EFFECT OF AGROCHEMICALS APPLICATION AT FIELD RATES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON RHIZOSPHERIC SOIL IN MAIZE

BY

KOLHE VINAYKUMAR SHIRISH
B.Sc. (Agri.)

DISSERTATION

Submitted to the Marathwada Agricultural University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE (Agriculture) IN

PLANT PATHOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY
MARATHWADA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, PARBHANI 431 402 (M.S.), INDIA.

2010

CANDIDATES DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the entire work embodied in this thesis or a part thereof has not been previously submitted by me for a Degree or Diploma of any University or Institute

PLACE: DATE:

PARBHANI / /2010. (Kolhe V. S.)

Mrs. M. G. Patil M. Sc (Agri.) Junior Microbiologist, Directorate of Weed Science Research Centre, MAU, Parbhani.

CERTIFICATE -

I

This is to certify that Shri. KOLHE VINAYKUMAR SHIRISH has satisfactory prosecuted his course and research for a period of not less than four semesters and that the dissertation entitled ´EFFECTS APPLICATION OF AT CERTAIN FIELD AGROCHEMICALS RATES ON

PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON RHIZOSPHERIC SOIL IN MAIZEµ submitted by him is the result of original research work and is of sufficiently high standard to warrant its presentation to the examination. I also certify that, the thesis or a part thereof has not been previously submitted by him for a degree of any university.

PLACE: DATE:

PARBHANI / /2010 (Mrs. M. G. Patil) Research Guide

CERTIFICATE -

II

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled ´EFFECT OF AGROCHEMICALS APPLICATION AT FIELD RATES ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ON RHIZOSPHERIC SOIL IN MAIZEµ submitted by Shri. VINAYKUMAR SHIRISH KOLHE to the Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE (Agriculture) in the subject of PLANT PATHOLOGY has been approved by the student·s advisory committee after oral examination in collaboration with the external examiner. ( External Examiner ) (Mrs. M. G. Patil) Research Guide

Members of Advisory Committee:
(Dr. G. D. Deshpande)

(Dr. P. V. Khalikar)

(Dr. D. N. Dhutraj)

Associate Dean (P.G.), College of Agriculture, MAU, Parbhani

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the few pages I take the opportunity to acknowledge the kindness shown by various people I had the pleasure of being associated with during the conduct of experiment. First of all, my sincere, humble indebtedness and whole-hearted sense of gratitude to my honourable guide Mrs. M. G. Patil, Junior Microbiologist, Directorate of Weed Science Research Centre, MAU, Parbhani, who conceived, detailed and shaped the research problem and provided adept guidance. Her valuable suggestion, sympathetic behaviour and co-operative nature during the course of present investigation would remain encouraging me forever in my life. I sincerely express my heartfelt gratitude and indebtedness to the advisory committee members, Dr. G. D. Deshpande, Head of Department of Plant Pathology, Dr. P. V. Khalikar, Associate Professor, Dr. D. N. Dhutraj, Head of Department, Department of Plant Pathology, Latur. I wish to place on record my sincere thanks to Dr. K. T. Apet, Dr. G. P. Jagtap. Dr. K. S. Kulthe, Dr. F. S. Patil, Dr. O. D. Kohire, Dr. Gholve, Dr. K. D. Navgire, Department of Plant Pathology. Thanks to non-teaching staff of Department of Plant Pathology for their kind co-operation during completion of my PG education. I owe high esteemed respect to Dr. P. R. Shivpuje, Dean, Faculty of Agriculture, Parbhani and Dr. S. S. Kadam, Vice- Chansellor, MAU, Parbhani for providing necessary facilities during the present investigation. ³If we could sell our experience far for what they are worth, then we would be millionaires´ was aptly said. It was indeed a unique experience to conduct my experiment at Derectorate of Weed Science Research Center, MAU, Parbhani, in field and lab and it was a pleasure to be associated with all the sincere staff members of the place. I extent my special thanks to Mr. Girish Sonawane, Mr. Santosh, Mr. Irfan Sayeed and all the employees who have helped me whole-heartedly. Words are not enough to express my thanks to sincere friends at all measure junctures in life to bear strains and fatigue cheerfully. I have been very lucky in this respect. I would record my sense of gratitude towards my friends Pravin, Sagar, Pramod, Ajay, Bramhanand, Suhas, Amarchand, Arjun, Kum. Smita, Kum. Lenmem Dai for moral support and every possible help during research work.

I am lucky enough to receive constant inspiration from my hostel friends Prashant Kamle, Amol Jadhav, Santosh Adat, Sagar More, Mahesh Khamkar, Vishal Dhasal, Amol Naiknaware, Atul Gedam, Laxman Salgar, Vijay Pawar, Amol Bharti, Padmakar Ghule, Palve, and my senior friend, Manoj Hinge, Aniket Kalhapure, Kum. Yogita Dhumal, Sagar Khairnar, Yogesh Pachorkar, Dnyaneshwar Nathe, Ranjeet Deshmukh, Mangesh Muluk, Amol Jangam, Kum. Avipreet Janjal, Gulam Jamir and Parmeshwar Gade. Also to mention the sense of gratitude to my Ph. D seniors Mr. Santosh Pawar, Mr. Shrikrishna Zagade, Mr. Abhishek Pawar. One needs sincere friends at all measure junctures in life to bear strains and fatigue cheerfully. I have been more than lucky in this respect and would like to record my cardiac sense of gratitude towards my all friend circle, Abhay Gaikwad, Prasad Gore, Rahul Gade, Geetanjali Bhujbal, Roopali Gulve, Poonam Karale, Gauri Joshi, Swapnali Kadam and Neeta Patil. Their substantial help in one way or the other, valuable discussion, constant encouragement, refreshing company made this work enjoyable. I am especially and cordially thanks to my dearest friend Raju Rashid Tamboli who contributed lion share in completion of my research work. I am especially thanks to my friend Amol Jagtap, Navnath Dhawale, Nanasaheb Agale who inspired me on every step of my research work. It¶s my great honour to dedicate my work to my father (Bhau) Shri. Shirish Kolhe, mother (Mummy), Sou. Pournima Kolhe, paternal grandpa (Dada) Shri. Vithal Kolhe, Grandma (Aai), Sou. Shantabai Kolhe, maternal grandpa (Dada) Shri. Raghunath Tilekar and Late. Umaji Batwal, and grandma (Aai) Sou. Ashabai Tilekar and Smt. Sushila Batwal, Uncles Shri. Satish Kolhe and Shri. Nitin Kolhe and Aunts Sou. Sangeeta Kolhe and Sou. Vaishali Kolhe who left no stone unturned to enable me to complete the undertaken task with dignity and pride. Bhau always offered great moral boosting support, guidance and encouragement to achieve my huge goal. I am Lucky to have sweet and cute, my younger sister Aarti Kolhe, Madhugandha Kolhe, Vaijayanti Kolhe, and younger brother Mayur Kolhe, Suhas Kolhe and Sadanand Kolhe who developed me to think in scientific way. No words of gratitude can equate the tremendous encouragement and love that have been bestowed on me by my Kolhe family. I think, words with

me are insufficient to express the feelings of my heart to acknowledge them for their difficult job of educating me and keeping me in all comforts. No bounds remain for one of my closest friend who shared their huge helping hand whenever I felt the tremendous need. This compliment goes to Mr. Aditya Bakle (Adidada) who admired and examined my technical work on computer and made necessary corrections wherever needed. I sincerely apologize to all those who have extended their good will and moral support during the tenure of my experiment whose names have not been mentioned here, Though not mentioned, your help will always be cheerful. Thank you ! Vinaykumar S. Kolhe

CONTENTS
Sr. No. Title Page No.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE MATERIALS AND METHODS RESULTS DISCUSSION SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX GLOSSARY ABSTRACT

01 ± 04 05 ± 15 16 ± 27 28 ± 48 49 ± 54 55 ± 57

LIST OF TABLES
Table. No.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Title
Details of different agrochemicals/ bioinoculant used in experiment Total fungal count Total bacterial count Soil pH and E.C. Organic carbon of soil Nitrogen mineralization of soil Microbial biomass carbon Basal soil respiration Disease incidence in Maize Disease index in Maize

Page No.

23 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45

11.

Grain weight and yield in Maize

47

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure. No. 1. Figure Process of collection of representative soil samples and randomly selected five plants per plot for experimentation 2. Estimation of total fungal and total bacterial count from rhizospheric soil in Maize Estimation of effects of agrochemicals on static physicochemical properties of rhizospheric soil in Maize 3.
a. Estimation of pH from rhizospheric soil of Maize b. Estimation of E.C. from rhizospheric soil of

Page No. 19 ± 20

28 ± 29

32 ± 33

Maize Estimation of effect of agrochemicals on dynamic physicochemical properties of rhizospheric soil in Maize 4. a. Estimation of organic carbon from rhizospheric soil of Maize b. Estimation of nitrogen mineralization from rhizospheric soil of Maize Estimation of Microbial Biomass Carbon from Rhizospheric soil in Maize crop 5. a. Placing of soil samples in the dessicator b. Fumigation process of soil samples in vacuum dessicator Figure showing the significance of Azospirillum 6. treatment in comparison with other treatments followed in Maize field 7. The root from Azospirillum treated plot showing significant results as compared to other treatments 46 ± 47 34 ± 35 38 ± 39 34 ± 35

36 ± 37

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
% @ / CD cfu cm E.C. et al etc. fb Fig. g ha hr HW i.e. mm MW No.
0

-

Per cent at the rate of per Critical difference colony forming unit Centimetre (s) Electrical conductivity And associates etcetera followed by Figure (s) Gram Hectare(s) Hour Hand weeding That is Millimetre (s) Mechanical weeding Number Degree centigrade Parts per million Completely randomized design Standard error Species Temperature Variety Namely

C

ppm CRD S.E. Spp. Temp. Var. Viz.

APPENDIX

Constituents of Nutrients agar media Beef extract Peptone Glucose Sodium chloride Agar agar Distilled water 3g 5g 5g 5g 5g 1000 ml

Constituents of Martins Rose Bengal Agar Dextrose Peptone Potassium dihydrogen phosphate Magnesium sulphate Rose bengal Agar agar Distilled water 10 g 5g 1g 0.5 g 0.3 ml 20 g 1000 ml

GLOSSARY

Aerobic: A microorganism that lives, or a process that occurs, in the presence of molecular oxygen. Agar: A gelatine-like material obtained from seaweed and used to prepare culture media on which microorganisms are grown and studied. Alternate host: One of two kinds of plants on which a parasitic fungus (e.g., rust) must develop to complete its life cycle. Disinfectant: An agent that kills or inactivates pathogens in the environment or on the surface of a plant or plant organ before infection takes place. Fungicide: A compound toxic to fungi. Incubation period: The period of time between penetration of a host by a pathogen and the first appearance of symptoms on the host. Pathogen: An entity that can incite disease. Pathogenicity: The capability of a pathogen to cause disease. Rhizosphere: The soil near a living root. Sterilization: The elimination of pathogens and other living organisms from soil, containers, etc., by means of heat or chemicals. Symbiosis: A mutually beneficial association of two or more different kinds of organisms. Symptom: The external and internal reactions or alterations of a plant as a result of a disease. Toxicity: The capacity of a compound to produce injury.

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