3-10 3-29E Complete the following table for Refrigerant-134a

:

T, °F 65.89 15 10 160 110

P, psia 80 29.759 70 180 161.16

h, Btu / lbm 78 69.92 15.35 129.46 117.23

x 0.566 0.6 ----1.0

Phase description Saturated mixture Saturated mixture Compressed liquid Superheated vapor Saturated vapor

3-30 A piston-cylinder device contains R-134a at a specified state. Heat is transferred to R-134a. The final pressure, the volume change of the cylinder, and the enthalpy change are to be determined. Analysis (a) The final pressure is equal to the initial pressure, which is determined from

P2 = P1 = Patm +

mpg

πD /4

2

= 88 kPa +

(12 kg)(9.81 m/s 2 ) ⎛ 1 kN ⎜ 2 ⎜ 1000 kg.m/s 2 π (0.25 m) /4 ⎝

⎞ ⎟ = 90.4 kPa ⎟ ⎠

(b) The specific volume and enthalpy of R-134a at the initial state of 90.4 kPa and -10°C and at the final state of 90.4 kPa and 15°C are (from EES)

v1 = 0.2302 m3/kg v 2 = 0.2544 m /kg
3

h1 = 247.76 kJ/kg h2 = 268.16 kJ/kg
R-134a 0.85 kg -10°C

The initial and the final volumes and the volume change are

V1 = mv 1 = (0.85 kg)(0.2302 m 3 /kg) = 0.1957 m 3 V 2 = mv 2 = (0.85 kg)(0.2544 m 3 /kg) = 0.2162 m 3
∆V = 0.2162 − 0.1957 = 0.0205 m 3 (c) The total enthalpy change is determined from
∆H = m(h2 − h1 ) = (0.85 kg)(268.16 − 247.76) kJ/kg = 17.4 kJ/kg

Q

3-31E The temperature of R-134a at a specified state is to be determined. Analysis Since the specified specific volume is higher than vg for 120 psia, this is a superheated vapor state. From R-134a tables,
⎫ ⎬ T = 140°F (Table A - 13E) v = 0.4619 ft /lbm ⎭
3

P = 120 psia

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3-16
3-42 A rigid container that is filled with R-134a is heated. The temperature and total enthalpy are to be determined at the initial and final states. Analysis This is a constant volume process. The specific volume is

V 0.014 m 3 v1 = v 2 = = = 0.0014 m 3 /kg 10 kg m
The initial state is determined to be a mixture, and thus the temperature is the saturation temperature at the given pressure. From Table A-12 by interpolation

R-134a 300 kPa 10 kg 14 L
P

T1 = Tsat @ 300 kPa = 0.61°C
and
x1 =

2

v1 −v f v fg

=

(0.0014 − 0.0007736) m 3 /kg (0.067978 − 0.0007736) m 3 /kg

= 0.009321

1

h1 = h f + x1 h fg = 52.67 + (0.009321)(198.13) = 54.52 kJ/kg

v

The total enthalpy is then
H 1 = mh1 = (10 kg )(54.52 kJ/kg ) = 545.2 kJ

The final state is also saturated mixture. Repeating the calculations at this state,

T2 = Tsat @ 600 kPa = 21.55°C
x2 =

v 2 −v f v fg

=

(0.0014 − 0.0008199) m 3 /kg (0.034295 − 0.0008199) m 3 /kg

= 0.01733

h2 = h f + x 2 h fg = 81.51 + (0.01733)(180.90) = 84.64 kJ/kg

H 2 = mh2 = (10 kg )(84.64 kJ/kg ) = 846.4 kJ

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3-28
3-59 Superheated steam in a piston-cylinder device is cooled at constant pressure until half of the mass condenses. The final temperature and the volume change are to be determined, and the process should be shown on a T-v diagram. Analysis (b) At the final state the cylinder contains saturated liquidvapor mixture, and thus the final temperature must be the saturation temperature at the final pressure,

T = Tsat@1 MPa = 179.88°C

(Table A-5)

(c) The quality at the final state is specified to be x2 = 0.5. The specific volumes at the initial and the final states are
P1 = 1.0 MPa T1 = 300 o C
P2 = 1.0 MPa x2 = 0.5

H2O 300°C 1 MPa

⎫ 3 ⎬ v 1 = 0.25799 m /kg ⎭

(Table A-6) T 1 2

⎫ ⎬ v 2 = v f + x2v fg ⎭ = 0.001127 + 0.5 × (0.19436 − 0.001127 ) = 0.09775 m3/kg

Thus,

∆V = m(v 2 − v 1 ) = (0.8 kg)(0.09775 − 0.25799)m 3 /kg = −0.1282 m 3

v

3-60 The water in a rigid tank is cooled until the vapor starts condensing. The initial pressure in the tank is to be determined. Analysis This is a constant volume process (v = V /m = constant), and the initial specific volume is equal to the final specific volume that is

T °C 25 1

v 1 = v 2 = v g @124°C = 0.79270 m /kg (Table A-4)
since the vapor starts condensing at 150°C. Then from Table A-6,
T1 = 250°C ⎫ ⎬ P = 0.30 MPa 3 v 1 = 0.79270 m /kg ⎭ 1

3

H 2O T1= 250°C P1 = ? 15 2

v

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3-37

3-80 An ideal gas in a rigid tank is cooled to a final gage pressure. The final temperature is to be determined.
Assumptions The gas is specified as an ideal gas so that ideal gas relation can be used. Analysis According to the ideal gas equation of state at constant volume,
m1 = m1 P1V1 P2V 2 = T1 T2

Since Then,

V1 = V 2

Patm = 100 kPa

Ideal gas 1227°C 200 kPa (gage)

Q

P1 P2 = T1 T2 T2 = T1 P2 (50 + 100) kPa = [(1227 + 273) K ] = 750 K = 477°C P2 (200 + 100) kPa

3-81 One side of a two-sided tank contains an ideal gas while the other side is evacuated. The partition is removed and the gas fills the entire tank. The gas is also heated to a final pressure. The final temperature is to be determined.
Assumptions The gas is specified as an ideal gas so that ideal gas relation can be used. Analysis According to the ideal gas equation of state,
P2 = P1

V 2 = V 1 + 2V 1 = 3V 1
Applying these,
m1 = m1 P1V 1 P2V 2 = T1 T2

Ideal gas 927°C

Evacuated 2V1

V1

Q

V1
T1

=

V2
T2 3V V2 = T1 1 = 3T1 = 3[927 + 273) K ] = 3600 K = 3327 °C V1 V1

T2 = T1

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

3-41

3-89 The specific volume of R-134a is to be determined using the ideal gas relation, the compressibility chart, and the R134a tables. The errors involved in the first two approaches are also to be determined.
Properties The gas constant, the critical pressure, and the critical temperature of refrigerant-134a are, from Table A-1,

R = 0.08149 kPa·m3/kg·K,

Tcr = 374.2 K,

Pcr = 4.059 MPa

Analysis (a) From the ideal gas equation of state,

v=

RT (0.08149 kPa ⋅ m3/kg ⋅ K)(343 K) = = 0.03105 m3 /kg P 900 kPa

(13.3% error )

(b) From the compressibility chart (Fig. A-15),
0.9 MPa P ⎫ = = 0.222 ⎪ Pcr 4.059 MPa ⎪ ⎬ Z = 0.894 343 K T TR = = = 0.917 ⎪ ⎪ Tcr 374.2 K ⎭ PR =

R-134a 0.9 MPa 70°C

Thus,

v = Zv ideal = (0.894)(0.03105 m 3 /kg) = 0.02776 m 3 /kg
(c) From the superheated refrigerant table (Table A-13),

(1.3%error)

P = 0.9 MPa v = 0.027413 m3 /kg T = 70°C

}

3-90 The specific volume of steam is to be determined using the ideal gas relation, the compressibility chart, and the steam tables. The errors involved in the first two approaches are also to be determined.
Properties The gas constant, the critical pressure, and the critical temperature of water are, from Table A-1,

R = 0.4615 kPa·m3/kg·K,

Tcr = 647.1 K,

Pcr = 22.06 MPa

Analysis (a) From the ideal gas equation of state,

v=

RT (0.4615 kPa ⋅ m3/kg ⋅ K)(723 K) = = 0.09533 m3 /kg 3500 kPa P

(3.7% error)

(b) From the compressibility chart (Fig. A-15),
3.5 MPa P ⎫ = = 0.159 ⎪ Pcr 22.06 MPa ⎪ ⎬ Z = 0.961 723 K T ⎪ = = 1.12 TR = ⎪ Tcr 647.1 K ⎭ PR =

H 2O 3.5 MPa 450°C

Thus,

v = Zv ideal = (0.961)(0.09533 m 3 /kg) = 0.09161 m 3 /kg
(c) From the superheated steam table (Table A-6),

(0.4% error)

P = 3.5 MPa v = 0.09196 m3 /kg T = 450°C

}

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3-49
Other Equations of State

3-99C The constant a represents the increase in pressure as a result of intermolecular forces; the constant b represents the volume occupied by the molecules. They are determined from the requirement that the critical isotherm has an inflection point at the critical point.

3-100 Carbon monoxide is heated in a piston-cylinder device. The final volume of the carbon monoxide is to be determined using the ideal gas equation and the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state.
Properties The gas constant and molar mass of CO are (Table A-1)

R = 0.2968 kPa·m3/kg·K, M = 28.011 kg/kmol
Analysis (a) From the ideal gas equation of state,

mRT2 (0.100 kg)(0.2968 kPa ⋅ m 3 /kg ⋅ K)(473 K) V2 = = = 0.0140 m 3 1000 kPa P
(b) Using the coefficients of Table 3-4 for carbon dioxide and the given data, the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state for state 2 is
P2 = 1000 = + Ru T2

CO 1000 kPa 200°C

Q

v2

⎛ C + ⎜ B0 Ru T2 − A0 − 0 ⎜ T22 ⎝

⎞ 1 bR T − a aα γ ⎞ c ⎛ ⎟ + u 2 + 6 + 3 2 ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ exp(−γ / v 2 ) 2 3 ⎟v v v v T2 ⎝ v ⎠ ⎠ ⎞ 1 0.002632 × 8.314 × 473 − 3.71 ⎟ ⎟v 2 + v3 ⎠

(8.314)(473)

v2

⎛ 8.673 × 10 5 + ⎜ 0.05454 × 8.314 × 473 − 135.9 − ⎜ 44732 ⎝

3.71 × 0.000135 1.054 × 10 5 ⎛ 0.0060 ⎞ + 3 ⎜1 + ⎟ exp(−0.0060 / v 2 ) 6 2 2 v v (473) ⎝ v ⎠

The solution of this equation by an equation solver such as EES gives

v 2 = 3.952 m 3 /kmol
Then,
3.952 m 3 /kmol = 0.1411 m 3 /kg 28.011 kg/kmol

v2 =

v2
M

=

V 2 = mv 2 = (0.100 kg)(0.1411 m 3 /kg) = 0.0141 m 3

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function y = bwr(x) %Constants for CO a = 3.71; Ao = 135.87; b = 0.002632; Bo = 0.05454; c = 1.054e5; Co = 8.673e5; alpha = 1.35e-4; gamma = 0.006; Ru = 8.314; %Universal gas constant [kJ/kmole/K] T = 773; %Temperature of interest [K] P = 1000; %Pressure of interest [kPa] %BWR equation of state y = Ru*T./x +(Bo*Ru*T-Ao-Co/(T^2)).*1/(x.^2)+... (b*Ru*T-a)./(x.^3)+a*alpha./(x.^6)+c/(x.^3*T^2).*(1+gamma./(x.^2)).*... exp(-gamma./(x.^2))-P;

  %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%  After saving the above function, from the command prompt in Matlab, issue the following command  (3.7 is the initial guess):  fsolve(@bwr,3.7)    Matlab will return:    ans =        6.4600