IDEALISM

The observer

Appearance of the world

Meaning of Idealism
‡ Idealism is born out of Plato s Theory of Ideas ‡ According to which the ultimate supremacy of ideas. ‡ As a philosophical doctrine ,idealism recognizes ideas, feelings and ideals more important than material objects and at the same time emphasizes that the human development should be according to moral, ethical and spiritual values so that he acquires the knowledge. ‡ Acc to Idealism, the essential nature of man is spiritual which is reveled in mental, religious and aesthetic areas. ‡ Idealism emphasizes the study of man more and more because man is endowed with higher intellectual powers and show greater level of intelligence and discrimination and by his own moral and spiritual activities he has created ‡ Acc to Horne- An Idealistic philosophy of education,then,is an account of man finding himself as an integral part of a universe of mind..

Protagonist s
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Socrates. Plato. Descartes. Spinoza. Burkley. Kant. Fitche. Schelling. Hegel. Green. Gentile. Vedas, Upanishads to the eastern scholars like SriAurobindo Ghosh.

Contd.
‡ Two forms of the real world: Idealist believe that there are two forms of the world i.e. material & spiritual world, according to which spiritual world is real and ultimate .To know the real world is the reality of mind and soul i.e. is the self realization of the main aim of human life. Idealism holds that the order of the world is due to the manifestation in space& time of an eternal and spiritual reality. -Horne ‡ Ideas are more important than the objects: Idealist have given more importance to idea rather than the objects. Ideas are the ultimate cosmic significance. They are rather the essence or archetypes which form to cosmos. These ideas are eternal and unchanging .-Plato.

Definition
Idealism holds that the ultimate reality is spiritualism. -D.M.Dutta. ‡ Idealistic philosophy takes many and varied forms, but the postulate underlying all this is that mind or spirit is the essential world stuff, that the true reality is a mental character. -J.S.Ross. ‡ Idealists point out that the mind that is the central in understanding the world. To them nothing gives a greater sense of reality that the activity of mind engaged in trying to comprehence its world .For any thing to give a greater sense of reality would contradiction in terms because to know any thing more real than mind would itself be a conception mind. -Brubacher.
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Growth of Idealism
‡ Its inception took from the very time man began to think. ‡ In west ,it was born out of the writing of Plato,Socrates,Aristitle and other philosophers. ‡ In India ,it was born out of the holy scripts Vedas,Purans,Upanishads. ‡ Since then ,it is developing in all the countries f the world in small or great measures.

Fundamental Principles Of Idealism
Full support to the principle of unity in diversity

Importance of Personality development

Two forms of the world

Ideas are more important than words
Faith of Spiritual Powers

Importance of man over nature

‡ Importance of man over nature: Man(who us a thinker and can experience about material phenomenon and laws)is more important then the object (nature).Since man is intelligent hence he can create his own world of virtues and his creativity. The spirit or cultural environment is an environment of man s own making, it is a product of man s creative activity -R.R.Rusk ‡ Faith in Spiritual Values: They believe in three values truth,beauty,goodness(undying and permanent).When people are in pursuit of these highest spiritual values they achieve their highest spiritual values. Goodness,truth,and beauty are seen to be absolute each existing in its own right and entirely desirable in itself. -J.S.Ross.

Contd.
‡ Importance of Personality Development: Idealist give too much importance on the SELF of the individual and on the personality of the individual . According to them development of personality means achievement of perfections of an individual which can be also called as self-realization of self which can be achieved through the society through love,sympathy,fellow feeling, no discrimination on the basis of caste,creed,race etc.In short Idealism believes in the welfare of the whole community. Thus, the grandeur and the worth of human life at its best are emphasized by Idealism. Human personality is of supreme value and constitutes the noblest work of God. J.S.Ross.

Contd.
‡Full support to the principle of unity in diversity: They believe in unity in diversity i.e. the unifying factor is of supreme nature which can be called as the universal consciousness or divinity. Idealist call this power as power as God which is supreme,omnipresent,omnipotent.Realization of this supreme force is ones self is to attain divinity and the fullest extent of personality which may be called as spiritual fulfillment. ‡ An Idealistic philosophy of education ,then is an account of man finding himself as an integral part of universe mind. Prof.H.N.Horne.

Idealism in Education
‡ Credit goes to Plato & Frobel. ‡ According to them, Ideaism pervades creation and it is an undying ,unlimited and ultimate force which reigns supreme over all mind and matter. ‡ They all advocate its greatest importance in education and lay more emphasis on aims and principles of education than on methods, aids ,devices.

Aims of Education
Self Realization OR Exaltation of Personality Conservation,Pro motion,and transmission of cultural heritage To ensure spiritual development Conservation of inborn nature into spiritual nature. Development of intelligence and rationality To cultivate Truth,Beauty,Go odness Preparation for a holy life

Aims of Education
‡ Self Exhaltation:Idealist lay great stress on the exhaltation of the human personality i.e. is Self Realization which involves knowledge of the self.Acc. To Ross, "The aim of education especially associated with idealism is the exhaltation of personality or self realization, the making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self. ‡ To ensure spiritual development: More importance to spiritual values than material attaintments.Tr should organize education so as to develop the child spiritually.

Contd.
‡ To cultivate Truth,Beauty,Goodness: Individual should be in pursuit of high ideals thus he(child) will become more spiritually developed. Edn should strive to develop the child morally& spiritually so that he achieves self realization. ‡ Preparation of holy life: An environment should be provided which is conducive for the development of spiritual values in a child. A holy life will naturally lead the child to spiritual development and self realization. According to Frobel, "The object of education is the realization of a faithful,pure,invoilable and hence holy life.

Contd.
‡ Conservation, promotion and transmission of cultural heritage: ‡ Man has an capacity of assimilating knowledge of the world. Hence his mental, intellectual capacities develop cultural, social & artistic values in human life. ‡ Man s achievement in different fields like art and culture are of great significance. ‡ The cultural treasure belongs to the whole humanity and its purpose is to preserve,debelop,and transmit it in all corner of the world. ‡ According to idealist the child should get acquainted with the cultural heritage so that he conserves,promotes,and transmits it to the future generation.

Contd.
‡ Conservation of inborn nature into spiritual nature: ‡ According to Idealist, the inborn instincts and inherent tendencies of a child should be sublimated into spiritual qualities and values. ‡ As a result the child will be developed. ‡ Hence the child will attain the fullest development of his personality. ‡ Hence it is necessary to sublimate the inborn raw tendencies of the child to spiritual qualities.

Contd.
‡ Development of intelligence and rationality: ‡ According to Adam man can understand the purpose as well as the plan and organization since he understands the purpose of all objects and natural phenomenon. ‡ Since there are set principles working in this creation, man tries to discover and understand these principles so that on the basis of moral elements the world remains organized. ‡ Out of these principles the idealist give more importance to the principle of unity in diversity which underlines the creation of an implicit force in the whole universe. A highly developed (intelligence)mind can perceive and the all prevailing force called as GOD.

Idealism and Curriculum
‡ Curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences. ‡ These experiences can be imbibed in two ways: ‡ From the physical World. ‡ From contacts with other fellow men. ‡ In an idealistic curriculum both the scientific as well as humanities should be included.

Acc. to Plato

INTELLECTUAL Language, History, Literature,Mat hs, Geography, Science AESTHETIC Arts Poetry MORAL Religion Metaphysics Ethics,etc

Acc to NUNN
Physical,social,Moral,Religious .
Physical Culture,Sociology,Ethics,Religion

Literary and Aesthetic.
Literature,Art,Music,Handicraft,History, Geography,Science,Maths,etc

According to Ross

Idealism & methods of teaching
‡ The aim of teaching are definite according to Idealist but there are no definite methods of teaching ‡ The following are be the methods as suggested by them: ‡ Socrates: Question answer ,Plato:Discourse, Aristotle: Inductive Deductive ,Hegel:Logical,Descartes:Simple to Complex,Pestalozzi:Physical organs allied activities,Herbart:Instruction method,Frobel:Play way method. ‡ They emphasized on Discussiopn,Lecture,Talk in groups. ‡ Acc .to Butler, "Idealist consider themselves as creators & determiners of method not devotee of some one method.

Idealism and Teacher
‡ A very important role to teacher. This planned creation has two parts :The Teacher, The child as the student. Their aim is to develop the child spiritually which is possible through education. The teacher should have the qualities like high degree of self knowledge, self dynamism& essential qualities of spiritualism. The teacher by her model life should influence the students. the tr should create conducive envt, and plan activities, guide the children with love & affection ,sympathy so that he attains mental &spiritual development. The naturalist may be content with the barriers but the idealist wants fine roses.So the educator by his own efforts assist the educand,who is developing according to the laws of his nature to attain levels that would otherwise be denied to him .J.S.Ross

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Idealism and Discipline
‡ Idealist believe that there is no discipline without spiritual development. They believe that impressionistic discipline is the best type of discipline. ‡ The teacher is to gain respect, be affectionate & sympathetic ,motivate, sublimate instincts will lead the child to self discipline for development. ‡ On one hand idealist emphasize on sympathetic control on undesirable activities but on the other hand it grants regulated liberty for spiritual development.

Idealism and Schools
‡ School is a place where the capacities of logical thinking, reasoning, evaluating of the child progressively sublimated &developed by teachers and the school environment into desirable channels so that high spiritual ideas and values are gained. ‡ Such noble mission according to idealism, may be achieved through proper guidance of teacher given in school. ‡ Hence Idealist consider school and its impressionistic environment as greatly essential.

Merits of Idealism
‡ Made significant contribution in the field of education i.e. aims of education. ‡ Emphasized on high values satyam,shivam,sudaram which lead to high moral character of the child. ‡ Aims at self realization of individuals by their own efforts. Hence promotes universal education. ‡ The teacher is assigned an important role of developing the child s personality to the fullest. ‡ It respects individuality of the child & stimulates his creative energies. Thus it has influenced other philosophies. ‡ Emphasizes on the principle of self discipline which leads to the fullest development (self) of the individual. ‡ School became an important social organization due to the idealist philosophy.

Demerits of Idealism
‡ Is an abstract philosophy& prepares the child for the next world. ‡ Concerned with ultimate end of life& avoids real problems of day to day life. ‡ It lays more importance on thinking & mental activities which increases the importance of intellectualism unnecessarily. ‡ They emphasize on the achievement of immortal high ideals(Truth,Beauty,Goodness)which are not immortal and conditioned by the condition of the society & needs of the individual. ‡ Idealistic philosophy gives more importance to the teacher rather than the child. ‡ Idealistic methods of teaching give more importance to cramming. ‡ Idealistic philosophy give more importance to humanities for spiritual development rather than scientific subjects.