DrIR···E·C· .. -····T'O': R:) rO······'·IF·, A· ... _·:· N·::::··I'M·':·A'~'T·'lliO_:"··,·'N·!

'·W···-· ':H'O'r F' -'R-A'-"· M',,'IE,'DI R'-'O, ~"G-_:'-':"ER'-" R~-:'A' 8·B~T'

" I., . ,'_- .. :'. '._- .>' " " ' .. :" ... ..J " '.~ "'._.,', ': .. ' ,'., '. :'", " ."', ..... :. _! _! !.~ .. ~,' _I.,' :._:___. ,,' .,._-"" '.' :._,.' ,!. .' '~'''' · .. 11

'T'" '.'~ ·'E··"

. . .

. " ,f. .. "

1

i .:

,," ' . ..1 1

I _ f '~_. !.

A' M···"·A·····N'··:······U·A::·····L' IQ":"'F M··."ETI-·HO''-·_-::·'D'':'·S-; P'R'IN' I C··' _-"'IP'L'; E' .1'8 .. ·····• A:-"'N::" D_-" -F'O"': """R:M,'-IU'" LA:: S,--"

........... '.'"., ..' _"" ~ ,I .' __ 1,:,."':_:, ' ' .. : __ ... ,', -'. ' •.. ~ ',' ':_1 ',. . ... > , .' '." }," ':: -:1

r 0:· ····R· C·· .. ·····'LA··' , s:' .. · ·SC:·I·C: ····A·:" L ,0"" '-0' ". M: P··UT~ ER:' I' G"" A'_-' M' 'E-" '8·':"'" 8::-,'TO' ' ... p.'" M: 0'" ·""'r· ·'10··· .. ·: 'N' A':,· N: -':D' :l"N· TER:; N···:·iE"T A:' N· I~M' A:JO'" ··R·S···

III .,_"<.'. ".' " ':I_~_'" ~,"" .__ _ '_ .] ",.'-,: -.-,~: _ '.:_ _: _." .'.'" :.' : '_' ~, ... '-" l .. :,l. ' I : '_J.,.: ._ ,:.

To lmogen,

my co-conspirator and 'wifer w'ith1out 'whom this book would certainly not exist - and the author might not be around to write it ..

III want this book t'OI put over what I have found to be the blest working methods, S'ID that. anlmatlng becomes better and easier to do,

III learned it from the best in the business and l've boiled it alii dOIWI1i into a systematic wo,rking order, It transformed my work -III hope it will bel useful to you.

vi

l'

,

111

'2-;'3'

..•• I •

I_I ",

35; ,41 ,4"~ s:

_rID

68>,'

I I:'"

70 75,

7~ _0

W·HI'V' 'TH IS BIO'Oj~('? D'RAW'ING' ~N TIM,E TI'ME T'IOI D'RAW'

~T'IrS; ,A,LlIN' T',HE ITlMII'NIG AN'D 'T'H'~: SP~A.ClNG:

l- E'S'S~'O'-:' ':"IN'-" '1'"

-! _- !. :._ ," ",

- ,I,' .. '. '

A- -D-'V"A' N' I e'- 'IN'iCi'--- B-·A' "'C'-'-K'''·W- ~:A'-,I-R"-I-D''''S-'' TIO-I '1" 014'10""

l __ l_' '" 't~ 1.1··· .... I·:_'l __ \··_ ,._ ~.I·: .1< -[ \ ..... 1:-:)_':",_-' l~ 1_ "'_' ~l··j ... ' .. '

IlHliI~stolty' of tlh,e IC:halri, anld ~nbietw'e!en lExtjrlelme~5 and IHI eakdewns

IK1e'Y5:

'-lhree WIClYSi to Ani:m,a:~e

· _ !,st:i ng·~. Te·s:ti ng; lesti ng' - 'he :X-,Sh,e'et

C',ame' the Dawn ~I • I~

The Heist Numbering :5':y ste' m Thill Gr,el,t, Ones ane TWo". Ilatt~le Tlh'I1' 'Top ,aL~ d Bottclm IPe',g,s B;lar"h~1

88 .Classlc [Inlbe'tw'el~'n Mista,k:IGS 9·0 'Watch Your Arcs;

9'2, Get,tjng M,Olrle~ ,Mov,!lmlent WithJnl the, IMIIS,S 96 The Eiiol1:gat[ed ~nblitw'ee'n .

9- 9:C'"

. ,:OJ

99"-"·'

..

'-:.>

1101 101

'1[0.2 '11[0161

11[09' 111 1'15

The Mlajollr' iBe,g~n~-_e'r'~s Miistak.e 'The '~Ruff~ Appr[olach

How MJ '~'IlJ"ch- [D~I'o-" W\'j'~>:;'le~a:,v= 'To" "T'I~e-" A'-·ls'-'s'~i.s··'t·a·n·'·'~-"

_":", I" " IJ~y~, . ~ -"~:) ·f,~ .. e ~: ·,-..e ~ i~. ~ n~" .>' ~,,-~':" ~~,.J I '<II

Take The [Lolnlg ShlOlrt Cut

IGletting tlhi[e' :,\:?v)'eig:ht Set the Iempo

,.

11,8 Tihe Dou'bl~e, B'OUlrllIICe 120 . Loosening i't Ulp

12,8 135,

,- 3-.16:'"'

~ ~~Ij •• ~.~

13'·'·'1'6::::.·

,I,. ,,' .','

14,2 1,4,6 '1:,47

'148

15·,6:=

~I j l ',: ::.:

11[63 '11[67

'-7","3;,

'/ -:-','

1'7'6

1- 8-·' .. ·9.-·····

',", ,', I

l :-=-?' ~.'/

1192 ;ij'l19"=15~~'

~ ~'j ,.'J

2[011'0.('1

":'-) ....•

2"0':"1-

./:' [') ..

2~O--:"9-:-'

[ [:<

,'.- I."

212 2.1,3, v'i'i]

D"'~I'g--' g'~' ii]n';g'~' 0, .:' e eper III n 't; "0: , W,·,,'··,'·,:a·-Ik-::s·:

~; , .. [J.. I_I ,[· •. ··.·11 II U II~ ',~i .... ' ,. ~

INorma,~ :,:"<~~/a,~k' SpaC:'i:ng We:iglhlt Shilfl

The B,[ell l~lnllel

A,rml Mlol'vemlernlts

C - - t-l ~ -- ~ ~'I- ~ ....

: , .. l ," ',~ I:' :-' '1 'I -, I ':'"

Dun .erac, IIJOn

The Re[clp[e Sneaks

Th ',8 Tlp rIO'I"' e S······IIliI- e ak

~. ~ .. ~ c.~' II [, ". Ill-!ai,.

ITIIl[!I,4 Drawing' Fo1rlmilUia Run~ The, :3 Drawing' Run

The, 2 Dr111w[ng Rtln

The Relc~IPle

Run" Jump, Slktltp and Leap 5 klps

Jumps

'Wlel~ght on a Jump

217' IfLE.XIBll~TY

2.·>"i'I'] 8'_',:, TL,"le;'" srea kd own

. ~ f I " . .. . .' '.. ~ '_ _. . ."_.. . ._j '_' ~ _

223 Simple Overlap

I . I

23:0 23:1

2'4:6·····,

", • lJ •...•

24 .... 19- ...•

lJ ,"'

Overlapping Action Simple Counteraction

IBreaking Joints tOI Give Flexibility Hcxlblllty in the Face Overlapping Action in the Pace

'1 t ~ R d ~. ft'iill f dl bioi'"

'ns·;·· a-nt ·'·'e·'·!'·" iiiiiiiiiil Pro , e·'s·· 'o"'Jr R"lea" .... ·a·· I.,.~ f't·y·,,:,

1 I .. .' , ' .' I. . . . , '. ". I '. . . '. ,.. . , . I. I .. "

...... , .. _.. .. .. ,,' , ... - - ,. _ ... , . " . . . " . " .. "... " .':

262 2'64 .2,69

27'2

273

218"'2;

.o .:".

28'3:'

[>1" s, ~_.:.

-

HOIW Much Effort Do We Have To Expend?'

D,ancing'

RuJles of: Thumb On Synchronising' Action

S· · A" tlcl t"

': U rpnsenl ~JICI pa, 1,1 ons

lnvisible Anticipations

285 TAKES AINDI ,ACCENTS

2951 A Hard Accent Bounces Black 2951 A :Soft Accent continues

297 'T~M',': I~NG. 'STA·.····':G::IIG< EIR·· •. ··S·. ·WA··.·~VE· A<Nro.··· W',:~,H'H~IP

~ iJ ~ ~.- .. 1 .. . - "~ - - ~ ~ ~ ~

2,97 Stagger Tlmlrtgs

2,99 The Side to Side Vibratlon Formula 30·1 Whip Action

3011 'Wa.V'e Action

304 ,DI,A.LO'GUE

30':"5'-

."~ ..... ' .. ' -.>

31,0

31!1 31!4

Phrasing

Picture and Sound Sync Accents

At~t!"t d' ~

'_II:U."e

315 A'CT~NG

3.20 Change of Expr'es:sion 32'1 Look for the, Contrast 3:2,3 An Acting' Point

..

1Ii~' If.l~

3.:2.4· Body Language

324 'Symm,et:.ry or "Iwlnning' ,3,2.5, Stea I I b!

3,25, E'y"es

,32.7' A,NIMAL A'CTIO,NI 328 Liv,e· Action Reference

3·,,3,0·.·.··· '8' "' A ~ ~ 'W' lk p' tt

sasrc ,_"n tmar vvar _:·a"_,_e,rn

3:3,3 DlRE:CTI'NG!

3,3,4 The Br'ie,f

3:34, The, Lelca Reel

334· Separate the Characters

,335 3,35 335 '3:..3'·5·

.-_ .. _ . .' ,"_

335 335 335 335 335

33"8':>

••. : "I

3391 342

Best Foot. Forward Casting Animators ,Mak'I,n,g Changes

; Sayl Sayl'

V:··:·;,·O-I ~'C'I~ Reco rd lng

".' " __ I~ .... III:; . It;''"_l. ," .. ".. , ,I, ~.

Hook Ups, Research __ ,:'~~I r __~'_ I

'Editin'g

Be~ieve In Your ,M"at,e:ria,1

'REVJEW

The Procedure The I ngred lents

i'. ,

Ackn owl €!,d':gem ents

..

< .

~

;~

.:.' • 1_ ':.',: r...., , .

.. .. '.:, l

I . .

. l

..' . . ' .' ..,. ,

. . .

. . . ..

,

• I • • • •

. .

I '::', :.. •

. .

. .. .'

. .... .... .

:', 1':':,', . :-.: -:... :

: • : : .: d :. : : : '. • ." .:::::: .' •

. ... . ....

. . : .:. ..:. " : ..

. . '.' ... :.: . ~ : .' : . . . .. ..

~-=--------~,~ ~~~~'~.~.' . ~ ~-~~. ~, ~~~ ,- , . . .

• L •

.. . .....

. . .....

'T' h"" L ,tt-)t!"Jl I('j'·~nc· ·dc.· 1 n·t:'s···

:: " e ~~ ..... r~ I~-~r.·'~l~ i.'. '.--.r ~ #"~ .. -'.

Whi!~e I was making The Little Island I had seen a re-release of Bembi, but since l'd considered myself a revolutlonary ln the field of anlmatlon, :I:'d rejected the nilim as; conventlonal. B'ut w:h!en '1

fhl1s---:h~'d: m'u fflm IIS::'~'W'''{ 'B-:;''''-~'''~:b(~)' :a;·····-···-:- ~'.--- .' '. I' d·:' :~-<I'" ost crawled ,-.-'.-- '~'I"I,'f: t he th ·( .. -;:.c "1'111 II" 'm'I""-' 1 .... :- ndsa id kr , "<

.~ _. __ :_ .~.'. __ ryl_ . _ ",T-' - - - f - ,:_a., .. , .. lla,m~,/, :gal nf an ,il .. mos·, -.-llraW~,e _ ,QUI". 01: 'c Ie· Ilea, cf"ie oln I·,Y nan" :s ,2JJ1L . ·n,e,eS·'ii

'~H'o,w ,did th'ey ever do ·tha~t?,. l'd learned just enough 't-o, realise 'th!at I recally d1idn'"t kno"w' .anythiingl

SliD h'D"W' and where tooe·l: Ilb,s expert kno,w'lled]aoe?1 ~ 'was w,orkiin,g,~ ln lEnl"'land 15; an independent

- - I~ - - - - - - - - , - - ai - '- - - ~ - - - -_I - - ., ,,' - " - D' - - - - -- - --, - , ,,' I ;e! - -- - ,_ - - - - , '_' , ,

anldl dldn't W' ,"'a- nt 't'-O~I go lnt I~' the - D,~,lll:'y" 'W", '~'O'-,d-!I cartoon m ;1"1111 III 'W' ",~, -, ,e': -d': i~IE, b-:~J~,'tLln... w, -~'y" 's, I! 'w"",,'~"nl't,e--Id,-,' m--'-'y",-

_____ ~ __ _ _ _ _ til I ""v Ii II .. v " __ ,'!I,iijji _., L, U ,\.;;a ,U' I I , . a..., . III Ill. '11.11111 Q. ~ _ _ ~ , , I "

". .' I':,'

artistic freedom but 1,1,1:5,0 'wa,ntldl 'the, knowledge,

Preston 'B;]ai':r,r,!j ,HIO'W to .Animclte Film' Csrtoons was available. [blurt because ,I was put off by 'Ithe' 5·qlul,a.s:hy·~'stlt'iet,c'lby 1 :940:5 cartoon :s:tyllle~,r It WI2lS, harder flo" me tOI .g'ra,s;'pi ·tlhle 'Ulnder~Y·~lng pr~,nc:"p,~les ~ 'wa:s after - although lt's a" solld book and Preston 'Wlil,S; a v'lery' good animator from the IGID,~'den Age, Ilt':s irenic tha't ":IOlriy' :y'e,ars: later ~ wou;~d become 'best: kn10wn for m'y w'olrk' on Wh'o,

FI' ame d Roser Rsbbit d Ir'J!ljjl'w'!'nu' ln p-' 'r-e-~'!jr,~lly l'I!..'e sam ,'- ,-·t-C- -'l~~' tLjl!..~lt-" ha dJ [Il'llu't m D -'ff~: learn -n-o' from

'W'~:I',,\Ub,·.c,·_(-:.~~I_~I,,~-, .......,_'l,~ . 111:0 II. ., .'.'~~I~,~I.~_ .I~n~,' ~,. -_Ile' .5:1~-,ylll~ 1_-III!,d. :I,_,.,_~' 1 _ _I,~ 0'1 ' ,=\::~,.II'ID " .. lu_~ __

P resto n,

IMwu:hl late·r~ ~ was able to 'w1ork: wl·thl Kenl Harris, t,hl'! first JreJal-' master anlmator lmet, and whos,e 'w:itch iiin Broomstick ,Bu,nny II had traced loff. It's gene ,all~y agreed t'ha.t: K,e'nl Harris 'W,IS! the

master 'a" mlrn '!i!:.i't,'o' ','r' '~'t'l I-W'~"'~'i'!!!llli"',n"~·' nllli'l"Ai'~' C'" ~1e.,rt';'~I'''I'n'ly' he= w-; :.~iC' 'di-; 'i,re:' , ",r-' Chu ek Jones :Ir,,~,_,-, ille_-',I~_",:_d. 1_ man,

__ a.~ !!I;;~ '_, __ ,_ I_,.I~'_- _ Q ,mlll_I_!!ii;;' DIIIU~I~ ._:_.~. __ " " __ '_'. ,_I __ I~.iiI! 1_ 11,·". _ .... ~ '¥ i3 ~ Co

A'l,e,r seven lo'r elght years 'Df wOirk::iing cl:os'sll.),' 'wi~'tih Ken~ hie sald ta me, ~IH,e.y' Dick, YOlu"re startii'ng to dra,'w' those ,thli'llrnlgs hll the r":gh·l. plsce. ~

2

'-

'W',D,rki:n'g,1

,Oln" d'a~y' he, conked out 'for three hours and b[.y I;he, tlme he 'wok,e up, I had IPlr,et~~'t much animated t:h"1 scene: .. ~:Sor'ry~ Dick,' hie sald, ~y'IOIlJ' ik:nJCiIW I' II ., l'm just so god-damned old: ('1'01111:8' paillJl~sle)' ~IO\h ~ ,~. 00 II s;e,e' you 'v'e ,an!~lm,at,ed 'thl[e scene ~ .~. ~~'

'·'Yeah!J,I" ~ s;a~ld" ~'~ dldn't ik.now what else te do',

cl.IN.i:[CI [d:r,a:w:i,n,gs .~ I~ ,~If hie ~s,aiild[, then pclnted, .~IIHely~, ,tlha:t~~s; 'w'rong~ -Y;OiU~Vle, made a :m,[s.talk·e,~,~' A,n,dl

of C)O[iUllr;SII~ he w'as: [ri:glht~.

,f, iDI,a.1II1 m ii:t K[81I1J[,,~' II sal d .~l .1:1 've w[olr.k:eldl w il'tlhl ylOhU 'f,cujO' ·th Ii rteen Y',ea rs ,8,11 d ~ still can ~'l get y'IOI U r ;Ili 'Ihl ~llnlig rl" Ii' III~'[m! afral dl lt's B'o ~ n!g' to' d t~ e w'iit:h 'y'O:I'i'~'

'·ye,iii·e,-aaahlhhhih :. :.1 .I~· he snlckered, ·th[e'llrni sald, ,1I\:,·r':"lellll',; don't wOllrry;~ YOl:u"v,e y,olulrl 'O'WlriIJ Ip1retty aeod ~jh':--:'I~I"I~rn:--lg I1ln·I::n·~·1Jf' II Tlh"'eln hl,e"-:' sntekered a aa~"'I;ln

:~'</. Ilh.l~ .I:D, :D,v.·.i:OI!! . '.': I. .1'::).' . ..;,~.I\~~ . .:_/.:J ':;1) ~ 1IIIIllii

1~'~;flIl 'w:"·>':'·:a-s<'· 1:8:; 'V~"/~'nI fast w:,,~'l':"~l·r··-k.:e_-:!r a nd III "W"I""I"ll~1l l"l~·\W·.r'·,·":'?~··y\··/·:IS:'~ 'r'q-'~~iIIl~~lll~I-'lln;lg~J 'h-"['I'I m ':0·: }t" m ore a nd more f-;::o=:o~;t-~~lg'~' an d Ii\,~ .. ~ ".' ." 'iij.!lI, aI.a, , u... ' .. III." ~,~ ~,I" _:!. ,iijI!IIUI~;~., I.'c<' I I II III .. 11 .1_ ,~ •. ~ u ~ ". .' II... ..alD~ u.. I ..

:8'II'ttiln!g' lhiml tOI anlmata even W'h'6In the taxi 'w,a's ·tjic:k:~nl;!: OliUlt's;iJdie' waill·ttl!,nl:g' 'for' hlm to [ci:i,ch! a plane

,

heme tOI 'tll!el State'.Sil

'W:\,':\'ihi An-l 111.116. d::] i'i:.iii:!Iil;J! ~ n 1- 'Q;9,2:~ a~:ltl~ Imi':u~t'-:l~"~I!iiii!,tl-~I~[r·-·e···'·le··~ mv ~r'II'~a;~I' rtil:8'·: aret ·-w"I '.::~-=_---'.~ th ',",;' t when (. "W,·,· ·ra:: .. ts 1:1 ·p .. ·:···I .. ····-III:I·· be -·:a····~· ~I~:~"' ~~ .~.~. ~'I;. . .1 ~I U ~; .. I ¥.ul IL ~ ~ ,;1-U~, I .... '¥1:D,l~H ,Y I.J II 'jif' . "y .L .... III 111,.gre.", ilS Il., _a ,~,~ I ~'.-' J I ... ~ ,l~._:' I, ~~I~'~[ />.rer ~I

Idi:,dlnl~t have '1111[1 guts tc tuck: a lb~!a,c,k~wi:nl' p1en,cif inlt~ol hi ii s hlallrnl,dl In hls open IC1o'fft,n,~ H!'I 'w',ol;ld hl,I;V',!

I~,o·v,e.d 'Ihlaf;~, "

A'f'trl~: that ~':-\';'-=-"I ·-'I·~':~'=·,--~t-' to .. _' -".". Ih,····· B, .... :·~t·,·~iI'· ·If .. ~;<-l"t~:~--·i··:-:·· 1"=:;_'~"lioiIo"I:-'I"::-"---' Th'-:j~! v-'~J" . .' .. -:., ... , .. .' Subr. .. ·;: .. -'·'·"='·~', .... ~>",:·· '-yil ... ,-::···-I-····IIl...· I I·]"':k· .. ·~,·-·]'d[l

L,-jJ_er ... 1,11 we wenl, ,0 .see lie ueanes re •. ure c;a..~ l,OCIilI "iJ re .ler,IQW ,.:,u:_.m,artneili. nougn I 11[<.e.,

the ·d-:-~,iI'i,a.'n'_·e-f~· -H--:-,iJl"I-:-' 'E-··d·"]···:-·'·I'-m··~··-:-l-~f·sc stvllna :t:L. 'start-s .. t-:···~-·--·· I·-·,t-'I':'" -~. start' "~,·:L,. .. '. Iii ':1;1 ''''t> ,'. of rr ost of th .:- .

. 11~:III.~IISlli:ct.::~r .1 €U~II'Z. ,.1 e man's ~.-y.ll:IIJllg, 1_-IIIB 5·,.3, .c-.5 JOI:P[j1' ,!]idL,OIP' .... .start J8IrK,Y qUI,ILJ ~y \:. mOI!I[- 10. "-, .. '1'

anlmation lmealnlt: It hi at after a half hour much of 'Ihle! ,a,'udllienc:e' went to 'the ~l,oblb.'w~ IN 101 Im,a,ttll!lr hOlW' [I"

sty,llls,lh o'r' ~nlve·:n'lti;v·111 - .je,r.k~y\','c or Ibu'mlp:y all1.lma:tiollnJ seems 'DI:nily~'? 't[QI be able to hold the ,lJu,dlil'lrnl,cl' fer

~ .~. ~ '" .

.

about tw@,lll1lly',,:,t, ... ·,f::iivem!tillnllJ't·e.,s'W'hl.l,e Th@'l\ello,wSu'blm"QlrJn·e'ha·d lain enthuslastle [CIUiiI' flol~I[DI;w'ijln,p:

,._.l_~. .~. . '_ .~i1 .~j '_' ,_. • ~':.__I/ •.. l-'. .~. ••• •• • • • • I . [i! l • . .. 1.. " • . ~ l~ ~~. '._ ~. l~ . _' l .. ~j '. • l.!l ~j ',._.j~~ ~j ~j '_ • ~_. ~ .~_~ • ." I . l ". J __ ~ ~. ~ _~ l~ .~ _~. ~ .. ~- l"'-J ,_i1 ~._. . .~. . j ••• lal

fro m 'thl1e ,1,dlv'lllrl':h& j' nl:g agelrnl el es an d ullnllv[e:rs il'~y' [clr:o,'w',d [f' 'Iih II!; gen eral pu b ~I ii C: 8''1'0 ii Idled ,t h ,I, 'fiii l~ m, :llt Ikil~;lle\dl ,t';he' nlio[II1~IDlhsney"/ fe·atuir:e malrk',erl 'f[DI!r' ·W'lea,fJ·

f. 1. 1 J._II ~, __ ~ ~._~_ ~ , 1 . .1. 1._, 1._ . ,~ ,_I_1BJ

a

.

. ~ ,

.....---------------------w.-.'l--,. -~.~ ........ ~-...I-----!~-'-'-~·--I-'·--.--)·t---"1

;. I

~ &t!j

~·~~~f~, ..

' .l'~ .•• o) .... '"

'~_ ," r' .

l l' ,_

;..--:." .... ,

r:,..,F J -e -

4,

A "tl"O'I~1 U~I ~lnljij't\Dd,~':" A'~" rtlsts e'·x···>e~lc'--'IUlI·'t·~V·"" e-~- W~'-' 'h~ Al dlstrlbuted Th e-····· Ve'· :·-I···"('O·;--··W~"_'- S;~'U'I bm erine told me '~T=]h~~1 :1iC: ls the

"'r ····.·ILIJ. ~ .. - .. j'" '.lll~l'·'Zl l~~ .. _ -.I'.~~J'· < j\j\'_~J ,JJ,J j W I-_'I~ - . _-'_ -~l ~.~'~_~ t~ r •• ~. J·ll .. ~ . .r'll.r.l~u ,' .. ~j •• ~JrjlU;l) i~) jl~ ' _ _:'~l~"'_ ~_ ~r' . IIiiiI ~~ .I~j·.-~

[B' t ~I' "S at the ]t..a1a]lI....-t D" f- "L.erhi!' popul ~ r~·t~y~ and ,C't~·t·l n ~ 0--1111 ~ st-"~y' . aW'I~ly-' fro m no n D--:'- lsnev animatlo M ~' ~:lleal res a :-'"-: I:~ rh~dllonlF.1 L, (2.:1. 'lL~T~I!L~- "~'~ "~. iJ~aJ III \'~/ ,- nc su! I, [r-.III~:[P le~~:~~·~/c, '1/,I/,~::·'/.rL.:III' ,:1:- n: .... :--=_1 ~ :~~ n ~., ann IJ'. o,;_,11 (Ji,li III Ii]

[Fill!mll executives ,at j,~hlat 'tlime· alw',a;y's said IOlf ,1[lli[ma.i'lilon, ~Iilf: ~It: d]Clles,lnl~t ih,8V'iI! the D~lslnl~y name onl it., no Olll'illiG 'w'~,I~ go see iit~ f B:[Ult the- [re,sJ potnt ls, ~t wa~s:n't. jiuI:s't: ·the, ,D~S:If1jrey' name - it 'W,ttSI the :DI~slnley

rJ.4 .. "iL, II II ... ~'d"1 LL"..I'~ d h ~I d to. L. f' '"' IL t 'ill .&.,

expe: ti.ISeun~·a[ C'I,PI :E,~v,a!'t,e ;~I 'iUlie ,aUI'DI[~elnCe an: l~e"!IC, j 1IIIlle':m . r9[r le~ gUIII-Y' ml,_~IUII"eS[i

.AII!mOI:st: the, same week [Oiisneyrs Thiel J'ulngie Book carne ICUJ:·t and 'was a[n inJ:stan't hlt, I we.nt along tOI see iiit r'e~luctantJly, thinking (as II stii~].~ considered myself an tiinlnOlvatolir) that though there might be something interes.t[ng', it ·w·as plrolbla[b~:y predictable stuff,

Th . £ It ~ h ,-,., iii t- to. , . rt A "th" ~t . ~ d' - -,..!II '"I . - ~ , ~ - ,[I '. ',,' - - d ~ t iiIl ~, Ih n ~ ~ d [t.. ~. "I Ilk" -'~ '. Ii ~-' ,~, ~ ~, if

' ". ,ilt"! ;IO'W I' 5' _,S'[OI!jJ ' ...... WI.I.",_ s·anl,~,_,arru-llls,sue wOI'v,es ac o'p.lln:g ',. J~,e -IO'OII:-_ rI'Dusere,eIPllng sealll 10 I

aplprIOlva[~f Icu'tre~s.:y [babl:y~, ~ remembeir'the [b,o.y .MIO'W'ig·l~ ri',ding II b~l,ack pa,n'tlhe[r moving and 8,cting ~nl

a ""'[~ Ieh e-r d w .~y ~ ~ n t~"~' ~ h a got I A" A~' d': l'l' d ~ d 1-- ~. ~~I ", ,Q,v'e" rytl h ~11.l n'rD" i'i'h ~ IIi":ti 'd~ 'T--l-~ h . e d j,i!law~1 ~ .If. rho aM g'~ ~ d T'h-'~ e

,~_ I":~,I~~._:I,(I_ " \·'ICI.~~/ ....... tllili 'I[ill'y '~IIUI I~Jt~IlI-~ ,·~-':'I.II· ,~UI: ::_1 el:[I.Y e "/~I.I~',"-: ~rU~1 r~b I"j .. a~r~l _~,I.I~ 'i, . II.I~I [J 1!I.c~\',/IIJ ~ ~ "_~llIJ~.:<e" 'ill ,.~,

proportlons chanl:ge'dl,~ T._-Je actions and acting' changsd. 'Tlhe' panther help1ed the bo:y' up a bee, and _everythl~ng moved to a superb ~Ie:ver of e'nte·rtl.ii:nlmlen't~ The actlon, the dlir,awi1n,gl, the per-

f ' h "II '" " -h _ h k d d i' d z, t·,~ t, h

ormanee, even the CIO[ ours Wlerl!' exq]UI!Si~·te ... Then 't~:e sna ; I!' appeareo ano trlf!(·-' to nypnonse me

b ~ 'Y' . 'd'] the '!!liIU~ d [I an- c,m; 'wa- tJ! e~' n- I. [pa' , n'" ced II W" a~' aston ~ shed"

1101_'/ ,alli1l'~_ ' .. -J~ ~ 1_ .~~ !I~_-_:~ \ \'~.jj~-, 'IILII~ r I(.,,~J:.I,~ ~'~/~~:~I~~.~ __L~ __ :J oil

Th -- f"Ii!I~I" .,', .. _tl!I~ ..... d' , .. ~ this hl ~h ~ . "II .. , 'd'l ,. -[L - t [-h'"-" 'IL'i' ,~~ ,-,. ," rt .. · .. d .". ,~ .L,.!!! ~ - ,~.~ aht l .. - nd 'I" ed e rum cormnuee at tr [IS [11:8' I. reve ~ anc 'W~IEe[n ~~,'e ·1~.lge[r enterec wlel:g~lllng etgnr nuncrei

pounds and W'3S both a t~gel[r snd the actor' who dild the voice (G'lelo[~g,e Sanders), [I realised ~ dldn't even know how ~,t was, d]olnle,.....· Ile·t alone e've'f be ,a[b~]e tOI d]GI i't Im:y:5el'f~ I went, back to mly ~Huld~:IDI ~n shock and, thIFIO'IUgh the .nj·lht~, J w'r'ote' a [~on:g fan ~ett)el[r:~.

In these scenes t thou':![h!it l~ ,had reeognlsed the hand of the :gre,l't orsnelY 8'G'nius Mi[I't IK-,aJh[I, Iwho latan 'Haji"Ii"~I'e had r~v sd ~ b ~ ""t" I~T· Ilk 0 fij' :t'!'i!!'t nam- ~ on th ,~. dlr ,-- ,t'" .. a[nl~[mat' or's tror~~iit"~f!! W-!ilI!S M'" llt K"-·'·aL.. ~I --

,I'~~-;" r >"J ms "" ae rave ~ a JIO·IIlJI!I,-'~ .. nl~'r1 ~'-;t I' !IJ ~ I r Be:" r r a"J_lei -'~[ng :_! ~-~IIJ II ,~~ r<~1 .. ~. ~' ~\JI ~ ~~ '.~/I~~": ~,\~ ~ ~ f~:'~ 'I-III_ .. 510

I aes 11111 m' ;a d th a, W· . 0 t' k t L... ~ t~ ~ 't- -. d me h ad' be -~ n--' M"~' '1111' I'~ A' n d '['il[,jI:; t 1111'1 lin ed 0 ~ ~It~ t h at ~ t' ~wa f'i- e v' t"':a pt _~I'~::>"'ll--,ll~' ·l __ '~:'",II[:. mat snmnee me naa nee ~ :".'h.ll- ~\i!'~ ~l=_ ~t turnec .. ;":IA"~,~_,·'C~~~ n was ' ...... :~):AI"~'~:I~

'f:clr CU1e shot that 'W,IS· by- IOIIUe, Johnston, Johnston and :F ran k Thomas had dlanl! lots of other _ma.nte'~]:I]ous wOflk ~11 the ph:ture.1

So I Wlrote tlOI M~lt saying ,that ~ thlDI1U:ght The Jun,g/.e Blo(,k was, th,e' ,albso~]u't)e h~:g:h poifl:nt o'f: [pIUlr'(! a[nli~[m,at~lolln ple'ri:orlma,lnce' ,llFilld thl,at· ~ Idildlni't thin,k ~tt WO'iUl[~d eVle[r bile, ploss:ibl,e 'fror 8,nY"(lne alluts;iidlle ·the

Di'~~n'"'e-;u' ~~IP' QP'IIIlII~·n; c:e'·~· 'f',o:-: r')~~llf"';h'" t, h' ~·a,~·t!I~-' P'IIIji!'n~' nlla-~lc'I:-'111 e·-·

113 . '.. -:',1' ~.l'!i,". ,"".11 !!!iiio., ". -.'.) '_':": _ 1¥1~\;o ~ '), _ ,; " '" .. .... e: ~ ',.'. ;,~, !II

l[rr"e~[plr'essl'b~le almibit~oln m,ade mil ,cha,ng,e m:y opi~,rnj,o[n ·tlha't th,ey' .a/clne Icoui~ld ,I'ttl.lilfill su:,ch hle-i~ghts; I filglur'ed(f. [I tlhli[n:k: c)olrrec;tl'Y~- t:hl.al: gilv'elliill 'tallent~ exp,er'ie'nlce~ plersistJenllce - p~U:5 ,the knl,owleldlge of thiS AV'lnm[d,e'" wh', y s h 0"IIlJ·n II] d] e~ '-veru""h'J"'n-'g- not' !l...,iCiI P A E'Slllbl~. ~~ ~

~,A,~.l~~;d"·lt:", ' ...... ' 'o» _ '~.., .~:~"._~: _;JI I:'_ '~. "'~,':'<;f'''1 i<~ I .: :-: H, DI~' ·-~[u~':",~I!_:II~ rf'

~ cOlu[,d·.rmft sta.nd ~t a,ny mo~e ~ h.ald tOI klnolw e'~fle',y:thlng ablout ·the· [meldium .and lma,stelf' a_l'~1 asplects of iii .. Cap tinl hland.~ I m,lld,e :year~y v'lsiiits t'DI Mi,~t· I,ndl [Frllnl[k lhomI2,s,. OI,I]~e' Johnstoln alnJldI [Ke-n A,Inldelli'-so,nl at DiI:sney'~

Onll! of the m,o·st. ,ilmlp,ortant thllr1lgS; ,MI~it: ~s,aid W'8,S: '~OIIJ[r anliimatlOlnl d,lffelr:1 fr,om &lnYlo,ne lelJsetf:s bliecause ~t ~:s be~liilev.a,bille~ 'Th~n:g!: ha,ve' w,e,ilgh!t aln_ld I[h,e Icha.ra,cte'rs; ha.ve mllu:sclh!$ ,an,d' ·welr.,e g'iv[ll[nl:g .J!. h " '~II]I .' 'Ii.". ~ - ~ f' ~ ~"~ ~ Ii '''tli!~" I~

~) _ e ~ II: U'~S I o,n IO'I_' llile'·a,,1 ~ •• y ~ ,

5

_ -

,J ._. I ••

i· . ---- - ,.

. I·

: .

,

,A, powe rh 0 use of" an i rnatl on kno'wled g'e ~ F rom th e left ~, K·e'n Harrls, Grim N atwii:ck a nd Art Babbitt" w'ith stude nts Ri'chard Purdum; and me outside my $:0.110 ,Square studwo in . ondon, 197'.3·~

B t h t '-k - '~'" b I~'" b III '''"I II dl~'d . If!t _ t-L'L., .- .. II d _'!!i k M- . '-lltlr b t-'h- - . 1-' .. t fl"'" d" t- h t

:u_- II C'W"O rnase ~1"l\.,_le'IIU!Via.~~e,r 1Il ' rc n ", go '1llII,e'IiB'I'ID! mnx ,." II 's .:·'tliJ.II'W',I>,e,F' or to . no DIUI. 'W'IS',-

F'ra,n"k: Thomas had ":o,r bire'atkfl.st~., [I wou'ld n're mly ca[r!ef':ul~ly prepared ~i:st: o,f questions ,at, them and later 'w,r!ite down ev,e:rylh,iin,g' 'they sald, These 'won:1de,rfu:1 virtuosos became Imy friends and were i'nlcredlbl~:y generous withl thelr help. A,s MU't sald, ~1,lf ya,u ask questlons you flnld out what ylOIUl 'w,l'nt to know, .If Y'lou:",r'e JUlc:k:y enough to ask someone who kn ows, ~

,_ w,as also fortunate enough 'ta, enlist the Imli.lrv'lll· QIIlj,S Ile'ge'ndialr',Y' animator Art ,B:abb,~t,t: II'S ,I, eollsborator and teacher, Bllbb'~tt, had d.e'Y'i!III'iDlplled IGoiof:y and animated thie' ,MUls,:hrooml Dance :illli1, Fenissie .. He ~dlumlp"edl hls kilt~ of knoiw'~ed;ge' by gh/iln:8 several month-long ln-house seminars ':lI'C" w-'-·-'e·::;1111 '::1'5- w-·" "O'IIi:I~;-n- P' w-,-·-iiil·lt-L., m ',ra "llfiI" m 'U IL- on don and I o·lly'w·· ·'A,Ad· stud ios for several Y·:.t:!Ii"a· rs

'~.~I ~ _ _:U I~' _~' .. '. 11\11 1:0 . _ .. nll_,~ ,I I :J ,,' I ....•.. 1111, .U,llllk _ I_~'L _:',_~,"UIU '. ZIi,I_ I.· iII_ ',;;ji I ...• J ,"'II~_,~. -,_II ' •.. ' ~__".

Iii !i!\t' 51-"-7'3-:-' ~I h ~ - - d t'--h" . 'i! - h-h,' th _. _ _ . - - _. . - -Id- b t '1""1111.11 b ""-111 ~ t- r:- .. _- N' 'two I - k '._ .. til ~ - - ,~ r ·t~. - I ...

~n "11 :~',-i:r ,. ~ire' '-. I'e e:lg.-· ~1"~'_::I_!r'ee"'year!iio,_~, __ 'U'_ :SJh~ _::1111 nant - ur,~lm ,_,a_t_', [~c-' as: a "~:fve'iii:lln tutor In

m,,), London studio, Cilrl'm had made hls name ,d,es'~:lnliilng' ilB,e'tty' Boap and ,llnli'matiiin,g most of Sn'Dw Whi - heBel'" :in, ,Sn,ow' 'White end the ,Sev,en' Dwa,ris- I also w'ol.rked 'C:IID,sle~y' 'wi-'ih Emlery' HI,aw,klns wih,o,IK:e,n HaJ.IJ"ls' regarded as: the most i:magiinati'v,e ,a[nim,atio,r~ Em,ery was 'wiiilll,dll,Y' ,c'reativ's and rDtlt,~ led ln and out of' &!v,ery' 5,'t)u,d~'D'1 [~ w'las also able to w'or1k f:olr ,I, :s;ho,rt time w'ii'thl ,Able L'Gv'it,o'w', Gelrry' C'h~nJqlUy' land IClliiff N,ollmdbergli Dick Huemer, one of~ ,th'e' first ,N'IW York pioneer anlmaters, and ~a, .. r II ike:,)' D'is,nne'y stiOiry' di'.rre~ctDr' (SneJW 'White end the ,S:e'ven' Dweris, Dumbo, Fenissi« and ajfl~ the lea1rl'.y'

-D·· ~:.~ - -. ".- '." ! 'f:"" ~r " .<. --,.), ,~ 1' .. ;- .. '::- ,::-,1.:-" ,..... '.', ,:.' .. .",' ..... ',; '-'1"-' .. _-" -, - . ....,. ·'ct·-· '" .. -. ····-f~ "th·'-········ ..... , ... :1 .. 'i da -;- of - .. _' "'. '. "'" t,~ '_.' -.::-'

. ~,s,ne,Y reatures .. aiso ga,vB' me, a, v,e,~ c ear pll_- ·ure' 01_ .f_ e ear,I:Y cays 101, arnmanon.

6

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I scribbled this of .MUt when he was lecturing us at my

t . ..4'" M' '"1 l . . j 0' J t 1'·' ~ t D ,. k h r 't

s uo IO,.~· . L"' IS say I n g r·an -. rsten .. ''a ,.11 C' res' 0,0

tech n j cal, I

M~'lt was always encouraging me to do my own personal, more unconventional work. which he- liked ~ but I wanted the knowledge ~ rst.

WQI geniuses at once tutor the author ~ Frank Thomas standing and Milt I<,alhl at the desk, early 19705',

Used by permlsslon from Di5ney Enti:·rpn5:E'!). Inc

7'

'!'-I'h ,,' A"" rth ",,', l",' nd' '. ,.:t ' '" id ',' b 'I" " ',' f", '" ' , Ik, ',,", " de d th '," "'f' , ':" ". '" 'I' 'k" ills f th

'e, ,',' " ' I . U nan 'e ge n i vees a Ii 0 rm I, ao e :p ro . eS5 0 r W no re ga ro e ,:,' e pro eS510 IflI a s. ,I tS·O u.. e

animator as being equivalent to those of a concert pianist.

Art' in action: his first month long seminar at my london studio was like water in the desert for us,

In the three-day' masterclasses l've been g]v[n:g·lat.ery~ sorne experienced professionals initially feel that we're running over materlal that they're quite farnlllar with, Then about half way through the seminar things deepen and on the last day it ,a~1 suddenly knits together, Some even describe It as an epiphany, WeU. it SUire was for me when I finally Jg·lot-it·.

So please read the wholle thing,

Animation is just doing .. a lot of simple things >iiiii one at a time! A lot. of really slmple things strung together doing one part ata time in a sensible order,

The movie actor, Scott Wilson sat through ~y three-day Sa.n Francisco masterclass, To my S'urRO prise he came up at-the end and said ilO··f course you realise Dick th at this' whole thing has

II it ~.. .", . • •.. ,.,. . ..• ·.1 . .." .. . . .... '. J;... ~ .: ,: .III • :f .. ' . • ••. . c. .... _,....'., - 1.11.' ,I" IJ" ..• ', 1 . . . .~' ". •... .1· '. .~'. . .... .. , ...

b - en a· bout actl ng· •.

ell:' _ • I. Ir;.,· f.r.·~,

I said, iWhat?~ and Scott said! "These are, the exact equivalent methods, exercises and analyses we actors do in our acting workshops.'

SOl acting is Intrinsically part of the whole" Andl if you can't draw or articulate movement

how are you ever going to do the acting?' ~

Someone 0In,[9 asked MiI'f Kahl: 'How dld you plan out the coonteractton you used on that character?'

Milt blew up 'That's the wrong w,ay to look at iii Don't think of it like thatl I just concentrate on giving the performance - that's what's lrnportantl The play's t.he thing. You'll get Ian tangled up if 'you thlnk of it in a techntcal wayl'

Of course he's right. If a musician knows hJS scales, hie can concentrate on giving the performance and bringing out the ideas inherent In the music-But if he constantly has to think of the mechanics of what her's doing - then he can hardly play,

Therefore, if we know and under-stand all the basks - then we've got the, tools t.o create ..

Only then w.e can give the performancel

This book. is an anatomy course in anlrnatlon, Just like, an anatomy course ln llfe drawing, ~t shows you how things are put together and how they work. This knowledge frees you to do your own expression.

It: takes time .. ~ didn't encounter Ken Harris until J was nearly forty and he wlas sixty-nine. ~ had to hire most of my teachers in order to learn from thlem,,·

I holJ d K· 10' • d t t b ~ hili: d b hl · ta t I b th h'" dl ct d hi

, .. . .. - ' . . \ .' ".... ".. rec .' . J.

~rel .. en ~n or ,e'r 0 ge . e ow I ~m ,an . e IS assis n ~ SOl was . 0 ]S . I_ elor an.1 . S

assistant. ~ don't know if this is ori.gin,at but [II finally figured out that to learn or to "understand' J

.... .

had to 'stand under' the one who knows. in order to catch the drippings of his experience.

.'

There's a tale about a decrepit old lien master wrestler, A very fit land brilliant :young' wrestler begs the old master- to take, hlm on and .show him the master's ninety ... nine tricks.

The old man says, 'Look at me, l'm old and decrepit and l'm not interested.'

The young man keeps pestering the old man who says, 'Look, son. I'm fragile now and when I show you the nInety-nine tricks, you'll chajlenge me, they always do - and look at me, you~JII make mincemeat of me.'

'Ji-p'lla~"E'e'" 0:-: h please m aster ~ ple ads t- L.Di p o-'wiCIi'rf:' ul voun g-:-;- man U prom lse ~ -W;III~ lFII,iCiVaF' cha ~

,-I,~,g,;;;;'J_:_:'I" :~'_, _' ~",u,~I!!;i. '_, M d~, if _>~-',3 rhl!.!. 1_ ,,,, " ,~i"I' I ,~ 1": _ '_,,'_:-, ,"ig,,_:_!!! ~ 1_..:' "I; ",~'::-, • _J'_'L~ lil'¥'_~'I: .... 11111-.: )~-

lon"-g:-';o yAlI'1 Oh please teach me th ,a, n in-6t'y-n~'I"IJlli'llila t' ricks ~'

II~ >-\0; ,,' u', __ ,,~' ,', ,',,' ,'" ~IQ,~J~I~,g" , ~'-: ,'Iiiii I ~'i ~-::" ... _, _ 1111'~~1 111_ K-iii

S'D rleiliulctaintiy the old man te,lches; hlm until th'le! ,Ylolung man has mastered the nlii'n,ety'~n~'n:e!

'" .. k T'h b f -, 'I ddt k h ~, t ,~, t

tricks. J __ e 'y'olJJn'g man __ ecomes a, ,_,a,m'OI'IJS; Wfiesltllle:r anc one __ aY_i,:e:s, ms master mto ,a reom,

10' c k: s th - 'e' d:-' 0:;' o r '-:iJ n' d ch a II e 'n ee C' 'h-I"~ 'm' ':-

~ ":_-," Il,J. ,'_' ~ I '~,_I:_,' n, ',L,~ ;t;J,;a _Iu ,I!

'-TIL-j'e--: old m '-"a'~IIfII, "5' ',~'y .. s. u kn ~~W····' V'O~i u'd d ry th ii'lf ...... , that's 'W", , 'h'u -II didn't want to teach ·y··:'o·;-· U-' ln th e fi' irst

.111 ". ..1... . _",. I! I . ~,.", ,~, II ~. ~~,., I' ". . U ... I,~ lLJ ~" ~. 1.',.... 1111 .. " _'. . '~U~". '. . .. \. .1..",.,

P- I ~IC- '.t3 f'

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Corne on, Did man, t ere S Ju,st me and youl ~In here s,ays, t e y,oung one, let ,$1 see w,ha,t

, ',-, ~, . ' ' ," d '.' " "-f f

you re ,ma,:: e 0 _ i'

'Tlh' eU1 start o:illni d .... '.,' gh '-t' awau th 0, 01- d m-- - M t I -r - w- - oIi-'L, - yn U I-n a fello W out of- t- h IA 'W' '·1' nd - W' 'T'h'" , ,~

_ -~-~i s 1,':'_1 ~ I~'!I-III.~_ nan :_"::":<,1 tne II~"_I 1 a,lil " '~O ~ _is ,Il.Ule",w 'IL, ~:CI '_"~n·~·,_ ': t or '_:L~ '. '_ I. ,_': D_ ~J,,, __ j_i~'

crumpled-up yOlung man moans UIP rrom the :st.reet' b,ellow" f.¥ou didn't sh,oiw methat onel' ,II! I hat' W'31O'" '"I imber 0"0 h und red I' e~u- I'h'e -, Ild'~ m'~'n

__ -;_ :JI_"~~L~ III ~ IU:_f :.~' -' I:: Ui~' ·_!lw',Ir.J _~':__:~, ~[Q,i"'S ',_:_'_~.' 0'1 ~lJI ~ '~'_, '!!'

'T'h,i'~ boot. "I~' the n'~IMe'tu nln e' 't-r";t'!!~'"'s T'1I!...e h undredth tr;,,..~IJl ts called tal-,an4io

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111 b ecame I a ~t:liip'o""iC"I"t--nry:-"- for ~,,:Mia" '1If'~1"D:-::Ulc strand s I'o""'f'~: ·a' n Im ~j't"'II:O' n'" 1'0' re an d ,iI"V··,1D1 'ta-IIi"e-' n ~I"~ ,t'hL';r ,~:t"u,-'H:"" and .;;IRJ"'iS1n'l

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'"'II'it m':' "'iy-,~ 'D',--,W- -'n' 'tw', ':i~,ltl 'Y'":h- ~§'O'~II h .ar'a, '"III I£:" to m 'a:: ste 'r:' the m e- ch a -n,-"iiJ."IC-'S:-:: '"I'-n:::- ord ,~,III' to d n 'n'-"~'w, ,- t:h";ing';t'i' Get the

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mechanics into y'olur bloodstream ~SIOI ,th,e,Y' Just become second nature and y'IOIU don't have to

t-'lh:-'I~ln' k ab out them an 'dJ'1 ca n con centrate 0:---: n g- ;:v~ :"1' n-g the perform a:-,MC---:I,c,

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~: remember once sa,y:ing to IE'me'ry HifJ.'W"k'ins Ira wonderf:~J',II~, unsung anlmater), 'I'm afraid m,Y' bralns are ln mly hand.'

Eme'ry' sald, '~'Whi,ere else would they' bJe,? ~tlf:S; a language of drawing. lt's not a language o,f: tOI n gue, ~'

Drawings that 'w,ail'lk" II Rid! ta~k and think: s;[e[eiilrilJt' a series of lmaees W'ls["'ve done actually 0'[01

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·'ti1lro,ugih a think'iln'g' process - and ap'pe'[ar[ '1:0' ,be' tlhlnlk!i,ng ,_, lis; the' real aphrodlslac. P[~IUS clfe'ati111i1!g' sQ,me,tlhiiflll' thl,at Is unlque, w'hi'ch has never been done b[ef[Qlr'l is endlessly fas,c~inat:i'nl~[

over 3,5,100[0 :v':ears [ago, we, were p[li:I1'tiilnli animals on cave walls, somettmes dlraw'inl four palrs o,f legs to shlo'w motton.

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c angeo posmon, .10 norsemen or cnarroteers nc mg [p,as1' ,- SIS appearec : 0 move:

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temporarlly retain 'the Image C" a,n:ytlhin:g' they've just seen, If this wasn't '$,01" '\

get the llluslon of an unbroken connection ln a series of images, and lneiltltille,r :1 matlon 'W'O •• -~'.lJI [I d be -~I =::-C~ i ble, ,M11,"'.,f'II:Y',_-':." p .. ,=-,:~I~I~ .Il,e-': do n ' t: rea ",III '\-;:-1 th at m Ol["il~~e",' ,IS',' ", don it"t ,a,cilUtd I \j I a J 0 ~ , "" ~~ ~ ~~ """ "" Ipass ~" '" ~ ~ ~ ~n/ , eop ~ "" ,,~~ ~ ~ "" ""llllse, ~ ~,- ~ ,," "" "" ,,~"" , , ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~T

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The Thlaiumlatriolple,: A, cardboard dlsc mounted on a top ...... or held b,etw'leeln'M'O I A, birdcage ,dlrl!wilnlg' ls on IOlnl'! slde and a bird on the, oth!,e'r~ IW'he,n the, top Is 'SpL

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Thai P,I~ippe·r· bOOIK:::: ln '186:8 a .nIDv·llllty called 'the fltpper book' ,1.ppll\lrleld wor[lldiw'id,e and lt remained the :&ilmlpll,es:t and most !po'pula1v device. 11'I[r;8 jjuI:st a pad of [dlrla\W'~nI8-S bound 111:i,k.e II~ book

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the pages and 'see 'ern move', The result ls anlmatlon ' ...... ' the Ilhrston of 'CO'II'I'i:iinu]o']lJS action, ID'lra:w'tflrnl:gs illnl 'Itiilm,e"il

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This is the same as. school kids making drawings in the comersof thelr math books and fllpplng the pages,

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Today the 'classical' animator still flips his drawings the same wa.y as a. flipper book before testing it Din the video or film camera, He places t.he drawings in sequence, with the, low numbers on the bottom, then flips through the [action from the bottom up. Eventually he should get good enough at it to approximate actual screen time and spot any' errors or drawings that need altering, Now that we have the video camera with its instant playback of the drawings at film speed" not everyone learns to flip.

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In 189[6 a New York newspaper .cartoon ist James Stuart B lackton interviewed the inventor Thomas Edison who was experimenting with moving pictures. Blackton did some sketches of E[diso1nr who was lmpressed by Blackton's speed and drawing facility and asked him to do some drawings in a series, later, Edison photographed these> the first combination of drawings [and photography, In '1906 they puhllcly released Humorous Phases of Funnv Feces. A man puffed a cigar and blew smoke rings at his girl friend, she rolled her eyes, a dog jumped through a hoop and a juggler performed .. BIackton used about :3:00[0 'flickerlng drawings' to make this first animated picture ~ the forefather of the animated cartoon. The novelty brought explosions of laughter and was an instant hit.

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A year later Emilie Cohl made and showed his first animated film at the Pollles Bergeres m Paris. The figures were chlldllke - white lines on black _, lbut the story was relatively sophlstlcated: a 'tale of a girl, a jealous lover and a policeman .. He also gave lampposts and houses intelligence and movement, with emotions and moods of their own. Cohl's work prefigures t.he later animatlon dictum, 'Don't do what a camera can do ...... do what a camera can't: dol'

Winsor McCay, brtlllant creator of the popular comic strip Little Nemo in Slumber/and, was the .~ first man to try to develop animation as an art form, lnsplred by his young son bringing home some fllppe r books he' made' 4· '0""0·'0:' dra 'wings' o f' JLl ·Itt'o N" erne if m 0 ve" These . .. big hit . h _ n

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flashed on the screen at Hammer-stein's theatre in New York in 19·11,.

As another experiment hie drew a bizarre short film, H,o'w a Mosqu1t,o Operates, which was also enthuslastlcally received.

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Then ln 1914 MCICay drew Gertie the Dinoseur and McCay himself [performed 'Ilve' in front of the projected anlmatlon, holding an apple in front of Gertie andl inviting. her to eat, Gertie ~owered her long neck and swallowed the fruit - astounding the audience, This was the first "personallty' animation] _, the beglnnlngs of cartoon individuality, It was so UfeUke that the audlence could identify with 'Gertie. lt was a sensation ..

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Inl ,Mic'Cay,f;s w',of'ds,':: ~Il 'w',e:rnt lnto th .. e buslness and spent thousands io·f: dollars ,d!ecve'lopil:n;g·th,~s; n e:w,: "1': a rt I 'I':t:~" .. eq ;111 :!I' re d C" "0" "', n '5) 1i1'!'I' 'd era b, ',le"';" t~'~I'i m te ' ~P' ~:t~:' "I~ ence ~I :~I 'de'l c '~I refu I'" th .... ~ '0: .", ueh t- , t im in~"g" :~, 'n'" 'd:.'·'1 dre w,e ina fh I~:

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pictures [:m.Y' ootalic:5;]~ This Is: the most 'f,as;,c:i~[I_in::g: .W'O,:ri~~ I have ever done ._. th~'s business ,alf' ma I~tl' :t'(ij.g' a :If[Ij i~ mated I cartoons :1. ~1'iVI1,,'/~, ,:g;:ll1il "t·,.h>~l screen ·f' .'

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The brllllant Wiard! K'i'mbl,l~rr 'wlh'D anlrnated Jlmlny C'r'i,c'ke·t ln Pinocchio and the C'fO'W'S ln Dumbo, once told me, '~"VD'U ,elillfli have no idee of the '~·mp'a,!ct. that ha:v'~n!g' these ,drawi'ngs suddenly speak and make li1:Dii:ses; had ion audiences at that time, People went c:raz,y over lt,'

Di:s,ru!,y' fiOllolwle,d Siesmbos: Wi lli« 'wirth The Skeleton Dsnce. For the flrst tiilme~, action 'was coordlnat ed w- 1~1'l.h· a' proper musical score This w- - the flrs S-'~,Uy 5' 'ym' 'ph-' -'n"Y U'IL lwerks 'W-'!!II~ chtef

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animator on both f:i II ImIS, and ,I lot of the sophisticated action of The' Skeleton Dance' still holds

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'f:u~ly' developed 'personallty' animation -- cl,earlly defined and believable separate personalltles actl n a so CO' n V 'ii' rI C-"I"I' n"a~\I th at th ~ aud '"I'~1!'Ni ce co U' ~ d ii d' I2iiIi"lIi"t-ify' W' lth a- nd root for them A"" n oth er ftrst

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the world's first fully-animated feature-length film, raising cartoon drawings to the level of art and heidi" the audience, s ellhound for ei ' .. -three minutes, A

:'B~~;~lI!~' after '~h'II~II~1 S}}~\~10.~.:·I~·d,] W<':I,\i::O"I~rl·ld.·,:.·C'· W>(:)a;~lilfl" the ~·~III~[IUII[~I,t~iill'O-'.:n>·· eha ... mg ... zed -

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H1ow',e,ver~ in the last fle1w' years, Ih!,s renalssanee of animation a's a form 101f: mass entertalnment ~is, g'iviinl~g' IIr,elbiii!riih to ,th~le, old :knolw~edg·e,~, 'Th!II' ~stalrtlli~[I1I:gl'y successful .i!.n·lnIIOV',artliol[ns of: computer antmetlon are hel ping to tran sform ,ainil[mla:tifi 0 n ~ [Fill al II iit's; m u !~'I~,-'f,ac'et'6Id ";0 rms lnto a major part of lihi,e ,enliertainl:ment [ml,linstre,a·ml,. A,llongs~,de thls, there, ~5, I,~SO the e.xIP'illoI51:ilolll1l ln ·th!el computer games i~ nd u s;try·./~

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I!f: dr'a,WI1II 'classlcal' anlmatlon is an extension of: dlra.w'in.g~ then ICio'mlpl[ule'fl ,ajn~,ma.t~Oln can be seen

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g:iv',e, a performance w'iillh movement wel~.qhit~. ti;mliiiltJ1IPT and @[m'p::athu'~

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l've co-ordinated w:ha,t· :1 've learnt from v,a,rl~o,iu:s approaches and l'm [prelse.nJt~ing· it here in a 'f'orlml based :0.11 m:y' a·w.n el:xpelrilein·ce ~[n 'this medium 1_' wil'tlh iilt"s .li;miitlles:5 plals;si.bl,i.~lil,ti[Je's of i:m,agii[n,a:tiio,nl~l

Emllelry' Ha'w'k:i:I1ISI sald to me, "Ihe ol,nill:y' ;1:i'm:l:tati:,o,n in ali1!iiml·aliiJo,n: ls t h lei person doling' lt, OltheIFW1ii:sle' there is no 1~lmiit to wha,t: y"OIUJ can de, .A,liilhd 'Willy' S,hIOIUlllldlnl~t you do ~t'?lf

I meticulously painted This poster for the 1981 London F~~m Festival Everybody said, 'Oh, I didn' (: know' you did collage. ,.

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T~'~h!l~ section ~.t", ~r'~'t1IIlfllly fc ~~ rllll~l~e~ ~a~ anlmato ~~I~ IIH~1 ~ W' aV'er' ~ hL ~I'v~n"tl. been surprised IA ft'il"llnd~ tL.~,I~ most I "~ t~, se (_-hl'= I!., t~ ~a.,~'(:,/', Dr I~~,~,~;~~C:,-",,I an rn ('--, I'-Jr~l'i ~1-_IDI':I~":,<~~, ~ IJ (1u.'lj'~: t nee I <I',. !Il=' , . ~I,:::,I (Wi ~,~r_. I:. '_:III,.I, • r~ ost

of the ~e'aldin,:g computer animators draw rather well, SCI lit ma,y be lnterestlng to 'tlhe'lm too, I!t cer-taiflnlilly helps elinIO;rmO[U'~~'~IJ'.l '1101 be able to put do'wnl y'olur ldeas eVII'n li;n sti,ck: fnilgU1rel,s~ F',or the

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'CI,aS,:$,Jlt8,t a.liII~matolr ,II: rs eruciar.

Dilrawi'ng should become second natul!lrelr SOl that fhe animator can concentrate on thie actual actions and the tirrrlng lof them and gIve, the performance r~i'fel!1

Wh,en y'Dlu~'l1e delng C;futoon~s all the tfllmler, ilit~s v'ellry ea:sy' tOI s~iiidle ~,nlto fOlrmuII~a dm'w'ing~ Dlur~ng the lmakfln:g [otf Wh,ol.,Framel[d RC}lge,r R',a.,bblit ll'folundl this ,piilllrnlne,d UPI on our notlee board:

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Anlmatlon ls UI5:u,al~y a group effort, and one has tine ~slt~mlulluIS of constant lnteractton, both

C ,~~ e' .l!.iiit~ 11~I've' ':::lin d i'"'O" o· peratlv 0; ~,~Jirth th ~ cut ~ -!II t l!... iiil~ ~ - t L" ghs a~'ln d low C' p 0 ~I ltica '~l "ar-·t~o~~ ~ 0' 'f' om Ip:;.:..' " I "I ,\,' I~' I~ .I~,! ,~_' [~III-ilt ~ _ ~,[: I:' I~ ~ ".1,1' I! _: III, I, e I" I~:_ '~: In Ii1i UI nL~ 'IU S'~ji' ~ II; r ,~-I .~ .." • :-II'~i'>:~, 1111 II" ~,: ~~I: ',B,III :11' 11-';: II :::~: n S.' I

cn.~-~ P'~ I' jII nt §I ~~d~' 1~lns' n ~ ~~atil~ on~ .~ Ilf ~I' th~ ~ II 'e"lil .-, ~ - . nd anVJi'i B't~ ~ s ijI\.Q~W"!:!i rds ~ -n d' cD v' ~ lt :o'm-' . e- int ~. -f-.l gtf. ~ up I~;mll-':illc~·l~ -_I~ 1~1111J:.-1 ~1!n!I'-~:~:~r ,.J non, a~L 1,1, lie : enstons allfll_ a II xreues, I ~\I~,I:!Q1I!II:'~ s 1.[;-1 I~: exerter -,~~:~II ot ~[!r[OI"J ,~:

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With life drawing t1he,re's no one to [admire 'y'o,ur efforts ~ rather the reverse, It's always shocking '~ tc find you're not as ,advali·oed or :skUI,ed as you thought yOlu were, and siln,te it's about thAI hardest thing to do with no rewards ot-her than the thing itsellf - it~s no wonder few d[DI. Jt or s,tiQk at il

Mos;t animators are elCh,auste,d at the end of a dlay~s work and have fam~lhls to gOI to, Also, one . has, to do a tot of ~ife ,dr,awJn'g to get anywhere - not ju~st a [bit ,at a time :here and there, ..

But. tihJe fact remalns th,at there is no replacement for the hard work of solid life ,dlrawiflg~

'Th,ere is, one pay'off ~nd it is, s,ub,s.-tantfaf - ttl! gradluaJI and fundamental improvement of a~.1 one's 'wo,rk~

'Winsor Me'Cay once sa~d= ill'f ~ were startln:8' ever again" the, first thing (I'd do woul,d be te make .

, . .

[a thorough study of draftsmanship~ I wOluld' learn perspective, then the human: fig'u,r'Qrr lboth

Rudie and ,dothedr and surround ~t 'w~th proper setti:ng~ f ~, .

And ,Mif't Kahl. said: 'il don't thlnk it"s possible to be a top notch anlmator withlOlut blle'ing an excellent draftsman. 'You have to try for 'the, whole thlng~ yo,u know, B[ot t,o knolw' the fl'SiUr[e~ KnrJ-w' the figure wlel~ enough so 'tha,t you can concentrate, on the particular person ....... [on the

. " .

diiierence ...... why th~s person ts different from somebod, else, Th,e ability to dlra'w and be ab·le

'to tum thi:ng:s and the ab[]ity" the, knowledge th,at enabl!:les you to car~,cature and.to exigge:ratle in the right diredioln and emphasise the diff:erence between things; is what you~'re doing ,aJI th,e time, Any time y,olJ~r'e d:c'ing a strong dra'win:g of anything w',e~lf your' [drawing is siJo!ng because YOlufr[e depiding wh,,, this, Is different from somethlng else~ Yo:u need that ftgu~~',draw:lng back~ ground in order to sharpen, Ev'I,ry animator sh1ouf:d have this backgr'Dund ,and unfortun,abdy 'thl'Y dOln"tl You just can't knolw too much .. If you~re go~ng to lampoon somethingr or do a satire .._, y'o<u have to understand the straight w,ay~, ~t gives :yo~ a JUlmIPin:g·[o,ff polnt, ~t gives ,you a contrast, You just do it and do it ... ~ and do it!"

24

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A-j-e'r m,Y trip _ we,nt 'str,alg~-Ilt to art S.C'_~D'OI ,Ijn~' reeervec t: - e secono piece '0 'a,,-'v'u:e., Jiom' ,I :gre'lat

teacher and s'Ulpe'rb dr,alftsm:an~1 :Eil'c 'Fr!eii'fielld~ the!-] teaching at the [01 nta r:i 01 'C:o,lil,e"ge of ,A!rt~! IHle I'oloked at Imy' II,ii"'e Id[f,I.',w'ii,n,g's and sald, ~W,edl., here's 8, clever little f,ellll,ow wlhIO,lr:S; never seen an,Y~

t~;lnIP' rr II .s·~~I[d: ~"W'-h-'-:-a" ,-- ~'I-hID": 'U[ ld 'I dIQ?' He sa -I-d-;-:- ,IrA -t>O"1 t:-" hi. 'e,'" ~I'~b"",ra"lry":: an d look "!II:t-' A- lbre 'ICr"'~" '. D' l'Ui'~ rer for t'--W"Q":'

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y'[e,ars:~'~' I dtd, A,n,d InOi! 51,ulrIPllr~5,~'nl;g~,y my' Interest ln a,n:lmatii[Q'lnl vanished tor .y'[e:ars;,~,

II -'a" '"';;J 'm":"'y.' ':' ·W~'·-;-I'V 't-:ik,-. ',-'1- • ")h art ,:::clffioh-'·"--·o,:··1 b'-"'Y" I~'--irl:::-litlii'" "i ·····ff'l~: D",~~" .,~ \1',-: i.-c'·-II'Ii[-· ·d:-;·,,-:- feod " ad ',~' ~~I'~.IIi'ie··'- the one ~ P,_J~I ,_ -, '_- _liI:1' lflI,rou, 8- _ 8,_ s~ ,_O,.~,J, Ili\nIOltlK,llfill:g 0_ _ ~~~"e,l' e,B,qwl ,_0:1 I_ D[IO_[_ ,a_;_,,~ 11_,t\. ... Ie o,ne

abdolv'e .at the same time d,Q[i,ng ';'re'all,5,:m:o social' I~',,:.e this llthograph of a revrva,~ meenng '~Whle,re, the healing waters 'flo'w'~',.

Aftie'r that l[ Iliiv',ed .In Spain for a C:'OlUlplllle [of' :y',e'ars, ,do:ing paintings I~'ike these until' a to'ta:l'II':y une"x:lpec.ted affilliictii[oi: by the an,jjml~at:ioln Ibug go,t me, 'f'o"rt:y:ye,ars later a ·.~,'OiP exe,cutlve on ~h'i()1

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Framed RO:~3~r Ra " bit Ikent refelrrln,~ tiD, me ,IS arts!~ c,rafts,y,; a,r ,a,rts,u f,llrtSY.,· ~, He,w-Ild hie, ever

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<::'a,~':I:C":'~'O"" 'm"~:pj:;I':ii'~,hl['e':"d}, ·a:·I:ii'"Ni['d·:: ~'~ came 'f':":i'\~~m:~~ I~ ·m~>u··:~~~: y,:,:~:;u""I"n'--g'- 'er man ··M:\':'I'\;' tale nt ls .p"':',r·,:i·:~m:· ::·~:.r·,·~:i,u' ,jl~:~'-n'::II~:~:~". 'W'j,:)~!~,~!Ll,

.. :.,~.<~:\;o""".,",., IjIjI!~~~,_I~~U,: ~IL ,",iQ,'j"~ /1'",,",1, Il, I "I, ",n, ~,W"':'~I~' ,,;q.I.~ ~I~<, :~,~.,'iU~-, :ltiOiil!' ,:."",,~,:~,~'~Q,~,n,I' :.til, ~'G.~i ~~,_"nu~,n

. ::m'~,kes: cairto<onin,g e;a:sy~ H!,o!w',eve'rf"Si~,n,c:e ,lnlilm,art'O!fS h,av'e to: enclose "th,e,~r shapes, th,er;e ~s; a ten:clenlctyto end up just drawing outlines -llike eolourlng-beok figures. In other words. imlimato:fS

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d,Q,n:ft·· usuajllly Idr,aw fr;o:m: tih,e insldllel-,o~uLt, :1.:k,8 a·scuJ:pto:r' ·do,as~ . SC{UI ipittuv '~ald1 been m:y: ':weakest

. S:I:lbi:[~ct,::·:: - ~Ilt;'ch:o,u, I fg. ~<lh,' il'rfld '~,o'n .. ~·:e II. lIDi't::" ,o::':f: ~ife'·-:I ,d,':~i:Jaw':i;"~D ,a,.;in:::d·~ •• ~ ·h.} a 'Id:n a sr 'D'I~ Iln~: "~d,::III~·n· l-j.!CJ!' "'1, ~:rI: baste a" na ,~'o,,::mr~:':W_, .. .

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. J·i;·O·· ':h·:::n-:·:W·":"':: ~"t'"k':>~s'::'~' th en ':D *",·':i!'S· ""n' -·t·"u ,t~hr-l- ree y,.·IiCIi'~r'.' oe:':I·d·"~· ii"'a~'f·"· t,'·la--"U·I·~Jl..it·:, b '.er"'~r· ~~a·:·'·~n···"t~ d·'r·""~f··t· sm '···'a· "H' and anatomls -'t·,

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::: : i~I:#;I"':d::-'~: hts [",wn illlf'eo: ,d:~ra~" .. w,·e:~i:n·::,a class es ~:n[ ~L· ·:0"· md !l~~~ :~.R:·:·ie~·r,e····~ln···t/I,Ul L..,~, '·w:/[~!.c one ,o'::'f:~' ,t··~h'~ ,'G. ,.pI·'r·;:'I·"n,· :C':'~~I:'P" 1:I:e~, {~e·:··S~!;~I.lID':~,e;r· ~s:·: i"'"f;

::' :~[~v:,"~ '.'~.' .. w~"~,~~ U:~" . ~'~"~.'.". ,it;)' j~R_ ~j,j l~ II i"':J".IVIII'~ \""~)~ .. ,,,I.',I" u~ , .... iW--~ '- ~,~, "." , .. I.'\Iii' ~j" j ... :_."I.~l U'"""';D;f,"~ .. ~,·U',

:' ::D';·;"",~,··,:·,· 'ic·.~,,.:r~:.,.: '''''::''':::-:''';,1 ... ,: ):[. II I sed to 'h·:;~",e .. Joh 1:", '~:", ;,,--,~:,:: d"::~·-'·".I!J:'·'·.' 't·.,·:· de C:' r l ' .,c.:, .. '. -·'~t,,·,\t·r~ :"'-." ,..- -rt':">-'I: 1'1._'" k and I ']'. 'I:C-::, ':, '·'-,":.V .. ',

. :~::~.'i~,SIiU!ll: ." ita,rZ'{IJl .. , 1I·:IJjSe11 .. ','0 ~~I:;r,e' ,~"llO'.:Un: p'I"ler~OI:.:.LI'C!a):~,y", 1.01 :.:I~'O P:.' Ire.s:e'nl.~a".~o,n aL' .• WO:ir~ .. ,.:111:" w'e' Wer'I'

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·::::-:'J':~'.I~'r"dl'v~ II 'W'1enlt to, ,J,O!:hlnl~S ,eve,n:in~g~-:.: Ill-fe classes for a :w',biliS and one d;a;~' J1ol[hnlt 'who, Is rUrthJ:es;sl'~

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:':::. :I,io·rnieist· p:'~,oiln't,edl 'to mlY"" drl(w'~ng' and sald f-H18Y' ~l 'VO U missed a 'staa:e,l:f I fel:,t ·Ili~k·. a blJtt,e~rf'~~y·": 'p'::'ln:nlsdJ

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lex stopped animating and became a great, original and innovative director. The biographer john Canemaker said: ·While Disney in the 19305 was trying to convince the audience of the "reality" of his characters in his film world, by creating his "llluslon of life", Tex went in the opposite dlrectlon, celebrating the cartoon as cartoon, exploring the medium's potential for surrealism .. ' He never let audiences forget they were watching an animated film.

lex had a twenty-year run with his wildly funny approach to the medium, but he found it impossible to sustain, 'I'm burned out,' he sald, His colleague, animator Mike Lah said, JHe didn't have any more space. He used it up.'

I love Tex Avery~s cartoons - his drawings and character designs .. His Droopy is my favourite cartoon character. One of the nlce things about doing Who Framed Roger Rabbit was to emulate Tex Avery's humour - 'But not so brutal!' were my lnstructlons, Though! as Milt sald, 'You have to try to have the whole thing.'

I am convinced that if an animator's drawing foundation is strong, he will have the versatility to go in all the different directions possible at his fingertips. He'll be able to draw anything - from the most ,difficult, realistic characters, to the most wild·· and wacky. And it's not likely he'l] --: exhaust his resources and suffer burn .. out,

Because of his strong drawing ability, Milt Kahl was usually saddled with animating 'the Prince' or Disney's 'straighter' characters - which of course are the hardest ones to do. Whenever anyone criticised his work, herd say, JOK, you can do the Prince.' And they'd soon vanish.

Word spread among the more 'cartoony' artists that, JM~lt draws beautifully but he can only do the straight stuff and he can't handle zany stuff at all.' Then, between features, Milt animated most of Tiger Trouble, a. 'Goofy' short. Everybody shut up, and stayed shut up. His work is a classic of broad and crazy anlmatlon,

.tlf you can draw funny that's enough' is an animation myth that's been around a long time, and still seems to persist .. This is because a few of the early animators lacked sophlstlcated drawing skills - but nevertheless were very inventive and excellent at getting the essence of the drama

v

and performance.

The myth. was that ~II th~y needed was to' have a good draftsman as an assistant to do the final drawings and everything would be fine. But in the mid thirties, when the new ·wave of young animators with better drawing skills came on the scene and learned from the old guys, the

: ground was soon littered wlth out ... of work animators who could only handle the cruder carteens. The new breed of better draftsmen took their jobs away from them, If the present boom ln this medium ever contracts it's certain that the more skilled artists will be the survivors"

BiU Tytla ...... famous for his animation of Stromboli in Pinocchio, the Devil in 'Night on Bald Mountain' from Fantasia, and Dumbo with his mother - once sald; 'At times you will have to animatestuff where you can't just be cute and 'COyR Those are the times when you'll have to

. know something about drawing, Whether it's called form or force or Vitality, you must get it into your work, for that will be what you feel, and drawing Is your means of expressing It,'

30

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Obviously ail this doesn't apply so much to computer animators since the 'rnaquette' of the character is already planted Inside the machine, ready to be manipulated. B·ut since most of-the leading computer an i rnators draw rather ·welt many work out their positions in small sketches, and, of course, the planning, layout and story artists and designers draw exactly the same as their classical equivalents.

f had an unnerving experience 1111 Canada when a friend asked me to give a one ... hour address to

.a large, high school gathering of computer anlmatlon students, They had a very lmpresslve set ... up ·of expensive computers but, from. what I could s·ee of their work, none of them seemed te have ,any ldea of drawing at all, During my talk I stressed the importance of drawing and the

great shortage of good draftsmen, .

A laid-back greybeard professor interrupted to inform] me, JWhat do you mean'? AI~ of us here, draw. v··eIrY well. I

. . WClrds failed rlJe:~

At the end of the talk, I showed them how to do a basic w:alk::r and as a. result got mobbed at the exit, the kids pleading desperately for me to teach them more. I escaped, but I'm afraid tha,tJs 'what the situation is. out there - a lack of any' formal :trainjng and no one to pass on the 'knowledge'.

You don't know wheat you don't know,

One of the problems rampant today ts that, in the late 1960sr reallstlc drawing generally became considered unfashionable by the art world, and, no one bothered to learn how to do it a..ny marie",

The slade school in London used to be world-famous for turning out fine British draftsmen. A'. "dtstlnguished British painter who taught at the Slade asked me, 'How did you learn how to do anlmatlon?' ~ answered that r was lucky enough to, have done a lot of life drawing at art school, so without reallzlng it J got the feeling for weight which is so vital to anlmatlon,

Then I said, ~W'hat am I telling you for? You're teaching at the Slade and it's famous for its llfe drawing and excellent draftsmen, ~

t.: ~I'f the students want to do thei, ,. he said, 'then they've got to ,club together and hire- themselves a model and do it in their own home.' At first I thought he was joking - but no~ Life

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drawing as a subject went out y,ears ago .. It wasn't even on the curriculurnl

I· 'h d b h d f ". d h be ~ b iI . :II ~ t d t.. · I H · t . tl I

.: ai, a noynoo nenc w o necame a ~_ IgWlg 111 an e uca son circies. e ran In erna .lon,a

conferences of the arts, About sixteen years ago he invited me to Amsterdam to a conference of the deans of the leading American art colleges, [He knew me well enough to know' J was bound to say controversial things, SOl II was invited as hls 'wi,~d card,

In my' talk I found myself lamenting' the lack of trained, talented artists and that I was ham. 'p'ere1d in my own studio's work because I' couldn't find trained disciplined artists; to hlre, The ·::appl·i,cants:' portfolios 'were full of textures, abstract collages, scribbles, often nude photos of ::themse~v:es and friends. No real drawing. I didn't realise how strongly I felt about this and ,as ~ taJked'~ ·found myself nearly In tears.

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,I harangued the deans of the, art schools for falling ln their dut,Y to provide prolper skills to their students, Surprisingly, when ~ finished, the deans called an emergency meeting t.o which I was tn "Vi lted I L· 0····· 'o'k', M',·, ~ ·W·,·.'""",'jEIJ lam '5' r th ,e' .... ,y,: sa ld Jy':o" u're right b ut we ha V·'-'ie,· two :p. roblem s Nu m b er one Ii

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since classical drawing 'was rejected years ago w'e have no trained teachers 'who :can draw or

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teach conventional drawing as thev never learned it themselves, And number two: our mostly rich students .... on whom we count for our funding - don't want tOI learn to draw, They would rather decorate them selves ,as ~ lvl ng works of art - and that's exactly what they do. f

'So ~ said, ~ Look, all I know is that ~ can't find people to hire or train: but otherwise ldon't know 'what you can do" r

They said 'Neither do we, ¥

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Lately things have improved somewhat, So-called classical drawing seems tOI be coming back, but with a hyper-realistic photographic approach because skilled artists are thln on the ground, Shadlng isn't drawing, and It Isn't realism.

Good drawing ~s not copying the surisce. It has to do with understanding and expression. W,e don't want to learn tOI draw just tOI endl up being lmpnsoned in showing off our knowledge of joints and muscles, We want to get the, kind of reality that a camera cen't get, We want to .~ accentuate and suppress aspects of the model's character 'to make lt more vivid" And vee want

tOI develop the co-ordinatlon tOI bl:e able, to get our brains down into the end of our pencil.

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, any carroorusts ann ammarors say'- rat tne v'ery reason rr ey~'o cartoons IS 10 gel, away rom

realism and the realtstlc world into the f .... ee realms of' the lmag lnatlon They'll correctly p' o lnt

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0, ut tho at most cartoon' animals don't look like animals t he' y're desig ns me' rrtal const ructs

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,MJckey ain't no mouse, Sylvester ain't no cat, They' look more like circus clowns than animals. Frank Thomas always says~ j,lf you saw Lady and the Tramp walking down the road, there's no

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w,ay ~ .. ·a. you are'golng '0 ,,;uy .. ~. ,a." Il .. _ley re rea .. :·_,OI;gS!!

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But ,to rna. e these designs work, the movements have to b,e believable - whlcr leads back to

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stand its structure and movement" W'hat we want to, achieve isn't realism, it's: believability"

While lex Avery released the animator' from the more literal approach in order to do the impossib: Je he .. ' wa·· .·5· only .• · .. · ab II e t· 0·" do it; 5-·10········ :S:;UI ccess .ful I'y" be ·c,' a U· se his anirn a tion was rnos tiy' d one b:y'"

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Disney drop-louts who already head 'the Disney knowledge' of artlculatlon, weight, etc, So,

Ironically, his rebellion, hils 'going the other route' r had its basis In an underlying knowledge of

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iBut don't confuse a, drawing with a map! We're, animating masses, not lines .So we have to understand how mass works in reality, In order to depart from reality, our work has to be' based . - II"t

on real. 'y.

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I~ :met Grlm Nat,wijlc:k (born MYlr,on N!ordv,edg,) In II '-:ollll~!:Y'WIOIDld, basement when he 'W,elS ln hls elghfies, Cirilml 'W'al,S, the oldest of the great anlmators, being already in his; forttes w'hlen, he animated ei':ghty-"tlhrll'e scenes of S:nICiW 'W'h,it,e ln Dlf~s',n'e:ytr:5 Sn'o,iw White end the ,Se've.n' Dwsris.

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fu Iri"D'Ui,S abo IU t, ;i"t '~t i I the d',i:ly hie Id i ed, aged '1' ,01101 ~

l'll never f,olf,get tlhe' lmage of ,tih:is Ib~g NOlrwlle',gia,lnl Amertcan s,~'ttiln,g ln the golden tw'l lght, exten id.l-iinl',g, I~~~ hJ"~I-:,g··; Ia.·' I'-1m,' s and ,C;'p~f'3't!-~IU- -[I':~I hand s ~,~y' '[:;'n-' .,g ... ~ .. - -, ,--

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and w:herr[e :i't lhli,ts, ..... , the. ,I:,b!o:iilniks:r ,- ;tha:tJ:s the tim/n[g'il 11h,e: Impacts , __ wh,,:r'8 the ball ls hittiln:g,th:el

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further ,ap,a,:rt~ That's the specing: The sp"acinJg' Is ho"w' close or "all" apart 'those dusters are, That's ~'Jt~ r.llt·~' ,~" '.'~ ~1 ~ bu t ~t. i'.;', . rt'l. rt ~T'r::h' "'." L~ ...• 'iii" th - t '.' -I, ... · . .. rt 'G'" .'.' d '.'~]' - . t~' :~J ,. . ... ,' [~... .' ,. ~ _ .... , ..... It:L~ ::"1'$ sunpse.nut 1]",5 ~m:p'D!!J':':an'~~ :, ne s:paclrn:g: il5 :>e:~;rflc;Kly part, I,. "DO:':. an:llmlal'.:i~aln: :s:paCil,n:g rs a rare'

'COmjm1:DlId~'ty~

K~ SPACING

~ TIMING.

The two baste elements of anlmatlon,

. 10 experience this, take a coin and film it in stages under a video camera,

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First- pilot out the timing -- where you' want the, ban to. hit the' ground, Then push thee coln around ,.... ·ta.king a picture ,at each frame - and see-what looks right: or wrong .. Try it 'with different timings. and spacing. You're already animating. You're already' dealing with the important fundamentals and you haven't even made a single drawing .. You're doing pure anlmatlon

. without allY drawings.

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Hldd .. e-rl 'in this simple test: Is the we'l~;gh,t of the ball -' how' it feels, llght or heavy: what lt's made ot, ls it large or small, mevlng fast or slow? This w'fU all emerge if YO'U do several tests - whtch onl y' take at f'BW minutes to do, The importance of the timing and the spacing will become cbvlous,

B,ec,tluse YOLI dld 11." a certain amount ,of personallty wlll creep into' the action ..... ' whether the, ball ls d' ellberate 5"10' '"W··' ja unty erratic cautio lUC" even oct lm lstlc or pesslmlstlc

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And all thls, before you've made a. single drawing. This reveals how important and domtnant

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.' a Ilm,ln:g anc , r e Sp,elCtn.g ,lSI even 1,_ me nau IPOSI Ions were, arawn In oerau _'1 ,'~"IC, eiangetc

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Another i nterestlng w'a:y to experience the difference between timing and spacing right away j:,s: this:

lei's put a' coin under the V' . td DO ca m .- ra an- d' mo: -,~ '''It' aero ss the page lAP scr eenl ln o ne sec and

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~, 24 frames of screen tlrne, That's our timing.

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N',ow wetl~ keep the :S,R'm!! iimin« __ , again taking one second for the IC,Ol'n to, move across "the page, ,BIU:~t' we'll change the specing ,by slo,w,ly' easing out of position numbert .and easing grad-

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~ t. stl ~ ,I takes Oin e s eco n d for th e co in to get over th ere, It h as th e' sam e tlm i n g ..... but th er e ls VEHjt different movement because of the different spacing. Both start together , and both h'rt the middle together - but the, spacing ls quite, different. And s'o the action ls very different;

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'V:o·u eeuld s:~:y····~ that a~:·"I:;m'''a.tlon is l'l'he" art of ·tim,~··jn,D a:c: u·'t you could '~:~Y"'i [t1hat about a·~·Ir.1 metlon

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The most brllllant masters 'Df t:imlinl)' were the stlent eemedlans: :Charlie Cha,p.~Jin~ Buste1r

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One other th}fng:~ The bounetng ball example is otten used to show animation 'squash and stretch' -- that Is, the ball I' el,ongate;5 as ift falls, flattens on impact with the ground land them returns tOI rij-ts normal shape in the slower part of: its are,

~t m'ight squash and stretch lihllils 'WllY iif ift was a, vlery 5;,o,ft batl 'with not mu,ch air in ~·t~ but what

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sllence alndl think bief:ore sw'i~J~n:g my' pencll around, My' anima[tion ~mlproved lr1ight [a:way~

Th:1. '[I~S"~ has been "t-'~·a case 'W"',"I-:~Ii:lh~'- m'''''a:~,o."'y'' ~1:.4-'!'![S·~'~~ 'w"?~h:': e'';,nn; ,,:I·f·~,'~[D p:::~~;~Ad'- &,L,.,~~ ·w',,·,l'£:d'·"'o·'·m"·:" a·,,-'j!I:'~lln'l·g"~i --R!J'e':r:e"n';'t·'II-:y' ",:,t~'W"i':':O'-""

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>r~,,~DII- -orne 'W' rants ·tIO· d-ec' 0" ra te their h ouse with interesting pieces before p' uttlng ln t- 'he cc mer

li:;\t'~'lry'::_:'llrll;I~1 \I',.,'.','[_j IIIJ_ [:_ I. 1 •..• ·. ,II,' ~.' , ':', "'., . '" ,., ,.... II . ,I . ,"I 11,1: ".' ,".:.... '',W>'.: • - _' J 'e I IlL :. ,.: 1 . " .,' :":-"111''''

stones and :5 upports [I E'veryon e wants tOI ,j u m p ah eadl to the so phi sti cated bit. ,_ gloss i n:g' over

'I' 'jl'e-"'I Id<lr.IIIIII·III·1 o.'."1-11d:-1 [·s····'ulp .... p' 11'0':- rt W:,.'·:·[Q rk

n 1 ,:_, 11- ll!o'l ii" 1.- "11,, .. , .'.1 . " fl.

[I?l 11-, ,~"t')f[~:, the thorou: h und .". ·'t' " rd iI ... ,' .. "'f' ,th:" b ,.,.", ... iI,' . th. t .' 'I'· · .. d·j 'I ,',"~". ,·,,···· .. 1 , .... ohl tl .. ·,:··· t, ::"', ....

Dllun!J., n oSJ 1,I,._,,,,e .',_ ",OII!OUg"" un iers an Ing 0 ' e, asrcs rna pre uces rea sop IISLlca ron,

A A" rI' [ 113" b b · ttl 'II d

.e /"\ I'IIC' ':::~!,.: "[I", 1'1 : Ii!:"'a'···'·· 'II. i [~l

. ~~~l ii', .. ~J L·.lc;;l--:- .. -::_' ',_,_ I~l._·_l,.:·l.l

The ik:lliillo'w'le,d:8'e that went. into making llttle drawings come to il'ife is in the] early D'J:s;neY1[$iL'] ~',t~oJbl'Olld;:" taught us how to articulate these tancttul characters. 'We had t.o discover the mechanics ourselves and P'ISS them around amongst each other, There a,re many styles but: ,tlhile:

'Ve[jh;aJn~i,cs of the old Dlii:sn1ey anlrnatlon remain.'

lib L, dO: "'t '111[ - 'k . d .. _. t 'b- 1" 9····4-0· ... . dl th . t '.' ... t h . to, p". . . .hio v 'I d

ijIIJ'1!Y' i1J112,UI [II" ,aL : workec 10 u _Y' I:, a roun '" e ' [I me: J a: ,/ noccn I 0 was lie easee COl

II d n' I' tid' I'

II 'r:' ,,'I :/',,1':1'[""'["" I i I ,:,:,,'~ ....... ; .• ':_'. ',~, ,,[ ,' .•.............. ' t« "'.

L~.l.~".s}[a,wDllll·e[,]u, system precisean simpte.

A very' interest~ng thing happened w'he:n we wOf'ked wl·'th (if'im N[atwJc:k~ He was SIO old that each day the tended to snap ba[ck Into a different pr,ofes;sioili1,al perlod o[f his I:ife: one d:ay he wIDu~d: come .n and dlo [circular '~:rlubber hose' animation 'from the 1:9205", then the next day he would be in a. 1913.6 ISnow Whlfel' phaset making tons o:f ~smaoth:~y m:o,vlng ·drawlngs, thel next: day W"Q'IJ~dl be sharp, physical actions with· pieln:ty of s;tath: holds from his 1950 IUPA JMr M,agolo'

pen"'od th ~ n h" e'd '10" e do~[n' g as f:;Qlw' d"ra-w~ng lbl S [~f he ~werA arn;matiing a 1ft,~O~ TV' ad

' .. :;" ',,", '" -"e· " r -c"', ,.1','" ~[ ";) ':~"~'~. [:. '/'~~:iJ;_~['5, as· p05SI.:.e~ [I: I". I,,':' ~'." ~ ~~rn ", !~.: <~;[ ... ! ~,"~, ':" :~I: ~

and then the n:··;:Qvt· d ~V' b·-!.--iJ,.,. lnto fulsom "~e'" F·" sntssie m r ;.A'd· :e·

.g,J., - '"'" . : :~.""l' ['3.1 L ~ It ." "~. ,.:1 '!>Uf~iIi": I: ":V __ ~

...

He 'wasn't ju:st ,·howln! the 1,11:' of ~Ie .actio·n ....... he W'IS ind;icating; .aJII the different 5pac:~ngs; on

his drawinlg~ ~

I sUldden~y' realised tb·at this: 'Wlt$ plro,b,a.bly the origin o:f the charts th·a:t antmators put on the edge [0" their drawings

HAND

H~AD ~ "~ I

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3' ~ -+

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- b[ 1

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"- ,-- 3'

. -

I asked, "',Hey, 'uirilm - dId these [charts just gradually move across thlB page aW'a:y from the drl&wings?

47

~I t h 1" :0'2" 0- iil" ·..lI'~d-1 - f"" '-"h I;;, . 'L II' "Dei< [k 'H' " t· In.[ Ii N' '-1 '\I I . .ii In:,~ ;~-_'e '_~:~I';.!,I~IS~I;)' a!ln~!ma:l!o:rs till::' m [0 51: O;J the 'WD:irK: 'tl:le:mjSS"v'e':S'i' ;.~::'~·Ct::' ~-·~:U}l!~lm;e·~r' 'w'as; 'lli~e lo:p·.-:" ::: le'W"I/or~:

:,

[dun!ilm!ato·r and w'a:s~ ·w·o~k.lng·--'· :flo:, .M,[ax' and D1av'e'-, IF~ll;'[ch.~ie;r 10·:,111 tlh[eir' M.ut",'.t"~'nd Jeff series, Di'c:lc,tn:i1d:

_ ••• ~. ' •• J __ il •• l_ '~_."'-J~ .~_ •• ~ •• ., ' ••• _ ,'w _w' _ --'J • _. l. _'. l .. ' ~ '_ . __ ,,"-, ~. ~ l_ .. _ J l _". __ "_ '_ '_ ,_,l_ o_ "_'.oJ,,_ '. __ " __ l_,_, Ul. _. __ .".' ._." __ ' __ .,_.1 . l. __ "_' ._._. __ oj

me t':I!..·iiCIi'U" sald 'i "Q h ':I~m'" ~:Y··.'-·:·:o·--·-ur W"''''f'K'''' I·'S g---~re'a.·1!. D"'~:~:k'" 'b!Ult'''-' W" 'e "'~llft:r"t' D'e' ··tc en 0" ~ah':" of:'; i·t"- f [5":'0' O-il'!c:k..-· s "a,;jdr-, to

pc :,:IilI.~';' ~<~IJ 11(.:, :_"i,.L~' .. :.f ·j~:·.:.I' '\/'-!.;(;~iL,~ /-- ['=t:-'/",tif ,:,,":~:'~i'_i' :'wjl',',::':: .,:' '~~j,~ .: 0<::::: ·~i':'>:}Ub''':'~'> 1::"", .~:»:':.:' :.:!t<,,:.. :=':,:~I: :' .. -

"I~'jh'I""'I':':' ~·G·---:~i!'V·'!·[&1 :-m:'," !';.::(,~" d'o"":n' .-~" ;1.':':-1-' !.',i;. ~:' 't:'h:'~' ~ --: r; bet -,:., ,u::,, __ ·-·'·-·_' drav , .. ~:-.,:."-'i", ~ -',A rn d : .... : ·t",w···':''-:'-·' "0--:" ,t-~h-::- ::.-~ t:'~:m;'-"-:"!s,,' ·a·· [~. mem, ".I ,I 'j~, : I,· ,e someone [(.10 p·u·,. sn me :lnJ"""u81,w·es:u !'~:r,awnl,g~, ~nu.: .~.' :,0: I~L_.l~O iLl< mree nmes ·=5

much wClr:k:,~·r [And ·that w·a,s till e inv'olJ1ilj]:on: IOff' the, .iilll1between·e'r[t'~

D- ;',.:11"" late '-11" 5'1" ld ln a n ~In' te uv -:~.- .-:- -. tha ··,"t"i·t, had b":-··.-- en "h····'e· r:'::'~.a~:-- --h-:--'e-"'rs,J tdea and t·' h ·a··"t 'h' te Iu st went a"'I:o-"D'

ill~:t\. >:~J'~~' >"l[: I: I_-:,:U~: ~JJI,:~lelW U:J:~~~ .. [. nau oeen ~":L::'-: 1I',II'i;I,S,C,:Li'-T_:C, ,~:~,~,,~, ana ili::,:::~~ ne 1:IS"v,I"'::"":~~' ,~~,::I':.llil::D

'wi"t'~h Ifr,. B !U-·:Tt:',; 'D'! kk ·8>- t:i·:tl-TlJ~',a~I:~ ilv' ·t;-:':O:··II d m .e·: 't:}~i,a:-]'.t: ~ 'e:\· h ~/~ :jilrl1-[I';~'n- -,-::,t:,~::d':' t: I he [1"1 :1111 Cbl~::~t;--::w, ';"·!8- ~'e··:·-· n ~ ·n->d .• :' .. tl·>~:~ 11:1'1 'b::-Ie' ~'W' !';'('le· .. ,~(n·~',~·~r?, ct'!h\:e'~

~,.~ '" '.~~' ~ ~ I!l.~ ~. ~~_" K ... "" ,,~,,·L..I.'~ 1_ .. ".".. ,n,~", n" .~a,U .. , I, '!' ~~ .~.~.~-,~. ,,""__[I~ .. 'W' .... , "~._.'"'" a .. 1.. ,~~.~!Ii ~ ~ ~,,,.,il." '" ,~~i, [,~.<" ~",' .~"

h·iiCIo,1 :p·.-::,:6~r7 ,0:; if' ·g·c·~ I'; stan I;~i~

~<:,_ ..:~~~ \"'"1] ~l~'~~'l«~:.~lL\_.~

:~

T'I h - .. : h .- rt - . 'h;' -- .. 'C-- t";-h" .', "'.-.. ~"C' - .

II ~ .. : j·e ·c:,·· ,:,a.~"": '5' uo,w:s : _-'. :,·e 'SiP~aclng[~

\1:,I:'l 'ill':~I"'- "t'"::·- th . . ... _. __ . !":~- b ·-t'·' . ... _. b C "t~ ", ... ' , t· 'h" :t· ~".. ''''. ·t! .' -" -- '

\1:'\I"le':II:' ·1:"'.1·U:: .. ~~nl:l,[dre:e even m ·:I.:\~I: wee'n,-s;-~-;:,e' ,,::'·w·:·'-,·':·e,~:e .. en me 1~~,Ii'O:' extremes.

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Because the pendulum's arm maintains, lts length as it swings, the middle position creates: an arc in the action. We can see. how important that middle posltlon between t.he two extremes is going to be to us.

S' F.('~?A."" t- ~S'· .~. ~

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It's cbvlous how' important this m lddle posttlon Is, In. the .193,05: they called this the 'break-

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down' d raw lng or 'passing posttton' between two extremes,

I

4-'

5

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SO. Ii t dl I!I t h b k d · ~ till b • t r • rt t t t' h'

ome aruma ors iUn_ erllne j,e-r'e'a-' own or pass'lng p,o:SI' 'Ion necause ~ 5 50 rmpo r 'an:' .0:: e

act _.' ·1,0" n :11 h: eve t [h' e·-' ha b lt '0- of' d '0- :~I!r;g' this becaus e lt's a' :p' o s ltlon w·· . h lch ·IS: crucial to helping ,--: US" ·1 nvent

' ... '.-, .~. • I ,,-: _I_,~ ~", _.,,~ 'J i 1,[1:0 I, ~" .... Qi" ,,-, I - ,[' i I 11_, '-,!I ,- ,,', _ ~.- [,:'" , , ,.1

W··-·'elrre g-ojn' tJ·• .. 'k' e' trem endous use 0- f this middle po sltion 'later'

-, i'.' :'.:11"1 ,g -,0, rna::, _[0;_ i,. ,'.:. '. ':' -- .... " .': 1 'J :." ~.·'.l-i ,.: " 1 ";: II: ••

49

.. L

If: ·w·a ·w··,I:n··'t,1 ~,'~". m:"·}~i,k·I!' o~llir pead 1lI1IU'_' m ea·.I~,1J in an~ Aul D'f the ,Ie,xi,r,eme p·~·.DffltIQr1:&. we;:11 need a

~ .. I. . . :!~,D .... ,R t .. ~"~ 1!ioiI, .'_' n ~. ~ '.~. .. _. ~ ~ . ~ u. .. .. . . . ... "". . .' -, . .. ~ if ..... .. . ... . --

cou'p:lle m',cu~ei'l:tweel,S!

·m··"~i'I:,;;ji~ lot.. m ,~~; iAn' Iii:Iv'dn ~~niW' Ar' ~,. I;i~~ ~t'ii;·d~·I·· t ~~.[p,i~ ad ·d ~I eouple 'm" 0". in b:letw.t:il§n Ii

,! :~d\i~ ll!,.f~~ 'M,~:II"II:V ' I~:~', :fi:J,I'I!;;J' ~ all lllrllru' ~IIII., I:~~:~ ,"'" ~ !!i.'u: :1_.<_'. ~ ~ )~ ~ ~~~;jI ~

6 7

.. ~. I II:

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~M:a:st@;r anlm QI,r Eric Larll'o,n '_ whD' became I'he i'n,structor lot the YCIIjJ:I1II,r D'I:I:f1ay "an~m,ators ...... tf~uat whIt ani'm,at:ion h,I.: ~o have

.. 5"D~; ~:.tfl chan from: a c'I:'QI ed hand .. te ,at point:i'ng finge[~

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51

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The animator can get aw',ay witlh just drawing the tWIQ extreme posltions and making aehsrt for the assistant to pUll ln all the ~nbetwee'n pDSltions~

I was SPOIUt by bejng taught by m,arveUlou5~. ha,rdworl(il1g~ top Ho,Uyw'ood anlmato,fS and l had a 'few shocks when ~ worked with some of the les;ser mortals,

Here's how' a Hol~ywOCld hack an~mator might duck the work:

A character enters screen left ~ '4> "

I - --!

~ .

fz 8 Zf ~b 4-z. J~ I:A 60 cr 72 18 8+ '10 ~b

"t 1;;; ~ 21 I 17 so as . 3t ~ 5':.0"" ~7 ,3 ~ 6' 7, go,. 87 13.

~ - . ~. I·' ':H.j+I-H- ... . ~ , .. -I'.· . c·'· ..• ..

~downs are eructal tOI the resur't~r but thle

MovIng !on - woe k:now the extremes, and the brea~ lnbetweens are also 'V e ry' impcrtant,

s, b'lut for ~ldrawingJ peop~e~, getting plod

The genie in the computer creates perfect inbetween! inbetweens can be a real problem,

,111 k~11 the finest animatilon" f'

lrted work at Disney - 'first met thle great ~,e'tweening deplartment~ Tytla barked, IO~h ~tely?r

In 1934~, when the novice Mi~t J<ahl - haVing: just st, BUI T!ttl,a, he told Tytla that he was working ~n the int yeah? Andl how man:y scenes ha:u'e y'ou s~crewed up la

52

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" <',". ."'" if ", , , .' .' ' .. ' ~ u _' ' __ " - -'. __ ,"

As is common in production when racing tOI meet the dlead~ine, we end up hiring anyb'o,dy off the street who can hold a pencll, And this Is what happens:

r-·....-.,...,··~

---"I .. ' ,.. % .t&.

,.

..

}. i ,

;

The fnbelweener from 'the streets doesn't understand simple perspecttve ..... so the curved top of the cup :geb: put in' straight on the inlbetweens"

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I

I

-- . . -. - . ew'" Jill! .~. --

...-M± Jo= • ~ '.- ..... + ......... ~. I ....' ~ .. - .~ .... s

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And if it's thi:s 'w'obbly with ,I simple thing, just imagine what it's going to b·t! llke when we are dealing with complex drawings. All the shapes: win be doing St Vitus's dance. So the assistants' or lnbetweener's job is really volume control.

- .. -.

'A, lo,t of assistants wOirry about the quaU'ty of their line - mlatching the an~matolfrs, tlne qua~ity~ I : alw,ays say never mined the llne quality' - Ju'st get thle volumes r':ight~ Keeping the shapes and volumes consistent == volume controll 'When the thing Is coloured In, lt's the-shapes that we se,e ~ itfs the shapes that dom~n.ate"

5,4

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5:0: Numlbe,r 4 is wrong,

:3 compounds it..

:2 compounds it more.

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,

And instead of ending up wit.h fluid actions like this --

One thing an animator should never do is; to leave his assistant t.o make 'thirds'.

f d h h

,I . we need to dlvlde te CI'i art into thirds -

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eavlng thirds to the assistant is cruel and is asking for trouble - but lt's falr to make a chart like this, calling for an Inbetween very' close to an extreme:

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4

3

A d t th G" t C""~ 1"1 D' ~ F ~ t '" t- I .., j

~ I- .., ... ;. . r r "'.' "~ ". l ... J • • . • • • J . l . 'J.... . l.' i .' ,"' Jr' .•.• " ,," .. _. ..,", -',' ,",:', :_:,' ,"_. .... • -. - - • r" . -, I ,":' _.. . "'-. P r • :" - • • ". I .. I.

ne now we come to e oreat ctrc Jng -ISle,ase,~ or some reason, ammators just iove ore es.

We love to circle the numbers on our drawings, Maybe it's because, as old Grim N,atwick sald,

Curves are beautiful to watch.' Or maybe lt's Just a creatively playful thing.

~ once worked with a [Polish animator who, circled every single drawing he made!

'Is an lm ,- atl on man ~ C-' 0; rcle ~ C-'" cl e I C"" I "

~I_.. [t ' " '" I, 'ill' " ',I: ~ ", J_ '"" ' I r" I,".. • -! rc 'ell"

Yourll notice that SOl far i haven't circled any extreme positions. In this clear working system and method developed by the 19405, the extremes are not circled, but the key drawing is. The drawings which are circled are the 'keys',

Answ\er: The storytelling drawing, The, drawing or drawings that show what's happening in the shot,

57

,If a sad man sees or hears something that makes him happy, we'd need just two positions to te~1 thee story'.

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These are the drawings we make first. How we go lnterestlngly from one to the other is wheat thee rest of this book is about.

Let's say a, man walks over to a board picks up a piece of chalk 'from the floor and writes something on the board.

, ............... -.~- ='-1

i

I

r~'" ~ ~.

If ~t was a comic strip or if we wanted to show 'what's happenlng on a storyboard, we'd need

O· nlly three posrtlons W':e" r'll keep lt sim pie" and use stick figures SO" we don't ge t lost ln d etall

"J,_" .' ,'. 1 .. IIILli'i:,lIl "" I., ", ' j", .' r '",_"', I,. , a, :1 ". ,':. : .,' '," .. :" 1,1 "Iii.

These three positions become our k,eys and we circle them.

The keys tell the story, All the other drawings or posltlons we'll have to, make next tOI bring the thing to life will be the extremes (not circled): the foot 'contacts', the passing posltions or breakdowns and inbetweens.

58

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portant animators are called key animators, and word got. round that they Just draw the keys -, anythlng that the.y draw is a key - and slaves fill. in the rest according to' the little charts provided by the key animators. Wro:n;g,. A key animator is simply like a key executive ~ an important one, .

.

Many good animators call ali their extremes 'keys' - I sure used to. But it makes life so much e earer and easier if you separate the keys from the extremes, Actually, ~ never heard Ke.n Harris ever call a drawing a key, but he would say, 'Draw that one first. That's an important drawing,'

nd it was a key, really,

f e worke,d every system, good, bad or half-baked, and experience has convinced me that It's best _.. even crucial' ...... to separate the storytelling keys from the extremes and all the other stuff ..

Of course, as in our example above, the three keys wUI also, function as extrernes.) Separating em out stops us getting tangled up and missing the.point a,f the shot, as we vanish into a ~'r'I"'lI'~ad of drawings and posltlons,

ere may' bile many keys in a. scene - or maybe just one or two -- it depends on what it is land e ength of the scene, Its whatever it takes to put it over, to read what's to occur.

au can spend time on these keys.

remember once vlslting Prank Thomas and he was drawing a cat. ~ Dammlt, f he sald. 'I've been 'WOrk~ng all' day O,M this damn drawing - trying tOI get this expresslon r~ght,,'

t

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/

: So.M~'TH JNG LJK~ T{~IIS ~

J

m _. shIocked All dayl Wow! That was the first time I ever saw anyone working so, hard on a

ffi: .' e drawing~ How was he ever golng to get the s·cene don·e? Finally~ the penny dropped. '~Of ~~~ stupid~ Its his key!' It's the most important thing in the scene! He's got to get that rightf

as encouraging to see anyone that great struggling t:o get it rlghtl

.. '

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2~ The planned way, caned

First we decide what are the most important drawlngs ~ the storyte'~ling drawintgs~ the keys ,;_ anid put them ln, Then we dealde w'hat are the next most lmportant posItions til,at havle to be in the scene, These are 'the extremes and 'we put them irn - and ,any other impolrtant POSM", Then we work out how to g'OI from one pose to another - finding the nicest bans~tion between two poses, These are the breakdown or [passing jplosit~ons~ Then w'e can clinically make dlear charts to cushion' and lease in and out of the pIQ,si[tl,ons and add any' finishing touches or indilcations for the assistant,

To UJu·strate ho~ effectJve the pose to pose method ts, the brUllant Disney art director~~sJg"elr Ken Anderson told me that whe,n hie was making laY·Qlut drawings lo!f characters for antmators w'orklng 'o!n Sn,ow' Wh·ite and the Seven D'wa.tisl) he drew ~ots and lots :of key poses olf (jrumpy for each shot, Ken~'s dlrawJn.gs were then given te lone of the Cirumlpy antmators, Ken flcund out later that 'the gu:V Just put chart's on the draw~ngs~ handed them to hES assistants and lwent off tOI lunch. and took the' credit, for 'what in effGCtr was Ken's fine ,animat~on~

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~UAWI UNNATURA~~

~r ~ II CAN B·~ 100" .l-tWAA~ - A t3/r 'CO~D·"BJ~J>~," NO &uRPfj~~

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[First: we p~!,an out wh:at: w'e"rle' :gol,inl,g' t)Q' do tn small ·th:u;mb.n,a.i:~ skstehes. (lt~'s also a, good ~d!ea to ,ha,v'·e done th~s wi·th: [th,e other'two· mJe·th:odl:s,"'

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Let's take OU'r man going over to the blackboard again,

Whlat do I: do first?

Answer: The keys - the storytelling drawings or posltions that have to, be there to show what's happening. Put it where you can see ~t ~ 8 'f so it reeds.

. . ...

Answer:: A.ny other drawlngs that heve to be in the shot, Obviously, he has to take steps to get over to the chalk - so we, make, the 'contact' posltlons on the steps where the feet are just touchlng the ground,

. here's no weight on them yet -- the heel is just contacting the ground .. As 'with the fmgers just contacting the chalk - they haven't closed on the chalk yet,

'w'e act all this; out, we might find he takes five steps to get to the chalk and benld down ~ .. :iotice' that 'when I act it out, I autornatlcally pun up my left pant leg ,as I bend down, then r put .: : ~'-y hand on my knee before my other' hand contacts the chalk, I would make an extreme where ·:J.he·h:land just contacts 'the pant. leg - before it pulls up the pa.nts ..

··These .'V'!iU be our extremes, 'We're working rough, sketching things in UghtJy - although we probably have made rather good drawings of the keys, (I haven't here, because I'm try·i.ng· to keep it simple, for clarity),

64

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We could ad it out, timing the steps and putting numbers on the extremes or we could leave the numbering till later, I would probably put numbers on it now and test it on the video to see how the timing feels as his steps gel shorter - and make any adjustments.

What next?

Werrl break It down, lightly sketching in our passing posltlons or "breakdowns'. We won't get fancy about it now - the fancy stuff comes later in the bock, For now, we'll just make the head and body raise up slightly on the passlng positions of the steps -like it does on a normal walk •

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N'QiW We"111 mlake str-'ii:ght ahead runs en tlh,e d!i"8:e.rllnt 'parts ..... ul:siinig o'u!r extremes and break,d1o'wn [p,o'si'tlo,nrs as a guide, -- a,n,d aJt:erii:nl:1 the·mr or pa,ns o,f ,th!l,m, if we' need t:o, as WI ,8:,0 ,.1 0 n'I'. Take . .. . thl - .. ". · .. t t~ .~ ~ .. '~' .,~.,., d .. " . ~ '.~. ~··t·,~ tt .' ·t' . ~··~I!,.;t·· .' h ... d ,

one ',:I,n:1 ,a,~~ a, nme an,~ animate 1:'_ straigm aneac i.,

M,a,ybe he's :mu,mlbUng: to !hlms;8'lf, or maybe he's talk'i'ng - may',b,e hls head Just w'o,bble,s areund 'w""'!"I'~:t,"'-h~' ~,e'lf': lo ... ,v>····',e··: w~.'~'·~h~··a······te~·vie·~r· lt ;"'15,-1. 'W"',''''"e',:rill" :tre······~·at~,· lt as ·a~: ·s.·····e-·[p~:~a·~··r~··a~.'··t'e; stra IlI·g·:·,·'h-'t~l"I!I!~h· ea d run, 'W" ··.·:·o=·.rkJin:·t::I en top o····.·f

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'W[I"" I I: make another strai!:ght,~a,head run an thle arms and hands, M.aybe [they~[lllwi:n8 frel,ly in a fig',ilre, ei:ght O'f a, pendulum mloveme'nt:,~, Of' maybe \th,ey' ,h.l:rdlly' mO'YI before he reaches fer the chalk, M,a',y',b[e' hoe, :p1ulll:s up' hls pants as he, mlo'v'es· alon:I ..... , o'r ~s;cr:lt,chle.S, [or snaps hls finll'8lrs nerv[o:u!dy~ or cracks hls k[n!ucikl'[es,[~ Wh,sn 'w'[e a r:riv'e' ,s:t our !k:[ery, 'w'e m:'iight rub 'OHU't the arm anld ;d'ter it

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:0 sur : cur arm aenon. ';Ir ~"e,t,a,yl'S neac, .... >lr rarse ~; ear Y' '::0 :0,0 " a,r '~ :- e' eoarn.

[WII' ean diG lots G,f: ii[nte,re-:stiitnlg thi',n,gs w:ithl the, legs and feet, IblUit. fOlr !n[o'w we jUist. wa'n't 'th~.m to function s!mo[o,'thl,Yi ('~"',m avo'i~(U':n;g th1e problem of wei1ght at thls 'stqe because ,the, up and downl on th"e' head and b[od:y ,that WI :tUI'VI' at: the moment w'i:~1 be adequate for now.· and ,the flgiure won't: just fl!,oat: along • )",

. ... ... - - .. - ....,,]" ...

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Whi'e1i" ~e, wti·t,es on the b'oardt we'll t;r:e',I't 'that: a's a separate rlun'~ If hie has lo[nll' hatr or ,a. :pony'

l'E~I·I· i! w,~ )!!i;"ilil d· 0',"· tha ·t·'· a- ~5--:: a,'i se pa ... al~;e~ stra illg' ht-a h ,e· a d·.··· run Hls cle .t·!l.le··· -5<, '''O'~:''U' ld be 'a! ·S··· n ep a'rat,e· run, b~!~aD' .• u

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:p1aint IlelS fOill!ow;~!nil' along, il:,' h,."'d gro,w'n a tall, ,that, 'w'ould be the, last ,th'i!n,g 'w'e"'d p'ut on.

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l've shown these thlngs j:n different colours to be, as clear as possible. In my' own work I sometimes use different coloured pencils for the separate runs _, then pull it. all together' in black at the end. I was delighted tOI find that the great Bj~11 Tytla often used colours for the separate, blts, then pulled them all together afterwards,

To: re,cap=

Having made the keys, put In the extremes then put in the breakdowns or passing posltlcns ..

N t' h t" t ., th '~ II t k ~ t L. ~ t t'"I-

o:w - I, II weve g"o _ our main i ,:i rng _ WIS' go agal:n~ ~a,'lng on'e' I :urn,g' a a' rme,

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'Firs:t" the most j! m.p ortant th i ngll

Then, add any flapping bits, drapery, halr, fat, breasts, tails etc,

The general prlnclplels:

Afi,er you've got. y'-9lur. first overall t.hing -- go agaln, Do one thing at a 'time (testing as you go along), Then pull: it all together and polish ,it up. ,Make, clear charts for' the assistant tOI follow up or do it. all you rself,

Ifs Uke, this:

, 67'

O·f course, you can work any way you w',ant There are no rules - only methods;, 'You migiht fee~ Uke ~gnoring ,aU of th~s and just work str,aight ~he,ad or work from pose-to-pose, or start lone way and 'switch; te the other'""'" why not?

What's to stop us re~inv'entlng the wheel? Lots of people are busy doing it~ But on thie other hand,. why bother?

This method of going at it 'was developed th:fOUgh conc,.,ntrated! tri,al and error ,by geniuses and it~s a wonlderful basts on wh~ch to operate. Havfl1g used just about every approach goJ..ng ~

, .

incJudilng no system - rr've fOlund 'this ~,s the best workIng metlhod by' faJr~ Get ,it ~n your blood-

stream and ~t frees yO!U to, express yours,el'fct Use th~s technique to get past thle' techni'que~

M,i:llt :K,aJh~1 w,orked tlhis w',ay~ Nlear the end olf his life ~ teld him" ~No'w' 'that I've been worklng the same waYf I re'aUy do think that -- apart from your talent, brain and sk~U - fifty· per cent of the excellence in YO'Ulr work comes from] your work.ng m:ethod: the 'way y01U th~nk about oot~ an,d the way you go about it~li!

<lWeU ~ ~ ~' he sald thoughtfully, ·y,ourr'e right~ Hey~ youI've 8,o;tten smartl' Milt often told me that by the tlml!l he'd p~oHed everything out this way~ herd pre,tty much anlmated the scene -- ev·en inclludling the Ilip synlCm Then he~d finish putt~ng nliulmlber-s on the draw~ngsf add bits and make Utt~e clinjca~ charts for th:,e assIstant -. easing things in and out, Hie comp~ained he new'r rea~ly got to an.mate because when he'd flnlshed pl,o;tting out all the imp'olrtant stuff - it 'was antmated. He,~d ,atread:y donie lt.

I always use the video to test my stuff at each stage ...... even the fiirst scribbles..- time th:em and test tJhlem" ~n fh'e '197015 and 8,0'5, Art :B:abbltt used to g,at mad at me for it - tCiodd,amit,~ y,o{ulfre us~ng that v~d,eo as a (tUite-hi f ~Yesfr; I,~d ~say~ "but is it not tr'u,e that D~s:ney first fnstltuted pencll tests and that~s what changed and deve~o:ped animat~on? And don't you ,alway's say' that pencil tests are our reh,earsaJs?"

Assenting grunt,

~And what;, the' difference b,e'tween rushoong a test ln to th,! eameraman at the end olf the day ··when he's tryin:g tiD get home, and if h,e dloes, stay to shoot ~tr hang around the next day ti~~ ·the·-:jlab de~iver5 the, print and mlidl-morning i:nterrup't ,the editor, who's busy' Icutting ~n the 'ma~n shots, a,n,d then fln:,al'I)f' 'see your tles,t ~ wh:en wee can use today's v~deo and 8,t a test ln ten m~nutes?I'

·:Art wou~d turn away~ 011' am n~ot a Luddit,e~' (.Mach~ne wreckers pretesttng the ~nid1ustria~ .·Revo,1 uti on .. )

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W-''':','--h-'- .. ' '- '-v r 'K· .'. -.' Hii uri h .d t ... -. . - ~. -.··-·-'tl· r a walk ~h.'" .,' ',' -, --I.d, r : ·k·,·- t: h - -., .• ·t '1 ",. .. tlo .- .. , Ik .- '. :,·,··1:·, t· t and

l,~,,,:': I,ene·:e_ ,en ; ~ar_d.s _ ,Ia<" 0 ·a,lillma,e a wa. 'f .·e wou" s e, -c--, OU: a qUICl1\ wa~;, CylC ees.' ::. _ > ..

wew,d shoot It, p,op the negative In a bucket of developer, pullout the wet negative (black film w'ith white Ilines Ion it), make a. IIOOPI and run it on the 1m OIV II [0 la,

'~I~'v[e done hundreds of walks/ Ken would say, 'all kinds of walks, but I still want to get: a test {of my basic thing before ii' start to build on It."

C:er-talinly' the success of Who Fremed ROI[ger Rsbbit contributed substantially to the renaissance of animation, and ha,vilng the video to test everything as we went along W'ClS crucial to, us. We had <':li 10,,, 04: tal ent· ed but i n experi e n ced young p eop lie and WI"'t' h a' h an d fu ~ of' ·1- ead an; m at OJ!?''iL:' '!Iij,l;;l:l~ nfJ~,·I:;!> a ii," I!.' I',: 11:'111<' 1 ,.-.u! iI 'I _,A •• " . ',' .- ':, j'" ">: I',: .' •• ',' ~',:ir a < "',,' u ':: . ". anc :1 II"~']. 1,1.';' 11-1 :"~',iL.[,:::)~ ~ '~~.~

were able to :s,ay, 'Take that drawing [out" change that one, and put more drawings in here' etc,

Thls enabh d 'I·'" to I, .. '.' '." .. ',,'. ," .'., 'i ." "., ervth ~ 'C',.' (: .".';-." :.: - . d alor ',', .',',. ".":; --_.:-"" '_., : ible to collec-

~:_,S enameo us 0 Keep unprovmg every" Ing as we race arong, so we were ante .0 con :="cc

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~/U~t alway's said he would never bother to 10[01< at his tests. 'Hell, I know what it looks like .~c> ~ did it[' He 'would wai-t to s[ee several of his shots cut together iin a sequence but only '1[0 see '~h(}'w m~!!'s getti 'n g' , 0 ve' t" r

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But that was his w'aYE I have never reached that stage and probably never will, I test everything

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as i go aong an 1,- rea ,y ne psc vve re nuuomg mese perrormances, so W.Y nOI ILeSL: our

foundations and structure and decorations as 'we proceed? And since it reveals our mistakes - mi$take:s; are, very important since we [do learn from our mistakes - w[e make our corrections and ~mpro:ve'ments as we build.

Of' .~ .~- j1li:rCe- at th is s' t a' g.' e··· ·1 w- o· .1 d n 't h - - e' 'p·ro b.· II ~ m~ 1"'0' t ~. - [I ~ g--. m'y wa- - t h ro · - h" -:- 'Ii - ·b- l.oR:! [~t~ :h'-:- ~ ut __ . C[O;U":;';>r,_l_I, '!I:': ,': .. '.',',':,1U1 I .ave a promern ~U",]nlln:,. II ':",."cY'::dUg ., ,a. JO ,': '~Hii"h:I:O:r,lL_

@ t-~~· - .-- [b' rt -- hv ""ill tesung ~ nut W Iy:r

JIU1 interesfing thing l've noticed is that when animators get older their perception of time ~$I(lW:S un Th[ey::.' move slower and animate things slower The 'y·'oun,g. g~"uy:"s zip stuff around, S'OI, the

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vide~[D ls a useful corrective to us old bastards, And young one's when It's too fast.

8 . f - e dl · t 'w·· lks and all the artlci uatlon st ff' th ere are sam' . e' othe r import ant camera

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technlques we, should know about.

On the next page ls a 'classic exposure sheet called the Xiiis:he·et or dope :s·he·et _1 the first sight of which is guaranteed to put any beginner or artist off the whole business. When f was a kid and first saw one of these I thought, 'Oh no, I don't want to be an animator anymore, ~·U just make th e des lg ns for other people to m" iove arou nd .r

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Actually tt's aw' f'ufl" lrnple when you make friends with ·It

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It's just a simple and efficient form where animators write down the action and dialogue (or muslc beats) tor a scene or shot _. pilus the lnformatlon for shooting.

E·ac:h horizontal ltne represents a frame of film"

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The columns 1 to 51 show five eel levels of anlmatlon we can use if we need them. (Usually you

need just one or two .. )

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The }~CTroN column ls for ~~ us tOI plan out our tJlmin:g __ , how

[10· ··Ing W· ';Cl wa nt t·'lh~n··g· s t ta k

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'The D1P\L column is for the measurement of the pre-recorded dialogue and sometimes the breakdown

clf music into beats etc,

'T'· h II .. jl].. • r x··· h t l

~i ~ ,JII s; . Ct,aSSIC .""S ee ~ 1:5,

deslgned to hold ·4 seconds of

a~l·ct··:· [·I'I'·[·o-:-n· 1(··11 second 1_ 24··~ fn .. ' ):.

:~)~.I I,··: .• , I·. : 1_ J r:~mes'l

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it has darker llnes to show the footage, which ls 6: feet 10" film (1 foot =: 16 frames), ,M"lli1.Y anlmators alway •. ·.··.··s

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number the footage going

down the p.,algei'

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l've also written ln the [c;amle'ra dial numbers ,_ the &amenumbersinthecamem [(::[0,1 U min:"

Some animators tlrne thtngs out [by thlnklng in seconds, Others think in feet = :2/3 of

~II second I

l~ .~I~l .. -·I· .. '-·I .. 'Ii

[Klein Harrts thought in feet and 'WOU Idl 'tap th e' end of h Ii s pendl every foot, I th i n Ik in both seco nd s and feet, Ib IU t !5,le~C:'D'.1liI d s il :5: eas i' e r fo r rn e.

~A, lso, y[o u can t hi n Ik ii In 1 1:2- seconds = 12 frames to a. halt second T1L ·t'" -. m· ·e· r Ii. t·~, .. . :~JI~~~,~IIIII:J Iii I [J·a~: S I· T [en] me"

Iw[hil·ch ii:s; quite easy,

{(lC10lmp,urte·r animators please bear with me here - you obl'v':11olusf:y have your own sys[terms ,o;f tlmlng.)

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Wef~l plan out the action using the action column,

Ken Harris, always said, le,orne on, nOIWf. you can! have fun dolng the, drawings later, but do the important part first - time It all out, ~

So we'd use ,a metronome or a stopwatch and I'd ad it out several times, and we'd mark down on e sheet where things would happen,

s take our man walking over to pick up the a k;

e' e got hlrn taking five steps tOI reach the chalk,

en I act it out, the flrst M'O steps are leisurely - 16 frames long (2/3: of a second).

Then dUlring step 3 he sees the chalk, and this step is r·ghtly quicker -14 frames,

is fourth step ls qulckest 011&] 12 frames.

step 5 he Sh:;IWS, up slightly - '14 frames and 's al eady started bending down, which

es over 2 feet tlll his hand contacts the chalk,

I- e got him tucking up his pant leg above the ee as he goes down -- which takes ,8 or 10 e5.

Of courser we can! change all this as we work, but is becomes our guide and the polnts to aim fer we go along.

we can put the numbers of these drawings on page as I've done here,

lnddentaljy~ although numbers 1 and 96 are keys e've etrcled them we don't circle the nurn ... i~ on the X-sheet.

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The five avallable 'eel' levels on this X-she,et are there so 'we can treat each character [01' element separately,

Answer: You can, but 'what. do you do if you want to change the timing o'n one Of' two parts of til'! action and leave the other bits as they are? However, itrs a good Idea to try' to keep to ,j ust one lor two levels for slrnpllclty,

If we wlsh to use all ftve levels, start wJth the rnaln action [on level '1. Say a man walks In from one side of the screen and a cat 'walks ~1J1i from the [other. W[e animate our main action man on level '1 ~ and the cat ,on level 2" addlng a ~,c:r after the cat numbers: '1-Cr 2-C, 3,·C etc, so as: not tOI confuse it w,rth the man drawing. The man drawings, or main action, don't need an Ident~fy ~~ n:8 Jette rl

f a woman passes fn front of them, we'd put her on level 3" adding a J'w'r behind her numbers.

If a. truck was to stop in front of thern, we'd use level 4 for the truck and add a J'T'r to the truck' drawings.

lf it's ralnlng, we'd put the rain drawings on level 5" adding an J'R" after the numbers,

.~

The, X:-sheet. would look something like this:

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CAMI! RA IINSTRUCTlG..1;!S

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This; system obviously enables the cameraman to stack: his levels correctly .; working from the bottom up - and take ill, frame o[f ftlm with all the numbers across matching the dial number on his carne r[aI

But there is one very important thing here:

ARE. YOU A Mt=MBJ=R O.F K' l : ~,S~?

K[eep It. Simple·., Stupid!

Use stmple numerical sequences! Anlmatlon ls complicated enough without maklng it: any wors·e~

7:3

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1~1('" 'en 'UI s'lua' lly pla nned h ls action on' tw ,. os t 'W~" elve draw' lngs p' sco nd sh octlng

<.I~ " r usuauy :'IJI~~, · !I~"":'~,iI.;; ""I! :'<':',:.[!.~~' ".1 I .. lar s'e'l: .•... ,[~[[[,:" I.i·

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each drawing for two exposures, lnstead of working on 'ones', one exposure

for each drawing, which is twenty-four drawings pier second ...... twice the amount o,f work,

Ken was from War[ner IBros ...... usedl to tight budgets: the animators had to produce an average of 3,0 feet (20 seconds) a week or' be ftred.

5," ... '1 ~ ctl k well on t 'W' " lmat trl d t

since m'OS,IL norma ac IQiIlS wor [we'l on twos.vvamer anrrnators tneo :.01

av .. old I P uttlng '~IC' tlons ['0' rn ones ~· ... lS.. [

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Wh,enl he, needed to go onto ones for fast actlons (runs etc )':. he I"·d· Ji1lJIS' t nurn 'b'e':r' lt in' o n ones ~ e

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Then he 'd g' 0 b kc t·· t . 5 III' , I' 11,1· e [~"... I' a,c:: [0 n ,01 'I~,WO

'Ok, IKelnr but 'what do you do when Y',olu'\te worked iit out [on twos, but y'olu findl you want to add in ones to sm 0" "0' ·,t·h··· It out m' O' Ire"" ,,',1"

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Great, so now alii this TX:L-'1 and iPP~,2: 3/4, stuff goes, out th[e window. 'We,rrel

not welghed down wlth meaningless techn IQ,II ogy. It becomes simpler to. work and easy to make changes and improvements and we start getting better IL

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.Just use the camera dlal numbers for the drawings. Go down the. p,age on twos but use odd numbers.

Then if 'we do need: to smooth something out or' w'! need very fast

ctli I t d d l th

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'MIlt told me, JWhe~ever I se'e my drawings with odd: numbers

on them", I know l'm on twos and 'when I se'e' even numbers, ~ know I'm on ones, r

: Tasked, fWhat: do you do when! you want to get into a, hold ,_ just

. :lndi~cate, you're holding that drawing with a line? And when you come b "C'I~ ln do you start again on the dial number?

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easter when you do need several levels of action,

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'·w"''':'·'':'l~·t.v·:·',·e''·: now .:: g:' '-0' .-t':- the sa m e .. d la I n um ·bQr·s~ horlz .on t· "a:~:lly":

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····$O'~ Ju,st: :8'0 down the page with odd numbers - on twos .,_ . and drop in ones when you need them,

:. :~'t~s stmp .• ler and frees ·y·.·,· .. ··ou to concentrate on the work,

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.:iB'OI,Yr dld my output and quality lmprovel

T 'h le of ot 'hi thl t t · b f t rt l

.: nere are a COUipe 0 01.;, er ',:: Ings to mennon nerore w'e· :S', 'a . In

. on the great argument of ones versus tWO.5.

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a ·,cY·(1111 ·ol~l:dii,o:n :re,·:sta;rts ,_' 'wll!en! wel-~e' lrepeatji~n:g tfh:e- same :set of 'd-~-I'IIf~W',';~""'~I:-n;:-,Q!'!!;-" - :W\:.'''')e;~, -C::-"'I' rcle id:~lr-I~-a:-;~w'-;,/:;ilili;~,a ,'(i'~1' - '):" to ,l!'a-,-· ::Il( ~ -t'-:)I1',. ea Im',~ :~'ie: ram ,::L!Io'';, ctlh'-I'~'-t:' ~I:~t":'~~;

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out ,o:f: ISIeqjUie1n,ceJ 'w:ilth ,thie normal ,d:iial numbers,

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-(he GtRI=A1 O~ ::H4dTWOS gATTI-t=

So'me people al'way's ecmplleate the numbering by calllng ones a:wd tw"os., ·singlesl and ~dOUI.· bles', ~n ta,d ~singles:r Is from a 1940s term fer inlbetweening when the animater did drawjngs 1 and a and 5·, made an e·ven~y~spac·ed chart and said to the ,assistant ~I've le·ft :you 500ngles~r

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But'when to use ones and when to use twIDS?'

The rule, of thumb IS - use twos fer normal a.ct,ions and ones for 'very fast aeuons .. For instance~,

runs" ~.I~:IIIi.ml'yIE' have to be on ones' norm' a III iac-t"'nw nn 'twos'

,I.' W¥"!ifQ... ~ ',. " ,- '~' lUI ,,' I'.' - J. "~ ,~E.;5I lUI II "~.

ObvloUlSIYf ~ife is on ones (or whatever speed w'e film it on), but twos work we~1 for most actions and, of course, it~s half as much work as doing it on ones, ,A,nd half as expensive~ WorJk~ng on ones ls twit,e as mluch w'ork.and expense al~ the way down ,the produlctilon llne,

. .

.

Apparent~Yr' ln the early '193105 as Disneyrs animators got better and better. costs were sky .. ·

··rocketing, land since tWOIS work for most things, they trled to stay on twos 'whenever they could,

·A lot of grea't antmators even slay th,at M'CiS are really better than ones, that ones lead to a m -·uc·hy- result 'llla·t bro '!1id fast actlons on' twos 'sparkle' a' nd' add-ina ones' d'm~n~:sh- tes that-l

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:viUlity* We~lt yes, ,this is, true ~f the ones are just dumb, mechanical inbetvvelens~

: My. experien·ce IS'different~ l've found that if you plan for ones, the res~it is usually superior to twos~

·I·feell· that twos are an ecenomlc answer tal an arnstlc questton, With tw'OS being half thll! :'w[ork~, evlerybodly gets to go home on time,~ and why woulld I make II. case for ones? HeU, J 'was a: studio o'wnlerl.

·Wtien I W',U re-learning all this stuff" f woulld wailt t~11 my animation on ones was traced and . .palnted, then I'd shoot it on ones as planned and then I'd i,alee out ev'ery ether eel and shoot the '. ': rest. en tw'OIS to see, ~f it 'sp,arkledJ and was better~

In·,aJI:but one case, ones worked .better~ The time the twos worked better was when ~ had an o~d ::I.ad)f·pul~ing out II doctor's stethoscope from her poeket, The ones produced a very' smooth

: movement, h'" •

78

~

It worked just ftne~ but then I.rem·oy·ad ewry other plainted inbetw'eenl and shot it Ion twos:~ ~·t

was blette,. on tw,osJ l cannot figure out w'h:y ~ ~t just was better,

So they're p,"",,·wl.I-y- . p~gh··t I gllialiP,r' B'~ -t- if became addict ed to using ones wh --on - - -er I could ~ n -- 5-

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seem to make for c:om,p'lu[sivle vi·ew~ng and tha.t's what wel're after; .

Art Bah,bl'tt used to :n,ag at me for using enes, jT'hat~s too rE'alistic -- one ·of the ·th;~ngs about ani. mafion ~s that it's not like ~Ife~' But I w,ou~d o fte nl add onesto Art's work when he' wasn~t ~olok""· Ing andl ~·t came out better ~ and he Jiked it b,etter~

.~ Co·mipiuter aJnimat'ors have everything Ion ones 0IlOO) wtth perfect lnlb·etween:'s .-. and it hasnrtt ·d i mln-

Ished the appeal of thie~r wort - rather the reve·rs:e~ And twO'S tire the ·ey,e after a few mJnutesjJ ~ fee~ that~one·s are twIce as much wolikt Ibutthe result is three times as good, CompUJ~5ive view~ng~ easy ·to watch,.

I think my eo-animator Neil Boy:le said ~t best:

ITw,ols work - ,o,nes. fly ~ J .

AMid Ken Harris, who spent most lof his' Ufe w'lorking on tw·o:s~ wOIJI~d say to me, when I'd be putting ones into h~s stuff, ~O'ht it~s always better O'lJ11 ones .. ~

nUtte'. one thing that always makes me crazy~ Wh·en yo,u: have a Clharacter animated .. on twos and thl& camera is p,anning 'with it on o 11! 'e5. you get stroboscopic jitter" Either pan with It on twos (nolt great) lor add ln sin~gle inb·etwe·ens so it doesn't strobe~

Slo·:me' of thle re,al~y goodl guys· do thts, ~·tls ._ ;mysle·ry' to me, W'hy do:n't they a,dd sin:gle inbetw1eens so it doesn't strobe?

Maybe its because a ~ot of '~h:ings don't show iUp on the p·enoil test, 11::'5 when It"s coleured in that we see the bumps,

It's a CJo,mbination Q·f twos and ones, iNot only but also,

Norm,d adio:ns on twos ~ wh~·ch is th,e bulk of our work anywayii Fast or very sm,ooth adilolns on! ones,

Norma~ s:ip:aCrng on two~s~ [Far apart spaetng on ones.

Ani end less d eb ate has g'o' m e o':n'" a 'me ]'0' "n'g" c ,I. asslcal a···::n·' I iii m ators abou tl" whether to register the, d raw-

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tngs on top' pegs or bottom pegs,- At present, bottom pegs seem to have won out: most people s ·e·, em to be anlm at In 'g' U· sin 'g' , t h "e" bott tom p .. eas to hold t, h A-I'r do' raw ;in"g""'s'"

,~.,', .. II ".:1 •• ",._ II, "~.'" l: '::' ~ .. : I.;," I •.. , .... ",'.';. "'" )'_-:O," .,Iu'.I'··. ; .. !Ii,;;.:. I, ',:, ',J! .,1.: .. -.:,.

. - - - - ..... _

Frank Thomas has said, 'Getting off the tOPI pe:g's and working on bottom pegs has actually ~'( advant;ed the art of animation because you can roll the drawings as you work and see what's happening ,_, whether the creature is doing what y.ou want, r And that's had a tremendous

'Inf:I[llIenC'e~ (Disney animators all work on bottom pegs.)

-K'''-:' n I'd sam' ietlrn es go' red ln the face and . xplod A'V" __ 'ou k"D'OW wh 0 started- th . at wh 0'10.

,.'::.re:.':l WQIU .. I'~ ,:' .. neurr es i~""~:' • u me rae .. : anc e,n.::r" .. e!P' .~:. ""L,"',"j 0.:',,-,: :.:!'~ ':>.:. t,,', :,",' :~:

[bottom pegs business? A goddarn lazy cameraman who didn't want to be bothered reaching

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allthe :wlay· under the glass pressure plate to place the cells at the topl He's the burn who started b :':'O-:'!tlt':O, rm pegsl r

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.1 .. co'm'es '<own.o s'ome :~llng [I,e . IIS~

W:h' - .' h d; :1 d' d 'h d h'" 'I

nen Ken tao cairneo oown, ne usee this 'e.x,almple:

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I:f you on Iy have f01U.1i' fj ngers y,o u can .stU! I rom" flour sheets at once, plus the [bottom ,d;r.aw~ng ..... giving us five, images.

- ....

K' ld tr tch I t'" b d ar ~dl·hli>·· ~:en WOUI~,~ sre~c~,' an elasofC .. ' .an::~: arouno :.1]15

pegs to make flipping easier as he drew - 'w~tb,~, out having to, take the drawings off the ple':g5i'

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Addl tv th ls tlile "ad that most [0:' the [discs that animlaio:.r·s use are made of: hlefaV~1' m:leta!~ ·wii·tlh ~njSlet :lpa!nn;'rn~8: bars writh: screws 1:0 'tiighten and release them for s.:~:i!dln;g pans, il'l~s Pll1stt.,y· awkw.ard w~ith ~ ·ljrl:·th·l~e· points ~stjic;king UPI 8,ndl we u:n;c:on~5ci:olJ'51:y hl,v·€!' to dodge ·thle p[egs· as we dra·w,.

.... .

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One day abc t fifte en .. .- r - a' 'go II f' , d [la' '0' ut rt '''st a' n d d esl . er Roy 'N' lsb itt '. workln, 0 - a

i I' .• :-,:' ;:,::OU ~ 1.1 j .J:~-'.".IJ:t ye·a,s ,:_<".,': loun;~ _.:~y: u a1 J [;11' ·: .. '.5lgn.,: "'-',': ;f".,at·.<:II:,.·,i·:<I··.g on a

bt I.~,.- s cf ,". hlt ·····I·~·· ·t[·:· P-", , ·(:P·:I··· .. :O;.--J'[··, '.' ')" ," ith .'. ' b " .' .. II: st ts d':' ·t· , .. lt

Ig piece 0, W~II. e P asuc . erspex .... ' exig ass, WI.· ,a peg oar jusr tapec on _'0' I ..

V:' t th h nt t b tt

rou tape . ·e· pi •. egs ,o·n W rerever you want I.OP· oroottom

• " ••• •• • • :_" ': ,': J • _ ..1 .. l_,'. -. L • •• r.... _. . , Ii

A][S'O'l i~, keep a heavy 'metal disc with panning bars beslde.the dlesk for when I very' occaslonally need it for a mechanical pan ..

, ,

Thls also allows you to tape on taller pegs to carry more drawings' if you're on top pegs, The

shorter p,e'g bars are OK for bottom. pegs, but the drawings keep falling .a.IIID·ve~ the floor, Again,

, .

an elastic band helps.

l'rn delighted to see" that R·'oyiI'· . -;11 tlon h·l. . read th h the lnd try as I've ' en several

. ',." :' ','~.,. to see I::.' .":. S. so~u· , .' .'. : .. as sp" t r '. 'roug:_:: l~": ,Iii :i US. :." ', .. , 1'.'.·: see_:_! . _,' "''c .. !<,'.:

animators walking around in Hollywood with Perspex discs and a. taped-on [pe:g' bar tucked

under thelr arrns. '~

It. works just fine .. I anlrnated the first clo:s·e-u:p on Wh·o, Framed Roge« Rebbit uv a Welsh hotel room. wlth a Perspex disc on my k:n,e'e _, and top pegs!

:1 wo·rk both ways, Agaln, it's not only but also. Top lpegs. ls great for drawing and bottom pegs

is great for roll lng, 'Take your pi ck. ,

. ,"'

Ob viouslv com' puter anirn ators are f' ee fro m all th'~' tactile nsense b t l'm sure u h ave

.'··:l:~':, :~\.·\ilr . '.," .• ' .' . ,_--I.:,I, ,.'."1, ... (: ',. {, ;f'e'·. :1-( or .• I;. L:~ IS· I Ol.:' i'l . , no '-,".':;" - : u: "";1 :'-, you , :[ .. :~.,.:,

, ..

- equivalent stuff to cope with. Havingstarted out as a. drawlng animator, Jim Richardson, now

a computer animator, told me that when he first switched over' to the computer, he found it: was like 'anlmatlng with a microwave'.

83

~.

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Wr,ong:il Ev'[en ,I',flelr 'fifteen ),[earl," ,exp·er~e,n[C'1 ~ I'ot it 'w'f'o'ngll And ne'arly' IV'llry p[rlof[esl,i,o[lna~ l,fv'le~ I.,;k:'edl :sinlC& h[11 80tt[81nl ii't 'wro"g~

iRu~e ~inl ,the hnes ,~:i[k,e this, andi 'the a'D'S;$[ [point, le,llls us it's here, At least techn~,ca,lly~ A,nd[ just keep [doing ,iiI:;

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Thls w,o~ks; 'w'l.ill for fast moves. iHowev',er" for more normal moves it"s, best to cheat ~t - split the dlfferenee - [and come ba,ck I,b,out ihalf W[ly to, whelr,e eur first guess was, Dc, that throughout ~ ~ d vor I ~'Ii ~ -et- - b ~ "·te ~ pa - Ii II ~ t

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IS SPINN1N&lIP To WAl21)S LIS,--

AMP TO Po wtrk1tte~ '~AM,ta, SORT OF7HING:

JAKIE 4 POSrrrON~ ,Of· A esu: R~v:()~r/'lNG ,AI2OUND· A CFfilTRA~ FOtN1m.-

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OUR H~J-Pf;f!.1 WHO IS Pt.l{GGl=D IN /0 A CD,

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LA T~fZ i~~ &AME 411
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EVe'f1l drawing Is imp" ortant, ·We· can't [ust have brainless d rawl n g."" s [olnlng things up. lin one

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sense ther'!1 ere no Inbetwesns -- a.11 t.he drawings are on the screenfor the same amount 0": tlrne,

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The stuff en these pages looks a.,wfu~ly simple, set out like this ...... , 'Oh, I knew that.' But as soon as: we get lnto sophist.icated images and actions this all tends to go cut the window.

I recently heard about at Hollywood assistant, a talented draftsman who, was working on realistic horses (about. the hardest thing there, Is to animate). He drew the stuff beautifuHYr but he just couldn't get the hang of keeping things ln the rlght arcs. His dlrectlng animator, James

B .. t f II t d~ h t k bJI ~'I d ~ t t thO In r ~ t~

ax' 'EH"~ na y sugg'esl e re axe a mue pencr an,' JUs, race 'f! I iorse s eye p,os:~ nons sepa-

rately and -!,ook what ~as happening' to the fl,ow,", CI'inkl The penny dropped,

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,0 we re _ ac, 0 , e 0 --,QUnculgal __ again.

These basic things are so lrnportant. Most antmators would say scornfully ' ..... 'Oh sur-er the bouncing ball - everyone knows that.' But de they?

~K;; A #~Vy 8.fU-!A~D ~L. ~ I f :W I/..!- s PE.~D'

uP AQ ,.,.- DI<OPS - WONt-IT?

,S ur rJ4/s I.S ~)(AC-rL.Y W'l-{Al~ IN A Pt=R.j;f\lN'fA,UY 'R4"5IUSH W lN 8Tf< 1A(;r{'O"l I3,CCJK ~r:of'J f.1'l/NiA'1?:'R~;

Now WI! can start gsttlng more sophisticated. We're going to, keep, finding ways 1.10 get m'OVI!',rnent within movement, action within action - getting more 'change' r more bang for the buck,

92

K[e·n Harris showed me how to, exaggerate a. hit, Sa.y a. creature shoots through the atr to .hit a. c~iff:

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Wiard need about ftve drawings - eV'en spacing on the head , ...... tOI get hlm over to the cllff. The figures overlap sllghtly to help carry the eye ,_, on ones, of course, because lt's a fast action. N'[o lnbetween between 5 and 6~

-

To get more impact, more pow,ar to the hit, add in another drawing where he just. touches

the ,cliff, just contacting lt before he's flattened on the following frame. Thls will give more 'change' - actlon wlthln action.

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No'w't,o give it yst more impact, 'we take out drawing number 5,~ throw it [a'wa.y,

and stretch out the drawing that's touching the cllff, [lit becomes our new number 5~

l

.-

- "~ - . _.----.

--~------

....

- ~- -

- - .

INow our action kind of leaps a one frame ga.p. We won't s:[ee it, but weJ~1 feel it and It wlll give a much stronger lmpact t.o the, htt.

In 1:9[70 I showed Ken an early edltton of Preston B,~aii'r':s; anlmatlon book when If was questionIng whether we need that amount [of squashlng and stretching of things, (Vo[u can gather b'Y now that. t'rn not too keen on J rubber duck' stretching around - [although twenty-five years later

th t h t ~ d W"h~ F' d R R bb 't rt f' t ') r~ til d ia was wnat was requrreo on vv, 0 -remeo nogerreoost. a ca" 'orion '0, ,I car ',0[01'1'1, ~ no iceo

that Ken, though famous as a. broad action animator; used squash [and stretch rather sparlngiy,

93

NlX

'And do we do the same when it takes off: again?' Answer: 'Not ln this ease _, [ust when lilt contacts. You get the "change", then It's off again.'

P~ l,e"~'" rf 'llii!:li;,C'" ·t1

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