+yD; ESpfzufpvkH;u typftcwf&yfpJ&ef ðyvkyfay;Ekdifa=umif;’ ajz=um;wJhtcg w±kwfjzL
ukd,fpm;vS,fu vufrcHEkdifa=umif; acgif;rmaecJhygw,f? w±kwfjzLrsm;[m olwkd@udk,fwkdifu usL;
ausmf+yD;olrsm; EkdifiHtwGif;a&muf&Sdaeygvsuf usL;ausmfolwkd@udk b,folurS rxd& rwkd@&/ typf
tcwf&yfpJay;+yD; xkdif=unfhae&r,fhoabmrsKd; awmif;qkdaecJhjcif;jzpfygw,f? tar&duefOD;pD;wJh
tar&duefeJ@ xkdif;ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒu jrefrmbuf/ w±kwfjzLbufeJ@ ESpfzufpvkH;ukdaqG;aEG;+yD;
aqG;aEG;ajym=um;csuaf wGtay:uae rlwnf+yD; ‘oabmwlncD surf =l urf;’ ukad &;qGyJ gw,f? tar&d
uef/ xkid ;f / jrefrmtzJŒG rsm;u oabmwlncD =hJ uwJw
h idk af tmif usL;ausmo
f w
l ±kwjf zLbufu oabm
rwlbJ aqG;aEG;yJGudk aESmifhaES;=uef@=umatmif tcsdefqJGjcif; r±kd;rom;ðyrljcif;awGudkom vkyfaecJhyg
w,f?
ZGefv (1) &ufae@rSm w±kwfjzLbufu ‘jrefrmEkdifiHtESH@tjym; typftcwf&yfpJa&;tpm;
oHvGifjrpf ta&SŒbufa'otm;vkH;wGif typftcwf&yfpJ&ef’ vkd@ ajymif;vJawmif;qkdygw,f? ZGef
(2) &ufae@rSm ‘olwdk@ tpkd;&eJ@wkdifyif&ef&Sdonf’ qkd+yD; azmfrkdqmukdjyefoGm;ygw,f? ZGefv (10)&uf
ae@rmS jrefrmbufu rjzpfEidk af =umif; befaumufaqG;aEG;yGaJ umfrw
D u
D w
dk ifjy+yD; w±kwjf zLrsm;xGuf
cGma&;tpDtpOf (3) ckudk ukeu
f sr,fph &dwef @J wuG jyifqifwifjyygw,f? ZGef (13) &ufae@rmS w±kwjf zL
ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGΠbefaumufukdjyefa&mufvm+yD; olwkd@a&;qJGvmwJh xGufcGma&;tpDtpOfwck
wifjyvmygw,f? tcsdefr=uef@=umatmifqkd+yD; jrefrmbufu ‘w±kwfjzLbufutpDtpOf’ ukd
jyifqifcsut
f enf;i,favmufe@J yJ vufcv
H u
dk yf gw,f? ¹cGi;f csut
f aeeJ@ “rkid ;f qwfEiS t
hf jcm;ta&;}uD;
a'orsm;ukd ArmhwyfrawmfrS wku
d cf u
dk rf r_ &Syd J 0ifa&muford ;f yku
d Ef idk &f rnf” vk@d xnfo
h iG ;f awmif;qkyd g
w,f? w±kwfjzLu ‘,m,DoabmwlnDcsufrl=urf;’ ukd vufrcHao;wJhtjyif “rkdif;qwfokd@
aumfrw
D D oGm;a&muf&mwGif tar&duefEiS hf xkid ;f wk@d uo
dk m oGm;cGiahf y;Ekid +f yD; jrefrmud,
k pf m;vS,t
f zGŒJ
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

153

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

ESifh jrefrmowif;pmq&mrsm;ukd vufrcHEkdifa=umif;eJ@ jrefrmtpkd;&u zrf;qD;xm;onfh w±kwfjzL
rsm;udk ¹cGif;csufr&Sd csufcsif;v$wfypf&rnf” vkd@ xyfqifhawmif;qkdvmjyefygw,f?
w±kwjf zLud,
k pf m;vS,t
f zJŒG azmfrq
dk mjyefaewke;f rSm tar&dueftzJŒG u jrefrmuk,
d pf m;vS,f
tzJŒG udk w±kwjf zLuk,
d pf m;vS,t
f zJŒG eJ@ rsuEf mS pkn
H D aqG;aEG;zk@d wu
dk w
f eG ;f wJt
h wGuf w±kwjf zLud,
k pf m;
vS,t
f zGŒJ jyefa&mufvmwJt
h cg oabmwlncD suf vsijf refpmG taumiftxnfay:ap&efq+dk yD; rsuEf mS
pkHnDaqG;aEG;wmvkyfaqmifygawmhw,f?
ZGefv (14) &uf (23) &ufae@txd rsufESmpkHnD qufvufaqG;aEG;=u+yD; ZGef (23) rSm
w±kwjf zL tyg ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f zGŒJ (4) zGŒJ pvk;H u ,m,DoabmwlncD surf =l urf;udk rltm;jzifh oabm
wl=uwJhtwGuf jrefrmEkdifiHrS w±kwfjzLwyfrsm; xGufcGma&;twGuf ‘av;EkdifiHoabmwlnDcsuf’
&+yDjzpfa=umif; urBmukda=unmcJhygw,f?
oabmwlnDcsufukd vufawGŒtaumiftxnfazmfzkd@rSmusawmh w±kwfjzLwkd@&JŒ tcsdefqJG
aejcif; r±kd;rom;ðyr_jcif;awGa=umifh rcHcsifp&maumif;avmufatmif Armjynfbufu epfemcJh&yg
w,f?
tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u zqyv tpkd;&ukd vufeufpGJudkifawmfvSefwkdufckdufae=uwJh Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwD/ tvHeD/ jynfolŒ&Jabmf/ autif'Dtkfd/ rGef/ ytkd@/ u&ifeD pwJh vufeufudkiftiftm;pk
pkpak ygi;f ta&twGuf tiftm;xufawmif jynfyusL;ausmo
f l w±kwjf zL autrfwD wyftiftm;u
ykdrdkrsm;jym;cJhygw,f? jynfwGif;olykeftiftm;pktm;vkH;xuf jynfyusL;ausmfol w±kwfjzL ta&
twGufursm;cJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh zqyv tpkd;&[m e,fcsJŒorm;eJ@yg vuf0g;csif;±kdufxm;wJh
wkdif;wyg;om; usL;ausmfolrsm;ukd jywfjywfom;om; acsr_ef;wkdufxkwfa&;xuf/ wkdif;&if;om;csif;
jzpfwJh jynfwGif;vufeufudkif tiftm;pkrsm;tay: &uf&ufpufpuf tðywfwkdufa&;udkom OD;wnf
óud;yrf;aecJhygw,f? e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;vuQ%mrawGŒ&yJ e,fcsJŒrSDckda&;vuQ%mom ododomom
awGŒ&Ekdifygw,f?
jynfwGif;wkd;wufwJh EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;u a0zefokH;oyf axmufjyae=uwJh=um;xJu
tar&dueftpkd;&eJ@ pD;yGm;a&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ oabmwlnDcsuf (tD;pDat) pmcsKyfukd csKyfqdkcJhyg
w,f? rv$Jra&Smifom ukvor*~ udkwkdif=um;cJh&+yD;/ w±kwfjzLwyfrsm;udk tar&duefu ulnD
axmufyHhaewm zkH;rEdkifzdr& jzpfay:vmwJhtcgusrS ‘tD;pDat’ pmcsKyfukd ZGefv (30) &ufae@rSm
&yfpJr,fvkd@ a=unmcJhygw,f?
t"du EkdifiHa&;ygwD}uD;wckvnf;jzpf vufeufudkifolykef tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;wckvnf;jzpf
wJh ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D w±kwjf zLusL;ausmrf u
_ kd jywfjywfom;om;wku
d zf @dk e,fcsŒJ tE &W m,fudk
yl;aygif;umuG,fzkd@qdkwJh &yfwnfcsufeJ@ jynfwGif;ppfudk&yf+yD; trsKd;om;ppftoGifukdajymif;zkd@ urf;
vSr;f tqkðd yygw,f? umuG,af &;0ef}uD; OD;AaqGe@J vkyw
f u
l idk zf ufjzpfczhJ ;l wJh ocifcspef @J Akv
d af Z,su
awGŒqkHcsifa=umif; (1) e,fcsJŒtE W&m,fukd yl;aygif;umuG,fa&;/ (2) wrsKd;om;vkH;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwf
a&;/ (3) +idrf;csrf;a&;wkd@twGuf aqG;aEG;vkda=umif; ZGefv (18) &ufae@ ae@pJGeJ@ ay;pmESpfapmif
ay;ydk@cJhygw,f? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; OD;AaqGeJ@wuG zqyv tpkd;&u ta&;awmifrvkyfcJhyg? jynf
wGif;twkduftcHtiftm;pkawGtm;vkH;ukd evHrxlEkdifatmif vkyfxm;a&;onfomt"duqkdwJhrludk
154

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

udik pf x
JG m;cJyh gw,f? jynfwiG ;f twku
d t
f cH vufeufuidk o
f yl ek af wGukd acsre_ ;f òzdciG ;f zk@d ppfa&;t& tðywf
wku
d af &;vrf;pOfuu
kd sio
hf ;Hk ygw,f? jynfwiG ;f uvufeufuikd rf [kww
f hJ wk;d wufwhJ twku
d t
f cH Ekid if H
a&;tiftm;pkawGudk òzdcGif;zkd@u òzdcJGa&;enf;/ tm%meJ@ zdESdyfa&;enf;awGudk usifhokH;ygw,f?
ajray:rSm&SdwJh twkduftcH EkdifiHa&;ygwDjzpfwJh qkd&S,feD (tvkyform; v,form;ygwD) udk
v$wfawmfwGif;rSm toHrxGufEkdifatmifvkyfxm;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? e,fawG&Sd twkduftcH tiftm;pk
0ifawGudk zq-qkd&S,f =oZmcH aysmuf=um;wyf/ umuG,fa&;wyf qkdwmawG&JΠAdkvfus&rf;um;
npfywfra_ wGe@J zyd gw,f? aemufxyfta&;}uD; tiftm;pkwck twku
d t
f cHtiftm;pkwcktjzpf ±_jrif
ok;H oyf+y;D ykid yf idk Ef idk Ef idk f udik w
f ,
G x
f ed ;f odr;f xm;Ekid zf @dk óu;d pm;wmu ‘ausmif;om;’ udjk zpfygw,f? OD;Ek
tyg OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf; wkd@udk,fwkdif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifawGvnf;jzpfcJh=uzl;awmh wuo/
Auo =oZm}uD;w,fqkdwm odxm;=u+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? wuo/ Auo awGxJrSm ‘wkd;wuf
aomausmif;om;tiftm;pk’ ay:ayguv
f m+yD; =oZm&Sad ewmukv
d nf; odxm;=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? ‘wk;d
wufaom ausmif;om;tiftm;pk’ [m 1951 ckESpfuxnf;u zJGŒpnf;wnf&SdcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
ukb
d aumif;/ ukv
d 0S if;/ ukad tmifbef;/ ud,
k k wk@d [m xif&mS ;wJah usmif;om;acgi;f aqmif wk;d wufaom
tiftm;pk0ifawGjzpf=uygw,f? wuo/ AuorSm zq-qk&d ,
S f =oZmcHausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifqo
dk l
awG ay:ayguzf @dk wwfEidk &f if tiftm;v$r;f rk;d xm;Ekid zf @dk OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wk@d u jyifqifpidk ;f jyif;vm
ygw,f? 1953 ckESpf aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&ufrSm &efukefwuUokdvfausmif;om;tzJGŒawGjzpf=uwJh
ukdukd}uD; udkudkav; tzGJŒ/ jynfaxmifpkausmif;om;rsm;tzJGŒ/ wuUokdvfvli,ftzJGŒ/ oef@&Sif;tzJGŒeJ@
ausmif;om;aygif;oif;qufqHa&;eJ@ oufomacsmifcsda&;tzGJŒ pkpkaygif; ausmif;om;tzJGŒ (5) zJGŒu
ausmif;om;w&mukd OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wk@d qk&d ,
S v
f pfacgi;f aqmif}uD;awGu,
dk w
f ikd f OD;pD;+yD; qk&d ,
S f
vpfEkdifiHa&;oifwef; wvykd@csay;ygw,f? tJ'Daemuf oifwef;ykd@cst+yD;rSm ‘'Dtuf(pf)tkd’ qkdwJh
(Democrative Student's Organization) qkd&S,fvpfausmif;om;EkdifiHa&;tzJGŒudk zJGŒpnf;arG;zGm;ay;
vku
d yf gw,f? ausmif;om;xkt=um; =oZm&Sw
d hJ ‘wk;d wuf’ eJ@ tm%m&tpk;d &ausmaxmufaemufcH
ðy ‘'Dtuf(pf)tk’d [m wuUov
kd rf mS tòydijf zpfvmygawmhw,f? orkid ;f wavsmufrmS e,fcsŒJ qef@usif
a&;tpOftvm}uD;cJh+yD;/ jynfolbufu trSefw&m;bufuom jywfjywfom;om; &yfwnfwkdufyJG
0ifcw
hJ hJ wuo/ Auo}uD;&JΠtpOftvmukd zsuq
f ;D òzdcyGJ pf+yD; “tm%m&tkypf ;dk oltpk;d &&JŒ tvku
d s
wuo/ Auo” jzpfatmif tm;xkwfvkdufwJh azmufjyefwJh ajcvSrf;jzpfygw,f?
Ekid if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek&ŒJ wae@wjcm; tm%m&Siq
f efvrS u
_ vnf; onf;oef jyif;xefveG ;f
vSwJhtwGuf ,Ofaus;r_Xme0ef}uD; OD;xGef;az (xGef;ae@pOf OD;xGef;az) [m tpkd;&tzJGŒ0if 0ef}uD;
tjzpfuae 1953 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f xJrmS E_wx
f u
G yf gw,f? olbma=umifh &mxl;uae E_wx
f u
G &f w,f
qkdwm owif;pmq&mawGukd &Sif;vif;jy±kHru =o*kwfv (13) &ufae@ zqyv tpkd;&tzJGŒuae
E_wfxGuft+yD; owif;pmuaeyg a[m'Dvkd yGifhyGifhvif;vif; &ifzGifhcJhygw,f?
‘0ef}uD;csKyf OD;-ocifEo
k nf tm%m&Siq
f efonf/ vuf,mqefonf/ vuf0q
J efonf tp&Sd
ojzifh okH;pGJae=uaom a0g[m&rsm;. usyfjynfht"dy`g,ft& u|efawmfonf rnfonfhenf;ESifhr#
oabmrwlEkdifyg? tm;vkH; wnDw!Gwfwnf; vufcHxm;=uaomrlukd a&Sα_I 'Drkdua&pDtkwfjrpfcs
ygrnf[I
l u|eaf wmfw@dk opPmðyxm;=uaom zqyv. acgi;f aqmif}uD;onf tm%m&Siyf ef;wkid o
f @dk
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

155

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

a&Sα_csw
D ufaeonfr[kw/f oufO;D qHyidk b
f &k iftyk cf sKyfa&; (0g) b0&Sirf if;=wm;}uD; wkid ;f jynftyk cf sKyf
rif;vkyaf &;bufo@dk olrjrifaomfvnf; tm;vk;H tjriftm;jzifh odoo
d mom}uD;yif a&GŒavsmaeyg+yD?
0ef}uD;csKyf. tðytrluav;rsm;onf t}udrfaygif;rsm;pGm &Sifbk&ifqefvGef;vSojzifh aemufqkH;
tcsdefY b0&Sifrif;=wm;}uD; jzpfzkd@&ef rif;ajrmufwefqm ig;yg;qifjref;zkd@ omvkdygawmhonf//’æwJh?
OD;xGef;az&JΠjrifjyif;uyfuyfeJ@ 0ef}uD;tjzpfuyg E_wfxGuf+yD; owWd&Sd&Sd vufoHajymifajymif
a&;om;vkdufwJh tJ'Dta&;tom; &ifzGifhoH[m OD;Ek&JŒ ±kyfykHrSefudk rD;armif;xkd;jyEkdifcJhygw,f// b0&Sif
rif;=wm;}uD; OD;Ek vkd@uifyGef;wyf&wJhtxdjzpfygw,f//
b0&Sifrif;=wm;}uD;vkd@ uifyGef;wyfcH&wJh 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Eku jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;ukd
csrSwf/ tm%m,pfrl;ae=uwJh qkd&S,fvpf}uD;rsm;u tkyfpkzJGŒ tm;òydif=u&if; oef&moef&m pDrHudef;
awGukd xifovkt
d aumiftxnfazmfae=ucsed rf mS umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Akv
d cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; &JΠppfwyf
}uD;uawmh wpxufwp tiftm; }uD;xGm;vmygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfudkta=umif;ðy+yD; wyfawGukd
tqufrjywf wkd;csJŒzJGŒ&if; vltiftm;om }uD;xGm;rsm;jym;vmwmr[kwf/ b¾ma&;t&yg ppfwyf
t&if;tESD;udk pwifpkaqmif;rdpðyvmygw,f? umuG,fa&;Xmeppfonfrsm; oufomacsmifcsda&;
hf ;l cHtjzpf vkid pf ifawGvnf; tvum;&/
twGuq
f +dk y;D pwifzŒGJ pnf;cJw
h hJ 'Dtuf(pf)tkid f (DSI) [m tcGix
tcGefvGwfcGifh uif;vGwfcGifhawGuvnf; b,foleJ@rSrwlatmif cHpm;&wJhtwGuf ppfwyft&if;tESD;
[m wk;d oxufw;dk vmcJyh gw,f? 'Dumv[m tpk;d &u jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f }uD; pwiftaumift
xnfazmfaewJh umvjzpfovkd ppfwyfuvnf; ppfwyft&if;tESD; pwifpkaqmif;aewJhumvvkd@
owfrSwf&rSmjzpfygw,f?
ZGefv (23) &ufuwnf;u jrefrmEkdifiHrS w±kwfjzLrsm; xGufcGma&;udpP/ av;EkdifiH
oabmwlnDcsuf&yg+yDvkd@ urBmukd cyfwnfwnfa=unmcJhayr,fh w±kwfjzLrsm;bufu bmwckrS
vufawGŒ rvkyfaqmifvmwma=umifh pufwifbm (7) &ufae@rSm jrefrmtpkd;&u (1) jrefrmEkdifiHwGif;rS w±kwfjzLwyfrsm; rnfIrnfr# xGufcGmrnfukd xkwfazmfcef@rSef;&ef?
(2) rkdif;qwfESifh ta&;}uD;ae&m (5) ae&mukd Armhwyfrawmfu wkdufckdufjcif;rðybJ odrf;
ykduf&ef?
qkdwJh tqkd(2)ckukd obmywd tzJGŒxH xyfrHwifjyvm&ygw,f? w±kwfjzLudk,fpm;vS,fu
tqkdtrSwf (1) ukd wdwdusus tajzray;wJhtjyif tqkdtrSwf (2) ukdvnf; Armhwyfrawmfu
ukd,fhzmomukd,f odrf;,l&r,f/ wkdufckdufjcif;rðyyJ at;at;aq;aq; odrf;,la&;ukdawmh w±kwf
ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒrSm wm0efr&Sdvkd@ tajzay;wkef@jyefvmygw,f?
pufwifbm (14) &ufae@rSm Armbufu (1) jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;rS w±kwfjzLtm;vkH; xGufcGm&ef?
(2) yxrtokwf wyfom; (5000) ukd oabmwlnDcsuf vufrSwfa&;xkd;+yD; (21) &uf
twGif; xGufcGm&ef?
(3) jrefrmtpkd;&u ukvor*~ukd tpD&ifcH&ef&Sdojzifh txufazmfjyyg tcsuf (2) csufukd
w±kwfjzLukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒu (7) &uftwGif; tajzay;&ef/ vufrcHcJhv#if jrefrm
ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒudk aqG;aEG;yJGrS ±kwfodrf;rnf?
156

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vdk@ av;EkdifiHaumfrDwDukd wifjy&ygawmhw,f? 'gudkvnf; w±kwfjzLbufu vufrcHwJh
twGuf pufwifbm (17) &ufae@rSm aqG;aEG;yJGuae jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒ ±kwfodrf;xGufcGmcJh&
ygw,f? 'guv
dk nf; w±kwjf zLbufu vufrcHwt
hJ wGuf pufwifbm (17) &ufae@rmS aqG;aEG;yJu
G ae
jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒ ±kwfodrf;xGufcGmcJhygw,f? Ekd0ifbm/ 'DZifbm xJusrS w±kwfjzLwyfom;
(2000) avmuf jrefrmEkdifiHuae pwifxGufcGmay;wmvkyfygw,f? 'gawmif wyfom; (2000) eJ@
rSDckdolrsm; xGufcGmwmudk jrefrmbufu raESmuf,Suf&efvkd@ w±kwfjzLbufu owday;vkdufygao;
w,f? w±kwfjzL (15000) ausmfavmuf&SdwJhtxJu (2000) avmufyJxGufay;wmjzpfygw,f?
w±kwjf zLawGord ;f yku
d x
f m;wJh rkid ;f qwf/ rkid ;f wk/H rkid ;f ,ef;/ rkid ;f a,mif; wd@k uv
dk nf; oabmwlvaJ$ jymif;
ay;zk@d befaumufaqG;aEG;yJu
G qk;H jzwfxm;wm&Sad yr,fh w±kwjf zLwk@d bufu vk;H 0vku
d ef mjcif;r&Scd b
hJ J
raxrJhjrif vkyfjycJhygw,f? ArmjynfxJ usL;ausmf0ifa&mufae±kHru wkdif;&if;om;awGtay: ESdyfpuf
apmfum;wmawGvnf; vkyfcJh=uygw,f? vk,ufpm;aomufwmawGvnf; vkyfcJh=uygw,f?
w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_udk jynfwGif;&Sd wkd;wufwJhEkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;u tjyif;txefqef@
usi=f uovkd ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D vnf; qef@usiyf gw,f? uGejf rLepfygwu
D w±kwjf zLusL;ausmf
a&;orm;rsm;ukd tpk;d &wyfe@J uGejf rLepfwyfrsm;yl;aygi;f +y;D wku
d cf u
dk &f ef/ tJ'v
D w
dk u
dk cf u
dk &f ef qENr&S&d if
tpkd;&eJ@jzpfyGm;aewJh ppfyGJukd rdrdwkd@bufu wzufowf&yfpJ+yD; ulrifwefwyfrsm;ukd wkdufckdufr,f/
tJ'Dvkd csDwufoGm;a&mufwkdufckdufrSmukd tpkd;&wyfrsm;u taESmuft,Sufray;&eftxd tqkdðy
urf;vSrf;cJhygw,f? &Srf;jynfe,ftwGif;&Sd tpkd;&&JŒ wyfr[m (4) eJ@ wyfr[m (6) u wyfrª;rsm;ukd
pmeJ@a&;om;+yD; urf;vSrf;cJhwmjzpfygw,f? tpkd;&bufu bmrS ta=umif;jyef=um;cJhjcif;r&Sdvkd@qkd
ygw,f?
w±kwfjzLwkd@&JŒ raxrJhjrif apmfum;vGef;r_awGa=umifh wyfrawmfu rvJ$ra&Smifom xkd;ppf
qifra_ wGvyk v
f m&ygw,f? 'kAv
dk rf ;ª }uD; ausmpf ;kd (aemif rqvawmfveS af &;aumifp0D if) ukd OD;pD;ap+yD;
w±kwjf zLukt
d wku
d cf ikd ;f cJyh gw,f? ta&;edr+hf yD;wyfvef@jyefc&hJ ygw,f? tJ'aD wmhrS Akv
d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm
udkOD;pD;+yD; twdkufckdif;&ygawmhw,f? tJ'Dvkd rwwfEkdifawmhvkd@ wm0efay;&wmawmif tm%m&
qkd&S,fvpf}uD;wcsKdŒu “b,fae@ AkdvfausmfaZm tavmif;ukd oHvGifurf;yg;rSmaumuf&rvJ” vdk@
r=um;w=um; jyuf&,fðycJ=h uw,fqydk gw,f? w±kwjf zLawG&ŒJ tiftm; tqrwefrsm;jym;aewmukd
qkd&S,fvpf}uD;awG aumif;aumif;odxm;wJhtwGufa=umifhjzpfygw,f?
1954 ckEpS /f rwfvrSm Akv
d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm OD;pD;wJh ‘bk&ifah emif ppfqifa&;}uD;’pwifygw,f?
Akdvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm [m wyfuav;rjzpfpavmufukdyJ udkifwG,ftokH;ðy+yD; w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_
}uD;udk wkdufcJh&wmjzpfygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfukd t&Sdefjr‡ifh+yD; wkdufckdufaewJhtwGuf jynfwGif;ppfrSm
tokH;ðyaewJh wyfawGxJu wyfawGvkHvkHavmufavmuf xkwfE_wf,lcGifhr&bJ t&HwyfawGr#eJ@om
wku
d cf u
dk cf &hJ ygw,f? rjzpfpavmufwyfuav;eJeu
J o
dk m tok;H ðy+y;D Akv
d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm [m w±kwjf zL
wyfrsm;ukd atmifjrifpmG wku
d cf u
dk jf ycJyh gw,f? w±kwjf zL armif;xkwaf &; wku
d yf t
GJ wGi;f rSm bk&ifah emif
ppfqifa&;&JŒ ydokumtjzpf Akdvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm&JŒ emrnfay:vGifvmcJhygw,f? qkwfcGmoGm;&wJh
w±kwfjzL wyfawG[m xkdif;eJ@avme,fajrxJ 0ifoGm;=uygw,f?
50-52 ckEpS t
f wGi;f uk&d ;D ,m;ppfy*GJ ,ufa=umifh qefaps; aumif;aumif;&vku
d w
f hJ zqyv
tpkd;&[m 53-54 rSm pyg;awG odrf;usKH;0,fxm;wJhtwGuf *kda'gif&Sdor# qefawG jynfhv#H±kHru
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

157

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

xm;p&mr&Sdatmif jzpfvmygw,f? 52 ckESpf udk&D;,m;ppfyGJ +yD;oGm;csdefup+yD; urBmrSm qefaps;awG
w&dyf&dyfusvmwJhtwGuf rsufvkH;jyL;pðyvmygw,f? qefa&mif;&aiGusvmwJhtwGuf t&HEkdifiHjcm;
aiGyrm%m[mvnf; avsmheJvdkufvmygw,f? 1953 ZGefvu EkdifiHjcm;aiG (126²9) ukaÉ&Sd&mu
1954 Zefe0g&DrSm (96²8) ukaÉom &Sdygawmhw,f?
qkd&S,fvpfpum;ukd ajymaeqJjzpfwJh zq-qkd&S,f tpkd;&[m EkdifiHjcm;om;ykdif pD;yGm;a&;
vkyif ef;}uD;awGukd Ekid if yH idk ðf ya&; vkyaf e&muae tpk;d &eJ@ zufpyfvyk af &;awGqD ajcOD;vSnv
hf mygw,f?
54 ckESpfxJrSm wav#mufvkH; Armjynftay:aoG;pkyfvmcJhwJh bDtkdpD a&eHukr`%DeJ@tpkd;& zufpyfvkyf
ygw,f? tpkd;&u (51µ)/ t*Fvdyfu (49µ) &S,f,mowfrSwf+yD; zufpyfvkyfygw,f// armfcsD;owWK
wGi;f eJ@ t*Fvb
dk m;rm; oHjzLwGi;f awGrmS vnf; zufpyfvyk yf gw,f? erRwl abmfwiG ;f udak wmh bm;rm;
aumfykd&Sif;eJ@ tpkd;&[m 1951 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmuwnf;u zufpyfvkyfxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f? EkdifiH
jcm;t&if;&Sirf sm;eJ@ tpk;d &a0yku
H s tusK;d wlvyk +f yD; tcGit
hf a&;awGay;&ygw,f? OD;AaqGu owWKwGi;f
wl;azmfa&;awGudk csKyfuidk yf gw,f? xm;0,f/ +rdwef @J &Sr;f jynfe,frmS &Sw
d hJ owWKwGi;f awG&w
dS hJ a'oawG
rSm vrf;awGukd aiGodef;eJ@csD tukeftuscHazmufwJh wm0efukdvnf;,lygw,f?
jynfawmfompDrHudef;t& tif*sifeD,maumvdyf/ pufr_vufr_ody`Hausmif;/ pkdufysKd;a&;
ausmif;/ wd&dp>mefaq;ukoa&;ausmif;eJ@ puf±kH tvkyf±kHawG xlaxmifwnfaqmufygw,f? vkyfykdif
cGi&hf olawG tqift
h oD;oD;rSm vdrn
f mck;d 0Supf m;aomufciG hf tcGit
hf a&;awG&=u+yD; ‘jynfawmfom’
oGm;=uygw,f?
pok;H vk;H &JΠw&m;0ifay:ayguv
f mwJh tr_tcif;pm&if;t&rSmyJ (16-3-52 ae@uae 6-8-53)
ae@twGif; tusifhysuftvGJokH;pm;r_ tr_}uD;aygif; (116) r_/ yg0ifywfoufolaygif; (225) OD;/
,dkzdwfqkH;±_H;wefzkd;aiGaygif; (41612491073) usyf&SdcJh+yD;jzpfygw,f? w&m;0iftr_tcif;tjzpf
ray:vmwmawG zkH;zdxm;=uwmawGvnf; trsm;}uD;&SdcJhygw,f?
1954 ckESpf ESpfqef;ykdif;rSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tjzpftysufvkd@qkd&rSmuawmh +Adwdo# ppfrpf&Sif
tzJGŒ w&m;0if±kwfodrf;oGm;jcif;jzpfygw,f? Zefe0g&Dv (3) &ufae@rSm ±kwfodrf;oGm;ygw,f? vufsm
z&D;rif;pmcsKyft& 1951 ckEpS rf mS yxrt}udro
f ufwrf;ukeq
f ;Hk cJ+h yD; 'kw,
d oufwrf; qufvufw;dk
cJh&muae/ 'kwd,oufwrf;ukefqkH;cgeD;rSm rlvpmcsKyftpm; ‘pmcsKyftopf’ csKyfqkdzkd@ jrefrmEkdifiH
tpkd;&u tqkdðycsuftopf wifjycJhygao;w,f? tJ'Dtqkdðycsufukd +Adwdo#wkd@bufu vufrcHyJ
vufsm-z&D;rif; pmcsKyf 'kwd,oufwrf;ukefqkH;+yD;csdefrSm +Adwdo#ppfrpf&SiftzJGŒudk ±kwfodrf;oGm;jcif;
jzpfygw,f?
+Adwdo#ppfrpf&Sif Armjynfu ±kwfodrf;oGm;+yD;wJhaemuf +Adwdo#wkd@&JŒ ppfrpf&Sifae&mrSm
tpm;xk;d ae&m,lEidk zf @dk tar&duefw@dk ajcvSr;f jyifc=hJ uygw,f? Armjynfudk yx0DEikd if aH &;t& tar&duef
wkd@&JΠurBmvkH;qkdif&m ppfa&;aoe*FAsL[mtcif;tusif;t& tar&duefwkd@ rsufaphuscJh=uygw,f?
wzufu uGefjrLepf w±kwfjynfukd +cdrf;ajcmufxm;Ekdifzkd@ urBmvkH;qkdif&m uGefjrLepftE W&m,fudk
umuG,w
f m;qD;zk@d e@J wzufu xkid ;f / zdvpfyidk w
f @dk rmS ajccsxm;Ekid w
f hJ tar&duefppfpcef;wnfaqmuf
xm;r_rsm;eJ@ wqufwpyfwnf;jzpfatmif zefwD;wnfaqmufvkdr_a=umifhjzpfygw,f? Armjynfudk
om em;csodrf;oGif;Ekdifr,fqkd&if tar&duefwkd@&JΠtm&Sqkdif&maoe*FAsL[mtcif;tusif;[m ykdrkd
jynfhpkHckdifcef@vmzG,f&SdwJhtwGufa=umifhjzpfygw,f?
158

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ArmjynfeJ@e,fedrdwfcsif; &Snfvsm;pGmqufpyfaewJh w±kwfjynfuvnf; Armjynf&JŒtae
txm;ukd tqufrjywf tuJcwf=unfhaecJhygw,f? tar&duef&JŒajcvSrf;awGukd *±kwpkduf owd
xm;=unfhae+yD; olŒEkdifiH&JŒvkHòcHa&;twGuf tav;wif;ae&csdefjzpfygw,f? w±kwfeJ@ tar&duef
xdyfxkdufqkHcJh&wJh ukd&D;,m;ppfyGJ}uD;+yD;wm ylylaEG;aEG;yJ&Sdao;csdefjzpfygw,f? tar&duefawG&JŒ
ppfaoe*FAsL[m &nfreS ;f csux
f J Armjynfusa&mufroGm;a&;[m w±kwjf ynftwGuf ta&;}uD;aeyg
w,f?
1954 ck ZGefvxJrSm qGpfZmvefEkdifiH *sDeDAmujyefvmwJh w±kwfjynf0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvkdif;
[m 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek&JŒ zdwf=um;csuft& &efukefòrdŒukd (2) &ufwm 0ifa&muf&yfem;ygw,f? ESpfEkdifiH
tusK;d wlupd &P yfawGudkf aqG;aEG;=u+yD; orkid ;f 0if a=unmcsuw
f ck xGuaf y:vmcJyh gw,f? tJ'guawmh
“twlwuGyl;wGJaexkdifa&;rl}uD; (5) csuf” qkdwmyg0ifwJh ESpfEkdifiH yl;wJGa=unmcsufjzpfygw,f?
ZGefv (29) &ufae@rSm xkwfjyefa=unmcJhygw,f? 'Drl}uD; (5) csuf[m EkdifiHwumhqufqHa&;e,f/
EkdifiHwumh EkdifiHa&;e,fy,frSm aemifxif&Sm;ay:vGifvmr,fh t"durl}uD; (5) csufjzpfcJhygw,f?
(29-4-54) ae@rSm w±kwf/ tdENd, oabmwlnDcsufrSmvnf; rl}uD; (5) csufygygw,f//) csLtifvkdif;
u ArmjynfutjyefrSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ekukd yDuif;òrdŒokd@ cspf=unfa&;c&D; vma&mufvnfywfzkd@ zdwf
=um;oGm;cJhygw,f?
1954 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmvrSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku w±kwf jrefrme,fjcm;ukd oGm;a&muf
avhvmpkpH rf;zk@d ‘e,fpyfa'owk;d wufr_ pkpH rf;a&;aumfr&Si’f ukd zJŒG pnf;ay;ygw,f? Akv
d rf ;ª }u;D apmjrifu
h dk
OD;aqmifap+yD; ylwmtkdajrmufzuf tdENd,-jrefrm w±kwfe,fjcm;up+yD; usKdif;wkHe,f/ rJacgifjrpfe,f
jcm;txd oGm;a&muf+yD; e,fedrdwfykdif;jcm;a&;qkdif&m taxmuftxm;awGukd wwfEkdifoavmuf
pkpH rf;pkaqmif;zk@d wm0efay;ygw,f? txl;wm0efuawmh ‘0’e,ftwGi;f w±kwef w
D yfawGa&mufae
w,fqw
dk u
hJ pd eP @J w±kwjf ynfu axmufcaH ewJh ‘Auy’ awG w±kwjf ynfukd oifwef;oGm;wufae=u
w,fqdkwJhudpP b,favmufrSefuefa=umif; pHkprf;avhvmzdk@jzpfygw,f?
w±kwjf ynfueG jf rLepfygw[
D m ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J uGejf rLepfygwcD si;f nDaemifygwcD si;f
qufqaH &;&S±d rkH u ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D w&m;0ifapv$wo
f al wGuv
kd nf; w&m;0ifvufcx
H m;&Sd
wm[m 1950-51 avmufuwnf;ujzpfygw,f? ocifAode;f wif acgi;f aqmifwhJ ArmjynfueG jf rLepf
ygwD ta0;a&muf A[kdaumfrDwDukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒtygt0if okH;okwfcJG+yD;a&muf&Sdvm=uwJh Arm
jynfuGefjrLepfygwDu &JabmfawG[m w±kwfjynfrSm a&muf&Sdae=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? 1949 ckESpfu
u&ifah wmfveS af &;eJ@twl ay:ayguv
f mcJw
h hJ ucsit
f rsK;d om; Adv
k af emfqidk ;f acgi;f aqmifwhJ vufeuf
ukdiftiftm;pk[mvnf; zqyv tpkd;&wyfrsm;eJ@ &ifqkdifwkdufyJGqif&if; aemufqkH;rSm ta&;edrfh+yD;
w±kwfjynfxJ0ifa&mufvm=uwJhtwGuf w±kwftpkd;&u vufeufawGudk ðzwfodrf;+yD; vufcHxm;
vkduf&ygw,f? tJ'ga=umifh 1950-51 xJrSmuwnf;u w±kwfjynfxJrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu
tiftm;pkwpkeJ@ Akdvfaemfqkdif;acgif;aqmifwJh tpkd;&qef@usifa&; tkyfpkwpk[m &SdaecJh+yD;jzpfygw,f?
w±kwjf ynfu ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D tpkuakd wmh nDaemifygwcD si;f tjzpf oabmxm;qufq+H y;D /
Akv
d af emfqidk ;f tpkuakd wmh tajctaet& w±kwjf ynfxJ u|0H ifvmwJh vlrsK;d a&;qkid &f m trsK;d om;i,f
tpkwpktjzpf oabmxm;+yD; vufcx
H m;ygw,f? w±kwjf ynfukd ajcukw,
f +l yD; Armjynfbuf0ifvy_ f
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

159

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

&Sm;rSmpkd;&drfwJhtwGuf Akdvfaemfqkdif;tpkudkvnf; e,fpyfuaewqifh w±kwfjynftwGif;ykdif;xJtxd
wpwp a&$Œajymif;ae&mcsxm;ay;cJhw,f//
w±kwfjynfu tpkd;&csif;qufqHa&;eJ@ ygwDcsif;qufqHa&;udkcGJjcm;+yD; usifhokH;aecsdefumv
jzpfygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ qufqHa&;udk nDaemifygwDcsif; qufqHa&;tjzpf ta&;xm;
qufqHaeovkd/ 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek tpkd;&eJ@qufqHa&;udkvnf; rdwf0wfrysuf qufqHa&;tjzpf rl}uD;
(5) csufabmiftwGif;uae taumif;qkH;qufqHEkdifatmif óud;yrf;tm;xkwfaecsdefjzpfygw,f?
1954 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvxJrSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek cspf=unfa&;c&D;tjzpf yDuif;udka&mufygw,f?
w±kwfacgif;aqmif}uD;awGjzpfwJh armfpDwkef;/ csLaw;/ vsLa&SmufcsD/ csLtifvkdif;wkd@eJ@ awGŒqkHygw,f?
'DZifbm (12) &ufae@rSm ESpfEkdifiHyl;wGJ a=unmcsufukdxkwfjyef+yD; ESpfEkdifiH oabmwlnDxm;=uwJh
“+idrf;csrf;pGmtwl,SOfwJGaexkdifa&;”rl}uD; (5) csufudk xyfavmif;azmfjy twnfðycJh=uygw,f?
'Dr}l uD; (5) csuf tpOf&iS o
f efaezd@k tav;teufxm;a&;/ aumifppf0efcsKyfrsm; tjyeftvSex
f m;a&;
tusK;d wlupd rP sm; aqmif&u
G zf vS,af &;/ Ekid if o
H m;rsm;ukd umuG,af pmifah &Smufay;a&;awGtjyif e,fed
rdwjf y\emeJ@ywfouf+yD; csp=f unfru
_ kd t&if;cHum oHwrefenf;vrf;rsm;eJ@ ajz&Si;f a&;awG yg0ifcyhJ g
w,f? w±kwf-Arm e,fedrdwfjyoemajz&Sif;a&;twGuf w&m;0if wdwdusus pwifwJh yxrqkH;ajc
vSrf;vdk@ ajym&rSmjzpfygw,f? OD;Ek w±kwfjynf c&D;xGufcgeD; 0ef}uD;tpnf;ta0;wckrSm 0ef}uD;csKyf
csLtifvkdif;eJ@ awGŒwJhtcg w±kwf-Arm e,fedrdwfowfrSwfa&;udpP aqG;aEG;cJhzkd@ 0ef}uD;tm;vkH;u
OD;Ekukd 0kdif;+yD;rSmvkduf=u+yD;jzpfygw,f? OD;Ek&JŒ w±kwfjynfcspf=unfa&;c&D;[m rl}uD; (5) csufukd
xyfavmif;azmfxkwftwnfðywJhc&D;jzpfovkd/ w±kwf-Arm e,fedrdwfowfrSwfa&;twGuf atmif
atmifjrifjrif pwifEidk cf w
hJ chJ &D;vk@d ajymEkid ±f rHk u w±kw-f tar&duef csp=f unfa&;w&m;udyk g ajymjzpf
atmifajymcJhygao;w,f?
'Dc&D;[m OD;EktwGuf jynfyeJ@ywfouf+yD; atmifjrifwJhc&D;wckvdk@ qkd&rSmjzpfayr,fh/ cspf
=unfa&;vrf;a=umif;zGiEhf idk cf w
hJ ,fv@dk q&dk rSm jzpfayr,f/h jynfwiG ;f eJ@ywfoufv@dk uawmh OD;ausm+f idr;f
eJ@ trkef;oHo, pcJh&wJh c&D;ozG,fvnf;jzpfcJhygw,f? ta=umif;u OD;EkeJ@ OD;ausmf+idrf; ‘qefudpP’
ra=ureyf jy\emay:cJh&wmvnf; 'Dc&D;twGif;rSm jzpfygw,f?
'Dc&D;twGif;rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku csLtifvkdif;eJ@awGŒwJhtcg Armjynf *kda'gifawGtwGif; pkykH
xm;&wJh qefa[mif;awGukd a&mif;xkwfcsifvkd@ qefa[mif;a&mif;a&; aqG;aEG;cJhygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf
csLtifvidk ;f u 0,fr,fv@kd uwday;vku
d w
f t
hJ wGuf OD;Eku Armjynfudk qefa[mif;wefcsed f b,favmuf
&Sad ewm/ bmqefawG&adS ew,fqw
dk m vSr;f ar;cJyh gw,f? Armjynfu jyefvnfajz=um;cJjh cif; r&Sv
d @dk qdk
ygw,f? tJ'Dvkdar;jref;wmudk OD;ausmf+idrf;uvnf; ‘rod’ vdk@qkdygw,f? tJ'D qefudpPeJ@ywfouf+yD;
OD;Eku OD;ausmf+idrf; tay: oHo, pcJhw,fvkd@qkdygw,f? bmvkd@vJqkdawmh yDuif;uae &efukefukd
OD;Ek oHóud;±ku
d +f yD; qefupd aP r;wJah e@rmS yJ OD;ausm+f idr;f acgi;f aqmifwhJ ‘qefqyfaumfrw
D ’D u qefa[mif;
awGa&mif;ypfvu
kd w
f t
hJ wGuf jzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek vmatmiftxdrapmifb
h J bmrS jyefvnfajz
=um;jcif;rðybJ wufokwf±kduf a&mif;ypfvkdufwJhtwGufa=umifh OD;Ek u oHo, p0ifcJhwmvkd@qkdyg
w,f? OD;Eku (1) OD;ausmf+idrf;[m qefuufbdeuf tpnf;ta0;udk OD;Ek r&Sd&if wufavhr&SdbJ/ tck
tpnf;ta0;usrS wufjcif;?
160

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

(2) OD;Eku oHóud;±kdufar;+yD;aemuf qefa&mif;zkd@qkH;jzwfwJhtcg twGif;0ef OD;bpef; u
OD;EkqD ta=umif;=um;zkd@ owday;wifjywmudk OD;ausmf+idrf;u jiif;y,fcJhjcif;?
(3) qefukefonfawG arG;xm;wJh t&m&SdawGuwqifh w±kwfEkdifiHukd qefa&mif;awmhr,fh
udpP qefukefonfawG odoGm;+yD; qef0,fzkd@ tavmw}uD; wif'goGif; vkyfudkifoGm;
w,fvkd@ ,lqjcif;eJ@
(4) 0ef}uD;csKyf udk,fwkdifowfrSwfxm;wJh tmrcHaiGukd 0ef}uD;csKyf rodbJ av#mhay;aqmif
&GufcJhjcif;awGa=umifh oHo,0ifcJhwmjzpfw,fvkd@qkdygw,f?
OD;ausm+f ird ;f acgi;f aqmif+y;D qefuufbed ufaumfrw
D u
D yifvaHk ':Ek,Ofe@J yifvHk a': =unf=unf
ukd qefa[mif;wefEpS o
f ed ;f a&mif;csay;cJyh gw,f? tmrcHaiG (5µ) owfrw
S x
f m;wmukd (2½µ) eJ@av#mh
cs+yD; a&mif;ay;cJhygw,f?
w±kwfjynfc&D;u OD;Ek jyefa&mufwJhtcg 0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvkdif;eJ@ qefudpPuwdysuf&wJh
twGuaf =umifah &m oHo,a=umihyf g OD;Ek awmfawmfa'gycG yhJ gw,f? tJ'rD a=ueyfcrhJ _ rsK;d aph[m OD;Eke@J
OD;ausm+f idr;f =um; pwifc+hJ yD; aemif zqyv tuGt
J +yJawGqt
D xd OD;wnfomG ;cJw
h ,fv@dk awmif qk=d u
ygw,f? OD;EkeJ@ OD;ausmf+idrf;=um; ESpfukd,fhwpdwf vkyfcJh=u&muae rnD!Gwfr_pwifcJh+yD; òyduGJr_qD
a&Sα_&mrSm 'DqefudpP[m tcsufwcsuftjzpf yg0ifcJhygw,f?
1954 ckESpfukeftxd tajctaeudk csKyf=unfhr,fqkd&ifawmh jynfwGif;ppf}uD; w[kef;[kef;
awmifavmifaeqJjzpfwmudak wGŒ&ygr,f? jynfwiG ;f ppfut
dk a=umif;jy+yD; ppfwyf}uD; qufvufw;dk csŒJ
aewmawGŒ&ygw,f? acsmufòrŒd rSm trSwf (10) ajcvsiw
f yfr[mXmecsKyf topfwckzŒGJ pnf;+y;D trSwf
(105) (106) (107) ajcjrefwyf&if; (3) &if; xyfrHzGJŒpnf;ygw,f? jynfy&efumuG,fa&;eJ@ jynfwGif;
aomif;usef;r_ESdrfESif;a&;twGufqkd+yD; pypfzkdif;,m; wkdufav,mOftopfawG tpPa&;EkdifiHuae
0,f,lcJhygw,f? tpPa&;EkdifiHudk ppfzufukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJΠapv$wfavhvmapovkd ppfvufeuf
ypPnf;xkwfvkyfa&;twGuf oifwef;ykd@v$wfwmawGvnf;vkyfcJhygw,f? 54 ckESpfwyfrª;rsm; nDvmcH
up+yD; =unf; omru (a&) (av) wyfrª;rsm;yg wufa&mufcGifhðy+yD; =unf;/ a&/ av wyfrawmf
wpkwpnf;wnf;jzpfa&; tm;xkwfjyifqifvmwm awGŒ&ygw,f?
auwDat pDrHudef; a&;qJGolawGu 1954 ckESpfrSm jynfwGif;aomif;usef;r_tm;vkH; csKyf+idrf;
oGm;vdrfhr,fvkd@ cef@rSef;+yD;a&;qGJcJh=uovkd/ tm%m& zqqkd&S,ftpkd;&ukd,fwkdif tðywfwdkufa&;
aºuG;a=umf+yD; (54) ckEpS rf mS jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f oltm;vk;H csKyf+idr;f oGm;zk@d ppfa&;enf;eJ@ tpGr;f ukef
wkdufcdkufóud;pm;cJhayr,fh (54) ckESpftukefrSm jynfwGif;ppf}uD;uawmh qufvufawmufavmif
aeqJjzpfygw,f? tðywfwu
dk af &;enf;eJ@ jynfwiG ;f ppfudk b,fvrdk S csKyf+ird ;f atmifvyk v
f @dk r&Ekid af =umif;
om"uxljyovkd &Scd yhJ gw,f? 'gayr,fh zqqk&d ,
S rf sm;[m tðywfwu
dk af &;udyk J qufvufuidk pf x
JG m;
=uovkd wyfrawmfuvnf; aomif;use;f olacsre_ ;f a&;qkw
d muko
d m oJ}uD;rJ}uD;qifEcJ$ yhJ gw,f? u&if
jynfe,frmS odEd< ppfqifa&;qkw
d m qifEaJ$ ecJ+h yD;/ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwAD [ked @J tvHerD sm;&S&d m yckuLU
c±kdifukd txl;ajcvsifwyf&if;rsm;eJ@ ppfqifa&;awGvkyfcJhygw,f?
jynfyusL;ausmfoljzpfwJh w±kwfjzLjy\emuvnf; qufvuf}uD;xGm;aeqJjzpf+yD;/ puf
wifbm (14) &ufae@u (21) &uftwGif; wyfom; (5000) xGufay;&ef av;EkdifiHaumfrDwDukd
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

161

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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wifjycJah yr,fh w±kwjf zLrsm;u raxrJjh rifvyk af ecJw
h t
hJ wGuf aemufq;Hk rSm Akv
d rf ;ª csKyf ausmaf Zmacgi;f
aqmifwhJ bk&ifah emifppfqifa&;}uD;eJ@ armif;xkw&f ygw,f? bk&ifah emif ppfqifa&;}uD;[m atmifjrif
wJh ppfqifa&;}uD;jzpfayr,fh qkwfcGmoGm;&wJh w±kwfjzLawG[m avmeJ@xkdif; e,fpyfawGxJ ,m,D
0ifajy;oGm;jcif;omjzpfygw,f? ,m,Dqkwfay;&jcif;tjzpfyJ oabmxm;ygw,f? pufwifbm (17)
&ufae@rSm jrefrmukd,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒ ±kwfodrf;xGufcGgcJhayr,fh aemufykdif;rSm jyef+yD; befaumufaqG;
aEG;yGJrSm rsufESmcsif;qkdif=ujyefygw,f? aqG;aEG;=ujyefygw,f? w±kwfjzL usL;ausmfr_jy\em[m
(54) ckESpfukeftxdvnf; }uD;rm;+rJ }uD;rm;aeqJjzpfygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek &JŒ jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;[mvnf; rkd;wvkH; avwvkH; qufvufaºuG;
a=umfaeqJjzpfygw,f? jynfoal wGtzk@d jynfawmfrom&ayr,fh zqqk&d ,
S af wGe@J uefx±ku
d f ukeo
f nf
tjrwf}uD;pm;awG tzk@d awmh jynfawmfomcJ=h uygw,f? pm;p&m 0g;p&m bke;f p&m r[m tcGit
hf a&;
}uD;awGeJ@ yJGawmf}uD;ozG,fjzpfcJhygw,f? zqqkd&S,f xdyfoD;}uD;awGtcsif;csif; tkyfpkzJGŒ tiftm;òydif
+yD; wa,mufwayguf xif&mvkypf &m tcGit
hf a&;tjynft
h 0&&Scd =hJ u+yD; wkid ;f jynf&ŒJ b¾maiGa=u;
awG ae@pOfqkH;±_H;epfemaecJh&ygw,f?
pDrHudef;qJGay;olu auwDat tar&duef/ [efwvkH; yefwvkH; aºuG;a=umf+yD; xifovkd
taumiftxnfazmf=uolawGu tm%m& zqqkd&S,fvpf xdyfoD;}uD;rsm;/ olwkd@&JΠwynfhvuf
om;awGu olckd;"m;jy tcGifhta&;orm;awG trsm;pk}uD;qkdawmh 'Drif; 'Dpkd; 'Dolckd;eJ@ 'Drkd; 'Dav
'DvlawGjzpfcJh=uygw,f?
(54) ckEpS rf mS OD;Ek&ŒJ tpGr;f aqmifEidk q
f ;Hk vloal v;pm;p&m tcsut
f vufudk jyygq&dk ifawmh
w±kwf0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvkdif;eJ@wGJ+yD; vufrSwfxkd;EkdifcJhwJh “+idrf;csrf;pGmtwl,SOfwJGaexkdifa&;”rl}uD;
(5)csuef @J w±kw-f Arm e,ferd w
d u
f pd P pwifEidk cf jhJ cif;yJjzpfygw,f? 'DZifbm (28 eJ@ 29) rSm tif'edk ;D &Sm;Ekid if H
‘bkad *g’ rSmusi;f ywJh udv
k b
H dk ig;Ekid if H tpnf;ta0;udw
k ufc+hJ yD; tm&S-tmz&du nDvmcHwckusi;f yzk@d
jyifqif EkdifcJhygw,f?

19
55/ zqyv/ Auy/ yrnw eJ ‹ jref r mEk d i f i H a wmf
1955/
1953-54 ckEpS u
f wnf;u qefaps;awGx;dk usvmwJt
h wGuf Armjynf&ŒJ t"duyk@d uek jf zpfwhJ
qefykd@ukefwefzkd;[mvnf; wESpfxufwESpf av#mhusvmygw,f? 52-53 wkef;u qefykd@ukef wefzkd;
(101³9) ukaÉ&Sd&mu 53-54 rSm (81³1) ukaÉxd xkd;usoGm;ygw,f? 54-55 a&mufawmh (80)
ukaÉ om&Sdygawmhw,f? qefa&mif;&aiG wae@wjcm;avsmhvmovkd EkdifiHjcm;t&HaiGyrm%m[m
vnf; 1954 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dwkef;u (96³81) ukaÉ&Sd&mu 1955 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv a&mufawmh
(53³32) ukaÉom usefygawmhw,f?
qefaps;ukd wwefaygif (50) atmuf rusEkdifvkd@ cef@rSef;+yD; qefa&mif;&aiGay: tajccHwGuf
csuf&if; ArmjynfvufawGŒtajctaeawGeJ@ tyfpyfqDavsmfjcif;r&SdpGm xifovdka&;qGJay;xm;wJh
auwDat pDrHudef;}uD;[mvnf; wae@wjcm;vuf!dk;xkd; ±_wfcsp&mjzpfvmcJhygw,f?
162

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vufawGŒeJ@vnf; r[yfrd/ aiGuvnf; jywfvmwJhtwGuf 1955 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvxJrSm
auwDat pDru
H ed ;f ukd &yfqidk ;f ypfvu
dk &f ygawmhw,f? ArmjynfrmS auwDat pDru
H ed ;f edXw
d o
H mG ;&yg
awmhw,f?
tar&duef yg&*l}u;D awG a&;qGw
J ifjywJh auwDat pD;yGm;a&;pDru
H ed ;f awG edwXd o
H mG ;&ayr,fh
tar&duef pDtkdifat aemufcHðy autrfwD usL;ausmfr_}uD;uawmh tqkH;rowfEkdifao;wJhtwGuf
1955 ckEpS /f rwfvxJrmS yJ Akv
d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm acgi;f aqmif+yD; &ef}uD;atmifppfqifa&;}uD; qifE&J$ jyef
ygw,f? 1954 ckESpf/ rwfv up+yD; bk&ifhaemifppfqifa&;}uD; qifE$JcJh&ovkd 1955 ckESpf/ rwfvu
p+yD; &ef}uD;atmifppfqifa&;}uD; qifE&J$ jyefwmjzpfygw,f? Akv
d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm [m 'Dppfqifa&;}uD;
awGudk qifE$Jzkd@ rjzpfpavmufwyfav;awGudkom xkwfE_wf,lcGifh&+yD;/ owif;pm pme,fZif;awGu
wqifh wyf}uD;awG tvkH;t&if;eJ@ ppfqifa&;xGuf&av[ef ppfy&d,m,ftzkHzkH usio
hf ;Hk +y;D / uk,
d w
f idk f
a&SŒwef;xGuf wku
d cf u
dk Of ;D pD;cJ&h wmjzpfygw,f? wk;d wufzŒGJ pnf;xm;wJh wyftrsm;pk}uD;ukd wkid ;f &if;om;
tcsi;f csi;f wku
d cf u
dk &f wJh jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;twGi;f rSmyJ ykaH tmtok;H ðy wku
d cf u
dk af pcJ=h uwmjzpfygw,f?
jynfytE W&m,f tjywfwkdufckdufa&; jynfyusL;ausmfoludk tjywfarmif;xkwfa&;xuf jynfwGif;
vufeufukdif tiftm;pkawGtay: tðywfwkdufa&;udkom zqqkd&S,ftpkd;&u aZmif;ay;cJhygw,f?
Akv
d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm&JŒ &Gy&f yG cf |cH |H OD;pD;wku
d cf u
dk rf a_ =umifh av;Ekid if t
H pnf;ta0; aqG;aEG;yJaG wG
ta=umif;jy+yD; 54§55 ckESpftwGif; w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfa&;orm; (7000) avmuf xGufcGmoGm;cJh
=uygw,f? 'gvJ tkrd if;rpGr;f '%f&m&olawG cGijhf yefawGe@J rdom;pk0ifawGyg a&maESmpm&if;jy xGucf mG
oGm;=uwmvkd@qkdygw,f? ta&;edrfhoGm;=uwJh w±kwfjzLrsm;[m avmeJ@xkdif; bufukd qkwfcGmoGm;
=u+yD; jyefvnfajcukwf,lzkd@ jyif+rJjyifcJh=uygw,f? ArmjynfxJuae t+yD;tykdif at;at;aq;aq;
xGucf mG oGm;a&; oabmxm; b,fwek ;f urS r&Scd =hJ uvd@k qydk gw,f? tar&duef[m Oa&myrSm aewk;d
ppfpmcsKyf tzJGŒzGJŒ+yD; taumiftxnfazmfcJhovkd ta&SŒawmiftm&Sudkvnf; qD;wkd;zJGŒ+yD; Arm
jynfukdusKH;oGif;Ekdifzkd@ óud;pm;aecsdefjzpfygw,f? w±kwfjzLukdudkif+yD; Armjynfukd zdtm;ay;csifwJh &nf
&G,fcsufvnf;&Sdw,fvkd@ EkdifiHa&;okH;oyfolawG wkd;wufwJh tiftm;pkawGu jrifcJh=uygw,f?
w±kwfjynfuvnf; Armjynf tar&duefwkd@&JŒ ppftkyfpk zJGŒpnf;a&;xJ a&mufroGm;a&;[m
tifrwefta&;}uD;wJh jy\emtjzpf ±_jrifxm;ygw,f? xkdif;/ zdvpfykdif/ xkdif0rf/ ygupPwefwkd@[m
tar&duef&JŒ qD;wkd;ppftkyfpk0ifawGjzpfvm=uygw,f? jyifopfe,fcsJŒorm;awG qkwfcGmoGm;&wJh
tif'cdk sKid ;f em;a'oukv
d nf; tar&duefawG toGit
f rsK;d rsK;d eJ@ ae&m,lEidk zf @dk pwif yg0ifywfoufvm
cJh=uygw,f? 'kwd,urBmppft+yD;rSm e,fcsJŒorm;a=umifh ESpfjcrf;uJGcJh&wJh EkdifiHawGxJrSm tm&Su
uk;d &D;,m; eJ@ AD,uferfw@dk [m txift&Sm;qk;H om"uawGjzpfcyhJ gw,f? uk;d &D;,m;ppfyrJG mS tar&duef
yg0ifywfoufco
hJ vkd AD,uferfrmS vnf; jyifopfawGqw
k cf mG t+yD; tar&duefawG yg0ifywfoufvm
cJhygw,f? awmifAD,uferfrSm ajc±_wfvmcJh=uygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwD OD;aqmiftm%m&xm;wJh
ajrmufAD,uferfudk òzdcGif;ypfa&;twGuf awmifAD,uferfbufuae tar&duefawG yg0ifulnDpGuf
zufvmcJh=uygw,f? avmeJ@ uarBm'D;,m;EkdifiHawGxJvnf; tar&duefwkd@&JΠppfa&; pGufzufr_ajc
vSrf;awG ododomom jzpfay:vmaeygw,f? xkdif0rfudk tar&duef xD;&dyfatmufrSm qGJoGif;xm;
+yD;/ wkdif0rf&JŒ w±kwfjzLvufeufudkifwyfawGukd Arm/ avm/ xkdif;e,fpyfwav#mufrSm ae&m&,l
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

163

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

v_yf&Sm;aeapjcif;tm;jzifh tar&duefwkd@&JΠtm&Sqkdif&m ppfa&;&nfrSef;csufawGtwGuf tar&duef
ppfwyf}uD; wwyfcsxm;ay;xm;ovkd tok;H 0ifaecJyh gw,f? xkid ;f Ekid if u
H v
kd nf; ‘qDw;dk ’ xJ w&m;0if
qGJoGif;+yD;wJhtcg w±kwfjzL ulrifwefwyfrsm;tzkd@ ajcukwf,lp&m tykdifae&m wck&Sd+yD;jzpfwJhtjyif
Arm/ avm/ xkdif;e,fpyfwavsmuf ppfa&;v_yf&Sm;p&m ‘*Gif’ us,fvmcJhygw,f? Armjynfbufu
wku
d x
f w
k cf &H wJt
h cg xkid ;f eJ@ avmxJ qkwaf y;+yD; tajcpku
d w
f nf&EdS idk cf iG &hf aeovkd tajctaeaumif;
vmwJhtcg ArmjynfxJ jyef0ifa&mufvmEkdifcGifhvnf; vG,fulaecJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh Armjynf&JŒ
w±kwjf zLusL;ausmo
f rl sm; jy\em[m t+yD;tjywf ajz&Si;f vk@d r&wJh jy\emwckvjkd zpfaecJyh gw,f?
tar&d uefwkd@&Jh tm&Sqkdif&may:vpDawGeJ@ wkduf±kdufywfoufaecJhygw,f? Armjynf tm%m&
zq-qkd&S,f rsm;uvnf; ‘e,fcsJŒ tE W&m,fxuf uGefjrLepftE W&m,fu ykda=umufp&maumif;
w,f’ vkd@ cH,lcsrSwf ukdifpGJxm;=uawmh w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfolrsm; armif;xkwfypfa&;[m t"du
ta&;}uD;wm0efr[kwfovkd jzpfaecJhygw,f? tar&duefe,fcsJŒ&JŒ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;/ uGefjrLepf
tE W&m,fwm;qD;um uG,fa&;&yfwnfcsufeJ@ Armjynfqkd&S,fvpfrsm;&JΠuGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;
uGefjrLepfawGudk tðywfwkdufa&; oabmxm;&yfwnfcsuf[m tusKd;pD;yGm;wlay:rSm ajcpkH&yfr_csif;
wlaecJh=uygw,f? w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfcH&r_jy\em[m &ifemp&maumif;wJh trsKd;om;a&;jy\em
}uD;jzpfaewmawmif/ zkH;zkH;zdzdvkyfxm;+yD; tar&duefqef@usifa&;ukd wcGef;wyg'rS qef@usifajym
=um;jcif;rvkyfcJh=uyg? qkd&S,fvpfxdyfoD;}uD; OD;ausmf+idrf;u “ppfrSefwJh uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;orm;
aumif;wa,muf[m ppfrSefwJh trsKd;om;a&;0g'Djzpfw,f” qkdwJh azmufjyefwJht,ltqudk udkifpJG
xm;ovkd OD;AaqG&JΠEkid if aH &;uvnf; uGejf rLepfwu
kd af &;om t"dujzpfcyhJ gw,f? olw@kd EpS Of ;D pvk;H [m
ArmjynfrmS “uGejf rLepfygwDusqkH;v#if qkd&S,fvpfygwD tvkdvkdwufvmvdrfhrnf” qkdwJh t,ltq
udkom vufukdifðyxm;cJh=uygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ekuawmh w±kwef @J awGŒ&if tar&duefawG rqd;k a=umif;ajym/ tar&duefe@J awGŒ
&if w±kwfawGrqkd;a=umif;ajym+yD; tar&duefcspf=unfa&;a&m w±kwfcspf=unfa&;yg òydifwlvkyf+yD;
ol@&JŒ a&$jynfat;t,ltqukd vufawGŒusifhokH;Ekdifzkd@ jyifqifaecJhygw,f?
1955 ckEpS /f {+yDvrSm befa'gi;f nDvmcHusi;f yygw,f? tm&S tmz&du Ekid if aH cgi;f aqmifawG
awmfawmfrsm;rsm;wufa&muf=uygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ekvnf; wufa&mufovkd w±kwf0ef}uD;csKyf
csLtifvidk ;f vnf; wufa&mufygw,f? tdE,
dN u ae±_;/ tif'edk ;D &Sm;u qlumEk/d uarBm'D;,m;u oD[mEk
wkd@awGvnf; wufa&muf=uygw,f?
aemif ay:xGuv
f mwJh befa'gi;f rl}uD; (10) csuq
f w
dk m/ ae±_;/ csLtifvidk ;f eJ@ OD;Ekw@dk a=unm
cJh=uwJh “+idrf;csrf;pGm twlwuG yl;wJGaexkdifa&;rl}uD; (5) csuf” tajccHay:u xyfavmif;rGrf;rHxm;
wmomjzpfygw,f? “befa'gi;f rl}uD; (10) csu”f rSm Armjynfu 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek &JŒ tcef;u¾vnf;
xifxif&Sm;&Sm; yg0ifcJhygw,f? w±kwfjynf&JŒ ta&mifwifay;csufeJ@ OD;Ek ta&mifxGufvmcJhwmvkd@
vnf; EkdifiHa&;tuJcwfrsm;u qkdprSwfðycJh=uygw,f? EkdifiHwumhqufqHa&;e,fy,frSm OD;Ek *k%f
wufcJhwJhESpf[m 1955 ckESpfu pw,fvkd@awmif ajym&rSmjzpfygw,f?
EkdifiHwumrSm OD;Ek *k%fwufayr,fh jynfwGif;rSmawmh OD;Ek *k%fysufp&mawG jzpfay:vmyg
w,f? rd;k wvk;H avwvk;H [pf+yD; OD;Ek uk,
d w
f idk f pum;vk;H vSvS a&G;+yD;aºuG;a=umfprD H taumiftxnf
164

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

azmfvu
dk w
f hJ ‘jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f ’ }uD;uawmh (55) ckEpS t
f wGi;f rSmyJ cg;usK;d oGm;ygw,f? t&if;u
vJawmh tzsm;xif;jzpfovdk (55) ckEpS /f Zefe0g&rD mS ‘auwDat’ pDru
H ed ;f &yfqidk ;f vku
d &f +yD;wJah emuf
jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f }u;D [mvnf; a&pkaH rsmpðycJ&h ygawmhw,f? jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f }u;D bma=umifh
ysuf&ovJqkdwm tajz&Sm=unfhr,fqkd&if wkdif;jynf&JŒ vufawGŒtajctaeeJ@rukdufnDwJh pDrHudef;
awGukd auwDatuqGaJ y;cJ+h yD;/ vma&mufywfouf=uwJh Ekid if jH cm;yg&*lqo
dk al wGuvnf; rwefwq
vpm/ rwefwqtcGifhta&;awGudkom &,lcHpm;&if; Armjynftay: apwemrrSefcJhwmawG&Sdjcif;/
qefaps;udk wwef aygif (50) atmuf rusEikd q
f w
dk hJ pdwu
f ;l ,Ofwu
G q
f r_rsm;/ 1954 ckEpS rf mS aomif;use;f
oltm;vk;H csKyf+idr;f oGm;vdrrhf ,fqw
dk hJ rSe;f qr_rsm;eJ@a&mar$+yD; pDru
H ed ;f }uD;ukd a&;qGw
J ifjycJjh cif;a=umifh
'D ‘auwDatpDrHudef;’ awGudk tajccHxm;wJh jynfawmfom pDrHudef;}uD;[m ysufjym;cJh&wmjzpfyg
w,f? 'g[m tcsufwcsufyJjzpfygw,f?
aemufwcsuu
f jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f ukd taumiftxnfazmf=uwJh tpk;d &tzJŒG xdyo
f ;D }u;D
awGukd,fwkdif tkyfpkzJGŒ tiftm;òydifae=u+yD; tykdiftpm;&&m ukd,fhae&m ukd,fxifovkd vkyfukdifae
=u&if; oef&moef&m pDru
H ed ;f awGudk csrw
S t
f aumiftxnfazmfae=uvk@d jzpfygw,f? v,f,mu¾eJ@
pufr_u¾/ or0g,ru¾awG[m qufpyfr_&Sd&Sd nd‡nd‡E_dif;E_dif; taumiftxnfazmf&r,fhtpm;
jy'g;wvrf;oHwvrf;vkjd zpfaecJ=h u+yD; tm%m&qk&d ,
S yf gwt
D wGi;f aumvdyt
f yk ef @J bke;f }uD;ausmif;
tkyf&JŒ *kd%f;*%òydifyJGt=um; csdwfqufrrd xifovkdtaumiftxnfazmfcJh=uvkd@vnf;jzpfygw,f?
aemufq;Hk wcsuu
f tqift
h oD;oD;&Sd zqqk&d ,
S rf sm;[m rw&m;ojzifh ck;d 0Sucf =hJ u/ bk;H cJ=h u/
pm&if;tif;vdrfvnfcJh=u ukd,fusKd;&SmcJh=uwJhtwGufa=umifhjzpfygw,f? Awvp u trawmfa=u;/
ajrcGeaf =u; aumufyo
J ;D ESH a&mif;0,fa=u;awGtay: ck;d =u/ bk;H =u/ vufoif&h mpm;awmfac:a&;vkyf
=u/ pm&if;aysmuf tif;aysmuf *kad 'giaf ysmufvyk =f uwmawG wjynfv;Hk tES@H jzpfay: cJo
h vkd or0g,r
eJ@ pufr_vkyfief;/ taqmuftOD;wnfaqmufa&; pDrHudef;vkyfief;awGbufuvnf; uefx±kdufeJ@
aygi;f ukeo
f nfe@J aygi;f +yD; rw&m;pD;yGm;&Sm=u/ tjrwfxw
k =f u/ vufajymif;vufvcJ$ sxm;a0iS/ rwef
wq0g;òrdpm;aomuf uk,
d u
f sK;d &SmcJ=h uwmawG ae&ma'otoD;oD;rSm ausmrf aumif; =um;raumif;
jzpfay: cJhygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u owif;pmawGay:rSm ‘Awvp}uD; trawmfa=u;awG bkH;vkdufjyef+yD’
‘qkd&S,fvpf}uD; 0g;vkdufjyef+yD’ qkdwJh owif;awG[m ae@pOfowif;awGvkd jzpfaecJhygw,f? b0opf
pDrHudef;qkdwmawGrSmvnf; wESpf (10) ukaÉavmuf/ aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfief;awGrSm (6) ukaÉ
avmuf[m tv$JokH;pm;r_awGa=umifh avvGifhqkH;±_H;cJh&w,fqkdygw,f?
'ga=umifh jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f awGudk jynfawmfrompDru
H ed ;f awGv@dk awmif vlxu
k ac:a0:
avSmifajymif uifyeG ;f wyfay;cJ=h uygw,f? OD;Ek&ŒJ ‘jynfawmfom’ qkw
d hJ vSvyS y pum;vk;H [m avSmif
ajymifoa&mfp&m pum;vk;H wckozG,f jzpfcyhJ gw,f? t"dyg` ,t
f rsK;d rsK;d eJ@ ajymif=u avSmif=u oa&mfchJ
=uwmawGvnf; ay:cJhygw,f?
jynfawmfompDru
H ed ;f }uD; cg;usK;d +yD; a&pkeaf r#m&wJt
h csed rf mS jynfawmfom&JΠajc&mvuf&m
tjzpf ajymp&m&,fvkd@ usefcJhwmu tnmaus;vuf rkd;acgifa&&Sm;&yf0ef;a'o aus;&GmwcsKdŒrSm
usecf w
hJ hJ ‘jynfawmfomwGi;f ’ qkw
d meJ@ ‘uE mW &yif’ awGy&J ydS gawmhw,f? ayw&m ESp&f mavmuftxd
oHyu
dk v
f ;Hk av;cs+yD; ajray:rSm cg;apmif;omomavmuftjrifh oHyu
dk v
f ;Hk xGm qkid u
f ,
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

165

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

eJ@ wa*smif;a*smif; vufqGJp&m oHarmif;wHwyf/ t0dpda&wGif;av;awGukd ‘jynfawmfomwGif;’
vk@d ac: =uygw,f? tnmwcGif pdr;f vef;pkad jya&;twGuq
f +dk yD; av,mOfysaH y:uae }uJcsay;cJw
h mvk@d
vnf;qkd=uwJh ‘tpPa&;’ u o,fvmwmvm;/ b,fuo,fvmwmvJqkdwm odyfruGJjym;vSwJh
uE mW &yif qkw
d mawGuawmh tnma'ow0ku
d f awmx+yD; &Sio
f efuse&f pfcyhJ gw,f? ql;awG tòydi;f
t±kdif;eJ@ vleif;rdvnf; tE W&m,f/ u|JEGm;awGtzkd@vnf; roufomvSwJh uE Wm&yifawG usef&pfcJh
ygw,f?
'D 1955 ckEpS x
f rJ mS yJ tpk;d &eJ@ t"dutwku
d t
f cHvnf;jzpf vufeufuidk af wmfveS af &; qifEJ$
aewJh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD (Auy) [m ‘55 vrf;pOf’ ukd w&m;0if azmfxkwfvkdufygw,f? 55
vrf;pOfudk jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;/ jynfwiG ;f +ird ;f csr;f a&;vrf;pOfv@dk ac:ygw,f? 55 vrf;pOf[m ‘ppfa&;csKd
Ekid if aH &;yk’d qkw
d hJ azmfxw
k o
f eH @J twl jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpzJ @dk / jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&; jyefvnfwnfaqmuf
zkd@ tqkdðyxm;ygw,f? 1951 ckESpfwkef;u csrSwfxm;cJhwJhvrf;pOfuvnf; ‘'Drdkua&pD+idrf;csrf;a&;
!Ge@f aygi;f tpk;d &vrf;pOf’ omjzpfcyhJ gw,f? vrf;pOf (2)ck pvk;H rSm ‘+idr;f csr;f a&;’ ukd tav;wif;azmfjy
cJhwmawGŒ&ygw,f? jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;ukd tav;xm;E_d;aqmfcJhwm awGŒ&ygw,f? 55 vrf;pOfrSm
=uawmh jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;udk xdyfpnf;wif acgif;wyf+yD;ukd OD;wnfazmfjycJhwmawGŒ&ygw,f?
1955 ckEpS x
f rJ mS yJ zqyv tpd;k &u azmfvu
dk w
f muawmh ‘ysLapmxD;’ pDru
H ed ;f jzpfygw,f?
Auy tygt0if jynfwGif;vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkawGukd ppfwyfeJ@ tðywfwkdufa&;
ay:vpDudkifpJG+yD; tjyif;txef xkd;ppfqif wkdufckdufaewmukd tm;r&ao;yJ ppfwyf}uD;udk tquf
rjywf wdk;csJŒwnfaqmufaewmukd tm;r&ao;yJ aomif;usef;olESdrfESif;a&;eJ@ &yf&Gm+idrf0yfydjym;a&;
twGuq
f k+d y;D ‘ysLapmxD;’ ukd zJŒG pnf;zk@d jyifqifwmjzpfygw,f? ppfwyf[m twGi;f wyfjzpf+y;D ppfwyfudk
tjyifuae taxmuftulðyzk@d / ysLapmxD;ukd tjyifwyftjzpfwnfaqmufz@dk &nf&,
G w
f mjzpfygw,f?
ysLapmxD;udk 1955 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmvrSm 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek OuUÏtjzpfaqmif&GufwJh trsKd;om;
umuG,fa&;aumifpDqkH;jzwfcsuft& zJGŒpnf;apwmvkd@qkdayr,fh pufwifbmv (14) &ufae@rSm
r*Fvm'kHrSmusif;ywJh wyfrawmfnDvmcHrSmuwnf;u ppfwyfu 'DysLapmxD;pDrHudef;ukd zwf=um;
wifjy aqG;aEG;cJh=u+yD;jzpfaewm awGŒ&ygw,f?
ppfwyf[m ppfwyfacwfrDwkd;wufa&;twGuf ppfbufavhvma&;tzGJŒawG zGJŒ+yD; EdkifiHjcm;
wkdif;jynfawGukd apv$wfwm avhvmapwm vufeuf0,f,l pkaqmif;wmawGvnf; 55 ckESpfxJrSm
trsm;qkH;ðyvkyfcJhygw,f? 55 ckESpf/ {+yDvqef;rSm Akdvfrª;csKyf oef;az/ Akdvfrª;}uD; wifaz/ Akdvfrª;}uD;
armifarmifw@dk acgi;f aqmifwhJ tzJŒG [m tzJŒG (2) zJŒG cJ+G yD; ,l*pdk vm;AD;,m;/ taemuf*smr%D/ tpPa&;/
jyifopfw@dk uo
dk mG ;cJyh gw,f? ,l*pdk vm;AD;,m;u ay;tyfr,fh wyfr[mwckpm vufeufc,
J rf; rD;ausmuf
eJ@ 0efwifwd&p>mefawGudkyg vufcH&,lcJhygw,f? usnfqH (2) oef;xkwfvkyfEkdifwJh pufukdvnf;
taemuf*smr%DEkdifiH z&pf0gemukr`%D uae 55 ckESpf/ rwfv (9) &ufae@uwnf;u pmcsKyfcsKyfqkd
0,f,lcJh+yD;jzpfygw,f?
55 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvrSm ypPnf;axmufyHha&;0ef}uD; Akdvfrif;acgif eJ@twl ppfzufukd,fpm;
vS,fawG[m tpPa&;/ ,l*kdpvm;AD;,m;/ [efa*&D/ csufukdpvkdAufuD;,m;/ ta&SŒ*smr%DeJ@
qkdAD,uf wkd@udkvnf; oGm;a&mufcJh=ujyefygw,f?
166

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tJ'D pufwifbmvxJrSmyJ w±kwfjynfumuG,fa&;0ef}uD;&JŒ zdwf=um;csuft& w±kwfjynf
c&D;udkvnf; AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; udk,fwkdif acgif;aqmif+yD; oGm;a&mufcJh=ujyefao;w,f? w±kwfjynf
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;&JŒ zdwf=um;csuft& w±kwfjynfc&D;udkvnf; AkdvfcsKyf}uD; ae0if; udk,fwkdifacgif;
aqmif+yD; oGm;a&mufcJh=ujyefygw,f?
1955 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (28) &ufae@rSm ppfOD;pD;csKyfukd umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfvkd@ trnf
ajymif;vJac:a0:cJ+h yD;/ a&wyfO;D pD;csKyfudk 'kw,
d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf (a&)/ avwyfO;D pD;csKyfudk 'kumuG,f
a&;OD;pD;csKyf (av) vk@d ajymif;vJ ac:a0: cJo
h vk/d atmufwb
dk m (1) &ufae@up+y;D umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyu
f dk
'kumuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf (av/ a&) wk@d &ŒJ vkyyf idk cf iG ehf @J tm%mtm;vk;H udyk g tyfEiS ;f vdu
k yf gw,f? =unf;/
a&/ av tm;vk;H [m umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Akv
d cf sKyf}uD; ae0if; &JŒvufatmuf wpkwvk;H wnf;a&muf
&SdoGm;apwJh oabmjzpfygw,f?
1955 ckEpS x
f rJ mS 1950 jynfEh pS u
f wyf&if;opfawGzŒJG pnf;&mrSm xnfo
h iG ;f zJŒG pnf;cJw
h hJ ‘ppf0ef
xrf;wyf’ awGteuf/ useaf eao;wJh wyf&if; (13) &if;ukd zsuo
f rd ;f ypf+yD;/ ajcvsiw
f yf&if;awGtjzpf
ajymif;vJzJGŒpnf;ygw,f? wyf&if; (25) uae (31) txd ajcvsifwyf&if; (7) &if;jzpfay:vmygw,f?
trSwf (104) ajcjrefwyf&if;ukdvnf; wkd;csJŒzGJŒpnf;vdkufygw,f?
1955 ckEpS /f Ek0d ifbmvrSm aomif;use;f r_umuG,af &;twGuq
f +dk yD; ppfbuf/ &Jbuf/ tkycf sKyf
a&;bufawGpkaygif;+yD;/ ysLapmxD; ppfqifa&;pDrHudef;}uD;udk taumiftxnfazmfvkdufygw,f?
‘ysLapmxD;’ wyfawG w&m;0ifay:vmygw,f? 51-52 a&G;aumufyJGwkef;u aomif;usef;&rf;um;cJh
=uwJh emrnfqkd;eJŒausmf=um;cJhwJh ajymufusm;0efxrf; umuG,fa&;qkdwJh cg;ykdufaqmifwyfawGukd
ysLapmxD;vk@d trnfajymif; zJŒG pnf;vku
d w
f momjzpfw,fv@dk twku
d t
f cHEidk if aH &;tiftm;pkawG/ ygwD
tzJGŒtpnf;awGu a0zefaxmufjy=uygw,f? ysLapmxD; zJGŒpnf;awmhzkd@ w&m;0if pwifa=unm
uwnf; uvnf; a0zef qef@usif uef@uGufcJh=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh zqyv tpkd;&u ysLapmxD;ukd
zJGŒjzpfatmif zJGŒvkdufygw,f? zJGŒpnf;+yD;csdefup+yD;awmhvnf; ysLapmxD;awG[m a'otoD;oD;rSm
w&m;0ifvufeufukdif&rf;um;r_awG usL;vGefawmhwmjzpfygw,f? w&m;0ifvkdifpif&awGjzpfvmcJhyg
w,f?
1955 ckESpfxJrSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm; xGufay:vmwmwckvkd@ qdk&rSmuawmh zqyv tpkd;&&JŒ
‘vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdef’ a=unmcsufyJjzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek OuUÏ tjzpfaqmuf&GufwJh
umuG,af &;aumifpq
D ;Hk jzwfcsuf ysLapmxD; pDru
H ed ;f }uD;eJ@twl a&SŒqifah emufqifh xGuaf y:vmcJw
h m
jzpfygw,f? ‘ysLapmxD;’ u aomif;use;f olawGukd ESrd ef if;zk@d / vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGihf trde@f a=unmcsuf
}uD;u aomif;use;f olrsm; tvif;0ifvm=uzk@d jzpfygw,f? 0ifapcsiw
f t
hJ ayguu
f kd zGiahf y;+yD; wzufu
wkwfjyifvkdufwJhoabmjzpfygw,f? aemufwpfcsufu aemufxyf vtenf;i,ftwGif; usif;y&
awmhr,fh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;twGuf vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdef@xkwf+yD; rJqG,fajcvSrf;
pvkdufwmvnf;jzpfygw,f? 'kwd,t}udrf ygvDref'Drkdua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;u 1956
ckESpf/ {+yDvrSm usif;y&awmhr,fjzpfygw,f? vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh trdef@a=unmcsufudk jynfxJa&;
0ef}uD;Xmeu 1955 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbm (1) &ufae@ ae@pGJeJ@ xkwfjyefa=unmvkdufygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

167

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

atmufwkdbm (1) &ufae@u 1956 ckESpf/ rwfv (31) &ufae@txd (6) v oufwrf;owf
rSwaf y;xm;+yD; vufeufuikd f ykeu
f efqef@usiaf e=uolrsm; tcGit
hf a&;ukt
d &,l+yD; tjrefq;Hk tvif;
0ifz@dk aqmf=oxm;ygw,f? 'Dvw
G +f idr;f csr;f omcGit
hf rde@f u vufeufuidk yf ek u
f efqef@usiaf e=uolawG
vufeufcstvif;0ifzkd@oufouftwGufyJ &nf&G,fxkwfjyefcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
'D 1955 ckEpS x
f rJ mS yJ xl;xl;jcm;jcm; rSww
f rf;wifp&m ay:xGe;f vmwmuawmh jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkdifiHtrsKd;om;nD!Gwfa&;wyfaygif;pkqkdwJh yrnw tzJGŒ}uD; ay:xGef;vmwmjzpfygw,f?
yrnw tzGŒJ }uD;[m ajray:twku
d t
f cH Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;&JΠwyfaygi;f pk}uD;tjzpf ay:xGe;f vm
cJhygw,f? 51-52 ckESpf yxrt}udrf ygvDref'Drkdua&pDa&G;aumufyJG}uD;wkef;u a&G;aumufyGJrwdkifrD
twkduftcH EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;[m cdkifrmwJh wyfaygif;pkwck atmifatmifjrifjrif zJGŒpnf;oifh
ygvsuf rzGJŒpnf;EdkifcJh=uyg? 'kwd,t}udrf ygvDref'Drkdua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD; usif;ycgeD;
usrS twkduftcH EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;&JŒ wpkwpnf;wnf;aom wyfaygif;pk}uD;tjzpf ‘yrnw’
ukd zJGŒpnf;EdkifcJhjcif;jzpfygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfjzpfae&wJhtwGuf jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH; 'kuQtrsKd;rsKd;eJ@
&ifqkdifae&+yD;/ 'Dvkdtajctaeqkd;awGrS jynfoludku,fwif&efqkd+yD; ‘yrnw’ }uD;ukd zJGŒpnf;vdkuf
wmvkd@ aºuG;a=umfygw,f? 1955 ck/ Ekd0ifbm (18) &ufae@rSm ‘yrnw’ ay:xGufvmygw,f?
‘yrnw’rSm
(1) ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m 'dk@Armtpnf;t±kH;/
(2) jynfol@nD!Gwfa&;ygwD/
(3) jynfol@+idrf;csrf;a&;tzJG@aygif;pk/
(4) Armjynf tvkyform; v,form;ygwD/
(5) Armjynf tvkyform; tpnf;t±kH;rsm;tzGJŒcsKyf/
(6) awmifolv,form;nD!Gwfa&; tpnf;t±kH;/
(7) jynfolŒvli,ftzJGŒcsKyf/
(8) w&m;r#wr_tzJGŒ/
(9) rGef/ wkdif;&if;om;tpnf;t±kH; eJ@
(10) ref;xGe;f &if tp&Sw
d hJ vly*k Kd~ vf vlwef;pm;tzGŒJ tpnf;uk,
d pf m;vS,rf sm;yg yg0ifc=hJ uygw,f?
vli,fhwyfOD;wkd@tjyif tr_xrf;or*~ OuUÏ a[mif; OD;xGef;atmifausmf wkd@vnf; yrnw
rSmyg0ifvmcJh=uygw,f? yrnw xJrSm tiftm;t}uD;qkH;uawmh qkd&S,feDrsm;jzpfygw,f?
awmckv
d ufeufuidk t
f zGŒJ tpnf;jzpfwhJ ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD (Auy) u jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpJ
a&;/ jynfwiG ;f +idrf ;f csr;f a&;vrf;pOfudk aºuG;a=umfovk/d w&m;0if ajray:tzGŒJ tpnf;}uD;jzpfwhJ yrnw
uvnf; jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;/ jynfwiG ;f +ird ;f csr;f a&;toHuykd J yJw
h ifxyfapcJyh gw,f? ‘yrnw’ }u;D [m
xif&mS ;wJh ajray: Oya'wGi;f twku
d t
f cH Ekid if aH &;tiftm;pk}uD; jzpfvmcJyh gw,f? yrnw &JŒxif&mS ;
wJh EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifawGuawmh ocifcspfarmif (0d"l&)/ ocifvGif/ ocifvSau|/ OD;odef;azjrifh/
Akv
d cf sKyftudk OD;atmifoef;/ OD;b+idr;f / w&m;0ef}uD;a[mif; OD;at;armif/ OD;bxGe;f pwJo
h al wGjzpf=uyg
w,f? OD;at;armifu w&m;0ef}uD;&mxl;u E_wfxGuf+yD; ‘w&mr#wr_ygwD’ axmif/ aemufykdif;
ocifcspfarmifwkd@ tvkyform; v,form;ygwDeJ@wGJ+yD; ‘yrnw’ zJG@&mrSm yg0ifvmwmjzpfygw,f?
168

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

‘yrnw’ ukd zqyv tpk;d &u ‘ajray:uGejf rLepf’ awGv@dk uifyeG ;f wyfcyhJ gw,f? yrnw wyfaygi;f
pk}uD; ay:vmwm[m zqyv tpkd;&&JŒ rl0g' ay:vpDawGudk a0zef ±_wfcs zGifhcsEkdifcJh+yD; jynfolvl
xk&JŒ óuHawGŒ&ifqkdifae&wJh vlr_b0taxGaxGukd rD;armif;xkd;jyEkdifcJhygw,f?
1955 ckEpS f ESpu
f ek yf idk ;f rSm ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD (Auy) &JΠjynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;/ jynfwiG ;f
+idr;f csr;f a&; aºuG;a=umfoaH wGe@J twl yrnw tzJŒG }uD;&JŒ jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;/ +idr;f csr;f a&;awmif;qkd
oHawGtjyif wuUov
dk af usmif;om;rsm;or*~ (wuo) &JΠjynfwiG ;f ppf&yfp+J yD; jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;
ukd t&,l=uzkd@ awmif;qkdoHawGyg us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ pnfpnfa0a0 xGufay:vmcJhygw,f? 1955
ckEpS /f 'DZifbm (5) &ufae@/ (35) ESpaf jrmuf trsK;d om;ae@rmS ‘wuo’ u +idr;f csr;f a&;tqkw
d ifoiG ;f
vkduf+yD; tpkd;&eJ@ vufeufudkifawmfvSefaeolrsm; awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;=uzkd@ awmif;qkdvkdufygw,f?
1955 ckESpf[m Armjynforkdif;rSm awmfawmfxl;jcm;wJhESpfvkd@ ajym&ygvdrfhr,f? Armjynf
0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek vnf; uruxðyolwpfOD;tjzpf yg0ifcJhwJh ‘befa'gif;nDvmcH}uD;’ usif;yEkdifcJh+yD;
Armjynftpk;d &&JΠEkid if jH cm;a&;qkid &f m *k%w
f ufcw
hJ EhJ pS jf zpfovk/d zqyv tpk;d &&JΠauwDat pDru
H ed ;f
&yfqkdif;vkduf&wJhESpf jynfaxmifompDrHudef; a&pkefar#mvkduf&wJhESpfvnf;jzpfygw,f?
w±kwjf zLwku
d x
f w
k af &;twGuf &ef}uD;atmifppfqifa&;}uD; qifEcJ$ o
hJ vk/d ppfwyfu ppfzuf
qkdif&mv_yf&Sm;r_awG wkd;csJŒwnfaqmufr_awG vkyfcJhwJhESpfjzpfygw,f?
Auy &JΠ55 vrf;pOf/ jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;vrf;pOf ay:xGufcJhwJhESpfjzpf
ovkd zqyv tpdk;& &JŒ ysLapmxD;pDrHudef;/ ysLapmxD;zJGŒpnf;r_awG ay:aygufcJhwJhESpfjzpfygw,f?
zqyv tpk;d & &JΠvGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGit
hf rde@f xGuaf y: cJo
h vkd twku
d t
f cH Ekid if aH &;tiftm;
pkawG&JŒ wyfaygif;pk ‘yrnw’ }uD; ay:xGufcJhygw,f?
ajray:ajratmuf Oya'wGif; Oya'y EkdifiHa&; tiftm;pkawG tygt0if tm%m& zqyv
tpdk;&tzJGŒuvJGvkd@ wjynfvkH; jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;toHawG pnfpnfnHnH
pwifazmfusL;vmwJhESpfvnf;jzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek qkdAD,uf,leD,HoGm;+yD; c±k&SufeJ@ cspf=unf
a&;vkyfcJhovkd c±k&SufeJ@ bl*geifwkd@vnf; ArmjynftvnfvmcJh=uwJhESpfjzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf
OD;Ek omoemh 'g,umbJGŒcHzkd@ qXoHCm,emwifyGJvnf; pcJhygw,f?

_id r f ; csrf ; a&;/ tðywf w k d u f a &;eJ ‹ jref r mEk d i f i H a wmf
wzufu jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;toHawG v_yf&Sm; pnfnHvmptcsdef rSmyJ
zqyv tpdk;& &JŒ oabmxm;trSefudk xif[yfjyvkdufwJh ‘atmifrmCppfqifa&;}uD;’ xGuf
ay:vmygw,f? 1956 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvqef;up+yD; wyfrawmf&JŒ trSwf (10) ajcvsifwyfr[m&JŒ
uGyu
f rJ e_ @J atmifrmCppfqifa&;}u;D ukd pwifqifEyJ$ gw,f? aomif;use;f olvufeufuidk t
f m;pkawGukd
tðywfwkdufa&;twGufqkd+yD; pwifvkdufwmjzpfygw,f?
rwfv (31) &ufae@txd oufwrf;owfrw
S x
f m;wJh vGw+f ird ;f csr;f omcGit
hf rde@f ukd vufeuf
csa&;/ tvif;0ifa&;wk@d twGuf zGiahf y;xm;+y;D wòyid ef ufwnf;rSm ppfa&;t&zdtm;ay;zk@d vufeufrcs
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

169

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

csifolawGudk tjywfacsr_ef;zkd@ ‘atmifrmC’ udk pwifvkdufwmjzpfygw,f? jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;
jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;toHawGudk ppfoHeJ@ zkH;ypfvkdufygw,f?
'gayr,fh +idr;f csr;f a&;toHawGu aysmufroGm;bJ qufay:vmygw,f? ‘atmifrmC’ p+yD;
vkd@ (14) &uft=um Zefe0g&D (20) &ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD OuUÏ ocifoef;xGef;u
0ef}u;D csKyf OD;Ek qD Akv
d v
f usmf uwqifh pmwapmifay;yk@d ygw,f? awGŒqkaH qG;aEG;a&;twGuf urf;vSr;f
a&;wJh pmjzpfygw,f? pmrSm (1) Armjynftpdk;&onf t*Fvdyf-tar&duefwkd@. usL;ausmfa&;*kd%f;twGif;okd@rygbJ
trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;ESifh +idrf;csrf;pGm twl&Sda&;0g'ukd jywfom;pGm usifhokH;&rnf?
(2) wjynfv;Hk wGif 'Dru
dk a&pDtcGit
hf a&;rsm;ay;&rnf? jynfow
l @kd . 'Dru
dk a&pD tcGit
hf a&;
rsm;ukd tmrcH&rnf? uGefjrLepfygwD0ifESifh tjcm;wkd;wufaom EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;
tm;vkH;ukd v$wf&rnf?
(3) ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifh &Sdor#aom 'Drkdua&pDygwDrsm;ESifh vlxktzGJŒtpnf;rsm;.
Oya'wGif; wnf&SdcGifhESifh vkyfukdifaqmif&GufcGifhrsm;ukd tmrcH&rnf?
[laom tcsuf (3) csufudk tajccHI zqyv tpkd;&ESifh awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;vkdonfvkd@ azmfjy
urf;vSrf;ygw,f?
wuUov
dk ef @J aumvdyaf ygi;f pkH aqG;aEG;yJ}G u;D uae ausmif;om;xk&ŒJ awmif;qkyd ef=um;oHtjzpf
‘jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;yef=um;v$m’ vnf; qufwu
dk x
f u
G af y:vmygw,f? ausmif;om;xk&ŒJ yef=um;
v$m[m ausmif;om;uk,
d pf m;vS,af ygi;f (126) OD;/ avhvmol (65) OD; wufa&mufwhJ &efuek w
f uUov
dk f
wuo taqmuftOD;rSmusi;f ywJh 'kw,
d t}udraf jrmuf wuUov
dk af umvdyaf ygi;f pkH aqG;aEG;yG}J uD;&JŒ
&v'ftjzpf xGuaf y:vmwmjzpfygw,f? &efuek w
f uUov
dk /f rE aW v;wuUov
kd /f armfvòrid Of ypmaum
vdyf/ rauG; Oypmaumvdyfu ausmif;om;ukd,fpm;vS,fawGeJ@ wuUodkvfaygif;pkH tzJGŒaygif;pkH udk,f
pm;vS,af wG[m wuo taqmuftOD;rSm Zefe0g&D (23) uae (25) &ufae@txd (3) &ufwidk w
f idk f
awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;=u+yD;wJhaemuf 'Dyef=um;v$mukd xkwfjyefvdkuf=uwmjzpfygw,f? ynma&;tokH;
p&dwu
f adk v#m+h yD; jynfwiG ;f ppftok;H p&dwu
f dk ykrd o
kd ;Hk pGaJ ewm/ ynma&;t=uyftwnf;awG ykrd edk uf±id_ ;f
vmwmawGudkaxmufjy&if;/ jynfwGif;ppfukd jynfolw&yfvkH;u&yfpJ&ef vkdvm;ae=uwmudk azmfjy
+yD;/ ppfa&;t& t=urf;zufESdrfESif;jcif;eJ@ jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;rSm rjzpfEkdifa=umif; (7) ESpfausmf
tawGŒtóuHrsm;u oufaojy+yD;jzpfwJhtwGuf awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;a&;enf;eJ@ jynfwGif;ppfukd &yfpJ=uzkd@
azmfjywkdufwGef; yef=um;xm;wmawGŒ&ygw,f?
azazmf0g&D (13) &ufae@rSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD OuUÏ ocifoef;xGef; ay;pmt& ocif
oef;xGef; aqG;aEG;vdkw,fqkdwJh tcsuf (3) csuftay: zqyv tpdk;&u w&m;0ifwkef@jyef jyef=um;
ygw,f? jrefrmEkid if aH wmftpk;d &&JŒoabmxm;ukd azmfjywJt
h aeeJ@ jyef=um;a&;0ef}u;D OD;xGe;f 0if; uae
azazmf0g&D (13) &ufnrSm toHvi$ hf &Si;f vif;ajym=um;apcJyh gw,f? ocifoef;xGe;f aqG;aEG;csiw
f ,f
qkdwJh tcsuf (3) csuf[m aqG;aEG;&efrvkdawmhwJh tcsufawGjzpf+yD; EkdifiHawmftpkd;&u ay;xm;+yD;
om;jzpfwJhtwGuf ‘vmcsifv#ifteD;av;/ rvmcsifvkd@ c&D;a0;atmifvkyfaewJh tcsufawGomjzpf
a=umif; wkef@jyefajymqkdcJhygw,f? tcsuf (3) csufudk wcsufcsif;&Sif;ygw,f?
170

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

eHygww
f pftcsuu
f &kd iS ;f wJt
h cg “u|Eykf w
f @dk tpk;d &onf t*Fvyd -f tar&duef tkypf u
k o
kd mv#if
ru rnfonfh *k%
d ;f / rnfonft
h yk pf k bufur# r0ifbaJ ecJo
h nfukd Arma&m urBmuyg od+y;D jzpfonf?
twkduftcH EkdifiHtkyfpkzGJŒjcif;udk a&S;uvJ raxmufcH/ ,ckvJ raxmufcH/ aemufvJaxmufcHrnf
r[kwf” vkd@ qkdvkduf+yD; “zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'udk ,ae@txd opPmrazmufzsufcJhaom
tpkd;&rSmvnf; u|Ekfyfwkd@ tpkd;&omv#ifjzpfonf” vkd@ &ifhusL;vkdufygw,f?
eHygwf (2) csufukdvnf; “u|Ekfyfwdk@tpkd;&onf tajccHtcGifhta&;rSefor# jynfolvlxk
w&yfvkH;tygt0if rnfonfhtwkduftcHtzJGŒtpnf;rsm;udkrqkd ay;xm;+yD;jzpfonf” vkd@
&Sif;vif;vkduf+yD; tusOf;om;rsm;eJ@ ywfouf+yD;vnf; EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;qkdwm r&Sd/ ykefuefxºuG
aomif;usef;r_awGeJ@ zrf;qD;xm;olawGom&Sdw,fvkd@ wkef@jyefajymqkdygw,f?
eHygwf (3) tcsuu
f adk wmh “awmckad omif;use;f olrsm; tvif;ok@d 0if/ vufeufenf;jzifh ykeu
f ef
aomif;use;f r_ukd pGe@f vw
$ af =umif; a=unmonfw
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jzpfwJhtwGuf 'DtcGifhta&;ukd t&,l+yD; vufeufcstvif;0if=uzkd@eJ@ tqkH;owfxm;ygw,f?
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csKyf=unfhr,fqkd&if ‘vufeufcstvif;0if=u’ qkdwmomjzpfygw,f? vufeufcs tvif;0ifa&;
twGufvnf; v$wf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh trdef@xkwfxm;+yD;jzpfwJhtwGuf wHcg;yGifhae+yD;jzpfw,f?
w&m;0ifwnf&SdcGifh EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;cGifhawGtwGufuawmh vufeufudkifenf;eJ@ ykefuef
aomif;use;f r_ukd pGe@f vw
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cGifhudk vufeufcsa=umif; vufeufukdifvrf;pOf pGef@a=umif; t&ifa=unm+yD;rS pOf;pm;r,fhoabm/
aemufwqifhudpPtjzpf oabmxm;ovkd tmrcHcsufrJhaeygw,f?
azazmf0g&D (25) &ufae@rSm wyfrawmfrSvnf; ‘tvif;0if&ef zdwfac:csuf’ qdkwmudk xyfrH
xkwjf yefygw,f? “tjrefq;Hk om tvif;ud0k ifcahJ yawmh” qkw
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tJ'Dvkd &Sif;vif;csuf a=unmcsufawG xGufay:t+yD; r=umcifrSmyJ ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD
u +idr;f csr;f a&;twGuf jzpfEidk o
f r#enf;vrf;awGukd &SmazGz@dk yk*Kd~ vfwOD;udk wm0efay;apv$wyf gw,f?
=um;vltjzpf AkdvfvusmfukdowfrSwf+yD; Akdvfvusmfuwqifh tpdk;&tzGJŒeJ@ qufoG,fapwmjzpfyg
w,f? Akv
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d cf if
armifuav; eJ@ Adv
k rf ;ª }uD; atmif}uD; wd@k udk ta=umif;=um;ygw,f? Akv
d cf ifarmifuav;eJ@ Akv
d rf ;ª }uD;
atmif}uD; u 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ekukd qufvufwifjyygw,f? OD;Eku tpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ@ Auy
u wifajr‡mufxm;wJh=um;vl AkdvfvusmfeJ@om awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;zkd@ trdef@csrSwfay;+yD;/ aqG;aEG;wJh
tcgrmS vnf; tvif;0ifa&;tpDtpOfudk b,fvpkd pD Of&r,fqw
dk mavmufuykd J aqG;aEG;+yD; Ekid if aH &;udpP
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

171

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

ukd vk;H 0raqG;aEG;zk@d vkid ;f csay;cJyh gw,f? 'ga=umifh Akv
d cf ifarmifuav;eJ@ Akv
d rf ;ª }uD;atmif}uD; wk@d [m
Akv
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d yf
wJhtpDtpOfawGðyvkyfa&;” qkdwJh tcsufay:rSmyJ t"duxm; aqG;aEG;=uw,fqkdygw,f?
Akv
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wkd@u uGefjrLepfrsm; vufeufcsa&;eJ@ywfouf+yD; tpDtpOf trdef@!¸ef=um;csufawGudk toHv$ifh
a=unmygawmhw,f?
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a&;Xme0ef}uD; Akdvfcifarmifav; . toHv$ifhcsuf” qdkwmeJ@ “uGefjrLepf rsm;vufeufcsa&;ESifh
ywfoufI wyfrawmfrS Akdvfrª;}uD; atmif}uD; . toHv$ifhcsuf” qkdwm ESpfck a&SŒqifhaemufqifh
xGufay:vmygw,f? Adkvfcifarmifav;&JŒ a=unmcsufu (1) tpd;k &onf tpk;d &ESihf vufeufuikd af omif;use;f olrsm; awGŒqkaH phpyfaqG;aEG;aomrlukd
rnfonfhenf;ESifhr# vufrcH?
(2) vufeufcsa&;onf EkdifiHa&;vkH;0rygbJ ±kd;±kd;vufeufcsa&;omjzpf&rnf?
(3) vufeufcsvadk omvlrsm;onf tpd;k &u a=unmxm;onft
h wkid ;f 31-3-1956 &uf
ae@ rukefqkH;rD teD;qkH; vufeufudkifwyfrsm;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;bufokd@ vufeufcs
vkda=umif; ta=umif;=um;&rnf?
(4) Todk@ vufeufcsvkda=umif; ta=umif;=um;onfESifhwòydifeuf vufeufcsEkdifa&;
twGuf vkdtyfaomtpDtpOfrsm;udk ðyvkyfay;rnf?
tu,fI vkdv#if tcsKdŒaom vufeufcsrnfhae&mrsm;odk@ ajrmufykdif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyfrS
Adkvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm ESifh awmifykdif;wkdif;ppfXmecsKyfrS Akdvfrª;csKyf bvdwf wkd@udk,fwkdif wm0ef,lI
vufeufcsa&;udpPrsm;udk aqmif&Gufay;rnfqkdwmjzpfygw,f?
aomif;usef;olrsm; vufeufcs+yD;wJhaemuf aoewf0g'udkpGef@v$wf&if 'Drkdua&pDpnf;0kdif;
twGif;rSm vGwfvyfpGm a[majympnf;±kH;a&;om;cGifh 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;awGudk ay;r,fvkd@vnf;
azmfjyajymqkdoGm;ygw,f?
Akdvfrª;}uD;atmif}uD; &JŒ a=unmcsufu epfjzLygwD0if vufeufudkifaomif;usef;olrsm; tpkvkduf tòyHvkduf vufeufcs 0ifa&muf
zG,&f mta=umif;&So
d nf? vufeufcsa&;udk vufcaH qG;aEG;yg? vufeufcs&efaqG;aEG;ovkðd y+yD; vuf
eufcsa&;udpPr[kwfaom EkdifiHa&;udpPrsm;udk aqG;aEG;v#if aqG;aEG;yJGudk&yfpJ+yD; awmxJodk@jyefygap?
uGejf rLepfrsm;u vufeufcsvo
dk nft
h wGuf rnfo@kd rnfyHk vufeufcs&rnfh tpDtpOfðyvkyf
&efom aqG;aEG;jcif;jzpfI EkdifiHa&;t& aphpyfa&;vkyfjcif;r[kwfqdkonfudk owdðyapvkdonf? vuf
eufcsonft
h cg &&Srd nft
h cGit
hf a&;rSm ,cifa=unm+y;D twkid ;f jzpfI rwfv (31) &ufae@txdom&Sd
onf? vufeufcsa&;twGuf aqG;aEG;aepOf ppfqifa&;rsm;udk qkid ;f iHx
h m;jcif;/ &yfpx
J m;jcif;rðyvky&f ef
ponfjzifh azmfjyajymqkdoGm;ygw,f?
172

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

a=unmcsuf (2) ckpvkH;[m tay:pnf;ucsnf;jzpfygw,f? Auy rsm; vufeufcszdk@awmh
aocsmae+yDqw
dk hJ ,k=H unfem;vnfxm;r_tay:uae cyfwif;wif;a=unmcJ=h uwmjzpfygw,f? =um;
vl Akv
d v
f usmf eJ@ ajymqkad qG;aEG;&csuaf wGtay:uae/ Akv
d v
f usmf &JŒpmtay:uae tykid w
f u
G q
f +yD;
zqyv tpkd;&&JŒ oabmxm;udk tay:pnf;uae xkwfazmf!¸ef=um;ajymqkdcJh=uwmjzpfygw,f?
aemufwpf&uf rwfv (26) &ufae@usrS ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD ukd,fpm;vS,f&JŒ ‘Akdvfcif
armifav; xHay;pm’ [m Akv
d v
f usmq
f u
D ae a&muf&v
dS mygw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D wm0ef
ay;apv$wx
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tcsuf (3) yg0ifygw,f? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD A[kdudk,fpm;vS,f OD;csrf;at;&JŒpmrSm (1) u|efawmfonf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD OuUÏ ocifoef;xGef;u EkdifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf
OD;EkxH jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;twGuf jzpfEidk o
f r#aomenf;vrf;rsm;udk &SmazG&ef wm0ef
ay;tyfjcif;cH&aom udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfygonf?
(2) ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDonf jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf vufeufudkifwkdufyJGudk pGef@
v$wf+yD;/ EkdifiHawmfzJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya'twGif;Yom 'Drkdua&pDenf;t&
tm%m&,lvkda=umif; twdtvif;a=unmvkdayonf?
(3) xk@d a=umifh Ekid if aH wmfzŒGJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyOHk ya'twGi;f aqmif&u
G af &;twGuf ay:ayguv
f m
rnfjh y\emrsm;udo
k m aqG;aEG;vkyd gonf? e,fcsŒJ tkypf 0k if r0ifqadk omjy\em/ !¸e@f
aygif;tpdk;& zJGŒpnf;a&;jy\em ponfhjy\emrsm; aqG;aEG;rnfr[kwfyg? aqG;aEG;zkd@
vnf;rvkdyg?
od@k jzpfI jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&; Ekid if zH ŒGJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyOHk ya't& aqmif&u
G cf iG &hf a&;wk@d twGuf
aqG;aEG;&ef ajrmufyidk ;f wkid ;f ppfXme wae&mwGif tpd;k &bufrS oufqidk &f mtm%mykid rf sm;ESihf Armjynf
uGejf rLepfygwrD u
S ,
dk pf m;vS,rf sm;awGŒqk&H ef tpDtpOfðyvkyaf y;apvkad =umif; vk@d azmfjyxm;ygw,f?
‘csr;f at;’ vk@d vufrw
S x
f ;dk xm;ygw,f? tpk;d &bufu Akv
d cf ifarmifav;/ Akv
d rf ;ª }u;D atmif}u;D wk@d &ŒJ
toHvi$ ahf =unmcsuyf g oabmxm;&yfwnfra_ wGe@J uGv
J q
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Ekdifqkdwm &yfcHxm;ygw,f? uGefjrLepfygwDbufu ocifoef;xGef;ay;pmrSm azmfjycJhzl;wJh tcsuf
(3) csuftygt0if EkdifiHa&;udpPawGudk raqG;aEG;&bl;qkd&if raqG;aEG;yg? vufeufudkifwkdufyJGudk
pGe@f vw
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dk a&pDenf;t& tm%mudk &,lcsiyf gw,f?
tJ'Dvkd&,lEkdifzkd@twGuf vkdtyfvmr,fh zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHOya'qkdif&m jyoemawG&SdvmEkdifygw,f?
tJ'jD y\emawGu bmawGv/J zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk Oya't& bmawGukd tmrcHz@dk vadk o;ovJ/ pojzifh
pojzifh jzpfay:vmEkdifwJh zJGŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHOya'abmiftwGif;u ay:aygufvmr,fh jyoemawGukd
awGŒqkaH qG;aEG;zk@d jzpfygw,f? wqifah v#m+h yD; aqG;aEG;wmjzpfygw,f? 'gukd zqyv u vufrcHEidk b
f J
tay:pnf;uae y,fcswmjzpfygw,f? vufeufcstvif;0ifa&;udpu
P vJv
G @dk bmrSraqG;aEG;Ekid q
f w
dk hJ
wif;rmwJhoabmxm;udkom xkwfazmfjyocJhwmjzpfygw,f? tykdifwGufq+yD; a=unmvkduf=uwJh
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

173

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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wyfrawmf&JΠarmufrmr_ +idrf;csrf;a&;rvkdvm;r_awGudkom azmfjyvkdufovkdjzpfcJhygw,f?
Zefe0g&v
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tar;udk jyefvnfajz=um;&if; ‘ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu ¹cGif;csufr&Sd vufeufcsv#if w&m;0if
wnfaecGiu
hf kd todtrSwðf yrnfjzpfa=umif;/ xko
d @kd ðy±ko
H mru uGejf rLepfygwED iS hf vlxak &SŒarSmufwiG f
'Dru
dk a&pDenf;t& tcsed rf a&G;,SOòf yid &f aJ =umif; ’aºu;G a=umfc+hJ y;D / Zefe0g&D (20) &ufrmS ocifoef;xGe;f
u tcsuf (3) csufazmfjy+yD; awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;=u&ef urf;vSrf;vmawmhrS yxrqkH; OD;xGef;0if;u
tcsuf (3) csuu
f dk ykwx
f w
k zf ,f&mS ;cJyh gw,f? ocifoef;xGe;f u ud,
k pf m;vS,q
f ufvw
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f mawGraqG;aEG;Ekid q
f +dk y;D Akv
fd cf ifarmifav;/
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vkdufwmomjzpfw,fvkd@ yrnw obmywdtzJG@u aumufcsufqJGjycJhygw,f? Armjynf uGefjrLepf
ygwu
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tpdk;&óuduf jzpfoGm;cJhygw,f? OD;csrf;at; vufeufcsjzpfoGm;ygw,f?
atmifrmC xkd;ppf}uD;udk rD;ukef,rf;ukef t}uD;tus,fqifE$J+yD; tðywfwdkufa&; toHjyef
us,fvmygw,f? atmifrmC xkd;ppf}uD;eJ@twl Armjynftxufykdif;&Sd vufeufukdifawmfvSefa&;
tiftm;pkawGtay: Oya'/ tvif;a&mi/f rk;d óud; eJ@ rdwW ppfqifa&;awGvnf; azmfxw
k f csrw
S q
f ifEcJ$ yhJ g
w,f? trSwf (103) ajcjrefwyf&if;opfeJ@ ‘yl;aygif;ppfqifa&;ESifh avxD;oifwef;ausmif;’ ukdvnf;
ppfwyfu wkd;csJŒzJGŒpnf;cJhygw,f?
wkdif;jynf&JΠpD;yGm;a&;tajctaeuawmh wufrvmyg? jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;vnf;
zqyv awG ckd;=u 0Suf=u bkH;vkdfuf=uwJh twGuf a&pkefarsmoGm;&+yD; t&HEkdifiHjcm;aiGyrm%m[m
ukefoavmufjzpfoGm;ygw,f? 55 ckESpf =o*kwfvrSm pm&if;t& (36²6) ukaÉom usefawmhwJh
twGuf cg;usKd;oGm;&wJh jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;udk jyefvnfðyjyifwJhtaeeJ@ pyg;pkdufysKd;a&;udk
OD;pm;ay;+yD; pdDrHudef;topfa&;qGJ&if; (1956-60) yxr av;ESpfpDrHudef;}uD; ay:vmjyefygw,f?
1960 jynfhESpfrSm Armjynfukd ppfrjzpfrDu tajctae jyefa&mufzkd@vkd@qkdygw,f? 'DpDrHudef;udk
1956 ckESpfup+yD; taumiftxnfazmfzkd@ óud;pm;jyefygw,f? 'D av;ESpfpDrHudef;}uD;[mvnf; jynf
awmfompDrHudef;}uD;vkdyJ puULay:rSmom zwfvkd@aumif;aecJhygw,f?
tpd;k & u zG@J pnf;ay;vku
d w
f hJ ysLapmxD;rsm;uawmh {+yDvrSm usi;f yawmhr,fh a&G;aumufyGJ
}uD;rSm tm%m& zqyv tEkdif&&Sda&;twGuf twkduftcH yrnw udk,fpm;vS,favmif;awGeJ@
yrnw bufu aqmif&Guf=ur,fh yk*~dKvfawGtay: +cdrf;ajcmufwm jy\em&Smwm tEkdifusifhzkd@
174

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

óud;pm;wmawG ae&mtESH@rSm enf;rsKd;pkHeJ@ vkyfaqmifðyrl=u±kHru/ jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH;tay:vnf;
rw&m;ðyusifhwm/ ESdyfpufuvlvkyfwm/ apmfum;zdESdyfwmawG vuf&JZuf&J ðyusifhvm=uygw,f?
rzJGŒpnf;rDuwnf;u ysLapmxD; zJGŒpnf;a&;udk tjyif;txef uef@uGufcJh=uwJh yrnwrsm; óudwif
ok;H oyf cJjG crf;pdwjf zmjycJo
h vkd vmr,fah &G;aumufyrGJ mS vnf; ysLapmxD; awG[m cg;yku
d af qmifwyfawG
tjzpf rawmfrw&m; aESmuf,Suf=uOD;rSmjzpfa=umif; wifóudajymqkd pGyfpGJcJhzl;ovkd wu,fvnf;
taESmuft,Sufðy=u &rf;um;cJh=uygw,f? tm%m& zqyv}uD;&JŒ txl;ojzifh qkd&S,fvpfawG&JŒ
cg;ydkufaqmifvufeufudkifwyf ppfppfawGjzpfcJh=uygw,f?

19
56 ck E S p f ygvD r ef ' D r d k u a&pD t axG a xG a &G ; aumuf y J G / tm%m& zqyv tuG J e J ‹
1956
jynf w G i f ; ppf & yf p J a &;aºuG ; a-umf o H
1956 ckESpf/ {+yDv (27) &ufae@rSm ygvDref'Drkdua&pD taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;ukd wjynf
vkH;rSmusif;ycJhygw,f? ‘56 ckESpf a&G;aumufyJG’ vkd@ twkdac:a0:cJh=uygw,f? 56 ckESpf a&G;aumufyGJ
[m ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; a=unmEkdif+yD;aemuf usif;ywJh 'kwd,t}udrfajrmuf ygvDref'Drkdua&pD
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ}uD;jzpfygw,f?
t"dutm;jzifh tm%m& zqyv tzJGŒ}uD;eJ@ twkduftcH EdkifiHa&;wyfaygif;pk (yrnw)
tzJGŒ}uD;wkd@ t}udwfte,f ,SOfòydifta&G;cs,fcHcJh=uwmjzpfygw,f? zqyv [m tm%m&tzJGŒ
tpnf;}u;D jzpfwt
hJ wGuf tiftm;awmifw
h if;+y;D wyef;om+y;D jzpfovkd “yrnw” tzJŒG }u;D uvnf;
EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;eJ@ wyfaygif;pktjzpf zJGŒpnf;xm;wmjzpfwJhtwGuf tiftm;awmifhwif;ae+yD jzpfwJh
twdkuftcH tzJGŒtpnf;}uD;jzpfygw,f?
zqyv tzJGŒ}uD;u ‘zqyv}uD;tESpfav;q,ftm%mwnfap&r,f’ aºuG;a=umf+yD; a&G;
aumufyrJG mS pnf;±k;H ygw,f// rwfv(31) &ufae@txd oufwrf;&Sw
d hJ vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGihf trde@f xw
k f
jyefcJhwm[mvnf; rJqG,fpnf;±kH;jcif;wrsKd;jzpfygw,f? AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; ukd,fwdkifyg0if+yD; pwifzJGŒ
pnf;cJhpOffu &SdcJhwJh zqyv }uD;&JŒtpOftvmaumif;awG qufvuf,liifpm;okH;+yD; vlxkudk rpm;&
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yrnw tzGŒJ }uD;uawmh ‘jynfwiG ;f ppfrck s&yfp&J r,f’ qkw
d hJ jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;aºuG;a=umf
oHukdukdifpJG+yD; a&G;aumufyJG0ifygw,f? zqyv tpkd;&&JΠjynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; oabmxm;awGukd
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pnf;±kH;rJqG,fygw,f?
+idrf;csrf;a&;udkar#mfvifhae=uwJh jynfolvlxk}uD;u yrnw &JŒ aºuG;a=umfoHukd tav;
teufxm;cJ=h uygw,f? 'ga=umifh zqyv tpk;d &&JΠtm%mpuf=um;u/ tm%m& bufawmfom;
toD;oD;&JŒ +cdrf;ajcmuf&efvkdr_=um;uae ‘yrnw’ ukd rJay;vm=uwmawGŒ&ygw,f? e,fawGrSm
ysLapmxD; awGunpfywfpu
G zf ufc=hJ uovd/k wyfrawmfuvnf; zqyv bufu yif;cJyh gw,f? ae&m
wcsKd ŒrSm zqyvud,
k pf m;vS,t
f Ekid &f a&; uvdeu
f uspv
f yk cf =hJ uwm&Syd gw,f? wyfrawmfacgi;f aqmif
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

175

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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oHa,mZOf&=dS u+yD;jzpfovkd yrnw&JŒ+idr;f csr;f a&;aºuG;a=umfou
H dk eJeaJ v;rS vufrcHEidk =f uwmvnf;
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cJh=uygw,f?
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bufu yif;cJhovkd awmckdolykeftiftm;pkrsm;uvnf; yrnw udk tm;ay;cJh=uwmawGŒ&ygw,f?
rJvrd f rJnpfra_ wGe@J ywfoufv@dk tm%m&rsm;bufu awmfawmfrsm;rsm;vkycf =hJ uygw,f? a&G;aumufyGJ
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jy\emay:&ayr,fh bmrSrwwfEkdifawmhjcif;)/ ±kd;tol/ ouf}uD;&G,ftkdjzpfolrsm;&JŒ rJjym;ukd ulnD
vkdufykd@ rJxnfhapwJhtcg zqyv ykH;twGif;okd@om xnfhay;jcif; pwJhenf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ rJvdrf
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zqyv tEkid &f &Sad &;twGuf a&G;aumufyu
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armif}uD;/ &JabmfwifOD;/ &Jabmf!dkat; wkd@[mqkd&if ae@cif;a=umifawmif ajymifajymifwif;wif;udk
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ac:oGif;vmcJh=uw,fqkdwJh toHvnf; xGufay:vmcJhygw,f?
176

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

zqyv buf[m ysLapmxD;wyfvufeufudkif cg;ykdufaqmifwyfawGtultnDeJ@ rw&m;
ojzifh npfywfcJh=uwm +cdrf;ajcmufAkdvfus rJxnfhckdif;wmawG vkyfaqmifcJh=uw,fvdk@ twkduftcH
yrnw tzGŒJ }u;D u pGypf cJG o
hJ vd/k zqyv tzJŒG }u;D uvnf; aomif;use;f olvufeufuikd f olyek rf sm;
[m olwkd@}uD;pkd;&me,fajrawGuae vufeufjy +cdrf;ajcmuf+yD; &Gmol&Gmom;awGukd yrnw udk
rJay;zkd@ vkyfaqmifcJh=uw,fvkd@ tjyeftvSef wkef@jyefpGyfpGJygw,f?
a&G;aumufy}JG uD;rSm ‘zqyv’ u (1743816) rJ &&Scd +hJ yD; yrnw (1139286) rJ &&Syd gw,f?
yrnw tygt0if twku
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[m odyfruGmvSwmukd awGŒ&ayr,fh a&G;aumufyJGusif;yykHpepft& trwfae&m tEkdif&r_uawmh
uGmjcm;cJyh gw,f? tm%m& zqyvtzJŒG }u;D u trwfae&m (144) ae&m&&Scd +hJ y;D yrnw tzJŒG }u;D u
trwfae&m (46) ae&m yJ&&SdcJhygw,f?
trwfae&mt& ‘zqyv’ u tjywftowftEkdif&&Sdw,fqkdayr,fh vlxkaxmufcHr_
pkpkaygif;rJta&twGufu odyfuGmvSwmr[kwfwma=umifh ‘zqyv’ tzkd@ rsufvkH;jyL;p&mawmh
jzpfvmygw,f? ‘yrnw’ ukd ayghayghoabmxm;vkd@r&awmhbl;qkdwm odoGm;&ovkd/ arv (22)
&ufae@rSm usif;yzkd@a=unmxm;wJh jynfolŒv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJeJ@ wqufwpyfwnf;jzpfwJh
vlrsKd;pkv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyJGrSm ‘zqyv’ awGtEkdif&&Sda&;udk tav;xm;aqmif&GufEkdifzkd@
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'ga=umifh ‘zqyv ’ [m vlrsK;d pk v$waf wmfa&G;aumufyrJG mS zqyv uk,
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tEkid &f a&; tm;oGeóf ud;yrf;ygw,f? vlrsK;d pkvw
$ af wmfa&G;aumufy}JG uD;rSmawmh zqyv [m tjywf
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56 ckESpfa&G;aumufyJGt+yD; ay:vmwJhtpdk;&tzJGŒuawmh atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygw,f?
1? OD;Ek
- 0ef}uD;csKyf/
2? OD;AaqG
- 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifhumuG,fa&;0ef}uD;/
3? pyfcGefcsdK
- 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifhEdkifiHjcm;a&;/ &Srf;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;/
4? OD;ausmf+idrf;
- 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifhtrsKd;om;pD;yGm;a&;Xme0ef}uD;/
5? ocifwif
- 'k0ef}uD;csKyfESifh jynfolŒvkyfief;Xme0ef}uD;/
6? a'gufwmapmvSxGef;
- u&ifjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;/
7? OD;Zefxm;qif
- ucsifjynfe,fXme0ef}uD;/
8? pyf0À
- u,m;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;/
9? OD;Zm&Jv#ef
- csif;a&;&mXme/
10? OD;wif
- ukefoG,fr_wdk;wufa&;XmeESifhaxmufyHha&;0ef}uD;/
11? Adkvfcifarmifav;
- b¾ma&;ESifh tcGefawmfXme0ef}uD;/
12// ocifomcif
- jynfxJa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
13// ocifausmfxGef;
- v,f,mESifhopfawmXme0ef}uD;
14? OD;cifarmifvwf
- w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD;
15? Adkvfrif;acgif
- o,f,lydk@aqmifa&;/ pmwdkufESifha=u;eef;0ef}uD;/
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

177

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

16? OD;&m&Spf
- owWKwGif;Xme0ef}uD;/
17? OD;bapm
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18? OD;xGef;0if;
- or0g,rXme0ef}uD;/
19? ocifcspfarmif
- jyef=um;a&;Xme0ef}uD;/
20? OD;&dSefxef
- u,fq,fa&;ESifhjyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;0ef}uD;/
21? OD;atmify
- a&a=umif;ESifhòrdŒjyava=umif;Xme0ef}uD;/
22? qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif - jynfolŒvkyfief;/ tdrf,maqmufvkyfa&;/
23? ocifyef;òrdif
- 'Drdkua&pDa'oE W&tkyfcsKyfa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
24? ocifwifarmif
- jynfol@vkyfief;ESifh tdrf,maqmufvkyfa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
25? ocifpHjrifh
- v,f,majrEdkifiHydkifðyvkyfa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
26? OD;wif!Gef@
- tvkyform;Xme0ef}uD;/
27? Adkvfcifarmif
- pufr_vufr_Xme0ef}uD;/
28? pyfxGef;at;
- trsKd;om;rSwfyHkwifa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
29? OD;xGef;wif
- ynma&;ESifh,Ofaus;r_Xme0ef}uD;/
30? a'gufwmpdefbef;
- usef;rma&;Xme0ef}uD; - wdk@jzpfygw,f?
wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ Oao#mift}uD;tuJjy,k*t
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178

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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rxm;cJh=uvdk@qdkygw,f? 'ga=umifh 56 ckESpfavmufup+yD; wyfrawmf[m Adkvfae0if; wOD;wnf;&JŒ
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S hJ OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f ird ;f wd@k tyk pf &k ŒJ
uGejf rLepfacsre_ ;f a&;/ tðywfwu
kd af &; &nfreS ;f csuef @J Adv
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aomif;usef;ol tjrpfjywfa&; ppfqifrlawG[m wom;wnf;usaecJhygw,f? tðywfwdkufa&;
aomif;usef;olEdSrfeif;a&;rSm wom;wnf;us+yD; uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; tajccHay:rSm ajcpHk&yfr_csif;
wlnaD e=uayr,fh wzufuwyf[m txl;tiftm;pk}uD;w&yftoGif ajymif;vJjzpfay:vmaewmudk
awmh zqyv EdkifiHa&;pnf;0dkif;twGif;u OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf; tkyfpkua&m OD;Ek/ OD;wif ociftkyfpk
uyg jyufjyufxifxif ±_jrifEdkifr_r&dScJ@=uyg?
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tqHk;owfEdkifcJhygw,f// qÏoH*g,emwifyJG}uD; atmifjrifpGmusif;y+yD;+yDqdk&if 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;u
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

179

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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olŒatmufrSm yl;wJGxm;vdkufygw,f?
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180

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

181

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wavsmufvHk; twdkuftcH EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkawGtay:om vuf!kd;xdk; w&m;cH&Sm+yD;
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r_awGukd ckryS o
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f &m;orm;rd@k 'gawGuv
kd ufrcHa=umif; jyif;jyif;
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f ufuae pnf;±H;k a&;enf;rsKd ;eJ@ pnf;±H;k aewmjzpfygw,f? olrsm;
182

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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f ufenf;eJ@ pnf;±H;k vdu
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tJ'Dvdk zqyv }uD;[m teH@waxmif;axmif;xGufaewJh acG;aoaumifykyf}uD;jzpfaewJh
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atmufu ysLapmxD;/ vJA;D / ajymuf=um;jzLtyg ppfwyf}uD;wckv;Hk u jynfov
l x
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kd m0ef,rl vJqw
kd mudak wmh Ekid if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyf
OD;Ek wcGef;rSrajymcJhyg? (8) ESpfausmfausmf awmufav#muf0ef}uD;csKyfvkyfvmcJhwJhol[m wm0eft&dS
qH;k jzpfaewmudak wmh wvH;k wyg' wcGe;f uav;rS r[cJyh g? OD;ausm+f idr;f tkypf u
k awmh r*Fvm'Ht
k em;
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f ;l ae=uygw,f? Zlvi_d v
f vnfavmufrmS bmomjyef
pmaytoif;}u;D u }u;D rª;usi;f ywJh owif;pmq&mavmif;rsm; ausmif;qif;yJrG mS awmh OD;Ek u 1957
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvus&if olŒ zqyv OuUÏ&mxl;u E_wfxGufawmhr,fvdk@ a=unmajymqkdcJhygw,f?
OD;Ek u zqyvoef@&Sif;a&;acgif;pnf;eJ@ zqyv 0ef}uD;eJ@ tvkyftr_aqmiftzJGŒ0ifawG
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taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rª;xHwifjy/ wefb;kd aiGw&mxufyw
kd hJ vufaqmifypPn;f r,l&/ vufc&H w,fqkd
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a&;twGuf tjypf&w
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kd nf; poH;k vH;k Oya't& jynfxaJ &;u jynfxJ
a&;eJ@ppfwyf aygif;+yD; zrf;qD;apygw,f?
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ovdk poH;k vH;k Oya'eJ@ zrf;qD;wJt
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OD;ausm+f idr;f u ±_jrifoabmxm;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh OD;ausm+f idr;f uvnf; 'Dru
dk a&pDEikd if H 'Dru
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oabmxm;uJGr_awG ydk}uD;vmygw,f//
Armhwyfrawmfuawmh atmifrmCxd;k ppf}uD;udk t&deS jf yif;jyif;csŒJ +yD; qifEaJ$ e&if; wzufu
ppfwyfudk tiftm;}uD;oxuf}uD;atmif wkd;csJŒwnfaqmufwm/ ajymif;vJzJGŒpnf;wmawG tquf
rjywfvyk af ecJyh gw,f? umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; wOD;wnf;&JŒatmufrmS wyfawGtm;
vHk; (=unf;/ a&/ av tyg) &dS&dSor#udk vG,fvG,fulul uGyfuJEdkifzdk@ ppf±Hk; (War Office) udk umuG,f
a&;0ef}uD;Ïme (Ministry of Defence) tjzpf jyifqifzJG@pnf;ygw,f// =unf;wyftjyif a&wyfeJ@
avwyfudkvnf; wdk;csJŒwnfaqmufygw,f? a&wyfeJ@ywfouf+yD; &dS+yD;a&wyfpcef;XmecsKyfwdk@udk
wd;k csŒJ zGŒJ pnf; zGiv
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kd yf gw,f? avwyfe@J ywfouf+y;D vnf; rdwv
DW mavwyfpcef;udk Armhwyfrawmf
avwyfavhusiahf &;pcef;}u;D tjzpf ajymif;vJzŒGJ pnf;ovd/k trSwf (501) avwyftyk pf ek @J trSwf (502)
avwyftyk pf w
k @kd uv
kd nf; zJŒG pnf;vdu
k yf gw,f? avwyfacwfraDS &;twGuf 1956 ckEpS x
f rJ mS tar&duef
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

183

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

EdkifiHrS pufpem (Cessna Modle 180) av,mOfrsm;udkvnf; 0,f,ltm;jznfhygw,f? wyfrawmf
(av) rSm &[wf,mOfrsm;udkvnf; 56 ckESpfxJrSm pwiftoHk;ðyygw,f?
tm%m& zqyv tzJŒG }uD;twGi;f tuJt
G +yJawG zH;k rEdik zf rd &jzpfvmaepOftwGi;f rSm/ wyfr
awmf}uD;u tiftm;}uD;oxuf}uD;vmaeovdk/ jynfolvlxkw&yfvkH;&JΠjynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; jynf
wGi;f +ird ;f csr;f a&;qENuvnf; nHoxufnv
H mcJyh gw,f? ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D (55 vrf;pOft&)
jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;tvHukd wd;k +yD;v$io
hf vd/k q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfrid_ ;f OD;aqmifwhJ +idr;f csr;f a&;tzJŒG
&JŒtoH[mvnf; ydk+yD;yJhwifxyfvmcJhygw,f? q&m}uD;[m jynfwGif;ppfpuwnf;u jynfwGif;+idrf;
csrf;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk tqufrjywf OD;aqmifvmcJhygw,f? 56 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv/ rwfvup+yD;
txufArmjynfwcGif vSnv
hf nf+yD; urBm+h idr;f csr;f a&;/ jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;w&m;awG tqufrjywf
vdu
k v
f aH [majymcJo
h vdk rE aW v;òrdŒ av;jyifav;&yfq&mawmf (143) yg;udk jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;yef
=um;v$m wifqufav#mufxm; =o0g'cH,cl o
hJ vd/k &efuek f a&$w*d akH pwDawmf awmifbufapmif;wef;
OD;b&DZ&yfrmS ‘urBm+h idr;f csr;f a&;uGe*f &uf’ u }uD;rª;usi;f ywJh &efuek òf rdŒ&dS q&mawmfrsm; qENc,
H yl GJ
rSmvnf; q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;[m jynfwGif;jynfy +idrf;csrf;a&;yef=um;v$mudk wifquf
av#mufxm;cJhygw,f?
“jynfwiG ;f ppfukd rkcs&yfpaJ p&r,f” qdw
k hJ aºuG;a=umfoeH @J a&G;aumufy}GJ uD;twGi;f yg0if,OS f
òydifcJh+yD;/ v$wfawmftwGif;rSm t"dutwdkuftcH tzGJŒtpnf;}uD;ae&mudk &&dSvmcJhwJh ‘yrnw’
tzJGŒ}uD;uvnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;toHudk wufwufºuGºuGay;vmygw,f?
1956 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (29) &ufae@uae (31) &ufae@txd &efukefòrdŒ òrdŒawmfcef;rrSm
‘yrnw’ tzJGŒcsKyf&JŒ yxrt}udrf EdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ‘yrnw’ nDvmcH}uD;udk pnfpnfum;um;
usi;f yðyvkyyf gw,f? c±dik af ygi;f (31) c±dik òf rŒd e,faygi;f (104) òrŒd e,fu ud,
k pf m;vS,af ygi;f (534) OD;/
avhvmolaygi;f (188) OD; wufa&mufpak 0;wJh nDvmcH}uD;jzpfygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyftudk OD;atmifoef;u
nDvmcHobmywdvkyf+yD;/ 0d"l&ocifcspfarmifu twGif;a&;rª;tjzpfeJ@ nDvmcH}uD;udk OD;pD;zGifhvSpf
usif;ycJhygw,f?
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nDvmcHobmywd OD;atmifoef; (Adv
k cf sKyftud)k uvnf; obmywdred @f ceG ;f &Sn}f uD;udk ajym=um;cJyh g
onf?
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w±kwf acgi;f aqmifwhJ +idr;f csr;f a&;*d%
k ;f }uD;&,fv@kd *d%
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awG/ ,kw,
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184

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

txd zrf;qD;ta&;,lao;jcif;r&dSbJ &JtzJGŒuvnf; rsufESm}uD; vlowform;awGrdk@ ta&;r,l&JbJ
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vrf;rSeu
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hf ;kH ae&if;/ jynfya&; (Edik if jH cm;a&;) rSmawmh +idr;f csr;f pGm
ajz&Sif;a&;vrf;pOfudk vufcHygw,fvdk@ aºuG;a=umfaewm[m jynfwGif;a&;0g'eJ@ EkdifiHjcm;a&;0g'
yÉdyuQjzpfaewJhta=umif;/ EkdifiHjcm;a&;0g'[m jynfwGif;a&;0g'&JŒ tqufomjzpf&r,fhta=umif;
a0zefajym=um;ygw,f? zqyvtpd;k &&JŒ tðywfwu
kd af &;vrf;pOf rrSew
f mudk jynfwiG ;f ppf &SpEf pS af usmf
udk;ESpfordkif;u oufaojyae+yD;jzpfvdk@ ppfrSefwJh+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf yrnwu wifjyaewJh aphpyf
aqG;aEG;a&;enf;udkom vdkuf=u&rSmjzpfa=umif;/ zqyvtpdk;&u tðywfwdkufa&;vrf;pOfudkvdkuf
aewm[m jynfwGif;ppfrD;udkar$;xm;wJh e,fcsJŒorm;rsm;&JŒ=oZmudk rvSefEdkifwmuwa=umif;/
zqyv udk óud;udik af ewJyh *k K~ v
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trsK;d orD;awG rk'rd ;f usiahf ewJh cseaf u&Sw
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f sawmh jynfwiG ;f utcsi;f csi;f awG
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acgif;aqmifwpk[m rvJGraoGusqHk;&r,fvdk@ ajym=um;cJhygw,f? ppfrSefwJh+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf
aphpyfaqG;aEG;a&;vrf;pOfom trSefqHk;qdkwmudk wifjyoGm;ygw,f?
yrnw A[do
k bmywdtzJŒG &JŒ tpD&ifcpH mxJrmS vnf; jynfwiG ;f ppfjzpfymG ;&jcif;&JŒ ta=umif;
w&m;awGudk azmfjywJhtcg “e,fcsJŒorm;ESifh ‚if;.=oZmcH zqyv qdk&S,fvpfwdk@. EdkifiHa&;ppf
upm;r_/ ppfa&;iifra_ tmufrmS Edik if aH &;oabmuJv
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G rGJ u
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jynfolwkd@a&SŒarSmufwGif ajz&Sif;&rnfhtpm; 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;udk tm%mESifhydwfyifvsuf vuf
eufESifhzdESdyf+yD; awmwGif;odk@ armif;xkwfcJh=uonfhtwGuf aemufqHk;wGif 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;
uif;rJhvm&mrS vlwpk. vuf0g;}uD;tkyf tm%modrf;a&;vrf;pOfatmufwGif vufeufudkifwdkufyJG
jynfwGif;ppf}uD; ay:aygufvmcJh&avawmhonf” vdk@azmfjycJhygw,f?
nDvmcH}u;D &JŒ aemufq;kH &uf (31²8²56) ae@rmS yrnw tzJŒG }u;D &JŒ jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;tqdk
xGufay: cJhygw,f? tJ'Dtqdk&JŒtcsKyfuawmh “TEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m yrnw uGefz&ifh}uD;u jynfwGif;
ppf&yfpJa&;twGuf zqyvtpdk;&onf jynfolvlxk.qENESifh qef@usifI atmifjrifr_r&dSonfh
tðywfwdkufa&;vrf;pOfudk pGef@v$wfum jynfolvlxk}uD;w&yfvHk;u vdkvm;awmifhwaeonfh jynf
wGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;udk vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkrsm;ESifh rsufESmpHknD aphpyfaqG;aEG;I t&,l
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jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &; jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;toHawG ArmjynftwGi;f rSm nHpnfvmcJyh gw,f?
tJ'DumvtawmftwGif;rSm Armjynf ‘00’ e,ftwGif; w±kwfeDwyfrsm; 0ifa&mufwyfpJGaew,f
qdw
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w±kwfwyfawG ±kyfodrf;ay;zdk@ w±kwf0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvdkif; qD 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;AaqGu pma&;ygw,f?
w±kwfwyfawG ±kwfodrf;a&;udpPrSm wwfEdkifoavmuftultnDay;zdk@ tdEdN,0ef}uD;csKyfae±l;qD
zqyv OuUÏ OD;Eku pma&;ygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

185

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

w±kwftpdk;&&JŒ zdwf=um;csuft& w±kwf-Arm e,fjcm;jy\emudk aqG;aEG;zdk@ 1956 ckESpf
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rowfrSwf&ao;oa&GΠtckvdkjy\emawG r=umc%jzpfae=uOD;rSmyJvdk@ OD;Ek u csLtif;vdkif;udk
ajymygw,f? csLtifvdkif;u oabmwlygw,f 0e,fxJ w±kwfwyfawGa&mufaewm w±kwfA[dk
0’ e,fxJu w±kwfwyfawG jyefvnf±kwfodrf;ay;zdk@ ajymwm
tpdk;&u rodwJhta=umif;eJ@ OD;Ek u ‘0’
udk ±kwfodrf;ay;ygr,fvdk@ csLtifvdkif;u ajym=um;cJhygw,f? OD;Ek u w±kwfacgif;aqmifawGudk rdef@
cGef;wckajymcsifw,fqdkwma=umifh csLtifvdkif;u vlOD;a& (500) avmuf&dSwJh EdkifiHa&;twdkifyifcH
tzJGŒwckudk ac:ay;+yD; pum;ajymcGifhay;cJhygw,f? OD;Eku w±kwf eJ@ Arm oabmwlxm;cJh=uwJh
rl}uD; (5) csufudk wcsufcsif;jyefvnfzGifhqdk &Sif;vif;cJhygw,f?
w±kwf-Arm e,fedrdwfowfrSwfa&;udpPudk OD;Ek eJ csLtifvdkif; wdk@ pwifaqG;aEG;cJhygw,f?
csLtifvikd ;f &JΠaqG;aEG;csuf tcsKyfuawmh (1) ucsijf ynfe,fxu
J zDarmf/ a*:vef/ uefzefqw
kd hJ &GmoH;k &Gm
[m (1913) ckEpS t
f wGi;f u w±kwjf ynfxu
J ae +Adwo
d #tpd;k &wd@k twif;zJ,
h o
l mG ;wJh e,fajrawGjzpf
w,f? tJ'Dwkef;u w±kwfwjynfvHk; uef@uGufqENjycJh=uw,f? olvnf; ausmif;om;tjzpfeJ@
qENjy&mrSm yg0ifzl;w,f? tJ'D&Gm (3) &Gmudk w±kwftpdk;& jyefay;&ef/ (2) +Adwdo#tpdk;&[m erf0rf
e,fajrudk 1890 ckESpfxJrSm w±kwfjynfxJuzhJ,l+yD; w±kwfjynfxJu &moufyefiSm;xm;wJh e,fajr
vkyfcJhw,f? ajriSm;ctjzpf wESpfwaxmifay;cJhw,f? b,fw±kwftpdk;&urS ajriSm;cudk vufrcHcJh
zl;bl;? tJ'v
D kd &moufyefimS ;xm;wJeh ,fajrqdw
k m &,fp&m}uD;jzpfaew,f? Armjynfu 'De,fajrudk
tydkif,lcsif,lyg/ r,lcsif&if w±kwfjynfjyefay;&ef/ (3) 'De,fajr[m ArmjynftwGuf &Srf;jynfeJ@
ucsifjynfe,fudk qufoG,fwJh vrf;r}uD;azmufvkyfxm;+yD;jzpfaevdk@ tzdk;wefw,f? Armjynfu
tydik v
f ckd si&f if 'De,fajrtpm; ‘0’ e,fajrxJu yef[ek ef @J yefavmwd@k ukd w±kwjf ynfukd ay;&efqw
kd m
jzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dtcsuf (3) csufudk oabmwl&if oabmwlwJhta=umif; ESpfzufudk,fpm;vS,ftzJGŒ
vufrSwfxdk;r,f/ tJ'Daemuf e,fjcm;udkowfrSwf=ur,f/ owfrSwf+yD;&if owfrSwfxm;wJh w±kwfArm e,fjcm;udk Armtpd;k &eJ@ w±kwt
f pd;k &wd@k vufcw
H phJ mcsKyfukd vufrw
S af &;xd;k =uzd@k csLtifvikd ;f u
tqdkðycJhygw,f? csLtifvdkif;&JŒtqdk[m oifhjrwfr#wr_&dSw,fvdk@ OD;Eku,lqcJhygw,f?
0ef}u;D csKyf OD;AaqG qDukd jynfjh ynfph pkH kH ta=umif;=um;ajymqdzk @kd w±kwjf ynfqikd &f m oHtrwf}u;D
OD;vSarmif udk jyefv$wfajymqdkap+yD;/ ucsif&Gm (3) &Gm udpPygaewJhtwGuf ucsifacgif;aqmifawGESifh
aqG;aEG;zdk@ ucsifjynfe,f vuf&dSOuUÏ Zefxm;qif/ ucsifjynfe,fOuUÏa[mif;awGjzpfwJh 'l;0g;
aZmfvGef;eJ@ qif0g;aemif (3) OD;udkyg OD;Ek u ac:,lvdkufygw,f? OD;AaqG uvnf; oabmwla=umif;
pma&;ta=umif;jyefcw
hJ t
hJ wGuf ucsiaf cgi;f aqmifo;kH OD;udk OD;Ek u &Si;f jyaqG;aEG;ygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf
csLtifvdkif;u ‘rufr[GefrsOf;’ a=umif;twdkif;vnf; todtrSwfðyr,fqdkwm &Sif;jy&if;vufcHzdk@
wdkufwGef;aqG;aEG;cJhygw,f? ucsifjynfe,fOuUÏ OD;Zefxm;qif u oabmrwlbl;vdk@qdkygw,f?
'l;0g;aZmfveG ;f eJ@ qrm'l;0g;qif0g;aemif wd@k uawmh bmrSrajymcJ=h uygb;l vd@k qykd gw,f? OD;Zefxm;qif
a=umifh vdyfcJwif;wif;jzpfcJh=u+yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;AaqG yg vdkufvm vufrSwfa&;xdk;a&;txd ra&muf
cJ=h ubJ yxrtqifah qG;aEG;yJ[
G m +yD;oGm;cJyh gw,f? zqyv OuUÏ OD;Ek&ŒJ w±kwjf ynfc&D;[m atmuf
186

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

wdkbm (24) &ufrS/ Edk0ifbm (7) &ufae@txd ESpfywf=umcJhygw,f? w±kwf-Arm e,fedrdwfowfrSwf
Edkifa&;twGuf tajccHrlwckudk &&dScJhygw,f? Armjynf ‘00’ e,fxJa&muf&dSaewJh w±kwfeDwyfrsm;udk
wvtwGif; ±kwfodrf;ay;r,fqdkwJh w±kwfjynf&JŒ uwday;ajz&Sif;csufudkvnf; &&dScJhygw,f? w±kwf
jynfu ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D kd ulnt
D m;ay;aer_awGuv
kd nf; uef@uu
G af jymqdck yhJ gw,f? ESpEf ikd if H
yl;wJGa=unmcsufwckudkvnf; atmifjrifpGmxkwfjyefEdkifcJhwJh c&D;jzpfygw,f? OD;Ek &JΠatmifjrifwJhc&D;
wckvdk@ owfrSwf&ygvdrfhr,f?
1956 ckESpf ESpfukefydkif;rSm xl;jcm;wJhtjzpftysufwck xGufay:vmygw,f? atmifrmC
ppfqifa&;twGif;rSm wyfrawmfu ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDudk ppfqifwkdufcdkuf&if; uGefjrLepfwdk@&JŒ
pcef;wcktwGi;f uae vsKŒd 0Supf m&Gupf mwrf;zdik w
f w
JG ck odr;f ydu
k &f &dcS +hJ yD; ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f rª; Adv
k rf ;ª csKyf
ausmfaZmeJ@ ocifoef;xGef;wdk@ vsKdŒ0SufqufoG,fr_&dSaew,fvdk@ ,lq&wJh pm&Gufpmwrf;awGyg0if
aewJh zdik w
f u
GJ pd jP zpfygw,f? wyfrawmfumuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; u tJ'zD ikd w
f u
GJ u
kd ikd +f yD;
bk&ifah emifppfqifa&;/ &ef}uD;atmifppfqifa&;awGrmS emrnfausm=f um;vmcJw
h hJ Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm
udk wyfrawmfuaez,f&Sm;zdk@ jyifqifvmjcif;jzpfygw,f?
1956 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvxJrSm oD[dk (oD&dvuFm) EdkifiHrSmusif;ywJh omoem (2500) yJGudk
zqyv OuUÏ OD;Ek oGm;wufaewkef;rSm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;&JŒ awmif;qdkcsuft& 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;AaqG
tdrfrSm tpnf;ta0;wckusif;yygw,f? OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf+idrf;/ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;/ w±kwfjynfqdkif&m
jrefrmoHtrwf}u;D OD;vSarmifw@kd wufa&muf=uygw,f? Adv
k rf ;ª }u;D atmif}u;D / Adv
k rf ;ª }u;D armifarmif/
Adv
k rf ;ª }uD;=unf0if;/ 'kAv
kd rf ;ª }uD; cspcf ikd f wd@k yg wufa&muf=uw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? tJ't
D pnf;ta0;rSm
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; u “Adkvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm [m atmifrmCppfqifa&;u zrf;qD;&rdwJh pm&Gufpm
wrf; taxmuftxm;awGt& uGefjrLepfrsm;eJ@ qufoG,faewm oHo,&dSzG,f awGŒ&wJhtwGuf
Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm udk &mxl;uaez,f&mS ;zd@k ” wifjycJyh gw,f? tpnf;ta0;uoabmwlvu
kd =f uyg
w,f?
tJ'v
D kd Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm udk z,f&mS ;a&;udpP aqG;aEG;+yD;wJah emuf a&mufwwf&m&majym
qdk=u&if;/ OD;vSarmifu OD;Ek 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;jyefr,lbJ w±kwfjynfu OuUÏ}uD;armfvdk/ trsKd;om;
acgi;f aqmiftjzpfe@J zqyvOuUÏ tjzpfom xm;&drS ,fq&kd if Edik if t
H wGuf tusK;d yd&k v
Sd rd rhf ,fv@kd ajym
w,f qdkygw,f? OD;AaqGu “'g OD;Ekoabmyg” vdk@ajymcJh+yD; usefyk*~dKvftm;vHk;uawmh OD;vSarmif
&JŒ t}uHðyajymqdkcsufudk oabmwlóudufESpfoufcJh=uygw,f? tJ'ga=umifh tJ'Dwkef;u aq;±kHwuf
aewJh qd&k ,
S v
f pfacgi;f aqmif ocifwif qD qufvuf&iS ;f jyap+yD;/ OD;Ek oD[v
kd u
f jyefvm&if &Si;f vif;
wifjya&;wm0efudkawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD; ae0if; eJ@ OD;vSarmif udk wm0efay;tyfcJh=uygw,f?
OD;Ek oD[v
kd u
f jyefvmvd@k r*Fvm'Hak v,mOfuiG ;f av,mOfqu
kd w
f t
hJ cg avqdyrf mS óudaewJh
ocifausmfxGef; u av,mOfay:t&ifwufoGm;+yD; OD;Ekudk “ta&;ay:udpPwckay:aevdk@ b,foleJ@rS
awGŒqHjk cif;rðyrD aq;±ku
H v
kd u
kd v
f m+yD;awGŒqH&k ef ocifwif u rSm=um;a=umif;” owif;yd@k ajym=um;yg
w,f? OD;Ek u “ocifausmfxGef;a& bmawGvJ/ pdk;&drfp&mawGrsm;vm;” vdk@ jyefar;wJhtcg ocif
ausmfxGef; u “ocifwif aq;±kHwufae&w,f/ rae@naeu AdkvfcsKyfae0if; eJ@ OD;AaqG wdk@ olqD
vm+yD; OuUÏ}uD; tpdk;&tzJGŒxJ jyefr0ifatmif wdkufwGef;ay;zdk@ajym=uw,f? OuUÏ}uD;udkvnf;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

187

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

OD;AaqG eJ@ AdkvfcsKyfae0if;wdk@ vmawGŒ=uvdrhfOD;r,fvdk@ ocifwifu ajymvdkufygw,f” vdk@ ajymyg
w,f?
tJ'DudpPeJ@ywfouf+yD; OD;Ek u “'g OD;ausmf+idrf; vufcsuf” vdk@,lqygw,f? 1957 ckESpf
Zefe0g&v
D xJa&muf&if Edik if aH &;uxGuaf wmhr,fv@kd vlo&d iS =f um;a=unmxm;ygvsuef @J tckvv
kd yk f
wmraumif;bl;/ ppfAdkvfudkudkif+yD; olŒudk+cdrf;ajcmufwmvdk@vnf; rSwf,lcHpm;ygw,f? a'govnf;
t}uD;tus,fxGufygw,f?
'ga=umifh aemufw&uf AdkvfcsKyfae0if; wa,mufxJvmawGŒ+yD; “OD;Ek tpdk;&tzJGŒxJ jyefr
0ifbJ w±kwfjynfu OuUÏ}uD;armfvdk zqyvOuUÏtjzpfeJ@yJ óud;udkifxm;&if aumif;vdrhfr,f”
vdk@ ajymjywJhtcg OD;Ek u “tpdk;&tzJGŒxJudkjyef0ifzdk@ rae@uwnf;u qHk;jzwf+yD;+yD/ jyef0ifzdk@twGuf
tvkyftr_aqmiftzJGŒrSm w}udrfwdkuf&r,f/ v$wfawmfrSm w}udrfwdkuf&r,f/ qdk&S,fvpfawG[m
ESpfqifhpvHk;rSm tm;aumif;wJhtwGuf ol±H_;rSmbJ/ 'gayr,fh wdkufr,f/ wyGJrSrwdkufbJ t±Hl;ay;wJh
vrf;pOfudkróudufzl;” vdk@ tajzay;vdkufygw,f?
paeae@ tvkyftr_aqmiftzJGŒ tpnf;ta0;rSm ol tpdk;&tzJGŒxJ jyef0ifr,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf
&mxl; jyef,lr,fvdk@ OD;Ek u a=unmvdkufygawmhw,f? OD;AaqG u “udk}uD;Ek tpdk;&tzJGŒxJ jyef0if
r,fq&kd if jyef0ifyg? usaemfxu
G af y;ygr,f” vd@k wnfwnf+idr+f idraf jym+yD; uset
f r_aqmifawGuvnf;
apm'uwufr,fhvlr&dSwJhtwGuf jy\emrwufcJhyg? OD;ausmf+idrf; tpnf;ta0;rwufjzpfyg?
wufjzpf&ifawmh uef@uGufrSmrkcsyJvdk@qdkygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;uae wESpftem;,lr,fqdkwJh OD;Ek/ wESpfrjynfhrD 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;udk jyef
vnf&,lzdk@ vG,fvG,fulul jzpfoGm;ygw,f?
OD;Ek eJ@ OD;ausmf+idrf; =um; wif;rmr_awG ydk}uD;vmygw,f? tjyeftvSefr,Hk=unfr_awG
ydkrsm;vmygw,f? +idrf;csrf;a&;vdkvm;olwdk@&JΠ+idrf;csrf;a&;toHawGvnf; ydknHvmygw,f?
jrefrmEdkifiH pma&;q&mtoif;}uD;uvnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;udk tusKd;ðywJhpmayrsm;udk a&;om;
=u&ef w&m;0ifq;Hk jzwfxm;+y;D jzpfovd/k pmqdak wmfae@usi;f ywJt
h cgrmS vnf; t&ifEpS af wGueJ@rwlbJ
+ird ;f csr;f a&;udk tav;xm;ar#m&f nfwhJ jyZmwfjyuGuaf wGe@J ya'omuyG}J u;D udk pma&;q&mawGu,
kd f
wdik f o±kyaf qmifujycJ=h uwJt
h wGuf +idr;f csr;f a&;aw;oHcsKd csKd v$r;f wJh pmqdak wmfv}uD;jzpfapcJyh gw,f?
±kyf&Sif/ *Dwynm&Sifrsm;uvnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf yg0ifulnD tm;jznfh o±kyfaqmifcJh=uygw,f?
+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf q&mawmf oHCmawmfrsm;uvnf; yg0ifóud;yrf; tm;jznfhawmfrlvm
=uygw,f?
jynfc±kid f ayguaf cgi;f òrdŒe,ftwGi;f &Sd q&mawmf oHCmawmf}uD; (24) yg;&JŒ jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpJ
a&;twGuf yef=um;csuv
f nf; xGuaf y:vmcJyh gw,f? r=umrD q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfri_d ;f &JΠ+idr;f csr;f
a&;yef=um;v$mvnf; xGufay:vmygw,f?
1957 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D (23) &ufae@rSm ajrmufydkif;wdkif;rª;tjzpfuae Adkvfrª;csKyfausmfaZmudk
&mxl;csxm;vdkufygw,f? ppfbufpnf;rsOf;Oya't&/ tJ'Dae@uae (22) &ufajrmufwJh azazmf0g&D
(13) &ufae@rSm/ ppfbufrlv§'kAdkvfrª;}uD;&mxl;odk@ avsmhcs+yD;/ rwfv (6) &ufae@rSm t+idrf;pm;ay;
vdkufygw,f?
188

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

Adkvfrª;csKyftqifhuae ESpfqifhav#mhcs+yD; 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;&mxl;eJ ht+idrf;pm;ay;vdkufwmjzpf
ygw,f? w&m;0ifpmudk {+yDv (9) &ufae@ ae@pGJeJ@ xkwfjyefvdkufygw,f? trdef@pmrSm - ‘vkH;vkH;cs
rSwEf ikd af vmufaom taxmuftxm; jynfjh ynf0h 0r&So
d nfw
h ikd af tmif oHo,ruif;p&mjzpfonf’
qdkwm azmfjyxm;+yD;/ ‘wyfrawmfESifh wdkif;jynfwdk@udk tE W&m,ftrsdK;rsdK;rS umuG,f&rnfjzpfonfh
twdik ;f / 'kAv
kd rf ;ª }uD;ausmaf Zm tm; wyfrawmfwiG f qufvufwm0efray;awmhoif[
h k umuG,af &;
OD;pD;csKyfu ‚if;.,lqcsufudk tpD&ifcH&m/ umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;Xmeu aumfrD&SiftzGJŒi,fwckjzifh
xyfrHpkHprf; ppfaq;=um;em+yD;aemuf/ OD;pD;csKyf. t}uHay;csuftwdkif;yif vufcHvdkufygonf?’ [k
ed*kH;csKyf&if; t+idrf;pm;ay;vdkufwmjzpfygw,f? bk&ifhaemifppfqifa&;/ &ef}uD;atmifppfqifa&;wdk@&JŒ
ydou
k m/ w±kwjf zLusL;ausmo
f al wGukd jywfjywfom;om; &Gy&f yG cf |cH |H wdu
k cf u
kd cf w
hJ phJ pfo}l uD;/ &Jabmfo;Hk
usdyf0if AdkvfausmfaZm [m 'Dvdkenf;eJ@ wyfrawmfuae xGufcGgoGm;&ygawmhw,f? Adkvfae0if;&JŒ
óud;yrf;csuf atmifjrifoGm;ygw,f? ppfwyfxdyfoD; Adkvfae0if; tygt0if/ wyfrawmf t&m&Sd}uD;
tm;vkH;vdkvdk[m qdk&S,fvpfEG,f0ifawGcsnf;om usefawmhwJhtwGuf qdk&S,fvpf}uD;rsm;vnf;
tm;&auseyfc=hJ uygw,f? umuG,af &;0ef}uD;u OD;AaqG/ umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyfu Adv
k cf sKyf}uD; ae0if;/
Adv
k cf sKyf}u;D ae0if; vufatmufu wyfrawmfxyd yf ikd ;f acgi;f aqmifawGu/ Adv
k rf ;ª }u;D atmif}u;D / Adkvfrª;
}uD;armifarmif/ Adkvfrª;}uD;atmifa&$/ Adkvfrª;}uD;=unf0if;/ 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;cspfcdkif pwJholawGjzpfygw,f?
Adkvfrª;}uD;wifaz eJ@ Adkvfrª;}uD;odrf;armif wdk@vnf; ygygw,f?
1957 ckESpf/ rwfv (1) &ufae@rSm OD;Ek 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl; jyefvnfvufcH&,lygw,f? rwfv
(9) &ufae@rSm Auy Adkvfrª;cspfaumif;udk &efukefrSmrdygw,f?
1957 rwfv (12) &ufae@ jynfolŒv$wfawmftpnf;ta0;rSm yrnw twdkuftcHtrwf
rsm;u tpdk;&tay: t,kHt=unfr&Sda=umif;tqdkudk wifoGif;ygw,f? OD;at;armifu tqdkudkwif
oGif;+yD;/ ocifcspfarmif tygt0if trwf (10) OD;u tqdkudk axmufcHaqG;aEG;=uygw,f?
t,kHt=unfr&Sda=umif;tqdkrSm æ tpdk;&[m jynfolvlxk&JŒ touf tdk;tdrf pnf;pdrfudk
umuG,fay;Edkifjcif;r&Sda=umif;/ tpdk;&&JΠw&m;0ifxkwfjyefcsufrsm;t&yif 1948 ckESpfuae 1956
ckESpftwGif; w&m;cHrazmfxkwfEdkifaom vlowfr_aygif; (6644) r_/ "m;jyr_ (17004) r_/ jyefay;r_
(1156) r_/ rk'drf;r_ (633) r_ &Sda=umif;/ pm&if;raygufao;wJhtr_rsm;vnf;&Sda=umif;eJ@ 'Dvdk vlowf/
"m;jy/ jyefay;r_rsm;udk w&m;cHazmfxkwfray;Edkifjcif;/ jyLapmxD;tygt0if vufeufudkifwyfrsm;&JŒ
tEdik u
f siAhf v
kd u
f sra_ wGukd ajz&Si;f ray;Edik jf cif;/ jynfwiG ;f aomif;use;f r_jy\emawGukd rajz&Si;f Edik jf cif;
wd@k twGuf tpd;k &rSm wm0ef&adS =umif;eJ@ 'ga=umifh tpd;k &tay: t,kt
H =unfr&St
d qdk wifoiG ;f &jcif;
jzpfa=umif; tcdkiftrm azmfxkwfpGJcsufwifvdkufygw,f?
tqdu
k kd axmufcaH qG;aEG;=uwJh trwfrsm;uvnf;/ ppfwyfuzGŒJ xm;wJh vufeufuikd f t&H
wyfawGjzpfwJh umuG,fa&; vJAD;/ jyLapmxD;rsm;u &mZ0wfr_tzkHzkHudk usL;vGefcJh=ua=umif;/
'ga=umifh ppfwyfrmS wm0ef&adS =umif;udv
k nf; azmfxw
k w
f ifjycJ=h uygw,f? qd&k ,
S v
f pfacgi;f aqmifawG
udkvnf; a0zefcJh=uygw,f?
csuu
f svufus axmufjya0zef+y;D tqdu
k kd tcdik t
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

189

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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190

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

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191
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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192

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

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yrnw awGvnf;&Sad ewJh zqyvtpd;k &yg? ae&momuGmayr,fh rJu odyrf jywfwma=umifh 0ef}u;D csKyf
OD;Ek udk,fwdkif *±kwpdkuf owdxm;ae&wJh taetxm;yg? jynfolvlxk}uD;=um; zqyv tykyfeH@
waxmif;axmif;xaer_a=umif/h OD;Ek u zqyv oef@&iS ;f a&;vky&f if; vlxak xmufcrH &_ atmif ud,
k hf
aygifudk,fvSefaxmif;wJhenf;eJ@ &Smygw,f? tJ'Dvdk&Smavav/ zqyv oef@&Sif;a&;vkyfavav &Sd+yD;
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k ;f *% yÉdyuQ[m jrifv
h mavavjzpfcyhJ gw,f? txl;ojzifh OD;Ek eJ@ OD;ausm+f idr;f yÉdyuQ ydrk akd y:vGif
vmavavjzpfcJhygw,f?
awmwGif;vufeufudkif Auy tygt0if/ ygvDrefwGif; yrnw tygt0if wwdkif;jynfvkH;&Sd
jynfolw&yfvkH;u jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;udk awmif;qdkv_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f?
qd&k ,
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f pfrsm;eJ@ Adv
k af e0if;acgi;f aqmifwhJ qd&k ,
S v
f pfE,
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k myJ udik pf x
JG m;
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kd af zmfxw
k yf gw,f? OD;Ek u vGw+f ird ;f
csrf;omcGifhtrdef@xkwf+yD; Oya'abmifwGif;0ifa&;vrf;udk zGifhygw,f? jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;/ jynfwGif;
+idr;f csr;f a&;toHawG nHvmwJt
h cg ‘+idr;f csr;f a&;rl’ qdw
k mawGvnf; trsKd ;rsKd ;tzkzH Hk xGuaf y:vmcJyh g
w,f? tpd;k & rl/ Auy rl/ yrnw rl/ vufeufe@J 'rD u
kd a&pD vJv,
S af &; rl/ Adv
k v
f ufsm rl/ q&m}u;D rdi_ ;f &JŒ
olrom udk,frem +idrf;csrf;a&; rl?
tpdk;& rl/ vufeufeJ@'Drdkua&pDvJvS,fa&; rleJ@ Adkvfvufsm rlawGu tESpfom&tm;jzifh
vufeufcsvma&;rlawGjzpfygw,f? Auy rl eJ@ yrnw rlu awGŒqkHaqG;aEG;a&;rljzpfygw,f?
q&m}uD;&JΠrlu olromud,
k rf emenf;eJ@ oifyek ;f acsa&; rl jzpfygw,f? aemufq;Hk rSm a&yef;tpm;qk;H
jzpfvmwmu olromudk,frem rl jzpfygw,f?
193
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

qd&k ,
S v
f pfrsm;eJ@ ppfwyfu q&m}uD;&JΠolromud,
k rf em rl[m awmwGi;f vufeufuikd rf sm;
bufu a&SŒaevdkufxm;wJh rl/ awmwGif;olykefrsm;udk rsufESmomay;xm;wJh rlvdk@ cH,loabmxm;
ygw,f? qef@usifuef@uGuf ±_wfcswmawGvkyfygw,f? tðywfwdkufa&;orm;rsm;tzdk@ aphpyfa&;udk
vnf; rvdkvm;ovdk/ oifykef;acsa&;udkvnf; b,fvdkenf;eJ@rS vufrcHEdkifyg?
vlxkaxmufcHr_&zdk@ enf;vrf;&SmazGae&wJh OD;Ek uawmh vufeufcsvma&;rludk udkifpGJxm;
&if;u qef@usifzufuvmaewJh +idrf;csrf;a&;toHawGudkvnf; em;pGifh&if;/ qdk&S,fvpf}uD;rsm;vdk
wif;wif;rmrm wzufowfrajymbJ yg;yg;eyfeyfaejyygw,f? OD;Ek u aysmhaysmif;r_udk wzufodk@jyo
&if;/ zqyv oef &h iS ;f a&;qdw
k mudk w&pfcsi;f wd;k wd;k +yD;vkyyf gw,f? zqyv }uD;udk EGw
H iG ;f u qGx
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f vdk zqyv }uD;&JΠausmrf aumif;=um;raumif; tykyef @H waxmif;axmif;t
wGuf olŒrSmwm0efr&Sv
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zqyv tpdk;&tzGJŒ}uD;twGif; yÉdyuQawG jyif;xefvmavav/ wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;
OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; uawmh/ ppfwyf}uD;udk }uD;oxuf}uD;atmifcsŒJ &if; olŒ&JŒ yk*Kd~ vfa&;=oZm
udk xlaxmifvmEdkifavavjzpfcJhygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;&cgpavmufu umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; &mxl;
avmufyJ rSef;EdkifcJhwJh Adkvfae0if; [m jynfwGif;ppf}uD;aygufzGm;vmr_a=umifh &efukeftpdk;&acwfrSm
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;r#ru 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;txd tydktqpf&cJhzl;wmudkvnf; udk,fawGΗuHcJh
zl;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;&mxl;ae&mtwGuf yckH;csif;,SOfvmEdkifolawG/ ,SOfvmcJzh ;l ol
awGtm;vk;H avmufe;D yg;udv
k nf; enf;rsKd ;pkeH @J tajctaersKd ;pk=H um;rSm z,f&mS ;òzcd iG ;f ausmef if; vGeaf jrmuf
cJ+h yD;+yD jzpfygw,f? wyfrawmfwiG ;f u Adv
k cf sKyf prpf'eG ;f / Adv
k v
f ufsm/ OD;wifxÉG f pwJo
h al wGukd z,f&mS ;
EdkifcJh+yD;jzpfovdk/ AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvf&efatmif/ Adkvf&JxGÉf wdk@vdk yk*~dKvfawGudkvnf; awmxJodk@ armif;
xkwEf ikd cf +hJ yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? aemufq;Hk wyfxrJ mS useaf ewJh &Jabmfo;Hk usyd 0f if Adv
k af usmaf Zm udv
k nf;
atmifrmC xdk;ppftwGif;u &w,fqdkwJh zdkifwGJtr_}uD;udkjy+yD; atmifjrifpGm z,f&Sm;+yD;+yDjzpfwJh
twGuf/ wyfrawmfxJrSm oleJ@acwfòydif wef;wl r_p&mvl wOD;rSr&SdawmhwJhtwGuf òydifbufuif;
AdkvfcsKyf}uD; jzpfvmygw,f?
ppfwyftiftm;}uD;wm[m wdik ;f jynftiftm;}uD;wm [kwrf [kwaf wmhrod/ oltiftm;}uD;
wmtrSef/ ol =oZm}uD;vmwmawmhtrSefqdkwm vufawGŒodae+yDjzpfwJhtwGuf ppfwyf}uD;udk
ydk+yD;}uD;atmif wnfaqmufygw,f? wu,fvnf; Adkvfae0if; &JΠwvufudkifwyf}uD;ozG,f ykHay:
vmygw,f? umuG,af &;0ef}uD; OD;AaqG trde@f ay;vd@k r&/ Adv
k af e0if; trde@f ay;rS&wJh wyf}uD;jzpfvm
ygw,f? Adv
k af e0if; tzd@k wyfrawmf}uD;udk wd;k +yD;wnfaqmuf&wmvnf; bmrSrcufyg? olŒtdyu
f yf
xJuydu
k q
f H wjym;wcsyrf rS uke&f bJ jynfov
l x
l &k ŒJ b¾maiGa=u;udk ok;H pG+J yD; óuduo
f vdk ppftiftm;
csŒJ vd@k &ygw,f? jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;udk vuf!;kd xd;k jy+yD;/ óuduo
f vdk ppftiftm;xlaxmifEikd cf iG hf tvdv
k &kd
ae+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? zqyv tzGJŒ}uD;twGif;u EdkifiHa&;orm;}uD;awG uGJcsifovdkuGJ +yJcsifovdk
+yJae=uwJhtcsdef 1957 ckESpfxJrSm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;&JΠOD;aqmifr_atmufrSm trSwf (12) eJΠtrSwf
(13) ajcvsiw
f yfr[mXmecsKyf xyfraH y:ayguv
f mygw,f? wcku rtlyif/ wcku jynfrmS tajcpdu
k f
apygw,f? trSwf (101) (102) (109) ajcjrefwyf&if; (3) &if;udkvnf; wdk;csJŒzGJŒpnf;EdkifcJhygw,f?
194

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

avwyfacwfrDa&;twGuf uae'gvkyf atmfwmav,mOfrsm;eJ@ t*Fvefvkyf qD;jzL&D av,mOfrsm;
0,f,la&;vkyfygw,f?
atmifrmC ppfqifa&;}uD;eJ@ wqufwnf;/ rdwWDvm/ awmifwGif;/ ewfarmufe,frsm;rSm
‘rkefwdkif;’ ppfqifa&;/ yJcl;wdkif;/ {&m0wDwdkif;/ weoFm&Dwdkif;wdk@rSm ‘rif;&efatmif’/ ‘tÀ0g’ jynf
awmfat;/ ykÀu/ ò*dvw
f /k jynfom,m/ ò*dv}f uD;/ v#ypf pf/ a'gi;f zvf0g pwJh ppfqifa&;awG woD}uD;
vkycf yhJ gw,f? 56§57 ckEpS t
f wGuf umuG,af &;tok;H p&dwu
f vnf; (502) oef;txd wd;k wufomG ;
cJhygw,f? umuG,fa&;tokH;p&dwfyrm%[m tm&SrSm azmfrdkqm (xdkif0rf)eJ@ awmifudk&D;,m;+yD;&if
Armjynf[m wwd,trsm;qk;H ok;H pGw
J EhJ ikd if jH zpfomG ;ygw,f? tJ'w
D ek ;f u wwdik ;f jynfv;Hk &JŒ 0ifaiGb¾m
(100) rSm (40) [m umuG,fa&;tokH;p&dwf jzpfoGm;&ygw,f?
wyfrawmfuae z,f&Sm; t+idrf;pm;ay;cHvdkuf&wJh Adkvfrª;csKyfa[mif; ausmfaZm u olŒudk
rcdik v
f aHk om pGypf cJG surf sm;eJ@ pGypf +JG yD; t+idr;f pm;ay;vdu
k yf Hk tjzpfoepfukd vlx=k um; &Si;f vif;wifjywm
awGvkyfygw,f? umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; OD;AaqG wdk@&JŒ ppfaq;ykH/ ar;jref;ykHawGeJ@ tpdk;&&JŒ oufn‡mpGm
t+idrf;pm;ay;vdkufw,fqdkwm [kwfrSefr_r&Sda=umif; wkef@jyef&Sif;vif;ygw,f? 'kwd, umuG,fa&;
OD;pD;csKyf apm=um'd;k udk z,f&mS ;+y;D wJah emufyikd ;f / tJ'aD e&mudk tpm;xd;k cef@xm;&r,fq&kd if/ Adv
k af usmaf Zm
udkyJ 0gpOftvdkuf cef@xm;&rSmjzpfvdk@ ckcsdeftxd ae&mvyfxm;+yD; rcef@xm;ykH/ wdkif;jynftwGuf
wwdkif;jynfvkH;od ppfyGJ}uD;awGudk &Gyf&Gyfc|Hc|H OD;aqmifwdkufcdkufcJholjzpfayr,fh/ zqqdk&S,frsm;u
&mxl;ray;&atmif ESdrfcJhykHawGudkvnf; yGifhyGifhvif;vif; azmfxkwfoGm;cJhygw,f?
(1952 ckESpf/ 55-56 ckESpfawGrSm zqyv tpdk;&u *k%fxl;bGJŒxl;awG azmfxkwf+yD; csD;jr‡ifh
tyfESif;wmawG vkyfcJhygw,f? owdk;oD&dok"rR-wdk@/ ‘vufsmysHcsD’ ‘pnfol’ ‘oa&pnfol’ wdk@vdk
bGŒJ rnf*%
k x
f ;l awG vly*k Kd~ vfawmfawmfrsm;rsm;udk azmazmoDoD tyfEiS ;f cJ±h rHk u/ pmaytEkynme,f
eJ@ aw;*Dw Zmwfobife,fuvlawGuykd g ‘tvuFmausmpf mG ’ wd@k ‘0Àausmx
f if’ wd@k woD}uD;ay;
cJw
h m&Syd gw,f? q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfri_d ;f uqd&k if ‘yavGrw
_ w
f o
hJ l qdik ;f wD;wJo
h al wGtxd ay;ae
wJ[
h mawGygumG ’ vd@k taomazmufc&hJ wJt
h xd rsm;jym;cJyh gw,f? bk&ifah emif/ &ef}uD;atmif ppfqif
a&;}u;D awGcs+y;D / atmifjrifpmG wdu
k yf q
JG ifjyEdik cf w
hJ hJ Adv
k af usmaf Zm udak wmh zqyvtpd;k &u 55 ckEpS rf mS
rv$o
J mvd@k wjcm;olrsm;ay;csed rf mS ‘oa&pnfo’l bGŒJ ay;cJzh ;l ygw,f?) aemufq;Hk ay;vdu
k w
f muawmh
Adkvfae0if; tvdkus &mxl;ESpfqifhav#mhcs+yD; t+idrf;pm;ay;vdkufjcif;yJjzpfygw,f?
1957 ckESpf/ pufwifbmrSm usif;yðyvkyfwJh ppfwyf&JŒ wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcHrSmawmh/ jynfwGif;
vkHòcHa&; pDrHudef;aqG;aEG;yGJqdkwmawGrSm ppfqifa&;ESifh ppfAsL[maqG;aEG;yGJ/ EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;ESifh
e,fbuftyk cf sKyfa&;aqG;aEG;yGaJ wGomru/ axmufvrS ;f a&;aqG;aEG;yGeJ J ph w
d "f mwfppfqifa&;aqG;aEG;yGJ
qdkwmawGyg woD;woef@ xnfhoGif;aqG;aEG;vmcJhygw,f? axmufvSrf;a&;u ta&;ygvmovdk
pdwf"mwfppfqifa&;pDrHcsufawGuvnf; r&SdrjzpfudpPawGtjzpf a&SŒwef;a&mufvmcJhygw,f? arv
uyJ 'kAdkvfrª;}uD; boef; ("rRdu boef;) pdwf"mwfppfqifa&; !¸ef=um;a&;rª;acgif;aqmifwJh tzGJŒudk
zdvpfyikd /f xdik ;f / AD,uferf wd@k ukd oGm;a&mufap+yD; pdw"f mwfppfqifa&;vkyif ef;awGukd avhvmapcJ+h yD;
jzpfygw,f? bmoma&;eJ@ywfouf+yD;/ ‘oò*ôvf’ oifwef;awG ydk@cswm/ umuG,fa&;0g'oabm
w&m;awG azmfxw
k af qG;aEG;apwmawG tpDtpOf&&dS dS pwifaqmif&u
G cf yhJ gw,f? pdw"f mwfppfqifa&;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

195

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

&nfrSef;csufeJ@ pmaye,ftwGif; (52) ckESpfuwnf;u wdk;0ifajccs xkwfa0vmcJhwJh ‘jr0wD’ r*~Zif;
uae 57 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvrSm wyfrawmf&JΠ0g'oabmw&m;wckudk ajrprf;c&rf;ysdK;=unfhwJh
taeeJ@ pwifazmfxw
k v
f mwm awGŒ&ygw,f? tJ'guawmh ‘emr±ly0g' oabmw&m;’ qdw
k mjzpfyg
w,f? ‘±kyfomy"me [laom ±kyf0g'ESifhvnf;aumif;/ pdwf0d^mOfom &Sdonf[k ,lqaom ±kyfr&Sd0g'
ESiv
hf nf;aumif;/ aumif;pGmjcm;em;tyfaom emr±ly0g' oabmw&m;’ tjzpf tqdðk y=unfv
h mwm
udak wGŒ&ygw,f? (tJ'0D g'[m aemifwcsed rf mS tnrnoabmw&m;qd+k yD; jzpfay:vmr,fh a&mausmf
0g'&JΠtrawjzpfygw,f?)
q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if; acgif;aqmifwJh jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒacgif;aqmifrsm;u
vufeufudkifykefuefae=uwJh olykefacgif;aqmifrsm;eJ@ oGm;a&mufawGŒqkHcGifh/ &Sif;jycGifhðyzdk@ awmif;qdk
vm=uoHawG xGuaf y:vmygw,f? tpd;k &u 'Dw}urd af wmhciG ðhf yr,f/ 'gayr,fh vkòH caH &; tmrrcHEikd v
f @kd
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pdkufaewJh rkH&Gm/ a&$bdk/ u|ef;vS/ ueD pwJh e,fwa=umudk wyf&if; (7) &if;eJ@ rdk;óud;ppfqifa&;udk
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wpkHw&m ajymif;vJajymqdkEdkifzdk@ E_wfcsdKpðyvmjyefygw,f?
atmufwb
kd mvukeyf ikd ;f rSm ‘rGew
f ikd ;f &if;om;tpnf;t±k;H ’ }uD;u ‘rGew
f @kd vnf; jynfe,f&&Sd
xdu
k af =umif;’ azmfjyyg&w
dS hJ a=unmcsuw
f apmifukd xkwjf yefygw,f? a=unmcsux
f rJ mS wyfrawmf
om;wcsKd Œu rGejf ynfe,ftwGi;f &Gmol&mG om;awGukd +cdr;f ajcmufwm/ tdraf wGay:wuf+yD; ar$aESmuf
&SmazGwmawGvkyf&if; a&$wdk aiGp awGudk odrf;ydkufvk,uf,liifwmawGudkyg azmfxkwfwifjyxm;yg
w,f? q&m}uD;rd_if; &JΠolrom udk,fremenf;eJ@ jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;rludkvnf; axmufcHa=umif;
azmfjy+yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfxH vdyfrlxm;wJh a=unmcsufjzpfygw,f?
jynfov
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kd f
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rdef@cGef;wckudk OD;Ek u ¹rGuf[vmygw,f? 1957 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (16) &uf/ trsdK;om;ae@rSm
ajym=um;wJh 0ef}uD;csKyf&JŒ rdef@cGef;jzpfygw,f? tJ'D trsdK;om;ae@rdef@cGef;xJrSm OD;Ek u ‘aomif;usef;
olawGeJ@ u|efawmfwdk@[m &ef!dk;}uD;awGzGJŒ+yD; olaoao udk,faoaowdkuf&r,fh urBmh&efolawG
vnf;r[kwyf gb;l ? u|eaf wmfw@kd taeeJ@awmh jzpfEikd &f if quf+yD;rwdu
k cf siaf wmhygb;l ? u|eaf wmfw@kd e@J
oabmcsi;f wlEikd w
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J yk u
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tifrwef jyif;jyif;jyjy ay:aygufaeyg+yD?’vdk@ azmfjyajymqdkvmwJhtwGuf +idrf;csrf;a&;vdkvm;oltm;
vkH;u 0rf;yef;womjzpfcJh=uygw,f?
0ef}u;D csKyf &JŒrdef ch eG ;f u +ird ;f csr;f a&;toH odoo
d mom pGuv
f mcJah yr,f/h tpd;k &&JŒ wyfrawmf&ŒJ
xd;k ppfawGuawmh/ jyif;jyif;xefxef xd;k ESuaf eqJjzpfwt
hJ wGuf pum;eJ@vufawGŒ[m t[yfumG ae
qJjzpfygw,f?
196

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

‘wdik ;f jynfaygi+f y;D wdu
k cf siw
f u
kd &f yavhap/ aygiw
f u
kd rf ,f? aomif;use;f olawGe@J awmh raphpyf’
qdkwJh vufsmqdk&S,fvpfacgif;rm}uD;rsm;&JŒ oabmxm;/ ‘aomif;usef;oltðywfwdkufa&;’ qdkwJh
wyfrawmf&ŒJ oabmxm;/ OD;Ek wav#mufv;Hk ajymqdv
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

197

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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198

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

pnf;±k;H a&;usqif;aewJh zqyv/ pnf;vk;H nD!w
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awmif;qdkygw,f? OD;Ek u olŒudk tpdk;&tzGJŒxJu yxkwfa&;twGuf vkyf=uwmudk tcsdefrDowday;
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atmif jzpf=uygw,f? usm;}uD;AaqG u ocifausmf'Gef; taeeJ@ ygwDnDvmcHrSm taxGaxGtwGif;
a&;rª;jzpfcsif&if (45) &uf=umjrifhwJhtcg &mxl;rS E_wfxGufay;yghr,fvdk@ uwdðyzdk@ =um;0ifjzefajzwJh
twGuf ocifausmf'Gef; u ygwDtusdK;twGuf qdk&S,fvpfygwDOuUÏ OD;AaqG &JŒ qkH;jzwfcsufudk
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vdkufjcif;jzpfygw,f? zqyv &JŒ0g'udkvnf; ‘'Drdku&ufwpfqdk&S,fvpf’ vdk@ a=unmvdkufygw,f?
aemufxyfta&;t}uD;qkH; a=unmcsufw&yfuawmh jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;eJ hwdkuf±kdufywfouf
aeygw,f? tJ'guawmh (1) cifAsm;wd@k e@J usaemfw@kd b,forl mS ;w,f/ b,forl eS w
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

199

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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axmifpkom;awG aumif;pm;zdk@ vkyfay;&r,fhvkyfief;awGrSmawmh twlwlvufwGJ+yD;
vkyfay;Edkifr,fhvkyfief;awGu trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? 'Dvkyfief;awGudk pepfwus&SmazG+yD;
twlvufwGJvkyf=u&atmif tvif;udk0ifcJh=uyg?
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cGef;udk jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;vdkvm;oltm;vkH;u pdwf0ifpm;cJh=uygw,f?
OD;Ek &JΠzqyv nDvmcH ed*kH;csKyfrdef@cGef;rSmawmh zqyv wGif; tuGJt+yJawGudk trsm;rjrif
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q&m}uD;ocifu,
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ppfwyf&ŒJ pdw"f mwfppfqifa&;Xmeu ‘vufeufe@J pum;rajymeJ@ vufeufpeG @f +yD;&if tawGŒ
cHr,f’ qdw
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pyg,fu ydkufa[mif;zsuf+yD; ydkufopfvJr,fqdkum a&tcuftcJ a&jy\emay:atmifvkyfygw,f?
200

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

201

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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202

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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(1) tcdsefraESmif;cif wzufeJ@wzuf anmif!dkyifpcef;u vrf;cGJ=uawmh/
(2) ocifwif wd@k [m OD;Ek &JΠacgi;f aqmifru
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

203

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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eHywf (2) tcsuu
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olomtm%m±l;}uD;jzpfw,fq&kd if/ olŒudk bmha=umifh q,fEpS q
f ,fr;kd acgi;f aqmiftjzpf wifajr‡muf
xm;cJ=h uygovJ vd@k jyefveS af r;cGe;f xkwyf gw,f? OD;Ek[m w%Sm±l;}uD;jzpfw,fvkd ph yG pf o
JG aH wGtwGuf
OD;Ek u vlxktpnf;ta0;yGJwckrSm ‘ol[m 1948 ckESpfup+yD; tjA[Rmp&d,moDvudk apmifhxdef;
vmol jzpfw,f’vdk hacsyygw,f?
204

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

oef@&iS ;f -wnf+rJtuG[
J m tpd;k &tzGŒJ twGi;f / Xmeqdik &f mawGtwGi;f / vlxv
k w
l ef;pm;tzGŒJ
tpnf;awGtwGif;/ ygvDreftrwfawGtwGif;omru/ wjynfvkH;udk *,uf±kdufcwfcJhygw,f? ae&m
wdkif;rSmvnf; aemufqufwGJ tuGJawG qufwdkufay:cJhygw,f? {+yDvukefuae arv wvausmf
ausmfvkH;[mvnf; tpdk;&&SdvsufeJ@ tpdk;& r&SdovdkrsdK;taetxm; jzpfaecJhygw,f?
Ekwif-aqG+idr;f tkypf k (2) ckpvk;H [m tjyeftvSef vuf!;kd xd;k =uovd/k tòydit
f qdik pf nf;±k;H
=uwmawGvnf; t}uD;tus,fvkyfaqmif=uygw,f? tuGJeJ@ywfoufwJhowif;awGudkvnf;
owif;pmawGu udk,fh&yfwnfcsufeJ@udk,f a&;=uom;=u azmfjy=uygw,f?
ygvDrefwif+yD; rJcGJqkH;jzwf=urSm jzpfwJhtwGuf trwfawG aps;aumif;cJhygw,f? Ek-wif
oef@&Sif; zqyvu olwdk@udkifpGJwJhrltjzpf ‘ay:vpD (4) &yf’ udk xkwfjyefa=unmvdkufygw,f?
(1) Edik if jH cm;a&;0g'eJ@ywfouf+yD; vuf&0dS g'udk rajymif;vJbJ waoGa0rwdr;f usio
hf ;Hk rnf?
(2) urBmat;nDvmcHrSm ajym=um;cJhwJh pum;}uD;okH;cGef;twdkif;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;udk
qufvuftaumiftxnfazmfrnf?
(3) 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&; jynfh0pGm &&Sdap&rnf?
(4) jynfe,frsm;. w&m;ojzifh &oifh&xdkuftcGifhta&; tmrcHrnf?
qdkwJh ay:vpD (4)&yf jzpfygw,f?
v$waf wmfxrJ mS trwfae&m (45) ae&m &&Sx
d m;wJh yrnw u ‘Ekwif’ &JŒ ay:vpDav;&yf
[m yrnw &JΠoabmxm;vkyfief;pOfjzpfwJh +idrf;csrf;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ vlrsdK;pkrsm;tcGifhta&;eJ@
urBmh+idrf;csrf;a&; xdef;odrf;a&;vkyfief;pOfrsm;twGuf taxmuftuljzpfapEdkifw,fvdk@ okH;oyfyg
w,f? yrnw u zqyv ESpfjcrf;uGJtay: qef;ppftuJjzwfwmvnf; vkyfygw,f? yrnw &JŒ
tjrifu Ek-wif tiftm;pk[m e,fcsJ hqef@usifa&;vuQ%m &Sdwefoavmuf &Sdao;w,fjrif+yD;/
aqG+idrf;tiftm;pkrSm r&Sdvdk@jrifygw,f?
Ek-wif [m uGejf rLepf0g'udk tajccHtm;jzifh qef@usiaf yr,fh uGejf rLepfygweD @J qufqaH &;rSm
awmh ae±l;wd@k vkd aysmah ysmah jymif;ajymif;&SEd ikd af o;w,f/ aqG+idr;f uawmh uGejf rLepf0g'a&m uGejf rLepf
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D ykd g azmfpwm'g;vuf/ ruUmoD wd@k vkd &if&h ifo
h nf;onf; qef@usio
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euftm;udk; tðywfwdkufa&;yJjzpfw,f? 'Drdkua&pDrSmvnf; vpfb&,feJ hwif;wif;rmrm csKyfcs,fvdk
olvdk uGJjym;jcm;em;w,f? pD;yGm;a&;rSmvnf; Ek-wif u t&if;&Sifvlwef;pm;&JΠvGwfvyfr_udk xl
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hf ;Hk +yD; csw
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okH;oyfygw,f? EdkifiHwumhqufqHa&;rSmvnf; Ek-wifu =um;aea&;rSm rwufºuGapumrl ‘rl}uD;
ig;csu’f udk xde;f odr;f vdu
k ef mao;w,f/ aqG+idr;f om tpd;k &jzpf&if jrefrmjynf[m ,d;k ',m;tpd;k &rsK;d
jzpfoGm;Edkifw,fvdk@ ±_jrifygw,f?
yrnw tzGJŒ}uD;u Ek-wif Ekdif&if +idrf;csrf;a&;udk tusKd;ðyoGm;Edkifw,fvdk@ ±_jrifygw,f?
tJ'v
D kd cGjJ cm;±_jrifo;kH oyf&muae ‘Ekwif’ udk tqd;k xJu taumif;jzpfap&ef &nf&,
G +f yD;/ ‘Ekwif’udk
axmufcHa=umif;udk a=unmcsufudk arv (10) &ufae@rSm xkwfjyefvdkufygw,f? ygvDreftwGif;rSm
Ek-wif xuf tajctae tiftm;omaewJh aqG+idrf;tkyfpk[m yrnw &JΠarv (10) &uf a=unm
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

205

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

csufa=umifh rsufvHk;jyL;oGm;&ygw,f? Ek-wif tkyfpkeJ@ t}udwfte,f ,SOfòydif&r,fh tajctae
a&mufoGm;ygw,f?
'ga=umifh e,fawGtxd tòydiftqdkifqif;+yD;/ rJqG,f pnf;±Hk;=uygw,f? axmifxJa&mufae
&wJh trwfESpfOD;jzpfwJh OD;armifudk/ OD;atmifrdk; wdk@qDta&muf oef@&Sif;uvnf; oGm;ygw,f? Adkvfrª;
cspfaumif; tr_eJ@wGJ+yD; tzrf;cHxm;&wJh OD;armifudk u jrif;+cHtrwfjzpfygw,f? OD;atmifrdk; u
ykodrftrwfjzpfygw,f? ESpfOD;pvHk;[m yrnw trwfawGjzpfygw,f?
jynfr&Sd trwfawGomru jynfe,fu trwfawGudkvnf; tòydifpnf;±Hk;zdk@ jynfe,fawG
qDudkvnf; tòydifc&D;xGuf+yD; pnf;±Hk;=uygw,f?
oef@&Sif; p0f0Àu awmif}uD;rSm jynfe,frsm;taeeJ@ oDv/ orm"d&SdwJh OD;Ek udkyJ axmufcH
=uzdk@/ OD;Ek bufuae jynfe,fawGeJ@ awGŒqHk+yD; oef@&Sif;udk rJxnfhzdk@ rJqG,fygw,f?
arv (18) &ufae@rSm a'gufwmAarmfu “zqyv òyduGJjcif;jy\emudk ygvDrefodk@wifjyI
ajz&Sif;=ujcif;onf 'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒenf;vrf;r[kwf” vdk@ *g;'D;,ef;owif;pmuae a0zefygw,f?
arv (18) &ufae@rSm &Srf;jynfe,fOuUÏ 0ef}uD; p0fcGefcsdK tdrfrSm &Srf;apmfbGm;awG tpnf;
ta0;vkyfygw,f? jynfe,fawG&JΠepfemcsufawGudk twdtusawmif;qdkzdk@ awmif;qdkwJhtcg jynf
e,ftoD;oD; pkaygif;+yD; awmif;qdkzdk@ aumffrDwDzGJŒ+yD; OD;Ek qDwifjyzdk@awG aqG;aEG;=uygw,f?
arv (21) &ufae@rSm p0fEGJΠOD;aqmifwJh EGHppf[ef tzGJΠpwifay:aygufvmygw,f? arv
(22) &ufae@rmS awmif}uD; rd;k rdwaf [mfrmS apmfbmG ;awG xyfrH tpnf;ta0;vky=f u+yD; apmfbmG ;awG
uae &Srf;jynfe,f&JΠawmif;qdkcsufrl (15) csufrl=urf;udk a&;qGJ=uygw,f?
rdkif;±l;apmfbGm; p0frefz OuUÏjzpfwJh ‘&ynz’ tzGJŒuvnf; v_yf&Sm;r_awG vkyfvmygw,f?
tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u &Srf;jynfe,frSm&Sdae=uwJh t"du EdkifiHa&;tkyfpk}uD;awGuawmh Õ p0fcGefcsdK &JŒ &Srf;jynfawmifwef;om;rsm; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;tzGJŒ (&wpnz)/
Õ r[ma'0D p0f[defcrf; OD;aqmifwJhtzGJŒ/
Õ erfhcrf; trwf OD;xGef;at; acgif;aqmifwJh &Srf;jynfe,fvHk;qdkif&m tzGJŒcsKyf (&yvz) eJ@
Õ ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m &Srf;trsdK;om;XmecsKyf wdk@ jzpf=uygw,f?
p0fceG cf sKd tkypf u
k Ek-wif/ erfch rf;OD;xGe;f at; tkyu
f aqG+idr;f / r[ma'0D tkyu
f yxr=um;ae
(aemufydkif;aqG+idrf;) udk axmufcHcJh=u+yD; ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m &Srf;trsdK;om; XmecsKyfuawmh Ekwif
udkyJ rJay;zdk@ qHk;jzwfcJh=uygw,f?
ucsifjynfe,frSmu t"du EdkifiHa&;tkyfpk (3) ck &Sdygw,f?
Õ ucsiftrsdK;om;rsm; uGef*&uftzGJŒcsKyf (KNC) autifpD/
Õ jynfolŒ,Ofaus;r_ESifh wdk;wuf}uD;yGm;a&;tzGJŒ (y,uz)/
Õ aygifa,mifvli,ftzGJŒ qdkwmwdk@ jzpf=uygw,f?
autifpD (KNC) tzGŒJ acgi;f aqmif 'l;0g;aZmfveG ;f / 0ef}uD;OD;Zefxm;qif wd@k u aqG+idr;f udk
axmufc+H yD; y,uz tzGŒJ acgi;f aqmif qrm;'l;0g;qif0g;aemif eJ@ aygiaf ,mifvil ,ftzGŒJ acgi;f aqmif
'l;0g;aZmf&pf wdk@u Ekwifudk vdkvm;=uygw,f?
206

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jynfaxmifpk u&iftrsdK;om;rsm;tzGJŒcsKyf (yuz) uvnf; arv (20) &ufae@rSm tpnf;
ta0;vkyfwJhtcg tvkyftr_aqmif tD;pD (E.C) (23) OD;&SdwJhteuf (18) OD;wufa&muf+yD; (14)
OD;u Ekwif/ (4) OD;u aqG+idrf;udk axmufcHcJhygw,f? tD;pDtpnf;ta0;rSm v$wfawmftrwf (7)
OD;ygcJh+yD;/ (2) OD;u Ekwif/ (5) OD;u aqG+idrf;jzpfcJhygw,f?
csif;trsdK;om;awGuawmh zqyv uGJ&wm[m oabmw&m;t&r[kwfbJ yk*~dKvfawG
roifrh wifh jzpf=uvd@k uG&J wmvd@k ,q
l +yD;/ Ekwif axmufco
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H yl g ay:cJyh gw,f?
&cdik jf ynfe,f&dS ‘&wn’ trwf (6) OD;uawmh &cdik jf ynfe,f &&Sad &;eJ@ 0ef}u;D &mxl;&&Sad &;udk
aps;qpf&if;/ apmapmydkif;rSm bmoabmxm;rS rxkwfjyefao;bJ aecJhygw,f?
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tpnf; ArmEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f mausmif;om;rsm;or*~ (Auorsm;tzGŒJ csKyf) uvnf; arv (13) &ufae@rmS
a=unmcsufxkwfjyefcJhygw,f? Ek-wif tkyfpku a=unmcJhwJh ay:vpD (4) &yf[m wdkif;jynf&JŒvGwf
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q+yD;/ aqG+idr;f tkypf u
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f yfa&;/ 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;/ +idr;f csr;f a&;wd@k twGuf tmrcHcsuaf y;wm
r&Sdvdk@ oHk;oyfrdygw,f? 'ga=umifh Auo u Ek-wif zqyv udk axmufcHa=umif;/ a=unmcJhovdk
ausmif;om;nD!Gwfa&;wyfOD;u tm%m&&Sdxm;wJh &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or*~
(wuo) uvnf; oef@&Sif;zqyv udkom axmufcHa=umif; a=unmcJh=uygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfawG
zGJŒpnf;ay;cJh=uwJh 'Dtuf(p)tdkeJ@ &Jacgifuawmh aqG+idrf;udk axmufcHcJh=uygw,f?
‘jynfaxmifpkvli,f’ tzGJŒuvnf; Ek-wif bufu &yfcJhygw,f? tvkyform;avmu
0efxrf;avmurSmvnf; Ek-wif axmufco
H el @J aqG+idr;f axmufco
H al wG uG=J uygw,f? ocifEk Edik rf ,f
ajymrdv@kd tvkyðf zwfc&H wmrsKd ;/ aqG+idr;f udk axmufcyH gw,f vufrw
S x
f ;kd ay;rS tvkycf ef@r,fqw
kd m
rsdK;awG ay:cJhovdk/ OD;AaqG aemufrSm wyfrawmf&Sdw,f? OD;ausmf+idrf; aemufrSm ppf&Jwyf&if; (2)&if;
&Sdw,f/ toufab;udk owdxm;pOf;pm;+yD;rSvkyfvdk@ qdk&S,fvpf tvkyform;u +cdrf;ajcmufwmrsdK;/
OD;Ek axmufcw
H hJ OD;pD;rSe&f if tvkyu
f xkwyf pfr,fv@kd wD,pl b
D D Xme}uD;rª;/ 'Dy,
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&JΠ+cdrf;ajcmufr_rsdK;awGvnf; ay:aygufcJhygw,f?
arv (25) &ufae@rSm oef@&Sif;bufu Adkvfrif;acgifeJ@ AdkvfcsKyfuawmf a':cif=unfwdk@
rE Wav;udk c&D;xGufygw,f? rE Wav;rSm Adkvfrif;acgifu uGefjrLepfygwD zqyv tzGJŒ}uD;xJu
txkwcf &H wm/ awmxJarmif;yd@k v@kd awmcd&k wm OD;ausm+f idr;f npfywf uvdeu
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zGifhcsoGm;ygw,f? wav#mufvHk; zHk;zdxm;cJhor# tm%m& zqyv tpdk;&tzJGŒ}uD;twGif;uae
yxrqHk;tjzpf xkwfazmf0efcHajymqdkvmr_vdk@ rSwfwrf;wif&ygvdrfhr,f?
0ef}uD;0efuav;&mxl;ay;r,f/ vl0ifr}_ uD;=uyfa&;eJ@ taumufceG pf pfaq;r_awG z,f&mS ;ay;
r,f/ aiGa=u;ay;r,f? apmfbmG ;rsm; tm%mpGe@f a&; oufwrf;&Snaf tmif qGaJ y;r,f/ wdik ;f &if;om;vl
rsKd;tvdkuf oD;jcm;wyf&if;rsm; zGJŒpnf;a&; aqmif&Gufay;r,f/ pwJh pwJh rJqG,f=uoH ajym=uqdk=u
uwday;=uoHawG tòydiftqdkif xGufay:vmcJhw,f?
ae&mwdik ;f rSm tEdik &f a&;twGuf oJ}u;D rJ}u;D òyid q
f ikd af e=uwJt
h wGuf {+yv
D ukeaf vmufuae
arv wvvH;k [m tpd;k &r&So
d vdk jzpfaecJyh gw,f? &Sw
d t
hJ pd;k &[mvnf; bmtpd;k &vJv@kd trsKd ;trnf
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

207

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

wyfajymvdk@ r&Edkifatmif jzpfaecJhygw,f?
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trwfawGudk oef@&Sif;a&m wnf+rJyg ESpfzufpvHk;u tòydiftqdkif óudqdk=uygw,f? b,fwkef;ueJ@rS
rwlatmif óudq=kd u {nfch =H u tòydit
f qdik f tóuduaf qmif=uwJt
h wGuf trwfawGrsuEf mS yGiv
hf ef;cJh
=uygw,f?
1958 ckESpf/ ZGefv (5) &ufae@rSm tuGJt+yJudk pm&if;&Sif;=uzdk@ v$wfawmftxl;tpnf;t
a0;}uD; pwifygw,f?
aqG+idr;f bufu t,Ht
k =unfr&Sd tqdw
k ifoiG ;f rSmjzpfwt
hJ wGuf v$waf wmfrpwifrD w&uf
jzpfwJh ZGefv (4) &ufae@rSm aqG+idrf; tkyfpk0if0ef}uD; (15) OD;eJ@ ygvDreftwGif;0efrsm;/ tpdk;&
tzGJŒ0iftjzpfuae vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;eJ@tnD E_wfxGuf=uygw,f?
E_wfxGufwJh 0ef}uD;awGxJrSm u&ifjynfe,f 0ef}uD; a'gufwmapmvSxGef;eJ@ ucsifjynfe,f
0ef}uD; OD;Zefxm;qifwdk@ yg0ifwJhtwGuf 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Eku u&ifjynfe,f 0ef}uD;tjzpf OD;apmvlvl/
ucsifjynfe,f0ef}uD;tjzpf 'l;0g;aZmf&pf wdk@udk cef@xm;vdkufygw,f? zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'
rSm owfrSwfxm;wJh oufqdkif&mjynfe,faumifpDeJ@ nd‡Ed_if;wdkifyif&efqdkwmudk raqmif&GufbJ cef@
xm;cJhw,fqdkygw,f?
ZGefv (5) &ufae@ tpnf;ta0;rSm ygvDref OuUÏu ygvDrefvkyfxHk;vkyfenf;eJ@tnD/
OD;AaqG &JŒ “Ek-wif tpdk;&tay: t,Hkt=unfr&Sd tqdk” udk cGifhðy+yD;/ tqdkudk wifoGif;zdk@eJ@ rJcGJqHk;
jzwfzdk@ ZGefv (9) &ufae@udk owfrSwfay;vdkufygw,f?
ZGefv (9) &ufae@[m wjynfvHk; v$wfawmfwuf=uwJhae@ jzpfoGm;ygw,f? a&'D,dkuae
v$waf wmftpnf;ta0;}uD; usi;f yyH/k tqdw
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k ±f u
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ckef=u&if; abmvHk;yGJavmif;ovdk tavmif;tpm; vkyf=uwmawGyg ay:vmygw,f?
aqG+idr;f acgi;f aqmif OD;AaqG &JΠtpd;k &udk t,Ht
k =unfr&St
d qdk v$waf wmfrmS pwifwifoiG ;f
ygw,f?
“OD;Ek [m tzGJŒtpnf; 'Drdkua&pDxHk;wrf;pOfvm/ ygvDref'Drdkua&pDxHk;wrf;pOfvmeJ@ udk,fh
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wmudkvnf; OD;Ek taeeJ@ vdkufavsmae&rSmygbJ? 'gawGudk axmuf±_jcif;tm;jzifh OD;Ek tpdk;&[m
yrnw óud;qGJ&m u&r,hf ±kyfao;tpdk;&omjzpfr,fqdkwm tifrwefrSaocsmygw,f” vdk@vnf;
pGypf aJG jymqd+k yD;/ c&D;onfu tarmif;cdik ;f wJah e&m armif;&qG&J r,fh vefcsm;tpd;k &rsKd ; jzpfr,fv@kd vnf;
uifyGef;wyfay;ygw,f?
208

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

“OD;Ek[m 'Drdkua&pDqdkwJh pum;E_wfzsm;rSmoD;aewJh yk*~dKvfwOD;jzpfayr,fh vufawGŒrSm
'Drdkua&pDudk rav;pm;wJh yk*~dKvfjzpfygw,f? zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'u ay;tyfwJhtm%mrsm;
udkvnf; rdrdtm%mwnf+rJa&;twGuf tm%mudk tenf;enf;tzHkzHkeJ@ tvGJoHk;pm;ðyaeygw,f”
vdk@vnf; pGJcsufwifygw,f?
“jynfe,faumifpDrsm;udk nd‡E_dif;wdkifyifI jynfe,f0ef}uD;rsm;tm; cef@tyfxm;&r,fvdk@
zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'u twdtvif;jyÏmef;xm;ayr,fh/ tajccHOya'ESifh qef@usifvsuf
jynfe,f0ef}uD;rsm;udk rdrdwOD;wnf;oabmjzifh cef@xm;um tm%m&Sifqefqef ðyrlvdkufjcif;rSmvJ
zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'}u;D udk puULpkwjf zpfatmif vkyv
f u
kd af =umif;” vd@k vnf; jyif;jyif;xefxef
jypfwif±_wfcsvdkufygw,f?
wcsucf si;f wcsucf si;f wifvu
kd w
f hJ OD;AaqG &JΠtpd;k &tay: t,Ht
k =unfr&Sd tqdu
k kd tESpf
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qefqef vkyfaqmifcJhw,f? OD;Ektpdk;&[m yrnw óud;qGJ&mu&r,fh ±kyfao;tpdk;&rsdK;jzpfw,f?
zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'udk puULpkwjf zpfatmif vkyyf pfaew,fqw
kd hJ pGq
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awGe@J ±_wcf suef@uu
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k w
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k =unfr&Sd tqdjk zpfygw,f? wjcm; xl;xl;axGaxG
tcsuftvuftopfawG rygcJhyg?
tjyif;txefqHk; pGJcsuftjzpf ,lqzG,f&Sdwmuawmh “zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'}uD;udk
puULpkwfjzpfatmifvkyfvdkufw,f” qdkwJh aumufcsufyJjzpfygw,f? jynfe,f0ef}uD;awGcef@xm;wJh
udprP mS b,fou
l rkd S rwdik yf ifbJ xifovdk cef@xm;vkyu
f ikd cf jhJ cif;udk zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk tajccHOya'}uD;
udk puULpkwfjzpfatmif vkyfwmvdk@ aumufcsufqGJcJhw,fqdkawmh/ uGefjrLepfygwDtygt0if EdkifiHa&;
ygwDtzGJŒtpnf;awGudk ajray:rSm w&m;0ifaexdkif&yfwnfv_yf&Sm;vdk@r&atmif zrf;qD;zdESdyf csdK;ESdrf±Hk
omru awmxJtxdarmif;yd@k cw
hJ hJ vky&f yfrsKd ;[m zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'udk puULpkwv
f yk ±f w
kH if
ru/ wcgwnf; t+yD;tydkifrD;eJ@±d_ypfcJhwmvdk@yJ ajymqdkaumufcsufqGJ&ygvdrfhr,f? tJ'Dwkef;u rD;eJ@
±dy_ pfcw
hJ m zqyvvd@k yJ ajymqdak umufcsuq
f &JG ygvrd rhf ,f? tJ'w
D ek ;f u rD;eJ@±c_d w
hJ o
hJ al wG[m Ekwifa&m
aqG+idr;f a&m jzpfcyhJ gw,f? tckusrS tm%m&Siq
f efqef usio
hf ;kH wmavmufuakd wmif rcHr&yfEikd jf zpf+yD;
pGJcsufwifjyaeovdk jzpfaecJhygw,f?
OD;AaqG &JΠt,Ht
k =unfr&St
d qdk wifoiG ;f +yD;wJah emuf tqdu
k kd axmufco
H l uef@uu
G o
f al wG
v$wfawmfxHk;wrf;pOfvmeJ@tnD tòydiftqdkif aqG;aEG;=uygw,f?
OD;ausmf+idrf;/ ocifpHjrifh/ OD;cifarmifvwf wdk@u axmufcHaqG;aEG;=u+yD;/ OD;zdk;r_H/ OD;b+idrf;/
ocifwif/ 'l;0g;aZmf&pf wdk@u uef@uGufaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? v$wfawmfwGif; pum;ppfxdk;yGJ}uD; +yD;qHk;
wJhaemuf rJcGJqHk;jzwfzdk@ pwifygw,f?
v$wfawmftrwf (248) OD;&SdwJhteuf (246) OD;rJay;&rSmjzpfygw,f? v$wfawmfOuUÏu
rJray;bJ =um;ae&rSmjzpfovdk/ rtlyiftrwf OD;bOD;uvnf; E_wfxGufv$mwifoGif;+yD; jzpfoGm;wJh
twGuf rJay;cGifh r&awmhbl;jzpfoGm;ygw,f? OD;bOD;u E_wfxGufv$mwifpm ay;ydk@+yD;wJhaemuf
tcsdefrD ±kwfodrf;v$mwifcJhao;ayr,fh ±kwfodrf;v$mu xGufpmt&if (2) em&Davmuf apma&mufcJh
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

209

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

ayr,fh E_wfxGufv$mudkyJ w&m;0iftjzpf todtrSwfðyvdkufwJhtwGuf rJay;EdkifcGifhr&SdawmhbJ E_wf
xGuv
f u
kd +f yD; jzpfomG ;ygw,f?
rJay;Edkifol v$wfawmftrwf (246) OD; rJay;+yD;wJhaemuf rJawGudk pwifa&wGufwJh tcg
nae (6) em&D (19) rdepf&Sd+yDjzpfygw,f?
‘yrnw’ u rJawGtm;vHk;udk ‘Ek-wif’ oef@&Sif;udkyJ yHk+yD;atmzdk@ vkyfygw,f? 'gawmif
wu,frJay;=uwJhtcgusawmh ppfudkif;u yrnw trwf ‘OD;azwif’ u azmufoGm;cJh+yD; Ekwif
tpm; aqG+idrf;udk ay;oGm;wJhtwGuf wrJavsmhoGm;cJhygw,f? xGufay:vmcJhwJh rJ&vm'fuawmh
a[m'Dvdk jzpfygw,f?
(Ek-wifrJ)

(aqG-+idrf;rJ)

zqyvtzGJ@
yrnwtzGJ
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&Srf;
ucsif
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51
44
6
16
3
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2
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97
1
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9
4
3
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127

119

oef@&Sif; zqyv jzpfwJh ‘Ek-wif’u(127)rJ&+yD; wnf+rJ aqG-+idrf;u (119) rJ &wJhtwGuf
(8) rJxJeJ@ Ek-wifu tompD;&EdkifoGm;&ygw,f? aqG+idrf;&JΠtpdk;&tay: t,Hkt=unfr&Sdtqdk
±H_;edrfhoGm;cJh+yD; ‘Ekwif’ tEdkif&vdkufwmjzpfygw,f?
±H;_ edro
hf mG ;&wJh OD;AaqGe@J OD;ausm+f idr;f [m tEdik &f oGm;wJh OD;Eke@J ocifwifukd vufqEJG w
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wmudak wmh jrif&oltm;vH;k u oabmayguv
f u
kd =f uygw,f? bmyJjzpfjzpf ‘Ek-wif’ oef@&iS ;f tEdik &f
wJhtwGuf jynfolvlxk}uD;w&yfvHk;uawmh 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfoGm;cJh=uygw,f? ppfwyfwGif;u
aqG+idrf;vdkvm;olawGuawmh rcHcsdrcHomjzpfoGm;cJh&ygw,f?
OD;Eku tpdk;&tzGJŒudk jyifzGJŒygw,f? yrnw rJ (44) rJeJ@ tEkdif&cJhwmjzpfwJhtwGuf yrnw
u OD;at;armifudk w&m;a&;0ef}uD;tjzpfcef@tyfygw,f? &cdkiftrwf (6) OD;xJu (3) OD;udkvnf;
0ef}uD;ae&may;ygw,f?
oef@&iS ;f tpd;k &vufxufrmS umuG,af &;0ef}u;D [m Adv
k rf ;ª atmif jzpfvmygw,f? wyfrawmf
udk xdef;odrf;Edkifrvm; ar#mfvifhcsufeJ@ &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifa[mif; Adkvfrª;atmifudk cef@tyfwmjzpfyg
210

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

w,f? jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;u Adkvfrif;acgif jzpfvmygw,f? Adkvfrª;atmif [m umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;jzpf
vmcJhayr,fh AdkvfcsKyfae0if; wa,mufwnf;&JΠwvufudkifvHk;vHk; jzpfvmcJhwJh wyfrawmftay:
=oZmr&SdbJ jzpfaecJhygw,f?
wnf+rJaqG+idrf; ±H_;edrfhcJh&r_tay: aqGŒaqGŒckef rcHr&yfEdkifjzpf&oluawmh ajrmufydkif;wdkif;u
wyfr[mrª; Adkvfrª;}uD; =unf0if; jzpfygw,f? Adkvfrª;}uD; =unf0if; [m wnf+rJ OD;AaqG&JŒ r,m;nD
tudak wmfov
l nf; jzpfygw,f? Adv
k rf ;ª }uD; =unf0if;u “oef@&iS ;f awG zdv@kd v$waf wmfrmS (8) rJ±;_H ±Hek @J
OD;AaqG wdk@ tjyifawmif rxGuf&J jzpfae+yD/ oef@&Sif;tpdk;&udk wyfuvufeufeJ@ ðzwfcsypf&r,f”vdk@
a=unmajymqdk v_y&f mS ;vmygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyfae0if;udak wmif wifjycGiahf wmif;w,fqykd gw,f? Adv
k cf sKyf
ae0if; u óuu
d Ef pS o
f ufayr,fh bmrSrajymao;ovdk wm;jrpf[ef@wm;wmvnf; rvkycf v
hJ @kd qdyk gw,f?
Adv
k rf ;ª }u;D =unf0if; u ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f wdik ;f rª;Adv
k rf ;ª csKyaf tmifa&$/ ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfO;D pD;rª; (yxrwef;)
Adkvfrª;}uD;cspfcdkif wdk@eJ@ yl;aygif;+yD; wyfu tm%modrf;a&;udk jyifqifpdkif;jyif;cJhw,fqdkygw,f?
wyfudk tm%modrf;zdk@ aoG;wdk; ajr‡mufyifhay;olawGvnf; tcsdefudkufay:vmcJhygw,f?
ZGev
f (9) &ufae@ oef@&iS ;f tpd;k & tm%m&vm+y;D wJah emuf (13) &uft=um ZGev
f (22) &ufae@rmS yJ
ocifApdefacgif;aqmifwJh 'Drdku&ufwpftzGJŒcsKyfu nDvmcHvkyf+yD; “Armhwyfrawmfu OD;pD;I
uGefjrLepfr[kwfaom v$wfawmftwGif;tjyif&Sd ygwDaygif;pHkyg0ifaom ,m,DtrsdK;om; tdrfapmifh
tpdk;&zGJŒpnf;&ef “awmif;qdkygw,f? EdkifiHa&;aoae+yDjzpfwJh ocifApdef [m olyg yg0ifcGifh&EdkifwJh
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &w&yf ay:ayguaf tmif ppfwyfukd t}uaH y;vdu
k w
f o
hJ abmjzpfygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyfae0if;
[m r=umao;wJhwcsdefu ol&JΠtaE W0godum jzpfcJhbl;awmh olwdk@&JΠxGef;tkyfApdef ocif*dk%f;0if
jzpfczhJ ;l awmh ar#mv
f ifch sux
f m;+yD; awmif;qdv
k u
kd w
f mjzpfygw,f? Adv
k af e0if;u bmtoHrS jyefray;bJ
tajctaeudkom tqufrjywf tuJcwf=unfhaecJhygw,f?
jynfolvlxk&JΠOD;Ek tpdk;&tay: +idrf;csrf;a&;ar#mfvifhcsufuawmh 'Da&tvm; wufvmae
ygw,f? OD;Ek &JΠay:vpD (4) &yftay: wpHkw&m ar#mfvifh&if; a'gifhwkdif; a'gifhwdkif;uae +idrf;csrf;a&;
qENawGudk azmfxkwfjyoae=uygw,f?
rD;&xm;tvkyo
f rm;tpnf;t±H;k rsm; tzGŒJ csKyfuvnf; q&m}u;D ocifu,
kd af wmfri_d ;f &JΠrlt&
rsuEf mS pHn
k aD qG;aEG;a&;eJ@ oifyek ;f acsa&;udk tjrefq;kH taumiftxnfazmfay;zd@k / twdu
k t
f cdu
k af wG
&yfpJay;=uzdk@ awmif;qdkwGef;tm;ay;ygw,f?
oef@&Sif;wnf+rJ yÉdyuQawGuvnf; ydkrdkus,fjyef@vmygw,f? EdkifiHa&;tuGJt+yJ[m e,f
y,faygif;pHkudk *,uf±dkufaecJhygw,f?
1958 ckESpf wyfrawmf wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcHudk ZGef (23) &ufuae (25) xd r*Fvm'Hk avwyf
pcef;rSmðyvkyyf gw,f? w&m;0ifoabmtm;jzifah wmh umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyfae0if;u jyifyEdik if H
a&; tuG*J ,ufrmS wyfr;ª rsm;ryg0ifz@kd owday;pum;ajym=um;ygw,f? wyfwiG ;f rSm oef@&iS ;f vdv
k m;ol
wnf+rJvdkvm;olawG uGJjym;vm+yD; wyfòyduGJrSmpdk;&drfwJhtwGuf xdef;wJhoabmrsdK;jzpfygw,f?
wav#mufv;kH qd&k ,
S v
f pfygwb
D ufu &yfvmcJw
h mjzpfayr,f/h &yfvmcJw
h hJ qd&k ,
S v
f pfygwD ud,
k w
f ikd f
òyu
d v
JG m+yjD zpfwt
hJ wGuf wzufzufu/ &yfa&;xuf ud,
k u
f ,
kd w
f ikd w
f uf Adv
k v
f yk af &;tuGuu
f kd pOf;pm;
rdvm+yD; wyfròyduGJatmif owdxm;vmwJh oabmjzpfygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

211

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

ZGefv (24) &ufae@rSm 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek&JΠta&;}uD; rdef@cGef;wck xGufay:vmygw,f?
toHv$ifhrdef@cGef;tjzpf wEdkifiHvHk;udkajym=um;cJhwmjzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;udk tcsdefraphrD jyef
vnf&,lvu
kd cf sed f 1957 ckEpS /f rwfvtxd (4) ESpw
f mvH;k vH;k v$waf wmfrmS pum;w}urd rf S wufrajym
cJhbJ/ rl0g'ay:vpDawGudk owif;pmuGefz&ifhawG tcrf;tem;/ tpnf;ta0;awGuae óuHovdk azmf
xkwfajymqdkr_rsdK;eJ@ ajymqdkvmcJhwJh OD;Ek [m tckrS wEdkifiHvHk;udkodatmif toHv$ifhrdef@cGef;tjzpf
ajymqdkvmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
trsKd ;om;nDvmcHw&yf ac:,l&ef/ trsKd ;om;nDvmcH rusi;f yrD awmcd&k aJ bmfrsm; tvif;0if
&ef/ usL;vGecf o
hJ r# oifyek ;f acsay;r,fh oifyek ;f acsvw
G +f ird ;f csr;f omcGiOhf ya' jyÏmef;ay;&efe@J vufeufcs
tzGŒJ tpnf;awGukd w&m;0iftzGŒJ tpnf; xlaxmifciG ahf y;&efqw
kd hJ tcsuaf wG yg0ifcyhJ gw,f? rde@f ceG ;f
xJrSm - awmxJu vlawGu vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ pGef@a=umif; a=unmyg?
- ppfwyfudk vufeuftyfyg?
- awmxJusef&pfolawGeJ@ rqdkifbl;vdk@ a=unmyg?
- A[dkaumfrwDtm;vHk; armfuGef;wifyGJrSm vufrSwfxdk;yg?
- 'DtcgrSm w&m;0if ygwD wnf&SdcGifhðyr,f?
æ vkd@ azmfjyajymqdkoGm;ygw,f?
OD;Ek&ŒJ 'Dred @f ceG ;f udk q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfri_d ;f u pdww
f ikd ;f rusjzpfw,fv@kd qykd gw,f? trsK;d
om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;/ jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;twGuf t[ef@twm;awG uef@owfr_awGygaeao;
w,fvdk@ q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;u ,lqygw,f?
‘yrnw’ u OD;Ek &JŒ rde@f ceG ;f udk axmufc+H yD; ZGev
f (28) &ufae@rmS ‘vufeufuikd af wmfveS f
a&;ygwt
D zGŒJ tpnf;tm;vH;k od@k arwWm&yfcyH ef=um;csu’f udk xkwjf yefygw,f? yef=um;csurf mS “+idr;f
csrf;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&; tmrcHcsufjzifh &yfwnfaeaom OD;Ek tpdk;&. wdkif;odjynfod ay;tyfxm;
aom uwd}uD;av;csufonf 0ifvmEdkif&ef tajctaeopfrsm;jzpfa=umif;” azmfjyxm;ygw,f?
tpdk;&u ay;wJhtcGifhta&;udk vufrv$wfbJ vufeufudkifwdkufyJGrS vlxkwdkufyGJodk@ ajymif;vJygvdk@
vnf; wdkufwGef;a=unmcJhygw,f? 'Dyef=um;csufu ‘aphpyfa&;rl’ udk ypfy,f&ma&mufovm;/
ra&mufzl;vm;/ yef=um;csuft& 0ifvmoifhovm;/ rvmoifhbl;vm;/ pOf;pm;p&mawG ay:vmcJhyg
w,f? pOf;pm;=u/ a0zef=u oHk;oyf=uwmawGvnf; ay:vmcJhygw,f?
jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;eJ@ywfouf+yD; ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwu
D &yfcw
H ifjy awmif;qdak ewmu
“aphpyfaqG;aEG;a&;” jzpfygw,f?
OD;Ek &JΠpum;}uD;oHk;cGef;rSmwkef;u/ tvif;0ifvmygqdkwJh pum;okH;+yD; vufeufpGef@a&;
awmif;qdk&muae ZGef (24) rSmawmh vufeufudkif wdkufyGJpGef@a=umif; a=unmygqdkwmeJ@ ppfwyfudk
vufeuftyfygvdk@ ajymif;vJoGm;wmawGŒ&ayr,fh ‘aphpyfa&;’ udk qufvufjiif;y,fxm;qJ jzpfyg
w,f? tay: pD;,lxm;qJjzpfaeygw,f?
‘wzufowfusaeqJjzpfw,f’ vdk@ ,lqxm;wJh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu OD;Ek &JŒ ZGefv
(24) &ufae@ rdef@cGef;udk wkef@jyefwJh jyef=um;csufwapmif xkwfazmfa=unmvdkufygw,f? w&m;0if
212

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

xGufay:vmcJhwJh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD&JΠjyef=um;csufxJrSm (1) Zlvdkif (30) &ufae@rSpI ESpfzuf twdkuftcdkuf &yfpJ&ef/
(2) vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ pGef@a=umif; ESpfzufa=unm&ef/
(3) trsdK;om;vGwfvyfa&; xdef;odrf;a&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;rsm;udk ajyvnfr_&
atmifnd‡&ef/
(4) EdkifiHa&;t& ajyvnfr_&Sdv#if wyfrsm; vufeufrsm;udk tpdk;&odk@v$Jay;&ef/
(5) Oya'twGi;f 0ifvmv#if 'Dru
kd a&pDenf;t& Oya'wGi;f Y aqmif&u
G o
f mG ;&ef/ xd@k twGuf
tpdk;& odk@r[kwf oef@&Sif;zqyv odk@r[kwf q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;wdk@ESifh awGŒ
cGifhðy&ef/
vdk@ azmfjyyg&Sd awmif;qdkxm;wm awGŒ&ygw,f? oabmuawmh ‘vufeufudkifwdkufyGJ
pGef@a=umif;’ a=unmzdk@qdk&if ESpfzufpvHk;u a=unmzdk@/ wzufxJudk a=unmcdkif;aewm[m vuf
eufcsa&; t"dym` ,fyJ xGuaf ew,fv@kd ajymvdu
k w
f mjzpf+yD;/ awGŒqHak qG;aEG;aphpyfa&;rluykd J qufvuf
udkifpGJxm;wmjzpfygw,f?
tajctae[m vdycf w
J nf;vnf; jzpf+rjJ zpfae&+y;D / oef@&iS ;f wnf+rJ tuG&J ŒJ *,uf[mvnf;
}uD;+rJ }uD;aeqJjzpfygw,f? OD;Ek [m +idrf;csrf;a&;bufqD ta=umif;trsdK;rsdK;a=umifh rsufESmrlcsifo
vdkvdk wqifhwdk; azmfjycJhayr,fh ‘aphpyfa&; aqG;aEG;a&;rl’ udkawmh rajym0Hh rqdk0HhbJ jzpfaecJhygw,f?
±kyjf yorRw}u;D omjzpfae&wJh orw}u;D ref;0if;armifuvnf; orw tdraf wmfrmS owif;pm
uGefz&ifhvkyf+yD; ZGefv (30) &ufae@rSm olŒ&JŒ cHpm;&csufawGudk xkwfazmfygw,f? “igorw bmr#
rod” qdw
k mudk zGi[
hf ovdk bmtm%mrS r&Sw
d mudv
k nf; ajymqd&k iS ;f vif;ygw,f? ol orw jzpf+yD;rS
wwfajrmufvmwmqdkvdk@ ykqdk;awmif&Snfudk ESpfrdepftwGif; +yD;atmif0wfqifwwfwm&,f/ jrif;
pD;wwfwm&,f/ a*guf±dkufwwfwm&,fom&Sda=umif; &ifzGifhjyygw,f?
uGejf rLepfygwu
D Zlvikd f (30) &ufup+yD; twdu
k t
f cdu
k &f yfp=J uzd@k awmif;qdak yr,fh twdu
k f
tcdkufawGuawmh r&yf/ orw}uD;&JΠvGwf+idrf;csrf;om oifykef;acstrdef@qdkwmom xGufay:vmyg
w,f? oifyek ;f acs vGw+f idr;f csr;f om trde@f rxGuaf y:cif=um;xJrmS yrnw Adv
k jf raoG;u yrnwu
,ck usifhoHk;aewm aphpyfa&;rlyJ? vufeufcsa&;rl r[kwfvdk@ yrnw owif;pmuGefz&ifhrSm (Zlvdkif
17 rSm) ajym=um;ovd/k aemufw&ufrmS wnf+rJ OD;xGe;f 0if;u “OD;Ek [m +idr;f csr;f a&;rSm rdrw
d @kd tpd;k &
tzGJŒ&SdpOfu vrf;pOftwdkif;vkyfaea=umif; aphpyfaqG;aEG;aomenf;udk roHk;0Hha=umif;/ oHk;v#if jywf
rnfudk OD;Ek oda=umif; rdrdwdk@ aqG+idrf;tzGJŒu cHrnfr[kwf/ wdkif;jynfaoG;acsmif;pD;apEdkifa=umif;”
ajym=um;ygw,f? aphpyfa&;aqG;aEG;a&;udk wnf+rJu vufrcHa=umif; +cdrf;ajcmufajymqdkwmvkyfyg
w,f?
wnf+rrJ u
l ‘vufeufcsa&;’/ ‘tðywfwu
kd af &;’ omjzpfovdk ppfwyfuvnf; vufeufcsa&;
tðywfwu
kd af &;omjzpfygw,f? OD;Ek u 'D=um;xJu ‘+idr;f csr;f a&;’ udk aºuG;a=umfae&+yD; ‘vufeufcs
a&;’ tESpfom&a&mufatmif pum;vHk;a0g[m& trsdK;rsdK;ajymif;+yD; v_yf&Sm;aewJhoabmrsdK;jzpfae
ygw,f? ppfwyfwGif;u xdyfoD;awmfawmfrsm;rsm;uqdk&if/ OD;Ek &JŒ “oifykef;acs vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

213

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

trdef@” jyÏmef;wmudkawmif olykefawGudk tav#mhay;vGef;w,fqdk+yD; r±_pdrfhEdkif/ róudufEdkifjzpfcJh=u
ygw,f?
OD;Ek&J@ ZGef (24) rdef@cGef;udk ta=umif;ðy+yD; “rGefjynfol@wyfOD;”u (10) ESpf (10) rdk; vufeuf
ukid w
f u
kd yf q
JG ifae&muae vufeufuikd f wdu
k yf v
JG rf;pOfukd pGe@f vw
$ af =umif; a=unm+yD; Oya'abmif
twGif; 0ifa&mufa=umif; a=unmcsufxkwfjyefygw,f? Zlvdkif (23) &ufae@rSm xkwfjyefvdkufwJh
a=unmcsurf mS “Oya'wGi;f wdu
k yf u
JG kd wdik ;f &if;om;jynfow
l &yfv;kH ESihf vufwu
JG m &J&0J 0hH hH qufvuf
wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;rnf” vdk@ azmf!¸ef;+yD; jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJ&rnf? jynfwGif;ppf &yfpJ&rnf? rGefjynfe,f
ay:xGuf&rnfvdk@vnf; aºuG;a=umfxm;ygw,f? oxHk OD;vSaz&JŒ ytdk0fh trsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;
tzGJŒvnf; Oya'wGif; 0ifvmcJhygw,f?
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD uawmh =o*kwfv (11) &ufae@ ae@pGJeJ@ ‘yrnw’ &JŒ “vufeuf
udkifawmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkrsm;odk@ yef=um;csuf” tay: jyefpmay;ydk@cJh&if; uGefjrLepfygwD&JŒ oabm
xm;trSefudk xkwfazmfcJhygw,f? yrnw &JΠzdwfac:csuftrSefudkav;pm;a=umif;/ OD;Ek&JΠZGef (24)
rde@f ceG ;f rSm óuq
d Ekd idk w
f t
hJ csurf sm;yga=umif;/ 'gayr,fh vufeufcstnHch aH &;udk awmif;qdx
k m;wJt
h wGuf
vufrcHEdkifa=umif;/ oifykef;acseJ@ w&m;0ifcGifhay;jcif;wdk@[m +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf vrf;yGifha=umif;/
vufeufcs tnHch aH &;tay:tajcrcH&if a,bk,soabmwlEikd af =umif;/ q&m}uD;wd@k +idr;f csr;f a&;tzGŒJ
eJ@awGŒvdka=umif;eJ@ ESpfzufajyvnfr_&&SdEdkifrnfh tjcm;enf;vrf;rsm;&Sd&if wifjyygu pOf;pm;rnfjzpf
yga=umif; pojzifhazmfjyyg&SdcJh+yD; uGJvGJae&r_&JŒtajccHudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; azmfxkwfxm;ygw,f?
vufeufcsa&;tay: tajcrcH&if jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;[m ESpOf ;D ESpzf uf odumQ &S&d dS aqmif&u
G Ef ikd af wmh
r,fhtaetxm;rsKd; jzpfygw,f?
'Dvkd taetxm;rsKd ;udk wnf+rJawGu rvdv
k m;ovdk ppfwyfwiG ;f qd&k ,
S v
f pftEG,f xdyo
f ;D
}uD;rsm;uvnf; b0ifrusEikd jf zpf=uygw,f? olyek af wGukd tav#mah y;vGe;f wJah y:vpD/ aomif;use;f ol
awGudk vdkufavsmvGef;wJh vkyfaqmifcsufvdk@ rausreyfajym=uqdk=uygw,f?
=o*kwfv vvnfrSm ac:qdkusif;yay;&+rJjzpfwJh bwf*suftpnf;ta0;udkvnf; zsufodrf;
vdu
k +f yD; orw trde@f e@J twnfðy&efq;kH jzwfa=umif;/ OD;Eku OD;AaqG OD;ausm+f idr;f wd@k ukd ac:,lawGŒqHk
ajym=um;cJw
h t
hJ wGu/f rausreyfjzpfaecJw
h hJ wnf+rJrsm;[m oef@&iS ;f tpd;k &udk tjrefq;kH ðzwfcsypfcsif
aecJh=uygw,f? (8) rJeJ@ uyf+yD;±H_;vdkuf&wJhtwGuf rcHcsdrcHom jzpfcJh=uwJh wnf+rJrsm;[m bwf*suf
tpnf;ta0;rSm jyef+yD;tjywfw,
G zf @kd pOf;pm; jyifqifxm;wke;f rSm/ OD;Eku bwf*suf tpnf;ta0;udk
zsufodrf;+yD; orw trdef@eJ@ bwf*sufudk twnfðyzdk@ vkyfvdkufjyefwmudkvnf; aqG@aqG@ckef jzpfcJh=u
ygw,f? OD;Ek uvnf; bwf*suftpnf;ta0;ac:&if olŒtwGuf tajctaervSEdkifwmudk od+yD;
jzpfwt
hJ wGuf wrifa&SmifuiG ;f +yD; zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'yk'rf (110) udk toH;k ðy&if; b,fwek ;f
urS tm%mr,fr,f&& r&Scd w
hJ hJ orw &JΠta&;ay: wcsuv
f w
$ f Oya'trde@f qw
kd mudk xkwjf yefap+y;D
usifusifvnfvnf toHk;csoGm;zdk@jyifygw,f?
OD;Eku ygvDrefudkzsufodrf;/ bwf*sufudk orwtrdef@eJ@ a=unmtwnfðy+yD;/ a&G;aumufyGJ
opfvkyfoGm;a&;udk OD;wnfygw,f? yrnw u a&G;aumufyGJopfvkyfa&;twGufqdk&if ysLapmxD;
rsm; zsufodrf;ay;a&;udk awmif;qdkygw,f? =o*kwf (8) &ufae@rSm/ Armjynft&yf&yf&Sd wyfr[mrª;
214

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

rsm;/ c±kid &f 0J efrsm;tpnf;ta0;udk wyfrawmf uyG±J rHk mS usi;f yygw,f? tJ't
D pnf;ta0;udk umuG,f
a&;0ef}uD; Adkvfrª;atmif/ jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; Adkvfrif;acgif/ umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;/
twGif;0efcsKyf OD;cifarmifjzL eJ@ &JcsKyfwdk@ wufa&muf=uygw,f? tJ'Dtpnf;ta0;rSm ysLapmxD;wyf
rSefor# ‘Ekwif’ vla&m/ aqG+idrf; vlyg xkwfypfa&;tpDtpOfawG aqG;aEG;=uygw,f? tpnf;ta0;
rSm ppfbuft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;eJ@ &Jt&m&Sdtrsm;pku ‘ysLapmxD;’ awG[m wdkif;jynf+idrf0yfydjym;a&;
aqmif&Guf&mrSm tultnD&wJhtwGuf rzsufodrf;oifhao;a=umif; aqG;aEG;wmawG&SdcJhygw,f?
=o*kwv
f (15) &ufae@rmS jynfoŒl &Jabmfygwu
D vufeufpeG @f a=umif; a=unm+yD; w&m;0if
ygwDtjzpf &yfwnfvdkufygw,f?
=o*kwv
f (19) &ufae@rmS owif;pm&Si;f vif;yGu
J si;f y+y;D ‘bwf*sut
f pnf;ta0;’ zsuo
f rd ;f
a=umif; OD;Eku a=unmygw,f? =o*kwf (28) &ufrSm usif;yr,fvdk@ ac:,lxm;cJhwJh tpnf;ta0;udk
owfrSwf&uf rwdkifcif (9) &uftvdkrSm zsufodrf;vdkufwmjzpfygw,f? ta=umif;jycsufuawmh
‘tvif;0ifvmolawG rsm;jym;wmeJ@tr# olwdk@udk a&G;aumufyGJrSm yg0if,SOfòydifvmEdkifapzdk@twGuf
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJudk a&$Œqdkif;Edkifzdk@ 'Dvdkaqmif&Gufvdkuf&ygw,fvdk@ qdkygw,f?
aqG+ird ;f tkyu
f uef@uu
G rf a_ wGvyk yf gw,f? bwf*sut
f pnf;ta0;udk zsuo
f rd ;f vdu
k w
f m[m
OD;Ek &JŒ ol&Jabma=umifr_eJ@ tm%mtvGJoHk;pm;ðyrlr_vdk@vnf; pGyfpGJajymqdkygw,f?
=o*kwf (27) rSm aqG+idrf; wnf+rJzqyv trwfrsm;u 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;EkqD ygvDrefbwf*suf
tpnf;ta0; jyefvnfac:,lusif;yay;zdk@ trSmpm wapmifay;ydk@+yD; awmif;qdkcJh=uygw,f?
zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya' yk'rf 125 (1) udk &nf!e¸ ;f +y;D bwf*suu
f kd ygvrD efvw
$ af wmfo@kd
wifjya&;rSm rvGJraoG aqmif&Guf&r,fhudpPjzpfa=umif;/ bwf*sufudk orw trdef@eJ@ twnfðy
jyÏmef;Edkifa&;twGuf bwf*suftpnf;ta0;udk y,fzsufjcif;[m zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'udk
csdK;azmuf&ma&muf+yD; ygvDref'Drdkua&pDudk zsufqD;ypf&ma&mufa=umif;vdk@ a0zefygw,f?
=o*kwfv (31) &ufrSm 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek &JΠaetdrf0if;twGif;rSm oef@&Sif;zqyv &JΠEdkifiHvHk;
qdkif&mnDvmcH vkyfygw,f? te,fe,ft&yf&yfu oef@&Sif;nDvmcH udk,fpm;vS,fawG wufa&muf
vm=uygw,f?
oef@&Sif; wnf+rJ tuGJaemufydkif; oef@&Sif; wnf+rJ yÉdyuQ tjrifhqHk;tqifha&mufaecsdefrSm
usi;f ywJn
h v
D mcHjzpfygw,f? oef@&iS ;f wnf+rJ uG+J yD; oef@&iS ;f tm%m&csed u
f p+yD; yÉdyuQ[m tquf
rjywfjzpfvmcJh=uygw,f? EdkifiHa&;ygwD zqyv }uD;uGJoGm;ovdk zqyv vufatmufcH tvkyf
orm;tzGJŒtpnf;rsm;[mvnf; twdtvif; uGJoGm;cJh=uygw,f? aqG+idrf;wdk@ tkyfpku wD,lpDbD
(TUBC) udk udi
kx
f m;wJt
h wGuf Ekwif wd@k u jynfaxmifpt
k vkyo
f rm;tzGŒJ (Union Labour Organization) (,lt,fvftdk) udk xlaxmifvdkufygw,f? tvkyform;tcsif;csif; ±dkuf=uESuf=uwJhtxd
uG=J uygw,f? qdyu
f rf;tvkyo
f rm;awG=um;rSmqd&k if aqG+idr;f vdv
k m;tkyef @J Adv
k rf if;acgif vdv
k m;tkyf
t=um; &efapmifae=uwJhtwGuf ppfwyfcsxm;&wJh txdjzpfcJhygw,f?
pufwifbm (1) &ufae@rmS awmh wjynfv;kH &Syd sLapmxD;awGukd zsuo
f rd ;f +yD; &JtzGŒJ atmufrmS
t&H&t
J jzpf ajymif;vJz@kd umuG,af &;0ef}u;D Adv
k rf ;ª atmif/ jynfxaJ &;0ef}u;D Adv
k rf if;acgif eJ@ wyfrawmf
t&m&Sd}uD;rsm; c±dkif&J0efrsm;u oabmwlqHk;jzwfcJh=uygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

215

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

OD;Ek tdr0f if;twGi;f rSmusi;f ywJh oef@&iS ;f zqyv nDvmcH 'kw,
d ajrmufae@rmS awmh zqyv
nDvmcH 'kwdajrmufae@rSmawmh zqyv oef@&Sif;e,f udk,fpm;vS,fawGu òrdŒjytkyfcsKyfa&; wm0ef
&SdoltcsdKŒeJ@ wyfrawmft&m&Sd}uD;wcsdKŒ[m aqG+idrf; tkyfpkbufuae bufvdkuf aqmif&Gufae=u
a=umif;/ tJ'v
D akd qmif&u
G af e=uolawGukd wjcm;ae&mrsm;od@k ajymif;a&$Œay;zd@k wyfrawmf t&m&S}d uD;
awG&JŒ trnfemrawGyg xkwfazmf+yD; jypfwif±_wfcs awmif;qdkr_awG ðyvkyfcJh=uygw,f? [Hom0wD
c±dkifbufu oef@&Sif;udk,fpm;vS,fuqdk&if wyfrawmf[m jynfolawG&JŒ trSwfwpf&efoljzpfw,f
vd@k awmif a=unmajymqdw
k mawG ay:aygucf yhJ gw,f? wyfrawmfbufu qwfqwfxrd cHjzpfcyhJ gw,f?
tJ'DvdkajymqdkcsufawGtwGuf pGyfpGJajymqdkolawGudk ta&;,lay;zdk@ wyfrawmfacgif;aqmifwcsdKŒu
pufwifbm (3) &ufrSm OD;EkqD oGm;a&mufwdkifwef; ajymqdkcJh=uygw,f?
OD;Eku tJ'v
D kd pGypf aJG jymqdrk a_ wGukd olrod&a=umif; jiif;qdck o
hJ vd/k pufwifbm (4) &ufae@rmS
wyfrawmfudk avajyxdk;&if; toHv$ifh ajz&Sif;cJhygw,f?
“ajymwJhudk,fpm;vS,frsm;[m tajctaetjzpfrSefudk rodI jzpfoGm;&yga=umif;/ wyfr
awmf[m wdik ;f jynftay: xm0pOfopPm&Scd yhJ ga=umif;/ olyek af b;&efa=umifh wdik ;f jynf acsmufxu
J s&ef
vufESpfvHk;cef@ tvdk&SdcJh&mrS wyfrawmfu óud;yrf;Iom ab;&eftaygif;udk atmifjrifcJhonfrSm
txift&Sm;jzpfyga=umif;” vdk@acsmhcJhygw,f?
'gayr,fh tpuwnf;u Ekwif xuf aqG+idrf; udk vdkvm;cJh=uolrsm;/ wnf+rJ oHa,mZOf
ydk}uD;cJh=uolrsm;/ aqG+idrf; eJ@om EdkifiHa&;&yfwnfcsuf xyfwljzpfcJh=uolrsm;[m wyfwGif;xdyfydkif;rSm
tHek @J usi;f eJ@&adS ecJ=h u+y;D jzpfwt
hJ wGuf OD;Ek &JΠavajyxd;k acsmjh rLr_[m t&ma&mufEikd pf rG ;f r&S&d o
kH mru/
olwdk@&JΠppfaoG;ppfrmef ppfrD;v#Hudk ydkrdkjyif;xefvmatmif ,yfcwfay;vdkufovdk om&SdcJhygw,f?
avajyxdk;oH[m Adef;armif;oHudk ausmfv$m; zHk;v$rf;Edkifjcif;r&SdcJhyg?
acgif;rm*dk%f;om; ppfrmef}uD;olwdk@&JΠtjrifrSm oef@&Sif; zqyv tpdk;&[m olykefawGudk
tav#mhay;vGef;w,f/ olykefawGudk oifykef;acs vGwf+idrf;cGifhawGay;+yD;/ Oya'abmiftwGif; qGJoGif;
vufcóH udqakd ewm[mvnf; ppfwyftwGuf tE &W m,f&v
dS mEdik w
f ,fv@kd jrifygw,f? t"dutm;jzifh
tðywfwu
kd af &; avoHtpm; +idr;f csr;f a&;avoHay;vmwmudk rESpo
f ufEikd jf cif;/ olyek af wGukd Oya'
abmiftwGi;f a&mufvmap+yD; w&m;0if &yfwnfvy_ &f mS ;vmrSmudk eJeaJ v;rS r±_prd Ehf ikd jf cif;/ ppfwyf&ŒJ
tcef;u¾ wjznf;jznf; arS;rSdefavsmhyg;oGm;&rSmudkvnf; vufrcHEdkifjcif;wdk@a=umifhjzpfygw,f?
tJ'Dvdk rauseyfEdkifr_ r±_pdrfhEdkifr_ tjzpfrcHEdkifr_}uD;awGudk twGif;}udwf&ifxJxm;+yD;/ OD;Ek tpdk;&&JŒ
jynfe,f0ef}uD; cef@xm;enf;udpP/ bwf*suftpnf;ta0;udk zsufodrf;jcif;udpPawG[m zGJŒpnf;tkyf
csKyfyHktajccHOya'udk csdK;azmufaewmtjzpf vuf!dk;xdk;jy+yD; OD;Ek udk z,f&Sm;ypfcsifaecJh=uwm
jzpfygw,f?
±H_;edrfhcJhwJhtwGuf rausEdkif rcsrf;EdkifjzpfaecJh&wJh wnf+rJuvnf; OD;Ek &JŒ vkyfaqmifcsuf
awG[m zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'eJ@ qef@usifaew,fqdkwmudk ta=umif;ðy+yD; tm%modrf;zdk@
ppfwyfudk wdkufwGef;tm;ay;ygw,f?
ppfwyf[m vHkavmufwJh tiftm;pkwckjzpfae+yD/ tcdkiftrm wdk;csJŒwnfaqmufxm;wJh
tzGŒJ tpnf;}uD;w&yf jzpfae+yDqw
kd mudv
k nf; rSwx
f ifqyk u
f ikd cf ,
H x
l m;+yD;+yDjzpfwt
hJ wGuf ppfwyfu
216

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tm%modrf;,la&;pdwful;[m ppfwyfxdyfoD;}uD; awmfawmfrsm;rsm;&JŒ&ifxJrSm eufeuf±d_if;±d_if;jzpf
wnfvmcJh+yDjzpfygw,f? Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif/ Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; wdk@[m ppfwyfu tm%modrf;
,la&; Zmwfvrf;twGuf t"du ta&;}uD;Zmwfaqmif}uD;awG jzpfvmcJh=uygw,f?
oef@&iS ;f zqyv bufuvnf; wyfrawmfwiG ;f u ppfwyfxyd o
f ;D }uD;awG[m aqG+idr;f buf
awmfom;awG/ aqG+idrf; oHa,mZOf&SdolawGvkd@ em;vnfodjrif,lqxm;+yD;+yD jzpfygw,f?
OD;Ek &JΠzqyv oef@&Sif;tpdk;&[m ygvDrefudk pufwifbm (29) &ufae@rSm zsufodrf;+yD;/
bwf*suu
f kd orw trde@f e@J pufwifbm (30) &ufae@rmS jyÏmef;um taxGaxGa&G;aumufyo
JG pfukd
Edk0ifbmvtwGif; usif;yay;r,fvdk@ pufwifbm (22) &ufae@rSm qHk;jzwfvdkufygw,f?
tJ'Dvdk oef@&Sif;zqyv u rqHk;jzwfcifuav;rSmbJ ppfwyfu tm%modrf;,la&;twGuf
qdk&S,fvpfygwD xdyfoD;}uD;awGjzpfcJh=uwJh vuf&SdwyfwGif; xdyfoD;wcsdKŒu olwdk@&JŒ ppfwyftm%m
odrf;,la&;tpDtpOfudk tcdkiftrm pDpOfa&;qJG qHk;jzwfxm;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
ajrmufydkif;wdkif; wdkif;rª; Adkvfrª;csKyfatmifa&$/ ajrmufydkif;wdkif; ppfOD;pD;rª; Adkvfrª;}uD;cspfcdkif/
ajrmufydkif;wdkif; wyfr[mrª; Adkvfrª;}uD; =unf0if; wdk@ yl;aygif;a&;qGJxm;wJh tpDtpOfu uGwfcdkifrSm
wyfp+JG yD; ppfqifa&;0ifaewJh trSwf (4) aoewfuikd w
f yf&if;eJ@ weoFm&Du cr& (106) udk toH;k ðyzd@k
qH;k jzwfxm;w,fqykd gw,f? wyf&if;rª;trde@f e@J wyf&if; (4) udk uGwcf ikd u
f ae csyo
f if; tjrefajymif;+yD;
jrpf}uD;em;&xm;eJ@ rE aW v;udk csaD pzd@k / rE aW v;rSm w&ufxm;/ wyfom;udik v
f ufeufawGukd òrdŒwGi;f
wdu
k yf o
JG ;kH vufeufawGe@J vJv,
S +f yD; wyfqifapzd@k / aemufae@ wdik ;f rª;uac: +yD; &efuek af jryHx
k w
k af y;
um pufwifbm (27) ta&muf &efukefudk csDapzdk@/ ajryHkay:rSm rSifeD0dkif;jyxm;wJh 0ef}uD;csKyftdrfeJ@
wjcm;0ef}uD;awG tdrfudk0dkif;+yD; zrf;qD;zdk@vdk@qdkygw,f? wduswJh ppfqifa&;tpDtpOfudk tao;pdwf
a&;qGJ !¸ef=um;xm;w,fqdkygw,f? tJ'DtpDtpOfudk ppf±Hk;udkvnf; wifxm;w,fqdkygw,f?
tm%modrf;a&;tpDtpOfudk Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif u Adkvfrª;}uD;atmif}uD;/ Adkvfrª;}uD;
cif!kd wd@k ukd pufwifbm (20) &ufrmS tif;,m;vrf;&Sd olŒtdrrf mS ac:,l&iS ;f jyw,fqykd gw,f? (21)
&ufrmS qufaqG;aEG;+yD; oabmwl=uygw,f? awmifyikd ;f wdik ;f wdik ;f rª; Adv
k rf ;ª }uD; bvdwf wOD;wnf;
uyJ uef@uGufcJhw,fqdkygw,f?
wyf&if; (106) u tif;pdefe,fajrudk odrf;zdk@ (107) (108) u &efukefudk wyfjzef@+yD;odrf;zdk@
pDpOfcJh=uygw,f? tJ'DtpDtpOftao;pdwfudk tao;pdwf tpD&ifrcHapumrl oludkifxm;wJh ppf
axmufvSrf;a&;uwqifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; odaecJhygw,f? tm;vHk;udk v$wfay;xm;+yD; vufydkuf
=unfhaecJhygw,f?
zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'udk csdK;azmufw,fqdkwJh ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ tm%modrf;zdk@
ppfwyfudk wnf+rJu wdkufwGef;wma=umifha&m/ ppfwyfu tm%modrf;Edkifw,fqdkwJh owif;awG
xGufay:vmwma=umifhyg oef@&Sif;tpdk;&bufu jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; Adkvfrif;acgif uvnf; jyifqifr_
awGðyvkyfygw,f? Adkvfrif;acgif &JŒ jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;Xme vufatmufrSm ppf&Jwyf&if; (20) ausmf
&SdwJhteuf wyf&if; (6) ck (7) ck[m Adkvfrif;acgif=oZm&SdwJh ppf&Jwyf&if;awGjzpfw,fqdkygw,f?
Adkvfrif;acgifu =oZm&SdwJh ppf&Jwyf&if; wcsKdŒudk &efukefòrdŒem;ac:,lzdk@ óud;pm;ygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

217

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

tm%modrf;wyfu rE Wav;&Sd ppf&Jwyfudk uGyfuJwJh Adkvfrª;}uD;udk zrf;qD;vdkufwJhtcg
ppf&w
J yf OD;pD;jzpfwhJ Adv
k rf if;acgif owif;=um;od+y;D / csucf si;f yJ jyef=um;a&;0ef}u;D ocifyef;òrid f eJ@twl
Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;qD oGm;awGŒygw,f? tm%modr;f tpDtpOfukd wm;ay;zd@k wdik =f um;ajymqdyk gw,f?
AdkvfcsKyfae0if;u “olwdk@'DavmufvkyfEdkifr,f rxifygbl; apmifh=unfhygOD;” vkd@ajymw,fqdkygw,f?
Adkvfae0if; ajAmifvdrfaerSef;odwJhtwGuf Adkvfrif;acgifu jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;taeeJ@ e,f&Sd ppf&Jwyf
wcsdKŒudk &efukefvmzdk@ trdef@xkwfac:,lygw,f? ppf&Jvufeufwdkufu vufeufawGudkvnf; xkwf
,lygw,f? xkw,
f &l &Sw
d hJ vufeufawGu ppfwyftiftm;eJ@ E_id ;f ,SO=f unfrh ,fq&kd if rjzpfpavmufyJ
&Sdygw,f? 2 vufrpdefajymif; (6) vuf/ b&if;*ef; (8) vuf/ pwif;*ef; (29) vuf/ ±dkifz,f (145)
vuf/ ajcmufv;kH jyL; (6) vuf/ avmifcsmtrfEikd ;f at0rf (6) vuf/ vufypfA;kH (289) vH;k eJ@ usnq
f H
(23600) yJ &Sdygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyfudk,fwdkifu vHkòcHa&;ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ vlrsdK;pkawGyg0ifwJh ppf&Jwyf&if; wcsdKŒudk
&efukefòrdŒudk v$Jajymif;ay;zdk@ t}uHðywmudkvnf; ppfwyfu enf;AsL[meJ@ ppfqifa&;qdkif&m
ta=umif;jy+y;D uef@uu
G yf gw,f? 'gayr,fh oef@&iS ;f zqyv acgi;f aqmifawGu vufa&G;pif ysLapmxD;
wyfzGJŒwcsdKŒudk &efukefòrdŒudk ac:,l+yD; ta&;ay:tajctaejzpfvm&if toHk;ðyzdk@ pDpOfxm;ygw,f?
v,f,m opfawm0ef}uD; ocifausmfxGef; &JŒ opfawmumuG,fa&;wyfzGJŒawGudk wyfvSef@xm;yg
w,f? jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;wyfeJ@ jynfolŒ&JabmfygwD0ifawGudkvnf; ta&;ay:tajctaetwGuf
toifhjyifqifxm;apcJhygw,f?
wyfrawmfe@J oef@&iS ;f zqyv tpd;k &&JŒtpDtpOfawG[m xdyw
f u
kd o
f abmaqmifvmygw,f?
ppfwyfu tm%modr;f zd@k }uHpnfjyifqifae+yDqw
kd t
hJ oHawG vlx=k um;txd ysŒH ES@H vmovd/k zqyv
oef@&Sif;tpdk;&bufu jzpfEdkifor# vlolvufeuf pkaqmif;jyifqif aqmif&GufvmwmawGvnf;
xifxif&mS ;&Sm;jzpfay:vmcJyh gw,f? tJ'w
D ek ;f u taetxm;udk taxmufawmftek ;f jrifv
h kd yk*Kd~ vfu
“cufzG,f&,fóuHygw,f? vufeufu,fpHktnDeJ@” vdk@ a&;om;ygw,f?
wyfrawmfwGif;u ppfwyfxdyfoD;}uD;wcsdKŒu ppfwyftm%modrf;a&;tpDtpOfudk a&;qGJ
pDpOf aqmif&u
G =f uwmvnf; trSew
f u,fjzpfay:cJo
h vd/k oef@&iS ;f zqyv acgi;f aqmifrsm;u ppfwyf
&JΠajcvSr;f rsm;udk tcsed rf w
D m;qD;umuG,f wke@jf yefEikd zf @kd vw
kd ,fv@kd odjrif+yD; vdt
k yfwhJ jyifqifaqmif
&Gufr_awGudk vkyfudkifzdk@ pDpOf=uwmvnf; trSefyJjzpfcJhygw,f?
(8) rJxeJ @J uyf±;_H cJ&h wJh wnf+rzJ qyv uvnf; rpm;&wJt
h rJ oJe@J yufovdk zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfykH
tajccHOya'udk csKd ;azmufaew,fqw
kd mta=umif;jy+y;D tm%mudo
k rd ;f ,lvu
kd zf @kd ppfwyfukd wdu
k w
f eG ;f
tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufvkyfaecJhygw,f?
pufwifbm (22) &ufae@rmS wyfrawmfu vufeufuikd w
f yfzŒJG rsm;&JŒ v_y&f mS ;r_awGukd wm;qD;
umuG,fzdk@qdkwJh ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ pwifv_yf&Sm;vmygw,f? &efukefòrdŒt0if axmuf}uH›*dwfuae
ydwfqdk@&SmazG+yD; &efukefòrdŒudk 0ifa&mufvm=uwJh ppf&Jwyfom;awGudk vufeufodrf;qnf;wm/ rlv
ae&mjyefoGm;cdkif;wmawG vkyfygw,f?
jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; Adv
k rf if;acgi&f ŒJ wefjyefppfjyifqifaewmawG tay: Adv
k rf ;ª }uD; atmif}uD;eJ@
Adv
k rf ;ª }uD;armifarmifu rausreyfEikd jf zpf+yD;/ 0ef}uD;csKyf rE aW v;c&D;xGuaf ewJt
h wGu/f 0ef}uD;csKyf&ŒJ
218

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

twdik yf ifcH OD;tke;f udk ppfc±kH ;kH qifah c: +yD;/ “oef@&iS ;f tpd;k &u ppf&aJ wGo;kH +yD; ppfwyfukd òzdczJG @kd tm%m
odrf;zdk@ pDpOfaewm &yfqdkif;zdk@” }udrf;armif;w,fqdkygw,f? “oef@&Sif;u wyfudk&efðyvdk@ wyfu
onf;rcHEdkifvdk@ v_yf&Sm;aewm” vdk@vnf; ajymw,fqdkygw,f?
pufwifbm (23) &ufreufrSm Adkvfrif;acgif[m Adkvfrª;atmif eJ@twl AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;udk
'kwd,t}udrftjzpfoGm;+yD; awGŒ=ujyefygw,f? tusdK;ta=umif; ajymqdk=ujyefygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;
ae0if; u 'DudpPolrodyg? Adkvfatmif}uD; eJ@ Adkvfarmifarmif wdk@ odygvdrfhr,f? olwkd@ (2) OD;udk
0ef}uD;csKyfeJ@awGŒzdk@ wifjyzdk@ apv$wfay;ygr,fhvdk@ ajzw,fqdkygw,f? Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif eJ@ Adkvfrª;
}uD; atmif}uD; wkd@ jynfyc&D;oGm;aew,fvdk@ qdkygw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'D (23) &ufae@rSmyJ ppfwyfu
tif;pdefòrdŒe,frSm&SdwJh oef@&Sif;zqyv ±Hk;wcsdKŒudk vufeufeJ@0dkif;+yD; odrf;ydkufxm;=u+yD;+yDjzpfyg
w,f? c&rf;òrdŒudkvnf; ppfwyfuodrf;ydkufxm;+yD;+yDvdk@ xGef;ae@pOfowif;pmu pufwifbm (24)
&ufae@xw
k rf mS azmfjyvdu
k yf gw,f? Adv
k w
f axmifowif;pmrSmvnf; c&rf;òrdŒudk ppfwyfu odr;f ydu
k f
vdkuf+yDvdk@ azmfjyyg&SdcJhygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek rE aW v;u jyefa&mufa&mufcsi;f jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; Adv
k rf if;acgiu
f ppfwyfu
tm%modr;f zd@k pDpOfaewJo
h wif;udk ay;ygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&Smifcsif wdr;f a&SmifEikd f
zdk@ av,mOfysHwpif; tqifoifhvkyfxm;wmudkvnf; wifjyygw,f? OD;Eku Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmifeJ@
Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; udk olŒqDac:cJhzdk@ Adkvfrif;acgifudk trdef@ay;ygw,f?
ygwDtzGJŒtpnf;aygif; (17) zGJŒeJ@ xif&Sm;wJhyk*~dKvf (9) OD;wkd@ yg0ifa&;qJGxkwfa0vdkufwJh
“wyfrawmfonf jynfolŒtwGufjzpfygap” qdkwJh a=unmcsufvnf; xGufay:vmcJhygw,f?
pufwifbm (24) &ufrSmyJ jynfyc&D;u jyefa&mufvmw,fqdkwJh Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmifeJ@
Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfatmif}uD; wk@d EpS af ,muf OD;Ek eJ@ vma&mufawGŒqHyk gw,f? olw@dk u “bwf*suOf ya'=urf;
wifoiG ;f a&;twGuf v$waf wmfac:,lusi;f yjcif;[m Edik if aH &;wif;rmr_ukd avsmyh g;apr,fh vkyaf qmif
csufw&yfjzpfEdkifw,f” vdk@ajymw,fqdkygw,f? “oef@&Sif;u &JabmfjzLeJ@aygif;+yD; wyfudkzsuf&ef
p}uHw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; udkawmif vkyf}uH&ef }uHpnfvdk@ wyfurcHEdkifwJhtwGuf tHkºuGum
v_yf&Sm;aejcif;jzpfygw,f? rdrdwdk@u +idrfoufatmif aygufuGJr_r&Sdatmif xdef;ae&ygw,f? wyfudk
vSef@xm;&ygw,f? b,favmuf=um=um xdef;xm;Edkifr,frodyg”vdk@vJ pGyfpGJwkdifwef;ajymqdkw,f
qdkygw,f?
pufwifbm (25) &ufae@rmS awmh ppfwyfu &efuek w
f 0du
k u
f kd odr;f +y;D uif;yH;k cswm/ avqdyu
f kd
odrf;+yD; tajrmufawGqifwmvkyfygw,f? rE Wav;/ jrpf}uD;em;/ vm;±d_;/ awmifwGif;/ usdKufvwf/
bdu
k av; pwJòh rŒd awGuv
kd nf; odr;f xm;vdu
k =f uygw,f? jynfxaJ &;0ef}u;D &JΠqifah c:csut
f & qif;vm
wJh ppf&JwyfawGudkvnf; vrf;c&D;uae qD;zrf;wmvkyfygw,f? tif;pdefc±dkif0ef/ &J0efwdk@udkvnf;
xdef;odrf;xm;vdkuf+yD; pHkaxmuf±Hk;eJ@ óud;rJha=u;eef; qufoG,fa&;±Hk;udkvnf; odrf;ydkufxdef;csKyfxm;
vdkufygw,f? ppfwyfu tm%modrf;vdkuf+yDvdk@ ra=unmbJeJ@ ,m,DvufOD;r_&Sd&Sd odrf;xm;vdkuf
jcif;jzpfygw,f?
yg&rD&dyfomrSmawmh trSwf (4) wyf&if;&JΠwyfcGJwcGJudk tif;,m;vdyfa[mfw,faqmufae
wJh jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;wyfu wyfom; (500) avmufu vufeuftenf;i,feJ@ckcH+yD; 0dkif;xm;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

219

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

vdu
k Ef ikd yf gw,f? useaf e&mawmfawmfrsm;rsm;udk ppfwyfu tay:pD;,l xde;f csKyfxm;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
pufwifbm (25) &ufae@rmS yJ 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek [m oef@&iS ;f acgi;f aqmiftm;vH;k pHek @J ac:,laqG;
aEG;Edkifjcif;r&SdawmhbJ/ acgif;aqmifwcsdKŒeJ@om wdkifyifaqG;aEG;+yD; vrf;a&G;zdk@jyif&ygawmhw,f? OD;Ek
a&G;vdu
k &f wJv
h rf;u ppfwyfukd jyefvnfcck w
H u
kd cf u
kd jf cif;rvkyb
f J w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyv
JG yk af y;zd@k
uwdðycdik ;f / oabmwlncD suef @J tajctaeawG jyefvnfaumif;rGev
f mwJt
h cgusrS Edik if aH &;tm%m
udk a&G;aumufyGJenf;eJ@ jyefvnf&,lEdkifa&;vrf;jzpfygw,f? 'Dvrf;[m udk,fhtwGuf tcGifhtvrf;
omapEdkifw,fvdk@vnf;,lq+yD; OD;Ek [m zqyv oef@&Sif;acgif;aqmif (5) OD;eJ@yJ wkdifyifnd‡E_dif;+yD;
tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;a&;qHk;jzwfcsufudk qHk;jzwfvdkuf&w,fvdk@qdkygw,f?
pufwifbm (26) &uf reuf (9) em&D ausmfausmfavmufrSm Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif/ Adkvfrª;
csKyfatmif}uD;/ Akdvfrª;csKyfwifaz wkd@ (3) OD; 0ef}uD;csKyftdrfudk a&mufvm+yD; OD;Ek eJ@awGŒygw,f?
OD;Ek eJ@twl 'k0ef}uD;csKyf ocifwif/ Adkvfrif;acgif/ OD;wifarmif wkd@ &Sdaew,fvdk@qdkygw,f?
OD;Eku “cifAsm;wkd@òrdŒwGif;rSm wifhum;awG oHcsyfumum;awG/ tajrmuf}uD;awGeJ@ bmvkyf
=uwmvJ” vdk@ par;ygw,f?
“wyfrawmfu tm%modr;f vdu
k yf g+yD/ tcsut
f csmusae&mawGrmS wyfpx
JG m;ygw,f? tJ'g
a=umifh 0ef}uD;awG ±Hk;rwuf=uygeJ@” vdk@ ppfAdkvfrsm;u ajzw,fqdkygw,f?
OD;Eku “tm%mrodrf;=ueJ@/ wyfa&m wdkif;jynfyg eHr,fysufr,f/ vuf&Sdtpdk;&udk vufrcH
Edkif&if w&m;r#wwJha&G;aumufyGJudk usif;yay;ygr,fvdk@ ppfwyfuuwday;&if ppfwyfudk tm%mv$J
ay;r,f/ 'Dvdk tm%mv$Jay;zdk@twGuf v$wfawmfudkac:vdkufr,f/ 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;uxGuf+yD; v$wf
awmfu AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; udk 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufatmif tqdkwifay;ygr,f”
vdk@ajymw,f? qdkygw,f?
OD;Ek u tJ'DtcsufawGudk pmeJ@a&;+yD;ay;vdkufwJhtcg Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif/ Adkvfrª;csKyf
atmif}uD;/ Adkvfrª;csKyfwifaz wkd@[m “AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; udk ar;yg&apOD;” qdk+yD; pmudkvufcH&,l+yD;
jyefoGm;=uw,fqdkygw,f?
tm%mawmif;yGJ ratmifjrifb;l qd&k if t=urf;zuf tm%modr;f zd@k / 0ef}uD;csKyftrd u
f v
kd nf;
tajrmuf}uD;awGeJ@ csdefxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; u OD;Ek &JΠtpDtpOfudk vufcHoabmwlvdkufygw,f? tpuwnf;u
Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif/ Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; wdk@&JŒ tm%modrf;a&;tpDtpOfawGudk tao;pdwf od&Sd
ae+yD;jzpfwhJ Adv
k cf sKyfae0if; [m OD;Ek ud,
k w
f idk f ðypka&;om;ay;w,fqw
kd hJ tjyeftvSeaf y;pm (2)apmif
tay: acgif;ndwfoabmwlay;vdkuf±HkeJ@ tm%mudk &&Sd+yD;om;jzpfoGm;ygw,f?
pufwifbm (26) &ufae@nrSmyJ EdkifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek &JΠta&;}uD;rdef@cGef; jrefrmtoH
a&'D,dkuae xGufay:vmygw,f? “59 ckESpf/ {+yDvrSm vGwfvyf+yD;w&m;r#wwJ@ a&G;aumufyGJ}uD;
usi;f yay;&ef Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; udk zdw=f um;a=umif;/ Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;u vufcw
H t
hJ wGuf 0rf;om
a=umif;eJ@ jynfolvlxk}uD;u AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; udk vufcH=uapvdka=umif;” vdk@ OD;Ek u yvDyvm
ajym&ygawmhw,f? tm%modrf;cH&wmudkyJ olukd,fwdkifu vdkvdkvm;vm;zdwf=um;+yD; wkdif;jynf&JŒ
+idr0f yfyjd ym;a&;udk xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufay;zd@k arwWm&yfcH tyfEv
HS u
kd &f wJyh rkH sKd ; azmfusL;oGm;cJyh gw,f?
220

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

OD;Ek eJ@ Adv
k cf sKyf}u;D ae0if; wd@k tjyeftvSeaf &;=uw,fqw
kd hJ pm (2) apmifqw
kd mudv
k nf; ol[mol
ðypk+yD; zwf=um;azmfjyoGm;ygw,f? ppfwyf&JŒ tm%modrf;yGJudk zdwfrE WuyGJjzpfatmif tpGrf;ukef
o±kyfaqmifay;cJhayr,fh EdkifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek &JŒtoH[m armoHygaecJhw,f vdk@qdk=uygw,f?
tm%modr;f t"du wyfwwyftjzpf owfrw
S x
f m;wJh trSwf (4) aoewfuikd w
f yf&if;[m &efuek u
f kd
odr;f +yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfe@J 0ef}uD;0efuav;awGukd zrf;qD;zd@k rE aW v;uae t&Sed jf yif;jyif;eJ@ csw
D ufvmwm
0ufxD;uefa&mufrS/ cr& (101) eJ@ awGŒrS tusdK;ta=umif;od&+yD; jyefwyfacgufoGm;&w,fvdk@
qdkygw,f?
qd&k ,
S v
f pfxyd o
f ;D a[mif; ppfAv
kd }f uD;wodu
k &f J ppfwyf&ŒJ tm%modr;f a&; t}uHtpnf[m
wpdww
f ydik ;f tm;jzifh atmifjrifxajrmufomG ;w,fv@kd qd&k rSmjzpfygw,f? OD;Eku tm%mudv
k aJ$ jymif;
ay;zd@k oabmwlvu
kd w
f t
hJ wGujf zpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh a&G;aumufyu
JG si;f yay;zd@k oabmwlvu
kd &f wJh
twGuf tdrfapmifhtpdk;&tjzpfeJ@yJ zGJŒpnf;&rSmjzpfwJhtwGuf wpdwfwydkif;tm;jzifh xifovdk vGwf
vGwfu|wfu|wf tm%mudk a&&Snfqkyf,lEkdifcGifhr&bl; jzpfoGm;&ygw,f?
1958 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (26) &ufae@ tjzpftysuf[m Armjynfordkif;rSm yxrqHk;t}udrf
“ppfwyftm%modrf;r_” ppfppf/ “ppfwyftm%modrf;r_}uD;” tppfjzpfygw,f? wu,fvnf;
jyifqifcJhovdk wu,fvnf; odrf;ydkufzdk@jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'Dwkef;u 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek&JΠEdkifiHa&;
ukvm;zefxdk;aumif;r_a=umifh wenf;tm;jzifh EdkifiHa&;upm;uGuf ^m%feD^m%feufrsdK;pHka=umifh
“ppfwyftm%modrf;r_” [m “ppfwyftm%mv$Jajymif;r_” tjzpfyHkay:vmygw,f?
ppfwyfbufu =unfhr,fqdk&if a&&Snftm%m qkyfudkifcGifhr&vdkufayr,fh “tm%mvnf;
&ao;/ aus;Zl;&Sifvnf; jzpfvdkuf&ao;” todrf;cH&oludk,fwdkifu csD;usL;axmyemay;wmawmif
tqpf&vdkufao;” vdk@ ajym&rSmjzpfygw,f? Adkvfae0if;uawmh tvdktavsmuf pifay:a&muf+yD;
ESpfjyeftjrwfxGufoGm;cJhygw,f?
OD;Ekbufu =unhrf ,fq&kd if tm%modr;f cHvu
kd &f vd@k tm%mudrk ay;csib
f eJ @J ay;vdu
k &f wm
t±H;_ jzpfayr,f/h ygvrD efurkd zsuo
f rd ;f &bJ/ a&G;aumufyu
JG si;f ya&;uwdukd tydik u
f ikd +f y;D tajctaeawG
aumif;rGev
f mwJt
h cgrmS Edik if aH &;tm%mjyef,El ikd rf ,f? tm%modr;f cH&w,fqw
kd mxuf tm%mudk
v$aJ jymif;ay;vdu
k &f w,fqw
kd mu ydo
k ifah vsmw
f ,fv@kd ,q
l cJyh gw,f? 'ga=umifh tm%mudk v$aJ jymif;
ay;tyfwyhJ akH y:atmif o±kyaf zmfcyhJ gw,f? ygvrD efe@J zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
Hk ajccHOya'rysuyf J tm%mudk
,m,DvaJ$ jymif;ay;vdu
k &f jcif;[m vH;k 0O\Hk tm%modr;f cH&wmeJ@pmv#if awmfao;w,fv@kd wGuf
qcJhw,f? 'ga=umifh olukd,fwkdiftqdkðy+yD; oludk,fwkdif tdrfapmifhtpdk;&zGJŒay;zdk@ arwWm&yfcHwJhyHkpH
csK;d cJyh gw,f? ‘ppfwyftm%modr;f r_’ }uD;udk zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyakH bmiftwGi;f r0if0ifatmif ukvm;zef
xd;k ay;+yD; ta&mifwif odumQ qnfay;cJyh gw,f? ppfwyfukd odumQ qnfay;jcif;[m olŒud,
k o
f v
l nf;
oduQmqnf+yD; jzpfoGm;w,fvdk@ ,lqcJhyHk&ygw,f?
OD;Ek csdK;ay;wJhvrf;a=umif;udk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;u oabmusovdk/ tm%modrf;csifol/
um,uHajrmuf tm%mvmawmif;ol Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif/ Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD;wdk@ uvnf;
aemufydkif;rSm cHwGif;awGŒcJhygw,f? Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif/ Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; wkd@u aemufydkif;rSm
“ppfwyfu tm%modrf;wmr[kwf/ tm%mudk v$Jajymif;&,lwmomjzpfw,fvdk@” cyfwnfwnf
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

221

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

ajAmifvdrfajAmifpm; 0g'jzef@csd ajymqdkwmawG tqufrjywf vkyfcJhygw,f?
'Dtm%modrf;r_}uD;udk “0if'grD,mtm%modrf;r_}uD;” “}udwf0dkif;tm%modrf;r_}uD;” vdk@
pme,fZif;wcsdKŒ wdk;wufwJh pma&;q&mwcsKdŒu twdtvif; uifyGef;wyfcJh=uovdk/ qef@usifuef@
uGuf±_wfcscJh=uwJh vlyk*~dKvf EkdifiHa&;tzGJŒtpnf;rsm;vnf; ay:aygufcJhygw,f? “tckjzpfwmuawmh
ppfwyfutm%modrf;jcif;yJ” vdk@ a'gufwmAarmf u jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmrSm ajymqdkcJhovdk/
‘jynfolŒ&Jabmf’ rsm;uvnf; ‘ppfwyftm%modrf;r_’ }uD;vdk@ azmfxkwfuef@uGufcJhygw,f?
OD;Ek &JŒ oef@&Sif;zqyvudk axmufcHyHkatmcJhwJh ‘yrnw’ uvnf; “vufeufeJ@tm%m
odr;f jcif;udk uef@uu
G =f u ” qdw
k hJ pmwef;udk em&Drqdik ;f xkwjf yefc+hJ yD;/ yrnw u OD;Ek eJ@ awGŒwJt
h cg
jyif;jyif;xefxef a0zefygw,f?
OD;Eku wdik yf ifjcif;rðyEdik w
f m rdrt
d rSm;jzpfa=umif;/ od@k aomf oef@&iS ;f acgi;f aqmifawGe@J awmif
rwdkifyifEdkifawmhbJ/ acgif;aqmif (5) OD;om wkdifyifqHk;jzwfcJh&jcif;jzpfa=umif;/ qHk;jzwfcsufudk rjyif
Edkifawmha=umif;eJ@ v$wfawmfrSm rJcGJpOfu ‘Ekwif’ wkd@ tEdkif&&if (5) rdkifom ydkifap&r,fvdk@ aqG+idrf;
wd@k &ŒJ }udr;f 0g;csut
f wdik ;f vufeufuikd rf sm;&JΠESyd pf ufru
_ kd Adv
k af e0if;udk tm%may;rSom wm;qD;Edik f
rSmjzpfvdk@ qHk;jzwf&jcif;jzpfa=umif; &Sif;jyw,fvdk@qdkygw,f?
EkdifiHa&;tpOftvm}uD;rm;wJh ausmif;om;xku “ppfwyftm%modrf;,ljcif;”udk
tv_yf&Sm;qHk; uef@uGufqENjy=uygw,f? ‘wuo’ taqmuftOD;rSm Auorsm;tzGJŒcsKyf/ &uo/
wuo wdk@u }uD;rª;+yD; tr_aqmifawG awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;=uum “ppfwyfrS tm%modrf;jcif;ESifhywf
oufI oabmxm;” a=unmcsufudk xkwfjyefa=unmcJhygw,f? ppfwyfu tm%modrf;onfh
twGuf +idrf;csrf;a&;udk tvSrf;a0;ap+yD; +idrf;csrf;a&;rvdkvm;aom aqG+idrf;ESifh e,fcsJŒorm;wdk@.
tvdkusjzpfapa=umif;/ ,if;odk@ tm%modrf;jcif;rsdK;udk cGifhðyv#if tm%mudk jynfolŒxHrSr[kwfbJ
t"rRtm%modr;f onfh tpOftvm ay:vmrnfjzpfa=umif;ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pDtcGit
hf a&;rsm;udk twm;
tqD;jzpfvmrnfjzpfa=umif;” azmfjycJ=h uygw,f? pufwifbm (28) &ufae@rmS a=unmcsuu
f x
kd w
k f
jyefcJhygw,f?
pufwifbm (26) &ufnrSm OD;Ek tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;a&; a=unm+yD;wJhaemuf ppfwyfu
armfvòrdief @J jynfòrdŒawGrmS Edik if aH &;orm;wcsKd Œudk zrf;qD;wm/ a&vrf; uke;f vrf; wav#muf toGm;
tvmawGukd ppfaq;ar;jref; &SmazGwmawG vkyyf gw,f? 'ga=umifh pufwifbm (29) &ufrmS Auo/
wuo/ &uo wdk@uae “wHkv_yfajcmufjcm;atmifrvkyfygESifh” qdkwJh acgif;pOfeJ@ a=unmcsuf
xkwfjyefuef@uGufygw,f?
pufwifbm (30) rSmvJ or*~}u;D (3) cku OD;pD;+y;D ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;w&yf wuo
taqmuftOD;rSm xyfrHac:,lusif;yygw,f? tpnf;ta0;t+yD;rSm bwf(pf)um; (26) pD;eJ@
òrdŒwGif;udk vSnfhvnfqENjy+yD; ‘wyfrawmf0ifrpGufeJ@’/ ‘wyfrawmfudkckwHk;rvkyfeJŒ’/‘+cdrf;ajcmuf+yD;
tm%mrodrf;eJ@’/ ‘vufeufeJ@tm%modrf;wm uef@uGuf=u’/ ‘e,fcsŒJt}uHtpnfwm;qD;=u’/
‘'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&; umuG,f=u’/‘jynfolŒtm%m jynfoljyeftyf’/ ‘jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;
t&,l=u’/‘zrf;xm;olawG tjrefjyefv$wf’/‘ausmif;om;jynfol vufwGJ=u’ qdkwJh aºuG;a=umf
oHawG aºuG;a=umfatmf[pfcJh=uygw,f?
222

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

aqG+idrf; tdrf0dkif;+yD; qENjyjcif;/ tar&duef oH±Hk;udk 0dkif;+yD;qENjyjcif;awGvnf; ðyvkyfcJh=uyg
w,f?
‘wnf+rJzqyv’u OD;Ek udk zufqpfjzpfw,fajym+yD; Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;udk axmufcaH =umif;
a=unmvdkufygw,f?
OD;Eku b,favmufyJ toa&qnfqnf/ ppfwyfu b,favmufyJ rHkvmOvkyfvkyf/ 1958
pufwifbm (26) tjzpftysufudk ppfwyftm%modrf;r_}uD;tjzpf wdk;wufwJh EdkifiHa&;tzGJŒtpnf;
rsm;eJ@ EdkifiHa&;a&csdefjrifhrm;wJh jynfolvlxk trsm;pk}uD;u odjrifem;vnf oabmxm;cJh=uygw,f?
trSew
f u,fvnf; ‘ppfwyftm%modr;f r_}uD;’ jzpfcyhJ gw,f? tm%mawmif;wmr&&if pufwifbm
(27) &ufreuf t±kH%fwufrSm vufeufudkift=urf;zuf+yD; 0ef}uD;tm;vHk;udk zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;
z,f&Sm;zdk@ tcdkiftrm pDpOfpdkif;jyif; jyifqifxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f?
1958 atmufwdkbm (20) &ufae@rSm rdwˆDvmòrdŒ wyfrawmfausmif;rSm wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcH
xyfvyk yf gw,f? ZGev
f wke;f u usi;f y+yD;jzpfygvsuef @J wESpt
f wGi;f 'kw,
d t}udrt
f jzpf ac:,lusi;f y
wmjzpfygw,f? atmufwdkbm (28) &ufae@ usif;yr,fh ygvDrefv$wfawmfuae oef@&Sif;zqyv
tpdk;&u AdkvfcsKyf}uD; ae0if;udk tm%mv$Jajymif; ay;tyfrSmjzpfwJhtwGuf wyfrSL;awGudk ac:,l
nd‡Ed_if; jyifqifjcif;jzpfygw,f?
yrnw tygt0if tzGJŒaygif;pHk (15 zGJŒ) eJ@ wuo/ Auo/ &uo/ ‘vli,fhwyfOD;’ wdk@u
“ppfwyfu tm%modrf;r_udk uef@uGuf=u ” qdkwJh aºuG;a=umfoHxkwf+yD; uef@uGufqef@usif=uwJh
tcg OD;Ek/ AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; eJ@ Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; wdk@u ppfwyfu tm%modrf;wmr[kwf/
“tm%mv$Jajymif;r_” omjzpfw,fvdk@ &Sif;vif;ajymqdk=uygw,f?
yrnw acgi;f aqmifawGe@J Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; awGŒqHw
k t
hJ cgrmS vnf; “wyfutm%modr;f
w,fqdkwJhpum;[m wyfudk *k%foduQm txl;xdcdkufapa=umif;/ wyfu tm%modrf;w,fqdkwJh
pum;udk txl;a&Smif=uOf&efajymvdak =umif;” vd@k Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; u arwWm&yfco
H vdv
k kd owday;
ovdkvdkajymqdk+yD; tjzpfrSefawGudk zHk;uG,fcJh=uygw,f?
OD;Eku AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; vGwfvGwfu|wfu|wfvkyfEdkif&efqdk+yD; apmapmydkif;u w&m;0if
xkwfjyefa=unmxm;cJhwJh “orw}uD;. oifykef;acs vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdef@” udk atmufwdkbm
(31) &ufae@up+yD; jyefvnf±kwfodrf;ay;vdkufygw,f? ±kwfodrf;ay;vkduf&wmeJ@ t"duta=umif;
&if;uawmh ppfwyf&JŒ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;pdwf"mwfeJ@ aomif;usef;oltðywfwdkufa&; oabm
xm;tay: rvGefqefEdkifawmhwJhtwGuf ppfwyftóuduf óudufovdk ppfqif ppfðyEkdifzdk@/ óudufovdk
pDrHtkyfcsKyfEdkifzdk@ t[ef@twm;ozG,fjzpfaewJh vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdef@udk OD;Ek ukd,fwdkif jyefvnf
z,f&Sm;ay;vdkuf&jcif;jzpfygw,f?
atmufwdkbm (20) &ufae@ rdwWDvm wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcHrSm ajymqkd=uwJh ppfwyf acgif;rm
xdyo
f ;D }uD;wcsKd Œ&JŒ ajymqdak qG;aEG;csuaf wGukd axmuf±r_ ,fq&kd if OD;Ek bma=umifh ±kwo
f rd ;f ay;vdu
k &f
w,fqdkwm ydkrdk&Sif;vif; ay:vGifEdkifygvdrfhr,f?
rdwv
DW mnDvmcHrmS Akv
d rf ;ª csKyfatmif}uD;u “cifAsm;wd@k usaemfw@kd uGejf rLepfukd &ifqikd w
f hJ
ae&mrSm EdkifiHa&;bufuvlawGudk tm;udk;vdk@r&awmhbl;? cifAsm;wdk@ usKyfwdk@yJ &ifqdkif&r,f? 'g
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

223

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

tifrwef&Sif;aewJhjy\em” vdk@ aqG;aEG;cJhovdk/ Akdvfrª;}uD; cspfòrdifu “'DvlawG (uGefjrLepf) udk
vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGi/hf oifyek ;f acs vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGiq
hf w
kd mawGukd tpd;k &u ay;xm;w,f? tJ'aD wmh
'D[mawG[m b,fenf;eJ@rS rjzpfoifh rjzpfxdkufwJhudpPawGvdk@ usaemfwdk@,lqygw,f” vdk@ ajymqdk
aqG;aEG;cJhygw,f?
ppfwyf tm%modrf;r_udk ppfwyftm%mvGJajymif;r_tjzpf OD;Ek/ AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; eJ@ tm
%mvmawmif;ol Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; wdk@wodkufuyg toHaumif;[pf yHkazmfcJh=uayr,fh tJ'Dvdk
“tm%mvJa$ jymif;r_” qdw
k m}uD;udk yrnw tygt0if/ ausmif;om;or*~rsm;tygt0if wd;k wufwhJ
EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;u qufvuf qef@usif uef@uGufcJh=uygw,f? ppfwyftm%modrf;r_udk
raumif;wJhtpOftvmtjzpf jzpfwnfvmrSm pdk;&drfcJh=uovdk/ ppfwyf&JŒ tðywfwdkufa&; oabm
xm;a=umifh jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;tvm;tvm ysufokef;oGm;rSmudkvnf; ylyefcJh=uygw,f?
atmufwdkbmv aemufqHk;ywfxJrSm ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDu Adkvf&JxGÉf[m jynfwGif;
+idr;f csr;f a&;tzGŒJ OD;pD;acgi;f aqmif q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfrid_ ;f eJ@ vma&mufawGŒqHyk gw,f? Adv
k &f x
J ÉG f
u q&m}uD;udk “oifykef;acs vGwf+idrf;cGifheJ@ ygwDwnf&SdcGifhudk vufcHa=umif;” wifjy+yD; (1) uGefjrLepfygwDESifh ywfoufaom EdkifiHa&;tusOf;orm;rsm;udk v$wf&ef/
(2) uGefjrLepfygwDudk a&G;aumufyGJ0ifcGifhay;&ef/
TESpfcsufudkuwdðyv#if uGefjrLepfygwDu (1) vufeufrsm;udk tpdk;&odk@v$Jtyfrnf?
(2) vufeufudkifwdkufyGJrS Oya'wGif;wdkufyGJodk@ ul;ajymif;+yD; Oya'wGif;0ifrnf?
(3) uef@owfxm;aomtcsed t
f wGi;f Oya'twGi;f 0ifrvmaom ygw0D ifrsm;udk tquf
jzwfrnf?
vdk@ wifjyygw,f? q&m}uD;u tJ'Dwifjycsufudk =um;odwJhtcg ‘+idrf;csrf;a&; &Edkif+yD’ vdk@
0rf;omtm;&jzpf+yD;/ tJ't
D a=umif;pma&;+yD; OD;Eke@J Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;qD/ atmufwb
kd m (27) &ufae@
rSm ud,
k w
f ikd o
f mG ;ay;ygw,f? OD;Ek udo
k m awGŒcJ&h +yD; Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; eJ@ rawGŒcJ&h bl;vd@k qdyk gw,f?
tJ'D (27) &ufae@nae@rmS yJ q&m}u;D wd@k u tzGŒJ aygi;f pHu
k kd zdwaf c:&Si;f vif;jywmvnf; vkycf yhJ gw,f?
'gayr,fh tajctaeawGu ajymif;vJoGm;cJh+yDjzpfygw,f? OD;Eku AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; udk tm%mvJ$
ajymif;ay;zdk@ vdktyfwJhtpDtpOfawGtm;vHk; jyifqifZmwfwdkuf+yD;om; jzpfae+yDjzpfygw,f?
atmufwb
kd mv (28) &ufae@rmS tm%mvJa$ jymif;ay; v$waf wmftpnf;ta0;}uD; pwifyg
w,f? óudwifppD Ofxm;wJt
h wdik ;f 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek u Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; udk w&m;0if tm%mv$aJ jymif;
ay;zdk@ tqdkðyygw,f? tdrfapmifhtpdk;&zGJŒzdk@ tm%mtyfESif;ygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD; ae0if; OD;aqmifwJh
‘tdraf pmift
h pd;k &’u oe@&f iS ;f zqyv tpd;k &qDu Edik if aH wmf tm%mudk vJa$ jymif;&,lvu
kd yf gw,f?
1958 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (29) &ufae@rSm EdkifiHawmforw a&SŒarSmufrSm usrf;opPm
usdefqdk+yD; ‘tdrfapmifhtpdk;&’ tzGJŒ}uD; ay:aygufvmygw,f?
xGufay:vmwJh ‘tdrfapmifhtpdk;&tzGJŒ’ uawmh (1) owdk;oD&dok"rR/ AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; - EkdifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf/ umuG,fa&;Xme/
trsdK;om;pDrHudef;Xme/
224

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

(2) t*~r[moa&pnfol/ OD;odef;armif

- 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyfESifh EkdifiHjcm;a&;Xme/
omoema&;Xme/ usef;rma&;Xme/ jynfol@
0efxrf;Xme
(3) r[moa&pnfol OD;cifarmifjzL
- jynfxJa&;Xme/ jyef=um;a&;Xme/ a'oE W&
tkyfcsKyfa&;Xme/ vl0ifr_ESifh trsdK;om;rSwf
yHkwifa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
(4) owkd;r[mpnfol OD;csefxGef;atmif - w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD;/
(5) OD;ausmf+idrf;
- b¾ma&;ESihf tcGefawmfXme 0ef}uD;/
(6) pnfol OD;b=um;
- ukefoG,fr_Xme/ or0g,rESifh ukefpnfjzef@
jzL;a&;Xme/ ypPnf;axmufyHha&;Xme0ef}uD;/
(7) oa&pnfol OD;pH!Gef@
- o,f,yl @kd aqmifa&;/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G af &;/
tdrf,maqmufvkyfa&;Xme0ef}uD;/
(8) OD;um
- ynma&;Xme/ v,f,mESifh opfawmXme/
v,f,majrEdkifiHydkifðya&;Xme 0ef}uD;/
(9) oD&dysHcsD OD;cspfaomif;
- pufr_vufr_Xme/ owWKwGif;Xme tvkyfo
rm;Xme0ef}uD;/
(10) owdk;r[moa&pnfol p0f[kefz
- &Srf;jynfe,fXme0ef}uD;/
(11) OD;xefvsef;
- csif;a&;&m0ef}uD;/
(12) a'gufwm apmvSxGef;
- u&ifjynfe,f0ef}uD;/
(13) 'l;0g;aZmfvGef;
- ucsifjynfe,f0ef}uD;/
(14) p0f0À
- u,m;jynfe,f0ef}uD; - wdk@jzpf=uygw,f?
atmufwdkbmv (31) &ufae@rSm jynfolŒv$wfawmfrSm 0ef}uD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; u
wufa&mufrdef@ac|ygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; [m yxrt}udrf tdrfapmifhtpdk;&tzGJŒ&JŒ 0ef}uD;csKyf
jzpfvmcJhovdk/ jrefrmEdkifiHrSm wwd,ajrmuf 0ef}uD;csKyf jzpfvmolvdk@ rSwfwrf;wif&rSmjzpfygw,f?
yxrqH;k 0ef}u;D csKyf[m OD;Ek jzpfc+hJ y;D / 'kw,
d ajrmufu OD;Ek z,fay;cJv
h @kd acwW0ef}u;D csKyfjzpfco
hJ l OD;AaqG
jzpfygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD; ae0if;u atmufwdkbm (31) &ufae@rSm rdef@cGef;ac|wJhtcg zqyv
tzGŒJ }uD;tuGaJ =umifh 0ef}uD;csKyfwm0efukd r,lcsib
f eJ @J ,lc&hJ oa,mif cyfwnfwnf ajymqdo
k mG ;cJyh g
w,f? zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'}uD;udkvnf; umuG,fapmifha&SmufoGm;r,fhta=umif; tckvdk
ajymqdkoGm;cJhygw,f?
“OuUÏ}uD;cifAsm;/ u|efawmf 0ef}uD;csKyf&JŒ wm0ef0wW&m;udk tckvdkvufcH&jcif;[m
u|eaf wmfEiS w
hf uG trwfrif;rsm;tm;vH;k tjrwfwEd;k OD;xdy&f u
G yf efxm;wJh Edik if aH wmf zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyf
yHktajccHOya'eJ@ 'Drdkua&pDtpOftvmudk tE W&m,ftrsKd;rsKd;u +cdrf;ajcmufvmaewm awGŒ&wJh
twGuf 'DtE W&m,fudk umuG,fzdk@ wm0ef,lvufcHvdkufjcif;jzpfygw,f? u|efawmf'Dvdk wm0ef,l
jcif;[m jynfaxmifpkom; yk*~dKvfwa,muftaeESifhvnf;aumif;/ ppfom;wa,muftaeESifhvnf;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

225

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

aumif;/ wm0ef&SdwJhtwdkif; wm0ef,lvdkufjcif;yJjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh ygvDrefuay;tyfwJh 'Dwm0ef
}uD;udk u|efawmf &J&J0Hh0Hh vufcHvdkufjcif;yJjzpfygw,f” [lowJh?
ppfwyfutm%modr;f wmudk OD;Ek u rvGo
J m ra&Smifom vufcv
H u
kd &f +yD;/ vl=um;aumif;
atmif zH;k zdvn
S yhf wf+yD; tm%mv$aJ jymif;ay;tyfovdv
k kd tuGuzf efvu
kd &f wmudk Akv
d cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;
u cyfwnfwnfvufcH&,lvdkuf&if;/ 0ef}uD;csKyfwufvkyfcJhwmudkawmif tay:pD;uae r*Fvm,l
vdkufjcif;jzpfygw,f? tajccHOya'eJ@ 'Drdkua&pDtpOftvmawGudk umuG,fapmifha&Smufzdk@ 'Dwm0ef
}uD;udk ,lvdkuf&jcif;jzpfw,fvdk@ avoHaumif;[pf aºuG;a=umfoGm;cJhygw,f? rsufESmajymifwdkufwJh
ae&mrSm pHxm;avmufygayw,fvdk@yJ rSwfcsufðy&ygvdrfhr,f?
'Dru
kd a&pDvv
kd m;olrsm;u/ OD;Ek eJ@ Akv
d cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; wd@k &ŒJ 'DZmwfuu
G u
f kd r,H=k unfc=hJ ubJ/
ppfwyf tm%modr;f r_tjzpf em;vnfojd rifc=hJ uovd/k +idr;f csr;f a&;udk ar#mv
f ifv
h v
dk m;olrsm;uvnf;
+idrf;csrf;a&;a&mifjcnf wdrfov†mtzHk;cHvdkuf&+yDqdkwm oabmaygufvdkuf=uygw,f?
bmyJjzpfjzpf 'Dvkd tm%m&,lvu
dk Ef ikd w
f mudk tm%modr;f vdo
k l ppfwyfu auseyf yDwjd zpfchJ
=uovdk tdraf pmift
h pd;k &qdw
k hJ emrnfe@J ppftpd;k &wufvmwmudk wnf+rJzqyv}uD;uvnf; tm;&
ESpfoufoabmacGŒcJhygw,f?

zqyv q,f E S p f q,f r d k ; acwf ed * k H ; csKyf
ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; a=unmEdkifcJhwJh 1948 ckESpfuae ppfwyfudk tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;
vdkuf&wJh 1958 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmtxd (10) ESpfausmftwGif;rSm Armjynfudk awmufavsmuf
tkyfpdk;cJhwJh tpdk;&[m ‘zqyv’ tpdk;&jzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifh (1948-1958) q,fESpfwmacwfudk zqyv q,fESpfq,frdk; “acwf” vdk@
0dò*dvfðy=uygw,f?
'Dq,fEpS w
f mtwGi;f rSm tm%m& zqyv tzGŒJ }uD;[m wpnf;wvH;k wnf;aom tzGŒJ }uD;
tjzpfuae tpdwfpdwftr$mr$m òyduGJr_awGjzpfay:cJhygw,f? &JabmfjzL &Jabmf0g uGJoGm;+yD; &JabmfjzL
awG vufeufudkifawmcdkoGm;cJh=uwm ay:aygufcJhygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfjzL-qdk&S,feDawG uGJoGm;+yD;
qdk&S,feD[m tm%mt0ef;t0dkif;&JŒtjyifzufudk a&muf&SdoGm;&if;/ tm%m& zqyvtzGJŒ}uD;&JŒ
t"du ajray:twdkuftcHtjzpf ajymif;vJoGm;cJhygw,f? 1957 ckESpf xJrSmawmh ‘oef@&Sif;-wnf+rJ’
tjzpf uGx
J u
G o
f mG ;cJ+h yD; tm%m& zqyv}uD;[m ESpjf crf;ESprf m$ xufyikd ;f jzwfjzpfomG ;&ygawmhw,f?
apmapmydkif; tuGJawGwkef;u wpHkwckaomtwdkif;twmtxd tda¹ENrysuf xdef;xm;Edkifao;w,f
vdk@ ajym&rSmjzpfayr,fh/ aemufqHk;tuGJ ‘oef@&Sif;-wnf+rJ’ uGJwJhtcgrSmawmh ywfwkyfvdk@r&awmh
atmifudk jzpfoGm;&ygawmhw,f?
'Dq,fEpS w
f mtwGi;f rSm a&G;aumufy}JG uD; (2) }udref @J ygvrD efwif+yD; tòydit
f qdik f Adv
k v
f ck =hJ u
wJh tm%mòydif tm%mvkyGJ}uD;w}udrf ay:aygufcJhygw,f?
226

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

a&G;aumufyGJ}uD; (2) ckuawmh “1951§52 taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ}uD;” eJ@ “1956 ckESpf
taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ}uD;” jzpfygw,f?
a&G;aumufy}JG uD; (2) ckpvH;k rSm ‘zqyv’ tzGŒJ }uD;uyJ wzufowf tjywftowf tEdik &f
&Scd yhJ gw,f? a&G;aumufy}JG uD; (2) ckpvH;k twGi;f rSm cg;ydu
k af qmifwyf vufeufuikd w
f yfawG&ŒJ tult
nDeJ@ ae&mawmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm +cdrf;ajcmufwm rJqG,fwm rJxnfhckdif;wmrsdK;awGvnf; &SdcJhygw,f?
a&G;aumufyGJudk ta=umif;ðy+yD; vlowfr_awGtxd ay:aygufcJhygw,f? ‘igef;ZGef ajcmufavmif;òydif
vlowfr_’ ‘rif;vSav;avmif;òydifvlowfr_’ awG[m xif&Sm;wJh OyrmwcsKdŒjzpfygw,f? 1956 ck
a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;rSmawmh twdkuftcH ‘yrnw’ tzGJ@}uD;[m ygvDreftwGif;rSm ta&;ygwJh
tiftm;pkwcktjzpf ay:xGufvmcJhygw,f?
vGwv
f yfa&; a=unmEdik +f yD;uwnf;u tm%mudk csKyfuikd v
f mcJw
h m ‘zqyv’ tzGŒJ }uD;vd@k
a,bk,stm;jzifh ac:qd&k ayr,f/h t"dutm;jzifh zqyv}uD;udk v$r;f rd;k xm;cJw
h m ‘qd&k ,
S v
f pfygw’D
jzpfygw,f? qdk&S,fvpfawG[m trsm;pkjzpfovdk twdkuftcHEdkifiHa&; tiftm;pkawGtay: trsdK;rsdK;
npfywfcJhwm ESdyfuGyfcJhwm tm%mjycJh=uwmawG[mvnf; qdk&S,fvpfawGyJjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
qd&k ,
S v
f pfawGukd vlrek ;f rsm;cJyh gw,f? qd&k ,
S v
f pfawG[m ‘zqyv’ }uD;xJu t"du tiftm;pk}uD;
jzpfwJhtwGuf qdk&S,fvpfygwD pnf;±Hk;a&;=oZmvnf; vlxk=um; wae@wjcm;usqif;cJhygw,f? 56
ckESpf a&G;aumufyGJt+yD; a&G;aumufyGJ&vm'fu tajzay;cJhygw,f? trwfae&mt& ‘zqyv’u
tjywftowftEdkif&&SdcJhayr,fh wjynfvHk;rJta&twGufu ‘zqyv’ eJ@ ‘yrnw’ odyfruGmvS
wmawG jrif&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh usqHk;ae&wJh zqyv pnf;±Hk;a&;udk jyefvnfwGef;wifzdk@ zqyv
OD;Ek u zqyvoef@&Sif;a&;vkyfzdk@ óud;pm;&if;/ tajccHoabmxm;csif;rwlnD=u&muae pwifuGJ
tufvmcJhygw,f? OD;Ekwdk@u zqyv pnf;±Hk;a&;usqif;vm+yD; a&G;aumufyGJrSm vlxkaxmufcHr_
avsmhenf;vm&wm[m zqyv tzGJŒacgif;aqmifrsm;&JŒ tusifhysufr_ udk,fusKd;&Smjcpm;r_ tm%m
rmef jyor_awGa=umifv
h ,
kd q
l ygw,f? 'ga=umifh zqyv oef@&iS ;f a&;vky&f r,fv@kd jrifygw,f? OD;AaqG
OD;ausmf+idrf;wdk@u “'Dvkdjzpf&wm[m uGefjrLepfawG aomif;usef;olawGa=umifhvdk@yJ oabmxm;yg
w,f? 'ga=umifh uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; tjywfvkyf&r,f? aomif;usef;ol tðywfwkdufa&; tjyif;t
xefvyk &f r,fv@kd qdyk gw,f? 'Drwlnw
D hJ oabmxm;tjrifEpS &f yftay:uae OD;Eku zqyvoef@&iS ;f
a&;vkyzf @kd pwif ajcvSr;f vSr;f &muae uGt
J ufra_ wGpwifc+hJ yD;/ OD;Ek OD;ausm+f idr;f yk*Kd~ vfa&; yÉdyuQtyg
t0if *d%
k ;f *% yk*Kd~ vfa&;wdu
k yf aJG wGe@J yg xyfjznfq
h ufpyfaygi;f pyfvu
kd w
f t
hJ cg Ekwif-aqG+idr;f tuGJ
}uD; ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? wqifhwufvdkufwJhtcg oef@&Sif;-wnf+rJ tuGJ}uD;tjzpf yHkay:vmcJh+yD;
zqyv}uD; ESpfjcrf;xufydkif; jzpfoGm;cJh&ygawmhw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; wnfaxmifcw
hJ hJ wyfrawmf[mvnf; Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef; vky}f uHc&H +yD;
wJhaemufydkif; wpwp toGifajymif;cJh&muae ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;eJ@twl tm%m& ‘zqyv’
tpdk;&&JΠvufeufudkifwyftjzpf jzpfwnfvmcJhygw,f? ppfwyftwGif;u tpOftvm&SdwJh ppfa&;
acgi;f aqmif wyfr;ª / wyf&if;rª;}uD;rsm; awmcdb
k 0a&muf=u&+yD;wJah emufyikd ;f / wenf;tm;jzifh awmcdk
wyf&if;awG ay:aygufvm&+yD;wJhaemufydkif; wyfrawmfudk csKyfudkifxm;EdkifcJhwJh AdkvfcsKyfae0if; [m
qd&k ,
S v
f pf wyfr;ª }uD;i,fw@kd &ŒJ q&marG;xm;jcif;cH&wJh ‘qk&d ,
S v
f pf’}uD; jzpfco
hJ vd/k Akv
d af rmifarmif/
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

227

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

Adkvfatmif}uD;/ Akdvfatmifa&$/ Akdvfcspfcdkif/ Akdvf=unf0if;/ Adkvfwifaz/ Adkvfodef;armif pwJholawG[m
vnf; qkd&S,fvpf}uD;awGjzpf=uygw,f? vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;aemufydkif; umvwdkwcktwGif;rSm tJ'Dqdk
&S,fvpf ppfAdkvf}uD;rsm;[m ta&;ygwJhae&mrsm;udk udkifwG,fxm;&wJh Akdvfrª;/ 'kAkdvfrª;}uD;/ Akdvfrª;
csKyfawG jzpfvm=uygw,f? uGejf rLepfawG vufeufuikd af wmcd&k wJt
h cg wyf&if; (1) wyf&if; (3) wyf&if;
(6) awG awmcdk&wJhtcg uGefjrLepfEG,f0if wyfrª; wyfcGJrª;}uD;awG wyfrawmftjyifbufa&mufoGm;
=uovdk/ u&ifvufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; aygufuGJay:xGufvmwJhtcg u&ifwyfrª;/ Adkvfrª;}uD;rsm;
vnf;/ wyfrawmftjyifbuf a&mufomG ;=u+yD;/ olyek jf zpfojl zpf yifpifay;cH&olay;cH&/ z,f&mS ;cH&ol
z,f&Sm;cH&wJhtwGuf 1949 ckESpf aemufydkif;rSm qdk&S,fvpfEG,f0if ppfAdkvf}uD;awG trsm;pk }uD;pkd;
aecJhwJh wyfrawmfjzpfcJhygw,f?
tm%m& zqyv}uD;twGif;rSm qdk&S,fvpfawG }uD;pdk;vmcJh=uovdk wyfrawmfwGif;rSm
vnf; qd&k ,
S v
f pfE,
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kd }f uD;awG }uD;pd;k cGi&hf cJyh gw,f? 'ga=umifh qd&k ,
S v
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tpdk;&udk qdk&S,fvpfawGyJ}uD;pdk;aewJh ‘wyfrawmf’u/ awmufavsmuf axmufulusm;uefay;cJhyg
w,f? usif;ycJhwJh a&G;aumufyGJ}uD;awGwdkif;rSm ppfwyfu zqyv bufu &yfwnfaqmif&GufcJhyg
w,f? zqyv tEdkif&a&;udk yg0ifywfoufpGufzufcJh=uygw,f?
tm%m& zqyv}uD;twGif;u zqqdk&S,frsm;&JΠtrsKd;rsKd; npfywfaumufuspf uvdrfus
r_a=umifh vGwv
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jrLepfygwD&JŒ vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;ay:aygufcJh&+yD; r=umrD ppfwyfawmcdkv_yf&Sm;r_ jynfolŒ&J
abmf awmcdkv_yf&Sm;r_ u&ifvufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; v_yf&Sm;r_awG qufwdkufay:xGufcJh&+yD; jynf
wGif;ppfrD; t&Sdefw[kef;[kef; awmufavmifcJh&ygw,f? rGef/ ytdk0fh/ &cdkif/ u&ifeD pwJh trsKd;om;pk
awG&JΠvufeufudkifv_yf&Sm;r_awGvnf; ay:xGufcJh+yD; tpdk;&[m &efukeftpdk;& tajctaetxd
qdkufa&mufcJhygw,f? jynfyusL;ausmfoltjzpf w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfolawG&JŒ usL;ausmfr_udkvnf;
óuHawGŒ&ifqdkifcJh&ygw,f?
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tiftm;pk}uD;wckozG,f jzpfwnfvmcJhygw,f? zqqdk&S,ftpkd;&&JΠuGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;/ aomif;
use;f oltðywfwu
kd af &;tvH[m/ zqqd&k ,
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f pd;k &eJ@ &yfwnfcsuw
f ckwnf;twlwjl zpfwhJ ppfwyf&ŒJ
awmufavsmufudkifpGJ taumiftxnfazmf&m tvHvnf;jzpfcJhygw,f? zqyvtpdk;&[m jynf
wGif;ppfudk arG;zGm;apcJhwJh tpdk;&jzpfovdk zqyv tpdk;&atmufu xifovdk csKyfudkifcGifh&vmcJhwJh
AkdvfcsKyfae0if; &JΠtcef;[mvnf; ppfwyf}uD;xGm;ovdk tqufrjywf }uD;xGm;cGifh&vmcJhygw,f?
qk&d ,
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f pfcsi;f jzpfwhJ Akv
d cf sKyfae0if; udk tm;ud;k w}uD; arG;jrLcJ=h uovd/k 0ef}uD;csKyf
jzpfwJh OD;Ek udk,fwdkifuvnf; AdkvfcsKyfae0if; udk ypm;ay;arG;jrLcJhygw,f? jynfwGif;ppfrD; t&Sdeft}uD;
qH;k awmufavmifcsed /f zqyvtpd;k &[m ‘&efuek t
f pd;k &’ jzpf&csed rf mS qd&k ,
S v
f pf0ef}uD;awGu,
kd w
f ikd f
ajcrudik rf d vufrudik rf jd zpf=u+y;D wazsmazsm tpd;k &tzGŒJ u xGu=f u cGm=ucsed rf mS OD;Eku Akv
d cf sKyfae0if;
udk oljzpfcsifvSwJh umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; &mxl;wifru/ 'kwd,0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;ygay;+yD; tpdk;&tzGJŒ
twGif; oGwfoGif;ajr‡mufpm;cJhygw,f? AkdvfcsKyfae0if; tm%mt&om pwifawGŒ&SdcJhwm tJ'Dtcsdef
228

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

uwnf;uvdk@ qdk&rSmjzpfygw,f? Akdvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm udk ppfwyfuae t+yD;tydkif z,f&Sm;+yD;csdef
1957 ckESpfup+yD; ppfwyftwGif;rSm AdkvfcsKyfae0if;udk cGm&mwdkif;Edkifolr&Sd tajctaezefwD;+yD;om;
jzpfoGm;ygw,f? ppfwyf[mvnf; AkdvfcsKyfae0if; pdwfóuduf AkdvfcsKyfae0if; arG;jrLxm;wJh wvuf
udkifwyftjzpf yDyDoo pwifyHkay:vmygw,f?
wnf+rJ-oef@&Sif; uGJ=u+yD; zqyv}uD; t}uD;tus,fuGJ=ucsdefrSm ppfwyf[m wnf+rJbuf
u axmufc&H yfwnfcsicf yhJ gw,f? txl;ojzifh Akv
d af rmifarmif/ Akv
d af tmif}uD; wd@k vkd qd&k ,
S v
f pfxyd f
oD;a[mif;}uD;awGe@J Akv
d cf spcf ikd /f Adv
k =f unf0if; wd@k vkd wnf+rJbufom; qk&d ,
S v
f pfE,
G 0f if ppfAv
kd }f uD;
awG[m w*d%
k ;f wnf; wodu
k w
f nf;jzpfygw,f? uGejf rLepfqef@usiaf &; aomif;use;f ol tðywfwu
kd f
a&;&nfreS ;f csujf yif;xefvw
S hJ OD;ausm+f idr;f / OD;AaqG wnf+rJ*%
dk ;f &JΠ&yfwnfcsuo
f abmxm;eJ@ olw@kd &ŒJ
&yfwnfcsuo
f abmxm; wom;wnf;usaewJt
h wGuf jzpfygw,f? OD;Ek[m ‘yrnw’ vuf0o
J rm;
rsm;eJ@aygi;f +yD; jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;qD ajcOD;vSno
hf mG ;rSmudk ppfwyfwiG ;f uGejf rLepfqef@usiaf &; acgi;f
rm*dk%f;om;rsm;u b,fvkdrS vufcHEkdifpGrf;r&Sd=uyg?
Ekwif-aqG+idrf; uGJt+yD;rSm OD;Eku EdkifiHa&;yg;0ygw,f? ygvDrefwif+yD; b,ftkyfpku tpdk;&
tm%m&,lrvJqdkwm tm%mtwGuf tòydiftqdkifrJcGJ=uzdk@qHk;jzwfwJhtcg yrnw rJ (45) rJudk
&&Sdzdk@ +idrf;csrf;a&;toH jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJta&;toH ydkay;jycJhygw,f? 'ga=umifh ‘yrnw’ rJ (44)
rJudk &&SdcJh+yD; ESmwzsm;tomeJ@ aqG+idrf;udk tEkdif,lcJhygw,f? oef@&Sif;zqyv tpdk;&tzGJΠzGJ@ pnf;Ekdif
cJhygw,f? ay;xm;wJh jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;toHudk wdk;+yD; jrnfatmifvkyfjyzdk@ jyifqifvm&ygw,f?
wnf+rJwdk@ rcHr&yfEdkifjzpf=uovdk ppfwyfwGif;u uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; vl}uD;rif;rsm;vnf; }udwfr
EdkifcJr& jzpf=uygw,f? wnf+rJu ppfwyfudk tm%modrf;zdk@ aoG;xdk;wdkufwGef;ovdk ppfwyfwGif;u
yk*~dKvfrsm;uvnf; tm%modrf;zdk@ }uH=u pnf=u jyifqif=uygw,f? ajrmufydkif;wdkif;u tcdkiftrm
jyifqifovdk/ Akdvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif/ Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD;wdk@ tkyfpkuvnf; oabmwl óud;yrf;tm;
xkwcf =hJ u&if;/ 1958 ckEpS f ppfwyftm%modr;f r_}uD; ay:ayguv
f mcJw
h mjzpfygw,f? tm%modr;f r_ukd
tm%mv$Jajymif;r_tjzpf OD;Eku yHkazmfay;vdkuf&ygw,f?
zqyv q,fESpfq,frdk;twGif;rSm jynfwGif;&yfpJa&; awmif;qdkoHawG nHpnfcJhygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek&ŒJ pum;}uD; (3)cGe;f wd@k / oifyek ;f acsvw
G +f idr;f cGit
hf rde@f w@kd / vufeufuikd v
f rf;pOf pGe@f vw
$ f
yg? w&m;0ifygwD wnf&cdS iG ahf y;r,fqw
kd mwd@k ay:aygucf o
hJ vd/k acgi;f rm zqqd&k ,
S }f uD;rsm;&JΠvufeuf
cs&ifcs/ rcs&if tjywfacsre_ ;f &vdrrhf ,f? wd@k aomif;use;f olrsm;eJ@ b,fawmhrS aphpyfaqG;aEG;vdrrhf ,f
r[kwf/ t&ifvufeufpGef@+yD;rS pum;ajymr,fwdk@qdkwJh tay:pD;u toHrsm;udk =um;=u&+yD;/ jynf
wGif;ppf&yfpJa&;[m taumiftxnfray:cJhyg? jynfwGif;ppf}uD;om qufvufawmufavmif &Snf
=umcJ&h ygw,f? q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfrid_ ;f &JΠolrom ud,
k rf em oifyek ;f acsa&;vrf;pOf/ OD;csr;f at;
&JΠvufeufeJ@'Drkdua&pD vJvS,fa&;wdk@/ Akdvfvusfm&JΠ+idrf;csrf;a&;vrf;pOfwdk@ ay:aygufcJhovdk Arm
jynfuGefjrLepfygwDbufu typftcwf wòydifwnf;&yfpJa&;/ awGŒqHkaphpyfaqG;aEG;a&;/ ESpfcsufeJ@
tvif;0ifa&;qdw
k mawGvnf; ay:aygucf yhJ gw,f? b,fenf;eJ@rS taumiftxnfray:cJb
h J jynfwiG ;f
ppf}uD;om q,fESpfausmfcJhygw,f? rGeftzGJŒ/ &cdkifOD;pdE WmtzGJŒeJ@ jynfolŒ&Jabmfrsm;om vufeufpGef@
cJ=h uygw,f? vGwv
f yfa&;&cgp teD;acwfw0du
k t
f xd ajym=ua[m=u aºuG;a=umfc=hJ uwJh qd&k ,
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teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

229

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

a&;aºuG;a=umfo/H qd&k ,
S v
f pfEikd if w
H nfaqmufa&; &nfreS ;f csuq
f w
kd mawGvnf; wpxufwp toH
wdro
f mG ;cJ+h yD;/ q,fEpS w
f m&JŒ aemufq;kH umvydik ;f rSm zqyv tpd;k &[m toHawmif rðyEkid af wmhbJ
rodusKd;u|HðyoGm;ygw,f?
vGwv
f yfa&;&cgpavmufu qd&k ,
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f pfqefwhJ pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;awGvyk jf yzd@k Ekid if jH cm;om;rsm;
}uD;pdk;vmcJhwJh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;}uD;wcsKdŒudk EdkifiHykdifodrf;jycJhygw,f? wcsKdŒudk zufpyfvkyfjycJhygw,f?
'gayr,fh wdik ;f jynftwGuf tusK;d &Sad tmifvyk rf jyEdik cf yhJ g? 1948 ckEpS f u zqyvtpk;d &u a&;qGcJ w
hJ hJ
pD;yGm;a&; (2) ESppf rD u
H ed ;f uvnf; taumiftxnf razmfEikd b
f J ysujf ym;oGm;cJo
h vdk tar&duefp;D yGm;
tultnDe@J Edik if jH cm;om;pD;yGm;a&;yg&*lrsm;udk ac:,limS ;&rf; a&;qG+J yD; taumiftxnfazmfvu
kd w
f hJ
jynfawmfompDrHudef;}uD;rsm;[mvnf; tm%m& zqyv tzGJŒ0ifawG 0dkif;0ef;jcpm;ypfvdkuf=u+yD;
xifovdkvkyfudkif taumiftxnfazmfypfvdkuf=uwJhtwGuf bmwckrS t&mxifrvmcJhyg? avxJ
rSmyJ aysmufuG,foGm;cJhygw,f?
yk*~dvduydkif pufr_vkyfief;eJ@ tvkyf±HkawG[m ppfrjzpfcifu (1000) ausmfavmuf&Sd&mu
1958 ckESpfrSm (3000) avmuftxd &SdvmcJhw,fqdkayr,fh trsm;pku qefpuf/ qDpuf/ yJcGJpufeJ@
pm;aomufuek x
f w
k v
f yk if ef;awGavmufom jzpfcyhJ gw,f? jrefrmydik v
f yk if ef;awGtjzpf pm&if;jyxm;
ayr,fh trsm;pk}uD;u jrefrmwdik ;f &if;om;trnfayguf Edik if jH cm;EG,zf mG ; w±kw/f ukvm;awGomjzpfchJ
ygw,f? oGif;ukefxkwfukefvdkifpifvkyfief;awG acwfpm;cJhayr,fh vdkifpif&yk*~KdvfawGu aemufydkif;rSm
EdkifiHjcm;om;awGom v$rf;pdk;wJhvkyfief;}uD;awGjzpfoGm;ygw,f? vdkifpif&olawG acwfysufolaX;/
cgawmfrSDolaX;awG jzpfoGm;=uayr,fh trsm;pkjynfolvlxk}uD;&JΠb0uawmh bmrS xl;xl;jcm;jcm;
wdk;wufrvmcJhyg?
Armjynf&ŒJ trsm;pk}uD;jzpfwhJ awmifov
l ,form;rsm;&JΠb0[mvnf; 'H&k if; 'H&k if;yJ jzpfc+hJ yD;
bmrS xl;xl;jcm;jcm; ajymif;vJw;kd wufrvmcJyh g? v,f,majr Edik if yH ikd ðf yvkyaf &;eJ@ ajr,ma0jcrf;a&;
awG zqyvtpdk;&u vkyfcJhwm&Sdayr,fh tajccHtm;jzifh ajr&Sifya'o&mZfpepfudk t+yD;tydkif zsuf
odrf;Edkifjcif;r&SdbJ wpHkw&m tm;enf;apcJhwmavmufyJ vkyfEkdifcJhygw,f? awmufavsmuf awmuf
avmifaecJw
h hJ jynfwiG ;f ppf}u;D a=umifh v,form;xk&ŒJ b0[m 'kuaQ ygi;f pHu
k kd ydrk ókd uaH wGŒ cHpm;cJ=h u&+y;D
ppfab;ppf'%fudk trsm;qHk;cHpm;=u&olawGjzpfcJhygw,f?
zqyvtpkd;&[m jynfwGif;ppfudk w&m;ojzifh +idrf;owfEdkifzdk@ róud;pm;cJhovdk/ jynfyusL;
ausmf w±kwfjzLudk wdkufxkwfa&;xuf jynfwGif;qlylaomif;usef;r_rsm;udk ESdrfeif;a&;qdkwmudkyJ
tm;xkwfvkyfudkifcJhygw,f?
aomif;use;f olErdS ef if;a&;/ &yf&mG vHòk cHa&;/ +idr0f yfyjd ym;a&;qdw
k mawGta=umif;jy+yD; tm%m&
zqyv ua&m/ zqyv vufatmufcHppfwyfuyg vufeufudkifwyfzGJŒtrsKd;rsKd;udk ae&mtESH@
tjym;rSm zGJŒpnf;cJh=uygw,f? vJAD;/ umuG,fa&;/ ysLapmxD; pwJhemrnftrsKd;rsKd;eJ@ ay:aygufcJhyg
w,f? tJ'DvufeufudkifwyfzGJŒawG[m tm%m&tzGJŒtpnf; vlyk*~dKvfawG&JŒ cg;ydkufaqmifwyfawG/
jynfolvlxktay: vufeufeJ@ AkdvfuswJhwyfzGJŒawG/ tm%m& zqyv}uD;&JŒ a'gufwdkifawGtjzpf
emrnfqdk;eJ@ ausmf=um;cJhygw,f? ppfwyf&JΠppfqifa&;awGrSm t&Htiftm;tjzpf toHk;cscJhwmawG
vnf;&Syd gw,f? a,bk,stm;jzifh jynfov
l x
l &k ŒJ tusK;d pD;yGm;twGuf bmwckrS tusK;d ðycJw
h hJ wyfzŒJG
230

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

awGr[kwfbJ cdk;qdk;vk,uf/ "m;jywdkuf/ jyefay;qGJ/ vlowf pwJh 'kp±dkuftrsKd;rsKd;udkom usL;vGefcJh
=uwJh vufeufuikd w
f yfzŒJG awGjzpfcyhJ gw,f? a&G;aumufyaJG wGrmS zqyv tEdik &f &Sad tmif twdu
k t
f cH
awGtay: rw&m; zdESdyf +cdrf;ajcmuf npfywf owfjzwfwJh tvkyfawGudk ajymifajymifwif;wif;
usL;vGecf =hJ uygw,f? 'ga=umifh zqyvu zGŒJ pnf;cJw
h hJ vJA;D / umuG,af &;/ ysLapmxD;qdw
k hJ wyfzŒJG awG
tm;vHk;[m vlxkcsOfzwfawGjzpfcJhygw,f? twdkuftcHtiftm;pkrsm;u txl;ojzifh ‘yrnw’
ay:ayguf+y;D aemuf yrnw tzGŒJ }u;D u tJ'u
D muG,af &;eJ@ ysLapmxD;wyfzŒJG awG zsuo
f rd ;f ypfa&;udk
wav#mufv;kH awmif;qdck yhJ gw,f? zH;k rEdik zf rd & emrnfq;kd eJ@ ausm=f um;vGe;f vmwJt
h wGuf tm%m&
zqyv }uD;[m vH;k 0zsuo
f rd ;f a&;ukad wmhrvkyb
f J pDppfzŒJG pnf;a&;/ ajymif;vJzŒJG pnf;a&;qdw
k mudo
k m
ðyvkyfcJhygw,f?
‘ESpaf v;q,f tm%mwnf+rJap&r,f’vd@k zqqd&k ,
S af wG aºuG;a=umfc=hJ uwJh zqyv tzGŒJ
}uD;[m q,fESpfq,frdk; twGif;rSm tpdwfpdwftr$mr$m òyduGJoGm;&±Hkru tm%mudk ppfwyfvuf
xdk;tyf&awmhwJhb0 a&mufoGm;ygw,f?
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wdkufòydifqdkifr_=um;rSm Armjynf[m *,drf;*,dkifjzpfaecJhygw,f? zqyv xdyfoD;}uD;awGtm;vHk;
avmufeD;yg;[m qdk&S,fvpfa&;udk aºuG;a=umfcJh=uzl;ayr,fh wdkif;jynf&JŒ zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccH
Oya'rSmudk ‘vuf0JrsKd;aph’ awGtajrmuftrsm; yg&Sdaeygw,fvdk@ zGifhqdkcJh=uzl;ayr,fh wpwp
vuf,mvrf;a=umif;qDudkom ajymif;a&$ŒcsOf;uyfoGm;cJhygw,f?
uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; xdyfoD;acgif;rm}uD;awGjzpfwJh OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;AaqGwdk@ tkyfpkuawmh
wjznf;jznf; tar&duefvdkvm;olrsm;jzpfoGm;ygw,f? OD;Ek wdk@tkyfuawmh tar&duefudk vkdvm;
ayr,fh vuf0J eJ@ vuf,m=um; Asmrsm;wJh EdkifiHjcm;a&;0g'udk usifhoHk;&if;u ‘=um;aea&;0g'’ udk
aºuG;a=umforl sm;jzpfvm=uygw,f? OD;Ek [m w±kw0f ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvikd ;f eJ@twl ‘+idr;f csr;f pGmtwl
,SOfwGJaexdkifa&;rl}uD;(5)csuf’ rSm wqifhwuf yg0ifEkdifcGifh&cJholjzpfcJh+yD; EdkifiHwumqufqHa&;e,f
y,frSm rsufESmyef;vSoljzpfcJhygw,f? rl}uD; (5) csufa=umifh Armjynf&JΠEdkifiHjcm;a&;0g' *k%fwufcJh&
wJhumv jzpfcJhzl;ygw,f? tar&duef&JŒ qD;wdk;ppftkyfpkzGJŒa&;xJ um,uHajrmuf usa&mufroGm;
atmif xde;f odr;f Edik cf yhJ gw,f? jynfwiG ;f a&;rSmawmh zqyv wGi;f tm%mòydiyf rJG mS tm%mudk quf
vufxdef;odrf;xm;EdkifpGrf; &SdcJhayr,fh ppfwyf&JŒ wenf;tm;jzifh ArmjynfrSmjzpfwnfvmp ppftkyf&JŒ
ppfwyf tm%modr;f ,lvrkd u
_ akd wmh r[ef@wm;Edik af wmhb/J tm%mudk qufvufxed ;f odr;f rxm;Edik f
awmhbJ ppftkyfpkvufxJ xkd;tyfcJh&ygw,f? vl=um;aumif;atmif tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;wmtjzpf
toa&qnfcJhygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

231

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

tydik ;f (2)
1958=1962 umv
ppf t k y f p k } uD ; arG ; zG m ;jcif ; / ppf t m%m&S i f p epf t wG u f Zmwf w d k u f j cif ; od k ‹ r[k w f
td r f a pmif h t pd k ; &acwf
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &acwf/ tdraf pmift
h pd;k &qdw
k m&JΠaAGaqmfO;D yGOJ ;D xGuf aqmif&u
G cf suu
f awmh
EdkifiHa&;orm;awGudk txl;ojzifh ppftkyfpktay: r=unfjzLEdkifol qef@usifol EdkifiHa&;orm;awGudk
tpkvdkuf tòyHvdkuf zrf;qD;+yD; axmifoGif;tusOf;csjcif;jzpfygw,f?
AdkvfjraoG; (yrnw twGif;a&;rª;csKyf)/ ocifAarmif (jynfolŒ'Drkdua&pDygwD)/ jynfolŒ
&JabmfrS AdkvftkH;wif/ Adkvf!Gef harmif/ AdkvfatmifEdkif/ vli,fhwyfOD;rS udk0if;xGÉf/ udkpdefvS/ udkjrarmif/
&Jabmfaygif;pHk xdef;odrf;a&;tzGJŒrS AdkvfrsKd;jrifh/ udkvSrif; wdk@tygt0if/ owif;pmq&mawGjzpf=uwJh
OD;apmvGif (ArmtrsKd;orD;)/ OD;tkef;jrifh (wdk;wufa&;)/ OD;udkudkav; wdk@awG tzrf;cH=u&ygw,f?
aemufydkif;rSmwqufwnf; owif;q&m/ pma&;q&mawGjzpf=uwJh OD;,karmif/ Aef;armfwifatmif/
OD;wifpdk; wdk@wawG axmifxJa&muf=u&ygw,f? ref;xGef;&if wdk@vdk u&iftrsKd;om;acgif;aqmifawG/
ocifxGef;tHh/ OD;omEdk; wdk@vdk oef@&Sif;acgif;aqmifawG/ ocifvlat;/ udkjrifhaZmf wdk@vdk tvkyform;
acgif;aqmifawG/ udkpdk;rif;/ udkudkvGif wdk@vdk vli,facgif;aqmifawGomru q&mawmf&SifOuUÏ vdk
bke;f }uD;vnf; axmifx0J if&ygw,f? owif;pmwdu
k af wGxu
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d af tmifped /f
a=u;rHu
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om;or*~u ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifawGvnf; zrf;qD;axmifcsjcif;cH=u&ovdk ajy;olajy; a&Smifol
a&Smifjzpf=u&ygw,f?
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0efrsm;/ &Jt&m&Sdrsm;yg zdwf=um;+yD; aqG;aEG;yGJvkyfygw,f? (3) &ufwdkifwdkifusif;y+yD; ‘w&m;Oya'
pdk;rdk;a&;’ qdkwmtjyif tjrwf}uD;pm;rsm; ESdrfeif;a&;/ ukefaps;E_ef;csa&;/ òrdŒawmfoef@&Sif;a&;vkyfief;
awGyg wòydifeufwnf; vkyfoGm;r,fvdk@ qHk;jzwfygw,f?
ukeaf ps;E_e;f csa&;twGuq
f +kd yD; pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&Siw
f csKŒd udk zrf;qD;ygw,f? pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;
wcsKdŒudk wyfrawmf oufomacsmifcsda&;tzGJŒu odrf;ydkuf,lwmvkyfygw,f?
232

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

+idrf0yfydjym;a&;pDrHudef;nDvmcH}uD;udk Ekd0ifbm (3) &ufuae (5) &ufae@txd oHk;&ufwkdif
wdkif usif;y+yD;wJhaemufrSm tdrfapmifhtpdk;&&JŒ ‘EdkifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;a&; tkyfcsKyfr_pDrHudef;’ }uD;udk
pwiftaumiftxnfazmfygw,f? 'DprD u
H ed ;f }uD;udk oGuo
f u
G v
f ufvuf taumiftxnfazmfEikd zf @kd
nDvmcHrac:cifuwnf;u ‘A[dv
k òkH cHa&;OD;pD;tzGŒJ ’ qdw
k mudk óudwifzŒJG pnf;+yD;jzpfygw,f? ‘A[dv
k òkH cH
a&; OD;pD;tzGŒJ ’ udk Ed0k ifbmv (1) &ufae@rmS pwifzŒJG pnf;cJ+h y;D jzpfygw,f? OuUÏtjzpf umuG,af &;0ef}u;D
vnf;jzpfwJh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; u wm0ef,l+yD; 'kOuUÏtjzpf jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;jzpfwJh OD;cifarmifjzL
u wm0efcHygw,f?
aemufxyfay:vmwmuawmh ‘A[dkvHkòcHa&;aumifpD’ qdkwmjzpfygw,f? OD;cifarmifjzL u
OuUÏjzpf+yD; Akdvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif u wyfeJ@ n‡dE_dif;yl;aygif;a&;wm0efudk,lygw,f? A[dkvHkòcHa&;
aumifpDrSm Akdvfrª;}uD; boef; ("rRduboef;) 'kAkdvfrª;}uD; =unf[ef wdk@ yg0ifv_yf&Sm;=uygw,f?
A[dkvHkòcHa&;aumifpD&JŒatmufrSm wdkif;/ jynfe,f vHkòcHa&;aumifpD/ c±dkif vHkòcHa&;aumifpD/
òrdŒe,fvHkòcHa&;aumifpD qdkwmawG&Sdygw,f?
‘ppftpdk;&’ tjzpf/ wef;rjrif&atmif tpdk;&tzGJŒpm&if;rSm ppfAdkvf}uD;awGudk xnfhoGif;zGJŒ
pnf;jyxm;jcif;r&Sad yr,fh 0ef}uD;Xmewdik ;f eJ@ vkyif ef;Xme tzGŒJ tpnf;wdik ;f rSm ppfAv
kd }f uD;awGtm;vH;k
wm0ef,l yg0ifywfouf vkyfudkifcJh=uygw,f? ppfwyfu tkyfcsKyfa&;wifru tpdk;&vkyfief;XmerSef
or#udk 0ifa&mufyg0ifvkyfudkif tkyfpdk;cJh=uygw,f?
Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif [m jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; r[kwfayr,fh jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; OD;cifarmifjzL
xuf vufapmif;xufcJhygw,f? =oZmyg0g jyEdkifoljzpfcJhygw,f? jyef=um;a&;Xmeatmufuae jynf
xJa&;Xmevufatmuf a&$Œajymif;,lvdkuf+yD; ‘yHkESdyfxkwfa0olrsm;xkwfa0cGifh’ vdkifpifudk t&ifu
w}udr&f +yD;jzpf&if tqufrjywfxw
k af 0cGi&hf +yD;jzpf&muae wESpw
f }udrw
f ifav#mufz@kd Oya' jyifqif
xkwfjyefcJhygw,f? &nf&G,fcsufu xkwfa0olawGudk a=umufatmifvkyf+yD; tydkifudkifzdk@jzpfygw,f?
Akdvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif udk,fwdkif ‘ppfwyftm%modrf;’ }uHpnfr_}uD;rSm yg0ifcJh+yD; wnfqJ
zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'}uD;udk um,uHajrmuf csKd;azmufvmcJhol ppfppfjzpfayr,fh yHkESdyfxkwf
a0olawGukd “,ckxw
k af 0olonf 1947 ckEpS /f zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'}uD;udk opPmcH,yl gonf?
apmifx
h ed ;f ygrnf[k uwdopPmðya=umif;” w&m;0if yHEk ydS af zmfjycdik ;f cJyh gw,f? zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccH
Oya'udk OD;xdyf&Gufyef ±dkusKd;[ef tjynfht0 yHkaqmifcJhygw,f? wESpfw}udrf wifav#mufOya'udk
a=u;rHk/ &efukef/ Adkvfwaxmif owif;pm (3) apmifu qef@usif a0zef a&;om;cJh=uygw,f?
tJ'Dvdk qefusifa0zefa&;om;=uwJhtwGuf a=u;rHk/ &efukef/ Adkvfwaxmifowif;pm (3)
apmifudk ydwfypfygw,f// t,f'DwmawGudkvnf; zrf;qD;axmifcswmvkyfygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&&JŒ t"duta&;}uD;qHk; ‘EkdifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;a&; tkyfcsKyfr_pDrHudef;}uD;’
udk taumiftxnfazmfz@kd / yxrqH;k zGŒJ pnf;vdu
k w
f hJ ‘A[dv
k òkH cHa&;OD;pD;tzGŒJ ’ &JŒatmufrmS jynfwiG ;f
vHòk cHrl axmufvrS ;f a&;ndE‡ id_ ;f r_tzGŒJ / Ekid if aH wmfA[dak xmufvrS ;f a&;tzGŒJ / tjypf'%fay;a&; t}uHay;
tzGŒJ qdw
k mawGuv
kd nf; zGŒJ pnf;cJyh gw,f? &Jbufqikd &f m tkycf sKyfa&;tzGŒJ / tkycf sKyfa&;qdik &f m &mxl;wd;k
jr‡iahf &;ESihf a&$Œajymif;a&;qdik &f mt}uHay;tzGŒJ / qkcs;D jr‡iahf &;t}uHay;tzGŒJ qdw
k mawGuv
kd nf; zGŒJ pnf;
cJhygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

233

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; &JΠtdraf pmift
h pd;k &[m jynfwiG ;f +idr0f yfyjd ym;a&;twGu/f qlyal omif;use;f
aewJh tiftm;pkawGudk wdkufzsufESdrfeif;&efqdkwJh tpDtpOf (3) &yfudkvnf; csrSwfvdkufygw,f?
tJ'DhtpDtpOf (3) &yfuawmh (1) jynfwGif;Y ysHESHvsuf&Sdaom vufeufyHk;rsm;udk jyefvnfodrf;ydkufEkdifzdk@ csufcsif;aqmif
&Guf&ef/
(2) aomif;usef;olrsm;tm; vlxk.tultnDjzifh jyif;jyif;xefxef xdk;ppfqif&efESifh
(3) Oya'twdkif; wdwdusus vdkufemusifhoHk;ap&efESifh rnfol@udkrS axmufxm;iJhn‡mjcif;
r&SdbJ jywfjywfom;om; ta&;,laqmif&Guf&ef - qdkwmyJjzpfygw,f?
twdkcsKyfajym&&if vufeufyHk;rsm;azmfxkwfa&;/ aomif;usef;oltðywfwdkufa&; Oya'
twdkif; jywfjywfom;om; ta&;,la&;qdkwmyJjzpfygw,f?
EkdifiHw0Sef;vHk; vufeufyHk;azmfxkwfzrf;qD;yGJ}uD;awG vkyfjyygw,f? &efukefòrdŒeJ@ tif;pdefw
0dkufu jyefay;*dk%f;/ "m;jy*dk%f;qdkwm}uD;awGudk azmfxkwfzrf;qD;ygw,f?
vufeufy;kH azmfxw
k af &; zrf;qD;ta&;,lra_ wGe@J twl a&SŒqifah emufqifh ðyvkyw
f muawmh
zqyv vufxuf emrnftrsdK;rsdK;eJ@ wnf&SdvmcJhwJh cg;ydkufaqmifwyfzGJŒawGudk zsufodrf;jcif;yJjzpf
ygw,f? +idrf0yfydjym;a&;twGufvdk@ aºuG;a=umfcJhayr,fh ppfwyfeJ@pifòydifjzpfvmEkdifwmudk óudwif
wm;qD; zsuo
f rd ;f ypfcsiw
f m t"dujzpfw,f? ppfwyfuvGv
J @kd vufeufuikd w
f yfqw
kd m/ ppfwyfoabm
aqmifwt
hJ zGŒJ qdw
k m ppfwyf&ŒJ atmufrmS om 'grrS [kwf ppfwyfuzGŒJ pnf;ay;vd@k wnf&adS ewJh tjzpf
rsdK;om &SdaeapcsifwJhoabmjzpfygw,f// ‘&JwyfzGJŒ’awGudkawmif EkdifiHwumrSmvnf; zGJŒpnf;xm;&
vdk@/ zsufodrf;ypfvdk@rjzpfvdk@ xm;&wJhoabmjzpfygw,f? zsufodrf;ypfvdkufw,fqdkwJh vufeufudkif
wyfzGJŒawGudk wcsdKŒudk ppfwyftwGif;/ wcsdKŒudk ppf&JtwGif; oGwfoGif;zGJŒpnf;vdkufygw,f?
‘ppf&Jwyf’udkvnf; jyefvnfjyifqif zGJŒpnf;wmvkyfygw,f? Adkvfrª;}uD;rif;odrf;/ Adkvfrª;}uD;
wef,q
k ikd ef @J ppfwyfu wyfr;ª wcsKd Œu wm0efc+H yD; jyifqifzŒJG pnf; udik w
f ,
G yf gw,f? toifjh zpfwt
hJ cg
wyfrawmfwGif oGwfoGif;zGJŒpnf;ay;r,fvdk@ a=unmygw,f? Adkvfrª;}uD;rif;odef;u ppf&Jrif;}uD;vkyf
+yD; ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;awGvkyfygw,f? opfxkwfvkyfa&;eJ@ v#yfppfvkyfief; umuG,fa&;wyfcGJ (3)ck
udv
k nf; ppf&w
J yfxo
J w
G o
f iG ;f vdu
k yf gw,f? aomif;use;f olErdS Ef iS ;f a&;tjzpf vufeufuikd t
f iftm;pk
awGudk jyif;jyif;xefxef xdk;ppfqifzdk@ ppfqifa&;}uD;awG t}uD;tus,fðyvkyfygw,f?
Oya'pdk;rdk;apa&;acgif;pOfatmufrSm zrf;wm qD;wm tjypfay;ta&;,lwmawGudkvnf;
t&Sed jf ri‡ ahf qmif&u
G yf gw,f? yk'rf (5) eJ@ zrf;qD;wmawGvnf; tpkvu
kd t
f òyv
H u
kd f rsm;jym;vmygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;& wufrvmcifu ArmjynfrSm A[dktusOf;axmif (9) axmif/ c±dkiftusOf;axmif
(19) axmif/ axmifi,f (6) axmife@J abmfpw,fausmif; (1) ck&ydS gw,f? tdraf pmift
h pd;k &wufvm
wJt
h cg 'DaxmifawGavmufe@J wiftm;r&awmhwt
hJ wGuf aemufxyfaxmifopfwck zGiv
hf u
kd yf gw,f?
tJ'guaawmh &efuek òf rdŒeJ@ (262)rdik af 0;+yD; yifv,ftwGi;f rSmwnf&w
dS hJ udu
k ;kd u|e;f axmifjzpfygw,f?
udkudk;u|ef;tusOf;pcef;udk pxlaxmifcJhwmuawmh zqyv tpdk;&jzpfygw,f? jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;
ocifomcif vufxufrSm pDrHcJhwmjzpf+yD; tJ'DwHk;u OD;ausmf+idrf; u EkdifiHa&;orm;awGtwGuf
&nf&,
G cf w
hJ mr[kwyf gb;l vd@k jiif;qdck b
hJ ;l ygw,f? 58 ckEpS /f ESpq
f ef;rSm udu
k ;kd u|e;f owif; xyf+yD;xGuf
234

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

vmvdk@ rwfv (25) ckESpfrSm usif;ywJhowif;pm uGefz&ifhrSm owif;pmq&mwOD;&JŒtar;udk ajzqdk
&if; EkdifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek u “udkudk;u|ef;odk@ EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk ydk@&efr[kwfyg” vdk@ ajz=um;
oGm;cJhao;w,f? tJ'Dh udkudk;u|ef;tusOf;pcef;udk 1959 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (24) &ufae@rSm tdrfapmifh
tpdk;&u pwifzGifhvSpfvdkufygw,f? EkdifiHa&;tusOf;orm;awGudkydk@zdk@ wrif&nf&G,f+yD; zGifhvdkufyg
w,f?
Zefe0g&D (30) &ufae@rSm zrf;qD;xm;wJh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;aygif; (135) a,mufudk pwif
udkudk;u|ef;ydk@ygw,f? yxrtokwf (53) OD;eJ@ 'kwd,okwf (54) OD;eJ@ aemufqHk;okwf (28) OD;jzpfyg
w,f? EkdifiHa&;orm;/ pma&;q&m/ owif;pmq&mawGwifru xif&Sm;wJh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif
awGyg yg0ifcJhygw,f? ocifjroef;/ &efausmftkef;jrifh (wdk;wufa&;tkef;jrifh)/ OD;apmvGif (ArmtrsdK;
orD;)/ OD;atmifoef; (AdkvfcsKyftudk)/ AdkvfjraoG;/ ocifAarmif/ AdkvfrsdK;jrifh/ udkudkav;/ udkwifapm/
&Jabmfv0S if; eJ@ ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmif udv
k aS z (OD;wifah Zmf)/ Adv
k t
f ;kH armif (avxD;)/ ocifazaX;/
pwJhyk*~dKvfawG yg0iftydk@cHcJh&ygw,f? udkudk;u|ef;eJ@tvm;wl/ ykodrfbufu ‘vdyfu|ef;’ udkvnf;ydk@
aqmif csKyfaESmifwmawGvkyfcJhygw,f?
OD;Ek qD tm%moGm;awmif;cJw
h hJ t"duyk*Kd~ vf (3) OD;rSm Adv
k rf ;ª csKyf armifarmif u jynfxaJ &;
XmerSm wefcdk;xGm;ovdk t"duyk*~dKvfaemufwOD;jzpfwJh Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; u pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;
awGudk udkifwG,f+yD; wefcdk;xGm;vmygw,f? ppfwyfydkifpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;}uD;awG/ ppfwyfóuduf pD;yGm;
a&;pepfopfawGxGif+yD; ppfwyft&if;tESD;udk t}uD;tus,f pkaqmif;ygw,f? 1951 ckESpfup+yD;
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;XmetaeeJ@ pwifzGJŒpnf;cJhwJh wyfrawmf axmufyHha&;tzGJŒ (DSI) [m tpdk;&
acs;aiG (6) ode;f eJ@ pwifcw
hJ mvd@k tqd&k adS yr,fh rw&m;ojzifh tcGit
hf a&;awG&,l+yD; vkyu
f ikd af qmif
&GufcGifh&cJhwJhtwGuf wr[kwfcsif; }uD;xGm;vmcJhum/ tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxufrSmawmh txGwf
txdyfudka&muf&SdoGm;ygawmhw,f? DSI ('Dtufpftdkif) atmufu xyfzGJŒcJhwJh bDtD;'DpD (BEDC)
[m ArmjynfpD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;wckvHk;udk csKyfudkif+yD; ygav&mig;ydcsuf jzpfvmawmhw,f? t&uf
awmif bDt;D 'DpD t&ufqw
kd may:vmcJw
h ,f? pmayavmuxJ0if+yD; ajc±_yzf @kd “ynmhvuf±;kH ” pmay
wdkufaxmifxm;+yD;jzpfovdk “jr0wD” r*~Zif;wdkufuvnf; ppfwyf&JŒ pdwf"mwfppfqifa&;vkyfief;eJ@
0g'jzef@csda&;tmabmfawGudk oGufoGufvufvuf vrf;a=umif;csay;EkdifcJh+yD;jzpfygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxufrSm [D;Ekd;um; (24) pD;0,f+yD; &efukefòrdŒwGif; c&D;ajy;qGJwm/ zuf
pyfvkyfief;awGwdkif;rSm yg0ifygwfouf udkifwG,fcsKyfudkifwmvnf; vkyfygw,f? t&ifu&Sd+yD; zufpyf
aumfydka&;&Sif; (11) ckxJu pufr_vufr_qdkif&m zufpyfaumfydka&;&Sif; (2) ckudk zsufodrf;+yD;/ usefwJh
(9) ckudk wdkif;eJ@jynfe,ftvdkuf ae&ma'ocGJ+yD;/ jzef@jzL;a&;e,fawGcGJ+yD; cGJwrf;csvkyfudkifapwm
wDxGifygw,f? pD;yGm;a&;udk ppfe,fajrcGJ+yD; vkyf=unfhwmjzpfygw,f?
Ekid if jH cm;uwifoiG ;f wJh ukepf nfawGuv
kd nf; (DSI) rSwqifh wifoiG ;f &r,fv@kd trde@f xw
k +f yD;
uefx±dkufvkyfief;awGudkvnf; (DSI) u odrf;,lygw,f? oGif;ukef xkwfukef vdkifpifawGudkvnf;
f ,
G yf gw,f? ppfwyf&ŒJ DSI eJ@ BEDC ud,
k w
f ikd u
f awmh taumuf
ppfwyf&ŒJ DSI eJ@ BEDC uyJuikd w
awmfceG /f bmcGef nmcGe/f tcGerf eS o
f r# wckrrS ay;&wJt
h wGuf tjrwf}uD; jrwf+yD; tyG}uD;yGcyhJ gw,f?
b,favmufxdawmif tjrwf}uD;jrwf+yD; tyG}uD;yGcJhovJqdk&if DSI eJ@ BEDC [m b%fvkyfief;eJ@
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

235

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

yifv,fu;l oabmFvyk if ef;awGtxd wd;k csŒJ ydik q
f ikd f vkyu
f ikd Ef idk cf w
hJ t
hJ xdjzpfygw,f? “tif;0b%f”[m
Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfatmif}uD; OD;pD;wJh ppfwyfyikd jf zpfovd/k =u,fig;yGio
hf abmFvyk if ef;[mvnf; ppfwyfyikd jf zpfchJ
ygw,f?
oHk;bD;um;awGwifoGif;+yD; ppfAdkvfeJ@ AdkvfxGufawGudk av#mhaps;eJ@jyefa&mif;wm/ pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;awGcsay;+yD; a0pkcGJay;wmawGvnf; Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; OD;pD;+yD;vkyfudkifay;cJhw,f?
ppfwyfu ppfAdkvf}uD;/ ppfAdkvfav;awG tm%mt&om aumif;aumif;odvm=uw,f?
tm%m&JŒatmufrmS bmpD;yGm;a&;vkyv
f yk f atmifjrifw,f/ atmifjrifrv
_ nf; jrefw,fv@kd rSwx
f if
em;vnfvm=uw,f? Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; [m olŒudk,fol pD;yGm;a&; tifrwef u|rf;usifvkyfudkif
wwfolvdk@awmif xifvmyHk&w,f?
ppfAdkvfxdyfoD;awGrSefor#[m pD;yGm;a&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ w&m;pD&ifa&;/ vlr_a&; vkyfief;awG
tm;vH;k rSm yg0ifywfouf pGuzf uf±rkH u OD;pD;OD;udik ðf y+yD; cs,v
f ,
S cf =hJ uygw,f? t&yfzufvyk if ef;awG
wdkif;/ tpdk;&XmeawGwdkif;rSm 0ifa&mufae&m,lcJh=u+yD; wm0efcH}uD;awG txl;t&m&SdawG OD;pD;
OD;aqmif}uD;awG vkyfcJh=uygw,f? aomhcsufae&mrSefor# ppfwyfuudkifwG,fcJhygw,f?
Adv
k rf ;ª }uD;ausmpf ;kd u jynfwiG ;f a&a=umif;o,f,yl @kd aqmifa&;/ Adv
k rf ;ª }uD;cif!kd u rD;&xm;
vkyfief;udk udkifygw,f? rD;&xm;tjyif ukefoG,fa&;vkyfief;awGxJvnf; 0ifa&muf}uD;=uyfvdkufyg
ao;w,f? Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfwu
D vpf u ava=umif;o,f,al &;/ Akv
d rf ;ª }uD;beD u a=u;eef; qufo,
G af &;
udk udik yf gw,f? Adv
k rf ;ª }uD;apmjrifh u e,fjcm;a'otkycf sKyfa&;Xmeopf zGi±hf o
kH mru e,ferd w
d w
f ikd ;f
xGma&;qdkif&mudkyg OD;pD;OD;&Gufðyygw,f? Adkvfrª;}uD;cspfòrdifu trsdK;om;rSwfyHkwifXmeudkudkif+yD;/
Adkvfrª;}uD;vSatmif u ajrwdkif;Xmeudk 0ifa&mufOD;aqmifwm vkyfygw,f? oef@&Sif;tpdk;&tay:
rausreyfjzpfcJh+yD; vufeufeJ@ðzwfcs&r,fvdk@ aºuG;a=umfcJhwJh Adkvfrª;}uD;=unf0if; u ajr,meJ@aus;
vuf}uD;yGm;a&;aumfyakd &;&Si;f udk udik w
f ,
G ±f rkH u tjrwfawmfa=u;Xmeukyd g OD;pD;}uD;=uyfw,fqw
kd m
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236

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

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&efukefòrdŒawmfwGif;&Sd t&yfom; òrdŒolòrdŒom;awGudk twif;t=uyf oef@&Sif;a&;tvkyfcdkif;cJhygw,f?
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237

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238

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

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t&if;eJ@ (10) &ufavmuf jyif;jyif;xefxef jyefvnfodrf;ydkufcJh&ygw,f? wef@,ef;òrdŒudk tpdk;&u
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

239

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

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f ;l [m
vnf; wvlvlvGifhysHaecJhygw,f?
1959 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&D (13) &ufae@rSmyJ tdrfapmifhtpdk;&tzGJŒ0if 0ef}uD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;
ae0if; [m jynfolŒv$wfawmftpnf;ta0; qifhac:usif;ycJhygw,f? usif;y&wJhta=umif;&if;u
(6) v=um&if a&G;aumufyu
JG si;f yay;zd@k oabmwlxm;cJ&h wm {+yDvrSm (6) vjynfrh mS jzpfwt
hJ wGuf
a&G;aumufyGJvnf; usif;yay;EkdifrSmr[kwfwJhtwGuf tdrfapmifhtpdk;&taeeJ@ tpdk;&wm0efawG
qufvufxrf;aqmifEkdifa&; &ufwdk;ay;&ef awmif;qdkzdk@ ac:,lusif;ywmjzpfygw,f? v$wfawmfrSm
0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;rS E_wfxGufa=umif; ‘txGufjy’ +yD; oleJ@ wdkuf±kduf+idaewJh zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccH
Oya'jyÏmef;csuyf g yk'rf (116) udk jyifqifay;zd@k ac:,lusi;f ywJh v$waf wmftpnf;ta0; jzpfygw,f?
tajccHOya'yk'fr (116) u ygvDreftrwf r[kwfolwa,muf udk (6) vxufausmfvGef+yD; 0ef}uD;
(odk@r[kwf) 0ef}uD;csKyfvkyfcGifhray;bJ wm;jrpfxm;ygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; udk,fwdkifuvnf;
tm%mud&k ,lpOfu zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'}uD;udk b,favmuftav;xm;+yD; OD;xdy&f u
G yf ef
opPmapmifo
h ±d adk oyga=umif; cyfwnfwnf ¹rGu[
f xm;zl;ovdk Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; atmufu ppftyk f
pkxdyfoD;wodkufuvnf; tajccHOya'udk apmifhod±dkaoyga=umif; aºuG;a=umfcJh=u±kHru olrsm;udkyg
opPmtðycdik ;f +yD; pmtkyaf &SŒpmrsuEf mS awGrmS xnfo
h iG ;f yHEk ydS cf ikd ;f cJw
h mjzpfwt
hJ wGuf tm%mudk quf
,lxm;csifayr,fh udk,fhpum;eJ@udk,fvnf; ydwfrdaewma=umifh tajccHOya'yk'fr (116) udk jyifqif
ay;zdk@ v$wfawmfac: awmif;qdkwifjyvmjcif;jzpfygw,f?
jynfolvlxlu tdrfapmifhtpdk;&qdkwJh ppftpdk;&vufatmufu jrefjrefvGwfajrmufEkdifzdk@
{+yDvrSm usif;yay;vdrfhr,fvdk@ ,lqxm;wJh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ}uD;udk ar#mfvifhaecsdef/ oef@&Sif;
zqyv uvnf; olŒtrwfrif;wcsdKŒyg +idrf0yfydjym;a&;pDrHcsufeJ@ axmifoGif;tusOf;cswmawG óuH
awG@ae&+yD; jrefjrefa&G;aumufy}JG uD;jzpfapvdak ecsed rf mS yk'rf (116) udk jyifqifay;zd@k awmif;qdv
k mwm
jzpfygw,f?
OD;AaqG/ OD;ausm+f idr;f wd@k &ŒJ wnf+rJzqyv}uD;u Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; &JΠyk'rf (116) jyifqifay;
a&; awmif;qdck suu
f kd ¹cGi;f csurf &Sd axmufcaH y;cJyh gw,f? tdraf pmift
h pd;k &&JΠolyek af wGtay: jywfjywf
om;om; ppfqifwdkufcdkufr_awGtay: jyif;xefwif;rmvSwJh uGefjrLepfESdrfESif;a&;awGtay: oabm
usEpS o
f ufwma=umifah &m/ oef@&iS ;f qzyv taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rª; ocifausm'f eG ;f vdv
k u
l kd qyfjym
pufoal X; tD;pD;r'g; jyefay;r_rmS qufpyfywfoufr&_ w
dS ,fq+kd yD; 59 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&v
D rSmyJ axmifoiG ;f
tusOf;csjyvdkufwJh tdrfapmifhtpdk;&&JŒ vkyf&yfawGudk =obmay;csifwma=umifhyg wufwufºuGºuG
240

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ypf+yD;axmufcHr_ay;cJhygw,f? udk,fwdkif wnf+rJtpdk;&rvkyfEkdifwJhtcsdefrSm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; tpdk;&
vkyfudkifaewJh +idrf0yfydjym;a&;aqmif&GufcsufawG[m wnf+rJ vkyfcsifaewmawG/ wnf+rJ&JΠoabm
xm;awGeJ@ tH0ifcGifusjzpfaewmtwGufvnf; ygygw,f? ta&;}uD;qHk;tcsufuawmh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;
ae0if; eJ@ ppfwyftiftm;pkudk wnf+rJ&JΠa&&SnftusdK;pD;yGm;twGuf ar#mfvifhcsufxm;+yD; axmufcH
acsmhjrLvdkufwmjzpfygw,f?
oef@&iS ;f zqyv}uD;uvnf; “tm%mvJvcJ$ &hJ ao;/ 'D=um;xJu ocifausm'f eG ;f vdk vltyg
t0if oef@&Sif;trwfawGawmif +idrf0yfydjym;a&;acgif;pOfeJ@qGJ tcsKyfcH/ tzrf;cHae&vdk@ rcHcsdrcHom
cHpm;ae&ayr,fh Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; rsuEf mS !drk mS pd;k &GŒH wma=umifah &m a&&Sno
f ef@&iS ;f tusKd ;twGuf
ygar#mfudk;+yD; acsmhjrLa&;ay:vpD usifhoHk;&if; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; &JΠwifjyawmif;qdkr_udk acgif;ndwf
oabmwlvdkufygw,f?
yk'fr (116) jyifqifa&;udk jyif;jyif;xefxef qef@usifuef@uGufcJhwmuawmh ‘yrnw’
tzGJŒ}uD;jzpfygw,f? yrnwtrwf ocifcspfarmif u “EkdifiHawmfol EkdifiHom;rsm;u ygvDrefv$wf
awmf}uD;udk a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufygw,f? ygvDrefv$wfawmfu ygvDreftpdk;&udk a&G;aumufwif
ajr‡mufygw,f? tJ'g[m(rl) jzpfygw,f? v$aJ jymif;jyifqifjcif;rðyEkid af om tajccHw&m;}uD;awGjzpfyg
w,f? tu,fIyk'fr (116) udk xyfjyif&&ifrlysufw,fvdk@jrifygw,f? tJ'Drlysufw,fqdk&if ygvDref
tpd;k &uG,v
f eG +f yv
D @kd ygvrD efvw
$ af wmfukd a=unm&rSmjzpfygw,f?” vd@k xkwaf zmfajymqd+k y;D uef@uu
G f
cJhygw,f?
ocifcspfarmif &JŒ a0zefcsufudk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; u “u|efawmfESifhwuG wyfrawmf[m
rlt&vkyaf eygw,f? u|eaf wmfw@kd ral wGu bmvJq&kd if tajccHtyk cf sKyfyOkH ya'udk av;pm;r,f? ±kad o
r,f? wnfwchH ikd +f rJatmifuikd x
f m;ygr,f? ygvrD ef'rD u
kd a&pDukd u|eaf wmfw@kd axmufcyH gw,f? wnfwHh
atmifvkyf&ygr,f?” qdk+yD; wkef@jyef jyef=um;ajymqdkcJhygw,f?
yrnw trwfocifcspfarmifu &mZ0ifwGifr,fh v$wfawmfrdef@cGef;&Snf}uD;udkvnf; ajym
=um;cJhygw,f? Zmwf}uD; (10) bGJŒvm ‘0d"l&’ Zmwfawmf}uD;udk yrmðyI “aum&As rif;}uD;eJ@wlwJh
OD;Ek eJ@ ykÀueJ@wlwJh Adkvfae0if;wdk@ aºuGtHupm;=u+yD; bk&ifu±_H;awmh ynm&Sd0d"l&trwf}uD;udk
bDvl;ykÀuvuftyf ykÀu u 0d"l& udk jrif;eJ@csD awmifpOfckESpfxyf 'kef;pdkif;ESif awmifpG,f awmif
xGwf tvDvED iS w
hf u
kd +f yD; ESyd pf ufco
hJ vdk yrnw rsm;eJ@ vlx[
k m 0d"&l ESiw
f +l yD;/ aoG;tvdr;f vdr;f xyf
cHpm;ae&ovdk txyfxyf emusicf pH m;ae&a=umif;” zGŒJ EGŒJ wifpm;ajymqdo
k mG ;cJyh gw,f? ocifcspaf rmif
&JŒ tJ'rD ed @f ceG ;f [m vlx&k ŒJ vufcyk o
f u
H kd &&Scd +hJ yD; 0d"&l qdw
k b
hJ ŒJG udv
k nf; ocifcspaf rmif &&So
d mG ;ygw,f?
0d"l&ocifcspfarmif jzpfoGm;cJhygw,f?
yk'rf (116) udk jyifqifvu
kd jf cif;[m tajccHOya'&JŒtoJEv
S ;kH udk xkw,
f v
l u
kd jf cif;jzpfygw,f
vd@k ‘yrnw’ u uef@uu
G cf ahJ yr,fh Adv
k cf sKyf}u;D ae0if; tay: acsmjh rLa&;ay:vpD usio
hf ;kH +y;D axmufcH
oabmwlnrD a_ y;vdu
k w
f hJ wnf+rJzqyv oef@&iS ;f zqyv ESpzf ŒJG pvH;k &JŒvkyaf qmifcsuaf =umifh rJcq
JG ;kH
jzwfwt
hJ cg Adv
k cf sKyf}u;D ae0if; tvdu
k sjzpfomG ;ygw,f? yrnw tqdk ±_;H edro
hf mG ;&ygw,f? ygvrD efu
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; tpdk;& oufwrf;twGif; “yk'fr (116) udk qdkif;ihHonfh tajccHOya'jyifqifcsuf”
ukd jyÏmef;twnfðyay;vdkufygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

241

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

tcsed q
f t
JG yk pf ;kd vdw
k hJ tdraf pmift
h pd;k &eJ@ ppftyk pf t
k wGuf atmifyw
JG ckjzpfomG ;cJyh gw,f? Adv
k f
csKyf}uD;ae0if; [m tdraf pmift
h pd;k &udv
k nf; enf;enf;yg;yg;jyifqif+yD; zGŒJ pnf;vdu
k yf gw,f? umuG,f
a&;Xme u yk*~dKvfawGudk 0ef}uD;tjzpf rcef@tyfbJ t&yfom;tpdk;& yHko¿mefzrf;xm;cJh&muae/
Adkvfrª;csKyfwifaz eJ@ ppfypPnf;0,f,la&;Xme !¸ef=um;a&;0ef OD;oD[ef wdk@udk ‘0ef}uD;’ tjzpf
xnfhoGif;zGJŒpnf;vmcJhygw,f?
tm%mawmif;acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfcJhol Adkvfrª;csKyfwifaz [m owWKwGif;ESifh tvkyform;
Xme jynfolŒvkyfief; tdrf,maqmufvkyfa&;ESifh jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;Xmewdk@&JŒ 0ef}uD;jzpfvmyg
w,f? OD;oD[ef u ukeo
f ,
G rf w
_ ;kd wufa&;Xme/ or0g,rESihf ukepf nfjzef@jzL;a&;Xme/ axmufyaH &;
Xme/ pufrv
_ ufrX_ mewd@k &ŒJ 0ef}uD;jzpfvmygw,f? 'k0ef}uD;csKyfO;D ode;f armif &JŒ ae&mrSm jynfaxmifpk
&mxl;0ef OD;vGe;f abmf udk cef t
h yftpm;xd;k ygw,f? 0wfvOkH ;D xGe;f wif udk use;f rma&;0ef}uD;tjzpfcef@
tyfygw,f? csif;a&;&m0ef}uD; OD;xefv#H &JΠae&mudkvnf; OD;&mr_ef;eJ@ tpm;xdk;vdkufygw,f?
+ird ;f csr;f a&;toHawGaysmuf+y;D ‘&yf&mG at;csr;f a&;’ toHawGa&mufvmygw,f? ‘w&m;Oya'
pd;k rd;k a&;’ qdw
k t
hJ oHawG ydrk u
kd s,af vmifvmygw,f? “&yf&mG at;csr;f om,ma&;ESihf w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k
a&;onf rlvyxr” qdkwJh aqmifyk'fawG acsmifcsdKacsmif=um;txd ysHESHvmygw,f?
“Ekid if aH wmftwGi;f aomif;use;f olrsm;/ rormaompD;yGm;&Smr_rsm;ESihf &mZ0wfusL;vGerf r_ sm;
udk tpdk;&omr[kwfbJ vlwdkif;u tpdk;&ESifh vufwGJum zdESdyfjcif;/ zrf;qD;jcif;/ ta&;,ljcif;/ aomif;
usef;r_rsm;udk tm;ay;olrsm;tm; w&m;Oya'bufodk@ odrf;oGif;+yD; w&m;Oya' wnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;
twGuaf qmif&u
G &f ef” qdw
k v
hJ rf;!¸erf u
_ ckd say;+yD; ppfwyft&m&S}d uD;awG ud,
k w
f ikd Of ;D pD;ay;cJw
h hJ }uHch ikd f
a&;toif;awGukd wqifw
h ;kd v_y&f mS ;apcJyh gw,f? }uHc› ikd af &;toif;&JŒaqmify'k u
f v
kd nf; “owW”d qd+k yD;
ajr‡mufx;kd yifah umfvyk af y;cJyh gw,f? ‘jynfoŒl taxmufawmfpepf” qdw
k mukd azmfxw
k +f yD; }uHc› ikd af &;
toif;rsm;ESiw
hf zJG ufum ‘owif;ay;’vkyif ef;rsm;udv
k yk af pjcif;/ ppfwyfukd tultnDaqmif;ay;jcif;/
ppfqifa&;ESifh &mZ0wfr_ESdrfeif;a&;awGrSm xnfhoGif;toHk;csjcif;awGudkvnf; us,fus,fjyef@jyef@
vkyfudkifcJhygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxufrSm awma&m òrdŒygrusef ay:vmwmuawmh &yfuGuf ‘rD;uif;’
awGjzpfygw,f? awmvufaus;&GmESifh e,fòrdŒi,fuav;awGrSm aemufxyf us,fus,fjyef@jyef@
ay:vmwmuawmh ‘&yf&Gm tdk;tdrf pnf;pdrfudk rdrdwdk@zmom umuG,fEkdifa&;twGuf’ qdk+yD 'l;av;
0g;c|efwyfawG zGJŒpnf;apwmjzpfygw,f? &yf&Gmudk ql;wyfawGcsxm; 0ef;&Hapwm/ umuG,fa&;uif;
awG ae@nrjywfcsxm;ap+yD; aomif;usef;olESdrfESif;a&;rSm yg0ifapwmawGvkyf+yD; ppfZmwfoGif;cJhyg
w,f? awma&mòrdŒygrusef rtm;rvyfEkdifatmifjzpfcJh&+yD; tae=uyf/ txdkif=uyf/ ab;=uyfeH=uyf
jzpfcJh&ygw,f?
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &&JΠordik ;f 0ifaqmif&u
G cf su}f uD;qdw
k mudk yHak zmfEidk zf @kd ‘apmfbmG ; apmzsm;rsm;
ya'o&mZftm%mpGef@v$wfa&;’ qdkwmudk rwfvxJrSm pwiftaumiftxnfazmfygw,f?
zGŒJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'rSm &Sr;f jynfe,fe@J u,m;jynfe,fu apmfbmG ; apmfzsm;twGuf vlrsKd ;pk
v$waf wmftwGi;f oD;oef@ay;xm;&wJh trwfae&mawG&adS ecJyh gw,f? vlrsKd ;pkvw
$ af wmfrmS &Sr;f apmf
bGm; (25) OD;/ u,m;apmfbmG ;apmfzsm; (3) OD;/ aygi;f (28) OD;[m a&G;aumufy0JG ifz@kd rvdb
k J ya'o&mZf
242

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tarGcHawGtjzpf ae&m&xm;=uwmjzpfygw,f?
&Srf;apmfbGm;awG[m tkyfcsKyfcGifhtm%m/ tcGefaumufcGifhtm%m/ w&m;pD&ifcGifhtm%m
tjyif/ vlxak &G;aumufwmr[kwb
f J trwftjzpf Oya'ðytm%myg &ae=uwJt
h wGuf tJ'ED pS x
f yf
uGr;f tm%mudk pGe@f vw
$ zf @kd &Sr;f jynfw;kd wufwt
hJ iftm;pke@J vlxu
k t&ifuwnf;u v_y&f mS ;awmif;
qdkae=uwm&Sdygw,f? ya'o&mZftºuGif;tusefz,f&Sm;a&;/ tajccHOya'udk jyifqifz,f&Sm;a&;udk
‘yrnw’ rsm;uvnf; tqdkðywifjycJh=uzl;ygw,f? p0fcGefcsdK wdk@vdk &Srf;apmfbGm;rsm;uvnf; ya'
o&mZf tm%mpGe@f vw
$ af &;udk (1954) avmufw;kH uwnf;u oabmwlziG [
hf ajymqdck =hJ uzl;ygw,f?
'gayr,fh vufawGŒaqmif&GufEkdifjcif;r&SdbJ =uef@=umaecJh&wJhudpPjzpfygw,f? 'DudpPudk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;
ae0if; u aumufuikd v
f u
kd w
f momjzpfygw,f? av#maf =u;aumif;aumif;ay;+y;D / apmfbmG ;rsm; tm%m
pGef@v$wfa&;udpP +yD;pD;oGm;cJhygw,f?
59 ckEpS /f {+yDv (24) &ufae@rmS apmfbmG ; apmfzsm; (33) OD;u vufrw
S af &;xd;k +yD; oabmwl
tm%mpGe@f vw
$ cf =hJ uygw,f? aumfzw
D pfcu
G f ig;jym;acwfrmS usKid ;f wHak pmfbmG ;wOD;u av#maf =u;aiG
usyf ig;oef;avmuf&wJt
h wGuf &efuek af jraps;awG ESpq
f avmuf ajrmufwufomG ;cJ&h w,fv@kd vnf;
qdk=uoHawG xGufay:vmcJhygw,f?
{+yDv (29) &ufae@rSm &Srf;jynfe,f jynfolŒtkyfcsKyfa&;yEMufcsyGJ ðyvkyf+yD; orw}uD;
ref;0if;armif eJ@twl 0ef}uD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; wwfa&mufum ‘tm%mudk &ufa&mpGm pGe@f vw
$ f
=uwJh apmfbGm;rsm;udkcsD;usL;a=umif;’ rdef@cGef;a¹cGygw,f? yifvHkpdwf"mwfudk xdef;odrf;=u&ef/ usOf;
ajrmif;aom vlrsKd ;a&;pdw"f mwfukd pGe@f vw
$ +f yD; jynfaxmifpw
k 0Se;f vH;k &JΠwd;k wufa&;eJ@ pnfyif0ajym
om,ma&;udk a&Sαl=u&efv@kd ajym=um;cJyh gw,f? 'gayr,fh Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; ar#mv
f ifo
h vdk jzpfrvm
cJhyJ tdrfapmiftpdk;&vufxufrSm wu,fwdk;wufjzpfay:vmcJhwmuawmh &Srf;trsdK;om;v_yf&Sm;r_
}u;D }u;D xGm;vmjcif;eJ@ &Sr;f vufeufuikd o
f yl ek rf sm; w[kew
f ;kd wd;k wuf}u;D rm; rsm;jym;vmjcif;jzpfygw,f?
1959 ckESpf/ {+yDvxJrSmyJ ppftkyfpktwGif; ajctoGufqHk;vlwOD;vnf;jzpf/ tm%mawmif;
acgi;f aqmifwOD;vnf;jzpfwhJ Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfatmif}uD; udk Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; u 'kw,
d umuG,af &;OD;pD;
csKyftjzpf cef@tyfajr‡upf m;vdu
k yf gw,f? 1949 ckEpS f Adv
k cf sKyfae0if; ppfO;D pD;csKyftjzpf xrf;aqmifwm
0ef,lcsdefup+yD; wav#mufvHk; b,folŒudkrS rcef@tyfbJxm;cJhwJh vpfvyfaewJh 'kwd,ppfOD;pD;csKyf
ae&mudk Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfatmif}u;D tm; ay;vdu
k w
f mjzpfygw,f? t&ifu cef@tyf&r,fq&kd if wyfwiG ;f xH;k pH
0gpOft& Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm udyk J cef@tyf&rSmjzpfwt
hJ wGuf Adv
k cf sKyfae0if;ua&m tm%m& zqyv
tpd;k &tqufqufuyg wrifnpfywf+y;D uGuv
f yftjzpfxm;cJw
h ahJ e&mudk Adv
k rf LS ;csKyfausmaf Zm vnf;
wyfwGif;rSmr&SdawmhwJhtcsdef tdrfapmifhtpdk;&tjzpf ppftkyfpk}uD; wefcdk;=oZmxufjrufvmcsdefrSm
Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD; udkcef@tyfvdkufwmjzpfygw,f?
ppftkyfpk}uD;&JΠwefcdk;=oZm }uD;rm;vmavav tm%mvuf0g;apmif; xufvmavav/
+idr;f csr;f a&;toHawG aysmufu,
G v
f m&avav jzpfc&hJ +yD;/ q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfrid_ ;f OD;pD;v_y&f mS ;
cJhwJh jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒ}uD;&JŒ v_yf&Sm;Ekdifr_awGuvnf; qufvufv_yf
&Sm;vdk@ r&EkdifawmhavmufatmifjzpfcJh+yD; 59 ckESpfxJrSm &yfqdkif;xm;vdkuf&ygw,f?
'Dvdk zdESdyfr_awGjyif;xefvSwJh acwfusyf}uD;xJrSm wl&mwl&mawGpk+yD; ay:aygufvmcJhwJh EdkifiH
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

243

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

a&;ygww
D ck&ydS gw,f? tJ'guawmh ‘jynfoŒl wd;k wufa&;ygw’D jzpfygw,f? 1959 ckEpS /f {+yDvxJrmS yJ
ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? OD;atmifoef; (AdkvfcsKyftudk)wdk@&JŒ jynfolŒ'Drdkua&pDygwDu tpk&,f/
ocifoifwdk@&JΠtrsdK;om;wdk;wufa&;ygwDu tpk&,f/ AdkvfcifarmifOD; wdk@&JΠ&Jabmfaygif;pHkxdrf;odrf;
a&;u tpk&,f/ tpk (3) pku yk*~dKvfawGudktajccH+yD; ‘jynfolŒwdk;wufa&;ygwD’ udk zGJŒpnf;vdkuf=u
wmjzpfygw,f? jynfolŒwdk;wufa&;ygwDrSm wdk;wufwJh pma&;q&m/ owif;pmq&mwcsdKŒvnf;
yg0ifvm=uygw,f?
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &[m ajray:&Sd w&m;0ifEidk if aH &;ygwaD wGukd wnf&cdS iG ahf y;xm;ayr,fh ppftyk pf k
qef@usiaf &; Ekid if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_awG vkyv
f @kd r&atmif +idr0f yfyjd ym;a&;pDrcH suaf wG w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k a&;
qdkwJh ESdyfuGyfwif;=uyfr_awGeJ@ v$rf;rdk;csKyfudkifxm;ygw,f?
ajray: EkdifiHa&;tzGJŒtpnf;awGudk rv_yfEkdifatmif csKyfudkifxm;wmeJ@wòydifeuftwGif;rSm/
awmwGi;f vufeufuikd f awmfveS af &;tiftm;pkawGtm;vH;k tay:rSmvnf; bufaygi;f pHx
k ;kd ppf}uD;awG
ðyvkyfcJhygw,f? txl;ojzifh uGefjrLepfygwDudk OD;wnfacsr_ef;zdk@ óud;pm;wJh ppfqifa&;}uD;awGu
t"dujzpfcJh+yD; jyif;jyif;xefxef &uf&ufpufpuf qifE$JcJhygw,f? wzufu Oya'udk av;pm;vdkuf
ema&; wzGzGatmf[pf&if; wzufu aumufaumufuspfuspf atmufvrf;enf;rsdK;pHkukdvnf; ,kwf
,kwfrmrm usifhoHk;cJhygw,f?
ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD jrpfzsm;a'owdik ;f wdik ;f aumfrwD0if Adv
k o
f ed ;f udk ppfwyfu zrf;qD;&&Sd
cJh+yD; taoowfjypfcJhygw,f? xGufajy;vdk@ ypfowfvdkuf&wmygvdk@ ta=umif;jyygw,f? Adkvfodef;
[m zufqpfawmfvSefa&;uwnf;u tpOftvm&SdcJhwJh ta&;}uD;wm0efawGudk xrf;aqmifcJhwJh
AdkvfwOD;jzpfygw,f? 48 ckESpfrSm wyfrawmfwyf&if; (3) eJ@twl awmcdkcJhwmjzpfygw,f? Adkvfodef;
aemufydkif;rSm Adkvfodef; vdkyJ xGufajy;vdk@ ypfzrf;vdk@/ ypfzrf;&if;aoqHk;oGm;&w,fqdkwJh owif;awG
qufwdkufxGufvmygw,f? AdkvftmVm0u/ ocifwifaz/ ocifarmif}uD; eJ@ q&muGef; wdk@wawG
usq;kH towfco
H mG ;&ygw,f? Adv
k t
f Vm0u [m uGejf rLepfygw&D ŒJ wdik ;f (3) ppfa&;wm0efcjH zpfygw,f?
tpOftvm}uD;wJh zufppfawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfygw,f? *syefzufqpfawmfvSef
a&;rSm txufArmjynfwdkif;rª; Adkvfrª;Axl; usqkH;oGm;+yD;aemuf Adkvfrª;Axl; ae&mudk qufcHwm0ef
,lcJholvnf;jzpfygw,f? 45 ck aeol&defacwfrwdkifrD jynfolw&yfvHk; zqyv tvHawmfatmuf
&yfwnfpk±Hk;=u+yD; nDnD!Gwf!GwfeJ@ wdkif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;udk aqmif&GufoGm;=uzdk@ =o*kwfv (12)
&ufae@rmS rsKd ;cspAf rmhwyfrawmf ppfacgi;f aqmif (10) OD;&JΠxkwjf yefa=unmcsurf mS Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;/
Adkvfvusfm/ AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvfae0if;/ AdkvfausmfaZm wdk@eJ@twl yg0ifvufrSwfa&;xdk;cJhwJh ordkif;0if
ppfacgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfygw,f? tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufatmufrSm tòid;w}uD; uGefjrLepfokwfoifajc
r_ef;a&;atmufrSm usqHk;oGm;cJh&ygw,f?
1959 ckESpf/ ara';ae@rSm oef@&Sif;zqyv OD;Ek &JΠemrnfausmf ara';rdef@cGef;}uD; xGufay:
vmygw,f? ara';ae@rwdik rf D {+yv
D xJrmS yJ OD;Ek [m tar&duefuo
kd mG ;cJah o;+y;D 0g&iS w
f ef ArmoH±;kH rSm
ðyvkyfwJh owif;pmuGefz&ifhwckrSm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; udk acsmhjrLumuG,f&if;tckvdk &Sif;jyajymqdk
wmwck vkyfcJhygw,f?
“ArmjynfwGif usa&mufvsuf&Sdaom 'Drdkua&pDtE W&m,fonf rnfonfht&yfuvmI
244

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

rnfolŒwm0efjzpfonfqdkonfudk xkwfazmfajymqdk&eftwGuf tcsdefwcsdefudk rdrda&G;cJha=umif;/ ,if;
tE &W m,fonf Adv
k cf sKyfae0if; r[kwaf =umif;/ Adv
k cf sKyfae0if;onf vlaumif;wOD;jzpfa=umif;/ od@k aomf
ol.&nf&G,fcsufrsm;onf aumif;rGefvifhupm; ae&mwumwGif ‚if;udk,fwdkif raqmif&Guf
Edkifa=umif;/ odk@jzpfI ol.csrSwfcsuftcsdKŒrSm zsufvdkzsufqD;ðyjcif;cH&a=umif;/ ,if;odk@zsufqD;cH&
onfrSm AdkvfcsKyf. vufatmufi,fom;rsm; vufcsufa=umifhjzpfa=umif;æ” vdk@ajymqdkcJhygw,f?
tJ'Dvdk óudwifajymqdkr_awGvkyf+yD; aemufydkif;rS OD;Ek [m olŒ&JŒ emrnfausmf ara';ae@rdef@cGef;}uD;udk
ajymqdkwmjzpfygw,f? tmZmenfukef;rSm 'Drdkua&pDqENjyyGJ}uD;rSm ajymqdkwmjzpfygw,f? tmZm
enfuek ;f rSm 'Dru
kd a&pDqENjyyG}J uD;usi;f y+yD; ode;f eJ@ aomif;eJ@ csw
D ufvmwJh vlx}k uD;udk rde@f ceG ;f ac|wm
jzpfygw,f?
yrnw eJ@ w&m;r#wr_ygwDwdk@uvnf; wufa&mufvm=uygw,f? OD;Ek u 'Drdkua&pD
tarSmifusae&wJh tajctaeawGukd zGi[
hf oGm;ovdk wav#mufv;kH ppfwyfudk ypm;ay; vkyu
f ikd v
f m
cJ&h wJh ol@&ŒJ wu,ft
h jzpftysut
f rSeaf wGuv
kd nf; zGi[
hf 0efco
H mG ;cJyh gw,f? OD;Ek u olŒ&JŒ ara';ae@
rdef@cGef;xJrSm “+idrfcsrf;a&;&zdk@twGuf olykefawGudk vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhawG/ vdkufavsmr_awG/ wwf
Ekdifoavmuf vkyfay;cJhw,f? tJ'gudk u|efawmfrjiif;ygbl;? 'gayr,fh b,fvGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhay;
ay;/ b,fvu
kd af vsmcsuu
f ykd J vkyv
f yk /f u|eaf wmf[m wyfrawmfacgi;f aqmifawGe@J wdik yf if+yD; olw@kd &ŒJ
oabmwlnDcsufudk &rSvkyfw,f? +idrf;csrf;a&;eJ@ywfouf+yD; Armhwyfrawmfacgif;aqmifawG&JŒ
oabmwlncD surf &bJ u|eaf wmf bmwckrrS vkycf @J b;l ? ay;cJo
h r# vGw+f idr;f csr;f omcGiahf wG/ vkycf o
hJ r#
vdu
k af v#mcGiahf wGtm;vH;k [m wyfrawmfacgi;f aqmifawGe@J wdik yf if+yD; olw@kd &ŒJ oabmwlncD suu
f &kd rS
usaemfvyk cf w
hJ ,f? ukeu
f ek af jymr,f? olyek af wGe@J ywfoufwhJ a=unmcsuaf wG usaemf&h ŒJ rde@f ceG ;f awG
tm;vH;k [m wyfrawmfacgi;f aqmifawGujkd y+yD;rS xkwjf yefcw
hJ ,f? wyfrawmfacgi;f aqmifawGu jyif
p&m&Sdwmjyif+yD;rS usaemfajymcJhwmjzpfw,f?” vdk@ &ifzGifhoGm;cJhygw,f? OD;Ek udk,fwdkif ppfwyfudk
b,favmufacsmhjrLcJh&w,f ppfwyf[m b,favmuf tay:pD;uaecJh&w,fqdkwm&JΠom"u
wckjzpfcJhw,f?
58 ckEpS /f 'DZifbmvwH;k u oef@&iS ;f zqyv nDvmcHrmS ocifwif u rde@f ceG ;f ay;&mrSmvnf;
“jynfolwdk@rSm zufqpf0g'udk ,ckrsufarSmufðy &ifqdkifae&a=umif;/ vlxktm; 'Drdkua&pDray;bJ
aoewfeJ@ypf csdrf;ajcmuf/ tm%meJ@ n‡if;qJ+yD; EkdifiHa&;tm%mvkonfh vrf;pOfay:aea=umif;/
xdv
k rf;pOfukd tjyif;txefacsre_ ;f +yD; 'Dru
kd a&pDausmufwikd x
f &l efvakd =umif;” vd@k zGi[
hf +yD; ppfwyfukd
a0zefcJhygw,f?
OD;EkurE Wav;òrdŒ a[majymyGJwckrSmvnf; “jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHonf ,cktcg vrf;qHk
vrf;cGa&mufaea=umif;/ 'Drdkua&pDvrf;/ uGefjrLepfvrf; eJ@ zufqpfvrf;jzpfa=umif;/ EkdifiHudk uGefjrL
epfeJ@ zufqpfrjzpf&ef a&G;aumufyGJusif;y&efvdka=umif;/” a[majym toHay;cJhygw,f?
rv$Jomra&Smifom tm%mxdk;ay;+yD; ab;xGufxdkifaevdkuf&wJh oef@&Sif;zqyv [m
tm%mudk &,luikd w
f ,
G +f yD; wdik ;f jynfukd ppftyk cf sKyfenf;eJ@ tkycf sKyfaewJh ppftyk pf &k ŒJ OD;wnfa&S;±lae
&mvrf;a=umif;udk roufrom jrifawGŒcHpm;ae&ayr,fh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; tay:awmh acsmhjrLa&;
ay:vpDudkom txyfxyfusifhoHk;aecJh=u&ygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

245

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

59 ckESpf tmZmenfae@ pnf;a0;yGJwckrSmyJ OD;Ek u ‘uGufopfvlxkrsuf&nfusae&ygw,f?
jynfolwdk@rSm bmrSjyefrajym0HhbJ 'l;eJ@rsuf&nfokwfae&yg+yD’ vdk@ &mZ0ifwGif rdef@cGef;wckajymjyefyg
w,f?
OD;Ek tmZmenfae@ rde@f ceG ;f rajymcif ZGev
f xJrmS Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; tpPa&;Ekid if u
H kd csp=f unf
a&;c&D;oGm;ygw,f? uvwWm;avqdyfrSm tdEdN, owif;axmufawGu “ArmjynfrSm a&G;aumufyGJ
b,fawmhusi;f yrvJ” qdw
k hJ ar;cGe;f udk zd+yD;ar;=uygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; u rv$o
J mra&Smifom
“{+yDvxJavmufrSm usif;yay;ygr,f” vdk@ajzcJhygw,f? tJ'Dvdkajzqdk+yD;wJhaemufrSm OD;Ek &JŒ tmZm
enfae@rdef@cGef; xGufay:vmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; atmufu ppftkyfpkxdyfoD;0if wcsdKŒuawmh tm%mudk qufvufqkyf
udik x
f m;vd+k yD; +idr0f yfyjd ym;r_ta=umif;jycsuef @J xyfrt
H csed q
f v
JG =kd uygw,f? aemufwa=umh &ufum
vxyfwdk;ay;zdk@ awmif;qdkvdk=uygw,f? OD;Ek u ray;vdkawmhyg? ta=umif;trsdK;rsdK;eJ@ a&G;aumufyGJ
vkyrf ay;bJ qufvuftcsed q
f v
JG m&if tm%mudzk q
D efz@kd jyifygw,f? tEka&m/ t=urf;yg wdu
k yf q
JG if
Ekid zf @kd q;kH jzwfygw,f? yxrqH;k enf;u +idr;f csr;f aomenf;eJ@ tm%mzDqefenf;udk usio
hf ;kH +yD; wdu
k &f ef
jzpfygw,f? tJ'eD nf;udu
k sio
hf ;kH wdu
k yf 0JG ifwt
hJ cg (1) t=urf;rzufjzpfap&ef/ (2) pnf;urf;ao0yfap
&ef/ (3) wAdv
k u
f s wAdv
k w
f ufjzpfap&efq+kd yD; acgi;f aqmifoifwef;awGziG yhf gw,f? t=urf;enf;tjzpf
vufeufudkifwdkufzdk@vdk&if wdkufcsifwJhvlawGtwGufvnf; tiftm;pkaqmif;wm/ jyifqifwmawG
vkyfygw,f?
v#dKŒ0Suf+yD; avhusifhjyifqifwmjzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'Dvdk jyifqifpdkif;jyif;xm;=uwmawG
udk Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; u olŒ&JŒ axmufvrS ;f a&;awG/ taxmufawmfawGqu
D wqifh aumif;aumif;
od&Sdae+yD;jzpfygw,f?
vlxku ppfwyfudk b,favmufrkef;wD;ae+yDqdkwmudkvnf; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; aumif;
aumif;od&Sd+yD;jzpfovdk/ tJ'DtcsdefrSm t+yD;tydkif qufvuf tm%mudk qkyfudkif&,lvdkufr,fqdk&if
tHkºuGr_awGjzpfay: +yD; ±_H;edrfhoGm;Ekdifw,fqdkwmudkvnf; wGufcsufrd+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? Oya'twGif;&Sd
yrnwudk r¾dKifðyxm;wJh 'Dru
kd a&pDtiftm;pktm;vH;k uvnf; ppfwyfe@J ppftyk pf u
k kd wpnf;wvH;k
xJ qef@usifae=uovdk/ ppftkyfpkudk,fwdkifrSmvnf; t+yD;owftm%modrf;yGJ qifE$Jzdk@txd tpp
toifrh jzpfao;wmudv
k nf; Adv
k cf sKyf}u;D ae0if;u tuif;yg;pGm wGucf surf +d y;D jzpfygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyf}u;D
ae0if; u aemufudkwvSrf;qkwfay;zdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufygw,f?
=o*kwv
f v$waf wmftpnf;ta0;wckrmS yrnw trwfwOD; u ‘b,fawmha&G;aumufyJG
usi;f yrvJ’ qdw
k ahJ r;cGe;f udk tcdik t
f rm xyfr+H yD;ar;ygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; &JΠrD;pdr;f jyxm;r_t&
tpdk;&tzGJŒ0ifudk,fpm;vS,f w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD; OD;csrfxGef;atmif u “1960 jynfhESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv
odk@r[kwf azazmf0g&DvrSm vkyfay;ygr,fvdk@ajzcJhygw,f? EkdifiHa&;ygwD0if tzGJŒtpnf;awG 0rf;om
oGm;=uygw,f? v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;vnf; jyefvnfjzpfay:pðyvmygw,f?
a&G;aumufyv
JG yk af y;zd@k qH;k jzwfvu
kd af yr,fh tdraf pmift
h pd;k &&JΠbufaygi;f pHk wif;wif;=uyf=uyf
usifhoHk;csKyfukdifaewJh ay:vpDawGudkawmh eJeJav;rS tav#mhray;cJhyg? pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;awGtay:
qufvuf vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;+yD; ppfwyftusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf tjrwfxkwf+rJ xkwfcJhygw,f?
246

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

tif;0b%fvyk if ef;/ =u,fig;yGio
hf abmFvyk if ef;/ ukeyf pPn;f ppfaq;a&;vkyif ef;/ aejynfawmf
ydk@aqmifa&;vkyfief;wdk@udk omru/ ±kd;ukr`%Dvkyfief;/ jrefrmjynf[dkw,frsm;vdrdwuf/ v#yfppfESifh
pufrv
_ ufru
_ rk %
` w
D @kd tjyif/ aemufq;kH rSm ausmufr;D aoGEiS hf taxGaxGu;l oef;a&mif;0,fa&;or*~
ukr`%Dvdrdwuftxd zGJŒpnf;csKyfudkif vkyfudkifcJhygw,f//
ppfa&;rSmvnf; aomif;usef;oltðywfwdkufa&;acgif;pOfeJ@ p}uFmarmif/ a[ref/ jrL/ odef;&J/
atmifvHawmf/ yHkawmif&Sif/ atmifoD[/ atmifarmfat; pwJh ppfqifa&;}uD;awG t}uD;tus,f
qifE$J±Hkru/ pdwf"mwfppfqifa&;vkyfief;awGyg t&Sdeft[kef wdk;csJŒvkyfudkifcJhygw,f? txl;ojzifh
uGejf rLepftðywfwu
kd af &;OD;wnf+yD;/ ‘"rR E &W m,f’ pdw"f mwfppfqifa&; vkyif ef;}uD;udyk g tus,jf yef@
qH;k vkyu
f ikd cf yhJ gw,f? uGejf rLepfawG[m "rRtE &W m,f awGjzpfw,f? omoemawmfukd zsuq
f ;D ae=u
w,fqdk+yD; aoaocsmcsm tuGufcs jyifqifwdkufcdkufcJhygw,f? vnfyif;awmfjywf/ OD;acgif;awmf/
rudkÉfawmfyg tvJvJ tòydòydjzpfae&wJh qif;wkawmfawGyHk/ ysufpD;a=urGae&wJh bk&m; apwD ykxdk;/
ausmif;uefawGyykH g "mwfy±kH u
kd f yH}k uD;csŒJ +yD;/ "rR E &W m,fpmapmifawG oef;cs±D u
dk Ef ydS f jzef@csad y;cJyh gw,f?
oHCmawmfawG csO;f uyf/ jynfoal wGupkd nf;±H;k v_ŒH aqmfay;+yD; ‘"rR E &W m,f’ pmapmifawGukd awmóud
òc=H um;rusef yd@k a0&if;/ "rR E &W m,f ppfqifa&;}u;D udk Edik if aH &;/ ppfa&; &nfreS ;f csuaf wGtwGuf tukef
uscHaqmif&GufcJhygw,f?
1959 ckEpS /f pufwifbmvrSm oef@&iS ;f zqyv nDvmcHrmS OD;Ek u “Ak'b
< momudk Edik if aH wmf
bmomjzpfap&rnf” vd@k t"dÏmefðya=unmwmeJ@ ppfwyf&ŒJ "rR E &W m,f ppfqifa&;[m qHpk nf;rdomG ;
ygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&u a&G;aumufyGJudk Zefe0g&Dv odk@r[kwf azazmf0g&DvrSm vkyfay;r,fvdk@
a=unmajymqd+k y;D aemufyikd ;f usi;f ywJh oef@&iS ;f nDvmcH[m vlx=k um; OD;Ek&ŒJ óuw
d ifpnf;±H;k yGw
J ckvnf;
jzpfoGm;ygw,f?
1959 ckEpS /f pufwifbm (14) &ufae@rmS wyfr;ª rsm;nDvmcHvyk yf gw,f? 17 &ufae@ nDvmcH
tpnf;ta0;rSm tdrfapmifhtpdk;&tjzpf t&yfbufXme toD;oD;rSm 0ifa&mufvkyfukdifae=uwJh
wyfrawmf xdyfoD;t&m&Sd}uD;awGu olwdk@ yg0ifvkyfukdifaqmif&Gufae=uwJh zufpyfvkyfief;/ rD;&
xm;vkyfief;/ ydk@aqmifa&;vkyfief;/ ppfbufukefpnf jzef@csda&;vkyfief;/ yifv,fa&a=umif;vkyfief;/
b%feJ@ taqmuftOD; aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfief;/ xif;qDig;ydvkyfief;/ opfxkwfvkyfief;/ aumufyJ
oD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;vkyfief;/ aq;0g;xkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;/ pufr_vufr_vkyfief;/ tvkyform;a&;&meJ@
jynfol@vkyfief;/ v#yfppf"mwftm;ay;a&;vkyfief;/ taumufcGefeJ@ qdyfurf;tkyfcsKyfa&;vkyfief;/
oabmFusi;f vkyif ef;/ ava=umif;yd@k aqmifa&;vkyif ef;/ ajrwdik ;f vkyif ef;eJ@ òrdŒ&Gmom,ma&;vkyif ef;awG
ta=umif; toD;oD; toHaumif;[pf &Sif;vif;wifjy=uygw,f? wyfrª;rsm;nDvmcHtwGif;rSmyJ
wyfrª;tcsif;csif;=um; &Sif;vif;wifjy=uwmjzpfygw,f//
axmufvrS ;f a&;udpaP qG;aEG;yG/J wyfrawmfe@J ywfouf+y;D jynfov
l x
l &k ŒJ xifjrif,q
l csurf sm;
qef;ppfa0zef aqG;aEG;yG/J wyfrawmf oabmw&m;a&; aqG;aEG;yG/J ppfAsL[maqG;aEG;yG/J }uHc› ikd af &;aqG;
aEG;yGJawGvnf; wyfwGif;rSmyJ vkyfukdifcJh=uygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

247

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

atmufwdkbm 29 / 30/ 31/ rSm r*Fvm'Hk trSwf (1) avhusifha&;cef;raqmifrSmyJ yxr
t}udraf jrmuf jynfv;kH u|w}f uHc› ikd af &;toif; tajccHOya'udk jyÏmef;csrw
S v
f u
kd w
f t
hJ jyif A[d}k uHc› ikd f
a&;aumifpDudkvnf; a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf=uygw,f?
atmufwdkbmvxJrSmyJ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;u a&G;aumufyGJrSm bufrvdkufzdk@ wyfwGif;!¸ef
=um;csuw
f ckxw
k jf yefay;ygw,f? Ek0d ifbm (9) &ufae@rmS rdwv
ˆD moGm;+yD;/ wyfr;ª tcsKd Œudk a&G;aumuf
yGJeJ@ywfoufwJh trSmpum; ajym=um;ygw,f? tJ'DajymqdkcsufawGudk wdwfacGeJ@ zrf;,lul;ap+yD;
wyfawGudk jzef@ay;ygw,f? zGifhjyapw,fvdk@qdkygw,f? rajymrjzpfvdk@ 0wfa=uwef;a=uavmuf
0denf;vGwfajymqdkcJhwmjzpfygw,f? a&G;aumufyGJvkyfay;&awmhrSm aocsmaevdk@ wcsdKŒe,fajrawG
rSm ppfwyf&JŒ 0ifa&mufpGufzufajc±_yfr_awG ajymifajymifwif;wif; ay:vmaevdk@ ajym&wmjzpfyg
w,f? wnf+rJudkyJ rJay;&r,fvdk@ajymqdkwm wcsdKŒaom trwfavmif;/ jrLeDpy,f vl}uD;avmif;awG
udk a&G;aumufyrJG 0ifz@kd +cdr;f ajcmufwm;jrpfwm/ ud,
k pf m;vS,af vmif;pm&if;uae txGucf ikd ;f / tz,f
cdik ;f wmawG vkyv
f maewJt
h wGuf rv$rJ a&Smifom vl=um;aumif;atmif ajymqdv
k m&wm jzpfygw,f?
wu,fv
h ufawGŒuawmh bmwckrt
S a&;r,lbJ v$waf y;xm;+y;D pifay:uae tomav; xdik =f unfah e
cJhygw,f?
1959 ckEpS /f 'DZifbm (19) &ufae@rmS ygvrD efuzkd suo
f rd ;f ap+y;D jynfoŒl v$waf wmfa&G;aumuf
yGJrsm;udk 1960 jynfhESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv (6) &uf/ vlrsdK;pkv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk azazmf0g&D
(29) &ufae@vdk@ owfrSwfa=umif; w&m;0if a=unmvdkufygw,f?
59 ckEpS /f 'DZifbm (21/ 22/ 23/ 24) &ufae@awGrmS &efuek òf rŒd wyfrawmfuyG±J }kH u;D rSm ‘vHòk cH
a&;aumifp’D &JŒ wwd,t}urd af jrmuf nDvmcH}u;D usi;f yygw,f? {+yv
D (21) &ufae@wek ;f u usi;f y
cJhwJh 'kwd,t}udrfajrmuf vHkòcHa&;aumifpDnDvmcHwkef;uvdk +idrf0yfydjym;a&;toHawG us,fus,f
avmifavmif rxGufvmawmhbJ a&G;aumufyGJudk b,fyHkb,fenf; usif;yay;r,fqdkwJhtoHawGu
yd+k yD; a&SŒwef;a&mufvmcJyh gw,f? 'gayr,fh tdraf pmift
h pd;k & tm%mudk vufrv$w&f ao;cif=um;
ppfwyfu pD;yGm;a&;vuf0g;}uD;tkyf vkyfief;awGudk ydk+yD; ajcvSrf;oGufoGuf qufvufcsKyfudkif vkyf
udik cf o
hJ vd/k w&m;pD&ifa&;e,fukd ydik yf ikd Ef idk Ef idk f csKyfuikd x
f m;Ekid w
f ek ;f / olw@kd pw
d óf uduf w&m;pD&ifra_ wGukd
+yD;jywfatmif vkyfaqmifcJhygw,f? &mZ0wfjypfr_awGudk jypf'%fay;&mrSm aemif=uOf&efESifh tjypf
'%fukd xda&mufpmG ay;&efqw
kd hJ aqmify'k u
f kd vufuikd ðf y+yD; zrf;qD;rdxm;wJh ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwD
A[dkaumfrwD0if Adkvfrª;cspfaumif;tr_udk ao'%ftay;cdkif;cJhygw,f? 'DZifbm (14) &ufae@rSm
Adkvfrª;cspfaumif; udk w&m;±Hk;u ao'%fpD&ifcsuf cscJhygw,f?
tdraf pmift
h pd;k &[m ppftpd;k &jzpfwt
hJ wdik ;f ppfwyf&ŒJ cdik rf mawmifw
h if;r_ukd tav;xm;+yD;
bufaygif;pHkuae ppfwyfcdkifrmawmifhwif;a&;udk tpGrf;ukef azmfaqmifcJhygw,f? tdrfapmifhtpdk;&
umvtwGif;rSm ppfwyf&JŒ vufeufudkiftiftm; wdk;csJŒa&;omru ppfvufeufypPnf; acwfrSDwdk;
wufa&;awGuykd g tav;xm;vkyaf qmifcyhJ gw,f? taemuf*smreDEidk if H z&pf0gemukr%
` eD @J pmcsKyfcsKyf
qdk0,f,lcJh+yD; wnfaqmufxm;wJh vufeufpuf±Hkuae vufeufeJ@ usnfqHrsm;udkvnf; wdk;wuf
xkwfvkyfcJhygw,f? 58§59 b¾ma&;ESpftwGif; usnfqH (7) odef;cGJ xkwfvkyfEkdif&muae 59§60
rSm (2) oef;ausmftxd xkwfvkyfEkdifzdk@ tqifoifh jzpfcJhygw,f? ppfvufeufqdkif&m ynmawmfoif
248

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

awGtjzpf wyfwGif;uae a&G;cs,f+yD; tpPa&;/ *smreDeJ@ t*Fvefwdk@udk ydk@v$wfynmoifapcJhygw,f?
DSI, BEDC wdk@uaewqifh ppfwyfydkif t&if;tESD;udk e,fy,faygif;pHkrSm wdk;csJŒapEkdifcJh+yD;
pD;yGm;a&;t&vnf; csKyfuikd v
f r$ ;f rd;k Ekid af tmif aqmif&u
G Ef idk cf yhJ gw,f? pD;yGm;a&;t& ppfwyft&if;tES;D
udk twdkif;twmwcktxd atmifjrifatmif pkaqmif;rd+yD;jzpfygw,f?
tkyfcsKyfa&;t&vnf; tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxuftwGif; t&yfbuf±Hk;Xme bkwfaumfydka&;
&Sif;awGtm;vHk; ppftkyfpk0if ppft&m&Sd}uD;awG tay:pD;uae 0ifa&mufae&m,l tkyfpD;cJh=u+yD;/
tkyfcsKyfa&;tawGŒtóuHudk avhusifhprf;oyfcJh=u+yD; jzpfygw,f? udk,fhudk,fudkvnf; tkyfcsKyfwwf+yD
vdk@ rSwf,lawG;xifcJh=uygw,f?
jynfov
l x
l u
k awmh ppfwyf&ŒJ tm%mðyr_trsKd ;rsKd ;/ wif;=uyf zdEydS rf _ tzHzk /kH 'Dru
kd a&pDtcGihf
ta&;qHk;±_H;&r_ tvDvDtjyif/ }uH›cdkifa&;qdkolawG&JŒ zdpD;ESdyfpufr_awGudkyg tqpf&&SdvdkufwJhtwGuf
ppfwyfukd trkef;}uD;rkef;+yD; ppftkyfcsKyfr_udk t&GH}uD; &GHcJhygw,f?
Ekid if aH &;tuif;yg;wJh OD;Ek u a&G;aumufy}JG uD;twGuf rJq,
G pf nf;±k;H r_ukd vkyw
f t
hJ cg ‘'Dru
kd
a&pDudk a&G;rSmvm;/ zufqpfudka&G;rSmvm;’ qdkwJhar;cGef;udk jynfolvlxkESvHk;om;xJ xnfhay;vdkuf
ygw,f?
59 ckEpS /f pufwifbm oef@&iS ;f nDvmcHwek ;f uvnf; OD;Eku “Ak'b
< momudk Ekid if aH wmfbmom
jzpfap&rnf” vd@k ajymcJzh ;l wm&Sw
d t
hJ wGuf Ak'b
< mom0ifO;D a&trsm;qH;k jzpfwhJ Armjynfov
l x
l }k uD;&JŒ
trsm;wum trsm;pk}uD;u OD;Ek tay: pdwf!Gwfae=uqJtcsdefrSm 'Drdkua&pD eJ@ zufqpf b,f[m
a&G;rvJvdk@ ta&G;cdkif;vdkufawmhOD;Ek &JŒ rJqG,fpnf;±Hk;a&;t&Sdef[m xdyfuajy;aeygawmhw,f?
aqG+idrf; wnf+rJtzGJŒu OD;Ek [m bmoma&;udk EkdifiHa&;twGuf tjrwfxkwfaeygw,fvdk@
pGyfpGJwdkufcdkuf=uayr,fh OD;Ek u tomuav;ykwf+yD; a&Smifwdrf;jyvdkufygw,f? ‘EkdifiHawmfbmom
a&;udk a&G;aumufyrJG mS xnfrh ajymyg? a&G;aumufyeJG @J a0;cJph Ofuwnf;u oef@&iS ;f zqyv&JΠvkyif ef;
pOfw&yftjzpf vufcHcJhjcif;jzpfygw,fh?” vdk@ acsyjyvdkufygw,f?
oef@&iS ;f nDvmcHrmS Ak'b
< mom Edik if aH wmfbmomðya&;udpP OD;Ek pwifajymuxJu ‘wnf+rJ’
u ‘bmomckw;kH ’ qdw
k phJ mtkyef @J OD;Ek ukd wdu
k cf yhJ gao;w,f? 'gayr,fh OD;Ek udk Ekid af tmifrwdu
k Ef ikd cf yhJ g?
OD;Ek u e,fpnf;±Hk;a&;awGudk urBmat;apwD Z&yfawGtwGif; ac:,loifwef;ay;ygw,f?
ig;yg;oDvapmifhxdef;=uzdk@ &Gma&muf&if vl}uD;olr oHCmawmfawG OD;cdkuf=uzdk@ wzGzGrSmwmvkyfyg
w,f? pnf;±H;k a&;rª;awGu OD;Ek oifwef;ay;wJt
h wdik ;f aqmif&u
G =f uwJt
h wGuf &yf&mG &Sd vl}uD;ol}uD;
rsm;eJ@ oHCmawmfawG[m tvdkavsmuf OD;Ek &JŒ pnf;±Hk;a&;rª;awGozG,f jzpfvm=uw,f?
bmoma&; eJ@ wdkuf±dkufywfoufwJh EkdifiHa&;ygwDw&yfawmif ArmjynfEkdifiHa&;e,frSm
awmif ay:aygufcJhzl;ygw,f? qmtrfat OD;armif}uD; OD;aqmifwJh “Ak'<0g' jynfolŒqENtzGJŒcsKyf”
qdkwmjzpfygw,f? ygwD&JŒtajccHvrf;pOfrSmudk “Ak'<bmomudk EkdifiHawmfbmomtjzpf jyÏmef;a&;”
vdk@ owfrSwfv_yf&Sm;cJhayr,fh OD;Ek avmufatmifjrifr_ r&cJhyg?
OD;Ek udk xdk;ESufwdkufcdkuf&if; OD;ausmf+idrf; u EkdifiHa&;orm;awG[m ig;yg;oDvapmifh
xde;f zd@k rvdq
k w
kd hJ oabmrsKd ;ajymrdygw,f? OD;Ek wk@d oef@&iS ;f u OD;ausm+f ird ;f &JΠpum;udk csuaf umif;,l+y;D
OD;ausm+f ird ;f udk ‘'kov
D ’ tjzpf jypfwifa0zef wke@f jyefygw,f? OD;ausm+f ird ;f u tcsed rf aD jz&Si;f ayr,fh
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

249

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

rajyrvnfawmhbJ OD;Ek udk w&m;apmifhol/ OD;ausmf+idrf; wdk@udk w&m;uif;oltjzpf ydkrdkjrifvm
=uygw,f?
OD;AaqG u a&G;aumufyGJrSm aqG+idrf; wdk@‘Ekdifv#ifvnf;Edkifrnf/ ±H_;v#ifvnf;Edkifrnf’ vdk@
ajymvmwJhtwGuf OD;Ek u csufcsif;zGifhcs+yD; tuGufusus xdk;ESufwkef@jyefEkdifcJhygw,f? Adkvfcifarmif
uav; tyg wnf+rJ acgif;aqmiftcsKdŒu ppfwyfudk ‘'dk@vlawG’ qdkwJhoabmeJ@ *dkufcHajyma[m=u
av/ ppfwyfudkrkef;wD;ae=uwJh jynfolvlxkt=um; wnf+rJ[m txdemavjzpfvmygw,f? Adkvfcif
armifuav; udk aAGr,l=uygeJ@/ Adkvfcifarmifuav; pum;wcGef;ajymav/ oef@&Sif;twGuf rJawGt
rsm;}uD;&avvd@k awmif OD;Ek u rSwcf suðf y ajymqdv
k mwJt
h xd wnf+rJ acgi;f aqmifawG rJq,
G pf nf;±H;k
a&;pGrf;&nf 'va[musqif;vmygw,f? ppfwyfukd vlxkurkef;av/ wnf+rJ udkvnf; vlxku
tjrifuyfvmav jzpfvmygw,f?
wnf+rJvdkvm;ol wyfrawmftwGif; t&m&Sd}uD;i,fawGu oef@&Sif;&JŒ pnf;±Hk;a&;wufvm
av a'golykefx=uavjzpfvmygw,f? ajymifajymifwif;wif;bufvdkufwmawG ay:vmygw,f//
vufeufudkifrsm;yDyD t=urf;zuf+cdrf;ajcmuf pGufzufwmawGvkyfvmygw,f?
a&G;aumufyGJem;eD;vmav bufvdkufwJhowif;/ ppfwyf&JΠt=urf;zuf+cdrf;ajcmufwJh
owif;awG rsm;vmavjzpfcJhygw,f? aemufqHk;rSm EdkifiHawmforw}uD;udk,fwdkifu “orw}uD;&JŒ
rJqENe,f udk,fwdkifrSmyif bufvdkufr_ +cdrf;ajcmufr_rsm;ay:aeI tjcm;e,frsm;rSm awG;0Hhp&myifr&Sd
awmh/ w&m;r#wr_jzpfatmif aqmif&u
G af y;yg?” qd+k yD; Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;xH pma&;+yD; ta=umif;=um;
&wJt
h xdjzpfvmygw,f? Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; uawmh bufrvdu
k af &;rde@f ceG ;f udk ppfwyftwGi;f &Daumf
'g}u;D eJ@ zGit
hf jycdik ;f wmuvGv
J @kd bmrS xdxad &mufa&muf raqmif&u
G b
f J pifay:uae =unfah ecJyh gw,f?
'DZifbm (29) &ufae@rSm/ udkudk;u|ef;u EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG jynfr jyefa&mufvmcJhyg
w,f? tif;pdeaf xmif/ &efuek af xmifw@kd rmS cGx
J m;ygw,f? a&G;aumufy0JG ifa&muf,OS òf ydiv
f o
kd al wGukd
axmifxJuae trwfavmif;pm&if; wifcGifhay;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh axmifxJuae trwfavmif;pm
&if;wifco
hJ al wGvnf; &Scd yhJ gw,f? woD;yk*v
~ trwfavmif;tjzpf pm&if;wifoal wG xGuaf y:vmcJyh g
w,f? Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm u =unfjh rifwikd rf q
J ENe,fuae woD;yk*v
~ trwftjzpf pm&if;wifygw,f?
a&G;aumufyGJa=unmcsufawG yvlysHovdk xGufay:vmcJhygw,f?
wnf+ru
J oef@&iS ;f udk tykycf swu
kd cf u
kd af yr,f/h rJq,
G pf nf;±H;k a&;vkyif ef;rSm oef@&iS ;f aemufu
aemufa,mifcHvdkufae&ovdkjzpfcJh&ygw,f? Ak'<bmom EkdifiHawmfbmomjzpfa&;udpPrSm wnf+rJu
qef@usifcJhw,fqdkayr,fh aemufqHk;rSmawmh “jynfolvlxkuvdkvm;&ifawmh aqmif&Gufay;r,fvdk@
oabmxm;a=umif;” qdk+yD; avajyxdk;cJhygw,f?
wnf+rJ&JΠa&G;aumufyGJ a=unmpmwrf;rSm uwdawG a0a0qmqmay;+yD; rJqG,fcJhygw,f?
trawmfa=u;ESpfqwdk;ay;r,f? tcGefaumufcHjcif;udk av#mhcsr,f? tv,fwef;ausmif;vc
vGwrf nf? txufwef;eJ@ wuUov
kd v
f nf; wpwp vcuif;vGwaf p&r,f? 0efxrf;rsm;b0 vHòk cHa&;
udk apmifah &Smufay;rnf? 'Dru
kd a&pDxeG ;f um;a&; tpGr;f ukeóf ud;yrf;rnfv@kd azmfjy rufv;kH ay;cJyh gw,f?
OD;Ek &JŒ oef@&iS ;f uawmh “'Dru
kd a&pDuakd &G;rSmvm;/ zufppfpepfuakd &G;rSmvm;” qdw
k mudyk J ta&G;cdik ;f cJh
250

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

+yD; cJwvHk;xJeJ@ iSufESpfaumifypfEdkifcJhygw,f? zufppfqdkwm wnf+rJaqG+idrf;tkyfudk &nf!¸ef;ovdk
vdkeJ@ ppfwyfukd OD;wnf+yD;om;jzpfoGm;ygw,f? vlxkóudufjzpfoGm;ygw,f?
yrnw tzGŒJ }u;D u (yrnw/ oef@&iS ;f / wnf+r)J !¸eaf ygi;f tpd;k &zGŒJ a&;wifygw,f? 'gayr,fh
OD;Ek &JŒ b,fvrf;udka&G;rSmvJqdkwJh ar;cGef;aºuG;a=umfoHudk wdk;razmufEdkifawmhyg?
vlxk&JŒ ppfwyftay: cg;oD;r_udk &dyfpm;rdvmwJh wnf+rJu aemufqHk;óud;yrf;csuftaeeJ@
“ppfwyfvkyfwm wdk@ESifhrqdkif/ ppfwyfudk ppfwef;vsm;rsm;odk@ jyefydk@rnf?” vdk@ vlxkóuduf ajymif;vJ
aºuG;a=umf =unfhcJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh r&awmh? vlxku ppfwyfeJ@ wnf+rJ/ wnf+rJeJ@ ppfwyf/ '*F g;wck
&JΠacgif; eJ@ yef;tjzpfyJ em;vnfcH,lxm;vdkuf=u+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? wnf+rJtzdk@ tajctaeodyf
raumif;Edkifawmhwmudk jrLeDpy,fa&G;aumufyGJawGu edrdwfjyvmygw,f? ygvDrefa&G;aumuf
yGJawGrSm wnf+rJvl}uD;awG cGufcGufvefatmif ±H_;edrfhcJhygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; uawmh ordik ;f 0ifaqmif&u
G cf su}f uD;wckukd atmifjrifpmG aqmif&u
G Ef ikd cf hJ
w,fv@kd emrnfaumif;,l *k%,
f 0l ifºh uGm;Edik zf @kd “w±kw-f Arme,ferd w
d f oabmwlpmcsKyf” tjrefq;kH
csKyfqdk+yD;ajrmufEdkifa&;udk wufokwf±dkuf aqmif&Gufygw,f? w±kwf0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvdkif; u 1959
ckESpf/ 'DZifbm (22) &ufae@rSm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;&JΠoabmwlnDcsufpmcsKyf csKyfqdka&;ay;pm
tay: jyefvnfjyef=um;pmay;ydk@ygw,f?
pmxJrSm 1960 jynfh/ Zefe0g&DvtwGif; yDuif;udkta&mufvmzdk@ zdwf=um;vdkufygw,f?
Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; u Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;/ Edik if aH wmfa&SŒaecsKyf/ 'kw,
d umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf wd@k yg0ifwhJ
aumfrpf&SifzGJŒ+yD; Zefe0g&Dv (23) &ufae@rSm yDuif;udkoGm;ygw,f? Zefe0g&Dv (28) &ufae@rSm
“w±kwf-jrefrm ESpfEkdifiH e,ferdwfoabmwlpmcsKyf” ukd w&m;0ifvufrSwfa&;xdk; csKyfqdkvdkuf=uyg
w,f? wu,fu 1954 ckESpfuxJu OD;Ek pwifcJh+yD; 56/ 57 ESpfckESpftwGif; OD;Ek/ OD;AaqG wdk@
0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvdkif;eJ@ qufvuf aqG;aEG; oabmwlnDcJh=uwJh tajccHtcsuftvufawGtay:
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;u emrnfaumif;,l csKyfqdkvdkufwJh oabmwlnDcsufpmcsKyfjzpfygw,f?
zDarmf/ a*:vH/ uefzef&GmoHk;&GmudpPa=umifh OD;Ek/ OD;AaqGwdk@vufxufawGtwGif; t+yD;
tjywf pmcsKyfrcsKyfqdkEdkifao;bJ tr#ifwef; usefae&cJhwJhudpPudk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;u vufpowf
ay;oGm;wmjzpfygw,f? &GmoHk;&Gmukday;&&if olukd,fwdkif vufeufukdifwdkufr,fvdk@ aºuG;a=umfuef@
uGucf w
hJ hJ OD;Zefxm;qif udk Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; u ac:,lnE‡d id_ ;f wdik yf ifjcif;awmifrðybJ/ vkyaf qmifomG ;
cJhygw,f// OD;Zefxm;qif +idrfoufoGm;cJh&ygw,f?
1957 ckESpfu w±kwf0ef}uD;csKyf csLtifvdkif;u tqdkðycJh+yD;/ OD;Ek u ESpfEkdifiHe,fedrdwf
oabmwlnDr_ pmcsKyf csKyfqdk+yD;rS vufrSwfa&;xdk;csifw,fvdk@ ajym=um;cJhzl;wJh w±kwf-jrefrm
cspf=unfa&;eJ@ wOD;ay:wOD; rusL;ausmfa&;pmcsKyfukdvnf; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;u ol 0ef}uD;csKyfb0
twGif;rSm emrnfaumif;&zdk@ wufokwf±dkuf+yD; csKyfqdkcJhygw,f?

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

251

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

19
60 jynfhESpfa&G;aumufyGJ/ yxp/ OD;= Adkvf= ocif= q&m eJ‹ ygvDrefacwfae0ifcsdef
1960
jref r mEd k i f i H a wmf &J Πtajctae
1960 jynfhESpf/ azazmf0g&D (6) &ufae@rSm jynfolŒv$wfawmftwGuf ygvDreftaxGaxG
a&G;aumufyGJ}uD; usif;yay:aygufvmygw,f?
oef@&Sif;/ wnf+rJ/ yrnw wdk@&JŒ t}udwfte,f ,SOfòydifyGJ}uD;ozG,f jzpfcJhayr,fh/ t"du
tm;jzifhawmh oef@&Sif;eJ@ wnf+rJwdk@&JŒ tòydiftqdkif AdkvfvkyGJ}uD;o¿mef ydk+yD;ay:vGifcJhygw,f? 'Da&G;
aumufyGJ}uD;rSm Adkvfrª;csKyfa[mif; ausmfaZm wdk@vdk woD;yk*~vrsm;vnf; yg0if,SOfòydif ta&G;cHcJhyg
w,f? yrnw u wcsdKŒrJqENe,fawGrSm yrnw ydkifwJh rJawGudkawmif oef@&Sif;trwfavmif;udk
ay;zd@k v_ŒH aqmfwu
kd w
f eG ;f ay;cJyh gw,f? rJqENe,f (135) e,favmufrmS yJ 0ifa&muf,OS òf ydif ta&G;cs,f
cHcJhygw,f?
a&G;aumufyGJrwdkifcif rJqG,fyGJawGrSm OD;Ek u 'Drdkua&pDudkom zd+yD;aºuG;a=umfcJhygw,f?
'Dru
kd a&pDuakd &G;rSmvm;/ zufqpfpepfuakd &G;rSmvm;/ 'Dru
kd a&pDujkd rwfE;dk &if “toJ=um;urJwjym;udk
oef@&Sif;udkay;=uyg” vdk@ rJawmif;cJhygw,f?
t&ifa&G;aumufyGJawGwkef;uvdk zqyv taeeJ@ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;yHkudk toHk;ðycGifhr&
awmhwJhtwGuf oef@&Sif;u OD;Ek"mwfyHkudk rJyHk;trSwftom;tjzpf toHk;ðyygw,f? oef@&Sif;ua&G;
cs,v
f u
kd w
f t
hJ a&mifuvnf; &[ef;oHCmóuduo
f moema&mif ‘t0ga&mif’ jzpfygw,f? t0ga&mif
aemufcHay:rSm OD;Ek u !dk@"mwfygwJhtòyH;eJ@ tm;vHk;udkòyH;jyaecJhygw,f?
wnf+rJu a&G;aumufyGJa=unmcsufxkwf+yD; rpm;&0cref; rufvHk;awGay;ayr,fh oef@&Sif;
aemufuyJ uyfvdkufaecJh&+yD; vlxk}uD;&JŒ tjrifr=unfvifr_udkom &aecJhygw,f? OD;AaqG&JŒ “rJay;
rSm;v#if rar#mfvifhwJh tajctaeqdk;awG awGŒ&r,f? ±H_;v#ifvnf;Edkif/ Edkifv#ifvnf;Edkif&rnf” qdkwJh
a[mvH;k awGa=umifh oef@&iS ;f Edik v
f #if wyf0ifvmOD;r,fh oabmajymqdrk a_ wGa=umifh ppfwyfudk rke;f ae
wJhvlxku wnf+rJudkvnf; rkef;ae=uygw,f? wnf+rJu teDa&mifudk a&G;cs,fcJhygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;u bufrvdkufzdk@ wm;qD;xm;wJh wdyfacGawGudk ppfwyftwGif; zGifhjycJhay
r,fh ppfwyfe@J wyfr;ª }uD;i,frsm;pGm[m rJqENe,fy,frsm;pGmrSm ay:ay:xifxif bufvu
kd cf yhJ gw,f?
wjynfv;kH rJqEN&iS af ygi;f (9958675) OD;twGuf rJ±akH ygi;f (7000) ausm/f tpd;k &0efxrf;aygi;f
(42000)udk wm0efcsxm;ay;cJah yr,fh ae&mtrsm;pkrmS ppfwyfe@J &Jwyfukd wm0efcsxm;ay;cJyh gw,f?
ppfwyfubufvu
kd w
f hJ ae&ma'oawGrmS rJy;kH azmufwmawG/ wnf+rJukd rJxnfch ikd ;f wmawG/
oef@&Sif;eJ@ yrnwudk rJray;0HatmifvkyfwmawG enf;aygif;pHknpfenf; ya'omusifhoHk;cJhygw,f?
Oyrmtm;jzifh a0gòrdŒe,f aemifrwW&maus;&GmrSm rJq,
G w
f &m;a[maewH;k ppfwyfu [,fvaD umfy
wmeJ@ qif;vm+yD; em;axmifaeolawGudk 0if±dkufcJhygw,f? rJeD&ifeD/ reD&if w&GmvHk;eDoGm;r,fvdk@
+cdrf;ajcmufwmawGvkyfcJhygw,f?
ausmufq,fbufu &Gmw&GmrSm v#dKŒ0Sufum&Hxm;wJh tumt&HawGudk zGifhypf+yD; rJyHk;udk
ajymifxkwf+yD; ppfwyfa&SŒrSm tay;cdkif;cJhygw,f?
252

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

awmifiel ,fbufrmS rJxnf+h yD;csed af vmufrmS ppfwyfu rJ±akH wGtay: vlawGtay: aoewf
eJ@ ausmfypf0ifa&mufvm=u+yD; rJawGudk caygif;acsmif;xJarsmypfwmawGvkyfygw,f?
ae&mtcsKd ŒrSm ppfwyfu rJy;kH awGuakd zmufwt
hJ cg 0uftv
l n
S ahf wmifroH;k bJ bufeufe@J x;kd
azmuf+yD; rJawGudk xifovdkvkyfcJh=uwmawG ay:cJhygw,f? ppfwyfu wnf+rJbufu yif;+yD; b,f
avmufnpfywfnpfywf ppfwyfukd rkef;aewJhvlxk}uD;u ppftpdk;&atmuf ausmaumhatmifcHcJh=u
&wJv
h x
l }k uD;u OD;Ek&ŒJ a&$0ga&mify;kH xJukd óuH;+yD; rJawGxnfch =hJ uygw,f? rJawGuo
JG mG ;rSmpd;k wJt
h wGuf
oef@&Sif;udkyJ zdxnfh=uwJhtwGuf Adkvfrª;csKyfa[mif;ausmfaZmvdkyk*~dKvfawmif oef@&Sif;udk±H_;cJh&yg
w,f? ‘yrnw’ awmif wae&mrS r&awmhavmufatmif tuG}J uD;uG+J yD; t±_;H }uD; ±H;_ oGm;&ygw,f?
wjynfvHk;rSm oef@&Sif;u atmifyGJcHoGm;cJhygw,f? xGufay:vmwJh&vm'fuawmh oef@&Sif;trwf
(159)
wnf+rJtrwf
(42)
yrnw
wOD;rSr&
&cdkif
(6)
rGef
(3)
csif;
(3)
u,m;
(2)
&Srf;
(23) OD;wdk@jzpfygw,f?
oef@&Sif;u tjywftowf tEdkif&&SdoGm;±Hkomru/ v$wfawmftwGif;rSm b,ftwdkuftcH
udkrS *±krpdkufbJ tppt&m&m rJtiftm;tomeJ@ tEdkif,lausmfv$m;oGm;EdkifwJh tajctaejzpfyg
w,f? wnf+rJacgi;f aqmif}uD; emrnfausmf OD;ausm+f idr;f qd&k if ocifwife@J ,SOòf ydi&f if; trwfawmif
jzpfrvmawmhbJ ±H_;edrfhoGm;&ygw,f?
vlxk}uD;u ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk rvdkcsifa=umif;/ jyif;xefwJh 'Drdkua&pDqENudk yGifhyGifhvif;
vif;azmfjyvdkuf=uygw,f? 'ga=umifh a&G;aumufyGJv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk Adkvfrª;csKyfa[mif;ausmfaZm eJ@
Adkvfrif;acgifwdk@u “vufeufrJhawmfvSefa&;” vdk@ t"dy`g,fzGifhqdkvdkufygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&&JŒ aemufqHk;óud;yrf;csufwckuawmh 1960 jynfhESpfxJrSm u&ifvufeuf
udkifawmfvSefa&;tiftm;pk}uD;&JŒ OD;pD;OD;aqmif autef,l (KNU) tzGJŒ}uD;eJ@ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;
twGuf v#dKŒ0Suf awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;jcif;yJjzpfygw,f?
vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkawGtwGif;rSm tiftm;t}uD;qHk; tzGJŒ}uD;awGtjzpf
wnf&Sdaewmu ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ autef,ltzGJŒ}uD;jzpfwJhtwGuf uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;
wdu
k yf u
JG kd OD;wnftaumiftxnfazmfEikd zf @kd autif,u
l kd zJx
h w
k pf nf;±H;k =unfw
h o
hJ abmjzpfygw,f?
t"du&efol[m uGefjrLepfjzpfw,fvdk@ owfrSwf+yD;/ uGefjrLepfacsr_ef;a&;udk tav;wif;vkyfEdkifzdk@
autef,u
l kd zJx
h w
k pf nf;±H;k =unfw
h mjzpfygw,f? autef,u
l tdraf pmift
h pd;k &&JΠjynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f
a&;wnfaqmuf&ef urf;vSr;f csuu
f kd vufc+H yD; ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f zGŒJ a&G;cs,af pv$wcf yhJ gw,f? awGŒqHk
aqG;aEG;zdk@ teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

253

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

(1) AdkvfcsKyfaumfxl; (AdkvfcsKyf ausmfjroef;)
(2) paumfv,fawm
(3) z'dk zdk;anm
(4) Adv
k u
f siaf z
(5) Adkvfjrpdef - wdk@yg0ifwJhudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ v#dKŒ0Sufa&muf&SdcJhygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&bufu (1) Adkvfrª;csKyf atmif}uD;
(2) Adkvfrª;csKyf armifarmif
(3) Adkvfrª;csKyf atmifa&$ - wdk@
acgif;aqmifaqG;aEG;cJhygw,f? AdkvfbjzL/ AdkvfpH=unf/ AdkvfarmifvGif wdk@u avhvmolrsm;
tjzpf wufa&mufcJhygw,f?
autef,lbufu wef;wla&;eJ@ udk,fydkifjyÏmef;cGifh&,f/ u&ifjynfe,fay;a&;&,fudk &yfcH
awmif;qdkygw,f? ppfwyfbufu u&ifjynfe,fta&;eJ@ywfouf+yD; v$wfawmftwGif;rSmyJ quf
vufawmif;qdkwdkufyGJ0if=uzdk@ "mwfjym;a[mif;}uD;udkom jyefzGifhjycJhygw,f?
tpd;k &bufu u&ifvufeufuikd w
f yfrawmfxm;&Sad &;eJ@ ywfouf+yD;/ vufeufuikd w
f yfrsm;
rS vufeufudkifxm;+yD;/ acgif;aqmifrsm;rS vufeufcsonfhoabmrsdK; vufeuftenf;i,fay;zdk@
awmif;qdkygw,f? u&ifjynfta&;eJ@ u&ifvufeufudkifxm;&Sda&;wdk@twGuf (4) }udrfwdkifwdkif aqG;
aEG;=uayr,fh ratmifjrifbJ ysuo
f mG ;cJ&h ygw,f? t"duuawmh ppftpd;k &&JΠoabmxm;rrSerf a_ =umifh
awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;yGJ ysufoGm;cJh&wmjzpfygw,f?
wu,fu tdrfapmifhtpdk;&[m ppfrSefwJh+idrf;csrf;a&;udk vdkvm;vdk@ autef,leJ@ aqG;aEG;cJh
wmr[kwfbJ uGefjrLepfwckxJudk OD;wnfEdkifzdk@ autef,ludk em;csac|;odyfxm;+yD;/wyfrawmfu
emrnfaumif;,lum wcsufckwf ESpfcsufjywf }uHpnfcJhwmomjzpfygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&&JŒ wav#mufvHk; ppfa&;t& óud;yrf;oGm;csufuawmh t"duEkdifiHa&;òydif
buf ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygweD @J wuG vufeufuikd t
f iftm;pkreS o
f r#ukd tðywfwu
kd af csre_ ;f okwo
f if
oGm;Edik af &;omjzpfygw,f? tdraf pmift
h pd;k &&JΠoufwrf; (17) vausmt
f wGi;f rSm ppfwyf[m ppfqif
a&;}uD; (108) }udrf/ a'oE W&ppfqifa&; (323) }udrf qifE$JcJh+yD;/ wdkufyGJ}uD; (386) yGJ/ wdkufyGJi,f
(2743) yGJ wdkufcdkufcJhwmudk =unfhjcif;tm;jzifh odomxif&Sm;ae+yDjzpfygw,f?
1960 jynfEh pS f {+yDv (4) &ufae@rmS tdraf pmift
h pd;k &[m a&G;aumufy}JG uD;rSm tjywftowf
tEkdif&&SdcJhwJh oef@&Sif;zqyv tzGJŒ}uD;udk tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;tyfygw,f? {+yDv (4) &ufae@
jynfolŒv$wfawmfu OD;Ekudk 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡ufvdkufygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek
acgif;aqmifwJh tpdk;&tzGJŒay:aygufvmjyefygw,f? OD;Eku tpdk;&tzGJŒudk t&ifwkef;uvdk }uD;}uD;
rzGŒJ bJ i,fi,fyJ zGŒJ vdu
k yf gw,f? 'kw,
d 0ef}u;D csKyfawmif rxm;awmhovdk 0ef}u;D awGuv
kd nf; w0uf
ausmfru av#mhcszGJŒpnf;vdkufygw,f? aiGa&;a=u;a&;tukeftus oufomatmif zGJŒpnf;w,fvdk@
qdkygw,f? zqyv ruGJcifu (csif;a&;&meJ@ jynfe,f0ef}uD;awGryg) 0ef}uD; (26)OD;/ ygvDref twGif;
0ef (32) OD;&SdcJhygw,f?
254

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;rSm OD;Ek[m ‘oef@&Sif;zqyvudk’ vnf; jynfaxmifpkygwD (yxp) qdk+yD;
jyefvnfzGJŒpnf;cJhygw,f? “'Drdkua&pDxlaxmifa&;[m u|efawmfwdk@twGuf t"duta&;qdkwm
xif&Sm;apcsifwJhtwGuf zqyv tzGJŒa[mif;udkzsuf+yD; ‘jynfaxmifpk’ tzGJŒopfudk zGJŒpnf;vdkuf
a=umif;” vdk@ OD;Eku &Sif;vif;ajymqdkygw,f? ‘zqyv’ qdkwJh trnfa[mif;udk wnf+rJudk tarGay;
vdkuf+yD; jynfaxmifpkygwDudk zGJŒpnf;vdkuf+yDjzpfwJhtwGuf OD;Ek OD;aqmif zGJŒpnf;ay:aygufvmcJhwJh
tpdk;&udkvnf; ‘jynfaxmifpktpdk;&’ odk@r[kwf ‘yxptpdk;&’ vdk@trnfwGifapcJhygw,f?
{+yDv (4) &ufae@rmS yxptpd;k &tjzpf tm%mudv
k aJ$ jymif;&,lt+yD;/ {+yDv (5) &ufae@rmS
OD;Ekutpdk;&&JŒ rl0g'udkv$wfawmfrSm &Sif;vif; ¹rGwf=um;wm vkyfygw,f?
“OuUÏ}uD;cifAsm; jynfaxmifpyk gw[
D m v$waf wmfxrJ mS trwftiftm;trsm;qH;k &&Sad ewJh
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hJ (hJ 10)ESpw
f ;kH u tckvykd J tckvykd J trwftiftm; trsm;qH;k &&Scd w
hJ hJ ygw}D uD;
&JŒtrSm;rsKd ;awG jyefrvkyrf ad tmif tm;xkwrf ,fv@kd oHEÏMd mefcsxm;ygw,f” vd@k a=unmoGm;ygw,f?
v$wfawmfwGif;rSm twdkuftcHygwDae&m a&mufoGm;&wmu wnf+rJzqyv jzpfygw,f?
wnf+rJtrwf ocifomcifukd twdu
k t
f cHacgi;f aqmiftjzpf owfrw
S +f yD; 0ef}uD;wOD;&JΠ&ydik cf iG t
hf wdik ;f
ay;tyfygw,f? v$waf wmfrmS yJ Edik if aH wmf0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Eku Oya' y"mew&m;}uD;udk qufvuf¹rGuf
=um;cJhygw,f?
yrnw u owif;pmuGefz&ifhvkyf+yD; OD;Ek&JŒ ygvDrefrdef@cGef;yg 'Drdkua&pDuwdrsm;udk óudqdk
a=umif;? jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; tpd;k &u ygww
D &m;0ifciG efh @J oify;kH acs vGw+f idr;f csr;f om
cGiahf y;&ef/ olyek rf sm;u vufeufpeG @f +yD; Oya'abmifxu
J vky&f efvakd =umif; ponfjzifah jymqdyk gw,f?
OD;Eku v$wfawmfrSm olŒ&JŒrdef@cGef;tay: a0zefcsufawGudk ajz=um;&mrSm “aomif;usef;ol
awGeJ@ b,fawmhrS raphpyf/ olwdk@u vufeufcs0ifvm&if 'Drdkua&pDay;&r,f? olwdk@[m &efolawG
r[kwfbl;? v$wf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhay;zdk@udpPudkawmh twdkuftcHawGeJ@wdkifyif+yD; vkyfyghr,f” vdk@ ajz
=um;ygw,f? t&ifueJ@pm&if aemufawmifjyefqkwfoGm;ovdkjzpfygw,f? OD;Ek[m {+yDv (5) &uf
ae@rSm tpdk;&rl0g'udk wifjya=unm+yD;wmeJ@wqufxJrSm 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHwnfaxmifzdk@ aumfrDwD
awGzGJŒygw,f? t+idrf;pm;orw a'gufwmbOD; acgif;aqmifwJh (5) OD; t}uHay;tzGJŒudk zGJŒpnf;cJhyg
w,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfu Edik if o
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kd aumiftxnfazmf&rvJqw
kd m
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jzpfygw,f?
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f m Ekid if aH wmfbmom jyÏmef;&efoifrh oifh pHpk rf;wifjy&efr[kwb
f J
jyÏmef;oifah =umif; rltjzpf qH;k jzwfxm;+yD;om;jzpfaewmudk b,fvjkd yÏmef;&rvJ tjzpfom avhvm
wifjyzdk@ jzpfaeygw,f?
tkyfcsKyfa&;,E W&m;udk b,fvdkðyjyifoifhw,f? 0efxrf;rsm;twGuf b,fvdkpnf;urf;awG
xm;oifhw,f? bmtmrcHcsufawG ay;oifhw,fqdkwmtwGufvnf; avhvmzdk@ aumfrD&SifzGJŒay;yg
w,f? aumfrD&Sifu urBmhEdkifiHawGudk vSnfhvnfavhvm+yD; tpD&ifcHpm wif&rSmjzpfygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

255

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

ygvDref'Drdkua&pD xGef;um;a&;twGufvnf; ygwDaygif;pHkyg0ifwJh aumfrwDzGJŒay;ygw,f?
pD;yGm;a&; (4) ESpf pDrHudef;a&;qGJzdk@vnf; aumfrDwDzGJŒygw,f?
1960jynfh {+yD (5) &uf 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek&JŒ rdef@cGef;rSmyJ “oufqdkif&m wdkif;&if;om;awG&JŒ
pdwfrSm jynfe,fvdkcsifwJh qEN wu,f ESpfESpfumum&Sd=uw,fqdk&if &cdkifjynfe,feJ@ rGefjynfe,fudk
pDraH y;ygrh ,fv@kd u|eaf wmfuwday;zl;ygw,f? 'Dru
kd a&pDe@J tnDvnf;aumif;/ a'owGi;f aexdik =f uwJh
jynfov
l x
l t
k wGuf at;at;csr;f csr;f cspcf spcf ifcif aysmaf ysm&f i$ &f i$ f tusKd ;&S&d jdS zpfapr,fh enf;eJ@tnD
vnf;aumif;/ oufqdkif&m wdkif;&if;om;jynfolvlxk&JŒ wu,fhqENudk od&atmifðy+yD;wJhaemuf
od&wJhtcsufudk rlwnf+yD; uwdtwdkif; tapmqHk;pDrHaqmif&Gufay;yghr,f? oufqdkif&mvlxk&JŒ
qENukd od&atmif ðy&r,fu
h pd rP mS ðyyHðk yenf;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; u|eaf wmfw@kd [m oufqikd &f macgi;f aqmif
rsm;eJ@ wdkifyifyghr,f?” vdk@ ajym=um;cJh+yD; &cdkifjynfe,feJ@ rGefjynfe,f taumiftxnfazmfa&;eJ@
ywfouf+yD;/ a'gufwmbOD; acgif;aqmifwJh (5) OD; t}uHay;tzGJŒudk zGJŒay;um tpdk;&udkt}uHay;zdk@
wm0eftyfESif;ygw,f?
yxptpdk;&wufvm+yD;wJhaemuf EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG wokwf+yD;wokwf vGwfvmyg
w,f? wcsKd Œqd&k if OD;Ek&ŒJ oef@&iS ;f tzGŒJ }uD; tjywftowf tEkid &f &S+d yD;aemufuwnf;u vGwv
f m=u
ygw,f? udkudk;u|ef;ydk@xm;jcif;cH&olawGvnf; a&G;aumufyGJrwdkifrD tif;pdefaxmif/ &efukefaxmif
awGqD jyefa&mufvm=u+yD; wokwf+yD;wokwf axmifuaevGwfvm=uygw,f? ocifazaX;/ Adkvf
tke;f armif (avxD;) wd@k awmhh rvGw=f uyg? ao'%fcsxm;jcif;cH&wJh Adv
k rf ;ª cspaf umif;vnf; óud;wdu
k f
rSmyJ qufvufusefcJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;trsm;pk}uD;uawmh axmifuae vGwf
ajrmufcGifh&oGm;ygw,f? tr_ awmfawmfrsm;rsm;vnf; tmrcH&oGm;ygw,f?
ydwfxm;jcif;cH&wJh Adkvfwaxmif/ a=u;rHk/ &efukefowif;pmawGvnf; jyefvnfxkwfa0cGifh&
vmcJh+yDjzpfygw,f? vlxku a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufaomtpdk;& wufvmjcif;txdrf;trSwftjzpf
Edik if aH wmforw}uD; ref;0if;armif u &mZ0wfre_ @J ao'%fay;xm;jcif;cH&wJh óud;orm; (6) a&mufukd
vnf; ao'%fuae woufwu|ef;'%f ajymif;ay;ygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufatmufrSm jym;jym;arSmufaecJh&wJh jynfolvlxktrsm; touf 00±_
EdkifcGifh &vm=uygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDavxk jyefvnfa0h0J jzef;yufEdkifpðyvmygw,f? ppftpdk;&vuf
atmuf aysmufaecJh&wJh +idrf;csrf;a&;toHrsm;vnf; wausmhwzef jyefvnfwmplpðyvmygw,f?
{+yDv (25) &ufae@rSm “ESpfOD;ESpfbuf vufcHEdkifonfhenf;jzifh +idrf;csrf;a&;&atmif aqmif
&Guf=u&ef” q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;&JŒ yef=um;csufxGufvmygw,f? q&m}uD;&JŒ +idrf;csrf;a&;
yef=um;csuu
f kd jynfoŒl &JabmfygweD @J jynfoŒl wd;k wufa&;ygwu
D axmufcaH =umif; a=unmtm;jznfh
vdkufygw,f?
tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxuf ysufoGm;cJh&wJh jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒ}uD;udk,fpm; 'kwd,
jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒ}uD; jyefvnfzGJŒpnf;Ekdifzdk@ jyifqifv_yf&Sm;oHawG xGufay:vmygw,f?
q&m}uD;udk OD;pD;OD;aqmifxm;+yD; Adkvfrª;csKyfa[mif;ausmfaZm yg yg0ifv_yf&Sm;vmwJh “jynfwGif;+idrf;
csrf;a&; E_d;aqmfa&;tzGJŒ” (6) OD;aumfrwD arvxJrSm ay:aygufvmygw,f?
256

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

q&m}uD;rd_if;&JŒ {+yD (25) yef=um;csufudk ‘Armjynftvkyform; v,form;ygwD’ uvnf;
axmufcv
H mcJyh gw,f? q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfrid_ ;f !¸ejf ywJt
h wdik ;f “urBmat;nDvmcHpum;}uD;
oHk;cGef;eJ@ avsmfnDpGm ESpfOD;ESpfbuf vufcHEkdifrnfhyHkpHESifh jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; tjrefqHk; taumift
xnfazmf aqmif&Guf&ef” EdkifiHawmftpdk;&ESifh awmwGif;vufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;tiftm;pkrsm;
udkyg tav;teufwdkufwGef;a=umif;” qdkwm xGufay:vmcJhygw,f?
q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;u *smref'Drdku&ufwpforwEdkifiHudk aq;0g;ukozdk@ oGm;
a&mufumeD;qJqJ arv (20) &ufae@rSmyJ ‘q&mraorD wdkif;jynf+idrf;csrf;a&;tppftrSefudk awGŒ
oGm;csiyf gw,f? toufraorD +idr;f csr;f a&;twGuf wwfEikd o
f r#vy_ &f mS ;oGm;OD;r,f?’ qdw
k hJ pum;udk
av;av;eufeuf ajymqdkxkwfazmfcJhygw,f?
OD;Ek [m 'Drdkua&pDtkwfjrpfcsr_awG tpGrf;ukefðyvkyfay;aeygw,fqdkayr,fh/ OD;Ek &JŒ zGJŒpnf;
ump jynfaxmifpkygwD}uD;wGif;rSmudk rnD!GwfEdkifr_awG wpwp xGufay:vmygw,f? oef@&Sif;
udkzsufodrf;+yD; ‘yxp’ ygwDudk jyefvnfzGJŒpnf;wJhtcg zqyvòyduGJpOfu oef@&Sif;rSmygvmcJh=uwJh
Edik if aH &;0g&ifh ocif}uD;awG tkypf w
k pktjzpf ygvmcJo
h vdk aemufr0S ifvmcJ=h uwJh awmfveS af &;rSmwke;f
u ppfAdkvf}uD;awGuvnf; wtkyfpk/ t+idrf;pm;,l+yD;wJhaemuf ygvm=uwJh t&m&Sd}uD;a[mif;rsm;/
a&SŒaersm;/ ynmwwf}u;D rsm;uvnf; tkypf w
k pk/ aygi;f tkypf k (3)pk yg0ifaecJyh gw,f? zGŒJ pnf;puxJu
EdkifiHa&;ar#mfrSef;csuftrsdK;rsdK;/ vlwef;pm;aemufcHtzkHzkHeJ@ pkòyHyg0ifvm=uwmjzpfwJhtwGuf yxp
ygw[
D m tkypf }k uD; (3) ck&ŒJ ygwv
D jkd zpfaecJyh gw,f? a&SŒu ‘OD;’ wyfac:&wJh t&m&S/d t&mcHynm&S}d uD;
rsm;u ‘OD;’ tkypf /k awmfveS af &;rSmyg0ifcb
hJ ;l wJh ppfAv
dk af [mif;}uD;rsm;u ‘Adv
k ’f tkypf /k a&S;uwnf;u
EdkifiHa&;rSm yg0ifvm=uwJh ocifa[mif;}uD;rsm;u ‘ociftkyfpk’ qdk+yD; jzpfay:vmcJh+yD; ‘OD;Adkvfocif
yxp’ qdk+yD; vlxku uifyGef;wyfay;wmcH&ygw,f?
ociftkyfpkrSm ocifwif/ ocifausmfxGef;/ ocifyef;òrdif/ ocifwifarmif/ ocifodrf;armif/
Adv
k w
f ifarmif}u;D / ocifcsex
f eG ;f / OD;apmvlv/l OD;tke;f jrif/h ocifxeG ;f tH/ ocifxeG ;f pde/f OD;wifO;D / OD;bZH/
OD;vGrf;yHk pwJhyk*~dKvfawG yg0if=uygw,f?
Adv
k t
f yk pf rk mS u &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f ifawGjzpfwhJ Adv
k rf ;ª atmif/ Adv
k rf if;acgi/f Adv
k Af v/ Adv
k w
f m&m/
AdkvfjrifhaqG/ AdkvfZifa,mf wdk@tyg AdkvfAwif/ Adkvfrª;aomif;xdkuf/ Adkvfrª;xifay: pwJh Adkvfa[mif;}uD;
awGyg0ifygw,f?
OD;tkyrf mS uawmh OD;0if;/ OD;csr;f om (tdik pf t
D uf)/ OD;cspaf z/ rd;k óu;d OD;tke;f cif/ OD;ysKd +ird ;f / OD;vSausmf
tp&SdwJh yk*~dKvf}uD;awG yg0if=uygw,f?
tckvdk tkyfpk}uD; (3) pk uGJ+yD; rnDr!Gwfjzpfvm&wJh ta=umif;&if;uawmh tpuwnf;u
EdkifiHa&;tjrifrwl=u / &yfwnfr_tajccHrwl=uwmtay: wOD;ay:wOD; txiftjrifao;ae=uwm
uwa=umif;/ &mxl;tm%m,lcsif=uwmuwa=umif;/ ta=umif; (2) a=umif;a=umifhjzpfygw,f?
ociftkyfpku rdrdwdk@[m e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;acwfuxJu wdkif;jynftwGuf yg0ifvmcJhol
awGjzpfygw,f? ESpf&Snfvrsm; EdkifiHa&;e,fy,fxJrSmyJ usifvnfvmcJh&/ tepfemcHvmcJh&wJhtwGuf
EkdifiHa&;tawGŒtóuHeJ@ tar#mftjrifrSmvnf; rdrdwdk@uyJ omvGefovdk EdkifiHudk OD;aqmifxdkufol[m
vnf; rdrdwdk@omjzpfw,fvdk@ ,lqygw,f? OD;tkyfpk[m b,fwkef;urSvnf; tepfemcHcJhbl;olvnf;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

257

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

r[kwfyJ e,fcsJŒtvdkawmf&d t&m&Sd t&mcH vkyfvmwJholawG tckrS EdkifiHa&;xJa&mufvmolawG
vdkŒjrifygw,f?
Adv
k t
f yk pf u
k vJ rdrw
d @kd [mwdik ;f jynftwGuf pGr;f pGr;f wrH vkyv
f mwJo
h al wG/ touftE &W m,feŒJ
teD;qHk;tvkyfawG vkyfvm&olawGvdkΠjrifygw,f?
OD;tkyfpkuvJ rdrdwkdŒ[m ociftkyfpkxuf ynmt&nftcsif; t&a&m/ tkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&m
tawGŒtóuHt&yg tjywftowfomw,f? tpdk;&tzGJŒrSm acgif;aqmifjzpfoifhw,fvdkŒ,lq+yD;
ociftkyfpk[m bmynmrS [kwWdywWd wwfajrmufcJholawG r[kwfvdkΠtxifao;ygw,f?
'Dvekd ŒJ wygwt
D wGi;f twlwuG jzpfwnfa&muf&dS vm=u+yD;wJah emuf yxrqH;k pwif azmfjy
vdkufwJh aoG;uGJr_tjzpftysufuawmh ‘taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r_;’ae&mtwGuf ta0rwnfhr_
jzpfygw,f? tdrfapmifhtpdk;& vufxufrSm zqyv taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r_; ocif ausmfxGef;
wa,muf rlqm r'g; jyefay;qGJr_eJΠtzrf;cHcJh&ygw,f? ocif ausmfxGef; ae&mudk tJ'Dwkef;u
tpm;xdk;cef@tyfzdkΠOD;Eku OD;0if;udk vsmxm; pDpOfygw,f? ocifawGu qef@usifuef@uGufcJhygw,f?
tpdk;& &JŒ pGyfpGJcsufudk rdrdwdkŒu vufcHvdkufwJhoabm oufa&mufoGm;r,f/ ocifausmfxGef;rSm
tjypfr&SdqdkjyD; ta=umif;jy&if; uef@uGufcJh=uw,f qdkygw,f? 'ga=umifh aemufqHk;rSm ,m,D
taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;r_; tjzpf Adv
k rf if;acgiu
f ykd J cef@xm; ay;cJ&h ygw,f? 1960 jynfh rwfv (8)&ufaeŒ
ocifausmfxGef; vGwfvmwJhtcg taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; ae&mjyef,lygw,f? ocifausmfxGef;u
“r&SdpOfu &mxl;vk,l=u+yD; vGwfvmwJhtcg jyefray;vdk=uvdk@ tzGJŒ}uD;twGif;rSm tkyfpkuGJaeyg
w,f” vdk@ tpnf;ta0;wckrSm ajym=um;wJhtxd yxrqHk;tufoH pwifxGufay:vmygw,f?
'kw,
d tjzpftysuu
f awmh OD;Eku yxptpd;k &tzGŒJ }u;D zGŒJ pnf;vdu
k w
f t
hJ cg 0ef}u;D enf;enf;
eJ@yJ zGŒJ pnf;vdu
k w
f t
hJ wGuf ol&xdu
k w
f ,f/ ig&xdu
k w
f ,fe@J 0ef}uD;ae&m&csi=f u&if; aoG;uGcJ w
hJ mjzpf
ygw,f? 0ef}uD;enf;enf;eJ@ tpdk;&tzGJŒ zGJŒvdkufwmudk OD;/ Adkvf/ ociftkyfpk (3) pkvHk;u rausreyfjzpf
cJh=uw,fqdkygw,f? 0ef}uD;ae&m wae&mrS r&vdkufwJh OD;tkyfpku ydk+yD; rausreyfjzpfcJh=uw,f
qdkygw,f?
'Dvekd @J &mxl;ae&m&vdrk /_ ta&;ygwhJ ae&m,lvrkd a_ wG t&if;wnf+yD; tkypf yk ÉdyuQ ydrk }kd uD;rm;
ay:vGifvmcJhygw,f? “tpdk;&tzGJŒ zGJŒIrS &mZmyv†if zifraEG;ao;cif tuGJ*,ufrsm; xGufvm&
onfrSm 0rf;enf;p&maumif;vSonf? ,ckowif;rsm; =um;&onfhtwdkif;qdkygu jynfaxmifpktzGJŒ
}uD;wGif tkypf ak &m*g/ &mxl;a&m*g xaepðyvmonf?” qdw
k hJ owif;pmawGu xkwaf zmfajymqdv
k m
wJhtoHawG wdwdvif;vif; xGufay:vmygw,f?
(17) vausmaf usmaf vmufyJ 0ef}uD;csKyfvyk &f +yD;/ rv$rJ a&Smifom tm%mjyefvaJ$ y;vdu
k &f wJh
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; uawmh ppfwyfudk ppfwef;vsm;jyefydk@+yD; t}uH^m%fxkwfaeygw,f? OD;Ek &JŒ
tEdkif& yxp tzGJŒ}uD;u a&G;aumufyGJumvtwGif; ppfwyf&JŒ rw&m;ojzifh bufvdkufusL;vGefr_
awGe@J ywfouf+yD; ta&;,laqmif&u
G rf a_ wGrvkycf if yg0ifywfoufc=hJ uwJh wyfrawmftwGi;f xdyo
f ;D
ppfAdkvf}uD;wodkufudk wyfrawmfuae t+yD;tydkif xkwfy,fjypfvdkufygw,f? OD;Ek u ta&;r,lcif
olu t&ifOD;atmif ta&;,ljyvdkufwmjzpfygw,f?
258

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

a&G;aumufyGJtwGif; rJqG,f bufvdkufr_eJ@ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; xkwfypfvdkufwJh ppfAdkvfxdyf
oD;}uD;awGuawmh Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfatmifa&G/ Adv
k rf ;ª }uD; at;armif/ Adv
k rf ;ª }uD;wifarmif/ Adv
k rf ;ª }uD;vSarmf/
Adkvfrª;}uD;=unf0if;/ Adkvfrª;}uD;odef;wkwf/ 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;cspfcdkif tygt0if wyfwGif; xdyfoD;}uD;awGjzpf
ygw,f? xkwyf ,fypfvu
kd w
f hJ xdyo
f ;D ppfAv
kd }f uD; (13) OD;xJrmS Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfarmifarmif vnf; yg0ifomG ;
ygw,f? aemufyikd ;f rSm Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfarmifarmifukd tpPa&;oHtrwf/ Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfatmifa&$ udk =opaw;vs
oH t rwf t jzpf cef @ tyf a y;&ef arwW m &yf c H c J h w J h t wG u f tpd k ; &u oH t rwf } uD ; rsm;tjzpf
cef@tyfay;cJhygw,f?
wu,fu AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; [m wcsufckwf ESpfcsufjywf aqmif&Gufvdkufjcif;jzpfygw,f?
OD;Ek u ta&;r,lcif óudwifOD;atmif ta&;,ljyvdkufjcif;tm;jzifh OD;Ek u olŒtay: tjypfrjrifapyJ
taumif;jrifvmatmif zefwD;vdkufjcif;jzpfoGm;apygw,f? wenf;tm;jzifh OD;Ek udk t,HkoGif;wm
jzpfygw,f? aemufwcsuu
f wyfrawmfwiG ;f &Sd ajcpvufp&So
d /l wcsed rf mS olŒudk cGm&mwdik ;f vmEdik o
f l
awGukd tjywfacsre_ ;f vdu
k Ef ikd +f yD;jzpfomG ;ygw,f? uGejf rLepf-qd&k ,
S v
f pf tuGrJ mS qd&k ,
S v
f pfawGbuf
u &yfwnfvmcJhwJh Adkvfae0if; [m tm%m& zqyv}uD;tuGJrSmvnf; qdk&S,fvpftkyfpkbufu
wav#mufvHk; &yfwnfvmcJh&mu (60) jynfhESpfa&G;aumufyGJ&JΠaemufqHk;azmfjycsufrSm zqqdk&S,f
vpfawG&JŒtcef; evHrxlEdkifawmhbl;qdkwm tydkifwGufqvdkuf+yD;+yDjzpfwJhtwGuf tckvdk jywfjywf
om;om; vrf;cGJvdkufwmjzpfygw,f? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; usqHk;+yD;wJhaemuf wpwp wyfwGif;rSm
ae&m,ledkifcJhwJh Adkvfae0if; [m jynfwGif;ppfumv}uD;twGif; ppfwyfudk olŒ&JŒ vufeufudkifwyf
jzpfatmif óud;yrf;tm;xkwf arG;jrLvmEdik cf &hJ muae olŒukad rG;jrLcJw
h hJ qd&k ,
S v
f pfygw}D uD;udyk g tav;
xm;p&mrvdkavmufatmif }uD;rm;us,fjyef@wJh ppfwyftiftm;pkw&yfudk wnfaqmufxm;Ekdif+yD
jzpfwJhtwGuf qdk&S,fvpfygwDeJ@ ppfwyft=um; uwWDygvrf;cGJudk a&G;cs,fvdkufwJhoabmvnf;
aqmifygw,f? ppfwyf[m udk,fhbmomukd vGwfvGwfu|wfu|wf EkdifiHa&;ZmwfcHkay: wufuEdkifzdk@
tcsdeftcgudk apmifhvifh&if; udk,fhudk,fudktem;ay;&if; urBmhtcif;tusif;udkvnf; Adkvfae0if;
tuJcwf=unfah ecJyh gw,f? tdraf pmift
h pd;k &vufxuf tD*spu
f o
kd mG ;+yD; emqmudv
k nf; avhvm+yD;+yD
jzpfygw,f? ppfAdkvfcsKyf}uD; emqm [m ppfwyfeJ@ tm%modrf;+yD;wufvmwJh tD*spforw}uD;jzpfyg
w,f? ygupPwefeJ@ tdENd,wdk@ukdvnf; oGm;a&mufavhvm+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
ppfwyfukd ppfwef;vsm;ydk@xm;&wkef;rSm tar&duef/ +Adwdef pwJh taemufEdkifiHawGqD Adkvf
csKyf}uD;ae0if; c&D;xGuyf gw,f? OD;Ek u Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; jynfyc&D;xGuw
f ikd ;f / jyefvmwdik ;f / oef;acgif
c&D;xGuf&if oef;acgif/ oef;acgifjyefvm&if oef;acgiftxd ysLysLiSmiSm vdkufvHóudydk@vkyfygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; u 0g&SifwefeJ@ e,l;a,mufwdk@rSm aq;uko tem;,l&if; avhvmw,f
vdk@qdkygw,f? vef'efrSmtem;,laewHk; owif;pmq&mtcsdKŒu “AdkvfcsKyf tm%mjyef,l&ef tcsdef
udak pmif+h yD; toifjh yifaeygovm;” vd@k ar;=u jref;=uw,fqykd gw,f? Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;u “r[kwf
ygb;l ? toifrh jyifygb;l 'Dtwdik ;f ae&wm pdwcf sr;f omygw,f” vd@k jyefvnfajz=um; ajymqdyk gw,f?
1960 jynfhESpfxJrSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek [m 'Drdkua&pDtacstjrpfwG,fEdkifa&;qdk+yD; twdkuftcH
awGyg yg0ifwJh aumfrwDtrsdK;rsdK;/ aumfr&SiftzHkzHk zGJŒay;ygw,f? t*Fvef'Drdkua&pDudk twk,l+yD;
vef'ef [du
k yf wf yef;+cHxrJ mS vdk AE<Kvyef;+cHxrJ mS vnf; ‘jynfoŒl [pfwikd ’f zGiahf y;+yD; ajymcsi&f majym
cGifh/ a[mcsif&ma[mcGifh ðyay;ygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

259

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek [m olu,
kd w
f ikd f Ak'b
< momudk udik ;f ±di_ ;f ±Hrk u Ak'b
< momudk Edik if aH wmfbmom
vkyfcsifvGef;vSwJh pdwfaZmt[kef&Sdwmuvnf;wa=umif;/ a&G;aumufyGJrwdkifrD oef@&Sif;nDvmcHrSm
olomtm%mjyef&&if Ak'<bmomukd EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpf jyÏmef;ay;zdk@ óud;yrf;aqmif&Gufr,f
qdw
k hJ uwdpum;&Sad ewmuvnf; wa=umif;a=umifyh g? vlaumfr&Sif oHCmaumfr&D iS zf ŒJG +yD; pwifóud;
yrf;wJhtcg om"kac: =uolawGtajrmuftjrm; ay:aygufvmovdk uef@uGuf=uolawG/ qef@usif=u
olawG/ pdk;&drfaomua&muf&olawGvnf; ae&mtESH ay:aygufvm&ygw,f?
wzufu 'Dru
kd a&pDt&dyt
f a&mifawG ydrk ykd iG v
hf rf;vmovd/k tjcm;wzufu OD;Ek tay: uef@
uGuf=uwJh a0zef=uoHawGuvnf; ydkrdk us,fus,f =um;vm&ygw,f? Ak'<uom EdkifiHawmfbmom
jyÏmef;a&; óud;yrf;csufeJ@ywfouf+yD; yxptpdk;&tzGJŒtwGif;rSmawmif uef@uGufolawG ay:ayguf
vmygw,f? Ak'<bmom0ifr[kwfwJh 0ef}uD;OD;&m&Spf vdkyk*~dKvfu OD;Ek &JΠtm;xkwfcsufukd oabmr
usEdkif/ vufrcHEdkifjzpfcJhygw,f?
wyfrawmfuvnf; wyfwiG ;f pnf;±H;k nD!w
G af &;udk xdcu
kd Ef ikd w
f ,fq+kd yD; b0ifrusjzpfco
hJ vdk
yrnw tzGJŒ}uD;uvnf; Ak'<bmomEdkifiHawmfbmom jyÏmef;a&;udk a0zefqef@usifcJhygw,f?
'gayr,fh 0ef}u;D csKyfO;D Ek uawmh olŒud,
k o
f l qXoH*g,emwif yk*Kd~ vf}u;D tjzpfavmufe@J wif tm;r&/
Ak'<bmomudk EdkifiHawmfbmomjzpfatmif atmifatmifjrifjrif jyÏmef;ay;oGm;Edkifaom/ omoemh
'g,um}uD;tjzpfyg armfuGef;xlEdkifzdk@ enf;vrf;aygif;pHkeJ@ wGef;wifoGm;ygw,f?
“Ak'<bmom0if r[kwf=uwJh rlpvif/ c&pf,mef pwJh trwfawGtaeeJ@u uef@uGufvdku
uef@uu
G cf iG ahf y;xm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh yxptzGŒJ 0if Ak'b
< momtrwfawG=uawmh tm;vH;k axmufcH
=u&r,f? ruef@uGuf =u&bl;? uef@uGuf=uw,fqdk&ifawmh tzGJŒtpnf;u armif;xkwfjypfrSmyJ”
vdk@ ajymwJhqdkwJhtxd OD;Ek u +cdrf;ajcmufwm;jrpfcJhw,fqdkygw,f?
OD;EkzGJŒpnf;ay;vdkufwJh t}uHay;tzGJŒ[m EdkifiHw0Sef; vSnfhvnfoGm;vm+yD; Ak'<bmomukd
Edik if aH wmfjyÏmef;a&;twGuf b,fvpkd rD H jyÏmef;oifah =umif; t}uH^m%fay;zd@k avhvmpl;prf;pHpk rf;wm
awGvkyfygw,f?
Ak'b
< momr[kww
f hJ wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pkawGu uef@uu
G af =umif;ajymqdyk gw,f? OD;odr;f armif
acgif;aqmifwJh pHkprf;a&;tzJ GŒ}uD;u ucsifjynfe,f jrpf}uD;em;udk oGm;a&mufwJhtcgrSmawmh
vlxku jyif;jyif;xefxef qef@usifqENjyv$wfygw,f? c&pf,mefudk;uG,folrsm;eJ@ ewfudk;uG,fol
ucsifvlxk (5000) avmufu ydkpwmawGudk udkifaqmif+yD; qef@usifwJhaºuG;a=umfoHawG
oHòydifatmf&if; jyif;jyif; xefxef uef@uGufqENjy=u±Hkwifru cJrsm;eJ@yg xkv$wfvdkufwJhtwGuf
pHkprf;a&;tzGJŒ0if vl}uD;awG udk ppfwyfu tapmifhta&SmufeJ@ jyefydk@vdkuf&ygw,f?
aemufqHk;rSm t}uHay;tzGJŒu OD;Ek tpdk;&udk tpD&ifcHpmwifygw,f? t}uHay;tzGJŒu
t"duxm; wifjycJhwmuawmh Ak'<bmomudk EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpf jyÏmef;r,fqdk&if zGJŒpnf;tkyf
csKyfyHktajccHOya' yk'fr 21 (1) udk jyifqifoifhw,fqdkwmyJjzpfygw,f?
tckvkd Ak'b
< momudk Edik if aH wmfbmomtjzpf jyÏmef;Edik af &;twGuf Ak'b
< mom0if olawmfpif
bk&m;wum}uD;OD;Ek wufwufºuGºuG taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&u
G af ewH;k rSm Edik if aH wmforw}uD;
ref;0if;armifu/ ole@J zufqpfawmfveS af &;twGi;f avxD;qif; &Jabmf&b
J uf t&if;acguaf cgujf zpfchJ
260

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

ol tdrfapmifhtpdk;& AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; vufxuf ao'%ftrdef@ csrSwfjypf'%fðyxm;jcif;cH&ol
ArmjynfueG jf rLepf ygwAD [dak umfrwD0if Adv
k rf ;ª cspaf umif;udk =o*kwv
f (6) &ufae@rmS ao'%fuae
vH;k 0 vGw+f idr;f cGiahf y;vdu
k w
f ,f? Adv
k rf ;ª cspaf umif; &JŒ w&m;±H;k csKyfo@kd t,lcrH 0ifawmhyJ orRw}uD;xH
“oifykef;acsvGwf+idrf;cGifh” ay;&ef wdkuf±dkufyef=um;csufudk orRw}uD;u olŒ&JŒ &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; vkyfydkif
cGit
hf m%mudk tjynft
h 0udik pf +JG yD; v$wyf pfvu
kd w
f mjzpfygw,f? tJ'v
D kd v$wyf pfvu
kd rf t
_ ay:rSmawmh
bk&m;w&m;udkif;&_dif;vSol 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek [m orRw}uD;tay: awmfawmfrausreyfjzpfcJhw,fvdk@
qdkygw,f//
tm%m& yxp}uD;twGi;f OD;-Adv
k -f ocif tkypf u
k +JG yD; rnD!w
G Ef ikd f jzpfae=ucsed /f Ak'b
< mom
EdkifiHawmfbmomjyÏmef;a&; ajcvSrf;awGa=umifh a0zefoH/ uef@uGufoH/ qef@usifqENjyoHawG us,f
us,af vmifavmif xGuaf y:vmqJtcsed /f 'Dtcsed rf mS yJ a&SŒqifah emufqifh wòydief ufxv
J v
kd kd xGuaf y:
nHpDvmwJhtoHuawmh &cdkif/ rGef/ csif; trsdK;om;wdk@&JΠjynfe,fay;a&;awmif;qdkoH/jynfe,f&a&;
v_yf&Sm;oHyJjzpfygw,f? 'DtoHuvnf; EdkifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek &JΠ{+yDv (5) &ufae@ v$wfawmft
wGi;f rSm rde@f =um;wifjycJw
h hJ jynfe,fopfrsm;xlaxmifay;a&;udpeP @J wqufxaJ y:aygucf w
hJ hJ toHjzpf
ygw,f? OD;Ek [m oef@&iS ;f wnf+rJtuGw
J ek ;f uvnf; &cdik ef @J rGeu
f kd jynfe,fay;a&;pum; [cJzh ;l ovd/k
Ekwiftkyfpk&JŒ ay:vpD (4) &yf xkwfjyefcsufwckrSm wcktygt0ifjzpfcJhwJh “jynfe,frsm;. w&m;
ojzifh &oifh&xdkufaom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk &ap&eftmrcHrnf” qdkwJh pum;vnf; &SdcJh+yD;om;jzpfwJh
twGuf 'Duwdpum;rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&Gufzdk@ w&m;0if tpysdK;&muae ydkrdk toH
jrnfvmcJhwmjzpfygw,f? jrnfoifhjrnfxdkufwJh toHawGvnf;jzpfygw,f?
&cdik f eJ@ rGejf ynfe,f taumiftxnfazmfa&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; tpd;k &udk t}uHay;zd@k a'guw
f m
bOD; acgif;aqmifwJh twdkifyifcH t}uH ay; (5) OD; tzGJŒ zGJŒpnf;ay;cJh+yD; 1960 jynfhESpf/ {+yD (29)&uf
ae@rSm v$JtyfcJhygw,f?
t}uHay;tzGJŒ[m &cdkifeJ@ywfouf+yD; &cdkiftrsdK;om;acgif;aqmifawG/ oufqdkif&m EdkifiHa&;
orm;eJ@ toif;tzGJŒ udk,fpm;vS,fawGudk awGŒqHkar;jref; pHkprf;avhvm t}uH^m%f,lcJhovdk &cdkif
wdik ;f udo
k mG ;a&muf+yD; &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;awGe@J awGŒqHu
k m &cdik jf ynfe,fay;a&;eJ@ ywfoufwhJ &cdik t
f rsKd ;
om;awG&ŒJ oabmxm;awGukd ygppkH rf;avhvmygw,f? rGef eJ@ ywfouf+yD;vnf; tvm;wlyJ avhvm
pHkprf; awGŒqHkoGm;a&mufwmawG vkyfygw,f?
tJ'Dvdk pHkprf;avhvmwJhtcgrSm &cdkifrSma&m/ rGefrSma&m jynfe,f&&Sda&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD;
axmufcHvdkvm;olawG&Sdovdk/ rvdkvm;ol/ qef@usifuef@uGufolawGvnf; &Sdw,fvdk@qdkygw,f?
&cdkifjynfe,fzGJŒpnf;a&;eJ@ywfouf+yD; e,fedrdwfjy\em xl;xl;jcm;jcm;r&SdyJ/ rGefjynfe,fzGJŒ
pnf;a&;rSmawmh e,fedrdwfjy\em[m ododomom yg0ifaew,fqdkygw,f? rGefacgif;aqmifawG
tcsi;f csi;f twGi;f rSmudk e,ferd w
d jf y\emeJ@ywfouf+yD; oabmxm;awG rwlujJG ym; jcm;em;aewm
&Sdw,fqdkygw,f?
tJ'Dvdk &cdkif eJ@ rGef wdk@&JŒ jynfe,fzGJŒpnf;a&; v_yf&Sm;oHawG pnfpnfnHvmcsdefrSm csif;trsdK;
om;wdk@uvnf; jynfe,f&&Sda&;ukd v_yf&Sm;awmif;qdkvmygw,f? csif;0daoowdkif;uae csif;jynf
e,f&&Sda&;udk vdkvm;=uwm obm0uswJhudpPjzpfygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

261

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

1960 jynfhESpfxJrSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tjzpftysufwckuawmh Armjynfu ppfacgif;aqmif
Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; udk zdvpfyikd u
f ‘&mrGerf ufaq;aq;’ qk cs;D jr‡ichf yhJ gw,f? tJ'q
D [
k m uGejf rLepfqef@
usifa&;eJ@ 'Drdkua&pDa&;twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wrH óud;yrf;tm;xkwf umuG,fapmifha&SmufolawGtwGuf
ay;tyfwJh EdkifiHwumqdkif&m qkwrsdK;jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dqkudk&,lvufcHzdk@ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; u jiif;
y,fvdkufygw,f?
bma=umifh jiif;y,fcJhovJqdkwm tH=oolawG tHh=ooGm;=uygw,f? AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;
[m olŒudk uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;orm;vkd@ owfrSwf,lqwmudk vufrcHEdkifwJhtwGuf 'Dqkudk
vufrcHEdkifwmvm;vdk@ awG;qolrsm; awG;qcJh=uygw,f?
*smref'Drdku&ufwpforwEdkifiH&JΠzdwf=um;csuft& oGm;a&mufaq;ukocHvmcJhwJh pwm
vif+idr;f csr;f a&;qk& q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfrid_ ;f u Armjynfjyefa&mufvm+yD;aemuf =o*kwv
f xJrmS
jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf “tmCmwuif;wJh +idrf;csrf;a&;tppfudk &atmifaqmif&Guf=uprf;yg”
vdk@ OD;Ektpdk;&udka&m/ vufeufudkiftiftm;pkrsm;udkyg wkdufwGef;E_d;aqmfr_vkyfygw,f? 58 ckESpf
urBmat;nDvmcHrmS OD;Ekajym=um;cJb
h ;l wJh pum;}uD;oH;k cGe;f twdik ;f jyefvnftaumiftxnfazmf+yD;
ESpfOD;ESpfzuf vufcHEdkifr,fhyHkpHeJ@ +idrf;csrf;a&;udk tjrefjyef+yD; t&,l=uygvdk@vnf; E_d;aqmfygw,f?
“q&m[m b,fbufurS bufrvdkufygbl;” qdkwm tav;wif;ajymqdk+yD; “armifEk/ armifAaqG/
ocifwif/ armifausm+f idr;f / Adv
k af e0if; polrsm;a&m/ ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f / Adv
k &f efatmif/ Adv
k af Z,s
polrsm;a&m q&mhwynfhrsm;eJ@ e,fcsJŒzufqpfudk q&meJ@twl yl;wGJqef@usifcJholrsm;jzpfwJhtwGuf
b,fbufurS rvdu
k yf /J q&mbufvu
kd w
f m trSew
f &m;eJ@ &[ef;&Siv
f l jynfow
l &yfv;kH bufomjzpf
+yD;/ ESpfzuf ausauseyfeyfeJ@ wu,fwef; jynfolw&yfvHk;tusKd;&Sdapr,fh +idrf;csrf;a&;rsKd;om jzpfap
csiaf =umif;/ tay:,HjzL; aq;vdr;f aq;av;okwv
f rd ;f ay;vd@k c%wm aysmufovd&k +dS yD; ykyyf x
G vmwJh
temyqkyaf &m*g}uD;vdak wmh rjzpfapcsiaf =umif;/ &[ef;&Siv
f jl ynfow
l &yfv;kH &JΠaumif;usK;d csr;f om
udk=unfh+yD; tmCmwuif;pGmeJ@ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;udk tjrefqHk;jyefvnf&&Sdatmif óud;yrf;aqmif
&Guf=uygvdk@ tav;teuf wdkufwGef;&Smygw,f?
1960 jynfh =o*kwfvukefrSmawmh OD;Eku “ykefuefolawG wa,mufrusef tvif;0ifrnf
[k tcdkiftrm tmrcHcsuf,lvmv#if oHk;vq,fhckESpf&uf oef@&Sif;tpdk;&vufxufu uJhodk@yif
EdkifiHawmforw}uD;. trdef@jzifh vHk;0vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdef@ xkwfjyefay;ygOD;rnf” vdk@ ajymqdk
vmygw,f? orRw}uD;&JΠvGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdef@qdkwm oef@&Sif;tpdk;&vufxufu xkwfjyefcJh
zl;+yD;/ Adv
k cf sKyfae0if; acgi;f aqmifwhJ ppfwyfukd tm%mv$aJ jymif;ay;tyfvu
kd &f wJt
h cg Akv
d cf sKyfae0if;
pdwfóuduf vkyfEdkifa&;twGuf jyefvnf±kyfodrf;ay;vdkuf&wJh trdef@jzpfygw,f? oufwrf; bmrSr=um
vdkuf&wJh trdef@jzpfygw,f? tck tJ'Dtrdef@rsKd;udk jyefvnfxkwfay;r,fvkd@ ajymqdkvmwmjzpf+yD;
óudwifpnf;urf;csuftjzpf “wa,mufrusef tvif;0ifvmrnf[k tcdkiftrm tmrcHcsuf ,lvm
v#i”f qdw
k hJ pum;&yfawmif xyf+yD; tydak qmif;xm;vdu
k yf gao;w,f? Edik if aH &;ygwaD wG&ŒJ ‘w&m;0if
ygwDwnf&SdcGifh’ qdkwmudkvnf; vHk;0xnfhoGif; ajym=um;jcif;r&SdawmhyJ a&iHkE_wfydwfvkyfxm;wm
awGŒ&wJt
h wGuf vufeufuikd t
f iftm;pkrsm;u b,fvrkd S vufcEH ikd jf cif;r&S=d uyg? a&G;aumufyu
JG mv
twGif;u wnf+rJzqyv tEdkif&v#if jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;oabmxm; ykdrkdwif;rmvmEdkifacs
262

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

&Sw
d t
hJ wGuf awmwGi;f vufeufuikd f tiftm;pkrsm;[m OD;Ek &JΠoef@&iS ;f zqyv tEdik &f a&;bufuyJ
&yfwnfc=hJ uum olw@kd qikd &f m e,fajra'o pnf;±H;k a&;*Giaf wGtwGi;f uae oef@&iS ;f udk axmufc0H ef;&H
ay;cJ=h uygw,f? 'gayr,fh OD;Ek tm%m wu,fjyefvnf&&Sv
d mwJt
h cg OD;Ek &JΠw&m;0if xkwaf zmfajym
qdk jyocsuaf wGu +idr;f csr;f a&;twGuf tm;wufp&m bmwckrS rawGŒ&ao;wJt
h jyif aemufawmif
jyefqw
k af ewJt
h wGuf vufeufuikd t
f iftm;pkrsm;[m pdwrf oufromjzpf=u&ygw,f? jynfwiG ;f ppf
&yfpJa&;[m tvm;tvm arS;rSdefaysmufuG,f+rJ aysmufuG,fae&qJjzpfygw,f?
1960 jynfh atmufwdkbm (20) &ufrSm AuotzGJŒcsKyf&JŒ qXrt}udrf ausmif;om;nDvm
cH}uD; usif;yygw,f? (4) ESpfvHk;vHk; rusif;yEdkifyJ xm;cJh&wJh ausmif;om;nDvmcH}uD;udk tckrS
jyefvnfac:,l usif;yEdkifcGifh&cJhwmjzpfygw,f? AuotzGJŒcsKyf[m urBmausmif;om;or*~tzGJ@csKyf
(IUS) eJ@ urBm'Drdkua&pDvli,frsm;tzGJŒcsKyf (WFDY) wdk@&JŒ tzGJŒ0ifvnf;jzpfygw,f? Auorsm;
tzGJŒcsKyf&JŒ qXrt}udrfajrmuf nDvmcH}uD;rSmvnf; ‘wrsKd;om;vHk;ta&;/ wEdkifiHvHk;ta&;jzpfwJh
trsKd;om;a&;wm0efrsm;udk vkyfaqmif=u&ef’ eJ@ ‘jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; jynfwGif;+idrf; csrf;a&;wdk@t
wGuf qufvufyg0if tm;jznfhvHk;yrf;oGm;=u&ef’ qdkwmawGudk wufwufºuGºuG aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwf
oGm;cJh=uygw,f?
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tcdkiftrmvkyfukdifvm=uygw,f? 1954/ 55/ 56 ckESpftwGif; w±kwfjzLarmif;xkwfa&; wdkufyGJawG
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263

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264

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265
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266

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

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f mG ;vm ajccsvy_ &f mS ;aeEdik jf cif;[mvnf; ‘qD;wd;k ’ ppftyk pf &k ŒJ t&dyaf =umifh
jzpfygw,f? ,d;k ',m; [m qD;wd;k ppftyk pf 0k if Edik if w
H ckjzpfcyhJ gw,f? uGe*f /kd vmtdk wd@k rmS tar&duef&ŒJ
wdkuf±dkufywfouf pGufzufr_awG wae@wjcm; }uD;xGm;vmaeovdk awmifAD,uferfudkudkif+yD;
ajrmufAD,uferfudk òzdzdk@vnf; ajcvSrf;&Sd&Sd aqmif&Gufvkyfudkifaecsdefjzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek[m
w±kwfeJ@ tar&duef=um; Asmrsm;ae&wJh EkdifiHjcm;a&;ay:vpDudkusifhoHk;um =um;aea&;udk i,foHyg
atmif atmfae&oljzpfw,fv@kd vuf00J g'w
D csKŒd u xifjrif,q
l xm;=uygw,f? OD;Ek [m Armjynfukd
w±kwjf zLusL;ausmrf u
_ kd vufawG@&ifqikd f wdu
k cf u
kd af e&ayr,fh tar&duefqef@usiaf &;udak wmh rvkyf
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w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_eJ@ywfouf+yD; jynfolvlxktwGif; rcHcsdrcHomjzpfcJh=uovdk e,fcsJŒ
qef@usifa&;'Da& w&dyf&dyfwufvmcJhygw,f? tar&duefoH±Hk;a&SŒ qENjyr_awG ay:aygufvmygw,f?
1961 ck/ azazmf0g&D (27) &ufae@rSm &efukefòrdŒ t&Siftm'dpP0Hoausmif;wdkufrSm EdkifiHa&;/
vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ bmoma&;qdkif&m tzGJŒtpnf;aygif; (29) zGJŒeJ@ woD;yk*~v rsKd;cspf&[ef;&Sifvl
vly*k Kd~ vfrsK;d pHyk g0ifwhJ aqG;aEG;yG}J uD;wck usi;f ycJ+h yD;/ ‘w±kwjf zLusL;ausmrf E_ iS hf e,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &;trsK;d
om;aumfrDwD’ qdkwmudk atmifjrifpGm zGJŒpnf;vdkuf=uygw,f? &[ef;&Sifvl trsKd;om; trsKd;orD;
yk*Kd~ vfaygi;f (88) OD;awmifyg0ifwhJ trsK;d om;aumfrw
D }D uD; jzpfygw,f? trsK;d om;aumfrw
D &D ŒJ tvkyf
tr_aqmiftzGJŒudk (39) OD;eJ@ zGJŒpnf;+yD; tvkyftr_aqmiftzGJŒ&JŒ t+rJwrf;aumfrDwDudk (20) OD;eJ@
zGJŒpnf;cJhygw,f? OuUÏtjzpf Adkvfrª;csKyfa[mif;ausmfaZm udk wifajr‡mufcJh=u+yD; 'kOuUÏtjzpf (6)
OD;&Syd gw,f? Adv
k t
f ;kH wif (jynfoŒl &Jabmf)/ OD;vSausmf (a&SŒae}uD;)/ Aef;armfwifatmif (pma&;q&m)/
ocifazoef;/ rGefzdk;csKd (rGefwdkif;&if;om;tpnf;t±Hk;)/ OD;at;armif (v$wfawmfa&SŒae}uD;) wdk@jzpf=u
ygw,f? taxGtaxGtwGi;f a&;rª; Akv
d af tmifEikd f (jynfoŒl &Jabmf) jzpf+yD; wGb
J uftaxGaxGtwGi;f
a&;rª;ESpfOD;uawmh ocifvSau| (bDwD,lpDXmecsKyf) eJ@ &JabmfvS0if; (jynfolŒwdk;wufa&;ygwD)
wdk@jzpf=uygw,f? t+rJwrf;aumfrDwDrSm Auo u udkwifxGef; eJ@ wuo u udkwifat; wdk@yg0if
cJh=uovdk u&iftrsKd;om;tzGJŒcsKyfu ref;atmif=unfwdk@vnf; yg0ifcJh=uygw,f?
rwfv (12) &ufae@rSm ‘w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_ESifh e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&; trsKd;om;aumfrDwD’
}uD;&JŒ ‘wdik ;f jynfo@kd E_;d aqmfyef=um;v$m’ xGuaf y:vmygw,f? w±kwjf zLusL;ausmrf _ ordik ;f aemufceH @J
wuG wifjy+yD; w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_&JŒ &nf&G,fcsufudkvnf; qD;wdk;ppftkyfpk&JŒ ppfa&;&nfrSef;csuf
awGe@J tnD taumiftxnfazmfaewmjzpfa=umif; azmfxw
k zf iG chf sygw,f? trsK;d om;vGwv
f yfa&;udk
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om;vH;k u aoG;pnf;nD!w
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f u
kd cf u
kd =f uzd@k aumfrw
D }D uD;eJ@twl yl;wG+J yD; usL;ausmpf u
G f
zufol &efoel ,fcsŒJ udk tHºk uGqef@usif wdu
k cf u
kd =f uzd@k E_;d aqmfyef=um;xm;ygw,f? w±kwjf zLusL;ausmf
r_udk wdkuf=u/ tar&duefe,fcsJΠpGufzufr_udk qef@usif=u/ trsKd;om;nD!Gwfa&; wnfaqmuf=u
qdkwJh aºuG;a=umfoHawGudkvnf; azmfxkwf aºuG;a=umfxm;ygw,f?
rwfv (9) &ufae@uyJ q&m}uD;ocifu,
kd af wmfrid_ ;f OD;pD;aqmif&u
G w
f hJ ‘jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;
tzGJŒ}uD;’ udkvnf; jyefvnfzGJŒpnf;vdkuf=uygw,f? 59 ckESpfu ysufoGm;cJh&wJh jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;
tzGJŒ}uD;tpm; jyefvnfzGJŒpnf;vdkufwmjzpfygw,f? OuUÏ tjzpf q&m}uD;rd_if;/ 'kwd,OuUÏrsm;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

267

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

tjzpf Adv
k rf ;ª csKyfa[mif;ausmaf Zm eJ@ OD;baomf wd@k u wm0efcaH qmif&u
G yf gw,f? taxGaxGtwGi;f
a&;rª;tjzpf OD;xGef;wif jzpfvmygw,f? jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒrSm twGif;a&;rª;tzGJŒudkvnf;
zGJŒpnf;xm;+yD; pma&;q&m}uD; q&mAef;armfwifatmif/ armifarmifwif (a&SŒae}uD;OD;vSwifh)/
armifwifa&$ (rHk&GmOD;wifa&$)/ OD;pdk;rif; (Avp)/ apmausmfpdk; (u&iftrsKd;om;) pwJhyk*~KdvfawGeJ@
zGŒJ pnf;xm;wmjzpfygw,f? jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;tzGŒJ }uD;twGi;f yg0ifvy_ &f mS ;aeolawG trsm;pk[m
w±kwfjzLqef@usifa&;eJ@ e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&; trsKd;om;aumfrDwDrSmvnf; yg0ifv_yf&Sm;aeolawGjzpf
=uygw,f?
rwfv (13) &ufae@ jynfolŒv$wfawmftpnf;ta0;rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek u rdef@cGef;w&yf
ajym=um;wmvkyfygw,f? w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_eJ@ ywfouf+yD; ajym=um;wmygovdk/ rGefeJ@ &cdkifjynf
e,fay;a&;eJ@ywfouf+yD;awmhvnf; ajym=um;oGm;cJhygw,f?
w±kwjf zLusL;ausmrf e_ @J ywfouf+y;D w±kwjf zLoufoufuykd J azmfjyoGm;ovd/k omrefjy\em
w&yfvdk ajym=um;oGm;wJhtjyif/ azazmf0g&D (21) &ufae@u &efukefòrdrSm jzpfay:cJhwJh w±kwfjzLqef@
usifa&; tar&duefe,fcsJŒqef@usifa&; qENjyyGJ}uD;udkvnf; +idrf;csrf;pGmr[kwf t=urf;zufwJhvkyf&yf
awG&SdwJh oabmrsKd;/ ±_wfcswJhoabmrsKd; ajymqdkoGm;cJhygw,f?
&cdik ef @J rGejf ynfe,fay;a&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; ajymqd&k mrSmawmh OD;Eku tqdðk ycsut
f opfwck
udk wifjyoGm;ygw,f? jynfe,fay;a&;udpPtwGuf rJyHk;axmifwJhpepfudk rusifhoHk;awmhyJ &cdkifjynf
e,fudk tqifh (3) qifheJ@ taumiftxnfazmfoGm;zdk@ pDpOfxm;w,fvdk@qdkygw,f? yxrtqifh
&cdik af &;&m0ef}uD;cef@/ 'kw,
d tqifh &cdik jf ynfe,f jyifqifa&;aumfrw
D zD ŒJG / wwd,tqifh &cdik jf ynfe,f
zGJŒpnf;oGm;zdk@ qdkwmyJjzpfygw,f?
rGefjynfe,fzGJŒpnf;a&;rSmvnf; OD;Ek&JŒ tqkdðycsufuawmh tqifh (3) qifh tpDtpOfyJjzpfyg
w,f? yxrtqifh rGeaf &;&m0ef}uD;cef@/ 'kw,
d qifh rGejf ynfe,f jyifqifa&;aumfrw
D zD ŒJG aemufq;kH qifh
rGefjynfe,fzGJŒpnf;a&;qdkwmyJjzpfygw,f?
rwfv (15) &ufae@rSm ‘w±kwfjzLqef@usifa&;ESifh e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&; trsKd;om;aumfrD
wD}uD;’ u ‘owif;pmrsm;od@k xkwjf yefcsu’f qdw
k hJ xkwjf yefcsuw
f ck xkwjf yefvu
kd yf gw,f? xkwjf yef
csufxJrSmæ
“æw±kwfjzLwyfrsm;rSm tar&duefOD;pD;aom qD;wdk;. EdkifiHa&;/ ppfa&;aoe*FAsL[m
enf;y&d,m,frsm;t& v_yf&Sm;aeaom vufeufudkifusL;ausmfa&;wyfzGJŒ}uD;rsm;jzpfa=umif;/ Arm
jynfwGifru urBmw&yfvHk;yg ±kyfvHk;ay:cJhayonf?” [k azmfjyxm;wJhtjyif “ætpdk;&taejzifh
(u) ,if; w±kwjf zLusL;ausmrf _ tE &W m,fukd ppfa&;t& xdxad &mufa&muf wdu
k x
f w
k jf cif;/
(c) vlrsKd;pkjy\emrsm;udkvnf; t&if;cHjzpfaom EdkifiHa&;enf;t&yg ajz&Sif;jcif;/
(*) w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_udk ukvor*~wGif xda&mufpGmwdkif=um; ta&;,ljcif;/
(C) jynfoŒl v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk jynfow
l @kd EiS t
hf wl Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; acwfuo
hJ @kd yl;aygi;f v_yf
&Sm;jcif;rsm; ðyoifhayonf?”
æ [kvnf; tpkd;&udk wdkufwGef;E_d;aqmfvdkufygw,f? wqufwnf;rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek &JŒ
rwfv (13) &ufae@rdef@cGef;yg w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_jy\emtay: ajymqdkwifjyoGm;yHkudkvnf;
268

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

obm0rusa=umif; axmufjya0zefxm;ygw,f? “0ef}uD;csKyf. w±kwfjzLrdef@cGef;rSm rdrdjynfolwdk@
tm; 0ef}uD;csKyftaejzihf rdrdwdk@ usL;ausmfcH&r_udk rsKd;cspfpdwfaemufcHjzifhvnf;aumif;/ ajymjcif;ESifh
rwlyJ Edik if w
H Edik if t
H m; awmif;yefaeonfo
h abmom zH;k v$r;f aeayonf?” vd@k vnf; a0zefuef@uu
G f
ygw,f? aumfrDwDtaejzifh w±kwfjzLqef@usifa&;eJ@ e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&; uef@uGufqENjyyGJrsm;udk
qufvufðyvkyfoGm;r,hfta=umif;/ &efukef tif;pdefc±dkifrSm aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;/ a[majymyGJrsm;/ ydkpwm
wdkufyGJrsm; usif;yðyvkyfoGm;+yD; {+yDv (9) &ufae@rSm &efukefòrdŒvHk;u|wfqENjyyGJ}uD;usif;y&ef pDpOf
aewJhta=umif; azmfjyxkwfjyefygw,f?
tJ'D 1961 ckESpf/ rwfv (15) &ufae@rSmyJ &efukef urf;em;vrf; ajcmufxyf±Hk;opf}uD;rSm
‘jynfe,frsm;jy\emoH;k oyfa&;aumfrw
D ’D tpnf;ta0;xkid cf yhJ gw,f? tJ'rD mS tajccHOya'jyifqif
a&;eJ@ ywfoufwhJ ‘&Sr;f jynfe,f’ u wifoiG ;f wJh ‘tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;pmwrf;’ eJ@ u&ifjynfe,f
0ef}uD; a'gufwmapmvSxGef; wifoGif;wJh ‘tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;eJ@ ywfoufwJhrl=urf;’ wdk@udk
wifoiG ;f ygw,f? oH;k oyfa&;aumfrw
D u
D &Sr;f jynfe,fuwifoiG ;f wJh tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;pmwrf;
udkyJ tajccHxm;+yD; aqG;aEG;r_vkyfygw,f?
tJ'D ‘tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;pmwrf;’ b,fvkday:aygufvmovJqdkwm wenf;tm;jzifh
&Srf;jynfe,fu wifoGif;wJh tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;pmwrf;yg ‘jynfaxmifpkppfppfrl’ odk@r[kwf
‘&Srf;rl’ b,fvdkjzwfoef; ay:aygufvmovJqdkwm tifrwefta&;}uD;ygw,f?
wu,fu &Srf;jynfe,fu wifoGif;cJhwJh ‘tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;pmwrf;’ [m EdkifiHawmf
0ef}uD;csKyf OD;Ek udk,fwdkif&JΠpwifvrf;zGifhay;r_t& w&m;0ifay:aygufvmcJhwmjzpfygw,f?
1960 jynfh a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;rSm v$wfawmfwckvHk;&JΠtrwfOD;a& oHk;yHkESpfyHkausmf[m
tpdk;&&JŒvufxJrSm &SdaewJhtwGuf jynfaxmifpkwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;twGuf zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccH
Oya'udk jyifqifcsifw,fqdk&if 'Dtcsdef[m taumif;qHk;vdk@ ±_jrif+yD; OD;Ek u pwifvrf;zGihfay;cJhwm
jzpfygw,f? 0ef}uD;tpnf;ta0;rSm OD;Eku (1) zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'udk jyifqifcsifw,fqdk&if 'Dtcsdef[m taumif;qHk;yJ?
(2) 'Dvdk taumif;qHk;jzpfwJhtwGuf zGJŒpnf;yHktajccHOya'udk b,fvdkjyifqifcsifovJ/
jynfe,ftpdk;&tzGJŒawGudk ar;r,f?
(3) jynfe,ftpd;k & tzGŒJ awGu wifjywJh tqdak wGukd us,u
f s,jf yef@jyef@ aqG;aEG;Edik af tmif
qDrDem (seminar) wckac:ay;r,f? jynfe,ftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,fawGa&m twdkuftcH
udk,fpm;vS,fawGa&m zdwfr,f?
(4) aqG;aEG;yGJrSm rdom;pkaqG;aEG;=uwJhenf;twdkif; aqG;aEG;r,f? trsm;vufcHoabmwl
Edik w
f t
hJ qdak wGukd csucf si;f taumiftxnfazmf/ tajz&Smr&ao;wJh tqdak wGukd quf+y;D
aqG;aEG;r,f?
æ qdkwJh tcsuf (4) csufudk csjyw,f? tJ'Dtcsuf (4) csufudk 0ef}uD;tzGJŒu oabmwl
vufc+H yD; vkt
d yfwt
hJ pDtpOfawGukd vdt
k yfovdk vkyu
f ikd Ef ikd zf @kd w&m;a&;0ef}uD;Xmeudk wm0efvaJ$ y;
vdkufygw,f? 'ga=umifh 1960 jynfh pufwifbm (22) &uf ygvDreftpnf;ta0;rSm jyifqifa&;aumf
rDwzD ŒJG pnf;zd@k tqdw
k if+yD;/ v$waf wmfu twnfðycJyh gw,f? w&m;a&;0ef}uD; a'guw
f mOD;at;armif
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

269

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

OuUXtjzpf aqmif&GufwJh tzGJŒ0if (29) OD; yg0ifwJh ‘tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;aumfrDwD’udk Ekd0ifbm
(10) &ufae@ ae@pGJeJ@ EdkifiHawmforRwu zGJŒpnf;ay;cJhygw,f? tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;aumfrDwD
ay:aygufvmygw,f?
1? 'Drdkua&pDudk xdcdkufvmrnfhtcsufrsm;/
2?jynfaxmifpk}uD; wnfwHcdkif+rJa&;udk xdcdkufvmrnfh jyÏmef;csufrsm;/
3? jynfaxmifp}k uD; pnf;vH;k nD!w
G af &;udk xdcu
kd rf nft
h csurf sm;udk rlwnf+yD; tajccHOya'
}uD; wckvHk;&JΠrludk rysufapyJ jyifqifzdk@vdk@ qdkygw,f?
tJ'v
D kd pwifvrf;zGiv
hf u
kd w
f ma=umifh zGŒJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'jyifqifa&;eJ@ ywfoufwhJ w&m;
0if pnf;±Hk;/ aqG;aEG;/ v_yf&Sm; a0zefoHk;oyf=uwmawG ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? jynfe,fawG vlrsKd;pk
awGtzd@k trSew
f u,fvnf; v_yv
f y_ &f mS ;&Sm; aqG;aEG;oH;k oyf a0zefaxmufjy&r,ft
h csed jf zpfygw,f?
&ufaygif; (108) &ufeJ@ t+yD;a&;qGJ+yD; vGwfvyfa&;udk tjrefqHk;&&Sdatmif aqmif&Gufxm;cJh&wJh
1947 ckEpS f zGŒJ pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'}uD;[m tm;enf;csu/f vdt
k yfcsuaf wG/ csKŒd ,Gi;f csuaf wG rkcsy&J adS erSm
jzpfwJhtwGuf axmufjya0zef oHk;oyf=uzdk@ trSefwu,fvnf; vdktyfae+yDjzpfygw,f? vGwfvyf
a&;&,l+yD; (10) ESp=f um&if cGx
J u
G v
f u
kd cGx
J u
G yf ikd cf iG &hf w
dS ,fv@kd w&m;0ifjyÏmef; azmfjyxm;wJh &Sr;f jynf
e,ftwGuf ydkrdk+yD; pOf;pm;&r,fhoHk;oyf&r,fh tcsdefjzpfygw,f? 58 ckESpfuwnf;u (10) ESpfjynfh
ajrmufc+hJ yD;jzpfovd/k tdraf pmift
h pd;k &vufxyfrmS &Sr;f vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;}uD;vnf; ay:ayguf
cJh&+yD;/ vlrsKd;pkvufeufudkif awmfvSefa&;wdkif;vdkvdk&JŒ tjrifhqHk;&nfrSef;csufjzpfwJh ‘vGwfvyfwJh
orwEdik if ’H xlaxmifa&;toHawGvnf; obm0usus xGuaf y:vmaewm jrifawGŒ =um;odae&csed f
jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh tajccHOya'jyifqifa&; v_yf&Sm;r_awG[mvnf; &Srf;jynfuyJ pwifcJh&wm
&Srf;jynfuyJ ydkrdk+yD; txl;pdwf0ifwpm; ta&;,laqmif&GufwmawG awGŒjrif=u&wmjzpfygw,f?
v$waf wmfrmS tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;aumfrw
D zD ŒGJ zd@k twnfðy+yD;wJah emuf/ (29) OD; aumfrw
D D
w&m;0ifxu
G af y:rvmrSu
D av;rSmyJ 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek eJ@&if;ES;D +yD; olu,
kd w
f ikd f 0ef}uD;jzpfwhJ pyfceG cf sK[
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tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; vdt
k yfwhJ t=uH^m%f a0zefaqG;aEG;r_awG us,u
f s,jf yef@jyef@
&&Sda&; &nf&G,fcsufeJ@ wufwufºuGºuG aqmif&Gufr_awG vkyfcJhygw,f? &Srf;jynfe,ftrwfawG
tm;vH;k / trwfrsm;rJqENe,fu ud,
k pf m;vS,f (2) OD;pD/ &Sr;f jynfygwt
D zGŒJ tpnf;rsm;rS ud,
k pf m;vS,f
(3) OD;pDeJ h &Sr;f jynfe,fta&; pdw0f ifpm;=uwJh woD;yk*r~ sm;eJ@ wuG yifvpHk mcsKyf vufrw
S af &;xd;k cJw
h hJ
yk*~Kdvfrsm;a&m/ &Srf;jynfu wdkif;ðyjynfðy v$wfawmftrwfa[mif;awGudkyg zdwf=um;+yD; tpnf;t
a0;}uD;w&yf usif;ycJhygw,f? 1960 jynfh Edk0ifbm (7) &ufae@rSm awmif}uD;òrdŒrSm usif;ycJhwmjzpfyg
w,f? tJ'Dtpnf;ta0;}uD;udk wufa&mufcJh=uwJh udk,fpm;vS,ftm;vHk;uyJ vuf&SdzGJŒpnf;yHktajc
cHOya'udk róuduf=ua=umif;/ ydk+yD;wduswJh jynfaxmifpkpepf (Federation) udk vdkcsif=ua=umif;
wifjyaqG;aEG;cJh=uw,fqdkygw,f?
tJ'Dtpnf;ta0;uae tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;twGuf ‘tajccHOya' pDppfa&;aumfrDwD’
udk yxr tzGJŒ0if (25) OD; aemufydkif;rSm (32) OD;eJ@ zGJŒpnf;vdkufygw,f? obmywdu &Srf;jynfe,f
aumifpD obmywd pyfjynf/h twGi;f a&;rª; pyf=umpHk jzpfygw,f? ¡aemufyikd ;f rSm aumfrw
D &D ŒJ trnfukd
vnf; ‘jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH. zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya' jyifqifa&;qGJa&; (&Srf;jynfe,f
270

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

qdkif&m) óud;udkifaumfrDwD’ vdk@ jyifqifac:a0:cJhygw,f¢
OD;xGef;jrifh (awmif}uD;)/ OD;wifat;/ OD;xGef;az/ OD;xGef;tHk/ OD;xGef;at;(yifvHk)/ OD;xGef;at;
(erfhcrf;)/ OD;bvGif/ OD;udkudk}uD; wdk@wawGuvnf; awmif}uD;òrdŒrSm tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;udpPudk
aqG;aEG;cJh=u+yD;wJhaemuf tajccHOya'eJ@ ywfoufwJhoabmxm;awGudk yGifhyGifhvif;vif; azmfjywJh
tcef;qufpmwrf;&Snf}uD;udk Adkvfwaxmifowif;pmuae xnfhoGif;azmfjyvdkufygw,f? 60 jynfh
ESpf/ 'DZifbm (6) &ufuae (18) &ufae@txd jzpfygw,f? ‘u|efawmfwdk@ vdkvm;aom jynfaxmif
pkpepf’ qdkwJhacgif;pD;eJ@ OD;xGef;jrifh (awmif}uD;) ua&;om;cJhygw,f? tJ'Dacgif;pD;[m/ OD;xGef;jrifh
(awmif}uD;) &JŒ ‘jynfaxmifpkwGif;rS wef;wlaom&Srf;jynf’ qdkwJh pmwrf;}uD;xJu acgif;pOfi,fwck
jzpfygw,f? pmwrf;&JŒ tESpfcsKyfu zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'}uD;[m jynfaxmifpkzGJŒpnf;tkyf
csKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'r[kw/f jynfaxmifpk ppfppfr[kw/f jynfaxmifpv
k @kd emrnfwyfay;xm;wJh wjynf
axmifpepfomjzpfw,f? zm;wydkif; ig;wydkif;pepfomjzpfygw,f? Armacgif;aqmifrsm;eJ@ Oya'ynm
&Sifrsm;u vSnfhpm;vdkufwmomjzpfw,f? wjcrf;yJh jynfaxmifpkomjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh zGJŒpnf;yHk
tajccHOya'udk jyif&r,f? jynfaxmifpkppfppfudk zGJŒpnf;&r,fqdkwmjzpfygw,f? jynfaxmifpkudk
b,fvdkjyif qifzGJŒpnf;=urvJqdkwmeJ@ ywfouf+yD;awmhvnf; ‘u|efawmfwdk@vdkvm;aom jynf
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‘&Srf;jynfe,f. epfemcsuf rauseyfcsufrsm; ajyvnfap&ef vuf&SdtajccHOya'udk jyefvnfpDppfI
jyifqif=u&ayrnf’ vdk@ wifjyxm;ygw,f?
1961 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&D (25) &ufae@rSm &Srf;jynfe,f jynfvHk;u|wfnDvmcHudk awmif}uD;òrdŒ
rSmyJ usi;f yygw,f? óud;udik af umfrw
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kd /f pyfxeG ;f at;/ pyfausmaf cgi/f OD;vSaz/ OD;pd;k armif eJ@ OD;cGepf jH rwf
wdk@yg0ifwJh ajcmufOD;aumfrDwDudk zGJŒay;+yD;/ tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;pmwrf;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; a'gufwm
OD;at;armif eJ@aqG;aEG;zdk@ wm0efay;ygw,f? &Srf;jynfe,fuae tJ'Denf;eJ@ a&;qGJjzpfay:vm+yD;
EdkifiHawmftpdk;&&JŒ (29) OD;yg ‘tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;aumfrDwD’ qD w&m;0ifwifoGif;vdkufwJh
‘tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;pmwrf;’ udk ‘jynfaxmifpkppfrl’ ‘&Srf;rl’ vdk@ ac:a0: =uwmjzpfygw,f?
tJ'Djynfaxmifppfrl (wenf;tm;jzifh) &Srf;rludk 1961 ckESpf/ rwfv 20 &ufae@rSm ‘jynfe,f
rsm;jy\em oHk;oyfa&;aumfrDwD’ txl;tpnf;ta0;rSmvnf; xyfrHpOf;pm;aqG;aEG;cJh=uygw,f?
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yxp twGif;rSmawmh ‘OD;-Adkvf-ocif’ wdk@&JŒ uGJoH tufoH v_yf&Sm;oHawG[m qufvufjzpfay:
v_yf&Sm;aecJhygw,f? w±kwfjzL usL;ausmfcH&r_ jy\em[m jynfolvlxktwGif;rSm a&SŒwef;a&muf
vmaeygw,f? OD;Ekuawmh olŒZmwfukd olEikd af tmifuzd@k óu;d pm;&if;/ yxrqH;k olŒygwD yxp tuGu
J kd
qGJaphzdk@ ajcwvSrf;vSrf;vdkufygw,f? OuUÏtjzpfrS E_wfxGufpm wifvdkufjcif;jzpfygw,f? 61 ckESpf
rwfvxJrSmyJ jzpfygw,f?
tm%m& yxp ygwD A[kdaumfrDwDwckvHk; v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;jzpfoGm;ygw,f? yxp A[dkt
vkyftr_aqmif tpnf;ta0;xdkif+yD;/ tpnf;ta0;u ‘OD;EkudkyJ yxp EdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m nDvmcH}uD;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

271

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

usif;yjzpf+yD;/ +yD;pD;wJhtxd OuUÏ tjzpfeJ@ qufvufxrf;aqmifay;zdk@/ OuUÏ oabmus auseyfwJh
A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJŒopfudk a&G;cs,fcef@xm;+yD; yxp wm0efudk qufvufo,faqmifEdkifzdk@
vuf&Sd A[dktvkyftr_aqmifwzGJŒvHk; E_wfxGufay;zdk@’ qHk;jzwfvdkufygw,f? OD;Ek vufxJudk yxp
tzGJŒ}uD;wckvHk;udk yHk+yD;tyfvdkuf=uwJh oabmjzpfygw,f? OD;Eku vufcHvdkuf+yD; ‘yxp jynfvHk;
u|wfnDvmcH}uD; +yD;pD;wJhtxd wm0ef,lxdef;odrf;oGm;zdk@’ qdk+yD; ‘yxp tdrfapmifhaumfrDwD’ udk
zGJŒpnf;vdkufygw,f? yxp tdrfapmifhaumfrDwDrSm OD;Eku OuUÏ/ pnf;±Hk;a&;wm0efcHtjzpf t}uHay;
t&m&Sd OD;tkef;/ aiGxdef;tjzpf OD;Zm&JvsHwdk@jzpfygw,f? aumfrDwDudk ulnDzdk@ 0ef}uD;ocifwif/ 0ef}uD;
Adkvfrª;atmif/ 0ef}uD;a'gufwmat;armifeJ@ 0ef}uD;qrm;'l;0g;/ qif0g;aemifwdk@yg0ifwJh twdkifyifcH
tzGJŒwckudkvnf; zGJŒpnf;vdkufygw,f? yxp ygwD A[dkaumfrDwDwGif; tuJGt+yJuawmh ,m,D+idrf;
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qef@usifa&;aumfrDwDzGJŒ+yD; qef@usifv_yf&Sm; axmufjya0zefae=uwJhtwGuf EdkfifiHawmf0ef}uD;csKyf
taeeJ@ vlod&Sif=um; jyefvnfajymqdkv_yf&Sm;vm&ygw,f? tar&duefoH±Hk;a&SŒ vlxkqENjyyGJ}uD;
vnf; ay:aygufvmcJh&+yD;jzpfwJhtwGuf tpdk;&taeeJ@ ‘rJacgifppfqifa&;’ eJ@ jyefvnfwdkufxkwf
armif;ESifypfEdkifzdk@ óud;pm;tm;xkwfae±HkeJ@ rvHkavmufawmhyJ/ tpdk;&&JŒ oabmxm;eJ@ ajz&Sif;r_udkyg
xkwfazmf&Sif;vif;r_ vkyfvm&ygw,f? OD;Eku tar&duefudk wdwdvif;vif; xkwfazmfuef@uGufwm
rvkyfyJ/ a0h0dkuf+yD; ajymqdkaecJhygw,f? tar&duefòidjiifrSmudk pdk;&GHŒaewJh oabm&Sdygw,f? 1961
ckESpf/ rwfv 23 &ufae@ jynfolŒv$wfawmftpnf;ta0;rSm w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_eJ@ ywfouf+yD;
OD ; Ek u &S i f ; vif ; ajymqd k w m vk y f y gw,f ? OD ; Ek & J Œ rd e f @ cG e f ; xJ r S m - “u|ef a wmf w d k @ &J Œ
jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf[m azmfrdkqmtpdk;&u tultnDay;aewJh w±kwfjzLusL; ausmfa&;
orm;awG&JŒ xdyg;wdkufcdkufr_udk tvl;tvJcHae&wm[m (11) ESpfawmif&Sdaeyg+yD? w±kwfjzLawGoHk;
aewJh ppfypPnf;awG[m tar&duefuyJ&&/ b,fEdkifiHuyJ&&/ 'guawmh u|efawmfwdk@twGuf jy\
em}uD;jzpfw,fvdk@ rxifygbl;? u|efawmfwdk@twGuf ta&;}uD;qHk;uawmh u|efawmfwdk@ tvl;tvJ
cHae=u&wJh tajctaeqdk;udk &yfwef;u&yfvdkufcsifwJh tcsufyJjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh tar&duefjynf
axmifpk[m azmfrdkqmeJ@ qufqH&if;ESD;jcif;&SdwJh EdkifiHjzpfwJhtwGuf u|efawmfwdk@ tajctaeqdk;udk
&yfwef;u &yfay;Edkifvdrfhr,fvdk@ u|efawmfwdk@,Hk=unfygw,f” vdk@ ajymqdkoGm;ygw,f? 'Drdef@cGef;xJ
rSmyJ tar&duefoH±Hk;a&SŒ qENjyyGJ}uD;eJ@ ywfouf+yD; t=urf;zufr_&SdwJhtwGuf ±_wfcswJh oabmrsKd;
wm;jrpfcsifwJh oabmrsKd;vnf; ajymqdkoGm;ygw,f?
“'D qENjyyGJudk pnf;±Hk;aqmif&Guf=uwJh yk*~KdvfawG[m wdkif;cspfjynfcspfpdwf"mwfa=umifh
aqmif&u
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u|efawmf ajymcsifygw,f?
272

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

udk,fhwdkif;jynfu vufcHxm;wJh {nfhonfEdkifiHawGudk OD;wnf+yD; t=urf;zufwm rrSefbl;
rSm;w,f? {nfo
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k yJjzpfjzpf/ =um;aeEdik if aH wGuyJ
jzpfjzpf 'DEkdifiHawGtay:rSm pnf;vGwfurf;vGwf Oya'vGwfðyrlwmudkawmh u|efawmfwdk@tpdk;&[m
b,fenf;eJ@rS vufydkuf=unfh raeEdkifygbl;? wm;jrpf&rSmyJ” vdk@ OD;Eku ajymqdkcJhygw,f?
OD;Ek&JŒ w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_tay: ajz&Sif;yHk ajz&Sif;enf;eJ@ oabmxm;udk wdk;wufwJh EdkifiH
a&;tiftm;pkrsm;u b0ifrusjzpfcJh=uygw,f? OD;Ek&JΠrdef@cGef;udkvnf; jyefvSefa0zef uef@uGufcJh=u
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wJhtjyif “0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_udpPudk olŒq&m tar&duefudk awmif;yefwdk;±_d;
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w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfr_eJ@ e,fcsJŒqef@usifa&;aumfrDwDuvnf; a0zef±Hkru w±kwfjzLusL;
ausmfr_udk wdkufxkwf=u/ tar&duefe,fcsJΠpGufzufr_udk uef@uGuf=u/ trsKd;om;nD!Gwfa&;wnf
aqmuf =uqdw
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udk xkwjf yefvu
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k f
yGJrSm tEkynm&Sifrsm;yg yg0ifv_yf&Sm;ulnD=uzdk@ tqdkðyxm;wJh yef=um;csufjzpfygw,f?
yef=um;csuef @J tnD e,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &;v_y&f mS ;r_xJ yg0ifvm=uwJh pma&;q&mawG xGuaf y:
vmovdk/ *Dwe,fu aw;a&;ol aw;qdkolawGvnf; xGufay:vmcJhygw,f? aw;oD;csif;awGvnf;
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OD;Ekuawmh wnfrh wfwhJ =um;aea&;0g'udk usio
hf ;kH vdu
k ef maew,fv@kd aºuG;a=umf&if; ta&SŒ
tkyfpkeJ@ taemuftkyfpk=um; b,ftkyfpk&JΠrsufESmt!dkrS rcH&atmif &mZy&d,m,fudk tm;udk;+yD;
ajymqdkv_yf&Sm;&yfwnfcJhygw,f? w±kwfjzLjy\emudkvnf; ‘tar&duefudk wdkuf±dkufwdk@xd a0zefr_
rðyyJ arwWm&yfcHyef=um;wJh enf;rsKd;toHk;ðy+yD;’ ajz&Sif;zdk@ aZmif;ay;vkyfaqmifcJhygw,f?
1960 jynfh {+yDvrS 1961 ckESpf/ {+yDvtxd yxptpdk;& wESpfwmtwGif; 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek
OD;aqmifajz&Si;f &wJh jy\em}u;D 5 ck &Sw
d ,fv@kd t=urf;zsi;f owfrw
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ay:aygufcJhw,fvdk@vnf; a,bk,sajymqdkEdkifygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh tm%m& yxp tzGJŒ}uD;&JŒ
OD;-Adkvf-ocif tuGJjy\em/ &cdkif-rGef-csif;jynfe,fzGJŒpnf;ay;a&;jy\em/ Ak'<bmom EdkifiHawmf
bmom jyÏmef;a&;jy\em/ tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;jy\emeJ@ w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfcH&r_jy\em
qdkwJh jy\em}uD; 5 ck yJjzpfygw,f?
OD;Adkvfocif tuJGjy\emu yxp wGif; ygwDwGif;jy\emjzpf+yD; ae&m&vdkr_ &mxl;
tm%m tvkrd jynfrh a_ wGuae *d%
k ;f *%mtkypf yk JG òydiq
f ikd =f u&if; ygww
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jy\emomjzpfygw,f? ygwDwGif;jy\emjzpfygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

273

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

Ak'<bmomEdkifiHawmfbmom jyÏmef;a&;jy\emuawmh 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek&JŒ Ak'<bmomudk
,Hk=unfudkif;±_dif;&mu omoemh'g,um}uD; vkyfcsifvGef;vSwJh pdwfqENa=umihfa&m/ oG,f0dkuf+yD;
rJqG,fpnf;±Hk;&mrSm ay;cJh&bl;wJh uwda=umifhyg aygif;qHk+yD; jzpfay:vmcJh&wJh jy\emjzpfygw,f?
yk*~Kdvfa&;qdkif&m jy\emjzpfygw,f?
&cdkif-rGef-csif; jynfe,fzGJŒpnf;ay;a&; jy\emeJ@ tajccHOya'jyifqifa&; jy\emuawmh
jynfaxmifpkqdkif&m jy\emawGjzpfygw,f? zGJŒpnf;yHkqdkif&m jy\emvnf;jzpfygw,f? 'gvnf;
0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek udk,fwdkif pwifvrf; zGihfay;vdkuf+yD;rS ydkrdktoHjrnfv_yf&Sm;vmcJhwJh jy\emjzpfyg
w,f? t&ifuwnf;u &cdkif eJ@ rGef[m jynfe,f&&Sda&; &nfrSef;csuftwGuf EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_
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awG zGŒJ pnf;ay;cJ/h vrf;zGiahf y;cJ+h yD;wJah emufrS ay:ayguv
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JG Ekid &f &Sad &;awGtwGuf OD;Eka=unmajymqdck b
hJ ;l wJh uwdu0wf/
rJqG,fpnf;±Hk; pum;awGeJ@vnf; ywfoufaecJh+yD;/ tJ'Duwdu0wfawGudk jznfhqnf;ay;zdk@ vkyfudkif
aqmif&Guf&muae ay:aygufvmcJhwJh jy\emawGomjzpfygw,f? jynfe,fawGbufu v_yf&Sm;r_
awG[mvnf; w&m;ojzifh v_yf&Sm;r_awGom jzpfygw,f?
tajccHOya'jyifqifa&; jy\em[mvnf; jynfe,fzGJŒpnf;xm;r_ jy\emtay:uae
t&if;cHaygufzGm;vm+yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek udk,fwdkif jynfaxmifpkwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;twGuf jyifqifoifh
wmawG jyifqifEdkifzdk@ pwifvrf;zGifhay;&muae w&m;0ifay:aygufvmwJh jy\emomjzpfygw,f?
w&m;0iftqdkðy wifjya0zefv_yf&Sm;vm=uawmhomjzpfygw,f?
w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfcH&r_jy\emuawmh tcsKyftcsmtm%mudk txdyg;cH&wJh jy\em
jynfyusL;ausmfolawG&JΠusL;ausmfr_udkcH&wJh jy\emjzpfygw,f? 1949 ckESpfuwnf;u pwifusL;
ausmfcHcJh&wmjzpf+yD;/ 1960-61 xJrSm jyefvnfxyfrH}uD;xGm;vm&wJh jy\emjzpfygw,f?
yxpwGif; ygwDwGif; tuJGjy\emudk OD;Eku olŒpdwfwdkif;us tdrfapmifhaumfrDwDzGJŒpnf;cGifh
&&Sjd cif;tm;jzifh ,m,D+idro
f ufatmif xde;f odr;f vdu
k Ef ikd +f yD; ,m,Dajz&Si;f xm;vdu
k Ef idk yf gw,f? Ak'b
< m
omEdik if aH wmfbmom jyÏmef;a&; jy\emuawmh aomifrwif a&rusbJ jzpfaeao;wJh a&SŒwd;k vJ&
aemufqkwfvJ&? OD;Ektay: yJ t"duwnfaewJh jy\emjzpfygw,f?
jynfe,frsm;zGJ@pnf;a&;jy\emeJ@ tajccHOya'jyifqifa&; jy\emuawmh ‘jynfaxmifpk’
pepfjy\emeJ@ wEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mjy\emjzpfygw,f? jynfe,fzGJŒpnf;a&;jy\emrSm &cdkif/ rGefwdk@
twGuf jynfe,fzŒJG pnf;ay;a&;udk tpd;k &u tajccHtm;jzifh rltm;jzifh oabmwlxm;+yD; jzpfygw,f?
tqifh (3) qifhtm;jzifh zGJŒpnf;ay;r,fvdk@ w&m;0ifa=unmajymqdk+yD; ajz&Sif;xm;+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f?
csif;twGufvnf; pOf;pm;xm;+yD;+yD jzpfygw,f?
tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;jy\emtwGuf &Sr;f jynfu wifoiG ;f vmwJh ‘&Sr;f rl’ wenf;tm;jzifh
jynfaxmifpkppfrludkvnf; pwifpOf;pm; oHk;oyfae=u+yD; ajz&Sif;a&;ajcvSrf;awGudk pwifvkyfudkif
aqmif&Gufae=u+yDvdk@ owfrSwfajymqdkEdkifygw,f?
274

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

w±kwjf zLusL;ausmcf &H r_jy\emudak wmh OD;Ektpd;k &[m tar&duefukd arwWm&yfc&H if; oHcif;
wrefcif;enf;eJ@ ajz&Sif;Edkifzdk@ óud;pm;ae&qJomjzpfygw,f? wzufu ppfa&;enf;eJ@ jyefvnfwdkuf
xkwaf &;udv
k nf; rv$rJ a&Smifom aqmif&u
G af e&if;/ t+yD;tydik af jz&Si;f Edik af &;qD ar#mv
f if&h nfa&mfaecJh
ygw,f? bufwzufu=unfh&if jzpfay:wnf&SdaewJh jy\emawGukd enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ@ &ifqdkifajz&Sif;
aeygw,f?
tjcm;bufwzufu =unfhr,fqdk&ifawmh bmjy\emudkrS +yD;jywfatmif atmifatmif
jrifjrif aqmif&Guf&jcif; aqmif&GufEkdifjcif; r&Sdao;yg?
vGwfvyfa&;eJ@twl ay:aygufvmcJh&wJh jynfwGif;ppf}uD;uvnf; qufvufawmufavmif
aeqJjzpf+yD;/ w&m;r#wwJh jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &; jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;[m tvSr;f a0;+rJ a0;ae&qJjzpf
ygw,f? jynfwGif;ppf}uD;udk w&m;ojzifh tqHk;rowfcsifolawG wyfwGif; wyfjyif tpdk;&tzJGŒwGif;
tzGJŒjyif &Sd+rJ&dSaeqJjzpfygw,f?
&Srf;jynfe,f udk,fpm;vS,fawGeJ@ ‘&yvz’ tzGJŒ0ifawGu tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;eJ@
ywfouf+yD; pmwrf;awGwif=u ‘rl’ awG azmfxkwf=ueJ@ v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufae=uwkef;rSm tpdk;&u
a'gufwmbOD;/ a'gufwmodef;armif/ OD;tHk;az/ OD;cspfaomif; wdk@yg0ifwJh EdkifiHawmft}uHay;tzGJŒudk
jynfaxmifpkrl (&Srf;rl) udkavhvm+yD; tpdk;&tzGJŒudk t}uH^m%fay;zdk@ {+yDv (27) &ufae@rSm wm0ef
ay;tyfygw,f? t}uHay;tzGJŒu &Srf;jynfe,fOuUÏ pyfcGefcsKd/ tjcm;jynfe,fOuUÏrsm;/ tpdk;&udk,f
pm;vS,frsm;/ jynfe,f jynfru EkdifiHa&;tzGJŒtpnf;toD;oD;u udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk zdwfac:awGŒ
qHkaqG;aEG; t=uH^m%f,lwmawG vkyfudkifaqmif&Gufygw,f?
1961 ckESpf/ arvwGif;rSmðyvkyfwJh jynfaxmifpktpkd;&0ef}uD;rsm; tpnf;ta0;uvnf;
‘csif;0daoowdkif;’ udk jynfe,fwe,ftqifh jr‡ifhwifzdk@eJ@ 1961-62 b¿ma&;ESpfup+yD; b¿ma&;
tm%m ydkay;zdk@ qHk;jzwfygw,f? tJ'DtwGuf t}uHay;aumfrDwDw&yfudkvnf; zGJŒpnf;ay;ygw,f?
aumfrDwDu oufqdkif&m csif;acgif;aqmifawGudk zdwfac:awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;wmawG pwifvkyfaqmif
ygw,f?
1961 ZGef (8) &ufuae (16) &ufae@txd awmif}uD;òrdŒrSm jynfe,faygif;pHknDvmcH}uD;
usif;yygw,f? &Srf;jynfe,ftpdk;&u OD;aqmif+yD; usif;ywmjzpfygw,f? jynfe,ftoD;oD;u acgif;
aqmifawGudk zdwf=um;ygw,f? r=umrD jynfe,f&awmhr,fh &cdkifeJ@ rGef acgif;aqmifawGudkvnf;
zdwf=um;ygw,f? &yvzeJ@ Armudk,fpm;vS,fawGudkawmh rzdwf=um;bl;vdk@qdkygw,f? &yvz u
OD;xGe;f jr/ OD;cef;eJ@ OD;atmifoef;wd@k uykd J yk*Kd~ vfa&;t& zdw=f um;cJw
h t
hJ wGuf &yvz uvnf; rwuf
a&mufyJaecJhw,f qdkygw,f? csif;acgif;aqmifawGudkvnf; zdwf=um;cJhygw,f?
tJ'Dawmif}uD;nDvmcH}uD;rSm &Srf;jynfe,fu wifoGif;cJhwJh tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;pmwrf;
tay: xyfraH qG;aEG;n‡Ed id_ ;f wmawGvyk =f uygw,f? tJ'n
D v
D mcH}uD;twGi;f rSm ‘jynfe,f &oif&h xdu
k f
onfh t&nftcsif;ESifh jynfhpHkonfh rGef/ &cdkif/ csif; vlrsKd;rsm; qENjyif;jypGmjzifh vdkvm;awmif;qdkvsuf
&Sdaom jynfe,frsm;udk tjrefqHk; taumiftxnfazmfay;&ef jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmftpdk;&tm;
TnDvmcH}uD;u wdkufwGef;a=umif;’ qdkwJhtqdkudk ucsifjynfe,fudk,fpm;vS,fwOD;jzpfwJh OD;Zef
xm;qif u wifoiG ;f cJyh gw,f? OD;Zefxm;qif &JŒtqdu
k kd nDvmcH}uD;u uef@uu
G o
f rl &Sd wnDw!Gwf
wnf; twnfðycJhygw,f?
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

275

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

nDvmcH}uD;twGi;f rSm ‘jynfe,frsm;nD!w
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k nf;
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yg0ifwJh tr_aqmiftzGJŒjzpfygw,f? nDvmcHaemufqHk;ae@jzpfwJh (16) &ufae@rSm tqkd (5) ckudk
wifoGif; twnfðycJh=uygw,f? t"dutusqHk; tqdkuawmh ‘&Srf;jynfe,frludk tajcðyI jynf
axmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH. zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'udk jyifqifa&;qGJyg&ef EdkifiHawmftpdk;&tm;
awmif;qdka=umif;’ qdkwmjzpfygw,f?
tajccHOya'udk vdktyfovdk jyifqif=uzdk@ tqdkrsm;wifoGif;=uygvdk@ jynfaxmifpktpdk;&u
zdwfac: vrf;zGifhay;vdkufwJhtay: xGufay:vmcJhwJh tqdkjzpfygw,f? tcsKyftm;jzifh ajym&r,fqdk&if
awmif}uD;nDvmcH}uD;uae xGufay:vmcJhwJh tajccHOya'jyifqifa&;rl[m ‘z,f'&,frl’ qdkwm
jzpfygw,f? &Srf;jynfuae pwifcJhwmjzpfwJhtwGuf ‘&Srf;rl’ vdk@vnf;ac:cJh=uygw,f?
yxrqHk; &Srf;jynfe,fu wifoGif;cJhwJh &Srf;rl[m awmif}uD;jynfe,faygif;pHknDvmcH}uD;udk
jzwfoef;+yD;wJt
h cg jynfe,faygi;f pHu
k vnf; tajccHtm;jzifh vufco
H abmwlvu
kd w
f hJ ‘rl’ tqifu
h kd
wqifhwufoGm;ygw,f?
'Dvkd wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d pkrsm; jynfe,frsm;&JΠw&m;ojzifv
h y_ &f mS ;r_awG awmif;qdw
k ifjyr_awG
jzpfay:vmaecsed rf mS (13) ESpaf usmf =umjrifah e+yDjzpfwhJ jynfwiG ;f ppf}uD;udk w&m;ojzifh &yfpyJ pfEikd af &;
jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;/ Akdvfrª;csKyfa[mif;ausmfaZm wdk@ acgif;
aqmifwhJ jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;tzGŒJ }uD;uvnf; jynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpaJ &;/ jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;v_y&f mS ;r_
awGudk tm;óud;rmefwuf qufvufvkyfaqmifvm=uygw,f? &efukefc±dkif +idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒudk zGJŒ
pnf;+yD;wJah emuf òrdŒe,f/ wdu
k ef ,f +idr;f csr;f a&;tzGŒJ tpnf;rsm; zGŒJ pnf;Edik zf @kd wjynfv;kH &Sd a'otoD;
oD;rSm c±dkifòrdŒe,f +idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒcGJrsm; ay:aygufzdk@ vHk;yrf;tm;xkwf jyifqifvm=uygw,f?
e,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &; trsK;d om;aumfrw
D }D uD;u e,fcsŒJ qef@usiaf &;v_y&f mS ;r_awG &Guaf qmifae
ovdk jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJŒ}uD;uvnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;udk OD;wnfaqmif&Guf&if; 'Drdkua&pDa&;
trsK;d om;aoG;pnf;nD!w
G af &;udpaP wGukd oabmxm;azmfxw
k f rD;armif;xd;k jywmawG vkyaf qmifae
cJhygw,f? vlrsKd;pkjy\emawGudk rSefrSefuefuef ajz&Sif;a&;udkyg rarhravsmh wifjycJhygw,f?
0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Eku =o*kwfv (15) &ufae@rSm ygvDrefrdef@cGef;wck ay;cJhygw,f? ygvDref'Drkdu
a&pDwnfaqmufa&;/ trsKd;om;nDvmcHac:qdk usif;ya&;eJ@ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;qdkif&m udpP&yfawG
xnfo
h iG ;f ajymqdo
k mG ;ygw,f? jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;tzGŒJ }uD;u 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D Ek &JŒ rde@f ceG ;f udk a0zefcyhJ g
w,f? 0ef}uD;csKyf&JŒ +idrf;csrf;a&;oabmxm;[m tðywfwdkufa&; vufeufcsa&;enf;tay:rSmyJ
&yfwnfaeao;wJt
h a=umif; axmufjyvdu
k +f yD; Edik if w
H umjy\emawGuakd wmif aqG;aEG;ajz&Si;f wJh
enf;eJ@ ajyvnfEdkifw,fvdk@ 0ef}uD;csKyf&JŒpum;t& ,Hk=unfw,fqdk&if jynfwGif;jy\emawGudk
vnf; aqG;aEG;ajz&Sif;=u&if rajyvnfEkdifp&mta=umif;r&SdwJhta=umif;/ 'ga=umifh aqG;aEG;=uzdk@
wdu
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aqmif&u
G w
f t
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l x
l t
k usK;d eJ@ udu
k n
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l x
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G o
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f kd
w&m;0if xkwfazmfcJhygw,f?
276

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

1961 ckEpS /f =o*kwv
f xJrmS ‘Ak'b
< momEdik if aH wmfbmomjyÏmef;a&;’ udpt
P ay:rSm rauseyf
Edkifoabm rwlEdkifwJh bmoma&;qdkif&m v_yf&Sm;r_awGvnf; ay:xGufcJhygw,f? Ak'<bmomudk EdkifiH
awmfbmomtjzpf jyÏmef;oifh ovm;qdkwJh ar;cGef;tay: jiif;cHkaqG;aEG;=ur_awG axmufcH=ur_/
uef@uGuf=ur_awGvnf; ay:aygufjrifhwufvmcJhygw,f? =o*kwfv (11) &ufae@rSm jynfreJ@ jynf
e,frsm;u c&pf,mefbmom0ifawG tpPvmrfbmom0ifawG/ ewfu;kd uG,o
f al wG (Ak'b
< momr[kwf
wJh Arm/ csi;f / ucsi/f u&ifawG) pka0;wdik yf if=u+yD; wdik ;f &if;om;bmoma&; vlenf;pkaygi;f pHk r[mrdwf
tzGJŒ zGJŒpnf;wnfaxmif=uum qENjyuef@uGufyGJawG usif;yðyvkyfvm=uygw,f? Ak'<bmomudk
Edik if aH wmfbmomtjzpf rjyÏmef;apcsiw
f hJ qENukd yGiyhf iG v
hf if;vif; azmfjyuef@uu
G cf =hJ uwm jzpfygw,f?
OD;Ekuawmh olŒ&JŒ pdwq
f ENtwdik ;f Ak'b
< momudk Edik if aH wmfbmomtjzpf jyÏmef;Edik zf @kd tpp
jyifpif+yD;+yDjzpfygw,f? ygvrD efrmS Edik if aH wmfbmom jyÏmef;a&;udk &ckid ef @J rGew
f @kd u uef@uu
G rf ,fq&kd if
&cdik ef @J rGejf ynfe,fay;r,fqw
kd hJ rdru
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k o
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k kd toHxu
G f
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P kd t=uyfuikd v
f m&ifawmh olw@kd &ŒJ zuf'&,frl
udpu
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kd nf; rdrq
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f @kd OD;Eku +cdr;f ajcmufovdv
k v
kd nf; ajymoH qdo
k H aumv
[vawG xGufay:vmcJhygw,f? zuf'&,frludpPudk axmufcHxm;&wJh csif;/ ucsif/ u&ifwdk@uvnf;
&Srf;eJ@ u,m;[m ygvDrefrSm EdkifiHawmfbmom Oya'=urf;udk uef@uGuf&mrSm olwdk@eJ@twl yl;aygif;
vm=uvdrrhf ,fv@kd ar#mv
f ifah e=uw,fqw
kd hJ owif;ywif;rsK;d awGvnf; xGuaf y:cJyh gw,f? zuf'&,f
rle@J Edik if aH wmfbmomudpu
P kd qufpyfajymqdk xifa=uay;=uwmawGvnf;&Scd yhJ gw,f? 'gayr,fh wdwd
usus vufqkyfvufudkifjyEdkifr_awmh wckrSr&SdcJhyg?
1961 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (26) &ufae@rSm vlrsKd;pkv$wfawmfa&m jynfolŒv$wfawmfyg v$wf
awmfEpS &f yfpkH yg0ifwhJ ygvrD eftpnf;ta0; usi;f ycsed rf mS zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya' yk'rf 21 (1)
jyÏmef;csufudk jyifqif+yD; Ak'<bmomudk EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpf jyÏmef;vdkufygw,f?
Ak'<bmom0if &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;/ Ak'<bmom0if ouf}uD;&G,ftdk awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u
awmh OD;Ek&JŒ 'DvkyfaqmifjyÏmef;csufudk om"kac: =uygw,f? auseyftm;&jzpf=uygw,f? EkdifiHa&;
tajrmftjrif&SdwJh Ak'<bmom 0ifwcsKdŒeJ@ Ak'<bmom0if r[kwfolrsm;uawmh 'DjyÏmef;csuftay:
awmfawmfuoduatmuf jzpf=uygw,f? rausrvnfjzpf=uygw,f? Ak'<bmom0ifr[kwfwJh wdkif;
&if;om;vlrsKd;pkawG=um;rSm qef@usifuef@uGuf=uoHawG [kdu onfu e,fy,faygif;pHkuae xGuf
ay:vm&ygawmhw,f? tusKd;qufwckuawmh ucsifjynfe,frSm autdkifat (KIA) ucsiv
f w
G f
ajrmufa&;wyfrawmf v_y&f mS ;r_}uD; [ke;f ceJ ydrk }kd uD;rm;us,jf yef@ wd;k wufvm&jcif;yJjzpfygw,f? Ak'<
bmomudk EdkifiHawmfbmomtjzpf jyÏmef;r_eJ@wqufwnf; EkdifiHawmfbmom omoem csD;jr‡ifh
axmufyHha&; tufOya'eJ@ ausmif;rsm;/ wuUodkvfrsm;/ q&mtwwfoifaumvdyfrsm;rSm Ak'<w&m;
pmayrsm;udk oif=um;apjcif;/ Ak'<bmomw&m;awmfawGudk Oykofae@awGrSm toHv$ifhapjcif;awGudk
jyÏmef;vkyfaqmifapcJhygw,f? Oykofae@awGrSm tpdk;&eJ@ a'oE W&tm%mydkif±Hk;awG ydwf=uzdk@ t&uf
qdik af wG Oykoaf e@rmS ydwx
f m;=uzd@k / om;owf±aHk wG tcg}uD;ae@}uD;awGrmS ydwx
f m;=uzd@k qkw
d mawG
udkvnf; jyÏmef;vkyfaqmifapcJhygw,f?
Ak'<bmom0ifr[kwfolawG&JΠrauseyfr_/ pdk;&drfxdwfvef@r_awG }uD;xGm;vmygw,f? tJ'g
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

277

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

a=umifh Ak'<bmom0if r[kwfwJh jynfolawG&JΠpdk;&drfxdwfvef@ rauseyfr_awG yaysmufoGm;&atmif
qdkwJh &nf&G,fcsufeJ@ tpdk;&u ‘pwkwˆjyifqifcsufOya'’ qdkwmudk qufvufxkwfay;&ygw,f?
“ausmif;rsm;wGif rdbrsm;. óudwifoabmwlnDcsufr&bJ ausmif;om;oli,frsm;tm;
,if;wdk@. rdbudk;uG,faom/ bmomr[kwfaom bmomudk roif=um;&[k ydwfyifonf? bmom
omoem t&yf&yfudkvnf; tpdk;&u umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&rnf[k jyÏmef;onf?” qdkwmjzpfyg
w,f?
tJ'Dvdk pwkwˆjyifqifcsuf Oya' xyfrHxkwfjyefvmwmudk Ak'<bmombkef;awmf}uD;awGu
ra=ureyfjzpf=uygw,f? OD;Ek ±_HcsD ESyfcsD vkyfw,fqdk+yD; pufwifbm (17) &ufae@rSm 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;Ek
tdrfudk0dkif;+yD; qENjy=uygw,f? pufwifbm (25) &ufrSmawmh &[ef;oHCmawG trsm;tjym;[m
v$waf wmfe@J twGi;f 0ef±;kH }uD;udk 0dik ;f +yD; tjyif;txefuef@uu
G f qENjy=uygw,f? vufeufuikd &f o
J m;
ESpfaxmifavmufcs+yD; umuG,fxdef;odrf;cJh&ygw,f?
tJ'DvdktjzpftysufawG wdkif;jynfrSm ay:aygufaecsdefrSm/ ppfwyfxdyfoD;}uD;wcsKdŒu ppfwyf
u tm%mjyeftyfcJh&wmtay: rcsifhr&J jzpfaecJh=uygw,f? txl;ojzifh tm%mar#mfrSef;csuf
}uD;vGe;f vSwhJ ud,
k w
f ikd v
f nf; 0ef}uD;csKyfvyk cf &hJ zl;+yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfwa,muf&ŒJ t&om/ eHygww
f pfEikd if hH
acgi;f aqmifwa,muf&ŒJ t&omudk jrnf;prf;pm;oH;k cGihf óuHczhJ ;l +yD;jzpfw/hJ umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyf
}uD;ae0if;tzdk@ ydk+yD; tdyfrufrufp&m/ ydk+yD; vGrf;armp&mawG jzpfaecJhygw,f? olom EdkifiH eHygwfwpf
acgif;aqmifjzpfw,fqkdwm jycsifvGef;aeovm; 'grSr[kwf 0ef}uD;csKyfqdkwJh t&Sdeftdyfruf rukefbJ
jzpfaevdk@vm; rajymwwfyg? 1960 jynfhESpf atmufwdkbmv (1) &ufae@ w±kwf jrefrme,f
edrdwfpmcsKyf vufrSwfa&;xdk;yGJtwGuf 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;EkeJ@twl w±kwfjynfudk oGm;a&mufcJh=u&&mrSm
tdr&f iS Ef ikd if u
H Armacgi;f aqmifawGtwGuf pD;zd@k armfawmfum;awG toifph pD Of jyifqifay;xm;&mrSm/
0ef}uD;csKyfOD;EktwGuf vsmxm;jyifqifxm;wJh a&SŒqHk;u armfawmfum;udk AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;u
t&ifwufp;D ypfvu
kd w
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w,fvdk@qdkygw,f? OD;Ektygt0if twlvdkufygoGm;=uolawGvnf; rSifoufrdoGm;&+yD; tda¹ENrysuf
quf+yD; pD;eif;vdkufygoGm;cJh=u&w,fvdk@ tqdk&Sdygw,f?
1961 ckEpS /f atmufwb
kd mvxJrmS umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyf Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;u wyfrawmf&ŒJ
ppfwdkif;XmecsKyfrsm;udk jyifqifzGJŒpnf;wmvkyfygw,f?
(u) taemufajrmufwdkif; ppfXmecsKyfudk t&ifajrmufydkif;wdkif; ppfXmecsKyf/ trSwf (1)
wyfrXmecsKyf/ trSwf (1) eJ@ trSwf (10) ajcvsifwyfr[mXmecsKyfawG zsufodrf;+yD;
tJ'Dtiftm;awG tajccHum rE Wav;rSm zGJŒpnf;cJhygw,f?
(c) ta&SŒydkif;wdkif;ppfXmecsKyftjzpf trSwf (4) (6) (9) ajcvsifwyfr[mawG zsufodrf;+yD;
tJ'Dtiftm;awGeJ@ awmif}uD;òrdŒrSm zGJŒpnf;cJhygw,f?
(*) ta&SŒawmifwikd ;f ppfXmecsKyftjzpf trSwf (3)(5)(13) wyfr[mawG zsuo
f rd ;f +yD; tJ'D
tiftm;awGeJ@ armfvòrdifòrdŒrSm zGJŒpnf;cJhygw,f?
(C) taemufawmifwdkif; ppfXmecsKyftjzpf trSwf (8)(12) ajcvsifwyfr[mXmecsKyfawG
zsufodrf;+yD; tJ'Dtiftm;awGeJ@ ykodrfòrdŒrSm zGJŒpnf;ygw,f?
278

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

(i) tv,fyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyftjzpf t&if awmifyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyfe@J wyfr[m (2)udk
zsufodrf;+yD; tJ'Dtiftm;awGeJ@ r*Fvm'HkrSm zGJŒpnf;cJhygw,f?
(p) trSwf (7) ajcvsifwyfr[mudk jrpf}uD;em;rSm qufxm;+yD; trSwf (11) ajcvsifwyf
r[mudk zm;tHrSm qufvufxm;&SdcJhygw,f?
ppfwyf[m tiftm;t& cdkifrmawmifhwif;wJhtaetxm;udk a&muf&Sdae+yDjzpfovdk pD;yGm;
a&;t&vnf; awmifhwif;tm;&Sdae+yDjzpfygw,f? wyfwGif;rSm&SdcJhwJh vuf0Jtiftm;pkawGudk z,f&Sm;
+yD;cJh+yD;jzpfovdk aemufqHk;usef&SdaewJh qdk&S,fvpfvufusefwyfrª;}uD;wcsKdŒudkvnf; (60) ckESpf/ a&G;
aumufyGJbufvdkufr_udk ta=umif;jy+yD; z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;ypfcJh+yD;+yD jzpfygw,f? Akdvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD;/
Adkvfrª;csKyfwifaz wdk@avmufom usefygawmhw,f? wckvHk;taetxm;t&ajym&&if AkdvfcsKyf}uD;
ae0if; pdwóf uduf Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; wvufuikd af rG;jrLxm;cJw
h hJ ppfwyfoabm tjynft
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jzpfygw,f?
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r&Sd=uwJhtjyif ppfwyf&JŒtE W&,fudk b,ftzGJŒtpnf;urS tav;teufrxm;cJh=uyg? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;
ae0if; udv
k nf; yxp/ zqyv/ yrnw awGtm;vH;k u tifrwef,=kH unfvyS ga=umif; toGit
f rsK;d
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w,f?
ppfbwf*sufuawmh wESpfxufwESpf xdk;wufvmaecJhwJhtwGuf bwf*sufvdkaiGudk umrd
atmif tpdk;&u tcGefaumufawG wdk;aumufvm&ygw,f? jynfwGif;ppftprSm jynfolawGtay:
wdkuf±dkufaumufcHcJhwJh tcGeftaumuf[m ( 53 ukaÉ ) ausmfyJ&Sd&mu/ 61- 62 b¾ma&;ESpf
twGuf (112 ukaÉ) txd wdk;+yD;aumufcHzdk@ vsmxm;vkyfaqmifvm&ygw,f? ESpfqausmfwdk;+yD;
aumufcv
H m&wJh oabmjzpfygw,f? jynfwiG ;f tcGet
f aumufawGw;kd +yD; aumufcv
H m&wJt
h wGuf
ukefaps;E_ef;awG ydk+yD;}uD;vm&ygw,f?
jynfwiG ;f vufeufuikd t
f iftm;pkjzpfwhJ awmfveS af &;tiftm;pkawG&ŒJ taetxm;uawmh
tzGJŒtpnf;wdkif;vdkvdk qHk;±_H;r_awG }uD;rm;cJh&+yD; t=uyftwnf;awGtoD;oD; óuHawGŒ&ifqdkifaecsdef
jzpfygw,f? tpkd;& tqufquf&JŒ tðywfwdkufa&; ppfqifacsr_ef;r_awG&JŒatmufrSm tqHk;t±_H;awG
}uD;cJ=h u&ovdk (58) ckEpS f vufeufe@J 'rD u
kd a&pDvv
J ,
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k rf a_ wGatmuf/ vufeufuikd v
f rf;
pOfpeG @f +yD;/ Oya'abmiftwGi;f 0ifa&; trsK;d rsK;d aom vdrn
f mr_id ;f wdu
k rf a_ wGatmufrmS vnf; òyduq
JG ;kH ±_;H
&r_}uD;awG ay:cJhygw,f? udk,fhtiftm;awGudk udk,fqufvufxdef;odrf;wnfaqmuf&if; t=uyf
twnf;aygi;f pH=k um;rSm ±ke;f uefwu
kd yf 0JG ifae=u&wJh taetxm;om jzpfygw,f? b,fawmfveS af &;
vufeufudkiftiftm;pkurS EdkifiHawmftm%mudk odrf;ydkuf&,lEdkifr,fh taetxm; r&Sdyg?
wjynfvHk;rSm t}uD;qHk;aom vufeufudkiftiftm;pk}uD;uawmh AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;
OD;pD;arG;jrLudkifwG,fxm;wJh tpdk;&wyf}uD;yJ jzpfygw,f? vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&; tzGJŒtpnf;
tm;vH;k aygi;f &JΠpkpak ygi;f ta&twGut
f iftm;xuf tqaygi;f rsm;pGm}uD;aewJh ppfwyftiftm;pk}uD;
jzpfaeygw,f? wdik ;f jynf&ŒJ bwf*sut
f oH;k p&dwf pkpak ygi;f &JΠ&mcdik Ef e_ ;f trsm;qH;k udk ppfwyfu oH;k pGpJ m;
teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

279

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

0if;wihfxGef;

aomufypfaewJh tajctaejzpfygw,f? wjynfvHk;&JŒ b¿maiGtrsm;qHk;udk &,loHk;pGJae±Hkru tm;
vHk;&JΠrsufESmomay;r_udkyg &&Sdae+yD; wae@wjcm; =oZmt&Sdeft0g }uD;rm;vmaeygw,f? tJ'Dvdk
jzpfaewJh ppfwyf}uD;&JŒtaetxm;udk rSefrSefuefuef ajz&Sif;Edkifzdk@ umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;vkyfwJholu
ppfr_rxrf;rae& Oya' (National Service Act) w&yf ygvDrefrSm wifoGif;jyÏmef;Edkifzdk@ tpðyvkyf
aqmifw,fqdkygw,f? ppfwyfwGif;&Sd Adkvfrª;csKyfwifaz u rcHr&yfEdkifjzpf+yD; olŒwyfu t&m&SdawGudk
ac: +yD; “'d@k wyfrawmfukd zsuzf @kd vyk af e+yD/ 'd@k wyfrawmfawmh tzsurf cHEikd b
f ;l / igw@kd awmh wckcak wmh
vky&f r,f” vd@k ajymwm qdw
k mawG vkyw
f ,fqykd gw,f? ‘umuG,af &;0ef}u;D u wyfrawmfuzkd su+f y”D
vdk@ ykodrfoGm;+yD; &ifbwfpnfwD; ajymqdkovdk vm±_d;/ awmif}uD; wdk@rSmvnf; vdkufvHajymqdkcJhw,f
qdyk gw,f? umuG,af &;0ef}uD;u wyfrawmfukd zsuzf @kd vyk w
f mr[kww
f t
hJ a=umif; vdu
k v
f H wke@f jyef
ajz&Sif;cJh&w,fqdkygw,f?
tJ'Dvdk tcsdefrSm EdkifiHwumtaetxm;uvnf; t&if;&Sif*dk%f;}uD;eJ@ qdk&S,fvpf*dk%f;}uD;
[m e,fy,faygif;pHk ae&maygif;pHkrSm olEdkifudk,fEkdif tòydif}uJ+yD; tjyif;txef óud;yrf;tm;xkwf
ae=ucsdefjzpfygw,f? t&if;&Sif*kd%f;}uD;u uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;tvHudkaxmif+yD; EkdifiHwdkif;u jywf
om;wJh uGejf rLepfqef@usiaf &;vkyEf ikd o
f al wGukd tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufðycJyh gw,f? 'ga=umifh Akv
d cf sKyf}uD;
ae0if; eJ@ Akv
d cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; &JŒ ppfwyftay:vnf; ausmaxmufaemufcðH yay;wmawG trsm;tjym;
vkyfcJhygw,f?
tjyeftvSet
f m;jzifh qd&k ,
S v
f pf*%
kd ;f }uD;bufuvnf; “awmfveS af &;udk wify@kd z@kd óud;pm;ae
=uovdk a'otoD;oD;u uGefjrLepfygwDawGtay: axmufyHhtm;ay;zdk@ óud;pm;cJh=uygw,f? 'gay
r,fh qdk&S,fvpf*dk%f;}uD;twGif;rSmudk qdkAD,ufeJ@ w±kwf vdkif;ESpfvdkif;tjzpf òyduGJoGm;+yD;/ EdkifiHtoD;
oD;u uGefjrLepfygwDawGtay: qdk;0g;wJh tusKd;qufawG jzpfay:vmcJhygw,f? t&if;&Sif*dk%f;}uD;eJ@
,SOfòydifwkdufcdkuf tm;prf;=u&mrSm qdk&S,fvpf*dk%f;}uD;[m rnDr!Gwf tòydòydtuGJuGJ jzpfcJhygw,f?
'DvkdtcsdefrSm tm&SrSm uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;orm; xdyfoD;ppfAkdvfcsKyf}uD;awG ay:xGufvmygw,f?
uGejf rLepfqef@usiahf &;udk vufawGΠjywfjywfom;om;vky=f uwJh ppftm%m&Si}f u;D awGukd tar&duef
OD;aqmifwJh t&if;&Sif*dk%f;}uD;u vufckyf=obmwD;ay;cJh=uygw,f? 1960 ckESpfausmf umv[m
urBmrSm ppfAkdvfcsKyf}uD;awG&JŒ ppfwyfu tm%modrf;,lwm acwfpm;pðyvmcJhygw,f?
txl;ojzifh tm&SrSm ppfAdkvfcsKyf}uD;awG tm%modrf;yGJqifE$J=uwm/ tm%modrf;zdk@ wmpl
óud;yrf;=uwmawG acwfpm;ovdk jzpfvmaecJhygw,f? zdvpfydkifrSm rm;udk@(pf) awmifudk;&D;,m;rSm
ywfcsKH[D;wdk@ emrnfxGufvmygw,f?
Armjynfu Adv
k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; [mvnf; tm%mudv
k aJ$ jymif;ay;&+yD;uwnf;u tm%mudk
jyefvnf&,lEikd af &;twGuf jynfwiG ;f tajctae Edik if w
H umtajctaeawGukd rsujf cnfrjywf =unfh
aecJhygw,f? 1961 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmvxJavmufup+yD; ppfwyf[m jyefvnftm%modrf;ydkufEdkifzdk@
awmif v#KdŒ0SufjyifqifcJhw,fvdk@vnf; qdkygw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'Dvdkjyifqifaewmudk AkdvfcsKyf}uD;
ae0if; uvGJvdk@ b,folrS wdwdususrodcJh=uyg?
Edk0ifbm (14) &ufae@rSm ajrmufOuUvm AvDausmif; t"du±k%f;}uD; jzpfay:vmygw,f?
AvDwnfaqmufz@kd tpd;k &uajrae&may;wmtay: oHCmawmfrsm;u ra=ureyfjzpf&muae pwif
280

teD ; acwf A rmjynf E k d i f i H a &;v_ y f & S m ;r_ o rd k i f ; tusOf ; (1948-2000)

0if;wihfxGef;

tarSmif=um;u Armjynf

jzpfay:vmwm jzpfygw,f? ajrae&mawGay;wJt
h cgrmS bke;f }uD;ausmif;awGaqmufz@kd usawmh òrdŒjyif
uae&mawGay;w,f? AvDaqmufzdk@twGufusawmh òrdŒxJu tuGuftuGif;aumif;wJh ae&may;
w,f? 'Dvdkvkyfwmudk uef@uGufw,fqdk+yD; oHCmawmfawGu qENjyqef@usifuef@uGuf&muae
}u;D xGm;vmwmjzpfygw,f? oHCmawmfawGu AvDajruGuu
f o
kd rd ;f +y;D qENjyygw,f? &J eJ@ oHCmawmf
awG xdyfwdkufawGŒ&+yD; &J eJ@ oHCm/ vlxkyg yg0ifvmwJh t"du±k%f;}uD;jzpfyGm;ygw,f? owif;pm
wcsKdŒuvnf; yg0ifa&;om;vm=uyg