ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

ta&;awmfyHk(4)apmifwGJ
1974 ar=ZGef tvkyform;ta&;awmfyHk
1974 'DZifbm OD;oef‹psmyeta&;awmfyHk
1975 ZGef a&$wd*Hkta&;awmfyHk
1976 rwf r+dif;&mjynfhta&;awmfyHk

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-1-

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

1974 ar-ZGef
tvkyform;ta&;tcif;
&Jabmf0if;xdef
qifrvkdufoabFmusif;wkdufyGJ
oabFmusif;rSm usaemfu tvkyform;aumifpD0ifwOD;jzpfygw,f? tvkyform;xkua&G;cs,f+yD; wifajr‡mufvkdufwJh
ukd,fpm;vS,fyg? aumifpDuae+yD; usaemfhukd xkwfvkyfa&;twGif;a&;rª;/ pnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&;twGif;a&;rª;/ pHjya&G;cs,fa&;
twGif;a&;rª;qkd+yD; wm0efoHk;ck ay;ygw,f?
tck VOA rSm vkyfaewJh OD;cspfOD; (37) ESpfqkdwmu usaemfwkd@ aumifpDOuUÏyg? olu pm&if;ukdifcsKyf? usaemfwkd@
oabFmusif;rSm vc usyf 1200 eJ@ bm;qkH;aeygw,f?
aumifpDtpnf;ta0;udk tywfwkdif;xkdif&w,f? wufa&mufwJholawGxJrSm OD;cspfOD;/ Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@/ aumifpDtaxGaxG
twGif;a&;rª;/ aemuf Xmeqkdif&m tvkyform;ukd,fpm;vS,fawG?
qifrvkdufoabFmusif;ukd ,l*kdpvyfu tultnDay;wm/ odef; 650 ukefusw,f? ,l*dkpvyftif*sifeD,mawGeJ@ twl
wltvkyfvkyf&w,f? v#yfppfeJ@ywfoufwJh taemuf*smreD v#yfppfqD;rif;ukr`%D &Sdw,f? wyfqifxm;wJhpufawGu ta&SŒ
*smr%DupufawG? puf±kHxJrSm oabFmvGef;vrf;awG/ oabFmukd wae&mu wae&mul;ajymif;ay;wJh Transmitter
a&uef}uD;awG/ oabFmwnfaqmufa&;puf±Hk tvkyf±HkawGaygif;pkH/ Xmeaygif;pkH&Sdygw,f? tvkyform;awGqkdwmuvnf; rsm;
aomtm;jzifh ukd;wef; q,fwef;orm;awG tvkyform;aygif; 1000 cef@&Sdw,f?
usaemfwkd@taeeJ@ wefcsdefokH;axmif&SdwJh ar,koabFmutp &efrsKd;atmifppfoabFmtxd ukef;ay:wif}u&w,f? Five
Stars u jynfawmf!Gef@oabFmvnf; wif&wmyJ? vkyf&wJhtvkyfu twwfynmjrifhw,f? wcsKd@tvkyfawGu odyfyifyef;
w,f? bma}umifhvJqkdawm@ pufeJ@vkyf&r,f@[mawGukd vltm;eJ@vkyfae&vkd@jzpfw,f? Oyrm…qkdygawm/h wef0ufavmuf
av;wJh[mqkd&if csdef;bavmufeJ@ r˜&rSmjzpfayr,f@ vl 4-5 a,mufeJ@r˜ae&awmh vlawG[m ta}umtjcifawG jyKwfxGuf
ukef+yDvm; cHpm;&w,f? aemuf oabFmyefum}uD;awG jzKwfwJhtcg 12 aygifwl}uD;eJ@ wtm;v$J,v$J±kduf+yD; ðzwf}u&wm/
ar,kyefumqkd&if 2 wef 3 wefavmufav;w,f? tJ'g}uD;ukd csdef;bavmufeJ@jzKwf/ wleJ@±kduf&wJh tvkyform;awG[m
waygif; wefcl; aeyl}uD;xJrSm pOf;pm;om}unfhyg? oabFm0rf;xJ av;zufaxmuf0if+yD; &ypf (Rivet) ±kduf&wJhtcgrsKd;qkd&if
aocsifapmfeHw,f? 'gayrJh &wJhvcusawmh odyfenf;w,f?
usaemfwkd@aumifpDu vlawG[m &efukefwkdif;rSm&SdwJh puf±Hktvkyf±HkawGukd r}umr}um avhvmcGifh&ygw,f? bDyDtkdif/
*kefeDpuf±Hk/ orkdif;csnfr#ifeJ@ txnfpuf±Hk… ponfjzifha&mufzl;w,f? 'Dtay:u usaemfwkd@tvkyform;awG E_dif;,SOf+yD;
aqG;aEG;cJh}uw,f? tvkyform;awG&JΠaexkdifpm;aomufr_b0/ tvkyfcGifutajctae/ vpm/ axmufyHhr_/ apmifha&Smufr_
… ponf axmifhaygif;pkHu=unfhygw,f?
Oyrm…bDyDtkdif (aq;0g;puf±Hk) rSmqkd&if uav;xdef;Xme&Sdw,f? pnf;urf;owfrSwfr_jrifhw,f? tcef;xJ0if&if bdeyf
cíwf0if/ ykd;owfxm;wJh0wfpkHawG vJ+yD;rS0if&wmrsKd;?
avhvma&;u jyefvm&if aumifpDtpnf;ta0; xkdif&w,f? xkwfvkyfa&; b,fvkdwkd;atmifvkyf&rvJ aqG;aEG;}uw,f?
'Dae&mrSm rqvacwft&m&Sd}uD;awGeJ@ olwkd@vnfywfaewJh ,EW&m;}uD;ta}umif;ukd rdrdeJ@qufpyfaewJhtydkif;uae+yD;
ajymcsifw,f?
wa,mufu Akdvfrª;}uD;wifpkd;/ o,f,lykd@aqmifa&;rSm OD;omausmf+yD;&if olyJ? olu ‘'DrSm udk0if;xdef/ cifAsm;odwJh
twkdif; usaemf[m tpkd;&t}uD;wef;t&m&Sdjzpfw,f? 'gayrJh usaemf bmrSvkyfvkd@r&bl;’ wJh?
tJ'D aumifpDtpnf;ta0;rSmyJ usaemfu ‘xkwfvkyfa&;rSm M 6 vkH;vkd@ ajym}uw,f? man vl/ machine pufu&d
,m/ market aps;uGuf/ money qkdwJh ykdufqH/ method enf;ynmeJ@ management ac:wJh pDrHcef@cGJr_? usaemfwkd@puf±HkrSm
acwfrDSzkd@qkd&if usaemfwkd@tvkyform;tm;vkH;ukd twwfynmjr‡ifh&r,f? puf±Hkukd acwfrDzkd@ M 6vkH; wyfqif&r,f? usaemf
wkd@ odyfyifyef;aew,f? vpmuenf;w,f/ tm[m&urvkdufEdkif/ cGeftm;vnf;r&Sd/ acwfuvnf;rrDawmh u&def;eJ@vkyf&r,fh
[mukd vlawGeJ@ r,ae&w,f? 'ga}umifh M 6vkH; udpP tjrefpOf;pm;ay;}uyg’ vkd@ajymvkdufw,f?
'kAkdvfrª;}uD;!Gef@atmif qkdwm&Sdw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u olu &efvkH;atmifppfa&,mOf&JŒ C.O jzpfw,f? Akdvfae0if; pmwkduf
}uD;pma&;vkyfaepOfu ol@ukdxdef;ay;&wmqkdawmh b,fol@rS*±krpkdufbl;? ol@txufu AkdvfcsKyfaomif;wifvm&ifvnf;
salute ray;bl;? rjrifcsifa,mifaqmifaewm? usaemfwkd@&@J taxGaxGrefae*smu OD;rsKd;cifqkdwJh &cdkifukvm;}uD;/ olu puf
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ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

±Hkukd odyfzGH@òzd;apcsifw,f? odyfwkd;wufapcsifw,f? tvkyform;awG&JŒb0udk aumif;apcsifw,f? 'gudkodwJhtcg ol@ txuf
t&m&SdOD;omausmfu ‘a[@rsKd;cif’ qkd+yD; ‘ig’ eJ@ukdifwkwfw,f? OD;omausmf[m &cdkifawGxJrSm bk&ifvkd qufqH&wm/ awmf
awmfrsm;rsm;u ol@udk bk&m;rxl;&±Hkwr,fyJ?
a&wyf&JhtxmuwrsKd;? AkdvfawGukdxrif;ykd@&wJh AP wyfom;awG&Sdao;w,f? xrif;ykd@wJhtcg olwkd@r}unfvkd@&Sd&if
xrif;xJ wHawG;axG;xnfhay;vkdufwm/ rdoGm;wJhtcg xkd;}u}udwf}u jzpf}uw,f? olwkd@eJ@ usaemfwkd@tvkyform;awG
a,bk,stm;jzifh cif}uw,f? t&m&Sda&m wyfom;awGyg cif}uw,f? b0t&ukd rcifvkd@rjzpfbl;? vl 200-300 avmufpD;
wJh/ wefcsdef 3000 avmuf&SdwJhppfoabFm}uD; yifv,fxJoGm;wJhtcg tvkyform;awG vkyfay;vkdufwm raooyf&if vkd&m
ra&muf ao&Gma&mufoGm;Edkifw,f? oabFmaygufqif;&if usaemfvufrSwfxkd;rS xGufcGifh&wmqkdawmh usaemhfukdta&;ay;
ygw,f?
ara';wkd@/ jynfaxmifpkae@wkd@qkd&if usaemfwkd@oabFmusif;tvkyform;awGyJ xreJxkd;ay;&w,f? vlaxmifaomif;
twGufxkd;ay;&wmyg? usaemf tvkyform;awGeJ@ twlxkd; twlpm;aecJhw,f/ oabFmusif;rSm pm}unfhwkdufzGifhw,f/ twl
zwf}u avhvm}uw,f? 'Dtvkyform;awGxJrSm ±k&Sm;/ ykdvef/ ta&SŒ*smr%D æ pwJh qkd&S,fvpfEdkifiHawGudkoGm;+yD; ynmoif
cJh&olawG&Sdw,f?
'ga}umifh qkd&S,fvpfpepftay: wdrf;!Gwfr_awG&Sd}uw,f?
txufrSm ajymcJhwmawG[m ta&;tcif;ray:rD aemufcHtaetxm;awG jzpfygw,f? tck usaemfwkd@XmeeJ@qkdifwJh
ta&;tcif;ta}umif; wifjyygr,f?
ZGefv 5 &ufae@u pygr,f? usaemfwkd@ qifrvkdufoabFmusif;eJ@ vSnf;wef;rD;&xm;vrf;eJ@u uyfaew,f? &efukef
bufu rD;&xm;tvkyform;awG tif;pdefbuf csDwufoGm;}u+yD qkdwJhowif;}um;ae}u&+yD?
ZGef 6 &ufae@rSm xkH;pHtwkdif; Xmeukd tapm}uD;oGm;w,f? oef@&Sif;a&;vkyf/ a&aEG;wnf/ pm}unfhwkdufzGifh/ puf±HkzGifh
ay;+yD; uJefwif;xJoGm;xkdifapmifhaewkef; tvkyform;awG 0ifvmw,f? ‘ukd0if;xdef/ [kdrSm rD;&xm;rSmawmh qENjyr_awG
jzpfae+yD? bmvkyf}urvJ’ vkd@ tvkyform;&Jabmfukdbmpdefuar;w,f? ‘olwkd@awmifarSmuf&if usaemfwkd@vnf;arSmufaygh
Asm? 'gudpPaumif;yJ’ qkd+yD; vufajr‡mufjyvkdufw,f? tvkyform;awGuvnf; tm;vkH;vufajr‡mufjyvkduf}uum ‘'Dvkdqkd
&if usaemfwdk@oydwfarSmuf}ur,f’ vkd@nd‡vkduf}uw,f? uysmu&mpm;aomuf+yD; xGufvm}uw,f? qkdifa&S@rSm usaemfu
‘oydwf oydwf’ wkdifwmeJ@ ‘arSmuf arSmuf’ qkdwJhtoHawG [def;xGufcJhw,f?
tvkyform;awGukd usaemfu ‘&Jabmfwkd@/ cktcsdefup+yD;awmh oydwfarSmufr,f? 'kd@tvkyform;awG&JŒ tcGifhta&;awG
&z@kdtwGuf 'dk@oydwfarSmuf}ur,f? qENjy}ur,f? 'DtcGifhta&;awG&&Sdzkd@ pnf;pnf;vkH;vkH;eJ@ wkdufyGJ0if}ur,f’ vkd@ v_H@aqmf
vkdufw,f? tvkyform;awG wajzmajzma&muf&SdvmcsdefrSmawmh usaemfu pm;yGJwvkH;ay:wuf&yfvkduf+yD; ‘oydwf oydwf’
vkd@wkdifvkdufwmeJ@ ‘arSmuf arSmuf’ qkdwJhtoH}uD;u wkef[D;xGufay:vmw,f? aemufawmh wjcm;puf±HkawGbuf
csDwuf}uw,f? 0,f'ga&Sm@ (Weldershop) bufa&mufawmh ‘&Jabmftvkyform;taygi;f wkd@/ 'kd@&JŒtcGifhta&;awGukd&zkd@
wkdufyGJ0if}ur,f? 'DtwGuf 'kd@ tvkyfrvkyf}uawmhbl;? puf±HkawGydwfr,f’ vkd@ a}unmvkdufw,f? &Jabmfbefa&$u ‘tvkyf
orm;oydwf arSmuf arSmuf’ vkd@wdkifay;w,f? aemuf usaemfu zdwifa&SmhuaomheJ@ 0,f'ga&SmhuaomhESpfacsmif; odrf;xm;
vkdufw,f?
&Jabmfbefa±$OD;aqmif+yD; tvkyform;awGu a'gufum (Docker) bufukdxGufoGm;}uw,f? &Jabmfbefa&$[m u&def;
ay:wufvkduf+yD; ‘tvkyform;&Jabmftaygif;wkd@/ cktcsdefrSm usaemfwkd@tvkyform;awG&JŒ tcGifhta&;ukd awmif;qkdr,f? &
atmifawmif;qkdr,f? EGm;arG;&if jrufau|;&r,f? vlarG;&if qefay;&r,f’ vkd@ a[majymw,f? tvkyform;xk}uD;u
‘'kd@ta&; 'kd@ ta&;’ vkd@ aºuG;a}umf}uw,f?
tJ'DvkdeJ@ usaemfwkd@wawG t,fvufx&Du,fa&Sm@/ r&Sif;a&Sm@/ &SpfbDvf'if (shipbulding)/ aemuf 0,f'ifa&Sm@/
umyifwm (Carpenter)/ abmf'D (Body) a&Smh/ tif*sif&DyJ&m;a&Smh (engine repair shop)/ 0ef}uD;±Hk; (TLC)/ OD;omausmf±Hk;
(oabFmusif;xJrSmyJokH;w,f) awGbuf vSnfhvnf}uw,f?
tJ'Dae@u OD;omausmfrvmbl;? olu tv,fxyfrSmaew,f? 0ef}uD;±Hk;rSm trsKd;om; trsKd;orD;0efxrf;awG &Sdw,f?
olwkd@ukd usaemfuajymw,f? ‘oabFmusif;wckvkH;ukd tvkyform;awGodrf;vkduf+yD? tJ'Dawmh cifAsm;wkd@ tvkyform;awG
eJŒvufwGJ+yD; oydwfarSmufyg? twlwuG usaemfwkd@tcGifhta&;awGudk awmif;qkd}ur,f? r&rcsif;awmif;rSmjzpfw,f? cifAsm;
wkd@ tvkyfrqif;}uygeJ@’ vkd@?
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wifwifrl &Sdw,f? olwkd@ESpfa,mufvkH; tvkyform;awGeJ@cifw,f? apwemvnf;aumif;}uw,f? aq;ay;vnf; &ufa&m
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ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

w,f? wufx&mqkdufuvif;qkd vufwckyf}uD;ay;wm? olwkd@u tdrfjyefzkd@jyifae}u+yD? usaemfu tvkyform;awGukd ypf
roGm;zkd@/ twlvufwGJwkdufzkd@ awmif;yefygw,f? olwkd@vnf; tvkyform;awGukd pmem+yD; rsuf&nf0kdif;vm}uw,f? aemuf
awmh twlvufwGJwdkufzkd@ oEMdÏmefcs}uw,f?
tvkyform;&JabmfawGu usaemfhqD a&mufvm}uw,f? ‘&Jabmf0if;xdef/ wcsKd@t&m&SdawG oydwfukdòzdcGJzkd@ óud;pm;ae
w,f? tJ'Dawmh usaemfwkd@ bmvkyfrvJ/ ±kduf}urSmvm;vkd@ ajymwmeJ@ ‘[m/ rvkyf}uygeJ@/ xdef;odrf;xm;yg? 'DrSm±Hk;zGifhxm;
wmyJ/ 'Dudkac:cJhyg’ qkdawmh/ r}umcif aumifpDOuUÏOD;cspfOD;/ 'kOuUÏOD;tkef;armif/ aemuf twGif;a&;rª;ukdvSjrifhygvmw,f?
olwkd@rsufESmawGvnf; raumif;}ubl;? usaemfu ‘OD;rsKd;xGÉfwkd@/ OD;cspfOD;wkd@cifAsm;? pdwfr&SdygeJ@/ vkHòcHa&;twGuf ac:&wmyg?
usaemfwkd@ukd ,kHapcsifw,f? cifAsm;wkd@udkrowfygbl;? ckvkdtjyifrSmvkyfaewmudk tvkyform;awGu cifAsm;wkd@tay:
oHo,jzpfaew,f? 'ga}umifh vkHòcHa&;tcef;rSmae}uyg’ vkd@ajym+yD; xdef;xm;vkduf&ygw,f? vkHòcHa&;aomhawGtyg aomh
tm;vkH;ukd usaemfukdifxm;ygw,f?
oydwfwkdufyGJukd 8 em&D 9 em&DrSm pvkduf}u+yDrkd@ tvkyform;oydwfaumfrwDvnf;zGJ@}u&w,f? OuUÏusaemf/ 'kOuUÏ
ukdbefa&$/ t}uHay;ukdwifjrifh ponf wm0efay;}uw,f? OuUÏtaeeJ@ tkwfwkdifwwkdifay:wuf rkdufu±kdzkef;ukdif+yD; rdef@cGef;
ajym&w,f?
‘&Jabmftvkyform;taygif;wkd@?
cktcsdefup+yD; 'kd@awG qifrvkdufoabFmusif;ukdodrf;vkduf+yD;/ puf±HkawGtm;vkH;ukd 'dk@odrf;ykdufvkduf+yD? puf±HkawGeJ@twl
ppfoabFmukdvnf; odrf;xm;vkduf+yD? 'ga}umifh puf±HkawGtm;vkH; oabFFmawGtm;vkH;[m 'kd@tvkyform;awG&JŒ tm%m
atmufrSm&Sdw,f? 'ga}umifh 'kd@odrf;ykdufxm;wJh puf±HkawGtwGuf 'kd@tvkyform;awG jynfolawG&J@tusKd;twGuf 'kd@oydwf
arSmufqENjyr,f? awmif;qkdcsufawGr&rcsif; qufvufwkdufyGJ0ifoGm;r,f? 'kd@[m tnHhrcHbl;/ tav#mhray;bl;? &Jabmf
tvkyform;taygif;wkd@/ pkpkpnf;pnf;eJŒ wkdufyGJ0if}uyg’ vkd@vnf;awmif;qkdvkdufa&m tvkyform;awGu ‘'kd@ta&; 'kd@ta&;’
vkd@ aºuG;a}umfvkduf}uw,f?
usaemfuquf+yD; aumifpDrSm usaemfwifjyaqG;aEG;xm;wJh M 6 vkH;udpP &Sif;jyygw,f? aemufrS
‘'D M 6 vkH; jynfhjynfhpkHpkHr&SdbJeJ@ 'DavmufacwfrDwJhoabFmusif;}uD; rvnfywfEdkifbl;? u&def;eJ@r,&r,fh[mukd vlawGeJ@
r,ae}u&w,f? &Apf±kdufaewJh tvkyform;awGukd }unfhvkdufOD;? ppfzdeyfu u|Jwzuf EGm;wzuf/ ukd,fay:rSm pufqDawG
ay/ waygif; wefcl;/ {+yDv}uD;xJrSm acG;awGvkd av;bufaxmuf &Apf±kdufae}u&w,f? oH*a[aqmfwJh tvkyform;awG
c%c% "mwfvkdufcH&wmwkd@ bmwkd@jzpfukefw,f?
qdkcsifwmu vkyfief;cGif[m tEW&m,fruif;bl;? tEW&m,fuif;atmif &Jabmfwkd@ awmif;qkd}u&vdrfhr,f? aemufwck
&Jabmfwkd@ tvkyfqif;wJhtcg 7 em&DcGJ a&mufvmEdkifzkd@ 6 em&Duwnf;u tdrfuxGuf&w,f? rkd;csKyfrStdrfjyefa&mufw,f?
tcsdefawG trsm;}uD;ukefoGm;+yD? waeukef tvkyfxJrSmyJ epfae}u&w,f? &wJhvpmuodyfenf;w,f? 'ga}umihf 'DrSm tcef;
&zkd@ vkdvm+yD? tdrfcef;&zkd@ awmif; qkd&r,f?
tkdAmwkdifudpPvnf; ajym&r,f? tkdAmwkdifukd wv 27 em&DyJ vkyfcGifh&Sdw,f? 'kd@ vufawG@vkyfay;}u&wmu em&D 100
ausmfw,f? em&DausmfawG[m a';atmhzf (dayoff) eJ@yJjyef&w,f? qkdcsifwmu tkdAmwkdifvkyfc tjynfhr&bl;? &wJhvpmu
odyfenf;? wcsKd@us bm;qkH;ae+yD? y±kdrkd;&Sif; wifay;oifh+yD? csKyfvkduf&if vkyfcawGodyfenf;w,f? tkdAmwkdif wtm; vkyfae&
w,f? vkyfief;cGifuvnf; tEW&m,f}uD;rm;w,f? 'ga}umifh 'gawGtwGuf 'kd@wkduf}ur,f? qefvakH vmufpGm&zkd@ awmif;qkd&
r,f? vpmwkd;ay;zkd@/ &mxl;wdk;ay;zkd@/ aetdrf&&Sdzkd@/ ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;zkd@awGvnf; awmif;qkd}u&r,f?’
aemufawmh usaemfu aºuG;a}umfoH wkdifay;vkdufygw,f?
qefvkHavmufpGm&&Sda&; ('kd@ta&;/ 'kd@ta&;)
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aetdrf&&Sda&;
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vkyfief;cGiftEW&m,fuif;a&; ( ? )
vpmwkd;jr‡ifha&;
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aemufwqufwnf; oabFmusif;rSm&SdwJh a&wyfukdvnf; xyf+yD;awmh yef}um;&w,f? 'Dtcsdefu a'gufwifxm;wJh
a&wyfoabFm 5 pif;&Sdw,f?
‘&efvkH;atmif/ &efrsKd;atmif/ okawoD/ e*g;a=u;/ e0&wf oabFmay:u wyfrª;wyfom;taygif;wkd@/ &Jabmfwkd@udk usaemf
wdk@ tdrfjyefcGifhray;awmhbl;vkd@’ vnf;a}unmvkdufw,f? (usaemfu }um;jzwf+yD; &JabmfawGukdar;vkdufw,f?)
ar;? ? a'gufwifaewJhtcsdef oabFmay:rSm pwif;bkdif (standby) vm;?
-4-

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

ajz? ? olwkd@bmom vkyfae}uwmyJ/ ±kd;±kd;ae}uwmayg@? tdrfrSmaeovkdae}uwmyJ?
ar;? ? olwkd@u oabFm}uD;xm;cJ@+yD; urf;ay:wufwm&Sdovm;?
ajz? ? r&Sdbl;av?
'Dae&mrSm ajymzkd@vkdwmu oabFmwpD;rSm wyfcGJwcJG&Sdw,f? 5 pD;qkd 5 cGJ&Sdw,f? wpD; wpD;ukd 'kAkdvfrª;}uD; (C.O)
odk@r[kwf Akdvfrª;wa,muf tkyfcsKyfw,f?
okawoDoabFmu tÀ0gqkdufprpf (Seismic) / 'Daumifu wefzkd;odyf}uD;w,f? tJ'DacwfaiGaps;eJ@ukd odef; 50-60
avmufay;&w,f? &efrsKd;atmifu pwD;oabFm/ 'kwd,urBmppfwkef;u r[ma&,mOf ('kAkdvfrª;}uD; tkyfcsKyfw,f)/ &efrsKd;
atmifrSm tajrmufygw,f? okawoD/ ar,kwkd@rSmvnf; tajrmufygw,f? wjcm;vufeufrsKd;pkH wyfqifxm;&mrSm abmfzm/
yGdKifhzkduf ponfwdk@&Sd}uw,f? ae0if;pwif;ukd ±kd;±kd;wyfom;awG udkif}u&w,f? oabFmwkdif;rSm &duQmawG&Sd}uw,f? yJtdwf/
qeftdwftjyif tajccH&duQm jynfhjynfhpkHpkH wifxm;&w,f? olwkd@twGuf jy\emr&Sd? 'geJ@ ‘oabFmay:rSm&SdwJh wyfrª;
wyfom;taygif;wkd@/ &Jabmfwkd@ tdrfrjyef}uygeJ@? 'DtxJrSmyJae}uyg? usaemfwkd@eJ@ wkdufyGJtwl0if}uyg? usaemfwkd@&J@wkdufyGJukd
&Jabmfwkd@axmufcH}uvdrfhr,fvkd@ ,kH}unfygw,f’ vdk@ qufyef=um;vdkufw,f?
tJ'Dawmh a&wyfu&JabmfawG usaemfwkd@eJ@twl vm+yD;qENjyw,f? oabFmay:&SdwJholawG[m òrd@xJoGm;csif&if usaemf
wkd@*dwfawGjzwfrS&w,f? a&vrf;aygufu xGufr,fqkd&ifvnf; oabFmawGudk usaemfwkd@u ukdifxm;vkduf+yD? ±_yfaxG;r_awG
trsm;}uD;jzpfvmEdkifwJh taetxm;yg? a&wyftaeeJ@ ypfr,fcwfr,fqkd&if tcsdefra&G;ypfEdkifygw,f?
r}umvkdufygbl;? &efvkH;atmifoabFmu Akdvfrª;pkd;v_dif usaemfhqDukda&mufvmw,f? 0ef}uD;±Hk;rSmaqG;aEG;w,f? olu
‘q&m0if;xdef/ b,fvkdvJ’ wJh?
usaemfu ‘Akdvfrª;pkd;v_dif/ usaemhfwkd@ukdulnDyg? &duQmawG vkdcsifw,f? &rvm;’ qkdawmh ‘,lyg/ &ygw,f’ wJh? quf+yD;
olu ‘cifAsm;wkd@oydwf Edkifyg@rvm;’ ayg@? usaemfu Edkifygw,f/ usaemfwkd@ukd Akdvfrª;axmufcHprf;yg? Akdvfrª;wkd@vkHòcHa&;udk
tmrcHygw,f’ vkd@ ajymvkdufawmh E_wfquf+yD; Akdvfrª;pkd;v_difjyefoGm;w,f? usaemfvnf; yifyef;vGef;wmeJ@ em;aepOf tvkyf
orm;&Jabmfwa,muf vmowif;ykd@w,f?
‘Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@ vmaESmihf,Sufaew,f? tvkyform;awG oydwfrarSmuf&bl;vkd@ ajymaew,f’?
Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@ukd oGm;tac:ckdif;ayrJh vkdufrvmyg? olu !¸ef}um;a&;rª;/ olŒ±Hk;cef;ukd usaemfvkdufoGm;+yD; ‘Adkvfrª;cifAsm;/
usaemfwkd@eJ@ vkdufcJhapcsifw,f’ vkd@ajymawmh yxr jiif;aeao;w,f? usaemfu ‘cifAsm;&JŒvkHòcHa&; tEW&m,f&Sdw,faem/
vkdufcJ@yg’ qkdawmhrS vkdufvmygw,f? ‘armif&if }unfhvnf;vkyfay;yg’ vkd@vnf;ajymw,f?
‘'gawG xm;vkdufprf;yg’ qkd+yD; ac:xkwfvmcJ@w,f? usaemfwkd@ESpfa,muf wGJxGufvmwmjrifawmh tvkyform;awGu
vufckyfwD;óud}uygw,f? ‘'kdŒta&; 'kd@ta&;/ oydwf oydwf arSmuf arSmuf’ ‘ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;a&; 'kd@ta&;’ aºuG;a}umfoH
awG xGufay:vmygw,f?
oydwfarSmuftvkyform;awGtwGuf &duQmudpP pOf;pm;&+yD? 'ga}umifh um;wpD;ukdtvHxkd;+yD; &JabmfwcsKd@ tif;pdef
bufxGuf tvªcH}uw,f? jyefvm}uawmh &duQmawGu um;eJ@tjynfhyJ/ xrif;xkyfawG/ vufzufokyfxkyfawGvnf;ygvm
w,f? xrif;xkyfawGxJrSm vufa&;vSvSeJ@ ‘tvkyform;oydwfukdaxmufcHw,f’ qkdwJhpmawGawG@+yD; tm;wuf}uw,f?
wcsKd@txkyfawGxJrSm ykdufqHawGygw,f? ypPnf;awGuawmhrsKd;pkHyJ? &yfuGufxJu t&yfolt&yfom;awGuvnf; xrif;tkd;
}uD;awGeJ@ a&mufvm}uw,f? [if;awGuvnf;rsKd;pkHyJ?
usaemfwkd@puf±HkrSmyJ vufurf;pmapmifawG±kdufw,f? awmif;qkdcsufawG aºuG;a}umfoHawGygw,f? ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;
a&;/ qefvkHavmufpGm&&Sda&;/ vkyfief;cGiftEW&m,fuif;a&;/ vpmwdk;jr‡ifha&; ponfhtjyif qkd&S,fvpfacwfajymif; awmfvSef
a&; atmif&rnf qkdwmvnf; xnfh±kdufw,f? usaemfwkd@tvkyform;awGu qkd&S,fvpfpepfukd qef@usifwmrSr[kwfbJ?
rqv vkyfcsifovkdvkyfaewmuwykdif;yJ? *ufpwifem (Gestener) eJ@±kduf+yD;;a0iSw,f?
aemuf rdef;cvkwf&Sd&m w,fvDzkef;±Hk;rSm usaemfoGm;xkdifw,f? puf±HktoD;oD;ukd qufoG,f}unfhw,f? usaemfwkd@puf±Hk
ab;rSmwif&SdwJh okH;xyfom;puf±HkrSmvnf; pwkdufyGJ0ifae+yD? olwkd@u ukd,fpm;vS,fv$wfvmw,f? b,fvkdvkyf&rvJayg@?
usaemfu ‘oydwfuawmh qufarSmuf&r,f? usaemfwkd@uawm@ tnhHrcHbl;? awmif;qkdcsufawG&wJhtxd wkdufoGm;r,f’
ajymwmukd vufcHoGm;w,f? aemuf trSwf 1-2 opfpufawGu ukd,fpm;vS,fawG a&mufvmw,f? aqG;aEG;}uw,f?
b0wltvkyform; tcsif;csif; aoG;pnf;}uw,f? usaemfwkd@uvnf; qufom;ukd,fpm;vS,f v$wfaqG;aEG;wmawG&Sdw,f?
qufv$wfzkd@ jyifaepOf puf±Hkaygif;pkHu tvkyform;awG a&mufvmjyefw,f? olwkd@cHpm;csufawG &ifzGifh}uw,f? orkdif;
csnfr#if/ *kefeDpuf±Hku tvkyform;awG a&mufvm+yD; a[majym}u/ &ifzGifh}uwkdif; ‘'kd@ta&; 'kd@ta&;’ axmufcHoHawGeJ@
vufckyfoHwajzmif;ajzmif;wD;}uw,f? naeykdif;avmuf Adkvfrª;pkd;v_difeJ@xyfawG@awmh ‘Akdvfrª;cifAsm;/ usaemfwkd@ukdulnDygOD;’
-5-

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

qkdawmh ‘bmrsm;vJ/ ulnDwmayg@’ vkd@ajymw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefu usaemfwkd@XmerSm a&wyfuvmwnfay;xm;wJh v#yfppfXme
&Sdw,f? wcsKd@v#yfppfynmawGujrifhawmh a&wyfuoifxm;wJhvlawGrS vkyfvkd@&wm&Sdw,f? a&wyfu PO awGtm;vkH;udk
vnf; ta&;}uD;wJhXmeawGukd tvkyform;awGeJ@wGJ+yD; apmifha&Smufay;zkd@ arwWm&yfcHxm;w,f?
naebufrSm tvkyform;&JabmfwcsKd@ukd tif;pdefbufxyfv$wfw,f? 6 em&Davmuf&Sdr,fxifw,f? olwdk@jyefvm+yD;
ordkif;bmwma&SΠorkdif;aps;rSm tvkyform; t&yfom;awG ypfowfcH&wJhta}umif; ajymjy}uw,f? 'geJ@ usaemfu
‘&Jabmftvkyform;taygif;wkd@/ 'kd@&J@awmif;qkdcsufawGuawmh wjznf;jznf;eJ@cufvm+yD? 'gayrJh 'kd@[m 'l;raxmufbl;? tnHh
rcHbl;? qufvufwkdufyGJ0ifoGm;r,f? tck orkdif;bmwma&SŒrSm wkd@tvkyform;&JabmfawG towfcH&w,f? ypfowfcH&
w,f? 'ga}umifh aemufqkH; 'kd@[m 'l;raxmufbJeJ@ taocHwkdufyGJ0ifoGm;r,f? 'kd@awmif;qkdcsufawGr&rcsif; awmif;qkdwkdufyGJ
0ifoGm;r,f? 'kd@ pkpkpnf;pnf;eJ@ wkdufyGJ0ifr,f? &Jabmfwkd@ukd usaemfuwday;w,f? usaemf b,fawmhrS opPmrazmufbl;?
&Jabmfwdk@eJ@twl usaemf&Sdr,f’ vkd@ rdef@cGef;wdkay;cJhw,f?
aemufawmh w,fvDzkef;eJ@ *kefeDpuf±Hkukd vSrf;qufw,f? aumifpDtwGif;a&;rª;u zkef;vufcHw,f? usaemfu orkdif;
csnfr#ifpuf±Hka&S@rSm tvkyform;awG ypfowfcH&wJhta}umif; owif;ay;+yD; ‘usaemfuawmh rav#mhbl;/ 'l;raxmufbl;?
qkH;cef;wkdifatmif wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;r,f/ r&rcsif;wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;r,f? vkdtyfwm&Sd&if ta}umif;}um;r,f? cifAsm;wkd@buf
uvnf; ta}umif;}um;yg’ vkd@ajymw,f? olwdk@puf±Hkuvnf; 'Doabmtwkdif;&Sda}umif; jyefajymw,f?
tJ'Dtcsdef *kefeDpuf±HkrSm A[kad umfrwDtopf a&G;cs,fyGJpae+yD?
tJ'DnaerSm rkd;awG&Gmcsvmw,f? tajctaeu ta&;}uD;vmcsdefrkd@ 0ef}uD;±Hk;rSm tdyfapmifhae}uwJh trsKd;orD;awGukd
usaemfuajymw,f? ‘cifAsm;wkd@ usaemfeJ@vkdufcJhyg? 'Dwdkif;aevkd@rjzpfbl;/ vkyfp&m&SdwmawG vkyf}u&r,f? tajctae odyf
raumif;bl;’ qkdawmh usaemfhaemufvkdufvm}uw,f?
qufoG,fa&;eJ@ywfouf+yD; a&wyfut&m&SdawGeJ@ usaemfwkd@tvkyform;awG wGJukdifxm;}uw,f? vkHðcHa&;vnf;
tvm;wlyJ? w,fvDzkef;±Hk;ukd usaemfwkd@oGm;}uw,f? uufqufeJ@ usaemfhtoHukdoGif;+yD; pyDumeJ@ ‘jynfolodk@yef}um;csuf’
xkwfv$ifhvkdufw,f? puf}uD;uodyfaumif;awmh puf±HkawGtm;vkH;qD wòydifwnf;a&muf&SdoGm;ygawmhw,f? ‘rdbjynfol
taygif;wkd@cifAsm;? tpkd;&[m orkdif;bmwma&SŒrSm ±kd;om;pGmqENjyaewJh tvkyform;awGukd ypfowfcJhygw,f? tJ'Dawmh
rdbjynfoltaygif;wkd@/ usaemfwkd@eJ@vufwGJyg? ppftpkd;&u tck tjypfrJhwJh usaemfwkd@tvkyform;awGudk ypfowfaeyg+yD?
usaemfwdk@ukd umuG,fapmifha&Smufyg’ vkd@yef}um;ygw,f? 'DtoHukd toHcsJŒpufuae tjrJzGifhay;xm;ygw,f?
'DtcsdefrSm tpkd;&tvkdawmf&dwa,mufu oydwfaumfrwD jyifzGJ@&r,f? olvnf;ygr,fqkd+yD; ±kwf±kwf±kwf±kwf vkyfvm
w,f? twGif;ykdif;uae oydwfòzdcGJzkd@ vkyfvmwmrkd@ zrf;xdef;odrf;vkduf&wm&Sdw,f?
rkd;ucsKyfoxuf csKyfvm+yD? 'Dtcsdef Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@u usaemfhukdvSrf;ac:jyefa&m? ‘bmvkyfcsifvkd@vJ’ qkdawmh ‘armif&if
wkd@udk ppfwyfuypfawmhr,f? udk,fvnf;t&m&SdyJ/ armif&if aphpyfvkdufprf;yg’vkd@ ajymw,f? ‘awmfprf;yg/ vkyfraeprf;ygeJ@/
xm;vkdufprf;yg’ vkd@ usaemfu[ef@vkdufawmh OD;cspfOD;wkd@ OD;rsKd;xGÉfwkd@u usaemfukd}unfhw,f? olwkd@ukdawmh pmemygw,f
qkdwJh trlt,mavmufyJ jyvkdufrdw,f? olwdk@ukdvnf; tcsKyfxJxnfhxm;&w,fav?
'DvkdeJ@ tcsdefawGukefvkdufvmw,f? xrif;vnf;rpm;&/ a&vnf;raomufrdwm b,favmuf}umoGm;+yDvnf;rod?
0efxrf;trsKd;orD;wa,mufay;wJh Lunch Box eJ@udpP+yD;vkduf+yD; w,fvDzkef;±Hk;cef;xJa&mufaecsdef OD;jr[ef}uD; a&mufvm
w,f? rlvu PO / yifpif,l+yD;wJhaemuf usaemfwkd@qD zpfwmtjzpfeJ@ 0ifvkyfaeolyJ?
olu ‘udk0if;xdef/ urf;em;rSm uGefrif'kdoabFmuyfae+yD? olwdk@ypfvdrfhr,f’ vkd@ajymawmh ‘OD;jr[ef/ 'DudpPeJ@ywfouf+yD;
usaemf bmrSraqG;aEG;csifbl;? xm;vkdufyg’ vkd@wm;vkdufw,f? olxGufvm+yD;r}umcif ausmf}uD;cifeJ@ a&mufvmjyefw,f?
‘a&v,frSm Akdvfrª;odef;xGef; apmifhaew,f? cifAsm;eJ@pum;ajymcsifvkd@wJh’ 'Dawmh usaemfwGufvkdufrd+yD? ‘ighawmh qGJawmh
r,f?’
olwdk@ac:wJhae&m vkdufoGm;+yDqkdwmeJ@ zrf;+yD;av? 'Dvkdqkd&if tvkyform;awGukd !¸ef}um;vkd@r&awmhbl;? v_yf&Sm;r_
òyduGJoGm;awmhr,f/ rjzpfbl;?
‘usaemf rvmEdkifbl;? awG@csif&if Akdvfrª;odef;xGef; usaemfhqDvmygap’ vkd@ ajymvkduw
f ,f? OD;jr[efjyefxGufoGm;w,f?
c%aeawmh wacgufjyefvm}uw,f? ausmf}uD;cifu ‘ukd0if;xdef olwdk@ wu,fypfawmhr,f’ wJh? ‘ypf&ifvnf; ypfyap
uGm’ vkd@wkHŒjyefvkdufw,f?
pOf;pm;&wmawGuawmh trsm;}uD;? a&wHcg;}uD;ysufpD;oGm;&if/ aygufuGJoGm;vkd@&Sd&if tm;vkH;txdemr,f? puf±HkawG
ysufpD;r,f? puf±HkxJ 0ifypf&ifvnf; ao}ua}u}u txdem}ur,f? puf±Hk&JŒvkHòcHa&;/ tvkyform;awG&JŒvkHòcHa&; pOf;pm;
-6-

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

vm&w,f? aemufxyfqkH;&_H;r_}uD;wck&Sdao;w,f? ckvkd awmif;qkdvm}u+yD;rS awmif;qkdcsuf bmrSr&bJeJ@ usaemfwkd@oydwf
}uD; ysufpD;oGm;rSm/ +yD;qkH;oGm;rSmyJ?
'ga}umifh usaemfcsufcsif;yJ qkH;jzwfvkdufw,f? rkdufu±kdzkef; aumufukdifvkduf+yD; ‘&Jabmftvkyform;taygif;wkd@/ puf±Hk&J@
vkHòcHa&;ukd 'kd@tm;vkH; wm0ef,l&r,f? aemuf a&wHcg;/ oabFmawG&J@vkHòcHr_eJ@ puf±HkawGtm;vkH;&JŒvkHòcHr_/ 'kd@tm;vkH;&JŒvkHòcHr_udk
'kd@ wm0ef,l&r,f? 'Dpuf±Hk[m 'kd@&JŒpuf±Hkjzpfw,f? 'kd@[m'dk@ awmif;qkdcsufawGr&rcsif; qufvufwdkufyGJ0ifoGm;r,f?
'kd@tnHhrcHbl;? 'l;raxmufbl;? &wJhtxd wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;r,f?
‘tckoydwfarSmufr_[m ArmwjynfvkH;jzpfae+yD? 'kd@,kH=unfpdwfcs&wJh &efukefqdyfurf; qkdvdk@&Sd&ifvnf; tckoydwfarSmuf
ae+yD? &efukefqdyfurf;qkdwmu 'kAkdvfrª;}uD;vSjrifh/ bJ}uD;vSjrifh (bJvftJ,m;vSjrifh) qkdwm[m wuUokdvfausmif;om;awGukd
yg;±kdufwJhbJ? 'Daumif o&J o&J? tJ'DrSm olu em,ujzpfaewm? ck ol@qdyfurf;rSm tvkyform;awG oydwfarSmufae+yD?
‘+yD;awmh 'kd@&JŒoydwf[m wjynfvkH;vuQ%maqmifw,f? 'kd@awmif;qkdcsufawG&˜&r,f? 'kd@wawG &wJhtxd wkdufyGJ0if
oGm;r,f? &atmifwdkufr,f? 'kd@tnHhrcHbl;? av#mhvkd@r&bl;’ vkd@ajymcsvdkufw,f?
'gudk=um;+yD; csufcsif;yJ okH;xyfom;puf±kHuvnf; usaemfwkd@eJ@woabmxJ±Sda=umif; vkH;0tnHhrcHbl;/ qufvufwkdufyGJ
0ifoGm;r,f? awmif;qkdcsufawG &atmifwdkufr,f qkdwJhta=umif; ta=umif;=um;vmw,f? ppfwyfu ae0if&ifypfr,fvdk@
owif;awG xGufaewm&Sdw,f? 'ga=umifh opfpufuvmajymw,f? usaemfwkd@ opfwkH;awGeJ@ umxm;w,f? puf±kHxJ0ifypf
vkd@r&atmifjzpfw,fwJh? uGefrif'kdawG0ifypfrSmudk wm;qD;wJhoabmyJ? usaemfw@kd&J@taemufbufrSm tufqpfpuf±kH&Sdw,f?
aumhpwpfpuf±kH&Sdw,f? tJ'Duvnf;twlwlyJ? usaemfwkd@eJ@twl wkdufyGJ0ifr,fwJh?
*kefeDpuf±kH orkdif;csnfr#ifpuf±kHwdk@ukdvnf; ppfwyfu 0ifypfr,fhtajctae&Sdw,f? bmyJjzpfjzpf 'dk@&atmif wkdufyJG0if
oGm;r,f? raphpyfawmhbl;? oydwfuawmh wjynfvkH;jzpfae+yD? &efukefqdyfurf;oydwfa=umifh urf;em;rSm ukefwifukefcs
vkyfief;awG&yfawmhr,f? &yfwmeJ@ tpkd;& tcuftcJ&Sd+yD? wjynfvkH;tvkyform;eJ@qkdifwJh udpPjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh awmif;qkd
csufawG&atmif wdkufyGJ0ifoGm;r,fvkd@ zkef;eJ@ta=umif;=um;vkdufw,f? aemufawmh tcef;aomhzGifh+yD; Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@ukd
ac:xkwfvmcJhw,f? csufcsif;vkdyJ usaemfwkd@&J@rdef;*dwfa&S@rSm ppfum;awGa&mufvmw,f? uGrf;jcHbufuvmwmjzpfw,f?
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w,f?
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ukd vdk&r,f& tjyifwae&mrSmxm;wm&Sdw,f? xGufoGm;&rvm;vkd@ tawG;wcsufay:w,f? 'gayrJh usaemf tvkyform;
&JabmfawGukd opPmrazmufEdkifbl;? aygufuGJvkrwwfjzpfaewJh tajctae}uD;ukd pGef@roGm;Edkifbl;? tJ'Dawmh aop&m&Sdvkd@
&Sd&if a&S@uaor,f? acgif;aqmifqkdwm b,fawmhrS aemufuae rao&bl;? b,fawmhrS aemufrqkwf&bl;? igao+yD;rS
aemufvlawGao&r,f? 'DvdkpOf;pm;+yD; xk=um;xJuwyfOD;udk usaemfwkd;xGufvmw,f? Akdvfr_;&J!Gef@ukdawmh ukdifxm;w,f?
'DvkdeJ@ rdef;*dwfoHwHcg;ukd a&mufoGm;+yD? wzufujrifEdkiw
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usif;wckvkH; rD;awGvif;aew,f? qvdkufrD;awGvnf; xGef;xm;ao;w,f? BAA *a&mif;u qvkduf}uD;awGav? tm;vkH;ukd
&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; jrifae&w,f?
&JabmfbDausmfpdefu ppfwyfukd rif;wkd@jyefoGm;yg? tvkyform;awGukd tEW&m,fray;eJ@? 'kd@tvkyform;awG awmif;qkd
aewmu ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;a&; qefvkaH vmufpGm &&Sda&;yJ? tvkyform;awGeJ@ tpkd;&[m &efolr[kwfbl;? aemufudkjyef
qkwf=uyg? tvkyform;awGbufukd vSnfhxm;wJh aoewfajymif;awG wzufukdvSnfhvkdufygvkd@ ajymw,f? ppfwyfbufu
v_yf&Sm;r_rjywmeJ@ jyefqif;oGm;w,f? 'DawmhrS qkdifxm;wJhbufu Akdvfrª;wa,muf pyDumeJ@ pum;ajymw,f? tvkyform;
awG/ cifAsm;wdk@awmif;qkdcsufawGudk aumifpDtqifhqifhuaeawmif;yg? ckqENjyr_ukd &yfvkduf=uyg? Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@udk usaemfwkd@
vufxJjyeftyfyg? oydwfukdvlpkrcGJbl;? Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@ukd jyefrtyfbl;qkd&if &wJhenf;eJ@ ,l&ygvdrhfr,fwJh? ajym+yD;wmeJ@ ppfwyf
u usaemfwkd@udk aoewfawGeJ@csdefxm;vkduf=uw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm usaemfu Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@vufukdvdrfvdkuf+yD; ‘cifAsm;wkd@
awG@csifwJh Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@qkdwm a[m'DrSmyJ? tJ'Dawmh ol@udkvkdcsif&if usaemfwkd@awmif;qkdcsufawGudk vkdufavsmyg? csufcsif;
jyefv$wfay;r,f? usaemfwkd@awmif;qkdaewmrSm tvkyform;awGeJ@ vkyfom;jynfolw&yfvkH;twGuf ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;a&;/
qefvkHavmufpGm&&Sda&;/ vkyfief;cGifudpP/ aetdrf&&Sda&;wkd@jzpfw,f? tvkyform;tcGifhta&;ukd awmif;qdkaewmom jzpf
w,f? cifAsm;wkd@qDu tm%mukdvkaewmr[kwfbl;? tJ'Dawmh usaemfwkd@udkwdkufr,fh aoewfajymif;awGukd wae&mukd
vSnfhvkdufyg?
-7-

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

‘ppfwyfbufu t&m&Sd}uD;taygif;wkd/@ usaemfwkd@ukd rwkdufygeJ@? cifAsm;wkd@wkduf&rSmu wae&mjzpfw,f? usaemfwdk@[m
vkyfom;jynfolw&yfvkH;twGuf awmif;qdkaewmjzpfw,f? usaemfwkd@[m qkd&S,fvpfpepfukd wnfaqmufaewmjzpfw,f?
tvkyform;vlwef;pm;[m qkd&S,fvpfpepfukd b,fawmhrSopPmrazmufbl;? qkd&S,fvpfpepftwGuf tvkyform; vlwef;
pm;u tckwdkufyGJ0ifaewmjzpfw,f?
('Dtcsdef aemufuae xyf±kdufvmwJh yef;zvufawG vmykd@vkd@zwf=unfhvdkufawmh qkd&S,fvpfacwfajymif;awmfvSefa&;
atmif&rnf? AkdvfcsKyf}uD;wifOD; oufawmf&mausmf&Snfygap qdkwmawGygw,f? xdyfa¹rGukdufcHae&csdefrSm a&mufvmwm
jzpfvkd@ 'Dtwkdif;xm;vdkuf+yD;)
‘tJ'Dawmh ppfwyfu wyfrª;wyfom;taygif;wdk@/ cifAsm;wkd@ wyfudkjyefoGm;=uyg? usaemfwdk@[m qkd&S,fvpfpepfukd wnf
aqmufaewJhtwGuf qkd&S,fvpfpepf&JŒ&efolr[kwfbl;? aemufjyefqkwf=uyg?’ 6-&ufnwnvkH; tjyeftvSefajymvm
vkduf=uwm 7-&uf eHeuf 4-em&Dxkd;awmh rD;usnfwvkH; aumif;uifukd azG;ueJxkd;wufvmw,f? usaemfwkd@rSm &nf&G,f
csufwck&Sdw,f? wnvkH;tcsdefqGJxm;+yD; rkd;vif;wmeJ@ &efukefw+rKd@vkH;rSm&SdwJhpuf±kHawG xyf+yD;aqG;aEG;zkd@vkdw,f? 'ga=umifh
usaemfu Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@udk cifAsm;wkd@qD usaemfjyeftyfr,f? cifAsm;wkd@u aoewfajymif;awG wae&mvSnfhvdkufygvkd@ vSrf;
ajymvkdufw,f? Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@u zkdk;0if;xdef/ ppfwyfuawmh wu,fypfawmhr,f? udk,fhukd armif&ifwkd@ tav#mhay;vdkufygvkd@
cyftkyftkyfajymw,f? Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@/ cifAsm;vnf;usnfqHwawmifh usaemfvnf;usnfqHwawmifhyJ? ao&ifawmh twlao
=urSmyJ? tJ'ga=umifh cifAsm;taeeJ@ vkyfom;jynfolawGtay:rSm wu,foHa,mZOf&Sd&if/ wu,fopPm&Sd&if rypfygeJ@vkd@
ppfwyfudk rkdufu±kdzkef;eJ@ ajymay;ygqkd+yD; rkdufu±kdzkef;xkd;ay;vkdufw,f?
olu zkd;0if;xdef/ udk,fu ppfwyfu wyfrawmft&m&Sdjzpfw,f? wyfrawmfudk opPmazmufvkd@rjzpfbl;? 'ga=umifh ukd,f
rajymbl; wJh? 'Dawmh usaemfu Akdvfr_;/ cifAsm;uvnf; wyfrawmfudkopPm&Sdw,f? usaemfuvnf; tvkyform;awGtay:
rSmopPm&Sdw,f/ jynfolay:rSmopPm&Sdw,f? tJ'Dawmh ESpfa,mufao,ao=uwmaygh? wa,mufusnfqHwawmifhpDeJ@vkd@ ajym
&if;eJ@ jyefqkwfcJhw,f? 'Dtcsdef OD;jr[efeJ@ udkausmf}uD;cif vmajymjyefw,f? ppfwyfuwufvm+yD? urf;ajcuaewufvmwm
jzpfw,fwJh? wcsKd@&JabmfawGrvnf; bmvkyf&rvJ vmar;=uw,f? bmrSrvkyfeJ@/ 'Dtwkdif;awmif;qkd}ur,f? bmrSrvkyfeJ@/
bmukdrSrvkyfeJ@vkd@ trdef@ay;vkdufw,f? 'Dtcsdef zswfceJowd&vkdufwm&Sdw,f? b,fvkdwkH@jyefrvJ? usaemhfvufxJrSm
oabFmusif;wckvkH;u aomhawG&Sdw,f? yg0gpaw&Sifukd azmufcGJvkd@&w,f? oabFmusif; a&vkHusif;ua&awG azmufxkwf
vkdufvkd@&Sd&if oabFmawGysufoGm;Edkifw,f? *írf;xkd;arSmufckHjzpfoGm;r,f? 'DrSma&wyfppfoabFmawGuvnf; &Sdaew,f?
oabFmusif;jymusoGm;atmif vkyfEdkifw,f? &yfuGufxJrSm&SdwJhjynfolawGvnf; jymuswJhtxJygoGm;Edkifw,f? 'Dtcsdef
uGrf;jcH&yfuGufwckvkH; ppfwyfu0kdif;xm;+yD;+yD/ tajctaeawGu tJ'Dvkd&Sdw,f? udkausmf}uD;cifu aemufrSm uGefrif'kdwyf
awG a&mufvm+yDvkd@ owday;w,f? uJAkdvfrª;=um;wJhtwkdif;yJ? usKyfwkd@uawmh taocH+yD;wkduf&awmhr,f? 'Dawmh Akdvfrª;
&J!Gef@vufudkvdrfvdkuf+yD; oleJ@twljyefoGm;cJhw,f? uGefrif'kdwyfvmr,fhae&mukd OD;wnfvkdufw,f? a&S@a&mufoGm;wmeJ@
pypf+yD? Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@ukd ay; ay; vkd@vnf; yg;pyfuatmfawmif;w,f? a[h tvkyform;awG rif;wkd@qefr&bl;? a[m'gyJ
&r,fuGvkd@ vnf;óuH;0g;w,f? ajymajymypfypf vkyf=uw,f? bufeuf (v#HpGyf)awGeJ@ wufxkd;w,f? tvkyform;&JabmfawG
[m taxG;vkdufvJusukefw,f? wcsKd@a&uefxJusw,f? 'Dtcsdef Akdvfrª;&J!Gef@u &J!Gef@qkdwmusaemfyJ atmf+yD;±kef;w,f?
usaemfuvnf; v$wfay;vkdufygw,f? vufxJuygoGm;wJhtcg a[h &J!Gef@&+yDa[h ayghaemf? rkd;uvif;aeyg+yD? vrf;ay:u
aoG;awGuawmh apG;apG;eDaeygw,f? aoG;cJawG aoG;pD;a=umif;awG? &JabmfwcsKd@ *sDo&D;usnfqH azmufxGufoGm;vkd@ ajc
axmufrSm taygufawGeJ@? &Jabmfoef;atmifqkd&if yg;pyf}uD;jywfxGufoGm;+yD; v#m[m uyfaus;eJ@n‡yfxm;ovkdyJ? o,fEdkif
oavmuf &JabmfawGukd ayG@ayG@+yD;awmh aq;cef;xJoGif;&w,f?
a'gufwmpDpDuvnf; rsuf&nfawGeJ@ idkae&Smw,f? a'gufwmpDpDeJ@ wifwifrlwkd@ awmf&Smygw,f? vlem&JabmfawGukd
aq;xkd;ay; ywfwD;pD;ay;ygw,f? '%f&m&&JabmfawGqkdwm trsm;}uD;? ukwifay:rSmrqef@vdk@ }urf;cif;ay:rSmcsxm;&w,f?
&Jabmfwifarmif/ olu pum;rajymEdkifawmhbl;? olurD;owfpufukdEdk;aewkef; aemufuae *sDo&D;eJ@ypfvkd@ ptkdxJ usnfqH
0ifoGm;w,f? ol@em;oGm;awmh r&awmhbl;ayghaemf/ vufcgjyw,f? tvm;wl &Jabmfoef;atmifuvnf; acgif;cgjy&Smw,f?
&Jabmfbzl;uawmh em;xifudkv#HpGyfeJ@ txkd;cHxm;&vkd@ yg;pyfuaoG;awG AGufueJ AGufueJ tefusaeygw,f? 'Dvkdav#muf
=unfhtm;ay;aepOf &JabmfawGu usaemfhukdajy;ckdif;ae=uw,f?
usaemfu &Jabmfwkd@/ usaemf &Jabmfwkd@eJ@twl taocHr,f? jy\emawGukd usaemf&Sif;r,f? b,fawmhrS &Jabmfwkd@udk
rpGef@cGmbl;? tJ'Dawmh &Jabmfwkd@eJ@twl usaemf&Sdr,f? óud;pifukd usaemfwufoGm;r,f? &Jabmfwdk@tay:rSm xm0pOf opPm&Sd
r,f? &Jabmfwkd@udk b,fawmhrS opPmrazmufbl;vdk@ ajymaecsdefrSmyJ ppfwyfuuy`wdefwa,muf tcef;xJa&mufvm+yD; a[h/
0if;xdef qkd+yD;awmh *sDo&D;eJ@vSrf;axmufxm;w,f? aemufawmh usaemfhukdvufajr‡mufckdif;+yD; tjyifudkac:xkwfoGm;w,f?
-8-

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

oydwfvrf;r}uD;rSm aoG;awG aoG;cJawG trsm;}uD;ygyJ? tJ'Dvrf;ay:rSm uGefrif'kdAkdvf}uD;jzpfolu usaemfhudkaqmifha=umifh
xkdifckdif;w,f? rif;ighudkypfcsifypfav? iguawmh xkdifp&mrvkdbl;? igw&m;cHr[kwfbl;? rif;wkd@w&m;cHyJ? ypfvkdufprf;yg ajymrS
'Daumifu usaemfhukd OD;cspfOD;wkd@/ OD;tkef;armifwkd@/ OD;xGef;&Dwkd@ukd usaemfcsKyfxm;wJhtcef;xJ jyefxnfhw,f? OD;cspfOD;u
usaemfhqDu aomhawGawmif;w,f? olu &JabmfawGawmh tawmfrsm;rsm;usukef+yD/ udk0if;xdef vdk@vnf;ajymw,f? olŒukd
aomhtm;vkH;ay;vkdufygw,f?
rkd;tawmfvif;ae+yD? uGefrif'kdwyfom;awG vufeufrsKd;pkH tDuGpfref@rsKd;pkHeJ@ urf;em;uwufvm+yD; oabFmusif;vrf;}uD;
ukd zGifhcsypfvkdufw,f? aemufrdef;*dwf}uD;ukd zGifhjyefw,f? 'Dtcsdef wkdif;rª; vkd@,lq&olwa,muf rmpD'D;um;}uD;eJ@ oabFm
usif;xJ 0ifa&mufvmw,f? tvkyform;awG&JΠaoG;awGay:eif;+yD; ppfom;awGu oGm;vmae=uw,f? 7-em&DavmufrSm
tvkyform;wkdufyGJ}uD; +yD;qkH;oGm;+yDaygh? usaemfhukdawmh bm;vrf;udkac:oGm;ygw,f? tJ'DurS tif;pdefaxmif?
&Jabmf0if;xdef
(ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD armfuGef;wdkufrS aus;Zl;ð yonf?)

aemufwae@
atmiftwdwf (pdwfynm)
1974 ZGef (7) &uf eHeufykdif; 4;20 avmufrSm qifrvkdufoabFmusif;ukd rqvppftpk;d &u ypfcwfacsr_ef;+yD;wJh
aemufykdif; eHeuf 6;00 em&DavmufrSmawmh toHrsm; wdwfqdwfoGm;ygawmhonf?
urm&Gwf/ vSnf;wef;/ =unfhjrifwdkif&yfuGufrsm;uawmh ykd+yD;wdwfqdwfaeayvdrhfrnf? usaemfwkd@aeaom 0dZ…m-ody`H
wuUokdvf0if;uawmh eJeJv_yfv_yf&G&Gav;jzpfaeao;onf? tvkyform;oydwf&J@ aemufqkH;cHwyfjzpfaom Tqifrvkduf
oabFmusif;twGif;u aoewfoHrsm;a=umifhyif?
usaemfwkd@aeaom '*kHaqmif (vlaeaqmif) u teD;qkH;rkd@ twGJvkdufypfcwfoHawGa&m/ tjcm;aygufuGJoHyg =um;vkduf&
onf? taqmif&Sd ausmif;om;tm;vkH; pdwfaumif;=urnfr[kwfyg? '*kHaqmifESifhausmcsif;uyf a&$bkdaqmifvnf; =um;Edkif
ayrnf? oD&d/ rmvm (rdef;uav;aqmif) wkd@rSmvnf; =um;EdkifayvdrfhOD;rnf?
æ wuUokdvf0if;}uD;wckvkH; ajcmufuyfuyfEdkifvGef;onf[k usaemfxifrdonf?æ 'Dae@vnf; class &Sdao;onf? wufzkd@
pdwfr0ifpm;=u?
onfvkdeJ@yJ/ twef;wufjzpfovkdvkd/ rwufjzpfovkdvkd &ifxJuawmh wckckcHpm;ae&onf? wm0efa=uovkdvkd/ ra=u
ovkdvkd? ,ckvkd tvkyform;rsm;tm; ypfcwfESdrfESif;jcif;cH&wmawGu rdrdwkd@wuUokdvfu ausmif;om;/ ausmif;olawGeJ@
rqkdifava&mhovm;?æ rywfoufa&mhovm;?æ rdrdwkd@e,fuwufaom ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf udpPr&Sd? tJh'D qifrvkduf
oabFmusif;bufrSmaewJh ausmif;om;awG&@J rdbaqGrsKd;awGa&m rygEdkifawmhbl;vm;?æ olwkd@ygae&ifaumæ 'kd@u 'Dtwkdif;
=unfhae&awmhrSmvm;/æ vm;/æ vm;? wckckawmh wkH@jyefoifhwmaygh?æ rdrduawG;&if; &mrnpmoifaqmifbufukd
xGufvmcJhonf?
zDvkdqkdzD 401 oifcef;pmu eHeufykdif;? A[kdEdkifiHa&;wuUokdvfu rdrdwkd@ 0dZ…m-ody`HwuUokdvfrSm RL wuf&if; rdrdwdk@ukd
qkd&S,fvpfoabmw&m;rsm;/ orkdif;a=umif;tcsKd@ukdykd@csaeaom q&mOD;wifv_dif (v,fwGif;om;apmcspf) ukd ar;vkdufcsif
onfh pdwf0ifvmonf? “q&mwkd@&J@ rqvvrf;pOfeJ@pepfrSm 'Dvkdtvkyform;udpPawGukd 'DvkdyJ ajz&Sif;wwfovm;vkd@?”
jzwfvmcJhwJh pmoifcef;awGu ajcmufuyfuyfESifh? aumf&pf'ga'gifhrSm&SdaewwfwJh/ awG@aeustwGJav;awGawmif
rsufESmxm;wnfwnfav;awG jzpfae=uonf? wckckawmh xyf+yD;jzpfOD;rnf xif=uonf? ausmif;rydwfv#ifawmh aocsmyg+yD
[k xyfawG;rdonf? e,fuausmif;vmwufonfh rdrdwkd@vkdausmif;om;awG ukd,fhòrd@e,f/ udk,fh&Gmukdjyefa&muf&ifawmh
'Dta=umif;awG ajymjzpfOD;rnfxifygonf? eHeufzefvnf; bmjzpfOD;rnfrod?
tJh'Dae@ nbuf 9;30 ausmfausmfavmufrSm?
urm&Gwf*wfbufut0if OD;cspfvufzuf&nfqkdifem;a&mufawmh ausmif;om;wpku cGyfa'gif;tvHxkwf+yD; atmfvm
=uonf? “'kd@ausmif;om;awG 'DvkdyJ=unfhae=uawmhrSmvm;? tvkyform;awGeJ@ yl;aygif;=ur,f?” “rif;wkd@ taqmifawGu
qif;cJh=uyg?” “rif;wkd@ a=umufae+yDvm;” qkdwJh toHawGxGufvmw,f? atmf+yD;ajym=uw,f? pkpkaygif;ausmif;om;t&G,f
(30) avmuf&Sdrnfxifygonf? usaemfwkd@u zkdife,f&D;,m; aemufqkH;ESpform;awGrkd@ tay:qkH;xyfu atmufukdikH@=unfh
aerdygonf? atmufxyfokd@qif;vmawmh avScg;xdyfrSm&yfae=uwJh q&mawG awG@ygonf? q&mrsm;. rsufESmrSmawmh pkd;&drf
onfht&dyfuav;rsm; awG@ae&onf? ukd,f&Sdefowfvkdufonf? atmufqkH;avSum;ukd iHk@=unfhvkdufawmh napmifh
ukdwif=unfu atmufqkH;avScg;xpfeJ@uG,f+yD;&yfaeonf? taqmif0wHcg;}uD;ukdawmh aomhcwfxm;vkduf+yDjzpfygonf?
-9-

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

olwkd@u oHbm*smwHcg;}uD;ukdqGJzGifh=uonf? òydifwl vltkyf}uD;tm;ESifhrkd@ wHcg;}uD;yGifhoGm;onf? taqmifxJukd ausmif;
om;wcsKd@0ifvm+yD; atmfajym=uonf? “rif;wkd@ igwkd@eJ@ vkdufcJh=uyg?” “'kd@ tvkyform;awG aoukef+yD?” “wkdufyGJ0if=ur,f?
vmæ vrf;ray:xGuf+yD; aºuG;a=umfr,f?” usaemfwkd@u wkyfwkyfr#rv_yfbJ =unfhae=uonf? qif;vmvkd@vnf; r&yg?
q&mwcsKd@u &yfae=uonf?
“rif;wkd@jyef=uyg? olwkd@rvkduf&if rac:ygeJ@? tay:xyfwuf&ifawmh rif;wkd@wm0efyJ” taygufapmifhwm0efus
ukdwif=unf&@Jpum;oHukd =um;rdygonf? “vm/ qif;cJh=uyg? wkd@eJ@twl wkdufyJG0if=ur,f?” usaemfwkd@ rvkdufjzpfcJhyg? reuf
wkef;uypfcwfcJhonfh aoewfoHukdawmh em;xJ jrifa,mif/ =um;a,mifae=uonf? “rif;wkd@ owWdr&Sdvkd@ rvkduf&J&ifvnf;
aecJh=uyg? [kd;tay:xyfqkH;u &Jabmfausmif;om;awG ckefcscJhyg? usKyfwkd@ atmufuae+yD; zrf;xm;yghr,f? cifAsm;wkd@ bmrS
rjzpfap&ygbl;?” usaemfwkd@ tay:qkH;xyfuvnf; wkyfwkyfrSrv_yf? q&mwcsKd@uawmh tay:=unfhvkduf/ atmuf=unfhvkduf/
pkd;&drfpdwfawGeJ@? c%=umawmh pdwfysuf+yD; oHbm*smwHcg;}uD;ukd aqmifhuefoGm;av&J@? wHcg;}uD;u ysufpD;ae+yD; [ww}uD;
usefcJhonf?
“ol&Jabma=umifwJhaumifawG/ rdef;rawG/ *ef'l;awG” wJh? atmfajymoGm;wJhtoHawGu usaemfwkd@&ifxJ jr‡m;oGm;awG
tðyHvkdufpl;0ifoGm;ovkdyJ cHpm;oGm;&onf? q&mawGu ysufpD;oGm;wJhwHcg;}uD;ukd =unfhaepOfrSmyJ rdrdaewJh tay:qkH;xyfu
tcef;ukdjyefvmygw,f? ukwifay:ypfvSJ+yD; rD;ydwfvkdufw,f? &ifxJu w'dwf'dwfeJ@? usdwfrSdwf+yD;tdyfw,f? raysmfygbl;?
awG;&if;eJ@ wkdufwkdufqkdifqkdif/ rdrdaewJhtcef;u AkdvfatmifausmfaeoGm;wJhtcef;wJh? tcef;trSwf (100) vkd@ajym=uw,f?
AkdvfatmifausmfaoG;eJ@ rdrdaoG;u tD;eJ@eH@omvkdygyJvkd@ rdrdukd,fukd¶_H@csrdw,f? “bmyJajymajymav/ tarhukdvkyfau|;EdkifwJh
om;aumif;wa,muftaeeJ@awmh &SdEdkifygao;w,fvkd@?” tarajymbl;ygw,f? “wkdif;jynftkyfcsKyfrif;vkyfwmxuf rdbeJ@
rdbt&G,fawGukd ðypkwmu ykd+yD;jrifhjrwfw,f ighom;” wJh? tif;/ tarh pum;em;axmif+yD; rdbukdyJvkyfau|;awmhr,f? tb
(taz) qkH;wm ig 12 ESpfom;avmufxJuqkdawmh tarvJtkdvS+yD? 3 em&DcGJavmufrS tdyfaysmfoGm;cJhonf?
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okH;bD;um;/ av;bD;um;oHawG/ ypPnf;wifwJhtoHawGeJ@ rdbtcsKd@ vmac:wJhtoHawG=um;awmhrS tdyf&mu vef@Edk;
rdw,f? uysmu,m rsufESmopf+yD;awmh oGufoGufav; tv,fxyfukdqif;vmrdygw,f? ay:wDukd qif0if0&J@vufwef;/
taqmifeJ@uyfaewJh 0&efwmckHav;rSmawmh ukdwifpkd; (pkd;}uD;/ wwd,ESpf-pdwfynm/ &ckdifjynfe,f &[kdif;ul;wkd@&Gm) u
wa,móud;n‡daewmawG@&w,f?
taqmifausmif;om;tcsKd@u txkyftykd;awGeJ@ wa&G@a&G@xGufoGm;=uyg+yD? wcsKd@uawmh okH;bD;/ av;bD;um;awGukd
apmifhae=u[efwlygw,f? wcsKd@uawmh taqmifukdausmckdif;+yD; æ?
rdrdpdwfxJrausreyfjzpfaerdonf? 'Dvla=umifae+yD? nuvnf; b,folrS taqmifxJurvkdufbJeJ@? ckvnf; xGufoGm;
wJhausmif;om;awGukd =unfh+yD; wa,mxkd;aevkdufwm? &Sufp&maumif;vkdufwmvkd@ awG;rd+yD; “a[haumif/ pkd;}uD;? rif;u
rjyefbJeJ@ wa,mxkd;aewm bmoabmvJ” vkd@ rdrdu toHrmrmeJ@ar;+yD; ol@ukd=unfhvkdufw,f? ol@rsufESmrSm rsuf&nfp
awGeJ@ygvm;? rsufawmifwcsuftcwfrSm vdrfhusoGm;wJh ol@rsufawmif olowdrdxm;rdbJ atmufukdai;=unfh&if; æ ol
oDcsif;wyk'fukd xkd;vkdufw,f? wa,moHoufoufygyJ? “wwDwdæ wDwDæ æ wd wJh wJhæ wJhæ w,fæ wDwJhæ w,fæ
w,f” atmf/ rdrdodvkdufygonf? pkd;}uD; cHpm;csufawGaygufuGJaeyg+yD? ol@oHpOfukd usaemfzwfrdvkdufonf? “æ igwkd@
Armjynf0,fæ rdbwkdif;uuG,fæ Akdvfatmifqef;vkdæ ol&Jaumif;awG arG;&r,f?”
ol@ wa,moHukdepfarsm&if; &ifqkd@rsuf&nfusrdonf? ESpfcgxyfem;axmif+yD;awmhrS “vm/ pkd;}uD;? jyefr,fuGm/ ig
yJcl;jyefr,f? rif;vkdufcJhOD;rvm;?” “igawmh &efukefu oli,fcsif;tdrfrSmyJ aecJhawmhr,f? rif;wkd@ jyef=uawmhuGmæ awmuf”
wJh?
“igodygw,f? owWda=umifwJhpm&if;xJrSm ighukdwkd@xm;vkdufyg?” wauG@auG@awmhñuH&ifav [k rdrdpdwfxJrSmyJ wif;xm;
cJhonf? qufrajymbJ tay:xyfjyefwufcJhonf?
ausmif;vnf; oHk;vvm;/ av;vvm; ydwfoGm;+yD[kod&onf? txkyfawGjyif+yD;awmh taqmifay:u cyfokwfokwf
qif;vmcJhonf? ysufpD;oGm;wJh wHcg;}uD;vnf; vdrfaumufaevkd@? taqmifvnf; vSnfhr=unfhawmh+yD? wa,moHvnf; a0;
a0;usefcJh+yD? tJ'Dwkef;u AdkvfatmifausmfaecJhwJhtcef;rSmaecJhwJh owWda=umifwJh pdwfynmausmif;om;wa,mufav?
atmiftwdwf (pdwfynm)

ESpf (30) qdkonfrSmvnf; æ
armifarmifwdwf (ABSDF)
- 10 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

olay;zwfaomrSwfwrf;udk =unfhrd&if; wOD;csif;wa,mufcsif;. yHk&dyfrsm;udk vSpfueJvSpfueJ jyefawG;rd&if;ESifh ?
tdkæ c%av;vdkygvm;? rae@wae@uvdkygvm;? 'gawG[m tdyfrufawGr[kwf/ edrdwfyHkawGr[kwf? yuwd? yDbd?
olajymovdkæ olu'DESpftwGif;rSmyJ xGufcJhovdk/ 'DtvkyfawGudkyJ wufºuGxufoefpGmeJ@ vkyfaeqJrdk@?
'dk@usefcJhwJh (52) OD;udk tawmfav;pkxm;&w,f? wcsKd@u EdkifiHjcm;a&mufukef+yD/ wcsKd@ujynfwGif;rSm? wcsKd@u awmfvSef
a&;e,fajrxJrSm? &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg;/ wdkufwdu
k fqdkifqdkif/ wdk@ (3) a,mufuawmh 'DxJrSm&Sdae=uav&J@wJh? tif; æ wcsKd@uawmh
uG,fvGefoGm;=u+yD?
olajymovdkygyJ? ol[musaemfwdk@xJrSm toufti,fqHk;? axmifusumpuqdk&if usaemfwdk@b0awGuwqpfcsKd;rdk@
rsufESmav;awGraumif;=u? wuUodkvf0if;xJu csufjcif;axmifxJa&muf axmifuscJhjcif;jzpfonf? tJh'Dwkef;u olu oDcsif;
qdkjyonf? tqdkaumif;/ tuaumif;yif? ZmwfxJvdkufzdk@aumif;a=umif;vnf; ajymjzpf=uonf? oluusaemfwdk@udk ðyH;wm
&,fwm jrifcsifvdk@wJh ?
,ck ol ti,fqHk;yif touf (50) jynfhawmhrnf? awG;rd&if; usaemfh±kyfudkvnf; jyefjrifrdonf? E_wfcrf;ar$;/
rkwfqdwfar$;/ em;o,far$;wdk@yif jzLae=u+yD? acgif;rSmawmh =umqHacsmif;av;rsm;u uGuf=um;=um;&Sdae+yD?
'Dtjzpftysufordkif;udkawmh yg0ifywfoufonfholrsm;u a&;=uygrnf? 'Dtjzpftysufv_yf&Sm;rsm;u óudwifaqmif&Guf
xm;=uonfr[kwfyg? 'Dvdkjzpfvmvdrfhrnf[kvnf; xif=urnfr[kwf?
ššš»»»ššš
tJæ'DZifbm (1) &ufae@nbufrSmawmh usaemfwdk@ (5) OD;qHkrd=uonf? tif;vsm;aqmifutjyef tif;0aqmifa&S@rSm
xdkif+yD;awmh ajymjzpf=uonf? pdk;}uD; (&[dkif;ul;wdk@&Gm- pdwfynmwwd,ESpfausmif;om;) up+yD;ajymjzpfonf?
'dk@qDudk OD;oef@tavmif;}uD;a&mufvm+yD? 'dk@wm0efvnf;jzpfw,f? 'dk@bmvkyf=urvJ/ 'g[m EdkifiHa&;toGifeJ@awmh
qdkifvSwmr[kwfbl;?
udkaomif;at;/ apmvSaiG/ udkjrifh[efeJ@ usaemfwdk@u ai;+yD;=unfhaeygonf? 'l;,m;pD;u&ufav; raomufwwf
aomufwwfeJ@ zGmae&if; usaemfu tif;vsm;aqmifbufu *pfwmoHav;rsm;=um;&ovm;vdk@ em;pGifhaerdygonf?
tif;vsm;olwdk@ 'Dtcsdeftdyfawmhrnf? vdrfz,fvdrfz,fZmwfvrf;pxm;olrsm;u *Dwmav;ESifh vGrf;jyae=uygonf? tJ'Dwkef;
u “rmrD&,f&Smay;uG,f &nf;pm;vdkcsifw,f” qdkwJh wuUodkvfxGef;aemifoDcsif;u acwfpm;aewkef;av? qHyif&Snf}uD;
awGESifh “qHyif&Snfxm;wdkif; vrf;o&Jvm;/ *wkH;wHk;wdkif; bkef;}uD;vm;” qdkwJhtar;awGeJ@ rqvacwfajymif;awmfvSefa&;&J@
tawG;awGudk wwfEdkifovdk acsyae=uwJhtcsdef? bmyJajymajym qHyif&SnfeJ@a&m twdkeJ@a&m ausmif;om;awGu “pmrwwf
olyaysmufa&;pDrHudef;” twGuf vkyftm;ay;cJh=uonf?
ššš»»»ššš
'DZifbm (5) &ufae@ajrmufrSmawmh usKduUqHuGif;xJu OD;oef@tavmif;udk (Convocation) bGJ@ESif;obifcrf;rxJodk@
o,faqmifvm=uygonf? usaemfwdk@tpDtpOfxJwGifrygyg? udkwifarmifOD;/ pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvfuq&mro*ôjrifhESifh udkwifpkd;
(pdk;}uD;) wdk@a[majym+yD; tavmif;udkodr;f vdkufjcif;jzpfonf? 'Dvdkjzpfvmatmif olwdk@tpDtpOfwcsKd@ &SdEdkifygonf?
'DZifbm (6) &ufae@wGifusaemfwdk@ wuo0if;udk&Sif;/ zkef;qdk;awmudkrD;±d_@/ *lae&mpaqmuf=uonf? ‚if;ae@eHeufydkif;yif
rEWav;aqmiftD;pDudk usaemfwdk@zGJ@onf? vuf&Sdausmif;wufaeaom pdwfynmausmif;om; (5) a,muf/ jrefrmpm
wa,mufyJjzpfygonf? wcsKd@tv,fwef;ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh txufwef;ausmif;om;rsm;/ ae@ausmif;om;rsm;u olwdk@Edkif
wmudkyJvkyf=urnf? tD;pDwGifryg0ifvdk=u/ cdkif;or#yl;aygif;vkyf=urnf[k qdkygonf? cifAsm;wdk@/ tpfudk}uD;wdk@uom !¸ef=um;
yg/ twwfEdkifqHk;0dkif;vkyfrnf? OD;oef@psmyetavmif;umuG,fzdk@/ vHkðcHa&;,lzdk@/ owif;axmufvSrf;zdk@/ &duQm/ pm;p&m/
qufoG,fa&;rsm;udk olwdk@uwm0ef,lay;rnf? owif;xl;v#if vmydk@rnf? tv,fxyfudk jyef=um;a&;¶Hk;xm;yg[kqdkonf?
pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvfrS udkpkd;!$ef@ (pwkwÎESpf-ajymif}uD;) uawmh A[kd (bGJ@ESif;obifcrf;r) a&m/ rEWav;aqmiftD;pDtjzpfa&m
olwdk@em;vnfxm;=uonf? acgif;av;w+idrfh+idrfhESihf awmfawmfav;v_yf&Sm;oGufvufwJh ausmif;om;wOD;yif? tJh'Dwkef;u
touf (24) ESpfatmufrsm;jzpf=uoudk;?
'DZifbm (7) &ufae@nbuf rJcGJqHk;jzwf=uonf? v_yf&Sm;aeaomausmif;om;rsm;udk rzrf;zdk@/ OD;oef@tavmif;ESihf
xdkufwefaom ae&mwckjzpfEdkifonfh uefawmfrifyef;jcHydk@zdk@? aemuf 'D wuo0if;xJrSmyJjr‡Kyfzdk@?
a':at;at;oef@/ ODwifjrifhOD;/ OD;cef@/ qpf'eDcef@ (OD;oef@wl) wdk@u rEWav;aqmifvm+yD; olwdk@oabmxm;udk ajym=u
ao;onf? at;at;csrf;csrf;yJ jzpfapcsifonf? psmyeudpP+yD;oGm;v#if OD;oef@txdrf;trSwfvnf;jzpf/ ol.qENvnf; jzpfonfh
pm=unhfwdkufwckjzpfapcsifonf? ‚if;wdk@.qENudk usaemfwdk@em;axmifonf?
- 11 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

usaemfwdk@uawmh 'Dwuo0if;xJrSmyJ jr‡Kyfapcsifonf? wuo0if;onf t"dyg,f&SdvGef;onf? ordkif;tpOftvm
}uD;vGef;onf? 'DrSmwif +idrf;csrf;a&;zcif}uD;[k usaemfwdk@av;pm;aom OD;oef@tavmif;ukd jr‡Kyfapcsifonf? rqv tpdk;&u
cGifhðycsifrS cGifhðyrnf? usaemfwdk@u wuUodkvfe,fajronf vGwfvyfaome,fajrjzpfonf? wuUodkvfausmif;wkdif;onf
rnfonfhtpkd;&ESifhr#rqdkif/ tJ'Dwdkif;jynfuykdifonf? ausmif;om;rsm;wGif tpdk;&r&Sd/ olykefr&Sd/ t=urf;zufr_r&Sd/ cGJjcm;r_r&Sd&?
vlrsKd; bmom omoemutp vGwfvyfcGifh&Sdonf? ta&miftqif;/ t,lqpGJtpGef;rsm;vufrcH? vGwfvyfaom tawG;
tac:t,ltqrsm;jzifhom rdrdtem*wfESifh wdkif;jynf.wdk;wufr_tem*wfrsm;udk qufpyfaeonf[k xifcJh=uonf?
ausmif;uxGuf&ifawmh ta&mifawGajymif;/ aumif;raumif;u ordkif;a=umif;awG&Sdrnf[k awG;xifcHpm;ae=uonfh tcsdef
vnf; jzpfcJhygonf?
'Dawmht"d<yg,f&Sdaomae&monf wuo0if;yif? Adkvfatmifausmfausmufwdkifav;udk nzuf za,mif;wdkifxGef;xm;
onfvnf; awG@&onfrdk@ 'Dae&mudk a&G;cs,fqHk;jzwf=ujcif;jzpfonf? rqvtpkd;&uawmh óudufróudufrod/ jy\emawmh
jzpfrnfudk od=uonf? aemufqHk; (62) ckESpfeJ@ vGefcJhwJh ZGef (6) &ufuvkd AHk;cGJ+yD;ypfowfEdkifonfxd awG;=uonf? rwwfEdkif/
aemufrqkwfcsif=u? vmrJhab; ajy;=urnfvm;/ ajy;awG@=urnfvm;qdkwmawmh tJ'DtcsdefrSod&ayawmhrnf[k cyfayghayghyJ
awG;xm;rd=uonf?
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tif;æ'DZifbmqdkawmh aqmif;&J@owWd at;jrjr&moDav;ucHpm;ae&yg+yD? yDjyifvSaomaqmif;&moDobifudk trd
wuUodkvf}uD;rSm at;csrf;vSypGmjzifh cHpm;&awmhrnfawmh r[kwfygacs? rpfwrf; Mid-term pmar;yGJu (10) rSwfzdk;rdk@
pmusuf&wmvnf; ysif;ysif;? tm;upm;&moDuvnf;jzpfawmh olav;wdk@wodkuf tajy;avhusifh=uayawmhrnf? usaemfwdk@
'*Hkaqmifu *syfqifvrf;eab;wGif&Sdawmh tm;vHk;udkjrif&onf? q,fausmfoufwdk@. oGufvufjrL;ºuG/ vSyyHkESifh &ifckefp&m
rsm;udk awG@xdcHpm;&p+rJ? aºuG±kyfuav;vdkvSyolrsm;/ ,rif;±kyfav;vdkvSyolrsm;/ umwGef;xJu ZmwfaumifawGvdk ±kyfoGif
av;rsm;eJ@ wcgw&Hremvdkp&maumif;atmif wGJav#mufvmwwfaom twGJav;rsm;udk =unfh&if;eJ@ pdefyef;yif}uD;rsm;udk
cJESifhaumufaygufwwfaom oli,fcsif;wcsKd@udk owd&ae rdjyefygao;onf?
pdefyef;yif/ a&wrmyif/ ydawmufyif}uD;rsm;/ uHhaumfawm/ opfykwfyif/ wHwm;jzL (,ckawmh eDoGm;acs+yD)/ tif;vsm;
uefabmif/ tif;vsm;a&jyif/ avSavSmf&Gufwdkuftoif; æ? ESif;aiG@oufoufav;rsm;eJ@ tif;vsm;&J@ eHeufcif;a&aiG@jzLjzLav;
rsm;u uefa&jyifxufwGif,Sufvdrfae=urnf? ESif;aiG@at;at;/ a&aiG@aEG;aEG;av;rsm;=um;rSm vrf;av#mufvmwwf=u
aom ajc&mav;rsm;ykdif&Sifwdk@um; æ? wcgwcg0if0ifvmwwfonfh pdefyef;yifxufu O=ooHryDwyDuvnf; æ?
omrefqdk&ifawmh uHhaumfawm[k rdrdwdk@wifpm;xm;onfh &efukef0dZ…m-ody`HwuUodkvf0if;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf
0if;}uD;onf =unfEl;p&m/ vGrf;armp&mrsm;ESifh jynfhaeawmhrnf? uHhaumfwap> tajcmufcH&+yD; t+rD;tarmufrwnfhbJ &Sdae
wwfaomolwdk@vnf; wpHkw&mudkar#mfvifh&if; ai;arm&if;ESifh &ifxJ[mwmwmESifhyif &Sdaeacsawmhrnf? 'DZifbmausmif;
ydwfwdk@wGif rcGJcsifbJcGJcGm&awmhrnf? usaemfwdk@u 'Dvdkajym=uonf? vdrfz,fvdrfz,fZmwfvrf;av;rsm;ESifh twdtvif;
ra=unm&Jaom twGJav;rsm;. rsuf0ef;udkawmh zwfrdygonf?
=uifem=uvGef;olrsm;twGufawmh rcGJ&ufp&m/ rcGJ&ufp&m 'DZifbmygyJav? 'Dausmif;ydwf&ufawGuawmh olwdk@
twGuf rajzp&mæ aEGurBmvdktylawGyJaygh? 'DZifbmrSm olwdk@rcsrf;=uygbl;? vGrf;wwf=uygw,f? tJ'golwdk@tpm; cHpm;
=unfhrdwmav?
'Dvdk'DZifbmrsKd; oHk;}udrfjzwfcJhzl;aom usaemfwdk@vdk pm=urf;ydk;pmawavrsm;uawmh tiSm;zDvifav;rsm;eJ@ [dkwuGuf/
'DwuGuf a&;csifp&m ?
'DESpf'DZifbmrSmawmh pm=unfhwdkuf topfaqmufvkyfaeojzifh uHhaumfawmav;udk wjcrf;zsufvdkuf&onf? rdrdtyg
t0if ausmif;om;tcsKd@u xdkodk@aqmufonfudk róudufvS? wjcm;wae&maqmuf&if&&J@om;eJ@ [kawG;rdonf? uHhaumf
&GufaºuGawmav;xJ vrf;av#muf&onfudku t&omyif? xdkifcHkav;rSmxdkif+yD; =uifempGm xrif;cGH@au|;ae=uaom olav;
rsm;u wcgw&H &GufajcmufawGay: ajcvSrf;}uJ}uD;rsm;ESifh av#mufvmae=uaomtoHa=umifh “olcdk;vlrdovdk &Suf&G@H[ef
av;rsm;/” +yD;awmh tJ'DcHkwef;av;awGrSmyJ wOD;wnf;xdkif+yD; uAsmpav; pmpav;awG &cJhwmwdk@rsm; rcHpm;&ava&mh
ovm;/ aqmufvkyfcGifhay;vdkufwJh ausmif;uq&mwdk@-ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;rª;wdk@&,fvdk@ a'gre\ xGufrd=uao;onf?
uHhaumfawmudk aESmif;vli,fawG jrif=u&awmhrnfr[kwf/ &ifemrdcJhjyefygonf?
wu,fawmh 'DuHhaumfawmomr[kwf? bGJ@ESif;obifcef;r/ opfykyfyif/ t"dywdvrf;r/ *syfqifbk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif;/ RC
tyef;ajzcef;r/ wuotaqmuftOD; (,ckawmh vGifjyif zkef;qdk;ae&m) wdk@[m rsm;pGmaomausmif;om;rsm;. Zmwfvrf;
rsm;/ ordkif;a=umif;rsm;udk pcJh=uonfyif? *E<0iftcspfZmwfvrf;rsm;/ tEkynmonfrsm;? EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;/ ajymif
- 12 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

ajrmufaom owWdaoG;ESifh pGef@v$wfolrsm;/ awmfvSefa&;ordkif;rsm;ESifh oufqdkifae=uonfyif? wuUodkvfa&mufzl;/ óuHzl;=u
aom/ wufae=uaomausmif;om;/ ausmif;olrsm;. aemufcHyef;csDum;wcsyfyif?
usaemf vGrf;armaerdygonf? vGrf;vnf;vGrf;ygonf? armvnf;armygonf? usaemfvnf; trdwuUodkvfe,fajrudk
cspfaom ausmif;om;wa,mufrdk@ygav?
ššš»»»ššš
tJ'D 'DZifbm (7) &ufn (10) em&DavmufuygyJ? udkvwf}uD;wdk@vlpku vmajymoGm;onf? “igwdk@wm0efaus+yDuGm”
wJh? “rif;wdk@ EC awGyJqufvkyf=uawmh? wdk@yifyifyef;yef;aqmufvkyfcJh&wJh *l}uD;udkawmh OD;oef@tavmif;udk c%avmuf
xnfhxm;apcsifw,fuGm? rif;wdk@oabmygyJ? wdk@'DrEWav;aqmif EC awGzufu ESpfrJvm;/ oHk;rJvm;/ &+yD;awmh [dk; uGefAdk
au;&Sif;zufu A[kdaumfrwDawGu ajcmufrJvm;/ ckESpfrJvm; &w,fvdk@od&w,f? 'Drkdua&pDt&qdk&ifawmh wdk@±_H;oGm;+yD?
'gayrJh rif;wdk@wwfEdkif&ifawmh =uH=uOD;aygh? igawmhxifygw,f? wdk@ausmif;om;trsm;pku 'DrSmwif jr‡Kyfcsif=uwm? igwdk@
uawmh (6) &ufae@uwnf;u ae@rtdyf nrtdyf/ ae@rD; nrD;eJ@ vkyfoGm;wm +yD;oGm;+yD? tck txufwef;ausmif;om;av;
awGu olwdk@tkyfeJ@olwdk@ *ludkapmifhae=uw,f?
“igwdk@awmh 'DavmufyJ wwfEdkifw,f? jyeftdyf=uOD;r,f? +yD;&if jyefvmcsifvnf; vmcJhr,f? wdk@òrd@awGvnf; wdk@jyefoGm;
csifoGm;=ur,f? rif;wdk@qufvkyfaygh?”
udkvwf}uD;wdk@tzGJ@ tkwf*lvkyfzdk@ wm0ef,lxm;=uygonf? olu RIT (BE) bGJ@&+yD;om;? oabFmom;vkyfaeonf [k
od&onf? cyfxGm;xGm;/ cyfawmifhawmifh? ol@udk enf;enf;armh+yD;rS ajymvkd@&onf? 'DZifbm (6) &uf/ wuouGif;}uD;&Sif;+yD;
awmh *laqmufzdk@ae&ma&G;=uonf? rdrdESifh tjcm;ausmif;om; (2) OD;u yef;&Hq&mudkoGm;ac:=uonf? awmifilaqmifwHcg;
wm0efusausmif;om;rsm;u zGifhray;I ausmfwuf+yD;oGm;&onf? =uHawmok\efteD;u emewfawm&yfuGuftpGefrSm
&SmawG@onf? yef;&Hq&m}uD;u rvdkufjzpf? ol@wynfhwa,mufudk ypPnf;wcsKd@ESifhxnfhvdkufonf? rdrdwdk@rSmvnf; awmifil
aqmif*dwfudk jyefausmf+yD; 0ifcJh&ao;onf? tapmifhausmif;om;av;rsm;u rdrdwdk@udk,fay: &Sm=uao;onf? tzsufypPnf; yg
rygqdkwmudk?
a&mufwmESifh wcgwnf; ajrwl;=uonf? aygufwl;udkvk+yD; wl;=uonf? wufºuGvGef;onfh ausmif;om;i,frsm;udk
=unfh&if; yDwdrsuf&nf0Jrdonf?
nzuf (8) em&Da&mufawmh udkvwf}uD;wdk@vlpk jyefvm=uonf? tmZmenfukef; (AHk;cGJrcH&rSD) u AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;
tkwf*ltwdkif; twdtuswdkif;+yD; ,lvmcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? ‚if;twdkif; twdtusaqmufrnf[kajymonf? usaemfwdk@tm;vHk;
oabmusvufcH=uonf?
“cifAsm;wdk@xrif;pm;+yD;=u+yDvm;?” “[mæ b,fpm;&OD;rSmvJ? xrif;uta&;r}uD;bl;av?” “at;Asm? [kd *sifrf
(tm;upm;±Hk) xJrSm udkwifpdk; (csLaw;/ ±lyaA'aemufqHk;ESpf) eJ@ udkpdk;!Gef@ (ajymif}uD;/ pD;yGm;a&;aemufqHk;ESpf) wdk@tzGJ@u
xrif; ',f}uD;ESifh csuf+yD;au|;ae=uw,f? eD;eD;av;yJ/ oGm;pm;vdkuf=uygOD;?”
“atmfæ 'DrSmvJ odrf}uDaps;zufuvSLxm;wJh wdk@[l;a=umfawG&Sdw,f? 'gu '*Hkbdvyf&nfpuf±HkuvSLvdkufwJh u&if
aqmf'geJ@ bdvyf&nf&Sdw,f? tcsKd&nfawGav? ,loGm;ygOD;vm;”
usaemfhpum;rqHk;cif olwdk@u rEWav;aqmiftv,fxyfqD qif;oGm;awmhonf? ESpf&ufESifh t+yD;aqmufrnfwJh? tkwf
oJbdvyfajr b,fu&rnfenf;/ usaemfawG;rdonf? 'guolwdk@wm0efyJav?
tif;æ tjyifxGuf tvSLcH&ifawmh tzrf;cH&rSm aocsmw,f? pm=unfhwdkuftopfuvnf;aqmufaewkef;? usaemf
qufpyfawG;rdfvdkufonf?
ššš»»»ššš
“a[haumif/ udkvSaiGa&? wkd@b,fvdkvkyf=urvJ? OD;oef@tavmif;}uD;udk olwdk@o,foGm;=uawmhr,f? ightxifawmh
toHv$ifh±Hkem;a&mufwmeJ@ trftdkifawGu &efjzpf[efaqmif+yD; wdk@vltkyfwef;}uD;xJrSm jy\em&Smr,f? tJ'DtoHv$ifh±Hkudk
cJeJ@aygufr,f? rSefawGuGJoGm;&if txJrSm&SdwJhtapmifhwyfu ppfom;awGu wdk@ukdypf&if ±kwf±kwfoJoJjzpf+yD; tacgif;}uD;eJ@
tavmif;}uD;u vrf;ay:rSm uGJxGufoGm;r,f? wdk@ausmif;om;awG ydk+yD;oduQmus&awmhr,f? tzrf;cH&awmhr,f? axmifxJ
ra&mufwmawmif vr;fray:rSmyJ typfcH&awmhr,f? taocH&awmhr,f?”
usaemfu tcspfcif&qHk;ESifh t&if;ESD;qHk; twef;wl ^m%fus,fav; apmvSaiG (pwkwÎESpfpdwfynm) udk ajymrdygonf?
usaemfwdk@pdwfynmausmif;om; (5) OD;rSm rEWav;aqmifudkodrf;xm;+yD; tD;pDtjzpfwm0ef,lxm;=uolrsm;jzpfygonf?
apmvSaiGu A[dk owif;ESifhqufqHa&;udkwm0ef,l/ usaemfu b¾ma&;ESifhvHkðcHa&;/ udkaomif;at;ESifh udkjrifh[efwdk@u jyef
=um;a&;ESifh axmufvSrf;a&owif;wm0ef,l/ pkd;}uD;uawmh pnf;±Hk;qufqHa&;ESifh taqmifvHkðcHa&;/ twGif;tjyifqufqH
- 13 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

a&;udk wm0ef,lae=uonfjzpfygonf? wdwdusus pepfwusESifh vkyfae=uonfawmh r[kwfyg? todw&m;ESifh wm0ef,lae
=ujcif;jzpfygonf?
rEWav;aqmifa&S@wGif udkxGef;ausmf+idrf;/ udkbdkbdkausmf+idrf; (zqyv OD;ausmf+idrf;.om;ESpfOD;) wdk@OD;aqmif+yD; ,m,D
aq;ay;cef;av; zGifhxm;onf? vHkðcHa&;wcsKd@udkvnf; wm0efyl;wGJ,lxm;=uonf? udktif'±l;/ udkwifarmifOD; (Av}uD;)/
udk&JjrifhESifh udkOm%fay: (pma&;q&mrif;vl) wkd@u owif;ESifhjyef=um;a&;[k pmwrf;av;rsm;wyfum ausmif;xdkifcHkav;rsm;
rSmxdkif+yD; oa&mfpmrsm;/ umwGef;yHkrsm;/ &xm;aomowif;rsm;udk csufjcif;yif vufa&;pmvHk;ESifha&;=u+yD; uyfxm;=uyg
onf? udk,fEdkifaomwm0efrsm; udk,fhzmom,l+yD; wpdwfw0rf;xJ vkyfae=uonfrSm tHh=op&myif?
'Dae@&Spf&ufrSm *l}uD;vnf;+yD;oGm;yg+yD? *laemufzufu udkrsKd;jrifh (yef;csD) wdk@&J@ wr[kwfcsif;vuf&mjzpfvmwJh OD;oef@
yHkwl yef;csDum;}uD;aemufcHwJh pifjrifh}uD;vnf; tenf;i,ft+yD;owfzdk@yJ vdkygawmhonf? rae@u (7) &uf'DZifbmae@u rJcGJ
qHk;jzwfcJh=uonfhtwdkif; 'D*l}uD;udk 'DvdkyJxm;+yD; uefawmfrifyef;jcHxJudk OD;oef@tavmif; ydk@&ygawmhrnf? rauseyf=uyg/ rydk@
csif=uyg/ rwwfEdkifygav? 'DeHeuf udk;em&DcGJavmufrSm uGefAdkau;&Sif; (bGJ@ESif;obifcef;r) xJu OD;oef@psmyetacgif;udk
o,fvm=uawmhrnf[k a=unmvdkufygonf?
tpDtpOfu a&S@qHk;uausmif;om;tcsKd@ESifh bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;/ +yD;awmh yef;acGrsm;/ +yD;awmh tacgif;}uD;udk xrf;vm=u
rnf? ‚if;a&S@wGif psmyeaumfrwDOuUÏudk=unf0if; (tift,fvf'Dtrwf/ r*Fvm'Hk) u uefawmhyGJudk acgif;ay:rSm&Guf+yD;awmh
vkdufygvmrnf?
vlawGu ±_yf&Sufcwf+yD; t"dywdvrf;ay:rSmjynfhoGm;onf? wa&G@a&G@ESifh vmae=uonf? udk=unf0if; (pwkwÎESpfocsFm)
rSm tðyH;awG/ yDwdawG awG@&onf? rsufvHk;tpHkrSm 0rf;omrsuf&nfpav;rsm; vnfaeonf[kxif&onf?
apmvSaiGu tavmif;a&mufvmonf[kod&awmh atmufuq
dk if;oGm;onf? tm;vHk;atmufudk vdkufqif;oGm;=u
onf? taqmifrSm&Sdaeaom bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;vnf; ygonf? usaemf aemufqHk;qif;jzpfoGm;onf? tavmif;u RC ausmf
ausmfavmufyJ &Sdao;onf[kod&I rEWav;aqmif tv,fxyfodk@ jyefwufvmcJhonf? usaemfhpdwful;u onf tavmif;
onftacgif;}uD;udk acwW*lxJodk@oGif;apcsifonf? 'grS *laqmufxm;olrsm;/ wuo0if;udk &Sif;vif;ay;cJholrsm;/ vHkðcHa&;
ausmif;om;i,frsm;/ &duQmxrif; vmcsufay;olrsm;/ vma&muftm;ay;=uaomolrsm; auseyf=uayrnf? Edk@r[kwf&ifawmh
jy\emwufEdkifonf?
avScg;xpfrsm;udk tajy;av;wufcJh+yD;aemuf tv,fxyfqif0ifcrf;rab;wGif wyfqifxm;aom/ pyDumESpfvHk;ESifh
qufoG,fxm;onfhrdkufudk udkifvdkufygonf? b,folrSr&Sdaoma=umifh ydk0rf;omrdoGm;onf? rdkufwvHk;udk vnfyif;rSm ywf
xm;+yD; wvHk;udk yg;pyfESifhawhxm;vdkufonf? rEWav;aqmifa&S@&Sd t"dywdvrf;r}uD;ay:rSm vlawG¹yGwfodyfaeonf? udk,fvHk;
awG rjrif&awmh? acgif;awGyJ jrif&awmhonf? udk=unf0if;u acgif;ay:uuefawmhyGJudk us˜roGm;atmif xdef;xm;+yD;awmh
vrf;z,fcdkif;aeonf? pum;tjyeftvSefajymoHawGu qlnHaeonf? usaemfowd&vdkufonf? rdkufu±dkzkef;wckudk udkif+yD;
awmh idkifae&mrS “jynfolvlxk}uD;eJ@ ausmif;om;rsm; &[ef;awmfrsm;cifAsm;” oHk;cgwdwdtoHjr‡ifhatmfawmhrS atmufu
toHrsm;+idrfoGm;onf? tvnfxyfrS rdkufu±dkzkef;udkifxm;aomusaemfhudk =unfhae=uonf?
“usaemfwdk@u OD;oef@udk 'Dae&mrSmðryf+yD; *k%fðyzdk@ pnf;a0;qHk;jzwfcJh=uayrJh um,uH&SifawGjzpfwJh OD;cef@ (OD;oef@
tpfudk)/ qpf'eDcef@(OD;oef@wl)/ a':at;at;oef@wdk@eJ@ rJcGJqHk;jzwfwJhtcg uefawmfrifyef;jcHudk ydk@&rSmjzpfygw,f? wu,f
awmh 'DOD;oef@tavmif;[m usaemfwdk@tm;vHk;eJ@vnf; oufqdkifygw,f? 'Dtavmif;}uD; tjyifra&mufcif qHk;jzwfcsuf
ay;Edkifygao;w,f”
“at;æ at;æ [kwfw,f/ [kwfw,f” vufckyfwD;=u/atmfajym=uygonf? “'Dawmh 'Dtavmif;}uD;udk 'DrSmwif
jr‡KyfwmurS oifhawmfygOD;r,f?” “[kwfw,fa[h” toHawGuxGufay:vmygonf? wcsKd@u rEWav;aqmif0if;xJudk ajy;0if
vm=uygonf? olwdk@u usaemf&Sd&m tv,fxyfudk vmcsifyHkay:ygonf? r&awmhyg? usaemf aomhcwfcJh+yD;jzpfygonf? bm*sm
wcg;ukd qGJv_yfoGm;+yD;aemuf jyefxGufoGm;=uygonf?
“'DrSmðryfrJholeJ@/ [dkrSmðryfrJholawGudk usaemf toHeJ@qHk;jzwf+yD;awmh rJcGJ=unfhygr,f? 'gu cifAsm;wdk@qENt&yg? uJæ
'Dawmh wuovGifjyifrSm jr‡Kyfr,fqdkwJholrsm;u vufckyfwD;=uyg?”
vufckyfoHrsm; [D;xGufvmygonf? oHk;av;rdepf=umrS vufckyfoHrsm;twD;jywfoGm;onf? aemuf uefawmfrifyef;jcH
rSmjr‡Kyfzdk@ qdkwJholrsm; vufckyfwD;ay;=uygOD;qdkawmh vufckyfoHrsm;u [dkwuGuf/onfwuGuf?
“[kwfuJh/ =um;wJhtwdkif;ygyJ? 'DrSmyJ jr‡KyfrSmjzpfygw,fcifAsm;?” OuUÏudk=unf0if; pdwfysufoGm;rnf[k xifvdkufygonf?
rwwfEdkifawmhyg?
- 14 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

udkvwf}uD;wdk@ OD;pD;aqmufvkyfxm;aom *l}uD;xJodk@ psmyeacgif;}uD;udk xnfhvdkufygonf? toHrsm;wdwfoGm;=uyg
onf? aemufrS atmfajymvdkufaom toHwoHudk =um;vdkuf&ygonf? “ukvor*~tvH}uD;udv
k nf; xnfhydwfvdkufa[h”
wJh? uAsmu,m rdkufu±dkzkef;jzifh atmf[pfvdkuf&ygao;onf? “tvHudktjyifxkwfyg? *lxJ rxnfh&ygbl;?” toHrsm;um;
a&moGm;acs+yD?
usaemfrdkuf (2) vHk;udk zsufqD;ypfvdkufygonf? óud;wcsKd@udkvnf; zsufqD;jzwfawmufvdkufygonf? aemuf taqmif
atmufxyfudk qif;vmcJhygonf? atmufxyft0ifwcg;rSm yGifhae+yD; ab;cef;rwck. wcg;0tay:zufwGif “rEWav;aqmif
xdef;odrf;a&;pcef;” [ka&;xm;a=umif;awG@&ygonf? cHkawGvnf; &Sif;vif;xm;ygonf? touf}uD;}uD;/ ezl;ajymifajymifESifh
vl}uD;wa,mufudkawG@&ygonf? rEWav;aqmiftayguf0 ab;aygufi,frSxGufvm+yD; *l&Sd&mudk vmcJhygonf? wdk;oGm;Ir&
awmhyg? &[ef;ysKdrsm;uydwfxm;ygonf? &[ef;ysKd oHk;xyf/ av;xyfavmuf ydwfxm;a=umif;awG@vdkufygonf? tavmif;udk
vma&mufzsufqD;vk,ufrSmpdk;vdk@[k od&ygonf?
“wynfhawmf rEWav;aqmifu tD;pDyg bk&m;? wynfhawmfuo
dk Gm;cGifhðyyg? ukvor*~tvH}uD;udkxnfh+yD; jr‡KyfrdrSm
pdk;vdk@yg bk&m;?” bkef;}uD;wyg;u vSnfh=unfh+yD;awmh “'umav;æ 'DvdkoGm;vdk@r&awmhbl;? 'dk@vnf; vrf;z,fay;vdk@r&awmh
bl;? =uyfnyfae+yD? rif; 'dk@ycHk;ay:uav#mufoGm;awmh?” “rjzpfEdkifygbl;bk&m;æ enf;enf;z,fay;=uyg?” “tdkæ =umw,f
uGm? a&mh/ 'umav;? usKyfycHk;ay:uyJoGm;awmh?” usaemf apG@ueJygoGm;onf? zdeyfwzufusefcJhonf? usefwzufu
bkef;awmf}uD; ycHk;ay:usoGm;onf? “udpPr&Sdbl;? rif; 'dk@ycHk;ay:uom av#mufoGm;awmh?” usaemf rav#mufwwfyg/
ukef;ukef;}uD;av;bufaxmufjzpfaeygonf? [dkzufuwGef; 'Dbufua&G@ESifh *lem;a&mufoGm;ygonf?
*la&S@wGif acgif;pnf;teDpnf;xm;aom txufwef;ausmif;om;av;rsm;u wxyfcHxm;onf? *ludkvnf; yef;&Hq&mu
p˜ydwfae+yDjzpfonf? “nDwdk@/ ighnDwdk@æ ukvor*~tvH}uD;udk *lxJxnfhroGif;zdk@ ajymay;yg? tvHudk*lay:rSmyJ v$rf;xm;ygvdk@?
'DtvH}uD;udk aoG;pGef;atmifvkyf&J&if vkyf=uygap” vdk@ajym+yD; jyefxGufcJhonf? tjyefrSmvnf; bkef;awmf}uD;rsm;&J@
ykcHk;xufujyefvmcJh&onfrdk@ &ifxJqdk@eihfoGm;cJhygonf?
tv,fxyfjyefa&mufawmh vltawmfpHkaeyg+yD? rdrdwdk@rEWav;aqmifu tD;pDrsm;udk tjypfajymawmhrnfcH&awmhrnf[k
xifrdygonf? aemuf'DudpPuvnf; æ
apmvSaiGESifh udkjrifh[efwdk@rsufESmxm;awGu wnf+idrfaeonf? qHk;jzwfcsuf csxm;[efvnf;wlonf? udkwifpkd;udkawmh
rawG@&/ udktkef;armif}uD;ESifhvdkufoGm;[efwl.? udkaomif;at;uawmh xHk;pHtwdkif; acgif;av;cyfarmharmhESifh usaemfhudk
=unfhaeonf?
“vmudkwdwfæ rif;udkajymzdk@yJ vdkawmhw,f? tJ'g udkapmvSaiG ajymvdrfhr,f?”
“uJ/ 'dk@wm0efawmh wpdwfwydkif;+yD;oGm;+yD? aemufwyGJquf&awmhr,f? tJ'guæ EdkifiHa&;toGifaqmifoGm;+yDuG?
'D*lAdrmef}uD;qufvkyf+yD;wdkufyGJazmf&awmhr,f? 'D*l}uD;+yD;oGm;wmeJ@ r+yD;ao;bl;/ udkwdwfæ ”
“rif;wdk@ b,fvdkoabm&ovJ”
olwdk@u “igwdk@uawmh qufvkyf&rSmyJ? 'DrSmyJ 'dk@&ifqdkif&awmhr,f? ZGefv (6) &ufae@/ vGefcJhwJh (6) vu tvkyform;
awGudk aemufydwfqHk;ypfowfcJhwm rif;wdk@todyJ r[kwfvm;?”
“'gjzifh 'D*l}uD;udkqufaqmuf/ w&m;a[m pnf;±Hk;ae&if;eJ@ 'dk@ tvkyform;awGeJ@ aygif;rdatmifpDpOf=ur,f? tvkyf
orm;wcsKd@u 'dk@eJ@ vmyl;aygif;+yD;xGufvm&rSm enf;enf;wGef@ae=uw,f? 'dk@udkvnf; r,Hkao;bl;vdk@xifw,f?”
“tvHaxmif r,fuGmæ cGyfa'gif;tvH/ omoemhtvH/ tvkyform;tvH? 'DoHk;vufaxmifr,f?”
“tvkyform;tvHuaum?”
“wlwHpOftvHyJaygh?”
“[mæ 'gqdk&if 'dk@udk uGefjrLepftvHaxmifw,fvdk@ ajym=urSm?”
“olwdk@u =u,feDygw,f?”
“'dk@ua&mæ ”
“=u,feDygvnf;&w,f/ rygvnf;&w,f?”
“'dk@udk uGefjrLepfvdk@ pGyfpGJ&ifaumæ ”
“epfæ epfuGm/ wdkufyGJ0ifzdk@yJ?” udkaomif;at;u pdwfr&SnfpGmeJ@ usaemfhudkajym+yD; pkduf=unfhaeygonf? &ifxJrSm&SdwJh
tvHk;}uD;vnf; usoGm;yg+yD?
“ig tdyfa&;ysufvGef;vdk@ toH0ifae+yD? tay:qHk;xyfudkoGm;+yD; em;OD;r,f?”
“rif; bmjzpfvdk@ rdkufu±dkzkef;awG zsufqD;vdkufwmvJ?”
- 15 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

“[mæ rif;wdk@vnf;odom;yJ?”
(74) 'DZifbmrS &Jabmfrsm;udkOD;!Gwfv#uf
armifarmifwdwf (ABSDF)

OD;oef@ta&;tcif;
pufr_wuUodkvfpdk;0if;
ukvor*~twGif;a&;rª;csKyfa[mif; OD;oef@onf 1974 ckESpf/ Edk0bFmv 25 &ufae@ tar&duefEdkifiH e,l;a,mufòrd@wGif
uG,fvGefcJhygonf? urBm@ukvor*~tzGJ@}uD;onf OD;oef@.±kyfuvmyfudk }uD;us,fcrf;em;pGm urBm@ukvor*~tzGJ@0ifEdkifiH
aygif;pHkrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh aemufqHk;*g0&ðyvkyfI OD;oef@.rdom;pkqENt& rdcifwdkif;jynf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif OD;oef@
±kyfuvmyfudkoò*õvf&ef tpDpOfrsm;udk ðyvkyfygonf?
OD;oef@uG,fvGefa}umif; odvdkuf&wJhtwGuf rsKd;cspfpdwf&SdwJh jrefrmwrsKd;om;vHk; ,lusHK;r& 0rf;enf;a}uuGJjcif; jzpf}u
ygonf? urBmhtv,frSm jrefrmh*k%fudkaqmifcJhwJhOD;oef@/ tm&Swkdufom;OD;oef@onf urBm.t}uD;rm;qHk;aom wm0ef
0wW&m;&Sdonfh ukvor*~twGif;a&;rª;csKyf&mxl;udk ausyGefpGmxrf;aqmifcJhonfh jrefrmwOD;jzpfygonf?
xdktcsdefu usaemfonf &efukefpufr_wuUodkvf aemufqHk;ESpfausmif;om;/ tif*sifeD,mbJG@ESifh vufwurf;tvdk
aemufqHk;ESpf0ufwGif a&muf&Sdaeygonf? rSm;wJhae&mESifh rSm;wJhtcsdefrSm usaemf a&muf&Sdaeonf[k qdk&ayrnf?
1974 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (1) &ufae@ OD;oef@±kyfuvmyf jrefrmEdkifiHodk@ a&muf&Sdvmygonf? ae0if;ppftpdk;&onf
+yD;pvG,foabmjzifh OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk jrif;òydifuGif;a[mif; usKduUqHuGif;wae&mwGif r¾yfi,fwckomaqmufay;+yD;
}uufajceDtoif;0ifvli,frsm;ESifhom tapmihfcsxm;ygonf? 'DZifbmv 5 &ufae@/ ae@vnf (1) em&DwGif }uHawmoif;csKdif;
odk@ ydk@aqmifoò*õvfrnf[k jynfolvlxkudk a=unmcJhygonf?
EdkifiHawmfpsmyetjzpf wcrf;wem; *k%fðyoò*õvfvdrfhrnf[k ,lqaeonfh jynfolvlxkonf ae0if;ppftpdk;&.
vspfvsL&_jcif;/ OD;oef@.*k%foduQmudkrSraxmuf/ vkyf&ufavjcif;&,fvdk@ jynfol}um;0,f wqifhpum; jyef@ES@Hvdk@ rauseyf/
0rf;enf;a'gorsm; aygufuJGapcJhygonf?
- 16 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

wcsdefwnf;wGif wuUodkvfausmif;aygif;pHkrS ausmif;om;wdk@onf psmyeaumfrwDrsm; zJG@pnf;+yD; psmyevdkufygydk@aqmif/
aemufqHk;*g0&ðyvkyf&ef pDpOf}uygonf? yxrtpDpOft& bwfpfum;rsm;iSg;+yD; usKduUqHuGif;rSmpk±kH;&ef ausmif;om;udk,fpm;
vS,frsm; bwfpfum;rsm; oGm;iSg;ygonf? bwfpfum;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk oufqdkif&mrS ausmif;om;rsm;udk riSg;&bl;vdk@
wm;jrpfxm;ygonf? bwfpfum;iSg;&rf;vdk@r&aoma}umifh wuUodkvfaygif;pHkrS ausmif;om;rsm; &efukef0dZ…mESifhody`HwuUodkvf
wGifpk±kH;+yD; usKduUqHuGif;odk@ ajcvsifjzifhcsDwufzdk@ tpDpOfajymif;vdkuf&ygonf?
psmyetcef;em;ae@/ usaemfwdk@pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;onf &&ma'g@*spfum;rsm;udkiSg;+yD; &efukef0dZ…mESifhody`H
wuUodkvfpk&yfodk@ oGm;a&muf}uygonf? usaemfwdk@a'g@*spfum;rsm; 0dZ…mESifhody`HwuUodkvfe,fajrudk0ifonfESifh t&if
a&mufESifhaeonfh wuUodkvfausmif;aygif;pHkrS ausmif;om;awGu vufckyfoHwajzmif;ajzmif;eJ@ óudqdkr_[m usaemfwdk@&J@&ifxJ
wGif wrsKd;wrnfcHpm;&ygonf?
ae0if;OD;aqmifaom ppftpdk;&onf 1962 ckESpf Zlvdkifv (7) &ufae@wGif jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if ausmif;
om;or*~taqmuftOD;}uD;udk AHk;cGJzsufqD;+yD; &maygif;rsm;pGmaom ausmif;om;pkpnf;r_udk vufeuftm;udk;jzifh owfjzwf
csKd;EdSrfcJhonfh (12) ESpfausmfumv Tae@ 'DZifbmv (5) &ufae@wGif yxrOD;qHk; axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom ausmif;om;rsm;
jyefvnfaoG;pnf; nD!Gwfpk±kH;rd}ujcif;jzpfygonf?
,Ofaus;aom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;jzpf=uI pnf;urf;&Sd}uygonf? oHk;a,mufwwGJ wuUodkvftvdkuf pDwef;ae
&m,l+yD; &efukefpufr_wuUodkvfrS um;wpD;/ 0dZ…mESifhody`HwuUodkvfrS um;wpD;/ toHcsJ@pufrsm;ESifh “usaemfwdk@ausmif;
om;xkonf +idrf;csrf;a&;ydokum}uD;OD;oef@. aemufqHk;c&D;odk@ vdkufygydk@aqmif&efESifh aemufqHk;*g0&ðyvkyf&ef pnf;urf;wus
csDwufvma}umif; a=unmygonf” vrf;c&D;wavsmufrSmvnf; auseyfjcif;tjyHK;eJ@ vltkyf}uD;rsm;u óudqdk}uonfomru
aomufa&rsm;/ zD;}urf;iSufaysmoD;rsm; a0iSay;jcif;jzifh ajcvsifavsmufvmaom ausmif;om;rsm;ukd tarmajyapygonf?
OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfxm;&Sdonfh usKduUqHuGif;onf OD;oef@udk aemufqHk;*g0&ðy&efa&muf&Sdaeaom vltkyf}uD;ESifh jynfhv#H
aeygonf? ±kyfuvmyfxm;&Sd&m r¾yftwGif;wGiv
f nf; OD;oef@rdom;pk/ aqGrsKd;rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh oufqdkif&mvl}uD;rsm;u ae&m
,lxm;ygonf? rsKd;cspfpdwf&Sdaomvli,frsm;/ *k%fðyxdkufoludk *k%fðy&rnf[k tod&Sdonfh vli,fwuUodkvfausmif;om;
xk}uD; pepfwus/ usKduUqHuGif;twGif;odk@ 0ifa&mufaomtcg rdbjynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;. vufckyfoHrsm;onf rdk;+cdrf;oH
uJhodk@ uGif;jyifwckvHk; zHk;v$rf;oGm;ygawm@onf? yJG}unfhpifrsm;wGif rdbjynfolwdk@ESifh jynfhv#HaeI ausmif;om;xkw&yfvHk;
onf OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfxm;&Sd&mr¾yf. ta&S@bufuGif;jyifwGif ae&m,l&avonf?
rGef;vGJcsdefjzpfI yljyif;vSonfh tyl&SdefatmufwGif “bma}umifhrsm; OD;oef@.psmyeudk +yD;pvG,fpDpOf&oenf;” qdkonfh
ar;cGef;onf jynfolausmif;om;wdk@. &ifudkylavmifapcJhonfomru rauseyfjcif;qdkonfh cHpm;csufudk ausmif;om;jynfol
wdk@&ifxJrSm cHpm;vdkuf&ygonf? TwGif ausmif;om;xk.v_yf&Sm;r_onf pwifvmygawmhonf? avmfpyDumuae
ausmif;om;rsm;udk v_H@aqmfpnf;±kH;vmygawmhonf? “+idrf;csrf;a&;zcif}uD; OD;oef@twGuf *lAdrmef&&Sda&;/ 'dk@ta&;/ 'dk@ta&;”
[lonfh aºuG;a}umfoHESifhtwl ausmif;om;rsm; v_yfv_yf&G&Gjzpfvmygawmhonf? ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm; ta&;ay:
pnf;a0;+yD; aemufqHk;+idrf;csrf;a&;zcif}uD; OD;oef@tm; xdkufoifhaompsmyetcef;em;jzifh oò*õvf&efqHk;jzwfygonf?
“+yD;pvG,fwnfaqmufxm;aomr¾yf” “jrif;òydifuGif;a[mif;” “}uHawmokomef” Ttcsufwdk@onf t±kyfqdk;vSay
onf? xdk@a}umifh ausmif;om;xkw&yfvHk;u wuUodkvfe,fajrodk@ jyefvnfo,faqmifI xdkufoifhaom psmyetcrf;em;ESifh
+idrf;csrf;a&;*lAdrmef}uD; wnfaqmufrnfjzpfa}umif; aºuG;a}umf}uavonf? wqufwnf;rSmyJ rqdkifolrsm; r¾yfwGif;rS
z,f&Sm;ay;&ef ausmif;om;xku a=unmvdkufygonf? v#yfwysuftwGif; tajctaersm; ajymif;vJoGm;ygonf? r¾yf
twGif;rS }uufajceDvli,frsm;/ OD;oef@aqGrsKd;ESifhrdom;pkrsm;/ oufqdkif&mvl}uD;rsm; r¾yftjyifodk@ xGufcGmoGm;ygonf?
r¾yftwGif;odk@ ausmif;om;rsm; 0ifa&mufae&m,lxm;vdkufygonf?
toHcsJ@pufrS ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u ‚if;wdk@onf OD;oef@. ±kyfuvmyfudk wuUodkvfe,fajrodk@ jyefvnf
o,faqmif+yD; xdkufoifhaom psmyetcrf;tem;jzifh oò*õvfI *lAdrmefaqmufvkyfay;rnfjzpfa}umif;/ ‚if;twGuf OD;oef@.
rdom;pkESifh aqGrsKd;rdwfaqGrsm;qDrS cGifhawmif;ygonf? OD;oef@.tpfudk OD;cef@udk toHcsJ@puf&Sd&modk@ zdwfac:vdkufygonf?
toHcsJ@puf wyfqifxm;onfh a'g@*spfum;ta&S@wydkif;/ um;pufxm;&Sd&mae&monf ausmif;om;wdk@. ,m,DpifjrifhozG,f
jzpfoGm;+yD; ausmif;om;tygt0if vltkyf}uD;.tm&Hkonf xdkpifjrifhodk@ a&mufae}uonf? OD;cef@ pifjrifhay:odk@wufa&muf+yD;
ausmif;om;wdk@tm; pdwfvdkufrmefyg rðyvkyf&ef/ tpdk;&ESifhqef@usif+yD; rðyvkyf&ef/ enf;pepfrSefuefpGm aqmif&Gufzdk@&ef
wdkufwGef;ajym}um;oGm;avonf? tajctaeudkapmifh}unfhaeaom vlxk}uD;ESifhausmif;om;xkwdk@onf tjrefqHk;
wuUodkvfe,fajrodk@ OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudko,faqmif&ef aºuG;a}umfvmygawm@onf?
- 17 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

aemufqHk; ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm; OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk ykcHk;ajymif;o,f,l+yD; vGrf;ol@yef;acGwifaqmif&m wkd,dk
wmypfuyfum; acgifrdk;ay:odk@wif}uygonf? ausmif;om;ESifh oHCmawmfrsm; +cH&Hvsuf/ axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom
ausmif;om;xk}uD;. csDwuf&mvrf;a}umif;twGif;rS OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk vm&mvrf;twdkif; wuUodkvfe,fajrodk@ jyefvnf
o,faqmifoGm;ygonf? vrf;wavsmufvHk;wGifvnf; vltkyf}uD;awGESifh jynfhusyfae+yD; ausmifom;xkwdk@. aºuG;a}umfoH
rsm;onf t&m&mudk zHk;v$rf;aeygonf?
wuUodkvfe,fajr t"dywdvrf;twdkif; ±kyfuvmyfudko,faqmif+yD; bGJ@ESif;obiftaqmuftOD;a&S@wGif ,m,Dpifjrifh
ðyvkyfI jyifqifxm;ygonf? wuUodkvfe,fajrwckvHk;wGif ausmif;om;/ t&yfom;/ &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;ESifh jynfhv#H
aeygonf? rauseyfEdkifonfh ausmif;om;rsm;.aºuG;a}umfoHrsm; qufwdkufxGufay:vmygonf?
1962 ckESpf Zlvdkifv (7) &uf/ 12 ESpfvHk; aoG;pnf;r_r&SdcJ@aomausmif;om;rsm; Tae@wGif jyefvnfpk±kH;rdI
ae0if;ppftpdk;&tm; ausmif;om;xku wefjyefwdkufyJG0if&ef zefwD;aeonfh toGifaqmifaeygonf? EdkifiHa&;cH,lcsuf&Sdonfh
wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;.v_yf&Sm;r_ wpcef;xvmygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;udk enf;trsKd;rsKd;oHk;+yD; Oya'trsKd;rsKd;xkwfI
xGufaygufr&Sdatmif ae0if;ppftpdk;&onf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fcJhonfomru/ qdk&S,fvpfpepfwnfaqmufa&;qdkonfh em;axmifvdk@
aumif;aom a0g[m&rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;wdk@tm; r_dif;wdkufcJhygonf? tzdESdyfcH&aom jynfolvlxkESifhausmif;om;rsm; ,ck
vufiif;udpPwGif xGuf&yfaygufudk &SmonfrSm obm0usvSayonf? EdkifiHa&;aºuG;a}umfoHrsm; tHk;tHk;ºuGuf aygufuGJvm
ygawmhonf?
bGJ@ESif;obifcef;ra&S@wGif OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk tmvHk;u*g0&ðy}uygonf? xdk@haemuf bGJ@ESif;obifcef;rtwGif;odk@
oHCmawmfrsm;+cH&Hvsuf OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk o,faqmifygonf? bGJ@ESif;obifcef;r&Sd pifjrifhay:wGif OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk
xm;+yD; ta&;ay:psmyeaumfrDwDzGJ@pnf;vdkufygonf? bGJ@ESif;obifcef;rtwGif;ESifh teD;ywf0ef;usif wuUodkvfe,fajronf
vltkyf}uD;jzifh jynfhv#Haeygonf? bGJ@ESif;obifcef;ra&S@jrufcif;jyifwGif ausmif;om;rsm;ae&m,lxm;+yD; um;acgifrdk;ay:rSaeI
vufwzufwGif rdkufu±kdzHk;udkifvsuf vufoD;vufarmif;wef;+yD; ausmif;om;wOD;csif; wufa&muf&ifzGifh}uygonf? bmudkrS
*±krpdkufEdkif}uawm@yg? 12 ESpf umveD;yg; E_wfydwfa&iHkaecJh&aom ausmif;om;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@&ifwGif;rS EdkifiHa&;cHpm;csuf
rsm;udk [pfatmfaºuG;a}umfygawm@onf?
“ajymawmh qdk&S,fvpf'Drdkua&pD/ vkyfawm@ wygwDaumif;pm;a&;/” tiwfab;qdkufaeonfh jynfolvlxkudk,fpm;
ausmif;om;rsm;u ae0if;ppftpdk;&udk “atmufudkvnf; jyef}unfhygOD;/ um;0,fwdkufaqmufESifhom tcsdefðzef;raeygESifh” [k
wzkH/ trsKd;rsKd;aompum;vHk;rsm;ESifh av#mufvJae}uavonf? wufa&mufem;axmifaeaom ausmif;om;xkESihf t&yfom;
wdk@ vufckyfoHrsm; wazsmif;azsmif;ESifh axmufcHcsD;jr‡ifhae}uavonf?
1974 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (6) &uf? OD;oef@±kyfuvmyf bGJ@ESi;f obifcef;rtwGif; xm;&Sda}umif; }um;odI &efukefqifajczHk;
rS vltrsm;tjym; vma&muf*g0&ðy}uavonf? bGJ@ESif;obifpifjrifhay:&Sd toHcsJ@puf pum;ajymcGufESifh vGwfvyfpGm pum;
ajymqdkcGifh&Sdonfqdkonfh 'Drdkua&pDppfppfudk ausmif;om;rsm;u o±kyfazmfaeygonf? ausmif;om;rsm; &J&ifhajymifajrmufpGm
wOD;csif; pifjrifhay:odk@ wufa&mufI rdrdwdk@.cHpm;csufrsm;udk &ifzGifh}uygawm@onf? bGJ@ESif;obifcef;vkH;jynfh&Sd vltkyf}uD;
vufckyfoHrsm;ESifh axmufcHtm;ay;}uygonf? ,m,DpsmyeaumfrDwDrS a=unmcsufw&yf xGufay:vmygonf? “OD;oef@.
psmyeudk ae0if;ppftpdk;&taeESifh EdkifiHawmfpsmyetjzpf ðyvkyfay;&ef awmif;qdkaompmudk EdkifiHawmfaumifpDodk@ ydk@vdkuf+yD
jzpfa}umif;/ tu,fI ,ae@nae (4) em&Dwdwdtxd jyef}um;csufwpHkw&mr# r&&Sdygu/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf jynfolvlxk
tultnDESifh rdrdwdk@zmom psmyetcrf;tem;ðyvkyfI +idrf;csrf;a&;tkwf*lAdrmef wnfaqmufrnfjzpfa}umif; a=unmvdkufyg
onf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif tHk;tkH;ºuGufºuGufvufckyfoHrsm;ESifh bGJ@ESif;obifcef;rwckvHk;udk rdk;csKef;ouJ@odk@ zHk;vGrf;oGm;ygawmh
onf?
em&DvufoHwdk@onf wa&G@a&G@vnfywfaeygonf? ausmif;om;ESifh t&yfom;udk,fpm;vS,fwdk@ wOD;csif;tvSnfhus
pifjrifhay:odk@ wufa&mufrdef@cGef;ajym}uygonf? Eke,faomESvHk;om;ydkif&Sif rdef;cav;rsm;yif olwdk@. &ifxJrSxGufvmaom
pum;vHk;rsm;onf rdef;rom;rsm;ESifhrS rudkufnDbJ/ rmausmjywfom;vSayonf?
vlwdkif; em&Dw}unfh}unfhESifh (4) em&Dudk apmifhar#mfae}uygonf? aemufawm@ (4) em&Dom xdk;oGm;aomfvnf;
EdkifiHawmfaumifpDrS vHk;0wkef@jyefajz}um;jcif;r&Sdonf@twGuf/ ausmif;om;/ t&yfom;/ oHCmawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;.
oabmwlnDcsuft& ausmif;om;or*~taqmuftOD;a[mif; (1962 ckESpf Zlvdkifv (7) &ufae@wGif/ ausmif;om;or*~
taqmuftOD;}uD;onf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwl ae0if;ppftpdk;.AHk;'%f xdrSefòyduJGzsufqD;jcif;cHcJh&ygonf) ae&mudk &Sif;
vif;+yD; OD;oef@twGuf tkwf*lwnfaqmuf oò*õvfrnfjzpfa}umif;/ xdkwqufwnf;rSmyif +idrf;csrf;a&;*lAdrmefudkvnf; wnf
aqmufrnfjzpfa}umif; qHk;jzwf}uygonf?
- 18 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

qHk;jzwfcsufcsonfESifh ausmif;om;/ t&yfom;rsm;ESifh oHCmawmfrsm; or*~a[mif;ae&mudk pwif&Sif;vif;I &efukef
pufr_wuUodkvf ydokumXmeESifh òrd@jyXmerSausmif;om;rsm; wm0ef,lyHkqGJ+yD; OD;oef@tkwf*lESifh ,m,D*lAdrmefudk aqmufvkyfyg
onf? pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf/ ynma&;wuUodkvf/ 0dZ…mESifhody`HwuUodkvf/ aq;ausmif;rS wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwl
txufwef;ESifh tv,fwef;ausmif;aygif;pHkwdk@rS ausmif;om;rsm;vnf; yg0ifvkyftm;ay;}uygonf?
1974 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (7) &uf/ n (7) em&DtcsdefwGif ausmif;om;/ oHCmESifh OD;oef@rdom;pkwdk@onf ta&;ay:
tpnf;ta0;udk rEWav;aqmifwGif ðyvkyfygonf? xdktpnf;a0;wGif tzGJ@0if (11) OD;yg0ifygonf? OD;oef@.nDOD;aomif;u
&efukefwdkif; jynfol@aumifpDuxkwfvdkufaompmudk xkwfjyygonf? OD;oef@udpPESifhywfoufI tkwf*lwnfaqmufa&;ESifh
*lAdrmefwnfaqmuf&ef uefawmfrifyef;+cHwGif ae&may;rnfjzpfa}umif;/ ausmif;om;rsm;udkvnf; ta&;,lzrf;qD;rnf r[kwf
a}umif; yg&Sdavonf? OD;aomif;taeESifh OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk tjrefqHk;oò*õvfcsif+yDjzpfa}umif;/ 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae@ (12)
em&DtcsdefY oò*õvfa&;tpDpOfpwif&ef ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; ajym}um;ygonf? a'gufwmwifjrifhOD; (OD;oef@.
om;ruf) uvnf;/ rdrdudk,fwdkif yHkpHa&;qJGxm;aom OD;oef@.tkwf*lAdrmefudk uefawmfrifyef;+cHwGif aqmufvkyf+yD; oò*õvf
&ef jyifqif+yD;jzpfa}umif;/ ausmif;om;ESifh oHCmawmfrsm;tm; tjrefqHk;pDpOf&ef yef}um;oGm;avonf? OD;oef@psmyeudpPESifh
ywfoufI ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ oHCmawmfrsm; tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;}u+yD;/ tpnf;a0;.qHk;jzwfcsufudk trsm;
oabmwlnDcsufjzifh qHk;jzwfrnfjzpfa}umif;/ wOD;csif;qEN,lrnfjzpfa}umif;/ xdktpnf;a0;wufa&mufoltm;vHk; oabmwl
nDavonf? yxrOD;qHk; OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfoò*õvfa&;tpDpOfudk 'DZifbmv 8 &ufae@/ 12 em&DwdwdwGif pwif&ef oabm
wlnD}uavonf? qufvufI atmufygtcsufESpfcsufudkaqG;aEG;+yD; qHk;jzwfrJcGJ&ygrnf?
(1) OD;oef@.±kyfuvmyfudk bGJ@ESi;f obifcef;rrS ausmif;om;or*~ae&m/ ausmif;om;rsm;aqmufvkyfxm;aom
OD;oef@tkwf*lay:wGif wifI OD;oef@rdom;pkrsm;/ jynfolvlxk/ ausmif;om;/ oHCmawmfrsm; aemufqHk;*g0&ðy+yD; uefawmfrif
yef;+cHodk@o,faqmif&ef?
(2) OD;oef@.±kyfuvmyfudk ausmif;om;ESifhjynfolwdk@. ac|;ESifhwnfaqmufaeonfh OD;oef@tkwf*lwGifoò*õvf+yD; OD;oef@
*lAdrmefudk ausmif;om;rsm; toufESifhaoG; paw;cJ@onfh ausmif;om;or*~ae&mwGifwnfaqmuf&ef?
wOD;csif;qEN,lvdkufaomtcg (7) rJ (4) rJESifh yxrtcsufudk oabmwlnD}uygonf?
(7) rJxJrSm OD;aomif;/ a'gufwmwifjrifhOD;/ oHCmawmfESpfyg;ESifh usefausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,foHk;OD;yg0ifygonf?
(4) rJxJrSm usaemfwdk@pufr_wuUodkvfrS ausmif;om; (3) OD;ESifh aq;wuUodkvfudk,fpm;ðy aq;ausmif;om;wOD; tyg
t0if ausmif;om; (4) OD;onf 'kwd,tcsufukd rJay;ygonf?
TwGif OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk (7) rJ (4) rJESifhqHk;jzwf+yD; uefawmfrifyef;jcHwGif oò*õvfrnfjzpfygonf? jrefrmhtoHv$ifh±kH
a&'D,kdrSvnf; 8-12-1974 &uf 12 em&Dtcsdew
f Gif psmyetcrf;tem;pwifrnf[k a}unmygonf?
ausmif;om;ESifhoHCFmwdk@onf ausmif;om;xkESifhjynfolvlxkudkudk,fpm;ðyI/ Ttpnf;ta0;odk@ wufa&mufvmjcif;
jzpfygonf? rJcGJ&mwGif ausmif;om;ESifhoHCFmawmfrsm;.qENrsm; uGJjym;jcm;em;aeygonf?
tajctaejzpf&yftm;vHk;udk jyefvnfpDppfaomtcg/ ae0i;fppftpdk;&onf/ +yD;pvG,f OD;oef@ (urBmhukvor*~ twGif;
a&;rª;csKyfa[mif;) ±kyfuvmyfudk }uHawmoif;csKdif;wGifoò*õvf&ef tpDtpOfðyvkyfygonf? ausmif;om;ESifhjynfolvlxkonf
rauseyfEdkifI av;pm;*k%fðyxdkufaomOD;oef@tm; EdkifiHawmfpsmyetcef;em;ðyvkyfay;&ef ae0if;ppftpdk;&tm; awmif;qdkcJhyg
onf? jynfolvlxkESifh ausmif;om;wdk@. awmif;qdkr_udk wHk@jyefr_r&SdI/ aemufqHk; ausmif;om;wdk@ toufaoG;eJ@paw;cJhonfh
ausmif;om;or*~a[mif;ae&mwGif OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudkoò*õvf+yD; tkwf*lESifh *lAdrmefwnfaqmufygonf?
or*~taqmuftOD;ae&mwGif vkyftm;ay;aeaom jynfol ausmif;om;rsm;/ bGJ@ESif;obifcef;rwGif; OD;oef@±kyfuvmyf
udk apmifha&Smufaeaom jynfolausmif;om;rsm;/ t"dywdvrf;ray:wGif tvªaiGaumufcHaeaom jynfolausmif;om;rsm;/
OD;oef@±kyfuvyfudk aemufqHk;vma&muf*g0&ðy}uaom jynfolw&yfvHk;.vdktifqENonf pm}unfhwdkuftaqmufOD;ae&mrS
tkwfcsyfrsm;udk wa,mufwvufESifh vufqifhurf;o,f,l wnfaqmufaeonfhtkwf*lwGif OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk oò*õvf+yD;
qufvufI OD;oef@*lAdrmefaqmufwnf&efjzpfygonf?
“vluav;&,f/ tzGm;vnf; tkwfwcsyfavmuf 0ifo,f,lukodkvfðyyg&ap” qdkonfh tzGg;wdk@. toHESifhrrsSonfh
vkyftm;jzifh OD;oef@tkwf*laqmuf&mwGif tzGm;tdkvnf; yg0ifvkyftm;ay;cJhygonf? tkwf*lESifh*lAdrmefwnfaqmuf&mwGif
vkyftm;ay;ae}uonfh jynfol/ &[ef;oHCmESifh ausmif;om;wdk@twGuf xrif;xkyfrsm;udk &yfuGufrsm;rS vma&mufvSl'gef;
}uygonf? xrif;xkwfrsm;wGifvnf; “ighnDwdk@/ rif;wdk@&JhrSefuefwJhvkyf&yfudk igwdk@tm;ay;w,f? vkyfief;+yD;qHk;onfxd
qufvufvkyfaqmifyg” qdkonfhpm&Gufi,fuav;rsm;jzifh jynfolvlxkqENudk ajym}um;aeygonf? xdkwGifru rauseyfEdkif
- 19 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

onfh OuUvmy&yfuGufujynfolwdk@onf ausmif;om;jynfoltrsm;twGuf xrif;xkyftvªcHonfhtzGJ@udk wm;jrpfonfh
&Jpcef;udk rD;&SdhzsufqD;vdkufygonf?
bGJ@ESif;obifcef;r&Sd [pfwdkifrdkufu±kdzkef;rSvnf; ausmif;oluav;wOD;. &ifzGifhcsufed*kH;csKyfpum;vHk;rsm; (“usr vuf&Sd
ae0if;ppftpdk;& vkyfyHkudkifzHkav;awGudk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf'Drdkua&pDusus a0bef&wJhtwGuf rsm;pGmrStm;&auseyfvSyg
w,f? tckvdkajymvdk@ usrudkzrf;+yD; axmifcs&ifvnf; usraxmifxJrSmae±kHygyJ? bma}umifhvnf;qdkawmh axmifxJrSmrS
xrif;av;rSefrSefpm;&rSm”) 'D Eke,faomausmif;oluav; jzpfvifhupm; oluav;.cHpm;&r_wdk@onf jyif;xefvSygonf?
&efukef0dZ…mody`HwuUodkvfe,fajrwckvkH;onf ajccsp&mr&Sd/ jynfolvlxk}uD;ESifh jynfhv#Haeygonf?
rEWav;aqmif (11) OD; psmyeaumfrDwDtpnf;a0;+yD;onfESifh ausmif;om;rsm; tkyfpkuJGoGm;ygonf? pufr_wuUodkvfrS
ausmif;om;oHk;OD;onf aemufxyfqufvufI psmyetpDpOftpnf;ta0;udk uef@uGufonfhoabmESifh qufvuf rwuf
a&muf}uawmhbJ/ tkwf*lwnfaqmuf&m ausmif;om;or*~taqmuftOD;a[mif;ae&mudk pufr_wuUodkvf.pk&yfvdk@ owf
rSwfvdkufygonf? wa,mufwqifh/ wa,mufem;qdkouJhodk@ OD;oef@.±kyfuvmyfudk ausmif;om;jynfolwdk@ ac|;ESifhwnf
aqmufonfhtkwf*lwGif oò*õvf&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufygonf? or*~a[mif;0ef;usifwckvk;H udk pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;
ae&m,lapmifh}uyfvdkufygonf? OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk tkwf*lay:wGif aemufqHk;*g0g& ðy+yD;jcif; *lydwfoò*õvf&ef bdvyfajr
(Concrete cement mixture) ESifh y&Hq&m (Masonary) tqifoifh&Sd&ygonf? wufnDvufnD/ wm0efudk,fpDESifh
ausmif;om;rsm;nD!Gwf}uygonf?
bJG@ESif;obifcef;rwGifvnf; OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk toufaoG;ESifhumuG,fapmifha&Smufrnfh taocH (12) OD; ausmif;
om; ausmif;olrsm; cGwfa'gif;acgif;pD;eDrsm; OD;xdwfwGifpD;I jcH&Hapmifh}uyfae}uygonf?
'DZifbm (8) &uf/ rGef;wnfh 12 em&D 1974 ckESpf?
bJG@ESif;obifcef;r0ef;usifwckvHk;/ wuUodkvfe,fajr t"dywdvrf;wavsmufvHk;wGif OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk aemufqHk;
vma&muf *g0g&*k%fðy}uaom jynfolrsm;ESifh jynfhv#Haeygonf? ausmif;om;or*~a[mif; ywf0ef;usifwckvHk;udk pufr_
wuUodkvfausmif;om; ausmif;olrsm; vufwGJrjywfapmihf}uyfxm;ygonf?
OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk bGJ@ESif;obifcef;rrS rsm;jym;vSonfh ausmif;om;xk}um;rS cJ&mcJqpf ausmif;om;or*~ae&m
a[mif;odk@ o,faqmifvm&avonf?
or*~a[mif;ae&mtkwf*lESifh ,m,D*lArd mefwdk@onf wa,mufwvufeJ@ wnfaqmufcJhygonf? OD;oef@±kyfyHkyef;csDum;
csyfonf *k%f&SdvSygonf? tvHawmfoHk;ck v$ifhxlxm;ygonf? Ak'<bmomtvHawmf/ ukvor*~tvHawmfESifh ausmif;om;
or*~ cGwfa'gif;tvHawmfwdk@onf atmif&rnfqdkonfhtoGifaqmifvsuf aumif;uif,HwGif wvlvlvGifh tvHawmfrsm;
wifhw,fx,f0g ysHjrL;ae}uygonf? wcsed fuTae&monf ausmif;om;rsm;pkpnf;&m ausmif;om;or*~taqmuftOD;}uD;
wnf&SdcJhygonf? q&m}uD;OD;oef@onf urBmwGif jrefrmjynfom;wdk@.*k%fudk aqmifcJhonfomru rdrd.aemufqHk;c&D;rSmyif
EdkifiHjcm;oHwrefrsm;/ EdkifiHjcm;owif;axmufrsm; aemufqHk;rSwfwrf;wifowif;,l&ef a&muf&Sdae}u&ygonf? xdk@xufru
wcgrSpkpnf;r_r&SdcJhaom bkef;awmf}uD;rsm; te,fe,f&yf&yfrSvma&mufI ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh yl;aygif;vufwGJvsufaeonf
rSm tHhzG,f&mjzpfygonf?
OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk ausmif;om;wnfaqmufaom tkwf*la&Shpm;yGJay:wGifwifI/ oHCmawmfrsm;/ OD;oef@rdom;pkrsm;/
EdkifiHjcm;oHwrmefrsm;/ jynfolausmif;om;rsm; aemufqHk;*g0g&ðy}uygonf?
tpDpOft& OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk uefawmfrifyef;jcHodk@ o,f,lrnf[k a}unmvdkufonfEiS fh “OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk
or*~0if;twGif;rS b,fudkrSrxkwf&bl;” qdkonfhaºuG;a}umfoHrsm; wcJeufqlnHoGm;ygawmhonf? or*~ae&ma[mif;a&Sh&Sd
rEWav;aqmifcef;r toHcsJ@pufrS OD;cef@taeESifh jynfolESifhausmif;om;xkudk arwWm&yfcHpum; tenf;i,fajym}um;oGm;yg
onf? OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk ausmif;om;rsm;wnfaqmufxm;aom tkwf*lwGif xm0&oò*õvf&ef aºuG;a}umfoHrsm; qlnH
oxuf qlnHvmygonf? tajctaerSm oufqdkif&mausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u wpHkwckrSrðyvkyfygu/ usefausmif;
om;rsm;u twif;0ifa&mufoò*õvfrnfh tajctaewGif&Sdaeygonf?
aemufqHk; ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk ausmif;om;rsm;wnfaqmufaom tkwf*lwGifom
xm0&oò*õvfrnfjzpfa}umif; a=unmvdkufonfhtcsdefrSom ausmif;om;xkESifhjynfolrsm; vufcHauseyf}uavonf? a=u
nm+yD;onfhtwdkif; ausmif;om;rsm; OD;oef@±kyfuvmyf ykckH;ajymif;o,f,l+yD; tkwf*lwGif oò*õvfvdkufygonf? bdvyfajr
(concrete cement mixture) uvnf; tqifoifhjyifxm;onfhtwGuf/ y&Hq&m (Masonary) vufpGrf;ESifh tkwf*ludk
xm0&ydwfvdkufygonf? “atmif+yD” “atmif+yD” “atmif+yD” [laomaºuG;a}umfoHrsm; rdk;uJGvkrwwf jrnf[def;oGm;ygonf?
- 20 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

oHCmawmfrsm; y&dwfw&m;em+yD; taocHausmif;om;wyfzGJ@u urBmhukvor*~tvHawmfESifh tkwf*lukdvusfm&pfoHk;ywf/
ywf+yD; tav;ðyygonf? xdk@aemuf ukvor*~tvHawmfudk tkwf*lxufwGif v$rf;òcHvdkufygonf?
‚if;ae@nbufwGif ae0if;ppftpdk;&bufrS jrefrmhtoHuwqifh ausmif;om;rsm;u OD;oef@rdom;pk.qENudkjiif;y,fI
ausmif;om;rsm;wnfaqmufonfhtkwf*lwGif OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk oò*õvfa}umif;/ pm}unfhwdkuftaqmuftOD;twGuf
xm;aom aqmufvkyfa&;ypPnf;rsm;udk tvJGoHk;pm;ðyvkyf+yD; tkwf*laqmufonfhtwGuf/ jynfolydkifypPnf;zsufqD;r_ESifh ta&;
,lay;&ef/ &efukefwdkif;aqmufvkyfa&;aumfydka&;&Sif;rS pmydk@a}umif; a=unmygonf?
ausmif;om;rsm;taeESifh *lAdrmefqufvufwnfaqmuf&ef/ taocHwyfzJG@trnfwyfum +idrf;csrf;a&;zcif}uD;OD;oef@
twGuf toufudky"merxm;bl; qdkonfhcH,lcsufESifh OD;oef@tkwf*ludk apmifha&Smufxm;ygonf? rauseyfEdkifonfh jynfol
vlxk}uD;ESifhausmif;om;wdk@onf ae0if;ppftpdk;&. wygwD0g'udk qufvufuef@uGuf qENjyae}uygonf?
ausmif;om;rsm;onf ydkrdkIpnf;vHk;nD!Gwfvmygonf? wOD;udkwOD; nDtpfudkarmifESrozG,f apmifha&Smuf}uygonf?
ae0if;ppftpdk;&. olv#Kdtrftdkif (Military Intelligence-MI) rsm;udk rsufajcrjywfppfaq;I zrf;rdaomtrftdkifrsm;udk
ausmif;om;rsm;u ±kdufESufowday;vdkuf}uygonf?
w&uf ESpf&uf ausmif;om;rsm;onf qufvufI *lAdrmef+yD;pD;a&;twGuf qufvufvyk fudkifae}uygonf? oHCm
awmfrsm;/ ausmif;om; ausmif;olrsm;ESifh jynfolwdk@onf ae0if;ppftpdk;&. owif;pmrsm;ESifha&'D,kdwdk@rS trsKd;rsKd;±_wfcs
a0zefr_rsm;udk cH,lae}u&ygonf?
oHk;&ufajrmufae@ 'DZifbm (10) &ufae@ 1974 ckESpf ae0if;ppfwyfonf ausmif;om;rsm;udkEdSrfeif;&ef wdwfwqdwf pDrH
ygonf?ppfwyfonf &efukef0dZ…mody`HwuUodkvfe,fajrwckvHk;udk odrf;ydkufvdkufygonf? e,fajrwckvHk;twGif;odk@
t0iftxGufudk ydwfvdkufygonf? 11-12-74 reuf 2 em&DwGif ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhqENjyolrsm; trsm;pktdyfarmuscsdef
avmufwGif t"dywdvrf;&Sd t"duyifr0ifaygufwHcg;}uD;tm; u&def;}uD;jzifhwGef;vSefzsufqD;I ausmif;0if;twGif; 0ifa&muf
zrf;qD;}uygonf? xdkodk@0ifa&muf&mwGif bJG@ESif;obifcef;rae&muGufvyftm; rD;armif;rsm;xdk;+yD; &Jrsm;u 'dkif;umrsm;/
vufudkifwkwfrsm;jzifh pwif0ifa&muf+yD; rsufa&AHk;rsm; ajraumfpufrsm;/ armfawmfum;rsm;toHk;ðy+yD; qENjyolrsm;tm;
vlpkcGJum OD;oef@tkwf*ltm;vnf;òzdcsI ±kyfuvmyftm; jyefvnfazmf,l+yD; a&$wd*Hkbk&m;teD; uefawmfrifyef;jcHab;&Sd ocif
udk,fawmfr_dif;tkwf*lab;ae&modk@ nwGif;yifajymif;a&$@jr‡KyfESHygonf? xdkodk@ }urf;wrf;pGmzsufqD; zrf;qD;onfhtwGuf ausmif;
om;wcsKd@ aoqHk;cJh}u&ygonf? wcsKd@rSmawmh ppfzdeyfpmxdI t±kd;usKd; wkwfrsm;.±kdufcsuf'%fa}umifh acgif;uJG+yD;vJusol
rsm;vnf;&Sdygonf? vufeufrJhaom jynfol oHCmawmfrsm; ausmif;om;rsm;udk tcsKyfum;ay:odk@ twif;t"rR zrf;qD;
wifaqmifI nwGif;csif;yif tif;pdeftusOf;axmifodk@ ydk@ygonf? o,faqmif&mppfum;.taemufydkif; trdk;tumrJhwGif
tm;vkH;udk yqpf'l;wkwf/ vufESpfzufudk acgif;ay:wif/ acgif;ikH@ v_yfr&atmifxdkifcdkif;+yD;/ ppfum;.aemufydkif; av;buf
a'gifhwGif ppfom;av;OD;onf/ *sDo&D;aoewfrsm;ESifh csdefxm;ygonf? ppf±kyf&Siu
f m;rsm;wGif ppfyJGrStusOf;orm;rsm;udk zrf;qD;
ouJhodk@ ae0if;ppftpdk;&onf ausmif;om; jynfol &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;udk rw&m;zrf;qD; csKyfaESmifcJhygonf?
nydkif;rSpwifzrf;qD;+yD; tif;pdefaxmifodk@ydk@aqmifaom aemufqHk;ppfum;onf eHeuf (*) em&Dtcsdefxdjzpfygonf? Tjrif
uGif;onf jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;twGuf &ifeifhzG,f&m rwwfomvdk@ vufydkuf}unfhae&onfh tajctaewGif a&muf&Sdaeyg
onf?
jrefrmAk'<bmomxHk;pHudkrS*±krpdkuf/ tkw*f ludkazmufcJG+yD; oò*õvf+yD;onfh±kyfuvmyfudkxkwf,ljcif;/ jynfol/ oHCmawmf
ESifh ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;udk &uf&ufpufpufowfjzwfzrf;qD;jcif; qdkonfhowif;udk}um;onfh jynfolvlxk}uD;rSm
ae0if;ppftpdk;&.vkyf&yfudk vufcHEdkifpGrf;r&SdonfhtqHk; eHeuf *;30 tcsdefavmufwGif &efukefòrd@wGif tpdk;&ESifhoufqdkifonfh
jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfygwD ,lepf±kH;rsm;/ &Jpcef;rsm;/ ±kyf&Sif±kHtcsKd@udk rD;±_d@zsufqD; wefjyeft}urf;zufqENjy}uygonf?
“igwdk@wygwDaumif;pm;a&; qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk xdyg;vm&ifawmh ae0if;ppftpdk;&onf rnfoludkrS toufcsrf;omay;
rnfr[kwfa}umif;” w±kyfjynfrS uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmif}uD; armfpDwkef;.pum;ESifhEd_if;I “tm%monf aoewfajymif;0wGif
&Sda}umif;” jynfolvlxk}uD;tm; vufawG@owfjzwfjyygonf?
ppfwyf.ajymi;f0udk jynfolwdk@tm; csdef&G,fypfcwfESdrfeif;ygonf? &efukefòrd@wGif;wGif aoewfoHrsm; zHk;v$rf;vsuf
vlaygif;ajrmufjrm;pGm aoG;ajruscJh&ygonf? &efukefòrd@wGif;0,f ppfe,fajrouJhodk@ wifhum;}uD;ESifhvSnfhvnfvsuf/ *sDo&D;
aoewf}uD;rsm;ESifh ypfcwfaeygonf? &efukefòrd@wGif;udkvnf; ppftkyfcsKyfa&;a'otjzpfowfrSwf+yD;/ nrxGuf&trdef@rsm;
xkwfjyefygonf? zrf;qD;rdonfhjynfolrsm;udk jynfolydkifypPnf; csKd;azmufzsufqD;r_qdkonfh rw&m;yk'frwyfcg axmif (3) ESpfrS
axmif (5) ESpfcsum tpGrf;jyaeygonf? OD;oef@psmyeudpPwGifyg0ifaom jynfol oHCmawmf ausmif;om;rsm;udk ae0if;
- 21 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;trftdkif (MI) yk*~dKvfrsm;udktoHk;ðyvsuf aetdrfrsm;rS vdkufvHzrf;qD;ygonf? Eke,fi,f&G,fvSonfh
ausmif;om;uav;rsm;yifrcsef tif;pdefaxmifxJoGif;xm;ygonf?
&maygif;rsm;pGmaom ausmif;om;ESifhjynfol &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; toufqHk;±_H;cJhygonf? axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom
ausmif;om; jynfolwdk@udk axmifcsxm;onf? usefausmif;om;rsm;onf tdk;ypftdrfypf ynma&;qHk;±H_qHk;cH+yD; olwdk@.
zrf;qD;r_rS a&Smifwdrf;ae&ygonf? a&Smifwdrf;ae&aom ausmif;om;wcsKd@onf awmwGif;awmfvSefa&;tzJG@pnf;rsm;odk@ wcsKd@
a&muf}uygonf? wcsKd@vnf; EdkifiHjcm;wdik f;jynfrsm;odk@ cdk;xGufyHk;vsSKdae&ygonf? olwdk@.b0a&S@a&;onf rnfuJhodk@zefwD;
rnfudkum; rnfolurSrajymEdkifatmifjzpfygonf?
aumufcH&&Sdaom&HyHkaiG 300˜000 usyf rnfolxHwGif&Sdaeonfudk pma&;oltaeESifh owif;rSefrod&Sdaomfvnf; pm;&rJh
aomuf&rJh 0wf&rJhtajctae}um;rS TrsSaomaiGyrm%udk OD;oef@*lAdrmefwnfaqmuf&ef vª'gef;}uaom vlxk}uD;.
apwemudk od&SdEdkifygonf?
*k%fðyxdkufoludk *k%fðy&rnfqdkonfudk omrmeftod^m%f&Sdolwa,mufyif od&Sdygonf? urBmh+idrf;csrf;a&;zcif}uD;
OD;oef@udk todOm%f&Sdonfh vlom;tm;vHk;u xdkufoifhpGmoò*õvf&ef óud;pm;cJhaomfvnf; rarsSmfvifhonfh wkef@jyefcsufrsm;
a}umifh jrifraumif; }um;raumif; toufrsm;pGmpaw;+yD; aoG;ajrusum +idrf;csrf;a&;zcif}uD;psmyetcrf;tem;udk +yD;qHk;
vdkuf&ygonf?
&ifaoG;i,fwdkif; ,Ofaus;vdrRm&rnf
&ifaoG;i,fwdk@urBm +idrf;at;om,m&rnf
&ifaoG;wdk@acwf qef;opfa0qm&rnf
ÚÚÚ a'gufwmrif;wifrGef ÚÚÚ
“ta&;}uD;qHk;aom +idrf;csrf;a&;udk EdkifiHa&;orm;vufxJwGif rxm;oifhyg”
ÚÚÚOD;oef@ (urBmhukvor*~/ twGif;a&;rª;csKyfa[mif;) ÚÚÚ
“Peace is too important to be left exclusively to the politicians.”
UThant (Former UN Secretary-General)

ywfòrd@ (Perth, W. Australia) ausmif;om;rsm;. aw;oDcsif;?
“urBmra}ubl;”
urBmra}ubl; igwdk@aoG;eJ@a&;cJh}uwJh armfuGef;awG
awmfvSefa&; 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGtwGif;rSm usqHk;aom
a}omf ol&Jaumif;wdk@a&···
tmZmenfawG aewJhwdkif;jynf &J&Jawmuf'dk@jrefrmjynf
udk,fawmfr_dif; &mZ0ifawGvnf; &dkif;cJh&+yDtzdk;a&···
ocifatmifqef; EdkifiHawmfvnf; aoG;pGef;cJh+yD tza&···
a}omf vkyf&uf}uay ayw&may:rSm jynfoltavmif;awG
twkH;t±kH;eJ@ vJòydumae···
nDtpfudkwdk@··ayw&may:rSmpD;wJhaoG;awG rajcmufao;bl;
rawGa0eJ@···'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGtwGif;rSmusqHk;aom
a}omf···ol&Jaumif;wdk@awG tcdkiftrmyDjyif awmfvSefypfyav··
'dk@cspfwJh 'dk@jrefrmjynf···

*********************************************************************************

wcsdefu 'DZifbm 1974 ckESpf/ usaemfonf &efukefpufr_wuUodkvfwGif rSm;wJhtcsdefeJ@ rSm;wJhae&ma&mufcJhonf[k
xifcJhygonf? Ttcsdefonf usaemfhtwGuf trSefqHk;tcsdefjzpfcJhonfomru usaemf.rSefaomae&monf &efukefpufr_
wuUodkvfjzpfcJhygonf? odk@r[kwfygu usaemfonf Tae@Tae&mudk a&muf&Sdrnfr[kwfyg?
pufr_wuUodkvfpdk;0if;
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ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

¡arv(20)2002¢

aemful;r.trSwfw&

aX;aX;0if; (74)
5/12/74 &ufae@n pm=unfhpm;yGJay:rSm pmudkpdwfr0ifpm;bJ zwfaecsdef n (8) em&D jrefrmhtoHowif;udk em;axmif
aeaom arar.tpfudk zsmyHkòrd@e,ftrwf (zqyv) Adkvfbwifhu ae0if;uawmhvkyfcsvdkufjyef+yD ajymawmh usru
bmjzpfvdk@vJ bb ar;wJhtcg OD;oef@udk ol@rdef;ra':cifaroef;&J@ *lajc&if;rSm ay;vdkufw,f/ OD;oef@vdkvlrsKd;udkawmh 'Dvdk
vkyfzdk@raumif;bl;vdk@ajymw,f?
usru bmrSrodao;wJh t-x-u (4) wmarGu (7) wef;ausmif;olqdkawmh OD;oef@qdkwmb,folvJ vdk@ar;vdkuf
w,f? OD;oef@[m (UN) rSmwwd,urBmppf}uD;rjzpfatmif olpGrf;aqmifcJhvdk@ urBm@EdkifiHtoD;oD;u odyfawmfwJhOD;oef@
b,fuvJ ar;awmhrS OD;oef@[mArm/ Arm[mb,frSmvJqkdrS jrefrmjynfajryHkav;udk urBmuodatmif trsKd;*k%f
aqmifwJhOD;oef@udk xdkufwefwJhAdrmefwckawmh vkyfay;oifhw,fvdk@ bbuajymawmh usrwdk@jrefrmvlrsKd;xJrSm 'Davmuf
awmfwJhvludk wtm;*k%fðycsifwJhpdwfawG &&SdcJhw,f? 'ghtjyif ae0if;[m ocifEkqDutm%mudk rw&m; 1962 up+yD;
odrf;ydkufcJhvdk@ ae0if;udkt&rf;rkef;cJhw,f? oltkyfcsKyfwJhtcsdefup+yD; ausmif;om;or*~taqmuftOD;udkzsufqD; jrefrmvlrsKd;
jrefrmausmif;om;rsm;udk zsufqD;owfjzwfcJhwm vlwdkif;todygyJ?
AdkvfcsKyfaoqHk;oGm;jcif;[m jrefrmvlrsKd;awG@&J@b0 aoqHk;oGm;ovdk jzpfcsif&mawGjzpfysufukefw,fqdk+yD; bbu
usrudk tjrJwrf; em;oGif;cJhw,f?usrtouft&G,feJ@ 'gawGodvm&jcif;[m usrbba=umifhyJjzpfygw,f?
aemufwae@reuf ausmif;oGm;r,fqdk+yD; oli,fcsif;cifoufrmeJ@ESpfa,muf OD;oef@psmye&Sd&m wuUodkvfausmif;0if;
twGif;udk vrf;av#muf+yD;vmcJh&m "rRm&Hka&S@ vSnf;wef;rD;yGdKifhxdyfudk a&mufvmcJhawmh nae 3;30 &Sdae+yD? vltkyfudkawG@+yD;
oli,fcsif;u olrvdkufawmhbl;qdkwmeJ@ usr[m bGJ@ESif;obifcef;ra&S@udk a&muf&SdoGm;+yD; txJrSm OD;oef@&J@tacgif;ay:
+idrf;csrf;a&;tvHtkyf+yD; pifjrifhay:wifxm;wm usrawG@vdkuf&w,f?
&[ef;&Sifvl ausmif;om;vlxkawG tvkyfrsm;ae=uw,f? usru ausmif;om;tpfudkwa,mufudkoGm;+yD; usr txu
(4) wmarGu (7) wef;ausmif;olyg? OD;oef@psmyejzpfajrmufa&;twGuf yg0ifcsifvdk@ygoGm;ajymawmh/ oluusrudk uav;r
av; bmawGvmajymaewmvJ qdkwJhyHkpHeJ@ pdwf0ifwpm;ac:r,fholr&Sdwma=umifh usr tayguf0 jyefxGufvmwJhtcgrSm
tayguf0pifjrifhay:rSm bkef;}uD;wyg;w&m;a[m+yD;qif;tvm usrupifjrifhay:wuf+yD; usr[m (7) wef;ausmif;ol
wa,mufjzpfa=umif;/ OD;oef@vdkyk*~dKvfwa,muf[m *k%fðyxdkufolwa,mufjzpfa=umif;/ ae0if;[m ol@xufomvdk@ remvdk
jzpf+yD; ae&mray;a=umif; pwmawGvdk usrodwmawGudk w&m;a[majymwJhtcgrSm vlxku awmfawmfav; oabmusyg
w,f? tJ'geJ@ usr[m t0wfwxnfudk,fwckeJ@ ausmif;0if;xJrSmae+yD; ae0if;tpdk;&raumif;a=umif;w&m;udk &ufquf
a[maewm (10) &ufae@rSm arareJ@tpfrawGu usrwdk@udk zrf;awmhr,fqdkwmodvdk@ vmac:w,f? *dwfrSmwm0efuswJh
tpfudkwa,mufu aX;aX;/ eifhtareJ@tpfrvdk@ajymw,f/ oGm;awG@rvm;vdk@ vmac:w,f? usru tarr&Sd/ tpfrr&Sd/
bbeJ@yJaewm/ 'g axmufvSrf;a&;uvdrf+yD; ac:cdkif;wmjzpfr,fvdk@ vdrfvdkufw,f? rdcifeJ@tpfrudkapmfum;vdkufvdk@ usr
tJ'DnrSmyJtzrf;cHcJh&ygw,f?
OD;oef@*lab;rSm0dkif;+yD; usrwdk@ausmif;om;rsm;[m rsuf&nf,dkAHk;'%fa=umifh ar@vJoGm;cJhw,f? owd&wJhtcsdefrSm
wef;pD+yD; um;ay:wufzdk@ apmifhae&ygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm *ludk u&def;eJ@qGJwifaewm awG@&ygw,f? reuf (5;50) em&DrSm
tif;pdefaxmifudk a&muf&SdcJhygw,f?
usrwdk@eJ@b0wl ausmif;om;§ol/ jynfol aps;a&mif;olutp trsKd;orD; (167) a,muf tzrf;cHcJh&w,f? (12) &uf
ae@reuf (9) em&DavmufrSm axmifydkifeJ@ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; (4-5) OD;cef@u ausmif;olawGxGufcJhvdk@ajymawmh usr tcef;
xJuaexcsdefrSm twlwlvkyfcJhwJh pkpkrm idkw,f? ola=umufw,fwJh? usrudkrxGufygeJ@wJh? usru vkyf&Jw,f cH&Jw,f?
xGufr,fqdk+yD; xGufcJhawmh ausmif;ol (7) a,mufavmuf&Sdr,f/ usrwkd@xGufwJhvlawGxJrSm axmufvSrf;a&;wa,mufu
eifwdk@xJrSm aemful;rqdkwm b,folvJ vdk@ar;wJhtcg usrux+yD; usryJvdk@ajymvdkufawmh aemufuae ajcaxmufudk
jzwf&dkufvdkufwm a&S@udkvJusawmh rsufESmudkapmifeJ@tkyf+yD; ppfa=uma&;&Hk;cef;xJrmS yHkpHtrsKd;rsKd;eJ@ tppfaq;cHcJh&ygw,f?
axmifqdkwm edAŠmefr[kwfrSef;odayrJh usrvHk;0ra=umufcJhygbl;? tpuxJu olwdk@awmfvSef&if 'Dvdkjzpfr,fqdkwm
usr&J@bbu erlem&Sd+yD;om;yJ/ ra=umufvdk@vkyfcJhwJhtwGuf aoonfhtxd usraemifwr&bl;?

- 23 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

em&DeJ@ae@&ufawGrSm usrb,frSm&Sdw,f? bmawGvkyfw,f/ ae0if;raumif;a=umif;awG a[mcJhw,fvdk@ tppfcHcJhw,f?
usr 'DvdkawGa[majymwm b,folajr‡mufay;vdk@vJwJh? usru b,folrSajr‡mufay;wm r[kwfbl;/ usrpdwfeJ@usr vkyfwm
vdk@ajymcJhw,f? 'gtrSefyJ? 1975 ckESpfxJrSm bbudk (4) v ac:zr;fcJhao;w,f?
7-4-75 ckESpf tif;pdefppfcHk&Hk; (1) rSm Adkvfrª;v_difbGm; (a&wyf) uOD;pD;+yD; tvkyf=urf;eJ@axmif'%f (5) ESpfcscJhw,f?
trsKd;orD; (167) a,mufxJrSm (166) a,mufvGwf+yD; usrwa,mufxJ axmifuscJhw,f?
usrwdk@ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif udkwifarmifOD;udk ajcmufvHk;jyL;wvufeJ@ vSnf;wef;rSm zrf;qD;cJhw,f? ol@udk vlowf
vufeufudkifqmifr_eJ@ raorcsif;óud;uGif;pGyfIowfap qdk+yD;óud;rdef@ay;cJhw,f? ()&uf ae@ reuf (5) em&DrSm usrwdk@aemuf
zuf vlowfpifrSm a=u;pnfwD;+yD;ac:oGm;wJhae@[m usraxmifxJrSm ta=uuGJqHk;ae@wae@ygyJ?
axmifxJrSm (3) ESpf (4) vaecJh+yD; (7-4-78) &ufae@rSm axmifuvGwfcJhygw,f? axmifuxGufwkef;u usr wdkufydwf
cHae&wJhtcef;u xGufcJh&ygw,f?
axmifuxGufvdk@ ausmif;tyfzdk@ ausmif;udka&mufawmh &moufyef ausmif;uxkwfvdkuf+yDwJh? ae0if;tpdk;& a=unm
wJhausmif;om; (52) a,mufrSm usrwa,mufyJ rdef;uav;/ toufti,fqHk;/ eHywf (52) jzpfvdk@ygyJ?
1988 ckESpf ta&;tcif;jzpfvmwJh tcsdefrSm usrwdk@ 1974 OD;oef@/ 1975 a&$wd*Hkoydwf/ 1976 ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;
oydwfrSm yg0ifaxmifuscJhwJh ausmif;om;§olawG[m wcef;u¾ yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJh=uygw,f? cg;oD;wJhaxmifusb0udk
&ifqdkifcJhzl;ayrJh aemufqkwfroGm;ygbl;? b,fvdktajctaeawG tcsdefawGajymif;ajymif; ppftm%m&SifawGudkrkef;wD;wJh
usr&J@pdwfu 'kwd,t}udrf om; (3) a,mufeJ@twl yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhygw,f? &efuif;òrd@e,f/ uGr;f+cHukef;/ tar&duefoH&Hk;a&S@/
&efukefòrd@tESH@ vdkufvHw&m;a[mcJhygw,f?
'Dw}udrfajym&wJhpum;awG[m usr&J@&ifwGif;cHpm;csufawG tppfyJ? ae0if;tpkd;&[m tm%meJ@ywfoufvm&if
usrvdk i,f&G,fwJhrdef;rom;wa,mufudkawmif &uf&ufpufpufaxmifcscJhovdk usrwkd@ausif;om;acgif;aqmif udkwifarmif
OD;udk ajcmufvHk;jyL;aoewfwvufeJ@ vSnf;wef;rSmzrf;rdwmudk vlowfvufeufudkifaqmifr_eJ@ raorcsif; óud;uGif;pGyfI
owfap qdkwJhtrdef@udk ay;cJhw,f? aoewfudkifaqmifwJhvlwdkif; 'DvdktowfcH&if 'Dae@ wdkif;jynfeJ@vlrsKd;udk enf;rsKd;pHkeJ@ owf
aewJhae0if;udk usrwdk@ b,fvdkta&;,l=urvJvdk@ ajymqdkwJhusrudk vlxkawGu wtm;oabmuscJhygw,f? udkZm*emwdk@
rdcif a':=unfOD;eJ@ bbeef;!GefaqGwkd@eJ@twl v_yf&Sm;cJhw,f?
ta&;tcif;+yD;wJhtcsdefrSm usrudkvmzrf;zdk@ n (2) em&Davmuf wHcg;vmacgufw,f? 'Dtcsdef vmac:wJhol[m rkef@
au|;zdk@r[kwfbl;qdkwmudkodvdk@ cyfwnfwnfeJ@ wHcg;zGifhay;vdkufw,f? a':aX;aX;0if; awG@csifvdk@wJh? usru oljyefrvmwm
(3) &uf&Sd+yD/ bmudpP&Sdvdk@vJ/ vm&ifbmajym&rvJ ar;awmh b,foGm;vJwJh? usrrodbl;/ usreJ@pum;rajymwm =umae+yD/
usruajymawmh jyefoGm;=uw,f? cifyGef;[m usef;rma&;0ef}uD;OD;oef@Zif&J@nDjzpfvdk@ olwkd@todkif;t0dkif;xJrSmyJ v_yf&Sm;+yD;
aevdkuf xGufajy;ykef;a&SmifvdkufeJ@ usr&yfwnfcJhygw,f?
aX;aX;0if; (74)

wcgwkef;utpav;wp
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OD;oef@psmyeaumfrDwD rEWav;aqmifu bmawGvkyfovJ? *dwfayguft0ifxGufapmifh=uyfw,f? psmyeulaiGtvªaiG
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rEWav;aqmif&J@ t0if0wHcg;r}uD;udk aomhcwfydwfxm;+yD; ab;rvG,fayguf oHwHcg;av;uae t0iftxGufvkyfw,f?
tJh'Dae&mrSm vlt+rJapmifhw,f? owif;vufcHw,f? 0ifcGifhay;oifhwJhyk*~dKvfudk pdppf+yD;0ifcGifhðyw,f? udpP+yD;&ifjyefxkwfw,f?
pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvf aemufqHk;ESpfausmif;om;apmxGef;u tJh'DrSm wm0ef,l+yD;}uD;=uyfw,f? y&dowfuswJhtcsdefrSm olrEdkif
reif;jzpf&if ol@taygif;toif; &efukefwuUodkvf u&ifwdkif;&if;om;rsm; pmayeJ@,mOfaus;r_aumfrDwD0if u&ifwuUodkvf
ausmif;om;awGudk ulcdkif;w,f? &if;ESD;wJh wjcm;&cdkif/ csif;/ &Srf; pwJh wdkif;&if;om; wuUodkvfausmif;om; ausmif;olawG
- 24 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

vnf; tcsdefydkif;0ifulay;=uw,f? 1982 ck ESpfukefydkif;avmufrSm yJcl;±dk;rjyefqif;&if; wyf&if;rª;Adkvfrif;odef;wdk@eJ@twl usqHk;
oGm;wJh autJeft,fatwyfu Adkvfapmarm&pf (tJh'Dwkef;u ynma&;wuUodkvf tD;ar*smu taqmifaeausmif;om;
jzpfol) qdk&if (10) &ufae@usrS tjyifrSmaecJhzdk@ vdktyfwJhtwGuf vkyfazmfudkifbufawG&J@qHk;jzwfcsufeJ@ jyefxGufoGm;&wm
jzpfw,f? ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif csif;trsKd;om;udkwifarmifOD; (óud;ay;cH) uawmh rEWav;aqmiftzGJ@eJ@ odyfryl;bl;?
ol@tvkyfwm0efeJ@ol &SdyHk&w,f? 'gayrJh aumfrDwD0ifawGeJ@ tenf;qHk;av;}udrfxufrenf; vma&muftjrifzvS,f oGm;ao;
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vlqdkwJhowW0g/ txl;ojzifh usKyfwdk@cifAsm;wdk@vkd ykxkZOfawG[m &wmrvdk/ vdkwmr&wJhtcg a'goxGufvG,f+rJ/ a'go
xGufwmeJ@ tajymtqdk tðytrlawGuvnf; =urf;wrf;a[mh&rf; vmwwfp+rJ? 'D=um;xJ a'gorD;udk "mwfqDavmif;
avyifhay;cHvdkuf&&ifrsm; ,rf;yHkrD;us aygufuGJwwfawmhwmyJ? t=urf;zufwJhbufudk tvdkvdkul;ajymif;oGm;=uavh&Sdw,f?
tckvnf;=unfhav/ wreufvHk;taumif;om;/ vltkyfuaxmifaomif;ruayrJh pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd+idrf+idrfoufoufyJ? psmye
aumfrDwD jyef=um;a&;XmeawGu a=unmay;wJhtpDtpOfawGtwdkif; w&pf+yD;w&pf emcHvdkufyg v_yf&Sm;ae=uwm? ±kyf
uvmyfudk aqmufvkyfp*lay: acwWwifay;xm;wm (10) rdepfcef@yJ&SdOD;r,f? b,folub,fvdkp+yD; owif;azmufvdkufw,f
rod/ vltkyfawGxJ rausreyfoHawGu yGpdyGpdeJ@qlyGufxvmw,f?
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udk0ifvk zsufqD;ypf&if b,folu wm0ef,lEdkifrSmvJ? psmyeaumfrDwD0ifawG 'Dowif;udkr&bl;vm;? rjzpfbl;/ rjzpfbl;?
tjyifrxkwfatmif tcsdefrDwm;EdkifrSjzpfr,fwJh? w'*FtwGif;rSm todef;taomif;&SdwJhvltkyfu olwdk@udk,fpm;vS,fawGudk
b,fvdka&G;v$wfvdkufovJrod? 'DvlawG tckrEWav;aqmifa&S›u *dwfwHcg;r}uD;qDudk wdk;a0S›0ifvm=u+yD?
ueOD;tprSmawmh [dkbuf'Dbuf oHwcg;jcm;+yD; ajyajyvnfvnf ESpfzufowif;zvS,f tjrifzvS,f=uwmyJ? wHcg;
tjyifbuf t"dywdvrf;ay:uawmh vltkyf}uD;bufaygh? wHcg;twGif;ydkif;rSmawmh ol@tazmfESpfOD;oHk;OD;cef@eJ@ apmxGef;u 'dkifcH
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tavmif;udk uefawmfrifocsõKif;qDodk@ qufvufydk@aqmifrSmjzpfvdk@ tm;vHk;toifhjyifxm;=uyg? wa,mufeJ@wa,muf
wGef;xdk;jcif;rðybJ ajz;ajz;oufom pnf;urf;wusoGm;=uygvdk@ óudwifarwWm&yfcHygw,f?
tJ'Da=unmcsuf ay:vmwmeJ@ vltkyf}uD;&J@a'govnf; tckd;aiG@wv#Hv#HwnD;nD; pxGufawmhwmygyJ? rEWav;aqmif
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&yfcH&Sif;jyaeqJjzpfw,f? tpdk;&eJ@ausmif;om; oabmwlnDcsuf[m owif;pm/ a&'D,dkawGuwqifh urBmoda=unmxm;wJh
tpDtpOfjzpfvdk@ tm;vHk;rSmwm0ef&Sdw,f? 'ga=umifh vG,fvG,feJ@rzsufoifha=umif;/ a=unmxm;wJhtpDtpOftwdkif;yJ quf
oGm;=uzdk@ txyfxyfarwWm&yfcH ajzmif;zsaewm q,frdepfcef@&SdoGm;+yD;rdk@/ tcsdefvifhwmeJ@tr# wif;rmr_u ydk}uD;xGm;vm
wmyJ tzwfwifaeawmhw,f? vlxkwkH@jyefcsufawGxJu usaemf=um;rdoavmuf atmufygtwdkif;jzpfw,f?

- 25 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

“'DrSm*dwfrª;/ usKyfwdk@udk bmnmuGduG vmajymraeeJ@? tcsdefeJ@'Da&[m vludkrapmifhbl;qdkwm cifAsm;=um;zl;w,f
r[kwfvm;? usKyfwdk@vkdcsifwm bmvJqdkwm tay:urif;wdk@q&m}uD;awG =um;atmif oGm;ajymjyay;prf;yg? qif;vmcJhygOD;
vd@k ...” wa,mufajymwmrqHk;ao;bl;? aemufwa,mufu ab;uae 'Dvdktief;r& tvkt,uf0ifajymjyefw,f?
“a[ha[h/ 'DrSmajymaewm =umw,fuGm? avukefrcHawmheJ@? cifAsm;wkd@rEWav;aqmifu tavmif;udk'DrSmjr‡Kyfzdk@ ra=u
nm&J&if ckxGufoGm;vdkuf? 'dk@udkwHcg;zGifhay;/ 'dk@zmom'dk@0if+yD; a=unmvdkufr,f? &Sif;w,fr[kwfvm; ...”
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usKyfwdk@u ðywfrEl;bGJ@ay;xm;wJh/ tjiif;tcHkvkyfwJhae&mrSm tay;t,laphpyf aps;qpfwJhae&mrSm aysmhaysmheJ@ tvGef
acgif;rmwJh/ awmf±Hkwef±Hktav#mhray;wwfwJh apmxGef;wa,muf 'DwcsDawmh ol@bufup+yD; vufajr‡muf&rJhudef; qdkufacs
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“tcsdefeJ@'Da&[m vludkrapmifhbl;vdk@” owday;ajym=um;vdkufwJhvl[m ol@b0wav#mufrSm pHxm;+yD;cef@nm;av;pm;cJh&wJh
0g&ifhausmif;q&m}uD;wa,muf&J@toHeJ@ awmfawmfav;udkqifaew,fvdk@ aemif oljyefajymjycJhw,f?
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awGudkjzpfw,f? ol@vl[m tjyifuy&dowfx&k J@ udk,fpm;vS,ftopfawGudk oHwHcg;em;rSm vufajr‡muft±_H;ay;vdkuf&+yD qdk
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acgif;udkarmhvdkufw,f?
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jcif;eJ@twl òyH;jyvdkufw,f? oabmuawmh 'DaumifawG odyrf vG,fbl;uG? igawmhwyfacgufvm&+yD qdkwJht"dy`g,faygh?
udkarmifarmifwdwfuyJp+yD; “uJ... udkxGef;/ aemufqHk;tajctaeudk cifAsm; b,fvdktuJjzwfrvJ? 'g vlxkqEN tppf
trSefyJ? tifr[kwfbl;? tcsdefodyfr&bl;? jrefjrefvkyf/ *dwf0uoHwHcg; yGifhxGufoGm;&if 'dk@ tr_ef@jzpfoGm;Edkifw,f?” =uufoD;
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w,f?
rEWav;aqmifaumfrDwD0if tm;vHk;rpHkayrJh &SdwJhvltrsm;pku apmxGef;wifjycsufudk tºuGif;rJhvufcHvdkuf=uw,f?
vkyfoifhwmudkqufvkyfzdk@ jyifvdkuf=uw,f?
OD;pGm OD;oef@&J@orD;/ om;ruf/tpfudkrsm;jzpfwJh OD;cef@/ qpNeDcef@/ at;at;oef@/ a'gufwmwifjrifhOD;eJ@ tjcm;rdwfaqG
rsm;tygt0if {nfhonfawGudk vl&Sif;wJh*dwfaygufwckuae ab;uif;vHkòcHpGm tdrfjyefoGm;Edkifzdk@ vHkòcHa&;udkifwJh vli,fawGeJ@
tyfay;vdkufw,f? ausmif;om;}uD;wa,mufudkyg OD;pD;zdk@ xnfhv$wfvdkufw,f? rdepftenf;i,ftwGif;rSm ,if;udpP +yD;jywf
oGm;w,f?
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y&dowfbufudkvSnfhxm;wJh "mwfpufatmfvHqDu uGDueJ@u|DueJ@jrnfoH pl;pl;&S&Say:vm&ifyJ atmufuapmifhaewJh
vltkyfqDu a[;ueJ nmoHay;vdkuf=uw,f? pum;ajymzdk@jyifqifwJhtaeeJ@ "mwfpuftrfyvDzdkif,m (Amplifier)
cvkwfudkzGifhvdkufvdk@ ay:vmwJhtoHyJ r[kwfygvm;? 'D&ufydkif;rsm;twGif;rSm 'Da&S@ajy;toHeJ@twl a=unmcsufawG/ owd
ay;csufawG c%c%xkwfjyefaewmrdk@ 'Dtxmudk y&dowfu aemausatmifoabmaygufaeyg+yD?
cyfoGufoGufyJ udkarmifarmifwdwfwa,muf tvkyfpygawmhw,f? rdkufc±dkzkef;pum;ajymcGufudk olaumufudkifvdkuf
w,f? +yD;awmh usaemf&Sd&mbufudk vufqef@wef;+yD; xdk;ay;vdkufw,f? yg;pyfuvJ rif;ajymawmh... wJ.h ..
wDaumifqm;twdk@cH&ovdk usKyfvnf;qwfueJ wGef@oGm;rdw,f? acgif;cg+yD; csufcsif;yJ “rif;ajymvdkuf/ igvnfacsmif;
em+yD; toH0ifaew,f? toHjym}uD;eJ@ rajymcsifbl;” vdk@jiif;vdkufw,f? rif;&J@txm igaygufygw,f qdkwJhoabmeJ@ usKyfudk
- 26 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

olu rxDw&Dwcsufpdkuf=unfh+yD; “at;av/ rif;wdk@urajymbl;qdkawmh rif;wdk@udk,fpm; igyJajymwmayghuGm” qdk+yD; rdkufcGuf
udk pum;ajymzdk@ toifhtaetxm;jzpfatmif jyifvdkufw,f?
rEWav;aqmiftv,fxyfqDu v_yfv_yf&G&Gjzpfaewmudk pl;pdkuf=unfhae=uwJh y&dowftrsm;pk}uD; ol@udkjrifomatmif
a&S›enf;enf;ydkxGufvdkufw,f? atmifjrifcef@nm;wJhtoHeJ@-“jr‡Kyfoifhroifh” (3) cgawmif;+yD;aemuf rmefygyg olajymvdkuf
wmuawmh “av;pm;tyfygaom y&dowf}uD;cifAsm;? jynfolvlxktaygif;&J@ jyif;jywJhqENeJ@tnD OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk ol@
twGuf usaemfwdk@wawG &nfpl;aqmufvkyfxm;wJh*lrSmyJ tckcsufcsif; *loGif;jr‡KyfESHzdk@ rEWav;aqmifpsmyeaumfrDwDtaeeJ@
qHk;jzwfcGifhðya=umif; today;a=unmtyfygw,f?”
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atmif+yD-atmif+yD-atmif+yD oHk;vm;oHk;}udrfajrmuf vlxky&dowf}uD;&J@ 0uf0ufuGJr# aumif;csD;ay;vdkufoH[m t&yf
av;rsufESmqDodk@ wcJeuf xpfcsKef;euf ysH@tkyfoGm;w,f? 'gvnf; vlyifv,f}uD;qDu [def;xGufvm+yD; rdk;ajrodrfhodrfhwkef
apcJhwmrdk@ yifv,f[DoHvdk@ ajymEdkifw,f? 'Drdkua&pDrkwfokefrdk;awG wòzdifòzdif&GmoGef;òzd;cJhwm acsmif;awG uefawG/ tdk;awG/
cGufawGv#Hvdk@ w&moDwm0ef ukefqHk;yg+yDyaum? yifv,fuv$wf/ yifv,fuvm tcsdefwefawmh yifv,fudkjyefoGm;/
a&rsm;&J@oHo&m Oya'twdkif;ygyJav?
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*ludkydwf+yD;oGm;vdk@ *lydwfyGJoGm;=unfh=uwJh wm0ef&SdolawGjyeftvmrSm psmyeA[dkaumfrDwD0ifawGvnf; vdkufygvm
w,f? OuUÏudk=unf0if;/ twGif;a&;rª;udkoufv_dif/ pdkif;odkufeef; ... vltawmfpHkom;/ apmxGef;u tm;&0rf;ompGm qD;óud
wHcg;zGifhay;w,f? yef;csDtif'±l;/ udkpHrif;wdk@wodkufvnf; jyef0ifvmw,f?
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OD;oef@psmye+yD;qHk;+yDrdk@ psmyeaumfrDwDawGvnf; tvdkvdkysufoGm;+yDjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh wm0efausa=umif; tjyef
tvSeftodtrSwfðy E_wfquf=uw,f? zufvSJwuif; aysmf&$if&if;ESD;pGmyJaygh? ae@naygif;rsm;pGm tdyfysufcJh=uwmrdk@ vlwdkif;
rsufwGif;acsmifeJ@jzpfw,f? wa,mufeJ@wa,muf pum;rajymEdkif=uawmhbl;? p}uFefrSmwcsKd@/ tcef;xJrSmwcsKd@/ wa,muf
wa'gifh wa,mufwae&m ausmcif;zdk@ae&m,lvdkuf=uw,f? ajcypfvufypf arS;puftem;,l tdyfpufae=uyHkrsm; ckxdjrif
a,mifaewkef;/ uifr&mr&Sdawmhvnf; rSwfwrf;rwifEdkifcJh?
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usKyfuawmh tdyfvdk@r&bl;? tawG;awGu a&S›rqufbJ taemufqDjyefoGm;aew,f? usKyftwGuf odyftpmra=u
cJhwJh tjzpfoepfawGudk tvdkvdkpjrKH@jyefaerdw,f?
* 27-12-2005 awmifilaqmifa&S› taqmifaeazmf twef;wufzuf oli,fcsif;wodkufeJ@ rdk;csKyfpnae&DrSm
OD;oef@±kyfuvmyf Armjynfa&muf&if 'dk@bmvkyfoifhovJ/ bmvkyfEdkifovJ/ tqifoifhjzpfzdk@ wyfvSef@Edk;aqmfcJh?
vkyfp&m&Sdwmvkyfr,fvdk@ oH"dÏmefcscJh=u?
* aemufwae@n (9;00) em&D '*kHaqmif udkarmifarmifwdwf&J@ tcef;trSwf (100) rSm taqmifaygif;pHku
ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,fawGeJ@ o[m,zGJ@+yD; OD;oef@psmyeudk wuUodkvfaygif;pHkudk,fpm;ðy yef;acGwckeJ@twl
oGm;a&muf*g&0ðyzdk@twGuf pDpOf=u&efqHk;jzwf?
* psmyeydk@aqmifa&; vdktyfwJhum;rsm;iSg;zdk@ vdkufygrJhvlawGudk wdwdususpm&if;,l+yD; pk&yfowfrSwf csdef;csuf
ay;zdk@? aemufw&uf attD; (10) rSm xyfrHawG@qHkn‡dE_dif;=u&ef qHk;jzwfcJh=u?
* 0dZ…mcef;rrSmusif;ywJh 0dZ…mody`HwuUodkvfeJ@ tjcm;wuUodkvfaygif;pHk ae@ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;&J@
tpnf;ta0;}uD;rSm rdrdwdk@tpDtpOfudkwifjy+yD; yl;aygif;EdkifwmawG yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr,fjzpfa=umif; uwd
u0wfðycJh?
* tcsdefwefawmh owfrSwfxm;wJhtwdkif; taqmifausmif;om; ausmif;olwcsKd@ um;awGeJ@oGm;cJh=u+yD;
wuUodkvf aygif;pHkudk,fpm;ðyyef;acGudk wuUodkvfausmif;om;tkyfpkrsm;&J@ aemufqHk;tokwftaeeJ@ csxm;*g&0
ðycJh?
* tavmif;xm;&Sd&m usKduUqHuGif;twGif; tajctaecsufcsif;ajymif;oGm;+yD; tavmif;udk wuUodkvfjyef,lr,fh
udpPay:wmeJ@ acsmacsmarmarm ajyajyjypfjypfjzpfatmif twwfEdkifqHk; 0dkif;0ef;}uD;=uyfydk@aqmifcJh?
* OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk wuUodkvfor*~taqmuftOD;ae&mwGif *laqmuf+yD; oò*õvfr,fhudpP vlxkoabmxm;
&,l/ vlxkoabmusojzifh csufcsif;taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&GufcJh=u?
- 27 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

*

*

*

*

vkyfief;aqmif&Guf taumiftxnfazmfEdkifa&; tvkyfaumfrDwDzGJ@ (rEWav;aqmiftD;pDtzGJ@)/ uefawmfrif
ydk@a&; rydk@a&; rJcGJqHk;jzwf&mrSm (10) rJ (3) rJjzifh rEWav;aqmiftzGJ@ tqdk±_H;edrfh? trsm;oabmudk tenf;u
emcHvdkufema&;rlt& udk,fpm;vS,ftrsm;oabmtwdkif; vdkufavsm&ef uwdðycJh?
*ljzpfajrmufa&; vltm;/ aiGtm;jzifh ttdyfysuf/ tpm;ysuf/ tyifyef;cHvkyfudkifoltm;vHk; yifyef;&usKd;eyf
pdwfcsrf;omr_&ap&ef uefawmfrifocsõKif;odk@ rxkwfaqmifrDS ,ckvuf&Sdaqmufxm;aom*lay:Y pwdoabm
acwW,m,Dcsxm; *k%fðycHem;aeay;&ef n‡dKE_dif;EdkifcJh?
uefawmfrifocsõKif;odk@ OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk xkwaf qmif&eftcsdefusrS vlxky&dowf.oabmxm; ajymif;vJ
oGm;jcif;/ vlxk. ta&;ay: ay:xGufvmaom udk,fpm;vS,fwdk@ESifh rEWav;aqmifaumfrDwD0ifrsm; tajc
twif n‡dKE_dif;=u&jcif;?
vlxk.wdkuf±dkuf'Drdkua&pDenf;jzifh qHk;jzwfwifjycsufudk twdkif;twmaqmifonf/ ppfrSefonf[k rEWav;
aqmifaumfrDwDu ,Hk=unfvufcHI vdkufavsmcJhjcif;?

»»»» rlv&nfrSef;csuf wm0ef+yD;qHk;jcif; »»»»
ed*Hk;csKyft& OD;oef@ta&;cif;rSm yHkaoum;us acgif;aqmifr&Sd/ aemufvdkufr&Sd/ tm;vHk;&Jabmf&Jbufpdwfxm;eJ@ yg0if
yl;aygif; vkyfudkifcJh=uw,f?
vlxkudkudk,fpm;ðyaqmf=ozdk@ ukd,fpm;vS,fvdkvmwJhtcg qEN&Sdolwdk@u a&S›xGuf&yf=u+yD; udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf cH,l
aqmif&Guf=uw,f? vlxkuvnf; ol@wdk@&J@qENtrSefudk ukd,fpm;ðyay;Edkif&if b,faqmf=oa&;tzGJ@udkrqdk ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf
vkyfydkifcGifheJ@tm%m tyfESif;cJh=uw,f?
vlxk[m 'Dvdkudkf,fpm;vS,fawGuwqifh olwdk@oabmxm;qENudk zGifh[ovdk yk*~dKvft&jzpfap/ tkyfpkt&jzpfap/
twdkif;twmaqmifIjzpfap tvsOf;oifhovdk wdkuf±dkuf'Drdkua&pDenf;eJ@vnf; vdktyfwJhtcgwdkif; qENazmfxkwfavh&Sdw,f?
tJ'DtcgrSm aqmf=oa&;udk,fpm;vS,f rvdkawmhyg?
udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf ,lqcH&olrsm;u udk,fpm;vS,fyDopGm wm0efrxrf;&GufEdkifwJhtcg udk,fpm;vS,fae&mu csufcsif;
qif;ay;zdk@udkvnf; rqkdif;rwGjywfom;pGm awmif;qkd=uw,f?
rEWav;aqmif[m udk,fpm;ðyEdkifr_oabmobm0&J@ 0da&m"djzpfr_eJ@ tvSnfhtajymif;rsm;=um;rSm wcgwav a&S›rwdk;
aemufrqkwfom =um;n‡yfcH&w,f? bmyJjzpfjzpf vlxk&J@ppfrSefwJhqENoabmxm;udkom yxrwef; OD;xdyfyefqif &Guf
aqmifzdk@ oH"dÏmefcdkifrma=umif; oufaojyEdkifcJhw,f?
'gha=umifh tp/ tv,f/ tqHk; v_yf&Sm;aqmif&GufpOfumvwav#mufvHk; vlxkeJ@ruif;uGmcJh? tv$mtoD;oD;/ rwlnD
wJht,ltq&Sdolyk*~dKvfrsm;/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;eJ@ wlwmwGJvkyf/ rwlwma=umifh &efbufrjzpfa&;rleJ@ v_yf&Sm;aqmif&GufEdkifcJh
w,f? aiGa=u;/ pm;a&&duQm/ owif;/ vkyftm;/ u|rf;usifr_/ t}uHay;^m%fay;/ tultnDrsm;udkvnf; tJ'DwHk;u&cJhw,f?
psmyeudkckwHk;vkyf+yD; EdkifiHa&;tvHeJ@ aºuG;a=umfoHrwifcJhovdk psmye&J@ trsKd;om;a&;/ 'Drdkua&pDay:xGef;a&;/ ppftm
%m&Sifqef@usifa&; pwJhta&;awmfyHktoGifaqmifaer_ vlxkwdkufyGJ¶kyfyHkv$mudkvnf; r_H0g;ao;odrfoGm;atmif bmwckrSrvkyf
cJh?
jynfolvlxktv$mrsm;txJ rqvwygwDtm%m&Sifpepf (0g) ae0if;ppftkyfpku wdkufcGJ/ ±dkufcGJ/ tdk;rJokwf/ oyfv#dKaoG;
cGJr_awGa=umifhvnf;aumif;/ trsKd;rsKd;aomtcGifhta&; vmbfvmbrsm;uwzuf/ ta=umufw&m;uwzuf/ rD;pwzuf
a&r_wfwzuf zdtm;ay;cs,fvS,fr_a=umifhvnf;aumif;/ trsKd;om;pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ òyduGJae&wJhtjzpfudk tJ'DumvrSm
wpHkw&m jyefvnfukpm; aphpyfay;EdkifcJhw,f?
'gha=umifh OD;oef@ta&;tcif;[m White politics oef@pifwJh EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_jzpfw,f? yifv,fxJu qlyGufxºuG
vmwwfwJh e*g;toGif jynfol&J@a'go±kyfyHkv$mudk wpdwfwa'o twdwfpdrf;ay;vdkufjcif;vdk@ rSwf,lEdkifw,f?
»»»» naeae0if&Dwa&m EGm;±dkif;oGif;csdef »»»»
udkwifpdk;u us,favmifus,favmifeJ@ idkufjrnf;arS;pif;eJ@ usKyfwdk@wodkuf=um;avmufatmif owdðyrdavmufatmif
toHjr‡ifh+yD;ar;vdkufyHku “a[;... udk,fhvlwdk@/ bmqufvkyfrvJ? óudwifpOf;pm;xm;=uaemf? 'Dn (8;00) em&DavmufrSm
tpnf;ta0;xdkif=uwmaygh? tm;vHk;wufaemf...”
usKyfwdk@pOf;pm;=unfhw,f? b}uD;oef@wa,muf t&yfaumif;wJhtwGuf tavmif;vScJh+yD? taoajzmifhrajzmifhuawmh
wrvGefuae =unfhaer,fqdk&if &ifemp&mawGyJawG@r,f? wdkif;jynftwGuf oljzpfapcsifwJh +idrf;csrf;a&;tvm;tvmuawmh
- 28 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

w,fraumif;vSbl;? vwfwavm armifae0if;wdk@u bm}uHaevJqdkwm usKyfwdk@vufxJrSm oufaoouUm,eJ@ owif;
tpHktvif qkyfudkifvsufom; jzpfaevdk@yJ? udkwdwfeJ@udkaomif;at;wdk@u usKyfudkvufukyf+yD; aoG;wdk;prf;ar;vdkufyHku...
“b,fheJ@vJ/ 'dk@ tvkyform;/ v,form;/ ausmif;om;tvH (3) vufqufaxmif+yD; wG,f&&ifraumif;bl;vm;”usKyf acgif;r+idrfh/ acgif;rcgbJ watmifhavmufawG+yD; pOf;pm;aerdw,f? +yD;rS “ighpdwfuawmh rif;wdk@vdkyJxufoefw,f?
'gayrJh igh±kyfu pdwf&Sdwdkif; udk,frygEdkifawmhbl; jzpfaew,f? tckighacgif;xJrSm&SdaewJh wckwnf;aomqEN[m 00vifvif
tdyfcGifh&zdk@yJ? tajctaeawGu 'dk@bufrSmodyfr&Sdbl;? tuef@towfawGu wtm;rsm;+yD; avmavmq,f xGufvrf;ydwf
aewm rif;wdk@vnf;todyJ” vdk@usaemfjyefajzchJrdw,f?
»»»» yifyef;EGrf;vsjcif;awGeJ@twl pdk;&drfaomu&dyfawGudk tEdkfifEdkfifzHk;zd+yD; »»»»
òy;Hjytm;ay;aeayrJh tarudkcsufcsif;qmiwfvmrdw,f
tar&ufaygif;rsm;pGmvdk@xif&wJh ta&;tcif;&ufrsm;twGif;rSm om;wkd@yg0ifujycJhw,f? v_yf&Sm;r_wmpxGufwmeJ@ vrf;c&D;
u tauG@tvSnfhawG wtm;rsm;wmyJ? cgawmfrDSyGJvdk@yJ qdk&rvm;rodbl;? Zmwf!¸ef;óudwifrzwf&/ rqdk&/ ravhusifh&/
Zmwfrwdkuf&bJ b0Zmwfq&mtvdkus ZmwfcHkay:a&mufrS rD;pif=unfhu&awmhwmyJ? wcgavawmhvnf; usKyfwdk@vkyfyHk
awGu yHkrxdayrJh “trsm;nD Tu|Jzwf” jzpfoGm;&wmayghtar&,f? y&dowfbufuawmh usaemfwdk@tay: ta&;tcif;
umvwav#mufvHk; oabmxm;}uD;pGmeJ@ em;vnfay;EdkifcJhygw,f? Zmwfarsm}uD;rjzpfoGm;atmif usaemfwdk@ renf;}uD;udk
óud;pm;vkyfcJh&w,f? 'D=um;xJ 'Drdkua&pDòrdifa[0efxJrSm rsufpdvnf+yD; yJavSmf=um; qm;nyf&rvdk jzpfvdkuf&ao;? om;wdk@&J@
rawmufwacgufynmav;eJ@ xGif;xm;wJh rcdkifhwcdkifcaemfceJ@ 'Drdkua&pDavSuav;/ a'gxefaewJh y&dowfyifv,fa=umrSm
0kef;ueJarSmufawmhrvdk@? vufrwifav;yJvdkawmhw,f? awmfao;wmaygh/ OD;wdwf}uD;tav#mufaumif;vdk@ taxmif;vGwf
cJhw,f? tr_dufum;eJ@ygroGm;bJ oDoDuav;vGwfcJhayrJh rEWav;aqmifaumfrDwD0ifawG&J@ udk,fay:rSmawmh zkHeH@ tr_dufeH@
oif;aervm;yJ? txl;ojzifh om;qDrSmaygh? oli,fcsif;awGu 'DrSmwifwpcef;&yf+yD; ywfpmcGgzsmrodrf;Edkifbl;wJh? yGJquf
u=ur,fwJh tara&@? olwdk@tarawGu olwdk@udk oHr_H@pm;+yD; arG;vdkuf=uw,feJ@wlw,f? a'gif;csD/ armif;csD/ rma&a=uma&eJ@
wcsufrSrwGef@=u r&GH@=ubl;?
tarhom;uawmh arG;vmuwnf;u aygifrjynfh/ tm[m&rjynfh/ oli,femtjynfheJ@qdkawmh olwdk@vdk bmrxDawGeJ@
r,SOfEdkifbl;av? jzpfEdkif&if tckcsufcsif; tarqD usaemfjyefvmcsifw,f? 'gayrJh bb}uD;OD;ae0if;wa,muf ausmif;0if;
xJuuav;awG (usaemfwdk@vdk bkef;}uD;ausmif;om;av;awG) olwdk@udk acG;eJ@&SL;wdkufvdkuf+yD; ESyfeJ@vSrf;ypfvdkufwm
rSefoGm;vdk@ t}uD;tus,f a'golykefxae&J@? tajrmufawGeJ@ypfr,f/ AHk;eJ@azmuf+yD; oHcsyfum;eJ@wuf}udwfypfr,f vkyfae=u
w,f? tarhom; xGufvdk@rjzpfao;bl;? tarhqD jyefa&mufcsifrSvnf; a&mufawmhrSm...
i,fi,fwkef;uvdk tylyifuif;wJh cav;av;b0rsKd;eJ@ tarh&ifcGifrSmacgif;xdk;+yD; w±d_ufrufruf om;tdyfcGifh&csifw,f?
wa&;avmufyJ tdyfcGifh&&if om;auseyfyg+yDtar&,f? i,fi,fwkef;u tareJ@twl om;yGJ=unfhcJhw,fav? rsufpdanmif;vdk@
acgif;av;vm&if tarhaygifay:rSm tdyfcJhw,f? wa&;Edk;&if wcgjyef=unfhw,f? om;óudufwwfwJh rif;om;ubDvl;udk ESdrfESif;
wJhtcef;/ Zmwfvdkufuvlqdk;udk wdkufcdkufatmifjrifwJhtcef; a&mufcgeD;us&if om;óudrSmwJhtwdkif; taruEdk;ay;cJhw,f
r[kwfvm;?
[dkwkef;u om;yGJ=unfhcJhayrJ@ tckom;udk,fwdkif yGJ0ifuae&w,f? yGJ=unfhy&dowfwcsKd@ zsmeJ@aumfaZmay:rxdkifbJ cJvHk;
awG/ ajymif;zl;±dk;awGudk zifckxdkifxm;=uw,f? oli,fcsif;awGu yGJqufur,fajymw,f? om;uawmh odyf+yD;rwufºuGbl;?
udk,fhudk,fudk,fodyfr,Hkbl;? rEWav;aqmifa&S›uoHwHcg;}uD; ewfyl;wmvnf; jrifcJh&wm rsufpdxJylylaEG;aEG; vwfvwf qwf
qwf}uD; &Sdaeao;w,f? olwdk@ajymovdk [dktvH/ 'DtvHawG wvlvlv$ifh+yD;awmh ywfr}uD; aAxdaqmfvdkuf&ifawmh
y&dowfupkvm=urSm aocsmw,f? 'gayrJh 'Dae@cif;wkef;u tawG@tóuHt& awGa0w,fvdk@ towfrSwfcH&+yD; ynmay;cH&
zdk@twGuf tvm;tvm&Sdaeawmh vufckyf=obmoHtpm; y&dowfqDu tkwfcJusKd;eJ@ajymif;zl;±dk;awGyJ &vmavtHk;rvm;
pOf;pm;awG;awmaerdw,ff?
bmyJjzpfjzpfaygh tar&,f? avmavmq,fawmh om;udktarvnf;rykdifbl;? om;ukd,fom;vnf;rydkifbl;? 'Dntpnf;
ta0;rSm taygif;toif;aumif;awG wu,fnDw,fqdk&ifawmh t0DpdudkyJoGm;oGm; om;vdkufawmhr,fvdk@ qHk;jzwfxm;
w,f? tarhom; olwdk@vdktm;r&SdayrJh awmifhxm;ygw,f?
»»»» ab;urdkbdkif;zkef; wywf&pfav;&J@toHu wdk;vdkufus,fvdkuf »»»»
- 29 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

uvif... uvif/ uvif... uvif/ qwfueJ acgif;axmif=unfhvdkufw,f? atmfæ 'g rEWav;aqmif&J@ tcef;xJrSmrS
r[kwfbJ? rJaqmufwdkufcef;av; wcef;xJrSmygvm;? c&D;óuH/ vrf;óuH/ usD;vef@pmpm;/ acwWwnf;cdkae&wJhigygvm;? tif;...
zkef;uawmh rudkifrcsif; qufatmfaer,fhyHkyJ? “[Jvdk... trdef@&Sdyg? usaemfapmvSaiGyg? bmudpP&SdygovJ?” “[Jvdk... usr
aX;aX;0if; (74) av tpfudk? toHrrSwfrdbl;vm;?” “atmf... rdaemfvm;? uJ... ajym ajym/ tpfudkem;axmifaew,f?”
“'Dvdk tpfudk&J@... ? ESpfywfvnf&ufeD;vm+yDav? tpfudk@qDupmrlawG tqifoifhjzpf+yDvm;? tJh'g vSrf;owday;wm? tpfudk
u c%c%arhwwfw,fqdkvdk@av?”
“aus;Zl;yJ aX;aX;a&? tpfudkvnf; pma&;aeusr[kwfawmhbl;? a&;+yD;jyefzwf/ róuduf&ifqkwf+zJeJ@ wcgrSr+yD;Edkif
awmhbl;? bmyJjzpfjzpf w&ufESpf&uftwGif; tpfudkt+yD;owfEdkifrSmyg? aus;Zl;yJaemf? +yD;wmeJ@ udkat;atmifqD tjrefqHk;
ydk@ay;vdkufr,f... bdkif... bdki.f .. ?”
apm{&mvd_if

OD;oef@ta&;tcif; “rdrdukd,fawG@jzpfpOf”
udk'D
tv,fwef;ausmif;om;b0a&mufawmh ynma&;ta=umif;/ ausmif;om;wa,muf&J@ b0&nfrSef;csuf[m bmvJqkd
wmawGudk tawmftoifh odvmcJh&ygw,f? txufwef;ausmif;om;b0 a&mufvmawmh ausmif;om;b0EdkifiHa&;tod
rdbrsm;&J@ awmfvSefa&;tawG@tñuHrsm;vnf; odcJh&awmh a&S@qufoGm;&rnfh rdrdtem*gwfb0 ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;vnf; &SdcJhyg
w,f?
usaemfhrdbrsm; uGefjrLepfygwDrSm wm0efxrf;aqmif&if; yJcl;¶kd;r anmifav;yifc¶kdif aus;awmpk&GmrSm usaemfeJ@ usaemfh
tukdukd arG;cJhw,fvkd@ tar&J@ajymjycsuft& odcJh&ygw,f? taz&@Jtaygif;toif;rdwfaqGrsm; tdrfukdvmvnfwkdif; olwkd@
ajymjy=uwJhpum;awG/ tazh&J@'kdif,m&DawG zwfcJhrdwJhtod[m usaemfh&J@ txufwef;ausmif;om;b0rSm wuUokdvfa&muf
+yD; bGJ@wckck&atmif óud;pm;r,f? bJGJ@&+yD;&if bmvkyfr,fqkdwmawG usaemfhtawG;xJrSm trsm;}uD;&SdcJhygw,f?
usaemfhtaz&J@ ajymaeuspum;wcGef; em;xJrSmpGJaew,f? a,musfm;yDowJh vlwa,muf[m æ
(1) bGJ@wck&&r,f/
(2) &[ef;wufzl;&r,f/
(3) axmifuszl;&r,f/
vdk@ajymcJhw,f? eHygwf (1) eJ@ (2) ukdawmh tawG;xJrSm &Sif;w,f? (3) tcsufukdawmh pOf;pm;p&mawGtrsm;}uD;eJ@ tawG;
rsm;cJh&w,f?
tazuusaemfhukd ajymcJhwJh t"dutcsuf&Sdao;w,f? rif; 0dZ…mbJG@,l&r,f? (LLB) bGJ@ukdajymwmyg? tazh&nf&G,f
csufu usaemfhukd EdkifiHa&;vkdif;bufukd v_yf&Sm;apcsifw,fvkd@ xifygw,f? uHtm;avsmfpGmyJ usaemfwkd@acwfrSm (8) wef;
tpdk;&ppf yxrOD;qkH;ESpfrSmyJ 0dZ…meJ@atmifcJhygw,f?
wuUokdvfa&mufcsifaZmeJ@ pmóud;pm;cJhygw,f? usaemfwkd@&Gmbk&m;ysKdrS a0gòrd@ukd ajcvsif (45) rdepf/ tazmfrsm;eJ@ (8)
wef;atmiftxd wufcJhygw,f? (8) wef;atmif+yD; (9) wef; (10) wef;ukd a0gòrd@txueJ@ yJcl;trSwf (4) 0dZ…mausmif;rSm
wufcJhw,f? usaemf wuUokdvfra&mufjzpfcJhwJhta=umif; jzpfvmcJhygawmhw,f?
usaemfhyifukd,fADZ r[kwf&ifrcHcsifwJhpdwf taygif;toif;rsm;twGufqkd&if tjrJwrf; acgif;ra&SmifcsifwJhpdwf&SdwJhusaemf
yJcl;trSwf (3) ody`Hausmif; ESpf (50) ajrmufa&$&wkobif nwnrSm usaemf yJcl;qHawmfwGif;&yfuGufae+yD; yGJoGm;=unfh
cJhw,f? tJh'DnrSmyJ trSwf (4) ausmif;rSoli,fcsif;rsm;eJ@ vrf;o&Jrsm; ¶kduf=uygw,f?
vdyfjymuefa'gifh/ jr0wDykHESdyfwkdufem;rSm n (11) cGJcef@rSm usaemfvnf;ygoGm;+yD; &efjzpf=uygw,f? usaemfwkd@vlenf;vkd@
ajy;cJh&w,f? trSwf (4) ausmif;a&mufawmh vlpk+yD; aemufae@tpDtpOfqGJjzpfw,f? aemufae@ ausmif;wufcgeD; nu
&efjzpfwJhxJygwJh tjcm;tkyfpkrS trSwf (5) eJ@ (6) ausmif;rS (2) a,muf usaemfwkd@ausmif;a&S@ pufbD;eJ@tvm
usaemfeJ@pHodef; (abmvkH;orm;) (2) a,muf ausmif;a&S@rSmxGuf+yD;¶kdufvkd@ twGif;vlemtjzpf aq;¶kHwifvkduf&+yD;/ usaemf
wkd@ (2) a,muf ausmif;xkwfcHvkduf&ygw,f?
a&mufcsifvSwJh wuUokdvfeJ@vnf; a0;cJh&ygw,f? (2) }udrf tjyifrSajzawmhvnf; pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;xJa&mufaeawm
(10) wef;ratmifcJhyg?
- 30 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

usaemf pD;yGm;a&;avmuxJa&mufaecsdef a0gòrd@txurSm (10) wef; (bD) eJ@atmifcJh=uwJhxJu oHacsmif;u vuf
axmufrD;&xm;¶kHykdif vkyfaew,f? tkef;=unfu tif;pdefpDtkdif'DrSm 'k&Jtkyfjzpfaeygw,f?
OD;oef@ tar&duefe,l;a&mufaq;¶kHrSm aoqkH;oGm;a=umif;eJ@ ol@&J@¶kyftavmif;ukd jrefrmjynfjyefykd@+yD; *loGif;oò*õvfr,f
vkd@od&awmh 0rf;omrdw,f? *k%f,lrdw,f?
0rf;om&jcif;u jrefrmjynfom;wa,mufjzpfwJh EdkifiHacgif;aqmif (ukvor*~twGif;a&;rª;csKyf) wOD;u aoonfh
wkdifatmif rdrdEdkifiHukdjyef+yD; ta&mufvmcsifwJhol/ rdrdwkdif;jynfukdcspfwJhol/ wefzkd;xm;wJhol/ EdkifiHh*k%fukd xdrf;odrf;csifwJhol
wOD;ygvm;vkd@od+yD; 0rf;om&jcif;yg?
*k%f,lrdwmu urBmhukvor*~rSm wkdif;jynfuay;vkdufwJhwm0efukd qxufxrf;ykd; tvkyfwm0efausyGefatmif vkyf
EdkifcJhwJhol/ urBmwckvkH;&Sdjynfolrsm;/ acgif;aqmifrsm;/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS *k%fðyrSwfwrf;wifavmufatmif vkyfEdkifcJhwJhol
jrefrmjynfom;wa,mufygvm;vkd@ *k%f,lrdcJh&jcif;jzpfygw,f?
usaemfukd,fwkdif wuUokdvfausmif;om;wOD; rjzpfcJhayrJh &efukef0dZ…mody`HwuUokdvf/ aq;wuUokdvf(2)/ pufr_wuUokdvf
(orkdif;aqmifrsm;)/ usaemfhtukdwufcJhwJh tif;pdef (*sDwDtkdif) pufr_ody`Hausmif;rsm;ukd usaemfhtpfudkeJ@a&mufcJhbl;ygw,f?
OD;oef@tavmif; &efukefa&mufwmeJ@ oGm;csifcJhygw,f? 'gayrJh ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;a=umifh (10) &ufae@ &efukef0dZ…mody`H
wuUokdvf0if;tm; ppftkyfpkrS0ifa&mufrzrf;cif ae@wae@rS oGm;jzpfygw,f?
usaemfeJ@usaemfholi,fcsif; vufaxmuf¶kHykdifoHacsmif;wkd@ESpfOD; &efukefoGm;r,f? wuUokdvf0if;xJoGm;r,fvkd@ qkH;jzwf+yD;
vmcJh=uygw,f/
&efukefa&muf&if a0gòrd@txurS (at) jzifhatmifcJhol oli,fcsif;a&$vS (pD;yGm;a&;wuUokdvf aemufqkH;ESpfausmif;om;)
eJ@oGm;awG@r,f? oli,fcsif;wa,mufjzpfwJh tif;pdefpDtkdif'D0if;xJ rdom;pkeJ@aewJh 'k&Jtkyfoli,fcsif;tkef;=unftdrfrSm wnf;
r,fqkd+yD; oli,fcsif;ESpfa,muf a0grSpxGufcJh=uygw,f?
eHeuf (7) em&DpxGufwJhum;eJ@ &efukefukdvmcJh=uygw,f? &efukef0ifcgeD; axmuf=uH@&mbmawmxJ&Sd vSnf;vrf;
(ajreDvrf;) =um;ukd usaemfwkd@ESpfa,muf vSrf;=unfhrdw,f? jrif&wJhjrifuGif;u &efukeft0ifb,fbufrSmyg? TE 11 um;
rsm; wef;pD+yD;&yfxm;wm awG@&ygw,f? ae@vnf 10 cGJavmufrmS yg? usaemfpdwf0ifpm;rdw,f? usaemfholi,fcsif;ukdvnf;
ajym+yD; a[haumif/ [kdrSmppfum;awG trsm;}uD;wef;pD+yD; &yfxm;wmawG awG@vm;? &JabmfawGvnf; vufeuftjynfhtpkHeJ@
wifxm;w,fuGvkd@ ESpfa,muf=unfh&if;eJ@ vrf;rSmajymjzpfcJhygw,f? bm&,fvkd@awmh rajymjyEdkifwJh tawG;awGeJ@vmcJh&if;
tif;pdefpDtkdif'Dem;a&mufawmh bwfpfum;ay:rSqif;+yD; usaemfwkd@oli,fcsif; 'k&Jtkyftkef;=unf&J@tdrfukd vkdufar;+yD; a&mufcJh
=uygw,f?
tkef;=unftdrfukda&mufawmh usaemhfoli,fcsif;u vmuG oli,fcsif;wkd@/ xkdif=uOD;? bmvmvkyfvJ? b,frSmwnf;rvJ?
b,foGm;rvkd@vJ? ar;cGef;rsm;ar;+yD; igawmh tvkyfawG¶_yfaew,fvkd@ ajymygw,f? ol@trsK;d orD;u a&aEG;=urf;tkd;eJ@
pm;p&m,l+yD; vmcsay;w,f? usaemfwkd@vnf; pm;&if;/ aomuf&if;/ usaemfwkd@ESpfa,muf vm&if;udpPukd ajymjyygw,f?
tkef;=unf/ igwkd@ &efukefwuUokdvf0if;xJrSm&SdwJh OD;oef@tavmif;ukd oGm;=unfhcsifw,f? aemuf+yD; a&$vS txJrSm&Sd
w,fvkd@ od&w,f? ol@qDvnf; oGm;awG@csifvkd@ajymjyygw,f?
usaemfholi,fcsif;tkef;=unfu ausmif;rSmxJu yef;csDynmukd u|rf;usifoljzpfygw,f? a[haumifawG/ rif;wkd@ owdxm;
+yD; oGm;=unfh=u? igbmvkyfaew,fvkd@ rif;wkd@xifovJvkd@ ar;ygw,f? olu yGifhyGifhvif;vif;yJajymygw,f? wòrd@xJom;
tcspfqkH;oli,fcsif;awGjzpf=uygw,f?
olvkyfaewmawG ajymjyw,f? ig pDtkdif'DrSm&SdwJh qkdifu,feJ@um;eHygwfawGtm;vkH; topfjyefa&;aew,fvkd@ ajymjy
ygw,f? [kwfygw,f? ol uufaq;eJ@ eHygwfjym;trsm;}uD;ukd jyefa&;wmjzpfygw,f?
rif;wkd@ b,frSmtdyf=urvJ? ightdrfrSmyJ jyefvmtdyf=uuGm? igxrif;csufxm;r,f vkd@ajymygw,f? usaemfwkd@uvnf;
wuUokdvf0if;xJ a&mufcsifae+yD? oli,fcsif;vSa&$ESifhvnf; awG@csifae+yDqkdawmh oleJ@ c%pum;ajym+yD; igwkd@'DrSmyJ jyefvm
tdyfr,f? oGm;tkH;r,fuGm vkd@ajym+yD; &efukefwuUokdvf0if;xJukd xGufvmcJh=uygw,f?
wuUokdvf0if;ukd vSrf;=unfhvkdufawmh t&yfom;awG/ ausmif;om;awG trsm;}uD; t0iftxGufvkyfaewm awG@&yg
w,f? 0if;em;a&mufawmh usaemfwkd@ukd t&yf0wfeJ@vlwcsKd@ wukd,fvkH;ukdESH@atmif &SmazGppfaq;jcif;cH&ygw,f? ppfaq;cH+yD;
t"dywdvrf; t0ifaygufa&mufawmh tvSLcHwJh aiGzvm;ukdifausmif;olrsm;/ ezl;rSm ta&miftrsKd;rsKd;pnf;xm;wJh
ausmif;om;rsm;ukd awG@&ygw,f? wcsKd@ t0ifuwHcg;wkdifxdyfrSm xkdifaewmvnf; awG@&ygw,f?
t0ifutvSLcHausmif;olrsm;zvm;xJukd wa,muf (25) usyfwefw&GufpDxnfh+yD; 0ifcJh=uygw,f? OD;oef@tkwf*leJ@
OD;oef@yef;csDum;}uD;uvnf; tkwf*l&J@aemufrSm axmifqJGxm;wmawG awG@&ygw,f? zvm;xJ ykdufqHtvSLaiGxnfh+yD;wmeJ@
- 31 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

wck owdoGm;&vkdufygw,f? oHacsmif;a&/ wkd@awG@cJhwJh vrf;uppfum;awG &yfxm;wJhta=umif; owif;ykd@ay;&ifaumif;r,f
vkd@vnf;ajymrdw,f? oHacsmif;uvnf; at;/ aumif;w,f? b,fol@ajym&rvJ vkd@ar;w,f? 'geJ@ usaemfwkd@vnf; ezl;pnf;
pnf;xm;wJh ausmif;om;wa,mufukd usaemfwkd@ a0guae vmwJhausmif;om;awGyg? vrf;rSmawG@cJhwm ajymjyrvkd@? b,fol@
ukdajymjyjy&rvJ vkd@ar;ygw,f? tJh'Dausmif;om;uvnf; owif;ay;vkd@&r,fh ausmif;om;rsm;ukd jyay;ygw,f? usaemfwkd@
vnf; jrifawG@or#tm;vkH; ajymjyygw,f? wu,f[kwfr[kwfvnf; usaemfwkd@udk ar;ygw,f? usaemfwkd@ESpfa,mufvnf;
owif;ay;+yD;wmeJ@ pD;yGm;a&;wuUokdvf aemufqkH;ESpfausmif;om; a&$vSeJ@awG@csifa=umif;/ a0grSvmwJh ausmif;om;rsm;
jzpfa=umif;/ oleJ@ausmif;aebufawGjzpfa=umif; ajymjy+yD;/ ezl;pnf;ausmif;om;rsm;rSwqifh ar;jref;cJhygw,f? yxrawmh
&Sdw,fvkd@ jyefodcJh&ygw,f? bmwm0ef,laew,f ajymjycJhygw,f?
aemufawmh rawG@apcsifvkd@vm;/ usaemfwkd@ukd pdwfrcsvkd@vm; awmhrodyg/ r&Sdbl;vkd@ tajz&cJhygw,f? 'geJ@ usaemf
wkd@ESpfa,mufvnf; or*~taqmuftOD;rSmvkyfaewJh a[majymyGJrSm oGm;xkdif+yD;=unfhcJhygw,f?
aoaocsmcsm=unfhrdwmuawm hOD;oef@tkwf*leJ@ yef;csDqGJxm;wJhydwfum;ygyJ? *lukdxkdifckH&Snfrsm; wvkH;vSef/ wvkH;
arSmufqif+yD; 0kdif;ywfxm;ygw,f? twGif;eJ@eHab;rSm ezl;pnf;teDpnf;xm;wJh ausmif;om;rsm; wm0ef,l+yD; apmifh=uwm
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cJh=uygw,f? usaemfhpdwfxJ ausmif;0if;xJrSmawmh wckckawmhjzpfawmhrSmyJ vkd@pOf;pm;aerdw,f?
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- 32 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

oli,fcsif;eJ@tjyefvrf;rSm igwkd@awG@cJhwmawG rSefw,faemf? olwkd@ jyifqifcsdefawmh &avmufaumif;yg&@Jvkd@aygh?
usaemfpOf;pm;aewJh tazajymwJhwwd,tcsufu usaemfhtaz “qifjzLawmf” ppfqifa&;eJ@ axmif (3) ESpf
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aumif;eJ@ jyefxGufvmawmh wJG+yD;xGufvmcJhwJh taz&@JaxmifwGif;tawG@tñuHrsm;rS usaemfodcJh&ygw,f?
axmifxJrSm ynmwwfolrsm;/ EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;/ tawG@tñuH&ifhusufolrsm;/ awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;&J@ tawG@tñuH
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ukd,fawG@tawG@tñuHukd r#a0cHpm;ay;vkdufygw,f?
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udk ukd,fwdkifudk,fus 'dk@rzwf&bJ rif;jyefajymjyoavmufyJ od& vufcH&r,fqdkwm w&m;enf;vrf;usrus rif;[mrif; jyef
pOf;pm;=unfhygtHk;...”
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w,fvdk@vnf; usaemfxifygw,fav?
udk,fh0rf;emudk,fomod vdk@yJajymvkduf&rvm;? udk,fhta=umif;eJ@udk,frdk@ raumif;omwmyJvm;rod/ usaemf bmrSjyef
rajym/ apm'uwufraeawmh? pmtkyfyHk=um;rSm oufawmifhoufom usaemfvSJavsmif;aerdwJh taetxm;twdkif;
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jznf;wdk;n‡if;vmw,f? 'Daemuf usaemftdyfaysmfoGm;cJhw,f? olb,ftcsdefjyefoGm;ovJ/ bmawGajymao;ovJ usaemfrod?
·6-12-1974 wuUodkvfbGJ@ESif;obifcef;ra&S›
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n&J@a[majymyGJudk yGJpvdkuf+yD; arSmif&DysdK;wmeJ@ wuUodkvf0if;xJudk w&m;emy&dowfawG wzGJzGJ0ifvmrpJjzpfaew,f?
nOfheufvmav tat;uydkvmav? tr_dufawG/ 'kwfwdk'kwfpawG/ opfudkif;ajcmufopf&GufajcmufawG/ udk,feJ@vufwurf;
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awGusawmh wa,mufeJ@wa,muf wdk;a0S›yl;uyfxkdif=u&if; tat;"mwfudk tHwkqef@usifae=uw,f? ajyma[maeolawG&J@
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- 33 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

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a&;uif;vSnfh=uw,f? vHkòcHa&;tzGJ@omqdkw,f? olwdk@vufxJrSm "g;/ v#H/ av;/ jr‡m;/ ±dkifz,f/ G-3/ G-4 udkifxm;wm
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aqmifrsm;xJu wa,mufaygh? ol@udk vlodvnf;rsm;ygw,f?
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vnf;yg/ wdkifpm/ ypfpm/ vlaysmuf&Smcdkif;wm tpHkygyJ? wcsKd@owif;awGusawmh vlukd,fwdkifE_wfeJ@ay;w,f? pmeJ@ a&;&if
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twGif; y&dowfwcsKd@udk tvH&SL;vkyf/ r[kwfrrSefowif;v$ifh/ aoG;qlatmifv_H@aqmf+yD; ausmif;0if;tjyifukd qGJaqmif
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oduQmcsEdkifatmif óud;pm;0g'jzef@cJhao;w,f?
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- 34 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

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wOD;wnf;aomudk,fpm;vS,f usaemfeJ@twl uefawmfrifydk@aqmifa&;udpP uef@uGufrJholqdkvdk@ bkdbdkausmf+idrf;eJ@
udkxGef;ausmf+idrf;wdk@yJ &SdwmawG@&w,f? 'ga=umifh usKyfwdk@ (10) rJ (3) rJeJ@tqdk±_H;edrfhcJh&w,f? xdkpOfu bkdbkdwdk@nDtpfudk
b,ftzGJ@/ b,ftkyfpkudk udk,fpm;ðywufcJhovJ usKyfrodvdkuf? aocsmwmuawmh olwdk@[m tpnf;ta0;wufcGifh&wJh
w&m;0ifzdwf=um;cHyk*~dKvfawGjzpf+yD; ausmif;om;trsm;pkuawmh usKyfvdkyJ rEWav;aqmifudk udk,fpm;ðy+yD;vmw,fvdk@ rSwf
,lem;vnf=uyHk&w,f?
usKyf rEWav;aqmifjyefa&mufwmeJ@ tm;vHk;u usKyfudk0dkif;xm;vdkufw,f? vlwdkif;&J@rsufESmrSm odcsifaZmawGeJ@aygh?
usKyfuawmh tqdk±_H;cJhvdk@ pdwfysufaew,f? pum;jyefrajymcsifavmufatmifyJ ajcukefvufyrf;usaew,f? udkaomif;at;eJ@
udkwifpdk;wdk@ESpfa,muf usKyftajymudk rapmifhEdkifawmhbl;xifyg&J@... “b,fvdkvJapmvSaiG/ udk,fpm;vS,ftm;vHk;eD;yg; udk,f
wdk@eJ@ woabmwnf;yJ r[kwfvm;...” usKyfacgif;cgjyw,f? +yD;rS tajctaeudk twdkcsKyf&Sif;jy+yD; (3) rJ (10) rJausmfeJ@
olwdk@bufu trsm;pktom&oGm;a=umif; today;vdkufw,f? 'DrSmwifyJ udkaomif;at;wa,muf ±kwfcsnf;a'golykefx+yD;
pm;yGJcHkudk vufoD;eJ@xxdk;ypfvdkufw,f? vltrsm;uawmh 'Daumifawmh xHk;pHtwdkif;vkyfjyef+yD qdkwJhoabmeJ@ em;vnf
oabmaygufpGm +idrf=unfhae=uw,f? usaemfwdk@tkyfpkxJrS wcsKd@vlawGu ol@udk “a&$b” vdk@ uifyGef;wyfxm;=uao;
r[kwfygvm;? “*G” udkwifpdk;uawmh “'gqdkvnf; b,fwwfEdkifrvJ? óudwifoabmwlxm;cJhwJhtwdkif; trsm;qHk;jzwfcsufudk
vdkufavsm±HkyJ&Sdwmaygh?” 'DrSmwif udpPu wpcef;&yfoGm;wmr[kwf? usKyfwdk@ab;rSm&yf+yD; tajctaeudk tuJcwfem;
axmifaewJh tif*sifeD,mudkvwf}uD;u0ifvm+yD; “usKyfwdk@aqmufvkyfa&;tzGJ@ua&m bmqufvkyf&tHk;rSmvJ? uefawmfrif
ydk@r,fvdk@ cifAsm;wkd@tm;vHk;eD;yg;u qHk;jzwf+yDqdkrSawmh usKyfwdk@ udk,fhtdrfudk,f jyef=u±HkyJ&Sdwmaygh?” yef;&Hq&m ukvm;&mrif;
qdkoluvnf; “'g[kwfwmaygh” vdk@ ol@q&mtif*sifeD,m}uD;&J@ oabmxm;rSwfcsufudk csufcsif;axmufcHvdkufw,f? tjcm;
ausmif;om;awGvnf; udk,fhcHpm;csufeJ@udk,f udk,fpDukd,fpD pdwfysuftm;av#mhpGmeJ@ xGufay:vm=uw,f? tajctaeu
awmh yGJr+yD;cif apmapmpD;pD; wyfacguf=u&awmhrJhyHk jzpfaew,f? tajctae[efyHkraygufwmudk tuJcwfrdwJhtav#muf
udkjrifh[efu tckvdk tcsdefrD0ifxdef;vdkufjyefw,f? “tm;vHk;em;axmif=u? rif;wdk@uvnf; t˜&efaum/ olvnf; ol@t}uHeJ@
ol? udk,fwdk@vnf; udk,fht}uHeJ@udk,faygh ...p&ifawmhqHk;wJhtxd wm0ef,lvkyf&rSmyJ? vlxku em;uyfawG/ vufpGyfawG/
aiGpuULtxyfvdkufawG yHkatm+yD; xnfh0ifvª'gef;xm;wmeJ@ 'dk@tvsifOD;qHk;ðyxm;wJh*wdudk vG,fvG,feJ@csKd;azmufwJh
tjzpfawmh ta&mufrcHEdkifbl;...”
“bmbJjzpfjzpf tedrfhqHk; ...tavmif;udk uefawmfrifqD xkwfaqmifroGm;cif 'dk@tckaqmufaewJh*lay:rSm acwWc%
avmufawmh cs+yD;em;cdkif;r,f? 'grS 'D*ljzpfajrmufa&; vHk;yrf;=uwJh oufqdkifoltm;vHk; yifyef;&usKd;eyf+yD; auseyfEdkif=ur,f?
'DudpP psmyeaumfrDwDA[dku OuUÏudk=unf0if;/ twGif;a&;rª;udkoufv_difwdk@tzGJ@eJ@ 'dk@rEWav;aqmifaumfrDwDu &atmif
n‡dE_dif;zdk@ wm0ef,lr,f ...raumif;bl;vm; ...”
udkjrifh[ef&J@ wifjycsuftqHk;rSmawmh tm;vHk;acgif;wndwfndwfeJ@ òyH;vmEdkif=uw,f? aqG;aEG;yGJpum;0dkif;&J@ &moDOwk
=unfvifvmwJhtavsmuf vlwdkif; udk,fha'gifheJ@udk,f wm0eftoD;oD;udk qufvufaqmif&GufEdkifzkd@ vlcGJvdkuf=uw,f? usKyf
pdwfxJrSmawmh b,fa0hnm0dkufeJ@ wmxGufpuwnf;u tajzmifhr&Sd tauG@awGcsnf; avSmfae&w,f? tckvnf; 0JjyefwauG@
jzwf&ayOD;r,f? toufwdkcsifvnf;wdkawm/h rwwfEdkifbl;? &ifarmpGmeJ@ yifhoufr&Snf}uD;wcsufudkawmh av;av;yifyif cs
vdkuf&awmhrSmyJ ...
»»»»»???»»»»»
rEWav;aqmifjyef=um;a&;taeeJ@ &&SdwJhowif;awGteufu twnfðy&tcufcJqHk; owif;uawmh (8) &ufae@nrSm
0ifvmwJh owif;wckygyJ? tJh'guawmh OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk uefawmfrifrydk@eJ@/ ydk@&ifvnf; uefawmfrifa&mufrSmr[kwfbl;?
vrf;rSmyJ tpazsmufcH&vdrfhr,f qdkwJhowif;ygyJ? 'Dowif;eJ@ywfouf+yD; rEWav;aqmifaumfrDwDeJ@ oufqdkif&mtodkif;
t0dkif;u jzpfEdkifajc&Sdw,fvdk@ em;vnfcJhayrJh rEWav;aqmifaumfrDwDtay: tr_ywfEdkifwJhtwGuf vHk;0a&ikHE_wfydwfaecJhw,f?
'DudpPeJ@ywfouf+yD; tcsdefwefrS vlxkbmomvlxk óudufovdkqHk;jzwfygapqdk+yD; apmifh=unfhcJhw,f? wu,fvdk@ uefawmfrif
udk oGm;ydk@&r,fqdk&ifvnf; tavmif;udk toufeJ@vJ+yD; umuG,f=uzdk@ udk,fhzmomudk,f }udwfpDpOfxm;vdkufw,f?
»»»»»???»»»»»
tavmif;udk wuUodkvf0if;twGif;rSmyJ jr‡KyfvdkufwJhae@
nbuf aumif;aumif;av; tdyfpuf&w,f? *dwfawGrSmawmh vHkòcHa&;ydkpnf;=uyfxm;w,f? &wJhowif;awGt&
pDppf+yD; zrf;rdwJh axmufvSrf;a&;oHk;toHzrf;puf/ uifr&mtao;pm;eJ@ tjcm;rouFmzG,f&mypPnf;qdkwmawGudk vHkòcHa&;
*dwfawGu rdrdwdk@aumfrDwD!¸ef=um;csufeJ@tnD rdwJhae&m vlxka&S›arSmufrSm xkacszsufqD;cJh=uwmjzpfw,f?
- 35 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

(10) &ufae@eHeuf (10;00) em&Dowif;
t"duowif;&if;jrpf av;ckuaevmwJh owif;jzpf+yD; av;ckpvHk;udkaygif;pyf,lrS wckvHk;yHkay:vmw,f? ae@vnf
(2;00) em&Dowif;rSmawmh aygif;pyfxm;wJhowif;twkdif; tvm;wludkufnDaewJh pDrHcsufwckvHk;udk owif;vmydk@ay;wm
jzpfw,f? &efukefwdkif;ppfXmecsKyf todkif;t0dkif;xJu aomhcsufyk*~dKvfwOD;&J@ udk,fa&;t&m&SdxHu vmwmjzpf+yD; ol@wlrvdk@
qdkwJh wuUodkvfausmif;olrSwqifh ydk@ay;jcif;jzpfw,fvdk@ rSwfrdaeao;w,f? 'Dowif;awGudkvnf; aemufqHk;0if&Sif;wJhtxd
vlod&Sif=um; xkwfjyefjcif;rðycJhyg?
vufOD;r_&Sd&Sd vdktyfovdk óudwifpDrHaqmif&Guf&rnfrsm;udkrl tcsdeftcgESifhtajctae tcGifhtcgay:rlwnf+yD; aqmif
&GufpDrH wkH@jyefEdkifcJh=uygw,f?
10-12-74 noef;acgifausmf (2;00) em&D
aumfrDwD0iftaygif;oif;wa,muf usKyfudkv_yfEdk;w,f? “apmvSaiG/ aemufem&Dtenf;i,favmufqdk ppfbDvl;awG
0ifvmawmhr,f? rvGwfruif;jzpfEdkifwJh pm&Gufpmwrf;awG bm&Sdao;vJ? t+yD;&Sif;ypfawmh...” tdyfr_efpHkr$m;eJ@ usaemfx+yD;
toifhxkyfxm;wJh pmxyf}uD;udk ay;vdkufw,f? ol aoaocsmcsmppfaq; rD;&_d›ypfvdkufw,f? +yD;awmh ESpfa,mufom; *dk&S,f
(ac:) vSatmif (RIT) vkyfxm;wJh aiGpm&if;yg&SdwJh aiGxkyfudk taqmifwGif; acsmifusvHkòcHwJhwae&mrSm oGm;zGufxm;
vdkuf=uw,f? wjcm;odoifhwJhvlawGvnf; aiGxm;wJhae&mjyay;cJhw,f?
tajctaeuawmh vmr,fhab; ajy;awG@r[kwfbJ/ vmr,fhab;udk aoG;at;at;eJ@ apmifhaewmygyJ? zJorm;pum;eJ@
ajym&&ifawmh oydwf0iftdwf0if tEdkifydkif;xm;+yD;om;jzpfaevdk@yJ? aecJhoifholawG aecJh=u/ tjyifxGufoifholawG xGufoGm;
Edkif=uatmif em;vnfr_tjynfheJ@ pDpOfaqmif&GufcJh=uw,f?
eHeuf (3;00) em&DcGJcef@
“a[haumif ...xawmh/ rif;wa,mufyJ usefawmhw,f? atmufqif;=ur,f? ppfwyfawG/ &JawG ausmif;xJudk
0ifvmae+yD? jrefjrefvky.f ..” usKyfudkvmac:wJhol[m csufcsif;yJ jyefajy;xGufoGm;w,f? usKyfvnf; ol@aemufu xyfcsyf
ruGmvdkufoGm;w,f?
t"dywdvrf;rxdyf t0if0udk =unfhvdkufw,f? wHcg;r}uD;wHcg;ESpfcsyfudk u&def;eJ@qGJxkwfypfvdkufw,f? ppfom;awG/
vHkxdef;awG tvHk;t&if;eJ@0ifvmw,f? ausmif;0if;tjyifrSm oHcsyfumum;/ tm;rwfum;awG 0ef;&Hxm;w,f? wuUodkvf
"rRm±Hkbufu puftajrmufawGudkvnf; toifhtaetxm;eJ@ csdefxm;=uw,f?
oHcarmufw0if;0if;/ vSHpGyfwvufvufeJ@ ppfom;awG [dkrS'DrSajy;v$m;+yD; vltkyf}uD;udk tpdwfpdwftr$mr$mjzpfatmif
cGJxkwfaew,f? aoewfoH/ rsuf&nf,dkAHk;aygufoH/ nmoHay;+yD; 0ifa&muf±dkufESufoH/ '%f&mtemw&eJ@ emusifpl;&SpGm
atmfoHawG/ yGufavmnHaew,f? wu,fhppfajrjyifjrifuGif;yJ? qvdkufrD;armif;}uD;awGudk vuf,Sufxdk;xm;wJhtwGuf
aecif;a=umifawmifvdkyJ vif;aew,f? 'Hk;usnfrD;yef;vnf; azmufvdkufao;w,f?
ppfwyfeJ@vHkxdef;awGu tkyfpkawGcGJ+yD; 0dkif;zrf;vdk@&wJholawGudk oHk@yef;vdk acgif;ay:vufwif aexm;cdkif;w,f? aemufqHk;
t"dywdvrf;ray:rSm twef;vdkufpD xdkifxm;cdkif;w,f? ESif;r_HeJ@ rsuf&nf,dkAHk;rD;cdk;awG a&maew,f? wuUodkvfrSma0wJhESif;/
uHhaumfeH@roif;ygbl;? aoG;nDeH@eJ@,rf;eH@yJ oif;aew,f? “ESif;av;awGrS[kwf&J@vm;” vdk@qdkwJh oDcsif;t"dy`g,fu 'DrSm
jynfhpHkoGm;w,f?
“[dkaumif ...rif;acgif;ay:wifcdkif;xm;wJhvufudk b,fyaxG;trdef@&vdk@ ðzwfwmvJ?” ppfom;wa,muf&J@ pum;
tqHk;rSm vHkxdef;ESpfa,mufu 0ifóuH;vdkufwmeJ@ pdkif;odkufeef;vdk@xif&wJhvl[m usKyfab;uae 'vdrfhacgufauG;eJ@ vGifhxGuf
oGm;w,f? usKyfeJ@cyfapmif;apmif;avmufrSm apmxGef;wa,muf yg0grsufrSefr&SdawmhbJ rsufpduaoG;,dkpD;usaewm apmif;
apmif;taetxm;eJ@ =unfhjrifvdkuf&w,f?
vlwa,muf 0ifvmw,f? tem;rS0dkif;ywfapmifh=uyfaewJh ppfom;eJ@vHkxdef;awG ab;udk&SJxGufoGm;w,f? taumif
}uD;xJuyJ jzpfvdrfhr,f? ppfodk;ar$;qG,fwm0wfxm;awmh ycHk;ay:rSm b,fESpfyGifhvJ/ ua&mif;vm; bmvm; rodEdkifbl;?
ppfa&mifodk;ar$;acgif;pGyfvnf; pGyfxm;w,f?
usKyftem;udka&mufawmh olu... “ignDwdk@vkyfwm rSefw,f/ ignDwdk@tm;ri,feJ@/ ra=umufeJ@? rif;wdk@aemufrSm
tpfudkwdk@ t+rJwrf;&Sdaer,f” wJ.h ..
- 36 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

pum;oH[m odwfwdk;wdk;r[kwfbl;? usKyfwdk@ acgif;ay:vufwif+yD; pkxdkifaewJh tem;w0dkufu vlwdkif;
aumif;aumif;=um;Edkifavmufw,fvdk@ usKyfxifw,f? 'Dajympum;eJ@ywfouf+yD; usKyf trSefwu,foHo,jzpfcJhw,f?

Adkvf}uD;tkef;ausmfjrifhwdk@&J@ EdkifiHawmfvkyf}uHr_}uD; ray:vmciftxdqdkygpdk@?

Ak'<bmomtygt0if ,Ofaus;wJhbmomwkdif;/ vlrsKd;wdkif;[m romwacguf/ ausmif;q,facgufqdk+yD; oma&;xuf
ema&;rSm ydkvdk@ vlr_0wW&m; ausyGefwwf=uw,f? olwdk@&J@ jrifhjrwfwJhpdwfaeoabmxm;/ ,Ofaus;r_tqifhtwef;udk 'DudpP
awGrSm rSwfausmuftwifcH=uwmvnf;jzpfw,f?
,Ofaus;wJh trsKd;aumif;om;/ trsKd;aumif;orD;awG[m 74 OD;oef@ta&;tcif;rSm wdkif;jynf*k%frn‡dK;&atmif
wa,mufwvuf wwyfwtm; yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJh=uw,f? toGifo¿meftm;jzifh vlr_a&;oufouf oabmaqmifayrJh
tESpfom&ydkif;rSm EdkifiHa&;t"dy`g,fvnf; tav;eufyg0ifw,fvdk@ rdrdem;vnfcHpm;rdw,f?
OD;ae0if;wdk@a=umifh wuUodkvfaumvdyfwdk@&J@rlvblw yifrwuUodkvfuae OD;oef@udk olrsm;EdkifiHawGvdk *k%fxl;aqmif
bGJ@ray;EdkifcJhayrJh usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;§olawGu jynfov
l lxktultnDeJ@ bJG@ESif;obifcef;rxJrSm ol@±kyfuvmyfudk
xnfhxm;+yD; yef;awGeJ@a0atmif tvSqifvsuf xdkufxdkufwefwef*g&0ðycJh=uw,f? blrdeufoH or*~&ifjyifrSm tkwf*lvkyf+yD;
awmh jr‡KyfESHoò*õvfay;vdkufw,f?
tavmif;jr‡Kyf+yD;wJhnu udkxGef;ausmf+idrf;eJ@bkdbkdausmf+idrf;wdk@ ta&;w}uD;okwfoD;okwfjymeJ@ vm=uw,f? udkarmif
armifwdwf}uD;eJ@ pum;ajymae=uwm olwdk@rsufESmrSm pdk;&drfylyifr_awG txif;om;ay:aecJhw,f? “cifAsm;wkd@ 'Dn xGufoGm;
=uawmh? cifAsm;wdk@oGm;csifwJh vufeufudkiftzGJ@tpnf; wckckqDudkaygh? 'D vªxm;wJh aiGeJ@vuf0wf a&$/ aiGypPnf;awG[m
cifAsm;wdk@xifovdk OD;oef@psmyetwGuf oufoufvnf; [kwfcsifrS[kwfrSm/ awmfvSefa&;c&D;twGuf jzpfaumif;jzpfrSm
...tck MC-2 0yf (Ward) awGudk &Sif;xm;w,fvdk@ od&w,f? 'gu tavmif;awGxnfhzdk@ jyifxm;wmyJ? 'ga=umifh cifAsm;
wdk@ qHk;jzwf=uyg? 'Dowif;[m twdtusyJ? usaemfwdk@uawmh tdrfuaeyJ tzrf;cHvdkufawmhr,f...” olwdk@ tckvdkajymqdk
ae=ucsdefrSm usaemftem;rSm&SdaeayrJh wpHkw&m 0ifa&mufpGufzufjcif; rðycJhygbl;? udkarmifarmifwdwfuawmh usaemfwdk@
tkyfpkoabmxm;udk xif[yfwJhpum;vHk;awGeJ@ tckvdkwkef@jyefcJhw,f...
“usaemfwdk@uawmh roGm;awmhbl;Asm? usaemfwdk@ ausmif;om;jynfolrsm;eJ@twl 'DrSmyJae+yD; &ifqdkifvdkufawmhr,f?
cifAsm;wdk@nDtpfudk&J@ apwemeJ@ wm0efodr_/ vkyfazmfudkifzufawGtay:xm;wJh oHa,mZOfawGudkawmh usKyfwdk@em;vnfyg
w,f...”
wu,fqdkawmh 'Dowif;awGudkvnf; usaemfwdk@ &&Sdxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; trmcHvkyfazmfudkifzufawGxJu
tajctaeeJ@qENt& xGufrJholawGudk em;vnfay;cJhwmaygh?
vHkòcHa&;eJ@n‡dE_dif;+yD; &moDOwkuvnf; tat;rsm;vmwJhtwGuf cav;i,ftcsKd@eJ@rdcifrsm;/ ouf}uD;&G,ftdkrsm;/ udk,f0ef
aqmifrsm;udk tcsdefrSDjyefxGufoGm;atmif tcsdefvkpDpOfcJh=u&ygw,f? 'DvdkjyefxGufzdk@ usKyfwdk@u wdkufwGef;pDpOfwJhtwGuf
wcsKd@rdcifawG&J@ rsufESmay:u a'go&dyfawGudkawmh tm;empGmeJ@ rsufESmv$JcJh=u&ygw,f? aemufqkH;*dwfwHcg;rsm;ydwfcsdef[m
(10;00) em&Drdk@yg? 'DvdkeJ@yJ vlwaomif;eD;yg;uae ig;axmifausmfavmufyJ wuUodkvf0if;xJrSm &Sdawmhw,f? xyfxkwf&if
xGufoGm;rJhy&dowf vrf;rSmtEW&m,f&SdEdkfifovdk rxGufoGm;csifwJhtwGuf trsufa'goeJ@ rdrdwdk@udk wkef@jyefvmr,fh tajc
taerSmvnf; &Sdaew,f?
OD;oef@ta&;tcif;udk tpOfojzifh a&S›qDudkwl&lvnfaewJh bD;wbD;taeeJ@ yHkcdkif;&&if tv,f0if±dk;[m ausmif;om;xk&J@
pdwf"mwfeJ@oduQmygyJ? (rlvwef;/ tv,fwef;/ txufwef;/ wuUodkvftxdxk}uD;ygyJ)
“=unfhprf; ...bmvdkvdkeJ@ ESpfaygif; (30) ausmfcJh+yD? jynfwGif;ppfrD;}uD;vnf; w[kef;[kef;awmufavmifaumif;aeqJ?
trsKd;om;pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_ òyduGJaeyHkuvnf; b,fwkef;ueJ@rwl/ wdkif;jynf}uD;uvnf; emoxufem/ epfoxufepf...”
“'DvdkyHkpHeJ@ rdk;}uD;csKyfv#ifawmh...”
aocsifwJhusm;uawmh awmajymif;ae+yDqdkwm ...tpfudkwdk@todqHk;/ 'DwcsD tpfudkwdk@eJ@nDwdk@ jyefqHk=urJhyGJrSmawmh
rdk;rcsKyfcif tdyfjyefa&mufEdkif=u&atmif...”
apm{&mvd_if

- 37 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

OD;oef@u|ef; [k *k%fðytrnfay;xm;aom
e,l;a,mufòrd@rS u|ef;uav;

odyfonf;qjcif; b,fwlyg@rvJ
armifvlysKd (rdom;pk0kdif;)
usaemf &efukefa&mufonfhESpf 1969-ckESpfupvdk@ cGyfa'gif;tvHukd jyefvnfpwif jrifvm&onfrSm r*Fvm}uD;wyg;[k
qdk&ygrnf? vrf;rawmf t-x-u (1) &efukef/ q,fwef;ausmif;om;b0a&mufrSyif cGyfa'gif;tvHudk pwifjrifzl;.? orD;
av;pdk@pdk@rSmawmh rlóudb0uyif zkef;armfta&;tcif;upvdk@ cGyfa'gif;tvHudk jrifzl;aeonf? uGmjcm;r_}uD;onfudk b0ESifh
csdefpuf+yD; cHpm;&ygonf?
u|ef;qG,ftm;upm;yGJ usif;yonfh ordkif;ausmif;0if;twGif;rS pwifay:xGufvmonfh ausmif;om;xk.v_yf&Sm;r_?
tJ'Dwkef;u udkatmifoef;/ udkausmfwifhwdk@ yg0ifcJhonfudkod&.? 1970-ckESpfwGif usaemf wuUodkvfodk@a&muf+yD? wuUodkvf
a&$&wkobifESifh yufyif;wdk;onf? armfvòrdifaumvdyfrS ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ pwifvdkuf+yDjzpfI usif;yqJa&$&wkudk
ydwfvdkuf.? ‚if;ae@nYyif usaemfwdk@xdkifaeus urm&Gwft0dkif;}uD;udk pzsufqD;vdkufonf? ausmif;ydwf tdrfjyefcdkif;onfh
enf;onf rqvtm%mydkifrsm;. vlpkcGJonfhenf;jzpfonf?
'kwd,ESpf/ wwd,ESpfumvrsm;? &cdkifausmif;om;wOD; "g;xdk;cH&r_ESifh v_dif*wfwJ0kdif;onfhta&;tcif;/ urm&Gwf*wfwJ
rD;±_d@onfhta&;tcif;rsm; ESpfckudk yGJOD;xGufqifEGJzl;ae.? udk,hfvufESifh udk,fwdkifudk,fus py,f&S,frD;±_d@vdkuf&onfh Oya'
ausmif;om;wOD;.t&omudk b,fbGJ@ESifhrSrvJEdkifyg? Oya'opfudk a&;qGJrnfhvufonf Oya'a[mif;udk rkcszsufqD;&rnftoJcdkufatmif ,kH=unf.?
Oya'ausmif;om; udkaemf&def;/ udkwifjrifhwdk@ tzrf;cH&+yD; axmifusoGm;.? w&Gmwnf;om; udkwifazvnf; axmifus
oGm;.? oli,fcsif;tpm; ig@udkzrf;v#if aumif;av&J‹vdk@ oli,fcsif;rsm;udk ajymjzpf.? udkwifaz axmifuxGufvmonfhtcg
rdom;pk0dkif; (awmifukwf-oHwGJ-*G) ynmoifaxmufyHha&;toif;rS axmufyHha=u;csD;jr‡ifhEdkifcJhI toif;udk,fpm;*k%f,lrd.?
*wfwJrD;±_d@+yD;aemuf 1974-ckESpfwGif ZGefv (6) &uftvkyform;oydwf}uD; ay:aygufvm.? wckckawmh vdktyfae+yD
qdkonfudk toJESvkH;rSodae.? atmifoH+cdrfh+cdrfh/ tusnf;wef˜ae-ponfh oli,fcsif;&Jabmfrsm;pkxkwfonfh uAsmpmtkyf
av;awG xGufae.? xdkpOfu pD;yGm;a&;wuUodkvfrSeH&Huyfpmapmif “vlr_pD;yGm;” rSm emrnf}uD;jzpfonf? usaemfwdk@XmecsKyf
u Oya'Xmeab;&Sd udkatmif&ifvBuf&nfqdkif? ukuUdK&GufaºuGawG/ usD;uef;csD;awG ckHay:rSm ±_yfyGayusHaeygap usaemfwdk@u
txdkifrysuf? xdkpOfu “rdk;&dyfav&dyf” (q&mpGrf;/ q&mrdk;wdk@yg0ifa&;om;)/ ±dk;r&dyfajc/ pufwifbmrD;awmuf/ atmufwdkbm
vrf;a=umif;/ "g;ajr‡mifeD ponfh taoG;tom;ESifh&if;+yD; a&;om;xm;onfh uAsmpmtkyfrsm; wzGJzGJxGufae.? pmayonf
awmfvSefa&;udk armif;wifaeonf? pmayorm;rsm;ESifh tu|rf;0ifcGifh&.? udkeD[def;/ udkxufjruf/ udk0if;wifhxGef;/
udkEdkif0if;aqG/ udkboif;/ udkausmf/ udkatmif/ rrvS? usaemfwdk@rSm aygufpav;rsm;omjzpf.? yef;qdk;wef;vrf;ab; ca&yif
awGatmufwGif udkboif;ESifh pmtkyfta&mif;xGuf.? wrl;wrwf ydkufqHav;rsm;&v#if udk=unfvbuf&nfqdkif ajy;=u&
onf? ,ckxd rsufpdxJurxGufEdkifao;? tpfudk}uD;rsm;udk vGrf;qGwfwordygonf? xdkumvrSmyif ZGef (6) tvkyform;
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ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

oydwfwdkufyGJ}uD;udk awG@jrifóuHóuduf jzwfoef;vdkuf&.? ausmif;om;todrSwqifh wdk;wuf+yD; tvkyform;todwckudk &&Sd
vdkuf.? tb,frSm aysmufysufEdkifygtHhenf;?
tvkyform;oydwf}uD;t+yD; 6-vavmuft=umwGif OD;oef@psmyeta&;tcif;}uD; ay:aygufvmygonf? OD;oef@.
tacgif;}uD; r*Fvm'kHavqdyfodk@ qdkufa&mufvmygonf? ausmif;om;rsm; xdkae@u v_yfv_yf&G&Gjzpfae=u.? usaemfwdk@.
A[dkXmecsKyf}uD;um; OD;cspfqdkifjzpf.? b,fudpPjzpfjzpf xdkae&mrSpwif v_yf&Sm;=uIjzpfonf? OD;oef@.acgif;}uD;udk usKduUpH
uGif;rS &efukefwuUokdvf ausmif;0if;twGif;odk@a&mufatmif vltkyf}uD;jzifh pDwef;o,faqmif=u.? t"dywdvrf;r}uD;
twdkif; csDwufum bGJ@ESif;obifcef;r}uD;xJodk@ oGif;vdkuf=uonf? bGJ@,lrnfhpifjrifhwGif OD;oef@.ra[mf*eDacgif;}uD;udk
oyf,yfcef@nm;pGm xm;vdkuf=u.? OD;oef@udkóudqdk*k%fðy oò*õ[for_ðycJh=uolrsm;onf ,cktcg EdkifiHtESH@a&mufae=uonf?
OD;oef@udk urBmuodovdk 8-4 vkH;&Jabmfrsm;udk urBmuodae.? aumif;r_ðycJh=uonfh acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh EdkifiH.aus;Zl;
opPmudk usaemfwdk@ wae@w&ufr# rarhoifh? EdkifiHjcm;a&mufae=uolrsm; a&=unfaomufv#if a&wGif;wl;cJholrsm;. aus;Zl;
opPmudk odwwf=uzdk@vdkygonf? Tum; awmfvSefa&;opPmjzpf.?
OD;oef@psmyeta&;tcif;}uD;udk tpfudkawmfrsm;jzpfonfh udkwifpdk;/ udkjrifh[ef/ udkwdwf/ udkaomif;at;/ udkvSaiGwdk@ESifh
vufwGJI yg0ifqifEGJcJh.? olwdk@rSm rEWav;aqmifa&S@wGif psmyeaumfrwDjzpfI tvkyfrsm;ae=u.? OD;oef@tkwf*l wnf
aqmuf&ef &cdkifoli,fcsif;rsm;ESifhtwl tkwfo,f=u.? ac|;rsm;pdkc|Jae+yD; tkwfr_H@awGayusHaeonfhvufjzifh a&cGufudkifI
roifh? ausmif;olav;rsm;u yg;pyfxJta&muf a&cGH@wdkuf.? &Jabmf&Jbufpdwf"mwfudk azmfjy=uonf? &efukefwòrd@vkH;
wuUodkvfausmif;0if;xJ a&mufaeovm; xif&onf? vrf;av#mufvkd@ r&Edkifavmufatmif pnfum;onf? Tr#}uD;
rm;onfh vlxky&dowfudk rawG@óuHzl;?
TtawmtwGif; tdrfjyef=urnfholrsm;udk ynmoifaxmufyHha&;toif; (rdom;pk0dkif;) &HykHaiGrS aiGxkwfay;&onf? rdrd
udk,fwdkifvnf; tdrfjyefcJhonf? apmapmpD;pD; bmvdk@tdrfjyefcJhwmvJ-a=umufvdk@vm;-'grsKd;ra=umuf&bl;? usaemfhararonf
om;udk ,ckuJhodk@ w&Hwcgr# rwdkufwGef;cJhzl;? ODoef@[m wu,fhbk&m;'um}uD;yg wJh? tar. yxrqkH;aomwyfvSef@oH?
ararhaw;oHudk =um;a,mifaerdonf? tdrfa&muf+yD; aemufwae@ ausmif;0if;xJ0ifodrf;+yD; ausmif;om;awGudk zrf;qD;oGm;
a=umif;od&.?
ausmif;jyefwufawmh udkwifpdk;wdk@ygoGm;=u+yD? ausmif;aeraysmfawmh? ynmoifaxmufyHha&;toif;rS udkpdk;0if;/
udkpdk;at;wdk@ESifhom qHkjzpf=uonf? jyuQ'defxkwfI &HykHaiG&Sm=u&.? aomif;ESifhcsDI &HykHaiG&xm;.? r*~Zif;xkwf&ef
pdkif;jyif;=uonf? rdom;pk0dkif;r*~Zif;? &cdkifwefaqmifr*~Zif; &HykHaiGxJrS ,m,DxkwfokH;+yD; jyefqyf&efjzpfonf? &cdkifoli,fcsif;
rsm;ESifh 0kdif;0ef;v_yf&Sm;cJh=uonf? &ufawG vawG odyfrsm;r=umvdkuf?
1975-ckESpf ZGef (6) &uf tvkyform;oydwf ESpfywfvnfawmhrnf? toif;&HykHaiGudk b¾ma&;rª;xH óudwiftyfxm;
vdkuf.? ajcpkHypf0ifawmhrnff? ordkif;ausmif;aqmifwGifpma0&ef zefacsmif;vdSrfh.? pwifv_yf&Sm;=u+yD? òrd@xJxGuf+yD; ±Hk;awG
wufum v#Kd@0Sufpma0=uonf? ZGef (6) ESpfywfvnfoydwf}uD; atmifjrifpGmay:xGufvmonf? òrd@xJpDwef;vSnfhvnfum
a=unmcsufawG yvlysHatmif xkwfa0=u.? &uf=umoGm;+yD? aemufqkH; a&$wd*kHbk&m;wGif pcef;cs=u&.? ZGefv 11-&uf
eHeuf 4-em&DY a&$wd*kH&ifjyifrS tif;pdefaxmifodk@ wef;ydk@onf?
2-vr# ppfa=uma&;0if+yD;aemuf wdkufrStaqmifodk@ydk@onf? awG@ygav+yD? “a[-rif;ygvmovm;” taqmiftay:
xyfrS udkwifpdk;.toH? olu usaemfvGwf+yD; wae&ma&mufoGm;apcsifonf? b0wuUodkvfwGif ausmif;om;ESifh tvkyf
orm; aygif;pnf;rd=uav+yD? axmifxJaepOf usaemfhtoJESvkH;udk r#m;okH;pif; typfcH&.? udkwifarmifOD;udk óud;ay;owfvdkuf
onfhae@? b0rSwfwrf;jzpfonf? aemufwpif;-rdbxufyifcspfonfhtzGm; qkH;onfhae@? aemufqkH;wpif;/ tpfudk}uD;
udkoef;a&$ (=o*kwfaoG;) tif;pdefaxmifwGif;rSmyif &efolowfvdk@aooGm;a=umif; odvdkuf&onfheHeufcif;? aqmif;wGif;?
rsuf&nfylawG pD;qif;ae.? tjyifursuf&nfESifh axmifxJursuf&nf odyfonf;qjcif; b,fwlyghrvJ?
armifvlysKd (rdom;pk0dkif;)
16-12-2005

jrwfEdk;zG,f&m &wemayrkd@...
&JxGËf
1974 'DZifbmv OD;oef@ta&;tcif;pjzpfawmh pD;yGm;a&;wuUokdvf 'kwd,ESpfpmoifcef;rsm;rSm usaemfwufaeqJjzpf
onf? ae@ausmif;om;rkd@ ql;avum;*dwfu trSwf (9) vif;av;um;}uD;rsm;ukd q,fhig;jym;ay;pD;u tif;vsm;uefapmif;ESifh
vrf;oG,fav;omjcm;onfh usaemfwkd@ausmif;a&SŒrSwfwkdifokd@ a&mufygonf? tJ'Dae@eHeufu rSwfrSwf&& trSwf (9) um;ay:
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ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

uqif;qif;csif; jynfvrf;ay:rSaeI pD;yGm;a&;wuUokdvf0ifvrf;twkdif; bGJ@ESif;obifa&S@ukd OD;wnfxm;aom t"dywdvrf;
wav#muf a'gh*spfum;rsm; pDwef;xm;onfukd rsufaphwqHk; awG@vkduf&onf? bmjzpfae=uonfukd pkHprf;aep&mrvkd?
ukvor*~ taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;csKyfa[mif; OD;oef@psmyeukd usKduUqHuGif;odk@ vdkufydk@=uzdk@ ausmif;om;xkpk±Hk;ae=ujcif;
jzpfonfudk odvdkuf&onf? pmoifcef;wGif;odk@ ajcOD;rvSnfhrdawmh? óuH&mum;wpD;ay:wufI usKduUqHuGif;odk@ vdkufcJhawmh
onf? v_yf&Sm;wufºuGaeaom ausmif;om;xk.tm;rmefudk =unfh&if;=unfh&if; ...wcgrSr&&Sdzl;aom tiftm;w&yf &ifwGif;
Y jzpfay:vmonf? ,if;tiftm;ESifhrdrd/ rdrdESifh,if;tiftm; cGJjcm;r&awmh? aemifESpfaygif;rsm;pGmtxd rdrdonf ,if;tiftm;
. tpdwftydkif;w&yf jzpfaeawmhrnfqdkonfudk xdkpOfu pdk;pOf;r#r&dyfpm;rdcJh?
OD;oef@±kyftavmif;udk wuUodkvf0if;twGif;okd@ rqvtm%mykdifwkd@. vkdtifqENukd qef@usifI &[ef;oHCmESifh
ausmif;om;jynfol aygif;pkIo,fvmcJh=uonf?
tb,fa=umifhygenf;? ukvor*~ twGif;a&;rª;csKyfoufwrf; (2) }udrfwkdifwkdif xrf;aqmifcJh&onfh OD;oef@ukd ausmif;
om;jynfoltaygif;u jrefrmh*k%faqmif om;aumif;&wem[k rSwf,l=uonf? xkdufxkdufwefwef *k%fðyvkd=uonf/ EdkifiH
awmfpsmyetjzpf owfrSwfI crf;crf;em;em; oò*õvfvkd=uonf? Akdvfae0if;um; jynfol@tjrifukdem;rvnf/ jynfol@oabm
xm;ukdr&,l/ jynfolcspfonfhOD;oef@tay: 0efwkdrp>&d,xm;&Sdonf? yk*~dKvfa&;tmCmw}uD;rm;pGmjzifh =uHawmok\ef&Sd
ol@ZeD; a':cifaroef;*lajc&if;wGif oò*õvfaponf? Ttcsufu taxGaxGrauseyfr_jzifh avmifòrdufaeaom ausmif;om;
jynfolwkd@tm; rD;avmif&mavyifhouJhokd@ jzpfapcJhonf? OD;oef@psmyerD;yGm;av;um; orkdif;0if rqvqef@usifa&;tkHºuGr_
vlxkta&;awmfykH}uD;ukd jzpfyGm;vmapawmhonf? xkdnu &efyHkaiG&SmazGa&;twGuf wm0ef,l&aom ausmif;om;tkyfpkESifh
twl usaemfa&mygoGm;onf? rSwfrSwf&& tif;,m;aqmiftaqmifxJtxd nDri,fwdk@cGifhðyI 0ifa&muftvªcH=u&onf?
ta&;óuHI oufvHkaumif;=uonfh nDtpfudkarmifESrwdk@. aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfr_udk jyefawG;=unfhawmh ,ae@wdkif =uufoD;arG;
n‡if;x&p+rJjzpfonf? &$ifðyH;wufºuGpGm vufaumuf/ vufpGyf/ qGJóud;utp c|wfvªaeaom nDri,frsm;a=umifh odrfarG@El;nHh
+yD; =unfvifoef@&Sif;onfhcHpm;r_rsm; jzpfay:vm&onf? wuUodkvf*dwf. wHcg;toD;oD;wGif ezl;pnf;teDav;awGpnf;um
tpfudkawmfrsm;ae&mcsay;onfh vHkðcHa&;wm0efudk csrf;at;vSonfh aqmif;nrsm;udk&ifqdkiftefwk&if; rnnf;rnL wm0ef,l
ae=uonfh txufwef;ausmif;rSnDi,frsm;. ±kyfyHkv$mu Tta&;tcif;udk pGef@cGmoGm;&ef wdkufwGef;Ed_;aqmfaeonfh twW
rm&fewfudk &ifqdkiftefwk&mwGif t}uD;rm;qHk;tiftm;rsm;jzpfvm&onf?
vª'gef;vdkuf=uonfh xrif;xkyfrsm; tpm;taomufrsm;um; pm;Irukef? bGJ@ESif;obifcef;raxmifhwae&mwGif pkyHkae
onf? pifjrifhay:&Sd OD;oef@±kyfuvmyfudk vma&muf*g&0ðyaeonfh vlxkum; ae@nrpJ? bGJ@ESif;obiftjyifbuf&Sd ausmif;
om;xk&JŒ &ifzGifhyGJu ausmif;om;ta&; awmif;qdka&;rSonf ppftkyfpkðzwfcsa&; aºuG;a=umfoHtxd nHvmonf? ±kyfuvmyf
udk ,cifwuUodkvfausmif;om;or*~ taqmuftOD;a[mif;ae&mwGif jr‡KyfESHzdk@qHk;jzwfcsufu tajrmftjrif&Sd+yD; EdkifiHa&;
t"dy`g,f jynfh0vSonf? ppftkyfpktay: ausmif;om;ESifh&[ef;jynfolwdk@. t}uD;tus,fxdk;ESufcsufjzpfonf? aqmufvuf
p wuUodkvfpm=unfhwdkufrS tkwfcJrsm;udk rEWav;aqmifa&S@ ,cifor*~taqmuftOD;ae&modk@ vufqifhurf; o,faqmif
ae=uonfh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udk jrif&onfhjrifuGif;u urBm@tvSyqHk;&_cif;rsm;teuf wcktygt0ifjzpfonf? =unfh
Ir0?
ausmif;om;a,mifaqmifI vma&mufaxmufvSrf;=uaom rqvtEG,frsm;uvnf; rao;vS? ausmif;0if;twGif;
azmfxkwf&onfESifh bGJ@ESif;obiftxufxyf tcef;i,fwckodk@ ac:xkwfIppfar;&onf? wcsKdŒrxdef;EdkifI &dkufrdESufrdonfh
tqifh&SdayrJh tvGeftu|Hrjzpf=u? a[majym+yD; jyefv$wfvdkufwmyJjzpfonf?
OD;oef@±kyftavmif;udk ajrjr‡Kyfonfhae@uawmh pdwftv_yf&Sm;&qHk;jzpfonf? jyef=um;a&;udpP&yfrsm;wGif wm0efusaeI
rEWav;aqmifay:rSm &Sdae&onf? rEWav;aqmifay:wDudkay:rS OD;oef@nDOD;cef@u y&dowf}uD;udkrdef@cGef;ajymawmh ol@tem;rSm
usaemf&yfaerdonf? ouf}uD;&G,ftdkwa,muf &d_uf}uD;wiifidkaºuG;aeonfhjrifuGif;u usaemfh&ifwGif;rSm ar;cGef;aygif;rsm;pGm
aygufzGm;aponf? Tar;cGef;rsm;udk ,ae@wdkif usaemfajz=um;ae&OD;rnfqdkwm xdkpOfu a&;a&;r#usaemfrawG;qEdkifcJh?
OD;oef@ta&;tcif;wGif &maygif;rsm;pGmaom ausmif;om;rsm;/ &[ef;jynfolrsm; tzrf;cHcJh&onf? 'DtvSnfhwGif usaemf
a&Smifwdrf;EdkifcJhayrJh aemufwvSnfhjzpfonfh (75) ZGef (6) ta&;awmfyHkwGifawmh usaemfra&Smifomawmh? usaemfvnf;
tzrf;cH&I tif;pdefaxmifa&mufcJh&onf?
(75) ZGef (6) ta&;tcif;onf (1974) ZGefv tvkyform;ta&;tcif; wESpfjynfhta&;awmfyHktxdrf;trSwftjzpf
ausmif;om;ESifhtvkyform; yl;wGJqENjyoydwfarSmufonfh xl;jcm;vSonfhta&;awmfyHkjzpfonf? ausmif;om;ta&;udk
rawmif;qdkawmh? ppftkyfpkzsufodrf;a&;aºuG;a=umfoHudk wdkuf±dkufwifonfh EdkifiHa&;tESpfom&jynfh0aom wdkufyGJjzpfonf?
ae0if;-pef;,kppftkyfpktm; azmfxkwfwdkufyGJ0ifcJhonfh ajAmifpdefac:wdkufaomwdkufyGJjzpfonf? T&ufrwdkifcifuyif ausmif;
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ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

om;xkESifhtm%mydkifwdk@ tm;prf;ae=u+yDjzpfonf? ynma&;wuUodkvfpmar;yGJrsm;u p ppfae+yD? ausmif;om;awGu
rqvudktvkyftaºuG;ðy&rnfh ynma&;udk pdwfr0ifpm;awmh? ausmif;om;wcsKd@ ajreDukef;naps;utjyef 0if'grD,m
tapmifh*dwfwJrS tapmifhppfom;wcsKdŒESifh &efjzpf=uonf? tJhonfxJrSm usaemfholi,fcsif; ynma&;wuUodkvfu aX;armif
=unf (awmifom) ESifhudkudk (rvd_if) wkd@ygonf? taqmifjyefvmI usefausmif;om;rsm;udkpkpnf;+yD; ,if;tapmifh*dwfwJudk
òzdypfvdkufonf? tm%mydkifwdk@u rwkH@jyefao;? w&m;cHtppf b,folvJqdkwm &SmaeqJjzpfonf?
yGJpwmuawmh ZGefv (6) &uf? usaemfwdk@pmar;yGJawGu odyfeD;ae+yD? tJonfhae@ ausmif;a&mufawmh b,fvdku
b,fvdk pvdkufonfrod/ ausmif;om;awGudk xGuf=uxGuf=u[k pmoifcef;jyifyudk twif;xGufap=uonf? q&m awGu
vnf;rwm;? tv#Kdtv#KdxGufoGm;=uonf? rnfonfhtiftm;awGu Ed_;aqmfvdkufonfrod? pmoifcef;awGrSm vlr&Sdawmh?
pmoifcef;awGrSm ydkpwmvdkufuyfae=uonfhvlpkxJ usaemfa&mygoGm;onf? aemufawmh usaemfwkd@vlpk ynma&;
wuUodkvfa&S@ jynfvrf;ay:rSm a&mufoGm;=uonf? pmar;yGJajzaeaom ausmif;om;awGudk pmar;yGJrajzzdk@pnf;&Hk;&if;
vrf;ay:ac:vm=uonf? aq;wuUodkvfzufuvlwpk aygufcsvmonf? usaemfwdk@aygif;rdoGm;+yD; jynfvrf;twdkif; trd
wuUodkvfqD csDwufvm=uonf? b,folawG b,fwkef;uwnf;u pDpOfxm;onfrod? cGyfa'gif;tvHawG wvlvlwufvm
=uonf? toHcsJŒpufawG um;ay:wif=u+yD? usaemfwdk@wOD;csif;um; r_avmufaomtiftm;r[kwf? odk@aomf usaemfwdk@
aygif;pkr_u rukefrcrf;Edkifaom tiftm;}uD;vSonfh pGrf;yum;pk}uD; jzpfoGm;av+yD? b,ft&mrS usaemfwdk@udk r[ef@wm;
Edkifawmh? ,if;tiftm;vd_if;vHk;}uD;onf jynfvrf;r}uD;twdkif; wa&GŒa&G@csDwufaeonf? &nfrSef;&mae&mum; 1974 ckESpfu
tzrf;cHxm;&onfh ausmif;om;/ nDtpfudkawmfrsm;&Sdae&m tif;pdefaxmif}uD;qDodk@jzpfonf? vrf;wav#mufvHk;wGif
aºuG;a=umfoHrsm; wdkifvm=uonf?
“tzrf;cHausmif;om; vGwfajrmufa&;-'kd@ta&;/ 'kd@ta&;?
tzrf;cHtvkyform; vGwfajrmufa&;-'dk@ta&;/ 'dk@ta&;?
ae0if;-pef;,kppftkyfpk tvdkr&Sd/ tvdkr&Sd?
ppftm%m&Sifpepf usqHk;ygap?
ta&;awmfyHk atmif&rnf?”
usaemfwdk@. aomif;*%ef;r#aomtiftm;pkudk rnfolr#r[ef@wm;&J=u? &efolrqvwdk@ tidkufrdoGm;yHk&onf? jyifqif
r_rJhyHk&onf? vrf;wav#muf jynfolwdk@tm;ay;r_a=umifh usaemfwdk@ ydkwufºuGvmonf? tif;pdefaxmifudk usaemfwdk@ 0dkif;
vdkuf=u+yD?
“tif;pdefaxmif}uD; b,fhES,f0dkif;r,f?
onfhES,f0dkif;r,f?”
“rD;'kwf rD;'kwf ±d_@ ±d_@?
ta&;awmfyHk atmif&rnf?”
usaemfwdk@um; toH0ifaeatmif atmf=uonf? twGif;xJu nDtpfudkrsm;. toHudk=um;&wdkif; vltkyf}uD;u
wcJeuf=obmay;=uonf?
ausmif;0if;xJudk usaemfwkd@jyefa&mufvm+yD; bGJ@ESif;obifcef;rudk odrf;vdkuf=uonf? udkrsKd;Edkif (jynf-±lyaA'
'kwd,ESpf) OuUÏtjzpf OD;aqmifaom bGJ@ESif;obifoydwfaumfrwDudk zGJ@vdkuf=uonf? usaemfu ,if;aumfrwD0ifwOD;
taejzifh jyef=um;a&;udk wm0ef,l&onf? tJonfae@u tif;pdefaxmif0dkif;+yD;tjyef t"dywdvrf;twdkif; usaemfwdk@ ausmif;
0if;xJ0ifvmpOfrSmyJ ausmif;ydwfvdkufa=umif; tpdk;&ua=unmonf? usaemfum; qHk;jzwf+yD;+yD? taru om;}uD;jzpfol
usaemfhudk bGJ@wck tifrwef&apcsifonf? +yD;cJhwJh tvkyform;ta&;tcif;wkef;uvnf; ae@ausmif;om;rdk@/ tvkyform;
ta&;tcif;tquftoG,f jywfawmufaeaomom;xHudk csufjcif; a=u;eef;pmwapmif a&;ydk@vmonf? om;}uD;-tar
aeraumif;/ csufjcif;jyefvmyg wJh?
tckawmh bmrS*±krpdkufEdkifawmh? bGJ@r&rnfhta&;/ tzrf;cH&awmhr,fhta&; awG;rylEdkifawmh? a=umifudkjcLqGJrd+yD?
bmjzpfvmawmhrnf/ bmawGvmawmhrnfudk rawG;Edkifawmh? udkrsKd;Edkifwdk@ESifh vufcsif;csdwfI vkyfEdkifoavmuf/ vkyfwwf
oavmuf vkyfcJh=uonf? txl;ojzifh bDyDtdkiftkyfpk/ ordkif;csnfr#iftkyfpkwdk@um; wufwufºuGºuG&SdvSonf? odk@aomf ...?
bmyJjzpfjzpf/ (73-74-75) oHk;ESpfwm wuUodkvfrSm aecJh&onfhb0onf usaemfhb0tm; wqpfcsKd;tvSnfhtajymif;
jzpfapcJhonf? bGJ@r&cJhayrJh ,if;bGJ@xuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm wefzdk;}uD;rm;aom tawG@tóuHwdk@udk wuUodkvfu oif=um;
ay;vdkufonf? pD;yGm;a&;ynm rwwfayrJh EdkifiHa&;ynm txdkuftavsmuf &cJhonf? vlyifyef;ayrJh udk,fhudk,fudk,f ,Hk=unf
r_tjynfhjzifh &$ifvef;aecJhonf? "rRESifht"rRudk cGJjcm;odcJhonf? usaemfwdk@ wuUodkvfausmif;om;b0onf EdkifiHa&;wdkufyGJ
- 41 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

rsm;ESifh jynfhv#rf;aeaom umvjzpfonf? jynfolwdk@. 'Drdkua&pDtcGifhta&;udk t+yD;wkdifajrjr‡Kyfoò*õvfvdkufonfh (1974)
tajccHOya'tm; twnfðyvdkufonfh umvjzpfonf? jynfolwdk@. taxGaxGrauseyfr_udk Tumv. jyif;xefaom
EdkifiHa&;wdkufyGJrsm;u a&mifjyef[yfazmfjycJhonf? ppfu|eftjzpf EGHepfrcH [laompdwf"mwfjzifh tkwfeH&Hudk acgif;ESifhwdkuf+yD;
òzdcJhonfhumvjzpfonf? yJcl;±dk;rrS ppftkypf kqef@usifa&;wyfzGJ@rsm; qkwfcGmae&csdefjzpfonf? jynfolwdk@tzdk@ udk,fhtm;udk,fudk;
&efrSwyg; tjcm;r&Sd[laom pdwf"mwftjrif yGifhvif;vmonfhtcsdefjzpfonf? TvkdumvrsKd;wGif wuUokdvfokd@
a&muf&SdcJh&+yD; vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif yg0ifcGifh&&SdcJh&jcif;rSm usaemfhtwGuf wefzkd;rjzwfEdkifonfh tcGifhta&;wckjzpfonf? T
umvyHk&dyfrsm;tm; jrwfEdk;zG,f&m&wemrsm;tjzpf usaemfhESvHk;om;0,f xm0pOfwnf&Sdaernfjzpfonf?
&JxGËf
20/12/05

1975 ZGef ESpfywfvnfv_yf& Sm;r_
ausmfórif (pufr_)
v_yf& Sm;r_ tô uumv
OD;oef@ta&;tcif;jzpfvdk@ ausmif;&uf& Snfydwfxm;&muae 1975 arvavmufrSm ausmif;awGjyefzGifhvdkufygw,f?
oli,fcsif;awGjyefqHk=uvdk@ wzufu0rf;om&ayrJh ausmif;udkjyefra&mufvmEdkifwJholawGtwGuf pdwfraumif;jzpf& ygw,f?
tcsif;csif;pk+yD;awmhvnf; OD;oef@ta&;tcif;ta=umif; jyefajymif;pum;vufqHk ajymjzpf=uygw,f? txl;ojzifh ppftpdk;&
u t=urf;zufESdrfeif;wJhta=umif;awG ajymjzpf=u&if pdwfxJrSm emusnf;r_awG wzGm;zGm;jzpf=u&ygw,f?
ppftpdk;&wufvm+yD;uwnf;u wdkif;jynf[m pD;yGm;a&;/ ynma&;/ vlr_a&;/ pmay,Ofaus;r_ pwJhbufaygif;pHkrSm
qkwf,kwfusqif;vmwmawGudkvnf; ajymjzpf=uygw,f? pD;yGm;a&;usqif;+yD; ukefaps;EH_;awGwufwJh'%fudk rdbjynfolawG
eJ@twl usaemfwdk@ ausmif;om;awGvnf; cH=u&ygw,f? ppftpdk;&wufvmuwnf;u trsKd;rsK;d vufwnfhprf;cJhwJh ynma&;
pepfopf qdkwmawG& J@'%fudkawmh usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awGyJ cg;pnf;cHcJh=u&wm jzpfygw,f? avmavmq,frSmvnf;
pmoifaqmifeJ@ vlaeaqmifawG rvHkavmufr_/ ynmoif=um;a&; taxmuftulypPnf;awG rvHkavmufr_/ z,f& Dum;
rvHkavmufr_/ tpm;taomuf ydkydknHhvmr_eJ@ tqdk;qHk;uawmh bGJ@& +yD;&ifvnf; b0tmrcHcsufuif;rJhr_ pwmawGudk cHpm;
ae=u&wm jzpfygw,f?
'Drauseyfr_awG[m ausmif;om;awG=um;rSm wjznf;jznf;eJ@ jyef@ES@Haeygw,f? 'Drauseyfr_awGudkxif[yfwJh aygufuGJr_
av;awGvnf; ay:aygufvmaeygw,f? ordkif;ausmif;aqmif0if;rSm wnrD;ysufoGm;awmh ausmif;om;awG taqmif
atmufqif;vm+yD; ql=uatmf=uygw,f? ordkif;ausmif;aqmif0if;xJ armif;vmwJhum;awGudkvnf; rD;ydwfcdkif;ygw,f?
aemifrSmawmh rD;rysufvnf; rdef;qGpfcs+yD; qlwmawG vkyf=uygawmhw,f?
rSef;csufeJ@ESrf;xGuf
ausmif;om;awG tHk»uaygufuGJawmhr,fqdkwmudk &dyfrdvmwJhppftpdk;&[m ^m%feD^m%feufawG xkwfygawmhw,f?
tJ'Dtcsdefu EdkifiHawmfaumifpDjzpfwJh a'gufwmvS[efeJ@ ynma&;0ef}uD; (a'guw
f mnDnDvm;/ a'gufwmcifarmif0if;vm;
rrSwfrd) wdk@OD;pD;wJh rqvxdyfoD;wpk[m ausmif;awGvSnfh+yD; ausmif;om;awGeJ@ awG@qHkaqG;aEG;r,fqdk+yD; vkyfvmygw,f?
tJ'DvdkawG@qHkwJhtcgrSm ausmif;om;awG& J@ wifjycsufawG em;axmifr,f/ aemuf+yD; olwdk@u jyefvnf& Sif;vif; ajz=um;r,f
qdkwJhoabmaygh? wu,fu olwdk@arG;xm;wJh vrf;pOfvli,fawGeJ@ ô uwifvuf0g;± dkuf+yD; tay:,Ha=umudpPav;awG tenf;
tyg;wufajym/ olwdk@ujyefajz pojzifh vkyf=uzdk@jzpfygw,f? 'Denf;eJ@ ausmif;om;awG& J@ rauseyfcsufawGvnf; wpHkw&m
avsmhoGm;+yD; taxGaxGaygufuGJr_}uD;udk a&SmifEdkifvdrfhr,fvdk@ wGuf=u[efwlygw,f?
tJ'DvdkawG@qHkyGJvkyfzdk@ 1975 ZGefvqef;&ufw&ufrSm a'gufwmvS[efOD;pD;wJhtzGJ@[m &efukefpufr_wuUodkvfudk a&muf
vm=uygw,f? rmZ'gqD'ifum; 232 teufav;awGeJ@yg? olwdk@0ef}uD;awGtwGufyJ uef@owfwifoGif;+yD; pD;=uwm jzpfwJh
twGuf jynfolawGu 0ef}uD;um;vdk@yJ tac:rsm;=uygw,f? usaemfwdk@oli,fcsif;wpkuawmh vkyfyGJ}uD;yJ jzpfrSmyJqdk+yD;
pdwfr0ifpm;wmeJ@ ausmif;uJefwif;rSm oGm;xdkifae=uygw,f?
'gayrJh r=umcifrSmyJ ausmif;pnf;a0;cef;rbufu vufckyfvuf0g;wD; =obmay;oHawG wa0ga0gxGufvmwmudk
=um;&ygawmhw,f? 'gqdk& ifawmh wckckjzpfae+yDqdk+yD; usaemfwdk@vnf; pnf;a0;cef;rbufudk tjrefajy;wufoGm;=uygw,f?
pnf;a0;cef;xJrSm ausmif;om;awG jynfhv#Hae± Hkru/ tjyif0&efwmrSmyg rdk;wdk;rwfwwfeJ@ tHkzGJ@aewmudk awG@& ygw,f?
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ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

pifjrifhay:rSm rqvxdyfoD;awGeJ@ ausmif;uygarmuQeJ@wuG q&mwcsKd@ xdkifae=u+yD;/ rdkufcGufa&S@rSm ausmif;om;
wa,muf pum;ajymaewm awG@& ygw,f? 'DvdkeJ@ ausmif;om;ausmif;olawG wa,muf+yD;wa,muf wufpum;ajym=u
ygw,f? rdrdwdk@cHpm;ae&wmawGudk yGifhyGifhvif;vif;ajym=uw,f? tpm;taomufnHhwm/ um;rvHkavmufwm/ ukefaps;E_H;
}uD;wmawGvnf;ygw,f? tvkyform;ta&;tcif;eJ@ OD;oef@ta&;tcif;rSm ppftpdk;&u &uf& ufpufpufESdrfeif;wm/ aoG;
ajrus& wmudk rauseyfa=umif;/ om;orD;csif; rpmembl;vm;vdk@ ausmif;olwOD;u ar;ygw,f? zrf;xm;wJh ausmif;om;/
tvkyform;awGudk jyefv$wfay;zdk@vnf; ta&;qdkw,f?
wa,mufuawmh 1974 a&G;aumufyGJrSm rJvdrfwmudkzGifhcsw,f? ‘cifAsm;wdk@u rJ& mEH_;jynfheD;yg; &w,fomajymw,f?
cifAsm;wdk@udkaxmufcHwJhvl wa,mufrS usaemfrawG@zl;bl;? tck 'Dtpnf;ta0;cef;xJrSm &SdaewJholawGxJu axmufcHwJhvl
yg& if rwfwyf& yfjyyg’ vdk@ ausmif;om;wa,mufu ajymvdkufwJhtcgrSm ae&mr&vdk@ rwfwyf& yfem;axmifae=uwJh ausmif;
om;awGtm;vHk;vnf; tvkt,uf xdkifvdkuf=uygw,f? aZmac|;jyefae=uwJh rqvxdyfoD;}uD;rsm;crsmvnf; xdkif& mu
x&rvdkvdkeJ@ cGwD;cGusjzpfukef=u ygawmhw,f? ‘cifAsm;wdk@udk,fwdkifawmif raxmufcHbl;r[kwfvm;’ vdk@ausmif;om;wcsKd@
u atmf=uygw,f?
ausmif;om;awGtaeeJ@ ausmif;om;awG&J@ tcGifhta&;awG umuG,fzdk@/ qHk;± H_;aewJhtcGifhta&;awGudk jyefvnfawmif;
qdkEdkifzdk@twGuf ausmif;om;xkudk trSefudk,fpm;ñywJh tzGJ@tpnf;w&yf t+rJwrf;&Sdaezdk@vdka=umif;/ t&ifausmif;om;
or*~awG &SdcJhayrJh tckr&Sdawmha=umif;/ jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;cGifhay;zdk@vdka=umif;/ ausmif;om;or*~qdkwJhtrnfudk ray;Edkifbl;
qdkv#ifvnf; tjcm;trnfjzifh zGJ@cGifhay;zdk@ ausmif;om;wa,mufu awmif;qdkygw,f? 'DtcgrSm atmufrSm&SdaewJh
ausmif;om;awGu ‘a[h/ ausmif;om;or*~[m ausmif;om;or*~yJjzpf& r,fuG/ wjcm; bmemrnfrS rvdkcsifbl;’ vdk@atmf
=uygw,f? tJ'Dausmif;om;uvnf; ‘uJ/ cifAsm;wdk@ =um;wJhtwdkif;yJ/ ausmif;om;or*~yJwJh’ vdk@qufajymvdkufygw,f?
'DvdkeJ@ 3-4 em&Davmuf =umoGm;wJhtcgrSmawmh rqvxdyfoD;awGu avajyxdk;+yD; yGJodrf;zdk@ }uHpnfygawmhw,f?
‘tck ausmif;om;awG wifjywJhtcsufawGudk oufqdkif& mawGeJ@!‡dEd_if;+yD; ajz&Sif;ay;yghr,f? ajymwmawGvnf; rsm;wJhtjyif
ta=umif;t&mawGu xyfae+yD? aemuf+yD; olwdk@taeeJ@ ae@vnfydkif; ordkif;ausmif;0if;twGif;rSm aqG;aEG;yGJvkyfzdk@ &Sdao;wJh
twGuf tcsdefr&awmhvdk@ 'DaqG;aEG;yGJudk& yfqdkif;zdk@...’ ajymvmygw,f? 'gayrJh ausmif;om;awGu ajymp&mawG
usefao;w,fqdk+yD; atmf=uygw,f? wcsKd@uvnf; xrif;pm;csdefa&muf+yDqdkawmh òuHwkef; taqmifxrif;[if;awG 0ifpm;
oGm;yg? 'grS usaemfwdk@ b,fvdkpm;ae&w,fqdkwm cifAsm;wdk@ vufawG@odoGm;&atmifyg vdk@ajymygw,f? rqv}uD;
awGuawmh rsufaphrsufESmawG ysufae=uygw,f?
aemufqHk;rSmawmh pufr_wuUodkvf ygarmuQcsKyf a'gufwmOD;atmif}uD;u ausmif;om;awGudk 0ifxdef;ygw,f? udk,fhvdk
vm;csufawGvnf; wifjy+yD;+yDrdk@ vl}uD;awGudk at;at;aq;aq; jyefcGifhay;zdk@ ajymvmygw,f? q&mhudk ausmif;om;awG
tm;vHk;u av;pm;cspfcif=uwJhtwGuf q&mhpum;udkem;axmif+yD; ausmif;om;awG eJeJ& SJoGm;ygw,f? q&muyJ
a&S@uaexGuf+yD; rqv}uD;awGu aemufuvdkuf=u&ygw,f? wcsKd@ausmif;om;awGu xdyfoD;}uD;awG& J@ um;abmeufay:
wufxdkif=uw,f? cifAsm;wdk@um;awG rpDzl; rxdzl;vdk@ygqdk+yD; um;awGudk 0dkif;v_yf& rf;=ueJ@ ± kef;&if;qefcwf jzpfaeygawmh
w,f? q&ma'gufwmatmif}uD; reJxdef;+yD; rqv}uD;awGudk um;ay:a&mufatmif wifay;vdkuf& ygw,f? olwdk@vnf;
um;ay:a&mufwmeJ@ 'a&maomyg; tjrefarmif;xGufoGm;=uygw,f?
usaemfwdk@vnf; ordkif;ausmif;0if;xJ qufvdkuf=ur,fqdk+yD; bwfpfum;xGufpD;=uygw,f? ordkif;ausmif;0if;
tm;upm;± HkxJa&mufawmh ausmif;om;wpku aqG;aEG;yGJtcrf;tem;twGuf jyifqifxm;wJh toHcsJ@puf/ rdkufcGuf pwmawG
udk odrf;xm;wm awG@& ygw,f? rqv}uD;awGawmh ay:rvmawmhyg? tJ'DrSm ausmif;om;awGu rdef@cGef;awGajym=uygw,f?
aemufqHk; naexrif;pm;+yD;cdsef vljyefpk=uzdk@ csdef;ygw,f? usaemfwdk@vnf; ô u@ukef;ausmif;aqmif& Sd& m jyefvmcJh=uygw,f?
wdkufyGJp+yD
naexrif;pm;+yD;wmeJ@ usaemfwdk@vnf; ordkif;0if;udk tjrefxGufcJh=uygw,f? 'gayrJh usaemfwdk@a&mufoGm;awmh
ausmif;om;awG r&Sd=uawmhygbl;? &efukefwuUodkvf bGJ@EiS f;obifcef;rudk csDwufoGm;=u+yD qdkwJhtwGuf tJ'Dudk
qufvdkuf=uygw,f? bGJ@ESif;obifcef;rrSmawmh oydwfpcef; zGifhxm;+yDjzpfwmudk awG@& ygw,f? cGyfa'gif;tvH
csdwfqGJxm;w,f? pifjrifhay:rSm ausmif;om;awG 0ifvdkufxGufvdkufeJ@ tvkyfawG± _yfae=uygw,f? a=unmcsufawGvnf;
a0aeygw,f? wdkufyGJOD;pD;aumfrwD zGJ@+yD;a=umif;vnf; od& ygw,f? usaemfwdk@tm;vHk;vnf; pdwfawGv_yf& Sm;ae=uovdk
tm;&wuf»uvnf; jzpfae=uygw,f? tawmfav;rdk;csKyfawmhrS usaemfwdk@ taqmifudkjyefcJh=uw,f?
- 43 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

aemuf& ufawGrSmawmh ór@xJAE<Kvyef;+cH csDwufwJhtcgcsDwuf/ wjcm;wuUodkvfausmif;awGbuf csDwufwJhtcgcsDwuf
vkyf=uygw,f? AE<Kvyef;+cHrSm ae0if;eJ@pef;,kwdk@& J@ ± kyftavmif;awGudk rD;± _d@=uw,f? bGJ@ESif;obifcef;rudk tajcñy+yD;awmh
&ufwcsKd@avmuf v_yf& Sm;ae=uw,f? w&ufrSmawmh usaemfwdk@pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;buf csDwuf=uw,f?
ausmif;a&S@rSmce&yf+yD; w&m;a[m/ a»u;a=umfoHawG atmf+yD; vSnfhjyefoGm;ygw,f? ae@cif;xrif;pm;csdefjzpfaewJhtwGuf
ausmif;om;awG xGufrvdkufjzpf=uyg? bGJ@ESif;obifuae twlcsDwuf vdkufvmwJh pufr_ausmif;om;wcsKd@vnf; usefae&pf
cJhygw,f?
'gudk aemufae@xkwf owif;pmawGrSm &efukefwuUodkvfrS qlylvdkolausmif;om;wpku &efukefpufr_wuUodkvf ausmif;
om;awGudk vma&mufpnf;± Hk;w,f/ 'gudk pufr_ausmif;om;awGu vufrcHbJ jiif;vdkuf=uw,f qdk+yD;ygvmygw,f? 'gudk
usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awG tawmfrausreyfjzpf=uygw,f? 'geJ@ ausmif;om;wa,mufu a=umfjimoifykef;rSm tJ'Dowif;
udk jzwf+yD;uyfw,f? tJ'Djzwfydkif;eJ@twl 'DrrSefowif;udpP ajz&Sif;a&;twGuf naepk± Hk;=uzdk@ v_H@aqmfwJhpmudkyg uyfygw,f?
'Dae&mrSm wckajymp&m&Sdwmu oydwfwdkufyGJpwJhtcsdefup+yD; 'Da=umfjimoifykef;awG[m ausmif;om;awG& J@ wdkufyGJ0ifpm
awG uyfwJhae&mjzpfaeyg+yD? oydwfpcef;uxkwfwJh a=unmcsufawGuyfw,f? ausmif;om;wOD;csif;&J@pmawG/ uAsmawG
uyf=uw,f? ausmif;om;xk& J@ 'Drdkua&pDeH& Huyfpmapmiftjzpf toGifajymif;ae+yDjzpfygw,f?
owif;pmwdkufudk csDwuf+yD
naeydkif;rSm ô u@ukef; ‘u’ aqmif (atbavmuf) ab; jrufcif;jyifrSm csdef;xm;wJhtwdkif; ausmif;om;ESpfq,f/
oHk;q,fcef@ pkrd=uygw,f? tJ'DrSm 'DrrSefowif;udpPudk b,fvdkajz&Sif;=urvJqdkwm aqG;aEG;=uygw,f? owif;pmwdkuf
awGqD csDwuf+yD; 'Dowif;rrSefa=umif; ajz&Sif;csufxkwfay;zdk@ ta&;qdk=ur,fvdk@ qHk;jzwf=uygw,f? a»u;a=umfoHawG pk+yD;
a&;=uw,f? ‘rrSefowif;tvdkr&Sd’ ‘owif;rSefazmfxkwfa&; wdk@ta&;’ ‘ta&;awmfyHk atmif& rnf’ pojzifh a&G;vdkuf=u
ygw,f? wdkufyGJpOf}uD;xJrSm ay:aygufvmwJh wdkufyGJi,fwcktwGuf OD;wnf+yD; a»u;a=umfoHawGudk a&G;wmjzpfygw,f? tJ'D
aemuf ‘u’ aqmifuae ‘i’ aqmiftxd taqmifa&S@vrf;wav#muf a»u;a=umfoHawGatmf+yD; csDwufoGm;=uygw,f?
taqmifay:0&HwmawGu xGuf=unfhaewJh ausmif;om;awGudkvnf; twlcsDwuf=uzdk@ atmfac:=u ygw,f?
taqmifay:uausmif;om;awGvnf; wajz;ajz;qif;vm=uygw,f? 'Daemuf usaemfwdk@ &efukef-tif;pdefvrf;r}uD;
buf xGufcJh=uw,f? vrf;ay:rSmjzwfvmwJh bwfpfum;awGudk wm;=uygw,f? um;ay:uc&D;onfawGudk tusKd;ta=umif;
&Sif;jy+yD; qif;ay;=uzdk@ arwWm&yfcHygw,f? um;q,fpD;avmuf &wJhtcg &efukefór@bufudk OD;wnf+yD; a»u;a=umfoHrsm;
atmfum armif;xGufcJh=uygw,f? &efukefór@xJudk r[mAE<Kvvrf;twdkif; 0ifcJh=uw,f? wae&mta&mufrSmawmh ppfom;
awGu vrf;udkydwfqdk@xm;wmudk awG@& ygw,f? owif;pmwdkuftxd oGm;cGifhray;Edkifa=umif;/ owif;pmwdkufrS wm0ef& Sdol
rsm;eJ@ 'Dae&mrSmyJ awG@aqG;aEG;=uygvdk@ qdkvmygw,f? ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,fawGa&G;+yD; oGm;aqG;aEG;=uygw,f? tJ'D
tcgrSm owif;pmwdkufrS wm0efcHqdkolawGu 'Dae@ygwJhowif;eJ@ywfouf+yD; &efukefpufr_wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;u
r[kwfrSefa=umif; vma&mufajz&Sif;oGm;w,fqdkwmudk aemufae@xkwfowif;pm&J@ rsufESmzHk;rSm 6 vdkif;pmvHk;rnf;eJ@
xnfhay;r,fvdk@ tmrcH=uygw,f? usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awGvnf; 'gudkvufcHoabmwl+yD; vSnfhjyefcJh=uw,f? tjyefvrf;
wav#mufrSm ta&;awmfyHkatmif+yDvdk@ a»u;a=umfcJh=uw,f?
aemuf &efukefbGJ@ESif;obifodk@ OD;wnfcJh=uygw,f? bGJ@ESif;obifcef;rxJodk@ a»u;a=umfoHawG atmf[pf+yD; 0ifoGm;=u
wJhtcg txJrSm&SdaewJh ausmif;om;awGuvnf; vufckyfwD;ô uqdk=uygw,f? ppftpdk;&u usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awGudk
enf;rsKd;pHkeJ@ aoG;cGJayrJh cef;rxJ& SdcGyfa'gif;tvHudk=unfh+yD; 'Dor*~tvHawmfatmufrSm wdk@ausmif;om;awGtm;vHk; pkpnf;nD
!Gwfae=uygvm; vdk@awG;rdygw,f?
aemufae@xkwfowif;pmrSm usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;rsm; vmajz&Sif;oGm;wJhta=umif;udk xnfhay;ygw,f? 'gayrJh aemuf
a=umpmrsufESmrSm waumfvHuGufao;av;eJ@yJ azmfjyay;wmyg? uwday;xm;ovdkawmh r[kwfygbl;?
tif;pdefaxmifudk0dkif;jcif;
w&ufrSmawmh (ZGefv 9 &ufae@[kxif) usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awG tif;pdefaxmifodk@ csDwuf+yD;qENjy=uygw,f?
tJ'Dae@rSm &efukefwuUodkvfbufu csDwufvm=ur,fh ausmif;om;awGudk usaemfwdk@oli,fcsif;wpkuawmh ausmif;uaeyJ
apmifhaevdkufygw,f? eHeuf 10 em&Dywf0ef;usifavmufrSm tif;pdefvrf;rwav#muf csDwufvmwJh ausmif;om;awGudk pjrif
&ygw,f? rsufaphwqHk; ausmif;om;wef;}uD;[m rukefEdkifyg? usaemfwdk@vnf; ausmif;om;wef;}uD;xJ 0ifa&mufyl;aygif;
vdkufygw,f? a»u;a=umfoHawGudkvnf; tm;yg;w&atmf[pf=uygawmhw,f?
- 44 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ
2

‘tzrf;cHtvkyform; vGwfajrmufa&; (wdk@ta&;) ’
2
‘tzrf;cHausmif;om; vGwfajrmufa&; (wdk@ta&;) ’
2
‘ausmif;om;or*~ ay:aygufa&; (wdk@ta&;) ’
2
2
‘taruarG; axmifuau|;a[h ætif;pdefaxmif}uD; (xyfcsJ@) æa&=unftdkifvnf; (xyfcsJ@) ’
‘ae0if; æae0if; ætdk@ tdk@’
‘pef;,k æpef;,k ætdk@ tdk@’
2
‘ta&;awmfyHk (atmif& rnf) ’
tif;pdefaxmifudka&mufwJhtcg axmifudkywf+yD; a»u;a=umfoHrsm;atmf=uygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSmawmh toHawGu
tjrifhrm;qHk;jzpf+yD; rdk;vHk;nHaeygawmhw,f? wae&mrSmawmh a»u;a=umfoHawGatmf[pfwmudk acwW& yf+yD; axmifxJu
toHudk em;pGifh=unfh=uygw,f? txJuvnf; jyef+yD;atmfwJhtoHudk oJhoJh=um;&ygw,f? tusOf;uscHae&wJh usaemfwdk@
nDtpfudk tvkyform;/ ausmif;om;awG& J@ toHygvm;vdk@awG;rd+yD; emusnf;cHjyif;pdwfawG wzGm;zGm;ay:vmygw,f? cHjyif;
pdwfawGeJ@ a»u;a=umfoHawGudk xyf+yD;atmf[pf=uygw,f?
a»u;a=umfoHawGatmfae&if;u usaemfh& J@pdwfawG[m twdwfumvodk@ jyef@vGifhoGm;ygw,f? e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&;/ trsKd;
om;vGwfajrmufa&;umvrSm ausmif;om;or*~rS arG;xkwfay;vdkufwJh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;[m jynfolawGeJ@twl
&yfwnfvufwGJ+yD; &J& J& ifh& ifh wdkufyGJ0ifcJh=uw,f r[kwfygvm;? ‘jrif;cGmwcsufayguf& if rD;[kef;[kef;awmufap&r,f’
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif udkA[def;&J@ e,fcsJ@tay: &J& ifhjywfom;pGm pdefac:òuH;0g;vdkufoH? or*~pdwf"mwf/ cGyfa'gif;pdwf"mwf
yif r[kwfygvm;? xdkpdwf"mwfum; ,ck usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awG udk,fxJodk@vnf; pD;qif;pdrfh0ifaecJh+yDjzpfonf? 'gwifru
,ck usaemfwdk@ a»u;a=umfae=uwmawGvnf; xdkpOfua»u;a=umfoHrsm; wywfvnfvmjcif;yif r[kwfygvm;?
tJ'DvdkawG;rdwJhtcgrSm usaemfhwudk,fvHk; =uufoD;arG;n‡if;rsm; xoGm;ygawmhw,f?
twdwfodk@ysH@vGifhoGm;wJh usaemfhpdwfawGudk jyefvnfpkpnf;vdkufw,f? 'Daemuf a»u;a=umfoHrsm;udk tm;rmefopfawGeJ@
a»u;a=umfvdkufygw,f? axmifudkwywfywf+yD;wJhtcg tif;pdefvrf;twdkif; jyefvSnfhvm=uygw,f? usaemfwdk@uawmh bGJ@ESif;
obiftxd jyefrvdkufawmhbJ ausmif;rSmyJ ae&pfcJhygw,f? ausmif;awGudk &uftuef@towfr&dS ydwfvdkuf+yDqdkwmudk
=um;odvdkuf& ygw,f? ausmif;om;xk& J@wdkufyJGudk ózcGJzdk@twGuf ppftpdk;&[m xHk;pHtwdkif; ausmif;awGudk ydwfvdkufwm jzpf
ygw,f?
ed*Hk;
tJ'Dae@rSmyJ oydwfpcef;udk a&$wd*HkapwDodk@ ajymif;a&$@oGm;ygw,f? usaemfwdk@vnf; aemufae@reufusrSyJ vdkufoGm;
awmhr,fqdk+yD; taqmifrSmyJ em;aevdku=f uygw,f? 'gayrJh reufvif;tm;}uD;rSm ppftpdk;&vHkxdef;awGu a&$wd*Hkbk& m;
ay:wuf+yD; ausmif;om;awGudk zrf;oGm;ygw,f?
ppftpdk;&[m ausmif;om;awGu w&m;wJhtcGifhta&;awG +idrf;csrf;pGme@J awmif;qdkqENjywmudk enf;vrf;wus
rajz&Sif;bJ t=urf;zufózcGJcJhjyefyg+yD? 'Dvdkt=urf;zufzdESdyfvdkuf& if +idrf0yfoGm;r,fvdk@ wvGJxifaeygw,f? ausmif;om;wdkufyGJ
awG& Sdaewm ausmif;om;or*~& Sdaevdk@yJqdk+yD; ordkif;0ifausmif;om;or*~ taqmuftODudk AHk;cGJzsufqD;cJhw,f? 'gayrJh
ausmif;om;wdkufyGJawG aysmufuG,foGm;ygovm;? ausmif;om;xk& Sdaeor# or*~pdwf"mwf/ cGyfa'gif;pdwf"mwf[m &SdaerSm
jzpfygw,f? rw&m;zdESdyfr_awG& Sdaeor#/ w&m;wJhtcGifhta&;awG qHk;± H_;aeor# cGyfa'gif;pdwf"mwfu iHk@cHaerSmr[kwfyg? tcGifh
omwdkif; wHk@jyefwdkufyGJ0ifaerSm jzpfygw,f? 'gudk ordkif;u oufaojycJh+yDjzpfwJhtjyif quf+yD;awmhvnf; jyOD;rSmjzpfygw,f?
or*~pdwf"mwf/ cGyfa'gif;pdwf"mwf t"Gef@& Snfygap?
ausmfórif (pufr_)

wdrfðryfaysmufuG,faeaom
rSwfwkdifwck
(wkdufyGJ0iftvkyform;a[mif;wOD;)

- 45 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

usaemfwkdŒjrefrmEdkifiHaq;0g;puf±kHonf tif;pdefòrdŒe,ftaemuf}uKdŒukef;&Sd }uKdŒukef;blwmESifh uyfvsufwnf&Sdonf?
puf±Hk.ta&SŒbuf ukduf (500) ausmfavmufwGif &Spfav;vkH;ta&;awmfykHukd pwifaygufzGm; zefwD;vkdufaom &efukefpufr_
wuUokdvf (RIT) wnf&Sd+yD;/ puf±Hk.ajrmufbuf ukduf (200) avmufwGif tif;pdefrD;&xm;pufacgif;jyifpuf±kH wnf&Sdonf?
1974 ck/ ZGefv (6) &ufae@ oydwfrarSmufcif ZGef 1 &ufESifh ZGef 2 &ufaeŒY puf±HktoD;oD;rS0efxrf;rsm;onf puf±Hk
t&m&Sdrsm;. rr#waomtkyfcsKyfa&;/ 0efxrf;rsm;tay: zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_/ &mxl;ESifhtcGifhta&; ydwfqkdŒr_rsm;ESifhywfouf+yD;
rauseyfr_rsm; wtkHaEG;aEG;jzpfae}uonf? XmetoD;oD;&Sdukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf wdwfwqdwfajymqdknd‡E_dif;+yD; qENjyoydwf
arSmuf}u&ef qkH;jzwfcsufcs}uonf? usaemfwdkŒ jrefrmEdkifiHaq;0g;puf±Hkenf;wl tif;pdefrD;&xm;puf±kHvnf; oydwfarSmuf
awmif;qdk&ef jyifqifae}uonf? ZGefv (6) &ufaeŒwGif wòydifwnf;qENjy}u&ef puf±HkESpf±Hkonf wdwfqdwfpGmqufoG,f
xm;=uonf?
1974 ckESpf/ ZGefv (4) &ufaeŒwGif ‚if;puf±HkESpf±HkrS acgif;aqmiftvkyform;wcsKdŒukdzrf;qD;I axmifxJxnfhvkdufonf?
‚if;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf txuft&m&SdESifhtqifrajyolrsm;/ rqvygwDukdqefŒusifolrsm;/ qENjy&ef pnf;±kH;acgif;aqmif
onf[k txifcH&olrsm;jzpfonf?
rD;&xm;pufacgif;jyifpuf±HkrS tvkyform;rsm;onf qENjy&efowfrSwfxm;aom ZGef(6)&ufaeŒtpm; ZGef (5)
&ufaeŒnaerSp+yD; puf±HktjyifokdŒ rxGuf}uawmhbJ zrf;qD;xm;aom tvkyform;rsm;ukd jyefv$wfay;a&;ESifh ‚if;wkdŒESifh
oufqdkifaomawmif;qkdcsufrsm; awmif;qkd+yD; pwifIoydwfarSmuf}uonf?
usaemfwdk@bDyDtdkifpuf±HkwGifvnf; 1974 ZGefv (6) &ufaeŒwGif usaemfwdkŒaq;0g;puf±HkrS ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf ykHrSef
tvkyfpcsdefxuf apmpD;pGma&mufvm}u+yD; nd‡E_dif;xm;onfhtwdkif; oydwfarSmuf&ef jyifqif}uonf? puf±HkrS O}o&SnfqGJ+yD;
tcsufay;vkdufonfESifh wòydifeuf XmetoD;oD;&Sd 0efxrf;tm;vkH;onf ‘oydwfoydwfarSmufarSmuf’ [laom aºuG;a}umf
oHrsm; aºuG;a}umf+yD; puf±HkyifrwHcg;aygufwGif pk±Hk;}u&efjzpfonf?
usaemfwkdŒoydwfarSmuf&ef tcsdefowfrSwfcsufrSm eHeuf 9;30 jzpfaoma}umifh oydwfarSmufcsdefukd wufºuGpGm apmifh
pm;&if; tvkyform;rsm;rSm rdrdwm0efukd ausyGefpGmxrf;aqmifae}uonf?
9;30 rdepf puf±HkrSO}o&Snf qGJvkdufonfESifhwòydifeuf usaemfwkd@onf puf±HkyifrwHcg;}uD;ukd ajy;ydwf+yD; aomhcwfvkduf
ygonf? rnfolr# t0iftxGufrjyKvkyf&ef trdefŒxkw+f yD; yifrwHcg;aomhudkvnf; odrf;xm;vkdufygonf?
puf±Hkukdxdef;csKyfxm;+yD;aemuf usaemfwkdŒonf tpkvkduftzGJŒvkduf wm0efrsm;ukd cGJa0csrSwf}uonf? tqifhqifhwm0ef
cGJa0r_tzGJŒrsm;rSm (1) puf±HktwGif;tjyifvkHðcHa&;tzGJŒ/ (2) owif;ESifhjyef}um;a&;tzGJŒ/ (3) usef;rma&;ulnDr_tzGJŒ/ (4)
pnf;±kH;v_H@aqmfa&;tzGJŒ/ (5) &duQmo,f,lpkaqmif;a&;tzGJ@wkd@jzpfonf? usaemfwkdŒpuf±Hk. awmif;qkdcsufrsm;rSm1? zrf;qD;xm;aom rD;&xm;pufacgif;jyifpuf±HkrSvkyfom;rsm; jyefv$wfay;a&;
2? 0efxrf;vpmwkd;jr‡ifha&;
3? ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;a&;
4? aeŒpm;vkyfom;rsm; tjrJwrf;0efxrf;tjzpfcefŒa&;
5? tvkyform;rsm;tm; qefqDESifhrD;zkdacsmifokH;ypPnf;rsm; tcrJhay;a0a&;
6? tvkyform;rsm; zGJ@pnf;ykHt& tcGifhta&;&m tm;vkH;cefŒtyfa&;
7? oufomacsmifcsda&; csufcsif;ay;
8? tEW&m,fa}u; csufcsif;ay;
9? jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;ygwD tvkdr&Sd/ ppftm%m&Sif usqkH;ygap ponfwdkŒjzpfonf?
Ñ(rD;&xm;pufacgif;jyifpuf±HkrS zrf;qD;xm;aom tvkyform;tm;vkH;ukd 7/6/74 aeŒnae 6 em&DwGif jyefv$wfay;vkduf
onf?)
7/6/74 aeŒeHeuf 11 em&D 45 rdepfavmufwGif puf±Hkrª;Akv
d frª;}uD;odrf;armif 'kpuf±Hkrª;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;rª;ESifh Xme
refae*smrsm;onf usaemfwdkŒtvkyform;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh vma&mufawGŒqkH+yD; ‘tvkyform;w&yfvkH;. awmif;qkdcsuf
ESifhywfouf+yD; olwkd@taejzifh tvkyform;0ef}uD;ukd wifjyr,f/ cifAsm;wkdŒtvkyform;xktm;vkH; oydwfvSef+yD; tdrfjyef}u
yg? aemufaeŒawGrSmvnf; +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;eJŒ udk,fus&mXmetoD;oD;awGrSm tvkyfcGifjyef0if=uygvdk@/ arwWm&yfcHygw,fvdk@
ajymygw,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm usaemfwkdŒ tvkyform;ukd,fpm;vS,fwOD;ux+yD; ‘'Dawmif;qkdcsufawG[m ukd,fpm;vS,f
acgif;aqmifawG&JΠqkH;jzwfcsufjzpfw,f/ vG,fvG,feJΠqkH;jzwfcsufukd tajzay;vkd@r&bl;/ tvkyform;xkw&yfvkH;ukd ar;jref;
+yD;awmhrS tajzay;EdkifrSm jzpfwJhtwGuf 8/6/74 aeŒeHeuf 9 em&DrSm tajzay;ygr,f’ vkdŒjyefajymvkdufonf?
- 46 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

xkd@aemuf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;onf tvkyform;xkw&yfvkH;tm; txuft&m&Sdrsm;ESifh nd‡Ed_if;aqG;aEG;csufrsm;ukd jyef
ajymjyonf? usaemfwkd@twGuf ta&;t}uD;qkH;awmif;qkdcsufwckrSm oydwfvSef+yD;aemuf tvkyform;rsm;ukd rzrf;qD;ygbl;
[laom tmrcHuwdpum;yifjzpfonf? xkdha}umifh tvkyform;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifhwuG tvkyform;xkw&yfvkH;.
qENt& ‚if;wkdŒukd cH0efuwdvufrSwfxkd;ckdif;&ef qkH;jzwfcsufcsrSwfvkduf}uonf?
8/6/74 aeŒeHeuf (6) em&DwdwdwGif puf±Hkrª;rsm;ESifh tvkyform;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; 'kwd,t}udrfawGŒqkH}uaomtcg
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u oydwfvSef+yD;ygu tvkyform;awGukd rzrf;qD;ygbl;qkdwmukd tmrcHvufrw
S fa&;xkd;ay;&ef awmif;qkd
onf?
puf±Hkrª;rsm;u usaemfwkdŒawmif;qkdcsufawGtm;vkH; &atmifaqmif&Gufay;rnf/ usaemfwkdŒukdvnf; rzrf;qD;zkdŒ tmrcHyg
w,f/ uwdvnf;ay;ygw,fqkd+yD; tvkyform;rsm;.a&SŒrSmyif tmrcHuwdvufrSwfa&;xkd;+yD; ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;vufokdŒ
ay;tyfcJhonf?
9/6/74 nae (4) em&DwdwdtcsdefwGif usaemfwkd@ tvkyform;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh tvkyform;xktm;vkH; oabm
qENt& oydwfvSefvkduf}uygonf? 9/6/74aeΠwGif tvkyform;tm;vkH;onf at;csrf;pGmjzifh tvkyfcGifokdΠjyefqif;}u
ygonf?
‚if;wkdŒonf olwkdŒuwdtwkdif; zrf;qD;jcif;rjyKaomfvnf; usaemfwdkŒ.awmif;qkdcsufawGukd tvkyform;xktm;vHk;u
ay;vdrfhEdk; ay;vdrfhEdk;eJŒ apmifhar#mfvm&m &ufrSv/ vrSESpfodkŒom ajymif;vJvmcJhaomfvnf; bmwckrS&vmjcif;/ ay;vmjcif;
r&Sdacs? vdrfvnfvSnfhjzm;onfudk odvmaomtcg XmetoD;oD;rSm&Sd=uaom ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh tvkyform;xktm;vHk;
wdkŒonf rausreyfESifh rcHr&yfEdkifjzpf+yD; ESpfywfvnfaeŒjzpfaom 6/6/75 aeŒeHeuf 9 em&D 30 rdepfwGif oydwfarSmufqENjy
}uygawmhonf?
usaemfwkd@aq;0g;puf±Hktjyif tif;pdefrD;&xm;pufacgif;jyifpuf±Hk/ orkdif;ESifhcsnfr#iftxnfpuf±Hk/ *kHeDpuf±Hk/ qifrvkduf
oabmFusif;/ ukef;vrf;o,f,lykdŒaqmifa&;vkyfief;ESifh tjcm;puf±Hki,f ajrmufjrm;pGmonfvnf; oydwfarSmuf}u+yD; awmif;
qkdcsufrsm; awmif;qdk}uonf?
usaemfwkdŒ aq;0g;puf±HktwGif;rS qENjyawmif;qkdcsufrsm; awmif;qkdaepOf */6/75 nae 4;30 wGif vufeuftjynfh
tpkHjzifh jrefrmpum;em;rvnfaom wkdif;&if;om;ppfom; (70) cefŒu puf±Hkukd0kdif;xm;+yD; ppfom;tcsKdŒonf yifrwHcg;
aygufukd ausmfwuf0ifa&mufvm}uum usaemfwkdŒtvkyform;tm;vkH;ukd aoewfESifhcsdef+yD; 0kdif;xm;vkdufygonf? xkd@
aemuf Akdvfrª;wa,mufa&mufvm+yD; ‘cifAsm;wkdŒtm;vkH; puf±HktjyifukdxGuf+yD; ukd,fhtdrfukd,f at;at;aq;aq; jyef}uyg?
puf±Hkukd usaemfwkdŒodrf;vkduf+yD? usaemfwkdŒtrdefŒay;wmukd rvkdufem&if ypf&ygvdrfhr,f? cifAsm;wkdŒukd rdepf 30 tcsdef
ay;r,f? puf±HkxJrSm wa,mufrSrypfcsifbl;’ vkdŒajym+yD; rsufaxmifheD}uD;eJŒ }unfhaeygonf?
ukd,fpm;vS,fESifh tvkyform;rsm;onf rausreyfjzifh tH}udwf+yD; vufoD;ukduspfuspfygatmifqkyf&if; a'goawGukd
rsKdodyfum puf±HktwGif;rS toD;oD;xGufcGmay;&awmhonf?
‚if; 8/6/75 aeŒnrSmyif usaemfwdkŒjrefrmEdkifiHaq;0g;puf±HkrS Xmeukd,fpm;vS,facgif;aqmif trsKd;orD;okH;a,muf tyg
t0ifvl (33) a,mufukd nwGif;csif;vdkufvHzrf;qD;+yD; emrnfqkd;jzifhausmf}um;aom tif;pdeftusOf;axmifokdŒ ykdŒvkduf
ygonf?
12/7/75 aeŒwGif ppfckH±Hk;zGifh+yD; 10 ESpf/ 13 ESpf/ 16 ESpf toD;oD;jypf'%fcsrSwfvkdufygonf? tjcm;puf±HktoD;oD;rS
acgif;aqmifrsm;udkvnf; usaemfwkdŒESifhtwl tif;pdet
f usOf;axmif óud;wkdufokdŒ ykdŒaqmifvkdufygawmhonf?
wdkufyJG0iftvkyform;a[mif;wOD;
bDyDtdkif (1974-75)
(jrefrmEdkifiHtvkyform;aoG;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;tzGJ@rSaus;Zl;ðyonf?)

74-75 ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;rsm;udk jyefvnfowd&jcif;
a'gufwmodef;vGif
apmvSaiG rJaqmufuae usaemhfudkzkef;qufygw,f? OD;oef@ta&;tcif; ESpfywfvnfrSm pmapmifwckxkwfcsifw,fwJh?
usaemfhudk a&;zdk@ ajymygw,f? usaemfu csif;rdkifrSmae+yD; ausmif;q&m/ q&mrawGeJ@ jrefrmjynfu tvkyfvmvkyf
=uolawGudk oifwef;ay;aeygw,f? apmvSaiGudk usaemfwdk@ ausmif;om;b0 ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;umvrSm &if;ESD;cJh
ygw,f? oli,fcsif;awGtzrf;cH&+yD; usaemf0&rf;ajy;jzpfawmh apmvSaiGu ol@Zmwdòrd@uav;udkydk@+yD; usaemfudk apmifha&Smuf
- 47 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

ygw,f? tESpf (20) ausmft=umrSm apmvSaiG&J@toHudk yxrqHk;jyef=um;&awmh ausmif;om;b0ujzpf&yfawGeJ@ ajy;v$m;
ykef;atmif;&if; rme,fyavmpcef;udk vmcJh&wJhc&D;pOfawGudk jyefvnfowd&rdygw,f?
usaemfu pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;om;jzpfygw,f? orkdif;0if;xJu ausmif;aqmifawGrSm ae&ygw,f? usaemf
wuUodkvf'kwd,ESpf (1974) ZGefvrSm *kefeDpuf±kHeJ@ csnfpufutvkyform;awG qENjyygw,f? usaemfwdk@ ausmif;aqmifeJ@
eD;awmh oGm;=unfhygw,f? “qef&&Sda&;/ vpmwdk;jr‡ifha&;/ vkyif ef;cGifom,ma&;” pwmawGudk awmif;qdk=uygw,f? qENjywJh
vltkyf}uD;udk ppfwyfuypfcwfwm udk,fwdkifawG@jrif&ygw,f? 'DZifbmvusawmh OD;oef@ta&;tcif;jzpfygw,f? OD;oef@
psmyeudk usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awG oGm;=uygw,f? psmyeudk usKduUqHuGif;uae wuUodkvf0if;xJ o,f,lvmawmh
usaemfvnf; vdkufygvmcJhygw,f? aemufwae@rSm usaemfwdk@ yJcl;òrd@uausmif;om;awG tdrfjyef=uawmh usaemfvnf;
yJcl;udkjyefcJhygw,f? óuHawG@cJh&wJhjzpf&yfawG &ifrSmpGJusefcJhygw,f? tvkyform;awG ypfowfcH&wm/ ausmif;om;awG tzrf;cH
=u&wm rarhEdkifp&mjzpfcJhygw,f?
1975 rSm ausmif;jyefzGifhawmh wuUodkvfudk jyefvmcJhygw,f? ZGefvrSm ynma&;0ef}uD;eJ@ tpdk;&wm0ef&SdolawG[m
pufr_wuUodkvfudkvm+yD; ausmif;om;awGudk a[majymygw,f? olwdk@&J@a[majymcsufrSm “wdkif;jynfpD;yGm;a&; usqif;&wm
tvkyform;awG tvkyfrvkyfbJ qlqlylylvkyfvdk@jzpfw,f? v,form;awG pyg;tjynfht0 ra&mif;vdk@jzpfw,f” vdk@ajymyg
w,f? usaemf[m v,form;om;wOD;jzpfygw,f? usaemfrdbeJ@aqGrsKd;awG &GmrSm b,fvdkcufcJ=uw,fqdkwm usaemf
odw,f? rESpfu tvkyform;awG usaemfhrsufapha&S@rSm owfjzwfc&H w,f? usaemfhpdwfawG Edk;=um;vm+yD; jyefajymcJhygw,f?
“tvkyform;awG xrif;r0vdk@ qefawmif;wm cifAsm;wdk@u usnfqHawGyJay;cJhw,f? v,form;awG 0rf;pmygrusefatmif
tpdk;&udkoGif;&wm usaemfodw,f? rw&m;wm cifAsm;wdk@yJjzpfw,f?” 'Dpum;[m usaemfhudk ausmif;xGufzdk@jzpfvmygw,f?
1976 ckESpfrwfvrSm ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;&mjynfhyGJudk ausmif;om;awGOD;aqmif+yD; usif;yygw,f? a&$wd*Hkbk&m; awmifbuf
rkcfteD;u ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;&J@ *lAdrmefa&S@rSm usif;y=uygw,f? usaemfu y&dowftjzpf yg0ifwufa&mufcJhygw,f? rd_if;&m
jynfhyGJt+yD;rSm wuUodkvfawG ydwfvdkuf+yD; tpdk;&u “ausmif;om;qdk;rsm;” udk wuUodkvfrS xkwfy,fvdkuf+yDjzpfa=umif;
a=unmygw,f? yJcl;òrd@e,faumifpDu usaemfhudkac:+yD; ausmif;xkwfwJhpm ay;ygw,f? usaemftaru “ighom;rdkufw,f” vdk@
ajymygw,f? usaemfrdkufwm r[kwfyg? ausmif;om;wa,muf[m pmoifcef;jyifyrSm jzpfysufaewJh t&mudpPawGeJ@
qufpyfaeygw,f? ywf0ef;usifom,m&if pmoifcef;vnf; om,mygw,f? ywf0ef;usifudk om,matmifvkyfzdk@ usaemfwdk@
vnf; wm0ef&Sdygw,f?
ausmif;xkwfcH&+yD;wJhtcg EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awGeJ@ usaemfydk+yD; eD;uyfvmygw,f? (1977) ckESpf Zlvdkifv 7 &ufae@rSm
usaemfwdk@oli,fcsif;awG “ZlvdkifqJAif;” txdrf;trSwftcrf;tem;udk ausmif;om;or*~taqmuftOD;&SdwJhae&mrSm vkyfzdk@
pdkif;jyif;cJh=uygw,f? 62 ckESpfu ausmif;om;or*~ ausmif;om;a[mif;}uD;awGu ausmif;aqmifawGrSm jzef@a0ygw,f?
ta=umif;a=umif;a=umifh (7777) tcrf;tem;rjzpfcJhyg? Zlvdkif (7) &ufreufrSm rkd;t}uD;tus,f&Gmaewm/ 0dZ…mody`H
wuUodkvfu ausmif;om;awGudk q&mawGu twef;r&Sdbl;vdk@ ajymvdkufwJhtwGuf òrd@xJuausmif;om;awG ausmif;
rvmwm/ taqmifaeausmif;om;tcsKd@ ta&;tcif;jzpfw,fxif+yD; tdrfjyefoGm;=uwmawGa=umifh usaemfwdk@tcrf;tem;
rusif;yjzpfcJhwmyg? (1978) rSmawmh óudwifv_H@aqmfjcif;rðybJ Zlvdkif (3) &ufae@ pufr_wuUodkvfrSm ta&;tcif;udk
pwifygw,f? &nf&G,fcsufu ausmif;om;ta&;tcif; t&Sdef&vm&if Zlvdkif (7) &ufae@rSm txdrf;trSwftcrf;tem;
usif;yrSmjzpfygw,f? rar#mfvifhbJ ta&;tcif;udkpwifcJhwJh ausmif;om;wpk zrf;qD;cH&ygw,f? usaemfwdrf;a&SmifcJh+yD;
0&rf;ajy;jzpfcJhygw,f?
apmvSaiGwdk@nDtpfudkawGu usaemfhudk anmifwkef;òrd@rSm&SdwJh olwdk@&J@rdbtdrfudk ydk@xm;ygw,f? anmifwkef;eJ@
yef;waemf=um; {&m0wDjrpfurf;ab;u &Gmomat;&Gmuav;u wGJzufausmif;rSm ausmif;q&mvdkawmh usaemf
ausmif;q&moGm;vkyfygw,f? usaemfh&J@ausmif;q&mb0[m &Gmom;at;&GmrSm pwifcJhygw,f? ausmif;q&mb0rSm aysmfay
rJh usaemfh&J@&nf&G,fcsufu pmoifzdk@vmcJhwmr[kwfbJ EdkifiHa&;t& acwWwdrf;a&Smifaejcif;om jzpfygw,f? apmvSaiG&J@ pDpOf
ay;csuft& 'kwd,ESpf pmoifESpfrSm rme,fyavmpcef;udk xGufcGmcJh&ygw,f? usKdufxD;¶dk;bk&m;awmifajcuae
aomif;&if;jrpfurf;a&mufwJhtxd (12) &ufwdwd awmifawG/ awmawGjzwf+yD; ajcvsifav#mufcJh&ygw,f? rme,f
yavmpcef;a&mufawmh AdkvfcsKyfjr/ apmoef;atmif/ zl;paumv,fawm/ AdkvfcsKyfjrarmif/ apmwmt,f/ apmpHvif;/
OD;pdk;atmifwdk@eJ@ awG@qHkpum;ajymcGifh&ygw,f? oEl;xl;pmapmifrSmvnf; jrefrmjynfynma&;pepfeJ@ ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;
aqmif;yg;awG a&;cJhygw,f? usaemfh&nf&G,fcsufu vufeufudkifwdkufyGJrSm yg0ifzdk@r[kwfbJ vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_udk OD;wnfwJh
twGuf jynfwGif;udkjyefcJhygw,f? ausmif;q&mvkyf&if; vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_/ ausmif;om;v_y&f Sm;r_awGrSmyg0ifzkd@ tcGifhtcgapmifhae
cJhygw,f?
- 48 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

1980 rSm tpdk;&u taxGaxGvGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifha=unmawmh usaemf &efukefjyefvmcJhygw,f? &efukefrSm usL&Sifjy
&if; pmay;pm,lwuUodkvf wufa&mufcJhygw,f? 1982 rSm rar#mfvifhbJ usaemftzrf;cH&ygw,f? oli,fcsif;awG vGwf+idrf;
csrf;omcGifheJ@vGwf=u+yD;rS usaemfu axmifxJjyef0if&ygw,f? ESpfESpft=um axmifuvGwf+yD; pmay;pm,lwuUodkvf pajz
ygw,f? r[mody`HpwufwJhESpf 1988 rSm ta&;tcif;awGjzpfawmh usaemfyg0ifcJhygw,f? a':atmifqef;pk=unf OD;aqmif+yD;
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf xlaxmifawmh usaemf yJcl;wdkif;pnf;¶Hk;a&;vkyfief;rSm yg0ifcJhygw,f? 1990 a&G;aumufyGJ
t+yD;rSm xyfrHzrf;qD;cH&ygw,f? axmifujyefvGwfvm+yD; 1993 rSmusaemf jrefrmjynfu xGufcGmvmcJhygw,f?
usaemfhtawG;rsm;udk jyefvnftqHk;owf&&if “ausmif;om;qdk;” wa,muf[m ausmif;q&mjzpfvmcJhygw,f? tck
tcg ausmif;q&mrsm;udk vrf;!¸efwJhq&m jzpfaeyg+yD? usaemfwdk@wawG[m ynmrvdkvm;vdk@ pmroifcsifvdk@ qlylcJh=uwm
r[kwfyg? usaemfwdk@ywf0ef;usif +idrf;csrf;om,mzdk@/ w&m;r#wzdk@ yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh=ujcif;om jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD0g'
xGef;um;vmzdk@ wpdwfwydkif; yg0ifcJh=uwm jzpfygw,f? acwftqufquf ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;awGrSm yg0ifcJh=uwJh
ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;udk*k%fðy&if; usaemfhtawG;udk ed*Hk;csKyfvdkufygw,f?
a'gufwmodef;vGif ('DZifbm 2005)

&J&ifh=u,f wifarmifOD;
±kyfyHkv$m tydkif;tprsm;
aumif;ndK
wdkufyGJawGu ol&Jaumif;udk arG;zGm;ay;w,f/ ol&Jaumif;qdkwm ordkif;acwfawG&J@ rSwfausmuf/ a&$tppfqdkwm
i&JrD;udkra=umufbl;?
ppftm%m&SifpepfeJ@ ausmif;om;qdkwm ordkif;pOfwavsmufrSm wdkufyGJawGeJ@om tpDt&Djynfhv#rf;aecJhw,f? ausmif;
om;pdwf"gwf/ ausmif;om;ordkif;qdkwm Armjynf&J@ rw&m;r_qef@usifawmfvSefwJhvrf;a=umif;rSm xif&Sm;cJhw,f? usaemfwdk@
vufxJu wdkufyGJ0ifcGyfa'gif;tvHu tpOftvmt& vufqifhurf;o,fvmcJhwJhtvHjzpfygw,f?
ppftm%m&SifpepfeJ@ ausmif;om;wdk@&J@ wdkufyGJpOfawGxJu (1974) rSmjzpfyGm;cJhwJh OD;oef@ta&;tcif;[m urBmhtv,f
rSm ArmjynfrsufESmri,fa&;twGufqifEGJcJhwJh ausmif;om;wdkufyGJyg? OD;oef@qdkwmu usaemfwdk@ jrefrmt,ltqt& ajym&
&if p}u0aw;rif;aygh? acwfay:EdkifiHa&;toHk;tE_ef;t&ajym&if ukvor*~taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;csKyfjzpfw,f? OD;oef@[m
wurBmvHk;uav;pm;&wJh urBmacgif;aqmif}uD;vnf;jzpfw,f? jzpfyGm;vkqJqJ urBmppfyGJ}uD;udk z,f&Sm;EdkifcJhwJh +idrf;csrf;a&;
orm;}uD;vJjzpfw,f? OD;oef@uG,fvGefawmh ol&J@ &kyfuvmyfudk ArmjynfrSm ðryfESHay;zdk@ qEN&SdcJhw,f? ol@&J@ &kyfuvmyfudk
av,mOfeJ@trdEdkifiHqD o,fvmwJhtcsdfefrSm 'Dpsmyeav,mOfjzwfoef;&mvrf;wav#muf EdkifiHawGu tajrmufypfazguf
*k%fðy=u&w,f?
'gayrJh OD;oef@&J@&kyfuvmyf Armjynfudka&mufvmawmh rqvtpdk;&u 'DvdkwurBmvHk;u av;pm;&wJh/ wefzdk;xm;wJh
acgif;aqmif}uD;udk omrefolvdkigvdkvlawGvdkoabmxm;+yD; t}uHyufpufpGm }uHawmocFsKid f;rSm ¹r_yfESHzdk@ pDpOfcJhw,f? 'g[m
rqvtpdk;&&J@acgif;aqmif}uD; OD;ae0if;&J@ oabmxm;ao;odrfr_jzpfw,f? 'g[m Armjynf vlxkw&yfvHk;udk apmfum;&m
vnf;a&mufcJhwJhtwGuf tpOftvmt& rw&m;r_udk acgif;iHk@rcHwwfwJh/ &dk;om;+yD;wufºuGwJh ausmif;om;awGu qef@usif
uef@uGufcJh=uw,f? OD;oef@&J@&kyfuvmyfudk ukvor*~axGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;&mxl;eJ@ xdkufwefpGm ¹r_yfESHoò*õvfzdk@ ausmif;om;
awGu óud;pm;=uw,f? 'DrSmwif tpdk;&eJ@ ausmif;om;awG[m xdyfwdkufawG@cJh=uw,f? tpdk;&u vufeufrJhausmif;om;
awGudk vlrqefpGm &uf&ufpufpuf owfjzwfcJh=uw,f?
'Dvdkt=urf;zufowfjzwfr_udk wzufowfcHcJh&wJh ausmif;om;awG[m vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;vrf;a=umif;udk
a&mufcJh=uwm[m tifrwefrS obm0uswJh jzpfpOfwckygbJ?
tckqdk&if (26) ESpf&SdcJhyg+yD? usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awG&J@ &ifxJrSmawmh rae@wae@uvdkyJ cHpm;ae&qJygbJ? OD;oef@
ta&;awmfyHkuae+yD; xGufay:vmcJhwJh ol&Jaumif;wOD;udkvnf; trSwfw& &SdaeqJygbJ? 'Dol&Jaumif;uawmh udkwifarmif
OD; jzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh oleJ@ywfoufwJh tcsuftvufawG[m &Sm;yg;cJhygw,f? usaemfu ausmif;om;pdwf"mwfudkudkifpGJ+yD;
ppftm%m&Sifpepfudk wdkufyGJ0ifaewJh ausmif;om;wyfrawmf0ifwa,muftaeeJ@ OD;wifarmifOD;ta=umif;udk yDyDjyifjyifod
csifaecJhwm=umyg+yD? 'gayrJh tajctaeuray;bl;? usaemfuvnf; ordkif;okawoDwa,muf r[kwfawmh pepfwus
okawoe rvkyfEkdifbl;? usaemfu ausmif;om;wyfrawmfu &Guf=urf;a&usKd &Jabmfwa,mufr#om?
- 49 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

wcgw&HrSm trSwfrxif tjzpftysufawG[m trSwfxifxif ta=umif;t&mawGudk xkqpfwwfw,f? ta=umif;
t&m cdkifcdkifrmrm odyfr&SdvSbJ usaemf[m ygvDref'Drdkua&pD&J@ twGif;a&;rª;jzpfol OD;cspfaqGeJ@ odu|rf;cJh&w,f? olu
usaemfhudk wpHkwckacgif;pOf owfrSwfr_r&SdbJ ta=umif;t&maygif;rsm;pGm ajymjyw,f? 'Dvdkajym=u qdk=u&if; udkwifarmif
OD;ta=umif;udk a&mufoGm;=uygw,f?
udkwifarmifOD;&J@ &kyfyHkv$mudk tefu,fOD;cspfaqGu olrSwfrdoavmufa&;cs,fjywmuæ
udkwifarmifOD;u t&yftarmif;aumif;+yD; vlacsmwa,mufjzpfw,f/ oyfoyf&yf&yfaewwf+yD; t+rJwrf; qHyifwdkwdkyJ
xm;wwfw,f? pum;enf;w,f?ajym&ifvnf; wefzdk;&SdwJhpum;udkom ajymavh&Sdw,f? wckckudkvkyf&if pdkufvdkufrwfwyf
vkyfavh&Sdw,f? tm;oGefcGefpdkufvkyfwwfw,f? t+rJwrf;vef;qef;wufºuG aewwf+yD; ,Hk=unfcsufjyif;xefw,f?
udkwifarmifOD;/ &pfcswfwifarmifOD;/ udkjrifha&$qdk+yD; trnfokH;rsdK;&Sdw,fvdk@ OD;cspfaqGu ajymjyygw,f? udkwifarmifOD;eJ@
pwifodºuGrf;&yHkukd od&ygap qdkawmh tefu,fOD;cspfaqGuæ
- cifAsm;wdk@vnf; odwJhtwdkif; (1974) rSm OD;oef@psmyeeJ@ywfouf+yD; tpdk;&u ausmif;om;awGudk &uf&ufpufpuf òzdcGif;
ESdrfESif;w,f? tJ'DtcsdefrSm usaemfwdk@u awmxJa&mufaewm 4-5 ESpfavmuf&Sd+yD?
- òrd@jywdkufyGJta=umif;awmh usaemfrodwmrsm;w,f? tJ'DrSm ausmif;om;awGu awmcdkvm=uw,f? awmcdkw,f
qdkawmhvnf; 'Dausmif;om;awG[m oef&moef&m vuf0J vuf,mawmfvSefa&;tzGJ@tpnf;awGqDudk oGm;=uw,f?
b,folb,folawGqdkwmudkawmh tJ'dtcsdefu usaemfvnf;rodbl;? ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifawGjzpfwJh udkwifarmifOD;u
jynfajy;awGeJ@aygif;oGm;+yD; udkjrifhpdk;uawmh AuyawGqD a&mufoGm;+yDvdk@ a=unm=uwmawGudkawmh =um;ae&w,f?
tJ'Dvdk ausmif;om;awG wzGJzJGa&mufvmaewJhtcsdefrSm usaemfu aemufwef;&Hk;rSm wyfem;+yD; &Hk;vkyfief;awGudk ulnDaewJh
tcsdef/ tJ'DrSm usaemfwdk@qDu 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;u t&ifu wyfrawmf&J@ +Adwdo#oHcsyfum,EW,m;wyfrSm wyf=uyf}uD;/ olu
usaemfhudkac:w,f/ pmwapmifay;w,f? (PDP) pmu usaemfwdk@&J@ twGif;a&;rª;csKyfyg/ (vyw) ppfOD;pD;csKyfvnf;jzpfwJh
AdkvfcsKyfoGif&J@pm/ pmxJrSma&;xm;wmu tckv$wfvdkufwJholudk ar;jref;pHkprf;jcif;rvkyfygeJ@/ olta=umif; odp&mrvdkbl;?
ol@udk tajccHppfynm ppfuGyfuJr_ynmeJ@ vufeufu|rf;usifr_awGudk oif=um;ay;vdkufyg qdk+yD;ygw,f? oifwef;q&mawG
tjzpfeJ@ usaemf&,f/ q&maygºuG,f/ q&m0if;=unf&,fudk wm0efay;w,f? azgufcGJa&;oifwef;udkawmh tJ'Dtcsdefu
(PDP) &J@azmufcGJa&;wm0efcHjzpfwJh 'k-Adkvfrª;}uD;wifxGef;u oifwef;ay;w,fvdk@ od&w,f? tJ'Dvlu cifAsm;ar;wJh
udkwifarmifOD;ygyJ?
oifwef;u (One Man Army) jzpfayrJh wyfzGJ@}uD;wzGJ@udk oifwef;ay;ovdkrsdK; tawmfjyif;jyif;xefxefay;wm 'Dvdk
jyif;xefyifyef;wJhoifwef;udk udkwifarmifOD;[m rnnf;rnLbJ óud;pm;cJhw,f? 'D (One Man Army) oifwef;[m (15)
&ufavmufyJ=umcJhw,f? (One Man Army) oifwef;awG+yD;vdk@ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifawG[m olwdk@csif;qHkwJhtcg
vGwfvyfwJhausmif;om;tzJG@tpnf;wck xlaxmif=uzdk@ aqG;aEG;=uw,f? ppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&; vufeufudkifausmif;
om;or*~qdk+yD; zGJ@pnf;=uw,f? 'Dppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&; vufeufudkifausmif;om;or*~udk usaemfwdk@&J@ (PDP) ygwDu
axmufyHhw,f? t}uHay;w,f/ ulnDw,f/ vGwfvyfwJhtzGJ@tpnf;wcktaeeJ@ todtrSwfðycJhw,f/ usaemfwdk@ygwDvdkyJ
(KNU) uvnf; todtrSwfðycJhw,f? (PDP) eJ@ (KNU) aqG;aEG;wdkifyif+yD; wyfr[m (6) e,fajrxJrSm&SdwJh zvl;{&d,m
xJrSmwae&m/ tJ'Dzvl;&J@ wzufurf;rSm wae&m/ tJ'D (2) ae&mrSm 'Dvufeufudkifausmif;om;or*~&J@&kH;awG zGifhcGifhay;cJh
w,f? 'gwifr[kwfao;bl;? &HyHkaiG&&Sda&;twGuf zvl;aps;wef;rSm qdkifwqdkifwnfay;w,f? rwnfaiGtjzpf (PDP) u
aiGoHk;aomif; xkwfay;cJhw,f? tJ'Dqdkifudk ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwa,mufjzpfwJh udkarmifqef;u wm0efcHtjzpf wm0ef
,l&w,f?
'Dppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&; vufeufudkifausmif;om;or*~udkzGJ@awmh usaemfwdk@ygwDrSm t&if&Sdae=uwJh tpOftvm
ausmif;om;awGuvnf; 'Dor*~xJudk ul;ajymif;oGm;=uw,f? 'gudk ygwDuvnf; cGifhðyw,f? or*~zGJ@pnf;=uawmh OuUÏu
tmZmenfol&Jaumif;}uD;jzpfwJh udkwifarmifOD;ygbJ? 'k-OuUÏu rk'Hkausmif;om;acgif;aqmifjzpfwJh udkoef@Zif/ twGif;a&;rª;
u udk&Jjrifhpdk;/ 'D udk&Jjrifhpdk;qdkwmu AuyawGeJ@ yl;aygif;oGm;w,fvdk@ tpdk;&u a=unmxm;wJh udk&Jjrifhpdk;ygyJ? trSefu
udkjrifhpdk;[m AuyawGeJ@yl;aygif;oGm;wm r[kwfygbl;/ usaemfwdk@ (PDP) udka&mufvmwmyg? ,ckxufwdkif ouf&Sdxif&Sm;&Sd
ae+yD; awmfvSefa&;wm0efawGudk ol@enf;ol@[efeJ@ qufvufxrf;aqmifaeqJyg/ wGJbuftwGif;a&;rª;tjzpfeJ@ udkpdefjrifh/
oluawmh (1970) wuUodkvfa&$&wktxdrf;trSwfqENjyyGJrSm armfvòrdifwuUodkvfuae &moufyefausmif;xkwfcHxm;&wJh
oljzpfw,f?
'Dvdkor*~zGJ@+yD;awmh tydkif; (2) ydkif; cGJvdkufw,f? udkwifarmifOD;eJ@ wcsdK@acgif;aqmifawGu òrd@jyvkyfief;awGudk vkyf=u
w,f? usefwJhacgif;aqmifawGu awmwGif;vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;udk vkyf=uw,f?
- 50 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

òrd@jyvkyfief;awGtjzpfeJ@ udkwifarmifOD;tygt0if usaemfwdk@ygwDu (One Man Army) oifwef;ay;xm;wJh ausmif;
om;awG[m òrd@jyuausmif;om;awG/ olwdk@udkaxmufcHolawGeJ@ qufoG,f+yD; òrd@jywdkufyGJawG qifEGJzdk@óud;pm;=uw,f? tpdk;&
&J@ tcsuftcsmuswJh ae&mawGudk rdkif;cGJzsufqD;zdk@ vkyfaqmif=u&w,f?
'Dòrd@jyvkyfief;awGvkyfudkif=uwJh tkyfpkxJrSm usaemfhtaeeJ@ rSwfrSwf&&&SdaewJh ausmif;om;ESpfa,muf&Sdw,f/
wa,mufuawmh rqvtpdk;&u óud;rdef@ay;uGyfrsufwmcHcJh&wJh/ usaemfukd,fwdkif oifwef;ay;vdkuf&wJh udkwifarmifOD;/
aemufwa,mufuawmh ætif; æESpfawG=umawmh emrnfawGarhukef+yD/ q&mwyfrawmfrif;&JxGef;&J@om;vdk@ ajymw,f?
oluawmh òrd@jyvkyfief;awGvkyf&if;eJ@ usHK'dk;acsmif;rSm a&epfw,f/ a&epfawmh tpdk;&ppfwyfu vltkyfeJ@u,fzdk@ óud;pm;w,f/
awmfvSefa&;orm;rSef; od[efrwlygbl;?
'gayrJh 'Dausmif;om;u rif;wdk@&J@ aoG;ayaewJhvufudk igrudkifbl; vdk@ajym+yD; taocHw,fvdk@ usaemfwdk@&J@ (PDP)
v#dK@0Suf&JabmfawGeJ@ ukefonfawGujyefajym=uw,f? tifrwefav;pm;p&maumif;wJh ausmif;om;awGyg?
'DvdkyJ awmwGif;vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;wdkufyJGawGrSmvnf; usqHk;cJh&wJh ausmif;om;awG&SdcJhw,f? 'Dppftm%m&Sif
qef@usifa&; vufeufudkifausmif;om;or*~u usaemfwdk@ygwD&J@ taumif;qHk;uGefref'dkwyfjzpfwJh aygufusKdif;wyfzGJ@eJ@ wGJ+yD;
v_yf&Sm;w,f? 'DaygufusKdif;uGefref'dkwyfzGJ@&J@wyfrª;u ppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&; vufeufudkifausmif;om;or*~zGJ@awmh
usaemfwdk@ygwDuae ul;ajymif;oGm;+yD; 'Dor*~&J@ wGJbuftwGif;a&;rª;wm0efudk,laewJh udkpdefjrifhygyJ?
awmwGif;wdkufyGJawGrSmvnf; ausmif;om;awG[m &Gyf&Gyfc|Hc|HwdkufyGJ 0ifcJh=uygw,f? ,m,Dòrd@odrf;wdkufyGJawG az:EdkifcJh
w,f? &efukef-rEWav;&xm;vrf;rSm wdkufyGJawG azmfEdkifcJhw,f? 'DwdkufyGJawGxJrSm ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwa,mufjzpfwJh
udkatmifEdkif (0ef}uD;OD;ausmf+idrf;&J@wl) [m usqHk;cJh&w,f? udkatmifEdkifqdkwm òrd@jyvkyfief;awGvkyf&if; udkwifarmifOD;udk
rqvuzrf;rdoGm;wJhtcsdefrSm 'Dvufeufudkifausmif;om;or*~&J@ OuUÏwm0efudk qufvuf,lcJhwJhol jzpfw,f/ udkatmif
EdkifusqHk;awmh or*~&J@OuUÏwm0efudk udk&J@jrifhpdk;u qufvufwm0ef,l&w,f/ udk&Jjrifhpdk;uawmh ,ckwdkif touf&Sifv#uf
&Sdaeygw,f?
'gawGu udkwifarmifOD; ta=umif;ajym&if qufpyfvmwJhudpPawG/ 'DrSmajymzdk@&Sdwmu tckusaemfwdk@ajymaewJh udkwif
armifOD;qdkwmudk usaemfol@udk oifwef;ay;wJh umvrSma&m/ oifwef;+yD;oGm;wJh umvwcktxd udkwifarmifOD;rSef; rodcJh
bl;? usaemfwdk@&J@tm;opfpmapmifu ol&Jaumif;yGJawGudk owif;xkwfjyefawmhrS od&wm/ owif;xkwfjyefwJhtcsdefrSm
ol[m ArmjynfwGif;vkyfief;awGudk rvkyfzdk@ (PDP) &J@vl}uD;awGu aqG;aEG;w,f/ aemufxyfroGm;Edkifatmif owif;xkwf
jyefcsufawG vkyfvdkufwJhoabmvnf; ygr,fxifygw,f?
'gayrJh olwdk@u t&rf;pdwftm;xufoefaew,f? òrd@jyvkyfief;awGudk udk,fwdkifudk,fus vHk;0vkyfvdk@r&awmhrS awm
wGif;wdkufyGJawG 0ifcsifwJhqEN&Sdw,f/ aemufwacgufxyfoGm;r,fqdk+yD; xGufoGm;w,f/ bmrSawmhrjzpfao;bl;/ 'DrSmtwifh&J
+yD; av;}udrfajrmufjzpfwJh (1976) r_dif;&mjynfhrSm rqvtpdk;&u ol@udkzrf;oGm;cJhw,f? udkwifarmifOD;eJ@ywfouf+yD;
rSwfrSwf&&jzpfapwJh jzpf&yf&Sdovm; qdk&ifawmh txufrSm usaemfajymcJhovdk tm;opfpmapmifu ol&J@ (2) }udrfajrmuf
vkyfief;atmifjrifawmh owif;xkwfjyefr_awGvkyfw,f? aemuf+yD; usaemfwdk@ygwDeJ@ olwdk@or*~aygif;+yD; &JoD[pcef;rSm
udkwifarmifOD;udk *k%fðyyGJwckvkyfay;w,f/ 'DawmhrS usaemfwdk@[m jyefawG@&wm/ 'D*k%fðyyGJrSm usaemfwkd@u ol@&J@v_yf&Sm;r_
tawG@tóuHawGeJ@ ol&J@ awmfvSefa&;tay: oabmxm;udk ar;jref;=uw,f?
'DyGJrSm udkwifarmifOD; ajymoGm;wmudk rSwfrdoavmufajym&&if t"dutcsufuawmh (3) csufyJAs? bmvJqdkawmh
awmfvSefa&;qdkwm qif;&Jyifyef;r,f/ awmfvSefa&;orm;uawmh 'Dqif;&Jyifyef;r_'%fudk cHEdkif&nf&Sd&r,f qdkwm&,f/ vl
w&mavmufbJ&Sdaeygap 'grSr[kwf 'Dxufenf;csifenf;ygap awmfvSefa&;tzGJ@tpnf;qdkwm rw&m;r_awG&Sdaeor#uawmh
&SdaerSmyJ? b,fawmhrS ysufpD;oGm;rSmr[kwfbl;? tcsdeftcgt& wdrfðryfaumif; wdrfðryfEdkifw,f? 'gayrJh &SdaerSmyJ/ jyefay:
vm&rSmyJ qdkwJhoabm&,f aemufqHk;tcsuftaeeJ@ ausmif;om;awG vufeufudkifw,f/ t=urf;zuf=uw,f qdkwmvnf;
aoG;ºuGae=uvdk@r[kwfbl;? ppftm%m&Siaf wGu ausmif;om;tygt0if vufeufrJhvlxkudk &ufpufpGm "m;rdk;tkyfcsKyfae
w,f/ usaemfwdk@[m tqifhwckrSm òrd@jywdkufyGJawGtjzpfeJ@ oydwfwdkufyGJawGudk qifE$JcJh=u+yD; vuf&Sdtaetxm;rSm ausmif;
om;awG&J@ EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk tqifhwckqDudk jr‡ifhwifzdk@vdkvmw,f? 'gha=umifh vufeufudkif&wmjzpfw,f/ òrd@jyvkyfief;
awGudk tm;&atmifvkyf+yD;&if awmwGif;vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;udk xdxda&mufa&muf OD;aqmifv_yf&Sm;r,f/ yDjyifwJh
ausmif;om;wyfrawmfw&yf ay:vmatmifóud;pm;r,f? (PDP) uvnf; 0dkif;0ef;ulnD=uzdk@ qdk+yD;ajymoGm;w,f?
'gayrJh ausmif;om;wyfrawmfudk olzGJ@pnf;cGifh romcJhbl;? oludk,fwdkif OD;aqmifwnfaxmifxm;wJh ppftm%m&Sifqef@
usifa&; vufeufudkifausmif;om;or*~[mvnf; (1978) ckESpfrSm usaemfwdk@ (PDP) eJ@twl tm;enf; ysufjy,foGm;cJh&
w,f/ oludk,fwdkifuawmh rqv&J@óud;pifrSm ol&Jaumif;yDopGm wdkif;jynfeJ@vlrsdK;twGuf toufpGef@oGm;cJhw,f?
- 51 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

rSwfrSwf&&ayghAsm/ usaemfwdk@ygwD&,f (KNU) &,f olwdk@or*~&,f aygif;+yD;/ zvl;wdk@ 0rf;cgwdk@rSm 7th July tcrf;
tem;awG usif;ycJh=uw,f? olwdk@or*~uyJ OD;aqmifusif;ycJh=uwmyg? tcgtm;av#mfpGm ðyvkyfwwfwJh usaemfwdk@ygwD&J@
EdkifiHa&;tcrf;tem;awGudkvnf; olwdk@or*~u oD;jcm;vGwfvyfwJh tzGJ@tpnf;w&yftaeeJ@ o0%fv$mydk@wmwdk@ bmwdk@
vkyf=uygw,f? w}udrfrSm ætif; ætm;opfpmapmif (6) ESpfjynfhtcrf;tem;rSm olwdk@or*~uay;ydk@wJh o0%fv$mudk
tcrf;tem;rª;vkyfwJh AdkvfatmifrsdK;u zwfcdkif;vdk@ usaemfudk,fwdkif zwfay;cJh&bl;ygw,f?
tif; olwdk@or*~&J@tvHu tck cifAsm;wdk@&J@tvHvdkyJ cGyfa'gif;tvHyJAs/ rSwfrdoavmuf 'Dor*~rSm OD;aqmifyg0if=uwJh
ausmif;om;awGu udkwifarmifOD;/ udkpdefjrifh/ udkatmifEdkif/ udk&Jjrifhpdk;/ udkarmifqef;/ udkatmifjrifh/ a'gufuvyf ac: udkodrfOD;
aemuf cifAsm;wdk@ (ABSDF) &J@OuUÏa[mif;jzpfwJh xGef;atmifausmfvnf; 'Dor*~tzGJ@0ifa[mif;jzpfcJhw,f?
usaemfwdk@ (PDP) uxkwfa0wJh tm;opfpmapmifrSm olwdk@eJ@ygwfoufwJh owif;tcsuftvufawG &Sdw,f? wcsdK@vl
awGqDrSmawmh usefEdkifygao;w,f?
'gawGuawmh ygvDref'Drdkua&pDygwD&J@ twGif;a&;rª;jzpfol OD;cspfaqG ajymjywJh udkwifarmifOD;eJ@ ol&J@ywf0ef;usiftae
txm;awGygyJ/ 'D&kyfyHkv$mum;csyfxJu xGufay:vmwJh tawG;awGuawmh (1974) OD;oef@ta&;awmfyHku arG;zGm;ay;vdkuf
wJh ppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&; vufeufudkifausmif;om;or*~&J@ OuUÏawG[m vufeufudkifwdkufyGJyJjzpfjzpf òrd@jywkdufyGJawG
udkyJjzpfjzpf xdxda&mufa&mufeJ@ toufay;wkdufyGJ0ifcJhw,fqdkwmudk odcJh&w,f? udkwifarmifOD;[m usaemfwdk@&J@ xm0&
acgif;aqmifjzpfaer,fholygyJ/ rnfodk@yifjzpfap atmifyGJonf wdkuf&Jolwdk@. vufxJwGif&Sdonf [k em;vnf&awmhrSmygbJ?
aumif;ndK
(TrSwfwrf;twGuf ygvDref'Drdkua&pDygwD. twGif;a&;rª;
jzpfol OD;cspfaqGtm; aus;Zl;txl;wif&Sdygonf? )

tqHk;r&Sd
*gr%d
1974 'DZifbm 10 &uf[m OD;oef@psmyeudkta=umif;ðy+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;/ oHCmrsm;eJ@jynfolrsm; rqvppftpdk;&udk
tHwkzDqefaecJhwJh aemufqHk;&ufjzpfygw,f? ppftpdk;&[m vGefcJhwJh 3-4 &ufuwnf;u axmuf=uHh&mbmawmxJrSm
ppfwyfawG/ wifhum;awG toifhjyifxm;cJhw,f? &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;0if;xJrSm AuyeJ@autif,ltrmcHawG vufeuf
awGeJ@a&mufaew,fqdk+yD; ol@wyfawGudk ppf0g'r_dif;oGif;xm;w,f? (,) &uf (e) em&Dudkawmh 'DZifbm (11) &ufreuf (3)
em&DowfrSwfxm;w,f? (10) &ufae@noef;acgifrSm ppfwyfawGeJ@ykvdyfawGu wuUodkvfausmif;0if;wckvHk;udk 0dkif;ydwfxm;
vdkufw,f?
owfrSwfcsdefa&mufwJhtcg ausmif;om;awGuydwfqdk@xm;wJh t"dywdvrf;r*dwfwHcg;udk u&def;um;eJ@qGJzGifhypf+yD;
ykvdyfawG a&S@qHk;u0ifvmw,f? ausmif;om;awG[m noef;acgif,H ppfwyfawGae&mp,luwnf;u or*~taqmuftOD
ae&mrSm&SdwJh OD;oef@*lAdrmefudk 0dkif;ywfum&H ae&m,lxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f? ykvdyfawG0ifvmwJhtcgrSmawmh tm;vHk;[m
wa,mufudkwa,muf vufcsif;csdwf+yD; +idrf;csrf;pGmeJ@ aºuG;a=umfoHawGatmf=uygw,f? txyfxyf0dkif;xm;wJh ausmif;om;
awGudk&Sif;zdk@ ykvdyfawGu rsuf&nf,dkAkH;awGpypfygw,f? aemufwae@ ppftpdk;&rD'D,mrSm rsuf&nf,dkAHk;wvHk;ypf+yD; &Sif;vif;cJh
w,fvdk@qdkygw,f? wu,fawmh ausmif;om;wa,mufudk rsuf&nf,dkAHk;wvHk;E_H; ypfwmyg? rEWav;aqmifa&S@rSmypfwJh rsuf
&nf,dkAHk;a=umifh tif;0aqmifrSm&SdwJh ausmif;om;awGawmif toufr&SLEdkifatmif jzpf&w,fqdkawmh rsuf&nf,dkAHk; b,fESpf
vHk;ypfw,fqdkwm pOf;pm;om=unfhygawmh? 'Davmuf rsuf&nf,Adk Hk;awGypfaeayrJh ausmif;om;awG[m OD;oef@*ludk vufcsif;
csdwf0dkif;xm;wm tysufrcHygbl;? vufcsif;csdwf&ufeJ@yJ aºuG;a=umfoHawGatmf/ ‘urBmra=u’ oDcsif;qdk=uygw,f? rsuf&nf
,dkAHk;aiG@awGa=umifh rl;arhvJusoGm;olawGudka&m rvJusolawGudkyg ykvdyfawGu eHywf'kwfawGeJ@ 0if¶dkuf=uw,f? wae&m
rSmawmh 0ifvmwJh&JawG ppfom;awGudk ausmufcJawGeJ@xk=uvdk@ &JawG ppfom;awG jyefqkwfoGm;=uw,f? 'DvkdrsKd;
wufvmvdkuf cJeJ@xkvdk@jyefqkwfoGm;vkduf oHk;cgavmufjzpf+yD;rS (xkp&mcJvnf;ukefoGm;awmhrS) OD;oef@*ludk rqvvlawG
vHk;vHk;pD;rdoGm;w,f? OD;oef@¶kyfuvmyfjr‡Kyfxm;&mtkwf*ludk bl'dkZmeJ@wGef;zsufxdk;aumf+yD; tacgif;udk r˜,loGm;ygawmh
w,f? arharsmvJusoGm;olawGudkawmh ykvdyfawGppfom;awGu ¶dkufESufxkaxmif;+yD; qGJxkwfoGm;=uw,f? tomw=unf
awmh b,folrSrvdkuf? 'Dvdka&S@wdk;aemufiifjzpfaepOfrSm ppfwyfu *sDo&D;*sDzdk;awGeJ@vnf; ròydao;wJhvltkyfawGbuf ypfao;
- 52 -

ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

w,f? wcsufcsif;a&m twGJvdkufyg ypfoHawG jywfawmif;jywfawmif; =um;ae&w,f? or*~&ifjyif[m 'kwd,t}udrf
aoG;pGef;cJh&yg+yD?
(11) &ufae@reufvif;tm;}uD;tcsdef &efukefwuUodkvfudkpD;eif;r_rSm ausmif;olausmif;om;/ &[ef;oHCm/ oDv&Sif/
jynfolvlxkeJ@ aps;onfrusef vlaygif; (7000) avmuf wòydifeuftzrf;cH&w,f? tif;pdefaxmifuwdkufawGrSm wcef;udk vl
(30) avmuftxd xnfhxm;&wJhtajc qdkufoGm;w,f?
'gayrJh 'g[m OD;oef@ta&;awmfyHk&J@ aemufqHk; ed*Hk; r[kwfao;ygbl;? ta&;awmfyHk&J@ t"dutiftm;awG/ t"duacgif;
aqmifawG ygoGm;wm trSefygyJ? 'gayrJh ppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&;tiftm;awG[m ukefcrf;oGm;wwfwmrsKd; r[kwfygbl;/
vG,fvG,feJ@ OD;usKd;roGm;wwfygbl;? zdESdyfr_&Sdoa&G@ awmfvSefykefuefr_&SdaerSm ajr}uD;vufcwfrvGJwJh ed,mrjzpfygw,f?
OD;oef@ta&;awmfyHkumv &efukefwuUodkvfoydwfpcef;rSm ausmif;om;awG[m (24) em&D&SdaeayrJh 'D (24) em&DpvHk;
'Dausmif;om; 'Dausmif;om;yJ worwfwnf;&Sdaewm r[kwfygbl;? wcsKd@utdrfjyeftdyf/ wcsKd@u udk,fhta=umif;eJ@udk,f
wae&moGm;=ueJ@ rdk;vif;wJhtcg oydwfpcef;jyefvmwmrsKd;&Sdovdk nusrSoydwfpcef;vm+yD; ae@bufrSmudpPtrsKd;rsKd;eJ@ tjyif
oGm;aewJh ausmif;om;awGvnf;&Sdygw,f? ae@bufvHkòcHa&;wm0efusausmif;om;awGu nbuftdrfjyeftdyfwmvnf; &Sd
w,f? 'ga=umifh (11) &ufae@reufusrS oydwfpcef;udka&mufvmwJh ausmif;om;awGeJ@jynfolvlxkawG[m nwHk;u oydwf
pcef;udk ppfwyfu0ifpD;+yD; ausmif;om;awGeJ@ jynfolvlxkawGudkzrf;/ OD;oef@*ludk bl'dkZmeJ@wGef;òzd+yD; ¶kyfuvmyfudk o,foGm;
wJhta=umif; od&wJhtcg a'goawGaygufuGJygawmhw,f?
tJ'geJ@ pka0;rdwJh ausmif;olausmif;om;awGeJ@ jynfolvlxk[m vSnf;wef;uae &efukeòf rd@xJudk csDwuf=uygw,f?
vSnf;wef;rD;yGdKifhawGudk pau|;=u+yD; vrf;wav#mufrSmawG@or# tpdk;&ydkifXmeqdkif&marmfawmfum;/ bwfpfum;awGudk
zsufqD;¶dkufcGJrD;¶d_@ypf=uw,f? nbuf0ifzrf;wmrSm ygroGm;wJh ae@bufvHkòcHa&;wm0efusausmif;om;awG[m tckawmh vHkòcH
a&;vkyfp&mrvdkawmhwJhtwGuf zsufqD;a&;udkyJ tifwdkuftm;wdkufvkyfygawmhw,f? vrf;"mwfrD;wdkif/ rD;yGdKifh/ jynfol@qdkif/
orqdkif pwJh rqvydkiftaqmuftOD; ypPnf;ypP,tm;vHk; awG@or#ukd orypf=uw,f? yxrawmh ppfwyfeJ@ykvdyfu
rsuf&nf,dkAHk;eJ@vdkufypfao;w,f? vrf;qHkawGu ydwfw,f? tJ'Dtcg wjcm;uauG@ywf+yD; azmufxGufw,f? ppftpdk;&
xifxm;wmu wuUodkvf0if;xJuausmif;om;awGudk tukefydwfzrf;vdkuf&if yGJodrf;+yDvdk@xifcJhw,f? 'gayrJh wu,fawmh
tckrS yGJupwmyg? 1962 ckESpfup+yD; atmif;xm;cJhwJh vlxka'go tckrSaygufuGJwmjzpfw,f? OD;oef@ta&;awmfyHkrwdkifcif
vGefcJhwJh (6) vu aemifawmftvkyform;}uD;awGudk ppftpdk;&u &uf&ufpufpuf vlowfyGJcif;cJhwmudk emusnf;xm;wJh
ausmif;om;awG ausmif;olawGeJ@ omrefjynfolawG[m tcktcg rdrdwdk@a'goawGudk pdwf&Sdvuf&Sd &J&J0Hh0HhzGifhtefypfaew,f?
txu tvuausmif;om;av;awG[m vHkòcHa&;wm0ef,l&mrSm av;*GawGygyg=u+yD; vufvnf;ajzmifhwJhtwGuf
"mwfwdkifxdyfurD;vHk;awGudk wcsufwvHk;au|;=uwJhtcg ab;u=unhfaewJhvlxkawGu vufckyfwD;=obmay;=uw,f?
ykvif;xJ"mwfqDxnfhypfvdk@ AdkvfcsKyfvrf;ay:u ,kZe eJ@ awmf0if qdkwJh ppftpdk;&ydkif¶kyf&Sif¶HkESpf¶Hk vHk;0jymusoGm;w,f?
(tJ'Dae&mudk rqvacwfwav#mufvHk; uGufvyftwdkif;yJxm;cJh+yD; tck (88) aemufydkif;usrS pifx&,fa[mfw,fqdkwm
jyefaqmufxm;w,f?) jynfol@rkef@wdkuf (tck xa&;'g;a[mfw,f jyefaqmufxm;w,f) eJ@tdk;tdrfOD;pD;Xmevnf; t}uD;
tus,fysufpD;oGm;w,f? [D;Edk;um;awG/ av;bD;wuUqDum;awG renf;raem ysufpD;rD;avmifukefw,f? ppftpdk;&u 'g[m
ukvm;'defawG *savbDawG&J@vufcsufqdk+yD; oduQmcsw,f? 'gayrJh tckvdktHkºuGaygufuGJr_twGif;rSm yk*~vduydkifypPnf;awGudk
zsufqD;wm/ vkwmr&SdcJhygbl;? yk*~vduqdkifcef;awG tazmufrcH&ygbl;? AdkvfcsKyfaps;ab;u jzwfoGm;ayrJh vufzsm;eJ@awmif
rwdk@cJhygbl;? ppftpdk;&ydkifypPnf;awG taqmuftOD;awGudkom aoaocsmcsmypfrSwfxm;+yD; au|;wmjzpfygw,f? (11) &ufae@
wae@vHk; &efukefòrd@tEHS@ tJovdkwdkufyGJ0if=uw,f? rqvwyfuvnf; vltkyfawG&Sd&mawGudk vkdufydwf+yD;ypfw,f? 'DtcgrSm
ausmif;om;awGeJ@vlxkawGu wjcm;bufudk auG@ywfxGuf+yD; xyfau|;=ujyefw,f? ppfwyfu xyfvdkufvm+yD; ypfjyefwJh
tcg aemufwae&mudk azmufxGuf+yD; aqmfjyefw,f?
oCFef;pawGudk acgif;rSmpnf;xm;wJh ausmif;om;awG ausmif;olawGeJ@ oHCmawG/ jynfolvlxkawG[m twGif;0ef¶Hk;
udkoGm;odrf;zdk@ 'grSr[kwf zsufqD;rD;¶d_@ypfzdk@ óud;pm;ayrJh ydwfqdk@ypfcwfaewJh ppfwyftiftm;u rsm;vGef;wma=umifh uyfvdk@
r&bJ qkwf&w,f? ppfwyf[m aemufqHk;rSm wifhum;eJ@ b&if;u,f&D,may:u pufvwfawGeJ@yg vdkufypfvdk@ wjznf;jznf;eJ@
vlpkuGJoGm;&awmhw,f? tJ'Dae@u &efukefwòrd@vHk;tESH@ aoewfoHawG=um;ae&+yD; rD;cdk;vHk;awG tvdyfvdyfwufaewm
awG@ae&ygw,f? reufup=um;&wJh aoewfoH[m naeapmif;usrS wdwfygw,f? (11) &ufae@rmS yJ rqvu ppftkyfcsKyfa&;
a=unmvdkufw,f?
'gayrJh tJ'g aemufqHk;r[kwfao;ygbl;? (12) &ufae@rSm ausmif;om;awGeJ@vlxkawG[m ql;avbk&m;em;rSm xyfpk=u
jyefw,f? aemufwcsD xyfcs=uw,f? 'Dwcgawmh &efukefòrd@xJrSm ppfom;awG pdaeatmifcsxm;+yD;jzpfvdk@ (11) &ufae@
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ta&;awmfyHk (4) apmifwGJ

avmuf =um=umwdkufyGJ0ifvdk@r&bJ ypfcwfowfjzwfcH&+yD; +idrfoGm;&w,f? 'DtHkºuGr_ESpf&uftwGif; ppftpdk;&&J@xkwfjyefcsuf
t& (31) a,mufaow,fvdk@qkdw,f? 'Dawmh wu,fhta&twGufodcsif&if tenf;qHk; (10) eJ@ajr‡muf b,fvdkrSrrSm;Edkif
ygbl;?
'DwdkufyGJudk rif;rJhp¶dkuf 'grSr[kwf t=urf;zuf0g'vdk@ ajymcsifvnf;ajymyg? &ygw,f? ausmif;om;awG[m vHk;0udk
+idrf;csrf;pGmeJ@ qENjyawmif;qdkcJhwmudk ppftm%m&SifawGup+yD; t=urf;zufòzdcGJwmjzpfw,f? t"duacgif;aqmifawG tm;vHk;
vdkvdk axmifxJa&mufoGm;wJhtcg usefwJhausmif;om;awGudk xdef;EdkifwJholr&Sdawmhvdk@ tckvdkaygufuGJyGifhxGufoGm;wm
wu,fawmh bmrSrqef;ygbl;? ausmif;om;qdkwmuvnf; b,facwfrSmrS oDaygrif;pdwf"mwf/ uif;0efrif;}uD;pdwf"mwfrsKd;
r&SdcJhygbl;?
tJ'Dawmh 'DZifbm (12) &ufae@uyJ OD;oef@ta&;awmfyHk&J@ aemufqHk;jzpfoGm;+yDvm;? tJovdkajymr,fqdk ajymvdk@&Edkif
ayrJh ausmif;om;awG&J@aemufqHk;awmh vHk;0r[kwfygbl;? wu,fawmh ausmif;om;awG&J@aemufqHk;qdkwm &Sdudkr&Sdygbl;?
bmvdk@vJqdkawmh aemufxyf (6) vt=umjzpfwJh 1975 ZGefvrSm ausmif;om;awG[m ppftm%m&SifawGukd xyfrHtHwk
cJhjyefygw,f? 'gudk ppftpdk;&uòzdcGJ+yD; ausmif;om;awGudk &meJ@csD axmifcscJhjyefw,f? 'gayrJh ausmif;om;awG[m aemufxyf
(9) vt=umjzpfwJh 1976 rwfvrSm rd_if;&mjynfhta&;awmfyHkudk qifE$JwdkufyGJ0ifjyefygw,f? &mcsDtzrf;cH&jyefw,f? axmifxJ
a&mufwJhausmif;om;awGuvnf; tvHrvSJbJ wdkufyGJawGw+cdrf;+cdrf; qufwdkuf=uwmygyJ?
1977 ckrSm (7) av;vHk;vkyfzdk@óud;yrf;csuf/ 1978 rSm tHkºuGzdk@óud;yrf;csufawGuawmh pzdk@=uHwkef;rSmyJ tòzdcHvdkuf&w,f?
'gawGtm;vHk;[m EdkifiHwumvGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtzGJ@wdk@/ EdkifiHwum=uufajceDwdk@/ vl@tcGifhta&;apmifh=unhfa&;tzGJ@wdk@u
jrefrmjynfudk pm&if;xJxnfhrxm;wJhtcsdefrSm vkyfcJh=uwmyg? tJ'Daemuf 1980 rSm rqvppftpdk;&u (2§80) eJ@vGwf+idrf;
csrf;omcGifhay;awmh ausmif;om;awG&J@ pGef@v$wfwdkufyGJ0ifr_awGudk EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD;awGu opPmazmufvdkuf=uyg
w,f? 'geJ@yJ 1988 txd a&pkefarsmoGm;wmjzpfw,f? 1974 ckESpf tvkyform;ta&;awmfyHkeJ@ OD;oef@ta&;awmfyHk vlowfyGJ
awGjzpf+yD; aemuf (13) ESpft=umrSmrS Armjynfudk urBmu “awG@&Sd” oGm;=uygawmhw,f?
b,fvdkyJjzpfjzpf rsKd;qufawG[m wquf+yD;wquf udk,fvkyfEdkifoavmuf tajctaeay;oavmuf twwfEdkifqHk;
wm0efausatmif vkyfoGm;=uwmcsnf;ygyJ? tajctaeay;oavmufxufawmh b,folrSausmfvGef+yD; vkyfvdk@r&cJh=uygbl;?
b,facwfyJa&mufa&muf ausmif;om;awGuawmh rw&m;wmudk b,fawmhrS acgif;iHk@+idrfcHaerSmr[kwfygbl;?
(Taqmif;yg;a&;jzpf&ef v_H@aqmfr_jzpfcJhaom q&mrjra=u;rHktm; txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sdygonf?)
*gr%d

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