CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION & HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

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Karachi Port Trust (KPT) is a Pakistan Federal government agency that oversees the operations of Karachi Port at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Sea Port plays a vital role in International Maritime Trade. Efficient Port attracts more business which in turns generates revenue and strengthens economy of the country. Port is more a service industry not only for the nation but for international community as well. The effects of its working are not limited and are realized beyond the country. I preferred this subject to deal with considering the Karachi Port Trust an institution of high importance, with varieties of functions. In order to compete in international market, the price of goods and time factor are the main considerations for businessmen. Transportation cost contributes a valuable part in determining the price of goods either in domestic or in international market. Transportation through sea is mainly dominated by ports. The economists of the ocean carriers say that ships earn in sea and loose in the port. It is the port which makes the carrier cost efficient with its courteous reception and timely dispatch. Longer is the waiting time lesser is the efficiency of the port. The productivity of the port is measured with per ton cost of cargo handling. This cost is ultimately added to the price of goods and finally borne by the common consumer. Karachi Port being a natural harbor is a gift of God. Its value can be better assessed if compared with landlocked countries which do not have access to the sea. The investors always try to set up their productions units nearer to the port. Practice of short term planning on the part of our Government to complete every project within their tenure is a main barrier which did not allow the country to develop at required pace. Karachi Port is an evident project of our policy. The sea borne trade alone constitutes 60% of the world trade. Efficient cost effective and timely clearance of goods through port though partly depends on efficient inland transport network yet economic turnaround of vessel with reasonable cost of cargo handling is the key factor in efficient business of import and export. Karachi Port in the eyes of port users is more revenue generating organization. This aspect could have been tolerated had the required facilities were provided to the port users. Port should have balanced policy in providing service and generating its income to satisfy port users.

Historical Background

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Between 1880 and 1887 the port was administered by the Karachi Harbor Board. The Karachi Port Trust was then established by the Act IV of 1886, effective from 1 April 1887. The Port of Karachi is Pakistan's largest and busiest seaport, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum). The port is located between the towns of Kiamari and Saddar, close to the heart of old Karachi, the main business district, and several industrial areas. The geographic position of Karachi places the port in close proximity to major shipping routes such as the Strait of Hormuz. The administration of the port is carried out by the Karachi Port Trust which was established in the nineteenth century. The history of the port is intertwined with that of the city of Karachi. Several ancient ports have been attributed in the area including "Krokola", "Morontobara" (Woman's Harbor) (mentioned by Nearchus), Barbarikon (the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, and Debal (a city captured by the Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim in 712 CE). There is a reference to the early existence of the port of Karachi in the "Umdah", by the Arab navigator Suleiman al Mahri (AD 1511), who mentions "Ras al Karazi" and "Ras Karashi" while describing a route along the coast from Pasni to Ras Karashi. Karachi is also mentioned in the sixteenth century Turkish treatise "Muhit" (The Ocean) by the Ottoman captain Seydi Ali Reis, which is a compilation of sailing directions from the Portuguese island of Diu to Hormuz in the Persian Gulf. It warns sailors about whirlpools and advises them to seek safety in "Kaurashi" harbor if they found themselves drifting dangerously. There is a legend of a prosperous coastal town called Kharak in the estuary of the Hub River (west of modern Karachi) in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century. In 1728 heavy rains silted up the harbor and resulted in the merchants of Kharak relocating to the area of modern Karachi. In 1729, they built a new fortified town called Kolachi (also known as Kalachi-jo-Kun and Kolachi-jo-Goth) on high ground north of Karachi bay, surrounded by a 16-foot (5 m) high mud and timber-reinforced wall with gunmounted turrets and two gates. The gate facing the sea was called "Kharadar" (salt gate), and the gate facing the Lyari River was called "Mithadar" (sweet gate). The modern neighborhoods around the location of the gates are called Mithadar and Kharadar. Surrounded by mangrove swamps to the east, the sea to the southwest, and the Layari river to the north, the town was well defended and engaged in a profitable trade with Muscat and Bahrain. From 1729 to 1783 the strategic location of Kolachi saw the town change hands several times between the Khans of Kalat and the rulers of Sind. In 1783, after two prolonged sieges the town fell to the Talpur Mirs of Sind, who constructed a fort mounted with cannons on Manora island at the harbor entrance. The prominence of the port attracted the British, who opened a factory in Karachi at the end of the eighteenth century but disagreements with the Mirs on trade tariffs led to the closure of the factory. The British were concerned about Russian expansion towards the Arabian Sea, so in 1839 they occupied Karachi and later the whole of the Sindh. The port served as a landing point for troops during the First Afghan War.

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The potential of Karachi as a natural harbor for the produce of the Indus basin led to rapid development. The Indus Steam Flotilla and the Orient Inland Steam Navigation Company were formed to transport cotton and wheat down the Indus river to Karachi. A number of British companies opened offices and warehouses in Karachi and the population increased rapidly. By 1852, Karachi was an established city with a population of 14,000 and a prosperous overseas trade. The modern port began to take shape in 1854, when the main navigation channel was dredged and a mole or causeway was constructed to link the main harbor with the rest of the city. This was followed by construction of Manora breakwater, Keamari Groyne, the Napier Mole Bridge and the Native Jetty. The construction of the wharves started in 1882, and by 1914 the East Wharf and the Napier Mole Boat Wharf were complete while 1927 and 1944, the West Wharf, the lighter age berths and the ship-repair berths were constructed between 1927 and 1944. From the 1861 the Sindh Railway line connected Karachi to the cotton and wheat producing areas of the Sindh and northern British India and by 1899 Karachi was the largest wheat and cotton exporting port in India. The period between 1856 and 1872 saw a marked increase in trade, especially during the American Civil War when cotton from Sindh replaced American cotton as a raw material in the British textile industry and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. Another major export was oil brought by rail from the Sui region in Balochistan. Karachi's importance as a gateway to India increased in 1911 when the capital of British India was moved to Delhi. The city was an important military base during the First World War (1914-18) because it was the first Indian port of call for ships coming through the Suez Canal and was the gateway to Afghanistan and the Russian Empire. In 1936 the Sindh district of the Bombay Presidency was reorganized as a new province with Karachi as the capital instead of the traditional capital of Hyderabad. This led to new public services and buildings, thus increasing its population and importance. Karachi was again a military base and port for supplies to the Russian front during the Second World War (1939-1945). In 1947, Karachi became the capital of the new nation of Pakistan, resulting in a growth in population as it absorbed hundreds of thousands of refugees. Although the capital moved to Islamabad in 1959, Karachi remains the economic center of Pakistan, accounting for the largest proportion of national GDP based in part on the commerce conducted through the Port of Karachi and Port Qasim. The port was targeted by the Indian Navy (codenamed Operation Trident) during the hostilities of the 1971 war.

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CHAPTER 2 BOARD OF TRUSTEES Administration/ Board of Trustees
The Karachi Port is administered by a Board of Trustees comprising of Chairperson and 10 Trustees. The Chairperson is appointed by the Federal Government. Out of the 10 Trustees, 5 are nominated by the Federal Government and 5 are nominated by various private sector organization representing the trade and commerce. The Chairperson is also the Chief Executive of Karachi Port Trust.

Organizational Chart

Appointment of Chairperson and election of Vice Chairperson: Government shall from time to time appoint a person to be Chairperson of the Board the person so appointed may be a public officer or not. The Chairperson shall be a Trustee. The Board shall elect at its first meeting held at the beginning of each year of the term of the Trustees composing that Board one of the Trustees to be ViceChairperson of the Board for a period of one year expiring with the expiry of

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that of the term. In the event of the death resignation or disqualification of the Vice-Chairperson or of his absence from four successive meetings of the Board, the Board shall elect the successor who shall hold office, for the remainder of his predecessor’s period of office.

FIRST WOMEN AS A CHAIRPERSON OF KPT
Currently the role of Chairperson is taken by Mrs. Nasreen Haque. Mrs. Nasreen Haque became the first woman to head the Karachi Port Trust (KPT) as its chief executive. In her appointment, the port authority is having a civilian as its chief after a lapse of at least 18 years. Mrs Nasreen Haque, a Civil Servant from the 3rd Common batch is a highly qualified and experienced professional with outstanding achievements in the road, rail and sea transportation sectors. Before taking over as Chairperson KPT, she was presently working as Managing Director Karachi Urban Transport Corporation where she brought her 32 year field experiences working in key positions in the Pakistan Railways, Port Qasim Authority, and as the Director General Export Terminal in the Export Promotion Bureau. A Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Transport and Logistic, Mrs Haque holds a Masters degree in Defense and Strategic Studies. She graduated from St. Josephs Collage for Women Karachi. Additionally she has also done postgraduation in Transport studies.

Previous Portfolios
     MOD (Commander Karachi) CBR (Collector Customs) Railways (Divisional Superintendent) Director General (P&S) City Government

Nomination of other Trustees: of the remaining Trustees one shall be elected by the Chamber and Industry, Karachi one shall be elected by the Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Karachi one shall be elected by the Pakistan Ship-owners Association Karachi, one shall be elected by the Karachi Municipal Corporation and five of whom one shall be a non-official associated with the Karachi Port Trust Labor Unions, shall be appointed by the Federal Government. Any Trustee elected or appointed under this section may or may not be a public

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officer. The right to elect Trustees conferred on the Chamber of Commerce and Industry Karachi, The Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Karachi the Karachi Cotton Association Karachi, the Pakistan Ship-owners Association, Karachi shall accrue only on such Chamber or association being or becoming, registered under the law for the time being in force for the registration of companies or association.

Private sector organizations
Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry (KCCI) Overseas investors’ Chamber Ship Owners’ association (PNSC) Federation of Pak. Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FPCCI)  Labor Division    

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CHAPTER 3 HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTMENT
Human Resources Department has been brought into its existing shape through phased re-structuring and re-organization. Till 1974 the function as related to the Human Resources Department were being carried out by Chief Account Officer. As per Chairperson’s Directive 126 of 1974, the Establishment matter being dealt in Chief Department were placed under-control of Labor Welfare and Industrial Relation Department .On the strength of recommendations of the Management consultant made in 1997, the whole structure of KPT was reorganization under the Re-organization scheme and a “Personal Department” was setup with the approval of the Board and Government The Personal Department was bifurcated into follo9wing three departments vide B.R.NO.269 dated 27-09-1978 read with Government approval NO.3 (38)/78-P II dated 18-03-1979. 1. Industrial Relation & Establishment & Welfare 2. Personnel 3. Tanning &Education It was observed that the work load of IR&W / Personal Department was not equally distributed and there were some confusion in the scope of function / responsibilities relating to two departments. Accordingly for the reasons mentioned in Manger (IRE&W) / General Manger (Admin)`s not dated 22-04-2000, the Board under its Resolution NO.600 dated 03-05-2000 interlaid sanctioned re-naming of Personal Department as Human Resources Department.

Functions of Human Resources Department Recruitment
Recruitment is the major function of the HR department. Recruitment Begins with a clear statements of objects, based on types of qualification, knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics that are required. Through recruitment HR department try to identify and select the most suitable and right person on the merit. Following are the major function performed by recruitment section of HR department.  Recruitment of regular, Contract, Adhoc, Deputation and casual employees.

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          

Deputation cases of all officers/employees/marines etc. Preparation of advertisements. Compiling of application received for different post. Sending call letters. Sending selected candidates for medical examination. Issuing appointment letters. Maintaining reports records of Wafaqi Mohtasib’s cases. Maintaining reports of son quota. Initiating proposals for re-designation of posts. Maintaining records of appointment cases. Maintaining seniority list of officers of all grades.

1. The complete timeframe for processing of recruitment cases is given Blow. Step
1 2 3 4 5 6

Event / Action
Advertisement in newspapers. Last date of receipt of applications. Concerned HOD H.R Department Marking of papers. Interview by the SubCommittee. Interview by the Internal Selection Committee. Total

Time Duration
15 days for candidates to send applications. Within 3 days applications are sent to concerned HOD for scrutiny Within 3 days, send back recommended application. Within 10 days, organize written test. NOTE: candidates need to inform on their postal address. Within 4 days. Within 10 days of receipt of result of written test. NOTE: Candidates need to be informed on their postal address for the interview. Within 10 days. subject to the convenience of the Chairperson 55 working days.

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Note: The above time frame has been approved by the Chairperson.

Establishment
The Establishment matters include the following:1. Increment cases like annual increments, usual increments, Educational increments. 2. Cases of next higher grades / change of grade. 3. Processing of Advances e.g. provident fund Motorcycle, Bank .Loan etc. 4. Processing of KPT Id Cards & Medical Cards. 5. Maintenance of leave record. 6. Preparation of pension cases, NOC, Total service. 7. Dealing all disciplinary matters, Grievances pertaining to establishment and providing. 8. Para wise comments. 9. Handling all appeals submitted by employees officers and other replies. 9

10. Correspondence with Ministry for the provision of various information, Senate or Assembly question etc. 11. Maintaining up to date schedule of staff.

PROMOTION
Promotions/ carrier development and success can also be called as occupational advancement, which is very important for Human Resources of any organization. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Promotions cases of all officers / employees of al Department. Promotions cases of Employees of all department of KPT. Maintaining record of promotions cases. Maintaining seniority list of all categories of employees. Conducting interviews of all officers and employees.

Transfer
Through transfer / position HR department tries to make people perfect in different assignment / duties performed by them in deferent department. This helps to broaden the abilities of human resources.      Intra department transfer Inter department transfer Transfer post Re-designation of post Downgrade the post

Information Technology
Computerization and information technology plays vital role towards and modernization of any organization 1 Updating PIS Data, sanction & Working strength, surplus pool etc. 2 Promotion and direct entry post. Record of transfers, promotion 3 Leave Management 4 Pay and Allowances 5 Annual Confidential Reports. 6 Online overtime Booking. 7 Updating various report.

SOP for processing of Pension Cases Pension / Gratuity

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Following are the major functions performed by pension section. 1. Cases of retiring, decreased and family pension. 2. Revision of pension after every two years. 3. GHS 4. Dealing with enquiry cases of pension and GHS. 5. HR department is processing following nature of pension cases:i. Superannuation cases ii. Invalidation cases iii. Voluntary Retirement / Early Retirement / GHS cases iv. Compulsorily retirement v. Family pension (Death on duty cases) In addition to above routine pension cases, the following cases are also in process.    Daily wages Gratuity Cases Revision of pension Family pension cases (death after retirement)

Superannuation Cases.
1. The Notice of Retirement is to be issued to retiring officers / employees 18 months before the due date of retirement, Superannuation (i.e. 60 years). The date of retirement is intimated. They may also be advised to furnish the following requirement documents for preparation of pension case:a. Passport Size Photographs………09 Nos. b. 2 sets of specimen Signature. c. 2 Sets of finger prints on 08 Sheets 2. The Assistant Manager (HR) of the concerned department forwards the personal file/s of the retiring officer / employee along with following documents to Assistant Manager (HR), Pension & Gratuity Cell before one year from the date of retirement. i) Certificate of H.O.D. ii) Last Pay Certificate iii) No Demand Certificate iv) Six Passport size Photographs of retiring person duly attested v) Six sets of thumb and finger impression of retiring person duly attested vi) Six sets of specimen signature of retiring person duly attested Vii) Six sets of thumb impression of retiring person duly Attested

3. One receipt of the cases. a letter is issued to Assistant Manager (HR).of the

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concerned department to advise the retiring person to attend the office of Assistant Manager (HR) P&G and sign the CSR-25 (Formal application for pension) 4. The Staff of Pension Cell scrutinize the scrutinize the service record available in the personal file and prepares Service Sheet. The pension case is processed Online and forward to Chief Account Officer four months before the date of retirement. 5. The Assistant Manager (HR) of the concerned department forward Revised NO Demand Certificate to Assistant Manager (HR) (Pension & Gratuity) in respect of retired officer/ employee just after the date of retirement 6. The Assistant Manger (HR) P&G Cell endorses the Revised NO Demand Corticated to Assistant Account Officer (Pension) for payment.

Family Pension / Invalidation /Voluntary / Compulsory Retirement Cases
1. The Assistant Management (HR) of the concerned department forwards the personal file/s of the retired / deceased officer / employee along with following document to Assistant Manger (HR). P&G Cell immediately on receipt of information of death. Invalidation, compulsory retirement. 1) Certificate of H.O.D. 2) Last Pay Certificate. 3) No Demand Certificate. 4) Six Passport size Photographs of retiring person / widow Duly attested 5) Six sets of thumb and finger impression of retiring person Or widow duty attested. 6) Six sets of specimen signature of retiring / widow duty Attested In case of Death 7) Heir ship Certificate 8) Death Certificate 9) No Marriage Certificate 1. On receipt of the case, a call letter is issued to retired officer/ employee / widow / beneficiaries of family pension for advising them to attend the office of Assistant Manager (HR) P&G and sing the CSR-25 (formal application for pension) 2. The Staff of Pension Cell securitizes the service recode available in the pension file and prepares Services Sheet. After that the pension case is processed online and forwarded to Chief Account Officer for necessary action 12

3. The Assistant Manager (HR) of the concerned department forward No Demand Certificate to Assistant Manger (HR) (Pension & Gratuity) in respect of deceased / compulsory retired / invalidated Officer / employee along with the case 4. The Assistant Manger (HR) .P&G Cell endorses the Revised No Demand Certificate to Assistant Accounts Officer (Pension) for Payment.

Industrial Relation and Welfare (IR&W) Department
The main role of the Industrial Relation & Welfare Department is to maintain industrial peace and harmony among the Port workers for Port’s efficiency. The department is functioning under Administration Division.

FUNCTIONS
1. The main function of this department is maintain harmonious Industrial relation between Karachi Port Trust Management and Collective Bargaining Agent, which is a prerequisite for industrial peace, as stipulated in IRA 2008 2. Welfare of employees that consists employees Welfare Fund, Scholarship and Welfare of disabled Children and Provision of Legal Assistance to the employees. 3. Allotment of Quarters to KPT employees. 4. Supervision of 07 (seven) KPT Canteens and a Community Center.

Employees Welfare Fund
For the Welfare of the KPT employees and benefit of their children and families a Welfare Fund has been set up. It is generated through the following sources. a) All receipts from Fines. b) All receipts from forfeited fund (if any) c) All unclaimed wages and allowances. d) In addition, on 1st July of each financial year a sum of Rs.20/- per per capital of total number of permanent employees determined by the KPT is deposited as a contribution by the Management from its revenue. The Employees Welfare Fund Committee consisting of the Representative of Management and CBA manages the Fund. The Manager (IR&W) is the Secretary of 13

this Committee and this section deals with all the Secretarial work connected with payment from this fund after obtaining sanction of Chairperson, to the recommendation of the Committee. Those employees who are in financial due to sickness or any disability etc. are granted Monetary Assistance. The employees who need artificial Iambs / Hearing Aids/ Wheel Chairs also granted Monetary Assistant from this fund The employees Welfare Fund Committee comprise the following:-

Welfare Fund Committee
1. General Manager (A) 2. Management( IR&W) 3. Chief Accounts Officer 4. Chief Medical Officer 5. Traffic Manager 6. General Secretary, KPT Labor Union (CBA) President Secretary Member Member Member Member

Welfare of the employees, their children and families is of prime importance for the KPT Administration The KPT Administration is extending the following welfare facilities, which are being managed and supervised by Welfare section of IR&W Department that is being taken care of by a Labor Officer.

KPT Canteens
The KPT Administration has set up 07 (seven) Canteens at different sites of the Port area to facilitate the employees to take nutritive foodstuffs as per rates duly approved by the Canteen Supervision Committee

Canteens
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. KPT Canteen at Head Office. KPT Canteen at Berth no.4 Keamari. KPT Canteen at NMB Wharf. KPT Canteen at Groyne Yard. KPT Canteen at Manors Workshop. KPT Canteen at M.I. Yard. KPT Canteen at Berth No.15, Keamari.

Scholarships
There are different types of scholarships which are granted to the school/college going children of KPT employees i.e. Science, Medical, Engineering and Merit Scholarship to the students of KPT Schools who stand 1st and 2nd in their classes. This work is also being dealt with by Welfare Section of this department by a Labor Officer under the 14

supervision of Dy. Manager (IR&W). These expenditures are also met from the Employees Welfare Fund.

Rehabilitation of Disabled Children of KPT employee/officers
This department also extends all possible assistance to the disabled children of KPT officers/ employees for their rehabilitation, which includes provision of Hearing Aid Devices, Education and Vocational Training in Institutions and Medical Treatment etc. The expenditure incurred to this effect is also met from the Employees Welfare Fund

Miscellaneous Items of Emergent Nature
IR&W Department also attends the following matters in the state of emergency as and when occurred in Port area a) Labor dispute and strike/ stoppage of work or any hindrance/disturbance in smooth working of the Port. b) Fire. c) Cyclone/Sea Storm. d) Accident to Personnel Property. In order t resolve/settle the aforesaid issues, following steps / procedures are adopted by the IR&W Department on emergent basis;-

Labor Dispute or any Hindrance in Smooth Working of the Port
If any industrial dispute/Labor strike take place due to certain reason/lacking, primarily the Head of Department concerned/Sectional Officer is supposed to resolve/settle the matter at the [plant level. In case of failure to settle the issue, it is the solve responsibility of the concerned department to intimate the IR&W Department which deputes its industrial Relations Officer along with a Labor Officers at once to take appropriate steps in the matter in accordance with the provisions of IRO 2002, and make every effort to bring both the groups onto the table for reconciliation of the issue/issues till resolution.

Fire
In case of receipt of an intimation of fire at any place Port area, a Labor Officer/Labor Welfare Inspector of IR&W department rushes to the sites and starts functioning from the welfare point of view so that the fire is extinguished immediately and loss to human life and property is eliminated.

Cyclone/Sea Storm
As and when any intimation about Cyclone/Sea Storm is received, IR&W Department immediately co-ordinate with the operational / concerned department including Civil 15

Administration so that no further loss takes place and the human Life / Property is safeguarded to the maximum extent.

Public Relation Department PR Department
PR Section is playing an increasingly greater role as public / press / media Liaison organization. It has been able to establish close personnel professional relation with radio, TV, news agency and newspapers and responsible to provide useful and necessary information about port development progress and handling of cargo of the ship.

Function
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Periodical publications. Press liaison Port visitors Advertisement Audio visual programmers.

Responsibilities of PR Department
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Image building. To manage news from different newspapers and cut everything relating KPT. To manage year book Manage relation with electronic media as well as print media Publish tender notices in different newspapers. In Conferences and outdoor activities, this department together all electronic media personnel and print media personnel.

CHAPTER 4 Development Programs of Karachi Port Trust
Expansion Plans
The flow of cargo to and from the port is hampered by severe congestion in the harbor with several other maritime facilities located close to the port. Adjacent to the West Wharf is the Karachi Fishing Harbor, which is administered separately from the port 16

and is the base for a fleet of several thousand fishing vessels. The West Wharf also hosts a ship repair facility and shipyard and a naval dockyard at the tip of the wharf, while to the south of the port are the Karachi Naval Base and the Kiamari Boat Club. The Port of Karachi also faces competition from a new private terminal located 5 kilometers to the west. In recent years the federal government has attempted to alleviate the increased congestion by constructing a second port in Karachi thirty kilometers to the east at Port Qasim and a third major port at Gwadar, about 650 kilometers west of Karachi. The Karachi Fishing Harbor has been upgraded recently, and a second fishing harbor has been built 18 kilometres away at Korangi. The transfer of some naval vessels to the new naval base at Ormara has brought about further reductions in congestion. Further deepening of the port has been planned by the Karachi Port Trust in order to enhance facilities. The channel is being dredged initially to 13.5 metres deep to cater for 12 metre draught vessels at all tides. At Kiamari Groyne, located at the outer tip of the harbor, dredging will be to 16.5 metres to enable vessels up to 300 metres long to dock. Other projects to expand the port include:
• • • • • • • • • • • •

An increase the handling capacity of KICT from 300,000 TEUs to 400,000 TEUs per annum Two new berths at KICT with 14 metres depth alongside and an additional 100,000 m² terminal/stacking area Installation of modern facilities at PICT (completed in April, 2004) A new bulk cargo terminal at East Wharf Reconstruction of the oldest oil pier to allow tankers of 90,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT) to berth A new 100-acre (0.4 km2) cargo village to cater for containers and general and bulk cargo Reconstruction of the 100-year old NMB Wharf to enhance the berthing of passenger vessels The purchase of a new dredger, two hopper barges, two harbor tugs, two water barges, an anchor hoist vessel, two pilot boats, and a dredger tender A new desalination plant to address the city's water shortage problem A 500-foot (150 m) high Port Tower for commercial and recreational use including a revolving restaurant The construction of a 500 acre (2 km²) Port Town with 13,000 homes for port workers at nearby Hawks Bay A new Port Club at China Creek adjacent to the East Wharf

On November 9, 2007, the Karachi Port Trust signed a US$1 billion agreement with Hutchison Port Holdings to construct a new terminal called the "Pakistan Deep Water Container Port", which would begin operations by 2010, and would have ten berths capable of handling Super Post Panamax container ships.

Bulk Cargo Terminal:Annual handling of bulk cargo at the port is 3 M tons. Private sector has been invited to set up a dedicated bulk cargo terminal at East wharves.

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KPT will provide 630 m quay wall from berths 10-13, along with 215,000 sq m of terminal area. Bids are under evaluation. Expected investment is US $ 15-20 million.

Deep Draft Berths:As the new generations of container ships come on the drawing boards, Karachi port takes the initiative of bracing itself to handle and cater for fourth and fifth generation ships. This involves the development of deep draught berths and due to its strategic location kea Mari Groined is the natural choice. The berths shall be more than 16 m deep, catering for over 300 m long vessels. The project shall be launched on BOT with the private sector, after feasibility study, which is presently underway, is completed.

Cargo Village:Setting up of a satellite facility in the vicinity of the port, circumscribing all the port requirements, is a recent concept all over the world.100 acres have been earmarked by KPT for development of a cargo village in the first phase with individual areas catering for containers, general and bulk cargo ,processing plants, customs and other related facilities. it will also have a direct access to M-10 and Lyari Express way. After the development of the Master plan, private sector shall be invited to participate on BOT basis. Expected investment is US $ 250 million.

Computerization:We have centralization all operation activities of vessels movements, cargo handling, real estate management and billings, through a software program, custom made to KPT’s unique requirement. it allocates stratified database controls to Managers, and provides immediate information retrieval facility for the port users. Our ultimate goal is a functional paperless port. KPT has already introduced the remote submission of the cargo book by ship agents through their office computers on a dial in system. From last Dec. e-wharf age program has been introduced. port users have been provided a swift connection, eliminating queuing at KPT officers for wharf age assessment, Now Clearing agents can access the e-Wharf age system from their own computer, have an assessment of wharf age, make payment, and bring receipt to the port for delivery of cargo. A data entry is also provided at KPT for those who do not have a computer available,

Desalination Plant:Addressing the water shortage of the city Karachi Port has taken up setting up of desalination plants. A pilot project with 100,000to 500,000 god is being launched and later plan of capacity ranging from 3-25 made shall be set up commensurate to economic usage. The project shall be taken up on BOT for which KPT will be making available 10 to 15 acres of land.

Port Town:-

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Amongst the maze of development projects KPT remains cognizant of its social obligations and welfare of its workers. In line with the policies of government regarding poverty alleviation, we have launched housing schemes for the welfare of KPT and Dock labor Board’s workers. The Port Town will be spread over 500 acres, KPT land in Hawks Bay and shall consist of 13,000 independent units. It will be a model township with all civic amenities. Presently consultants for master plan and detailed design are being evaluated

Port Club:Another real estate related projects are the Karachi Port Club. This is proposed at a site of 13,000 sqm along the china creek. It is an ideal location for a World Class Club. It would capitalize on the rare feature of protected waters and a mangrove islands. The project in offered to entrepreneurs on BOT basis at an approximate cost of US $ 10 million. Bids will be opened on 15 April 2004

EXPECTED FUTURE OF KPT
KPT Tower Project details: The total site area of the development is 77,090sq m. Building heights are as follows: * Tallest tower: 331.8m (~1088.6 ft) (to the top floor), 352m (~1154.9 ft) to the building crown * Residential towers: ascending heights of 84m (~275.6 ft), 102m (~334.6 ft), 118m (~387.1 ft) and 134m (~439.6 ft) * Conference and residential building: 35m (~114.8 ft) * Hotel Atrium: 85m (~278.9 ft) Echoing the design of the largest tower, the four adjacent towers of varying height are arranged around a freshwater lake, which extends the quality and reflections of the waterside context back across the site and stretches above the 2000-plus space car park concealed below. Its distinctive serpentine form meets the seafront alongside the restaurant, and the 1,200-seat convention centre and exhibition hall. At the heart of the scheme, a soaring glazed canopy reaches over watercascaded steps, revealing dramatic views to the rich mix of uses and world class public spaces. The tallest glass tower at the centre of the development takes its form from stacked and twisted conic strips, which create a shape of repetitive panels. The 105-degree twisting curves divide the form into four petals, and the stacked tower culminates with two off-set petals continuing through the twist above the last floor plate. This defines the crown of the building. Solar shades, modern services, and wind capture technology will contribute to the building’s energy efficiency and long-term sustainability. The asymmetric sun shades or blades and glass fritting respond directly to the local sun path to minimize heat gain whilst maximizing glass clarity and views. Aedas Director, David Kingdom – Project Director for KPT Tower Sketch illustrating wind flow around the tower. By ArabianBusiness.com staff writer on Wednesday, 16 July 2008 Sketch of the proposed tower.

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Pakistan's biggest building will help the nation announce its arrival on the global stage. The busy port of Karachi, Pakistan, is home to around 17 million people andbecause of population and myriad socio-political factors-is one of the more challenging places in the world to create a world-class design. Aedas' Karachi Port Trust (KPT) Tower Development is taking on those challenges, and may even help boost Pakistan's position on a world stage. At 80 storeys high, the tower is a first for Pakistan, which has never built anything over 25 storeys. Aedas was selected via competition, largely because of their previous expertise in similar projects. "We had to put forward a proposal of how we'd handle it and examples of previous designs, so the competition was in terms of the quality of the way we'd handle the project and execute it," explains David Kingdom, project director at Aedas. Pakistan suffers from its share of both political and environmental instability, which means a project the size of the KPT Tower must be designed particularly sensitively in order to cope with the extremes to which both man and meteorology subject it. The building is to be constructed from reinforced concrete, which will undoubtedly provide challenges in and

of itself. "I've never built anything this high in concrete," says Kingdom, who explains that getting an acceptable quality of concrete in Pakistan has traditionally been a problem as well. Concrete, after all, provides the building with a degree of fireproofing-a vital component in a post9/11 world and in a country familiar with both social and political conflict. Adding to the challenges of building KPT Tower is its location on an active seismic zone. Because of the height of the building, a tune mass damper is required to keep the tower stable. "You need to put a pendulum arrangement on the upper floor of a building, which can be done with a mechanical weight, or as we're doing it, with a whole floor of water..." says Kingdom. Efficient design In keeping with the growing worldwide trend for sustainability, KPT Tower will also include a number of design features aimed at reducing energy use. However, Kingdom points out that a sustainable building is desirable in Pakistan from more than just a practical level. "The country is starved of energy supplies," he says. "Fortunately, the government is extremely conscious that natural resources are limited and sustainability has to happen." The results of the simulations mean that the building can have a completely shaded external envelope, which dramatically reduces the cooling load

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on the building. The solar shading is provided by large cantilevered solar shades, some of which extend as much as five metres from the façade. Full solar shading also means that more glass can be used in the building's façade, which assists in the tower's durability. "One of the design challenges within Karachi is that it's a marine atmosphere, which is very aggressive in terms of corrosion but there is also a high level of pollutants due to the traffic of 17 million people," explains Kingdom. The shading also means that low-E glass can be used on most of the elevations. Local knowledge An important aim of the project is for KPT Tower to act as a springboard for future architectural development in Pakistan. ‘Knowledge transfer' has

proved a particularly important part of the design process, and as a result, the Aedas design team worked very closely with local partner Ali Arshad Associates-soon to be Aedas Karachiin order to create a design appropriate to the cultural context. "We could have come in as an arrogant set of architects from outside, but instead we took them gently step by step," says Kingdom. Aedas also involved three eminent Pakistani architects, Tariq Hasan, Habib Fida Ali and Surti & Partners, to participate in design workshops. "That created a lot of cultural support because there were things there that we might have done wrong and not understood the culture quite right," says Kingdom. Although the building has been designed and modeled through computer simulation, local architecture still played a vital role. According to Kingdom, the crown of the building is inspired by Islamic architecture.

CHAPTER 5 Major Competitors of KPT & Port Facilities Karachi Port Facilities
The Karachi Port comprises a deep natural harbor with an 11 kilometre long approach channel which provides safe navigation for vessels up to 75,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT). The main areas of port activity are two wharves; East Wharf with seventeen vessel berths and West Wharf with thirteen vessel berths. The maximum depth alongside

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the berths is currently 11.3 metres. The two wharves extend in opposite directions along the upper harbor – the East Wharf northeast from Kiamari Island and the West Wharf southwest from Saddar town. The two wharves each include a container terminal: * Karachi International Container Terminal (KICT) opened in 1996 at West Wharf berths 28-30. It has a handling capacity of 300,000 TEUs per annum and handles container ships up to 11-metre draught. The total quay length is 600 metres divided into two container berths. The terminal is equipped with three Panamax cranes and one post-Panamax crane. * Pakistan International Container Terminal (PICT) in 2002 at East Wharf berths 6-9. It has a handling capacity of 350,000 TEUs per annum and handles container ships up to 11.5 metre draught. The total quay length is 600 metres divided into two container berths. The terminal is equipped with two Panamax cranes. KICT and PICT have a nearby competitor in the privately operated Al-Hamd International Container Terminal (AICT), which opened in 2001 at a site west of the Layari River. AICT is situated next to the Sindh Industrial Trading Estate, the new truck stand at Hawkes Bay Road and close to the RCD Highway, Super Highway and the future Layari Bypass. There are also three liquid cargo-handling berths (oil piers), two ship repair jetties and a shipyard and engineering facility. The shipyard carries out shipbuilding and repair for both commercial and military customers on a 29-hectare (70 acres) site at the West Wharf. The facilities include a large shipbuilding hall, three shipbuilding berths, two dry-docks and three foundries. The port network in Pakistan is in its infancy with Karachi being the only major city situated next to the Arabian Sea. Still plans are being proposed for the development of the waterways in the country along the Indus River and through the Punjab as it would boost employment opportunities and the economic and social development of Pakistan.
• •

Port Qasim - East Karachi Port of Gwadar - Gwadar, Balochistan

Port Muhammad Bin Qasim (Bin Qasim Port) The Port Muhammad Bin Qasim is a port in Karachi, Pakistan on the coastline of the Arabian Sea. It was constructed in the late 1970s to relieve congestion at Karachi Port. Port Qasim was named after the Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim who captured the area around 712 CE. The port was developed close to the Pakistan Steel Mills complex near the Indus River delta. Port Qasim's residential area is a neighborhood of Bin Qasim Town of Karachi. Port Qasim is managed by Port Qasim Authority. It is Pakistan's second busiest port, 22

handling about 35% of the nation's cargo (17 million tons per annum). It is located in an old channel of the Indus River at a distance of 35 kilometres east of Karachi city centre. The total area of the port comprises 1,000 acres (4 km²) with an adjacent 11,000 acre (45 km²) industrial estate. The approach to the port is along a 45-kilometre long Navigation Channel which provides safe navigation for vessels up to 75,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT). The geographic position of the Port places it in close proximity to major shipping routes. One of its major advantages is the proximity to national transport facilities - 15 kilometres from the Pakistan National Highway, 14 kilometres from the National Railway network through six railway tracks located immediately behind the berths and 22 kilometres from Jinnah International Airport.

Terminals
The Port has Nine cargo-handling berths: • • • • •

Multipurpose Terminal with four multi-purpose berths each of 200 metres length. Qasim International Container Terminal with two berths each of 300 metres length. Engro Vopak Chemical Terminal with one berth. Fotco Oil Terminal with one berth but the potential for four additional berths. Iron Ore and Coal Berth (279 metres long) for Pakistan Steel Mills.

The tidal variation at the mouth as well as in the port is between 0.5 to 3.5 m. The port is not only accessible through sea but is also well connected with the hinterland, through road and railway networks.

Expansion
Future expansion of the port includes the deepening and widening of the navigation channel and the establishment of a liquid cargo terminal, a liquefied petroleum gas terminal, grain handling and storage facilities, a textile complex and a desalination plant.

Environmental Concerns
The area around the port includes several mangrove forests which are constantly under threat from human activities. The beach immediately west of the navigation channel was the scene of a major oil spillage when the Greek-registered Tasman Spirit ran aground in August 2003. The environmental impact included large numbers of dead fish and turtles and a key mangrove forest, as well as dozens of people suffering nausea.

Gwadar Port
Gwadar Port is a deep-sea, warm-water port situated at Gwadar in Balochistan province of 23

Pakistan at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, about 460 km west of Karachi and approximately 75 km east of Pakistan's border with Iran. The Port is located on the eastern bay of a natural hammer-head protrusion of land jutting out into the Arabian Sea from Pakistan's Makran coastline. The Port is being constructed in two phases with heavy investment from China. Technical and financial feasibility studies were commenced by Pakistan in 1993 but construction did not start until 2002 when the Port of Singapore Authority was hired for its management. Gwadar Port became operational in 2008, with the first ship to dock bringing 52000 tonnes of wheat from Canada. Minister of Ports and Shipping Sardar Nabil Ahmed Khan Gabol officially inaugurated the port on 21 December 2008.

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter consists of major finding and their recommendations to management. In this chapter, I have included all about Karachi Port Trust strength and weaknesses.

Analysis of KPT Strengths & Weaknesses Strengths:• • • • • • Gate way to Pakistan Developmental Projects. Major source of revenue for the government. Handling of about 70% import and export of the country. Representing Pakistan all over the world. Customer satisfaction.

Weaknesses:• • • • • • • • • MIS is not perfectly implemented, the area where it is partially implemented, the workers are not trained to handle the latest technology. Political influence is very high. Security system is satisfactory but not fully utilized. Very low depth of berths. Not the all berths are in use. Proper men but not at the proper place. GHS cause many key workers out of the organization. Web site does not contain any up-to-date information. The hospital shouldn’t contain latest technology.

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Recommendation: Reduce the political influence as it is an autonomous body (Trust) can provide the possible benefits to the public as well government.  Criteria for the selection of departmental heads will be the promotion rather than recruitment on political and acquaintances basis.  Appoint proper man for the proper job so it will increase the efficiency & effectiveness of the Trust.  Change the organizational structure to Team-based structure.  Trained the staff to meet the needs of latest technology.  Provide better facilities to employees for better outcomes.  To arrange the foreign visits for employees to be familiar with the international standards of various ports of the developed countries.  Increase the depth of berths so it will be easy for large ship to carry the cargo in bulk quantity.  Keep the port area of KPT clean so it will attract the visitors & investors of various countries.  To build best possible relations with Airlines, Railways & NHA for combine effective results.  To complete the developmental projects as soon as possible, to compete the international market. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACR APL ASEAN BOT BR CBA CFS CM&E CR&PC CY DM D.wt FCL GHS GPF HRO ILO IMO IRA IRO IR&W ISO KDBL KICT LPC LPR MIS : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Annual Confidential Report. American President Lines. Association of South Easter Nations. Built Operate & Transfer. Board Resolution. Collective Bargaining Agent. Container Freight Station. Civil Mechanical & Engineering. Central Recruitment & Promotion Committee. Consigner’s Yard to Consignee’s Yard. Dutch Mark. Dead Weight. Full Container Load. Golden Hand Shake. General Provident Fund. Human Resource Order. International Labor Organization. International Maritime Organization. Industrial Relations Act 2008. Industrial Relations Ordinance 1969 & 2002. Industrial Relation & Welfare. International Standard Organization. Karachi Dock Labor Board. Karachi International Container Terminal. Last Pay Certificate. Leave Prior to Retirement. Management Information System. 25

MPCD NDC NIRC O&M OP P&D P&G PCT PICT PIS P.No PNSC SOP T&E

: : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Marine Pollution Control Department. No Demand Certificate. National Industrial Relation Commission. Operation & Method. Oil Pier. Planning & Development. Pension & Gratuity. Pakistan Custom Tariff. Pakistan International Container Terminal. Personal Information System. Personal Number. Pakistan National Shipping Corporation. Standard Operating Procedures. Training & Education.

REFRENCES
Websites
www.kpt.gov.pk www.google.com www.ask.com www.wikipedia.com www.jangmultimedia.com www.photosearch.com www.finance.gov.pk www.answers.com

“Winner is not who never fails

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but The one who Never Quits”

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