A a¨v q cÖ A ¨q _g av

1 9

w Zw ¯’i or
GK bR‡i cÖkœvewj 

msw¶ß DËi cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| Nl©Y Øviv wKfv‡e Zwo‡Zi m„wó nq? (h.†ev. 2004) cÖkœ : 2| Zworex¶Y hš ミ wK? (Xv. †ev. Õ99) cÖkœ : 3| Zwor Av‡ek Kv‡K e‡j? (P. †ev. 2001 ; h. †ev. 2000; 2006; ewi.†ev. 2006) cÖkœ : 4| Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv ej‡Z wK †evSvq? ( iv.†ev. Õ04; ewi.†ev. Õ05; P †ev. 2001; Kz.†ev. Õ06; Õ02; h.†ev. . 2002; wm.†ev. 2003 ; P .†ev. 2003) cÖkœ : 5| wefe I wefe cv_©K¨ Kv‡K e‡j? (h. †ev. Õ99 ; Xv. †ev. Õ99; wm.†ev. 2002; Xv.†ev. 2001) A_ev, Zwor wefe I wefe Aš マ i wK? (Xv. †ev. 2001)

Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ jK

cÖkœ : 1| Avavb ej‡Z wK †evSvq? AvwnZKiY wK? cix¶‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †`LvI †h, Nl©‡Yi d‡j Zwo‡Zi m„wó nq| (Kz.†ev. 2006) cÖkœ : 2| we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ Kv‡K e‡j? GB h‡š ミ i MVb eY©bv Ki| wKfv‡e GB hš ミ ‡ K AvwnZ Kiv nq? GB hš ミ w`‡q wKfv‡e Avav‡bi cÖK…wZ wbY©q Kiv hvq eY©bv Ki| (wm.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2001; Õ99) cÖkœ : 3| Zwor Av‡ek wK? Av‡ek cÖwµqvq †Kvb avZe `ʇK wKfv‡e abvÍK I FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ Kiv hvq eY©bv Ki| (ewi.†ev. 2006; Xv. †ev. Õ99 ; h. †ev. 2000; P.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev. 2002; Õ99)

cÖkœ : 4| Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv ej‡Z wK †evS? †`LvI †h, F = qE. (ewi.†ev. Xv.ev. 2005; h.†ev. 2006 2002; Kz.†ev. 2005; 2002; Õ99; wm.†ev. 2003) A_ev, †`LvI †h, Zwor †¶‡Î †Kvb we›`y‡Z ¯’vwcZ †Kvb we›`y Avav‡bi Dci wµqvkxj ej H we›`yi ZxeªZv Ges ¯’vwcZ Avav‡bi ¸Y d‡ji mgvb| (Kz.†ev. 2005; h.†ev. Õ99; P.†ev. 2003) A_ev, cÖgvY Ki †h, Zwor †¶‡Î †Kvb we›`y‡Z ¯’vwcZ + q Avav‡bi Dci wµqvkxj ej H we›`yi ZxeªZv Ges ¯’vwcZ Avav‡bi ¸Y d‡ji mgvb| (Kz.†ev. 2001) cÖkœ : 5| Kzj‡¤^i myÎwU wjL Ges GB m チ ‡ Îi MvwYwZK cÖKvk cÖwZcv`b Ki| (Kz.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. 2005; P.†ev. wm.†ev. iv.†ev..Õ01 ; h.†ev. 2005; Õ99; ewi.†ev.Õ04, Õ06, Õ02; Xv.†ev.Õ05, Õ03) A_ev, w¯’i Zwo‡Zi †¶‡Î Kzj‡¤^i m チ ÎwU cÖwZcv`b Ki| ev Kzj‡¤^i m チ ÎwU eY©bv Ki| ( iv. †ev. Õ06, Õ04, ,01; Kz.†ev. 2003) A_ev, `ywU AvwnZ e¯‘i AvKl©Y ev weKl©YRwbZ e‡ji Kj‡¤^i m チ ÎwU †jL| Ges GB m チ ‡ Îi MvwYwZK cÖKvk cÖwZcv`b Ki| (Xv.†ev. 2002) cÖkœ : 6| Zwor wefe wK e¨vL¨v Ki| abvÍK wefe I FYvZ¡K wefe e¨vLv Ki| wefe cv_©K¨ ej‡Z wK †evSvq? (Xv.†ev. 2004)

AwZwi³ cÖ‡kœvËi

117

GUg  gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

cÖkœ : 1| wefe I wefe cv_©K¨ Kv‡K e‡j? Av‡ek cÖwµqvq †Kvb avZe `ʇK wKfv‡e abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ Kiv hvq wPÎmn eY©bv Ki| (iv.†ev. 2003) cÖkœ : 2| c„w_exi wefe k チ b¨ aiv nq †Kb? [iv.†ev. 2005; wm.†ev. 2003; Kz.†ev. 2005; 2002]

AwZwi³ MvwYwZK mgm¨v
mgm¨vÑ1| evqy gva¨‡g 30C GKwU 50C Avavb cici †_‡K wK ` チ i‡Z¡ _vK‡j G‡`i ga¨eZ©x e‡ii gvb 1.35 × 1013N n‡e? (iv.†ev. 2004) mgm¨vÑ2| GKwU UªvÝcg©v‡ii gyL¨ KzÊjxi cvK msL¨v 30 Ges cÖevn 10 A¨vw¤•qvi, †MŠY KzÊjxi cvK msL¨v 180 cÖevn KZ| (P.†ev. 2004)

MvwYwZK D`vniYmg チ n
D`v : 1| GKwU 20 Kzj‡¤^i AvwnZ e¯‘ evqy‡Z Aci GKwU 70 Kzj‡¤^i AvwnZ e¯‘ †_‡K 50 cm ` チ ‡ i ivLv nj| G‡`i ga¨eZx© e‡ji gvb wbY©q Ki| D`v : 2| †Kvb Zwor‡¶‡Î 10 Kzj‡¤^i GKwU AvwnZ e¯‘ ¯’vcb Ki‡j †mwU 10 wbDUb ej jvf K‡i| H we›`y‡Z 15 Kzj‡¤^i GKwU AvwnZ e¯‘ ¯’vcb Ki‡j e‡ji gvb KZ n‡e? (Xv.†ev. 2006; 2004; ewi.†ev. 2006; 2004)

Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK mgm¨v
mgm¨v : 1| 5 Kzj‡¤^i Avavb †_‡K 0.5m ` チ ieZx© †Kvb we›`y‡Z Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv KZ? (Xv.†ev. Õ01; wm.†ev. Õ02; h.†ev. Kz.†ev. P.†ev. Õ03; iv.†ev. P.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2006) mgm¨v : 2| †Kvb Zwor‡¶‡Î 30 Kzj‡¤^i GKwU PvR© ¯’vcb Ki‡j Zv 15 wbDUb ej jvf K‡i| H we›`y‡Z 20 Kzj‡¤^i GKwU Avavb ¯’vcb Ki‡j e‡ji gvb KZ? (Kz.†ev. 2005; Xv.†ev. Õ99; Abyt Xv.†ev. 2002; iv.†ev. 2002) mgm¨v : 3| evqygva¨‡g GKwU 30 Kzj¤^ I GKwU 50 Kzj¤^ Avavb ci¯•i †_‡K 1 wgUvi ` チ ‡ i Av‡Q| G‡`i ga¨eZx© e‡ji gvb wbY©q Ki| (h. †ev. 2005; Õ99) mgm¨v : 4| 10 cm e¨vm wewkó 25 Kzj¤^ Avav‡bi AvwnZ e¯‘ evqy‡Z Aci GKwU 10 cm e¨v‡mi 70 Kzj¤^ Avav‡bi AvwnZ e¯‘ †_‡K 4m `チ i‡Z¡ ivLv nq| G‡`i ga¨eZ©x e‡ji gvb wbY©q Ki| (Kz. †ev. 2003)

w¯’i Zwor

118

Abykxjbxi msw¶ßÑDËi cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| Nl©Y Øviv wKfv‡e Zwo‡Zi m„wó nq? (h.†ev. 2004) D : Nl©Y Øviv Zwo‡Zi m„wó : Ëi `ywU e¯‘‡K Nl©Y Ki‡j †h Zv‡ci m„wó nq †m Zvc e¯‘w¯’Z B‡jKUªb‡K mwµq K‡i| d‡j †h e¯‘i B‡jKUª‡bi Avmw³ †ewk †m e¯‘ Ab¨ e¯‘ †_‡K B‡jKUªb MÖnY K‡i FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ nq| Aci e¯‘wU B‡jKUªb Z¨vM K‡i abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ nq| Gfv‡eB Nl©‡Yi d‡j e¯‘؇q Zwo‡Zi m„wó nq| D`vniY : GKwU KuvP `ʇK †ikg Øviv Nl©Y Ki‡j †ik‡gi B‡jKUªb MÖn‡Yi Avmw³ †ewk _vKvq †m KuvP`Ê †_‡K B‡jKUªb MÖnY K‡i FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ nq| Aci w`‡K KuvP`Ê B‡jKUªb nvwi‡q abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ nq| cÖkœ : 2| Zworex¶Y hš ミ wK?
(Xv. †ev. Õ99)

D : Zworex¶Y hš ミ : Ëi †h h‡š ミ i mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb e¯‘‡Z Pv‡R©i Aw¯マ Z¡, cÖK…wZ Ges cwigvY Rvbv hvq, Zv‡K Zworex¶Y hš ミ e‡j| GB h‡š ミ i mvnv‡h¨ wewfbœ c`v‡_©i we`y¨r cwievwnZvi Zzjbvg チ jK cix¶vI Kiv hvq| Zworex¶Y hš ミ `yB cÖKvi| h_v− 1. †kvjvej Zworex¶Y hš ミ 2. ¯^Y©cvZ Zworex¶Y hš ミ|

wPÎ : †kvjvej Zworex¶Y hš ミ

wPÎ : ¯^Y©cvZ Zworex¶Y hš ミ (P. †ev. 2001 ; h. †ev. 2000; 2006;

cÖkœ : 3| Zwor Av‡ek Kv‡K e‡j?
ewi.†ev. 2006)

D : iPbvgyjK cÖ‡kœvËi 3bs Gi cÖ_g Aby‡”Q` wjL| Ëi cÖkœ : 4| Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv ej‡Z wK †evSvq? ( iv.†ev. Õ04; ewi.†ev. D : Ëi
Õ05; P †ev. 2001; Kz.†ev. Õ06; Õ02; h.†ev. 2002; wm.†ev. 2003 ; P . .†ev. 2003)

iPbvgyjK cÖ‡kœvËi 4bs Gi cÖ_g Aby‡”Q` wjL|

119

GUg  gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
(h. †ev. Õ99 ; Xv. †ev. Õ99; (Xv. †ev. 2001) wm.†ev. 2002; Xv.†ev. 2001)

cÖkœ : 5| wefe I wefe cv_©K¨ Kv‡K e‡j? A_ev, Zwor wefe I wefe Aš マ i wK? D : iPbvg チ jK cÖ‡kœvËi Gi 6bs †`L| Ëi

Abykxjbxi iPbvg チ jK cÖ‡kœvËi
cÖkœ : 1| Avavb ej‡Z wK †evSvq? AvwnZKiY wK? cix¶‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †`LvI †h, Nl©‡Yi d‡j Zwo‡Zi m„wó nq|
(Kz.†ev. 2006)

D : Avavb (Charge) : Ëi msÁv : c`v_© m„wóKvix cÖv_wgK KwYKvmg チ ‡ ni †gŠwjK I ˆewkó¨g チ jK ag©‡K Avavb e‡j| A_ev− Òhvi w¯’wZ‡Z †Kvb e¯‘‡Z w¯’i we`y¨r, ˆe`y¨wZK †¶Î, w¯’i we`y¨r kw³i mÂvi nq I e¯‘ †QvU †QvU KvM‡Ri nvjKv UzKiv AvKl©Y Kivi mvg_©¨ iv‡L Ges hvi MwZ‡Z we`y¨r cÖevn, ˆe`y¨wZK †¶Î I †PŠ¤^K †¶‡Îi D™¢e nq Zv‡K Avavb ev PvR© e‡j|Ó e¨vL¨v : cÖ‡Z¨K c`v‡_©i cigvYy wbDwK¬qv‡mi Pviw`‡K NY©vqgvb B‡jKUªb Øviv MwVZ| wbDwK¬qv‡mi g‡a¨ `yB ai‡bi KYv _v‡K| h_v− †cÖvUb I wbDUªb| B‡jKUª‡bi Avavb‡K FYvÍK Ges †cÖvU‡bi Avavb‡K abvÍK aiv nq| †cÖvUb I B‡jKUª‡bi Avavb mgvb I wecixZ| wbDUª‡bi †Kvb Avavb †bB| †Kvb cigvYy‡Z B‡jKUª‡bi NvUwZ n‡j Zv abvÍKfv‡e AvwnZ nq Ges cigvYy‡Z B‡jKUª‡bi AvwaK¨ n‡j Zv FYvÍKfv‡e AvwnZ nq| GKK : Avav‡bi GKK Kzj¤^ (c)|

AvwnZKiY : msÁv : GKwU PvwR©Z e¯‘i wbKU GKwU APvwR©Z cwievnx‡K Avb‡j APvwR©Z cwievnx‡Z Pv‡R©i mÂvi nq| †h cÖwµqvq APvwR©Z cwievnx‡K PvwR©Z Kiv nq Zv‡K PvwR©ZKiY ev AvwnZKiY e‡j| e¨vL¨v : †Kvb cigvYy‡Z hZ¶Y ch©š マ B‡jKUªb I †cÖvU‡bi msL¨v mgvb _v‡K ZZ¶Y ch©š マ Zv Zwor wbi‡c¶| wKš‘ cigvYy‡Z G‡`i msL¨v mgvb bv n‡j cigvYy ZworMÖ¯ マ A_©vr AvwnZ nq| †Kvb cigvYy‡Z B‡jKUª‡bi msL¨v K‡g †M‡j †cÖvU‡bi AvwaK¨ †`Lv hvq| GB Ae¯’v‡K ejv nq abvÍK Avavb AvwnZ nIqv| Avevi GB wew”Qbœ B‡jKUªb Aci †Kvb cigvYyi mv‡_ hy³ n‡j †mB cigvYy‡Z B‡jKUª‡bi msL¨v †e‡o hvq, d‡j FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ nq| Nl©‡Yi d‡j Zwor m„wói cix¶v : ZË¡ : myweavgZ `yU e¯‘ ci¯•‡ii mv‡_ Nl©Y Ki‡j G‡`i GKwU hZwU B‡jKUªb nvivq; AciwU wVK ZZwU B‡jKUªb jvf K‡i| d‡j G‡`i GKwU‡Z abPvR© Ges AciwU‡Z mg cwigvY FYPvR© Drcbœ nq|

w¯’i Zwor

120

cix¶v : GKwU B‡evbvBU `‡Êi gv_vq GKwU ckgx Uzwc jvMv‡bv nq| Uzwc Øviv N‡l `ÊwU‡K PvwR©Z Kiv nq| Uzwc jvMvb Ae¯’vq `ÊwU‡K GKwU ¯^Y©cvZ Zworex¶Y h‡š ミ i PvKwZi wbKU Avb‡j h‡š ミ i ¯^Y©cvZØq duvK n‡Z †`Lv hvq bv| G‡Z eySv hvq− `Ê I Uzwci GKwÎZ Ae¯’vq PvR© †bB| GLb Uzwc I `Ê Avjv`v K‡i c„_K c„_K fv‡e cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki PvR© cix¶v Ki‡j †`Lv hvq B‡evbvBU `‡Ê FYPvR© Ges Uzwc‡Z abPvR© i‡q‡Q| †h‡nZz `Ê I Uzwc GK‡Î PvR©nxb †`Lvq| AZGe, G‡`i PvR© ci¯•i mgvb I wecixZ| G PvR© Nl©‡Yi d‡jB Drcbœ nq|

wPÎ : Nl©‡Y we`y¨‡Zi mÂvi

wm×vš マ : Dc‡ii cix¶v †_‡K eySv hvq− Nl©‡Yi d‡j Zwo‡Zi m„wó nq| cÖkœ : 2| we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ Kv‡K e‡j? GB h‡š ミ i MVb eY©bv Ki| wKfv‡e GB hš ミ ‡ K AvwnZ Kiv nq? GB hš ミ w`‡q wKfv‡e Avav‡bi cÖK…wZ wbY©q Kiv hvq eY©bv Ki| (wm.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2001; Õ99) D : we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ : Ëi msÁv : †h h‡š ミ i mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb e¯‘‡Z Avav‡bi Aw¯マ Z¡ I cÖK…wZ wbY©q Kiv hvq Zv‡K we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ e‡j| A_ev− †h h‡š ミ i mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb e¯‘‡Z Pv‡R©i Aw¯ マ Z¡, cÖK…wZ Ges cwigvY Rvbv hvq, Zv‡K we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ e‡j| GB h‡š ミ i mvnv‡h¨ wewfbœ c`v‡_©i we`y¨r cwievwnZvi Zzjbvg チ jK cix¶vI Kiv hvq| we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ `yB cÖKvi| h_v− 1. †kvjvej we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ| 2. ¯^Y©cvZ we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ| wb‡æ ¯^Y©cvZ we`y¨rex¶Y h‡š ミ i MVb eY©bv Kiv nj|
x

h‡š ミ i MVb : 1. wcZ‡ji PvKwZ I †mvbvi cvZ : GB h‡š ミ GKwU wcZ‡ji `‡Êi GK cÖv‡š マ GKwU wcZ‡ji PvKwZ Geys Aci cÖv‡š マ `ywU nvjKv †mvbvi cvZ ÔaaÕ jvMvb _v‡K| 2. Kv‡Pi †ejRvi I wQwc : wcZ‡ji `ÊwU GKwU Aš マ iK wQwc E Gi ga¨w`‡q cÖ‡ek Kwi‡q GKwU Kuv‡Pi †ejRv‡ii g‡a¨ Ggbfv‡e ivLv _v‡K− hv‡Z avZe PvKwZwU I `‡Êi wKQy Ask evB‡i _v‡K| wPÎ :

121

GUg  gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
¯^Y©cvZ we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ

3. wU‡bi cvZ : `ywU wU‡bi cvZ ÔbbÕ ¯^Y©cvZ؇qi gy‡LvgywL Ae¯’vq Kuv‡Pi †ejRv‡ii wfZ‡ii Mv‡q AvUKv‡bv _v‡K| wU‡bi cvZØq f‚mshy³ Kiv _v‡K| 4. wb‡ivaK e¯‘ : cv‡Îi wfZ‡ii evqy‡K ﮋ ivLvi Rb¨ cv‡Îi Zjvq wKQy cwigvY wb‡ivaK e¯‘ CaCl2 Gi `vbv ivLv nq| AvwnZKiY c×wZ : 1. abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZKiY : GKwU KvP`ʇK †ikg w`‡q Nl‡j KuvP`‡Ê abvÍK Avav‡bi D™¢e nq| H AvwnZ KuvP`ʇK Zworex¶‡Yi PvKwZ ev †Mvj‡Ki Mv‡q ¯•k© Kiv‡j `Ê n‡Z LvwbKUv Avavb PvKwZ‡Z P‡j hvq| GB Avavb mycwievnx avZe `‡Êi ga¨w`‡q †mvbvi cvZ؇q †cuŠ‡Q| d‡j †mvbvi cvZ `ywU GKB RvZxq Avavb †c‡q ci¯•i‡K weKl©Y K‡i Ges ci¯•i †_‡K `‡i m‡i hvq ev we‡ùvwiZ nq| G Ae¯’vq KuvP`Ê mwi‡q wb‡j hw` cvZ؇qi ga¨eZx© duvK bv K‡g, Zvn‡j hš ミ wU abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ n‡e| 2. FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZKiY : hš ミ ‡ K FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ Ki‡Z n‡j GKwU B‡evbvBU `ʇK d¬v‡bj Øviv N‡l FYvÍK Avavbhy³ K‡i DcwiD³ cÖwµqvq PvKwZ ¯•k© Ki‡Z n‡e| Gi d‡j ¯^Y©cvZ `ywU FYvZ¡K Avavb †c‡q ci¯•i †_‡K ` チ ‡ i m‡i duvK n‡q hv‡e Ges †mB Ae¯’vqB _vK‡e| Avavb hZ †ewk n‡e, avZecvZwUI ZZ †ewk cwigvY duvK n‡q hv‡e| Avav‡bi cÖK…wZ wbY©q : GwU wbY©q Ki‡Z n‡j cÖ_‡g ¯^Y©cvZ we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ ‡ K Rvbv Pv‡R© PvwR©Z Ki‡Z n‡e| G Ae¯’vq ¯^Y©cvZØq duvK n‡q hv‡e| GLb cix¶Yxq PvwR©Z e¯‘‡K GKwU Aš マ ixZ nvZ‡ji mvnv‡h¨ ax‡i ax‡i h‡š ミ i PvKwZi wbKU Avb‡j hw` cvZ `ywUi duvK AviI e„w× cvq- Z‡e eyS‡Z n‡e e¯‘wU I we`y¨rex¶Y hš ミ wU mgRvZxq Pv‡R© PvwR©Z| Avi hw` duvK µgkt K‡g hvq− Z‡e eySv‡Z n‡e †h, cix¶Yxq e¯‘wU we`y¨rex¶Y h‡š ミ i wecixZagx© Pv‡R© PvwR©Z| cÖkœ : 3| Zwor Av‡ek wK? Av‡ek cÖwµqvq †Kvb avZe `ʇK wKfv‡e abvÍK I FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ Kiv hvq eY©bv Ki|
(ewi.†ev. 2006; Xv. †ev. Õ99 ; h. †ev. 2000; P.†ev. 2001; Xv.†ev. 2002; Õ99)

D : Zwor Av‡ek : Ëi GKwU PvwR©Z e¯‘‡K GKwU Aš マ ixZ cwievnxi wbK‡U Avb‡j mvgwqKfv‡e cwievnxi wbKU cÖv‡š マ wecixZ PvR© I `チ iZg cÖv‡š マ mgRvZxq Pv‡R©i m„wó nq| PvwR©Z e¯‘‡K mwi‡q wb‡j cwievnxi PvR©I mv‡_ mv‡_ P‡j hvq|

w¯’i Zwor

122

AZGe ejv hvq−ÒGKwU PvwR©Z e¯‘‡K GKwU Aš マ wiZ cwievnxi Kv‡Q G‡b PvwR©Z e¯‘i cÖfv‡e cwievnx e¯‘‡K mvgwqKfv‡e PvwR©Z Kivi c×wZ‡K ˆe`y¨wZK Av‡ek ev Zwor Av‡ek e‡j|Ó cÖfvex e¯‘i PvR©‡K Av‡ekx PvR© I cÖfvweZ e¯‘i PvR©‡K Avweó PvR© ejv nq| wP‡Î A nj GKwU PvwR©Z e¯‘ Ges BC GKwU Aš マ ixZ cwievnx| A e¯‘i PvR©‡K Av‡ekx PvR© Ges B I C cÖv‡š マ i PvR©‡K Avweó PvR© ejv nq| Av‡ek cÖwµqvq AvwnZKiY :
ˆe`y¨wZK Av‡ek wPÎ :

K)

abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZKiY : 1. GKwU cwievnx AB-†K abvÍK Pv‡R© PvwR©Z Kivi Rb¨ cÖ_‡g GKwU B‡evbvBU `ʇK (R) d¬v‡b‡ji mv‡_ N‡l G‡K FYvZ¡K Avav‡b AvwnZ Kwi| 2. Gevi G‡K cwievnK e¯‘wUi A cÖv‡š マ i wbK‡U ai‡j cwievn‡Ki gy³ B‡jKUªb¸‡jv B‡evbvBU `‡Êi B‡jKUªb¸‡jv Øviv weKwl©Z n‡q B cÖv‡š マ m‡i hv‡e| (wPÎ-K) 3. GLb B‡evbvBU `ÊwU‡K bv mwi‡q AB cwievnKwU nvZ w`‡q ¯•k© Ki‡j ev †Kvb cwievnK Zvi w`‡q f‚-ms‡hvM Ki‡j gy³ B‡jKUªb¸‡jv f‚c„‡ô P‡j hv‡e| (wPÎ-L)

4. GLb f‚ms‡hvM wew”Qbœ Ki‡jI abvÍK Avavb¸‡jv A cÖv‡š マ Ave× _vK‡e| (wPÎ-M) 5. Gevi R `ÊwU‡K mwi‡q wb‡j abvÍK Avavb¸‡jv e¯‘wUi me©Î Qwo‡q co‡e, d‡j e¯‘wU abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ n‡e| (wPÎ-N) L) FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZKiY : 1. AB cwievnK‡K FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ Kivi Rb¨ GKwU KuvP `ʇK (R) †ik‡g N‡l abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ K‡i AB cwievn‡Ki A cÖv‡š マ i wbK‡U ai‡j cix¶Yxq `‡Êi gy³ B‡jKUªb¸‡jv R `‡Êi abvÍK Avavb KZ…©K AvK… ó n‡q A cÖv‡š マ m‡i Avm‡e| d‡j, B cÖv‡š マ abvÍK Avav‡bi mÂvi n‡e| (wPÎ-K)

123

GUg  gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

2. GLb R `ÊwU‡K bv mwi‡q AB cwievnKwU nvZ w`‡q ¯•k© Ki‡j ev †Kvb cwievnK Zvi w`‡q f‚-ms‡hvwRZ Ki‡j f‚wg †_‡K B‡jKUªb G‡m B cÖv‡š マ abvÍK Avavb¸‡jv‡K wbw¯Œq K‡i †`‡e| (wPÎ-L) 3. GLb f‚-ms‡hvM wew”Qbœ Ki‡jI Avavb¸‡jv A cÖv‡š マ Ave× _vK‡e| (wPÎ-M) 4. Gevi R `ÊwU‡K mwi‡q wb‡j FYvÍK Avavb¸‡jv cwievn‡Ki me©Î Qwo‡q co‡e| d‡j, cwievnKwU FYvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ n‡e| (wPÎ-N) cÖkœ : 4| Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv ej‡Z wK †evS? †`LvI †h, F = qE.
(ewi.†ev. Xv.ev. 2005; h.†ev. 2006 2002; Kz.†ev. 2005; 2002; Õ99; wm.†ev. 2003)

A_ev, †`LvI †h, Zwor †¶‡Î †Kvb we›`y‡Z ¯’vwcZ †Kvb we›`y Avav‡bi Dci wµqvkxj ej H we›`yi ZxeªZv Ges ¯’vwcZ Avav‡bi ¸Y d‡ji mgvb| (Kz.†ev. 2005; h.†ev. Õ99; P.†ev. 2003) A_ev, cÖgvY Ki †h, Zwor †¶‡Î †Kvb we›`y‡Z ¯’vwcZ + q Avav‡bi Dci wµqvkxj ej H we›`yi ZxeªZv Ges ¯’vwcZ Avav‡bi ¸Y d‡ji mgvb| (Kz.†ev. 2001) D : Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv : Ëi msÁv : Zwor‡¶‡Îi †Kvb we›`y‡Z GKwU GKK abvÍK Avavb ¯’vcb Ki‡j GwU †h ej Abyfe K‡i, Zv‡K H we›`y‡Z Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv e‡j| G‡K E Øviv m チ wPZ Kiv nq| e¨vL¨v : GKwU AvwnZ e¯‘i wbK‡U Ab¨ GKwU AvwnZ e¯‘ Avb‡j †mwU AvKl©Y ev weKl©Y ej jvf K‡i| AvwnZ e¯‘i Pviw`‡K †h AÂj Ry‡o GB cÖfve we`¨gvb _v‡K †mB AÂjB H AvwnZ e¯‘wUi Zwor‡¶Î| Kzj‡¤^i m チ Îvbyhvqx− Ò`ywU AvwnZ e¯‘i g‡a¨ wµqvkxj AvKl©Y ev weKl©Y e‡ji gvb Zv‡`i ga¨eZ©x ` チ i‡Z¡i e‡M©i e¨¯ マ vbycvwZK|Ó Kv‡RB AvwnZ e¯‘‡K Zwor‡¶‡Îi hZ wbK‡U Avbv hv‡e e¯‘wUi Dci wµqvkxj e‡ji gvb ZZ e„w× cv‡e| A_©vr Zwor‡¶‡Îi hZ wbKUeZx© nIqv hvq Zwor‡¶‡Îi mejZvI ZZ e„w× cvq| Zwor‡¶‡Îi mejZv‡K ZxeªZv e‡j| GKK : Zwor ZxeªZv cwigv‡ci GKK wbDUb/Kzj¤^ (NC−1)| ivwk : GwU GKwU †fKUi ivwk Ges Gi w`K n‡”Q Zwor‡¶‡Î ¯’vwcZ abvÍK Avav‡bi Dci wµqvkxj e‡ji w`‡K| F = qE-Gi cÖgvY : †`Iqv Av‡Q, E = Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv q = Avav‡bi cwigvY F = E ZxeªZvq Zwor‡¶‡Îi †Kvb we›`y‡Z q Avav‡bi Dci Abyf‚Z ej| †`Lv‡Z n‡e †h, F = qE. cÖgvY : aiv hvK, A GKwU abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ e¯‘ Ges Avav‡bi cwigvY +q′.

w¯’i Zwor

124

GLb A e¯‘ †_‡K d `チ i‡Z¡ p we›`y‡Z hw` GKwU Avavb +q ivLv nq Zvn‡j A e¯‘i +q′ Avav‡bi Rb¨ +q′ AvavbwU GKwU ej yF jvf Ki‡e| myZivs Kzj‡¤^i m チ Îvbymv‡i,
wPÎ : .... .... .... .... .... (1) F = k A e¯‘i +q′ Avav‡bi Rb¨ P we›`y‡Z m„ó Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv E n‡j Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZvi msÁvbymv‡i, P we›`y‡Z GKK ab Pv‡R©i Dci wµqvkxj ej mgvb +q′ Pv‡R©i Rb¨ H Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv ; A_©vr− E = k ev, E = k .... ..... .... .... .... .... (2) (1) bs

mgxKiY‡K (2) bs Øviv fvM K‡i cvB,
= k. ×

ev, = q

∴ F = qE

(cÖgvwYZ)|

cÖkœ : 5| Kzj‡¤^i myÎwU wjL Ges GB m チ ‡ Îi MvwYwZK cÖKvk cÖwZcv`b Ki|
(Kz.†ev. 2006; P.†ev. 2005; P.†ev. wm.†ev. iv.†ev..Õ01 ; h.†ev. 2005; Õ99; ewi.†ev.Õ04, Õ06, Õ02; Xv.†ev.Õ05, Õ03)

A_ev, w¯’i Zwo‡Zi †¶‡Î Kzj‡¤^i m チ ÎwU cÖwZcv`b Ki| ev Kzj‡¤^i m チ ÎwU eY©bv Ki| ( iv. †ev. Õ06, Õ04, ,01; Kz.†ev. 2003) A_ev, `ywU AvwnZ e¯‘i AvKl©Y ev weKl©YRwbZ e‡ji Kj‡¤^i m チ ÎwU †jL| Ges GB m チ ‡Îi MvwYwZK cÖKvk cÖwZcv`b Ki| (Xv.†ev.
2002)

D : Kzj‡¤^i m チ Î : Ëi Òwbw`©ó gva¨‡g `ywU we›`y Avav‡bi g‡a¨ AvKl©Y ev weKl©Y e‡ji gvb Avavb؇qi ¸Yd‡ji mgvbycvwZK, G‡`i ga¨eZ©x ` チ i‡Z¡i e‡M©i e¨¯マ vbycvwZK Ges GB ej Avavb؇qi ms‡hvRK mij‡iLv eivei wµqv K‡i|Ó e¨vL¨v :
q1 q2 F r

aiv hvK, q1 I q2 PvR©hy³ `ywU we›`y PvR© ci¯•i n‡Z r `チ i‡Z¡ i‡q‡Q| hw` G‡`i g‡a¨ cvi¯•wiK AvKl©Y ev weKl©Y ej F nq, Z‡e Kzj‡¤^i m チ Îvbymv‡i − F ∝ q1p2 , hLb r w¯’i _v‡K Ges F ∝ , hLb q1 I p2 w¯’i _v‡K DcwiD³ mgxKiY `ywU n‡Z cvB− F ∝ (hLb mKj ivwk cwiewZ©Z nq)

125

GUg  gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb

ev, F = k .... .... .... .... .... .... (1) GLv‡b k GKwU mgvbycvwZK aª“eK| Gi gvb mswkó gva¨‡gi Dci wbf©ikxj| ïb¨¯’v‡b GB aª“e‡Ki gvb 9 × 109Nm2C−2| GB mgvbycvwZK aª“eK‡K AvKv‡i cÖKvk Kiv nq| A_©vr ïb¨¯’v‡bi Rb¨ k = = 9 × 109 Nm2C−2 nq| (i) bs mgxKi‡Y k Gi gvb ewm‡q cvB,
F = . .... .... .... .... .... .... (2)

GLv‡b ∈o = †f`b‡hvM¨Zv (k チ b¨¯’v‡b) = 8.854 × 10−12CN−1m−2 GwUB Kzj‡¤^i m チ‡Îi MvwYwZK cÖKvk| cÖkœ : 6| Zwor wefe wK e¨vL¨v Ki| abvÍK wefe I FYvZ¡K wefe e¨vLv Ki| wefe cv_©K¨ ej‡Z wK †evSvq?
(Xv.†ev. 2004)

D : Zwor wefe : Ëi msÁv (fvlvMZ) : cwievnxi †h we`y¨Zve¯’v Gi mv‡_ mshy³ Ab¨ †Kvb cwievnx‡Z we`y¨r cÖevn n‡e wK bv Ges n‡j cÖev‡ni AwfgyL †Kvb w`‡K n‡e Zv wbY©q K‡i, cwievnxi †m we`y¨Zve¯’v‡K ˆe`y¨wZK wefe ev Zwor wefe e‡j| msÁv : (MvwYwZK) : Amxg `チ i n‡Z GKwU GKK ab PvR©‡K ˆe`y¨wZK †¶‡Îi †Kvb we›`y‡Z Avb‡Z †h cwigvY KvR mvwaZ nq Zv‡K D³ †¶‡Îi `i“b H we›`yi ˆe`y¨wZK wefe ev Zwor wefe e‡j| GwU mvaviYZ V Øviv cÖKvk Kiv nq| e¨vL¨v : Amxg †_‡K q GKK abvÍK Avavb‡K cwievnxi Lye wbKU ev Zwor‡¶‡Îi †Kvb we›`y‡Z Avb‡Z hw` m¤•bœ Kv‡Ri cwigvY W nq, Z‡e H cwievnx ev we›`yi wefe
V =

ivwk : GwU GKwU †¯‹jvi ivwk| GKK : Gi GKK †fvë (V)| wef‡ei cÖKvi‡f` : wefe `yB cÖKvi| h_v− 1. abvÍK wefe 2. FYvÍK wefe| 1. abvÍK wefe : †h kw³i Rb¨ †Kvb abvÍK ZworMÖ¯’ e¯‘, †Kvb Zwornxb A_ev FYvÍK ZworMÖ¯’ e¯‘i g‡a¨ abvÍK Zwor mÂvwjZ Ki‡Z cv‡i, †mB kw³‡K abvÍK wefe ejv nq| 2. FYvÍK wefe : †h kw³i Rb¨ †Kvb FYvÍK ZworMÖ¯’ e¯‘, †Kvb Zwornxb A_ev abvÍK ZworMÖ¯’ e¯‘i g‡a¨ FYvÍK Zwor mÂvwjZ Ki‡Z cv‡i, †mB kw³‡K FYvÍK wefe ejv nq| wefe cv_©K¨ : msÁv : GKK abvÍK Avavb‡K Zwor‡¶‡Îi GK we›`y †_‡K Ab¨ we›`y‡Z ¯’vbvš マ i Ki‡Z m¤•bœ Kv‡Ri cwigvY‡K H `yB we›`yi wefe cv_©K¨ e‡j|

w¯’i Zwor

126

A_ev− Zwor †¶‡Îi `ywU we›`yi g‡a¨ wef‡ei e¨eavb‡K wefe cv_©K¨ e‡j| e¨vL¨v : aiv hvK, A I B cwievnK؇qi wefe h_vµ‡g VA Ges VB.
A
+ + + +

e
VA

B
+ + + ++ + +

VB

†h‡nZz msÁvbymv‡i k チ b¨ wef‡ei ¯’vb A_©vr f‚wg †_‡K GKK abvÍK Avavb A cwievn‡K Avb‡Z K…Z KvR VA Ges B cwievn‡K Avb‡Z K…Z KvR VB. AZGe GKK abvÍK Avavb‡K B we›`y †_‡K A we›`y‡Z Avb‡Z Kv‡Ri cwigvY A_©vr VA − VB H `yB cwievn‡Ki wefe cv_©K¨| Avavb GK e¯‘ †_‡K Aci e¯‘‡Z cÖevwnZ n‡j eyS‡Z n‡e †h, e¯‘؇qi wefe Amg|

AwZwi³ cÖ‡kœvËi

cÖkœ : 1| wefe I wefe cv_©K¨ Kv‡K e‡j? Av‡ek cÖwµqvq †Kvb avZe `ʇK wKfv‡e abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ Kiv hvq wPÎmn eY©bv Ki| (iv.†ev. 2003) D : 1g As‡ki Dˇii Rb¨ wek` cÖkœ 6bs `ªóe¨| Ëi abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ KiY : 1. AB cwievnxwU‡K abvÍK Pv‡R© PvwR©Z Kivi Rb¨ cÖ_‡g GKwU B‡evbvBU `ʇK (R) d¬v‡b‡ji mv‡_ N‡l G‡K FYvÍK Av`v‡b AvwnZ Ki| 2. Gevi G‡K cwievnK e¯‘wUi A cÖv‡š マ i wbK‡U ai‡j cwievn‡Ki gy³ B‡jKUªb¸‡jv B‡evbvBU `‡Êi B‡jKUªb¸‡jv Øviv weKwl©Z n‡q B cÖv‡š マ m‡i hv‡e [wPÎ K]| 3. GLb B‡evbvBU `ÊwU‡K bv mwi‡q AB cwievnKwU nvZ w`‡q ¯•k© Ki‡j ev †Kvb cwievnK Zvi w`‡q f‚-ms‡hvwRZ Ki‡j gy³ B‡jKUªb¸‡jv f‚Ñc„‡ô P‡j hv‡e [wPÎ L]| 4. GLb f‚Ñms‡hvM wew”Qbœ Ki‡jI abvÍK Avavb¸‡jv A cÖv‡š マ Ave× _vK‡e [wPÎ M]| 5. Gevi R `ÊwU‡K mwi‡q wb‡j abvÍK Avavb¸‡jv e¯‘wUi me©Î Qwo‡q co‡e, d‡j e¯‘wU abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZ n‡e| [wPÎ N]|

127

GUg  gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
wPÎ : abvÍK Avav‡b AvwnZKiY

cÖkœ : 2| c„w_exi wefe k チ b¨ aiv nq †Kb?
Kz.†ev. 2005; 2002]

[iv.†ev. 2005; wm.†ev. 2003;

D : c„w_exi wefe k チ b¨ : Avgiv Rvwb, †Kvb GKwU †QvU AvKv‡ii Ëi cwievnK abvÍK Avavb jvf Ki‡j Gi wefe e„w× cvq Ges Gi cwigvY wbY©q Kiv hvq| wKš‘ cwievnKwU hw` AwZ wekvj AvKv‡ii †MvjK nq Zvn‡j G‡Z abvÍK Avavb e„w×i Kvi‡Y wefvevš マ i cwijw¶Z nq bv| Avgv‡`i c„w_ex Ggwb GKwU wekvj AvKv‡ii cwievnK| c„w_ex GKwU FYvÍK Avav‡bi wekvj fvÊvi| ZvB G †_‡K wKQy B‡jKUªb †ei K‡i wb‡j A_ev G‡Z wKQy B‡jKUªb w`‡j Gi wef‡ei †Kvb cwieZ©b nq bv| ZvB c„w_exi wefe‡K k チ b¨ aiv nq|

MvwYwZK mgm¨vewj I mgvavb MvwYwZK D`vniYmg チ n
D`v : 1| GKwU 20 Kzj‡¤^i AvwnZ e¯‘ evqy‡Z Aci GKwU 70 Kzj‡¤^i AvwnZ e¯‘ †_‡K 50 cm ` チ ‡ i ivLv nj| G‡`i ga¨eZx© e‡ji gvb wbY©q Ki| GLv‡b, mv v : Avgiv Rvwb, g ab
F = . = 9 × 109Nm2C−2 × ∴ F = 5.04 × 1013N
13

q1 r F

= = = =

20cm, q2 = 70cm 50 Cm = 0.5m 9 × 109Nm2C−2, ?

DËi : ga¨eZx© e‡ji gvb, F = 5.04 × 10 N. D`v : 2| †Kvb Zwor‡¶‡Î 10 Kzj‡¤^i GKwU AvwnZ e¯‘ ¯’vcb Ki‡j †mwU 10 wbDUb ej jvf K‡i| H we›`y‡Z 15 Kzj‡¤^i GKwU AvwnZ e¯‘ ¯’vcb Ki‡j e‡ji gvb KZ n‡e? (Xv.†ev. 2006; 2004; ewi.†ev. 2006; 2004)
mv v : g ab

Avgiv Rvwb,
E = F1/q1 = = 1 NC−1 F/
2

Avevi, E = ev, F2 = q2E

q2

GLv‡b, ej, F1 Avavb, Avavb, ej, F2

= q1 q2 =

10N = = ?

10C 15C

w¯’i Zwor
= 1NC−1 × 15C = 15N e‡ji gvb, F2 = 15N.

128

DËi :

Abykxjbxi MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨v : 1| 5 Kzj‡¤^i Avavb †_‡K 0.5m ` チ ieZx© †Kvb we›`y‡Z Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv KZ? (Xv.†ev. Õ01; wm.†ev. Õ02; h.†ev. Kz.†ev. P.†ev. Õ03
(iv.†ev. P.†ev. ewi.†ev. 2006)

mv v : g ab

Avgiv Rvwb,
E = . = 9 × 109Nm2C−2 × = 1.8 × 1011NC−1

GLv‡b, Avavb,

q

= 5C

`チ iZ¡, d = 0.5m Zwor †¶‡Îi ZxeªZv, E
?

=

DËi : Zwor †¶‡Îi ZxeªZv, E = 1.8 × 1011NC−1. mgm¨v : 2| †Kvb Zwor‡¶‡Î 30 Kzj‡¤^i GKwU PvR© ¯’vcb Ki‡j Zv 15 wbDUb ej jvf K‡i| H we›`y‡Z 20 Kzj‡¤^i GKwU Avavb ¯’vcb Ki‡j e‡ji gvb KZ? (Kz.†ev. 2005; Xv.†ev. Õ99; Abyt Xv.†ev. 2002; iv.†ev. 2002) GLv‡b, mv v : Avgiv Rvwb, g ab E = F1/q1 PvR©, q1 = 15C = ej, F1 = 15N ∴ E = 1NC−1 Avevi PvR©, q2 = 20C Avevi, E = F2/q2 ej, F2 = ?
ev, F2 = q2E
= 1NC−1 × 20C ∴ F2 = 20N

DËi : e‡ji gvb, F2 = 20N. mgm¨v : 3| evqygva¨‡g GKwU 30 Kzj¤^ I GKwU 50 Kzj¤^ Avavb ci¯•i †_‡K 1 wgUvi `チ ‡i Av‡Q| G‡`i ga¨eZx© e‡ji gvb wbY©q Ki|
(h. †ev. 2005; Õ99)

mv v : g ab

evqygva¨‡g, Avgiv Rvwb,

= 9 × 10 Nm C F
9 2

GLv‡b,
= .

−2

Avavb, Avavb, `チ iZ¡, d ej, F

q1 q2 = =

= = 1m ?

30C 50C

=

9 × 109Nm2C−2 ×

129
∴ F =

GUg  gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
1.35 × 1013N

DËi : e‡ji gvb, F = 1.35 × 1013N. cÖkœ : 4| 10 cm e¨vm wewkó 25 Kzj¤^ Avav‡bi AvwnZ e¯‘ evqy‡Z Aci GKwU 10 cm e¨v‡mi 70 Kzj¤^ Avav‡bi AvwnZ e¯‘ †_‡K 4m `i‡Z¡ ivLv nq| G‡`i ga¨eZ©x e‡ji gvb wbY©q Ki| (Kz. †ev. 2003)
mv v : g ab

Avgiv Rvwb,
F = × = (9 × 109 N m2c−2) × = 9.84 × 1011 N (Ans.)

GLv‡b, 1g Avavb, q1 = 25 c 2q Avavb, q2 = 70 c ga¨eZ©x `iZ¡, d = 4 m evqyi gva¨‡g, = 9 × 109 Nm2c−2 ga¨eZ©x ej, F = ?

AwZwi³ MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb
mgm¨vÑ1| evqy gva¨‡g 30C GKwU 50C Avavb cici †_‡K wK `i‡Z¡ _vK‡j G‡`i ga¨eZ©x e‡ii gvb 1.35 × 1013N n‡e? (iv.†ev. 2004) Avgiv Rvwb, GLv‡b, mv v : g ab F = × Avavb, q1 = 30c ev, d2 = × Avavb, q2 = 50c ev, d2 = 9 × 109 × ej, F = 1.35 × 1013N −4 2 = 9 × 109Nm2c−2 ev, d = 10000 × 10 ev,
d2 = 1 d=± d = 1m 1m.

DËi : mgm¨vÑ2| GKwU UªvÝcg©v‡ii gyL¨ KzÊjxi cvK msL¨v 30 Ges cÖevn 10 A¨vw¤•qvi, †MŠY KzÊjxi cvK msL¨v 180 cÖevn KZ| (P.†ev.
2004)

mv v : g ab

Avgiv Rvwb,
=. = 9 × 109 × = 2.4 × 1011Nc−1 11 2.4 × 10 Nc−1 E

DËi :

GLv‡b, Avavb, q = 15 Kzj¤^ `iZ¡
d = 75cm = 0.75 m. = 9 × 109Nm2c−2 ZxeªZv E = ?

Zwor

w¯’i Zwor

130

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖ‡kœvËi
Abykxjbxi eû wbe©vPbx cÖ‡kœvËi : mwVK DËiwUi cv‡k wUK (√) wPý `vI|
1. c`v_© m„wóKvix cÖv_wgK KwYKvmg‡ni †gŠwjK I ˆewkó¨gjK ag©‡K wK e‡j? K. AYy L. cigvYy M. e¯‘  N. Avavb †h †Kvb cigvYy Avavb wbi‡c¶, Gi KviY wK? KviY cigvYy‡Z _v‡K mgvb msL¨K− (ewi.†ev.
Õ04, iv.†ev. Õ99) 

K. kw³i L. Avav‡bi M. B‡jKUª‡bi N. wef‡ei 2| Kzj¤^ wK‡mi GKK? (Kz. 2000;
h.†ev. 2000; wm.†ev. 2003)

2. 

K. B‡jKUªb I †cÖvUb L.B‡jKUªb I wbDÆb M. †cÖvUb I wbDÆb N.B‡jKUªb I cwRUªb 3. Zworex¶Y h‡ši mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb KvRwU Kiv nq? K. Zwor cÖev‡ni gvb †ei Kiv  L. Avav‡bi cÖK…wZ wbY©q M. Avav‡bi cwigvY wbY©q N. Zwor cÖev‡ni w`K wbY©q 4. †Kvb `yBwU Avav‡bi ga¨eZx© `iZ¡ wظY Kiv n‡j, G‡`i ga¨eZx© e‡ji wK NU‡e? (Xv.†ev.
Õ06; wm.†ev. Õ02; P .†ev. Õ99)

K. Zwor wefe  L. Avavb M. †iva N. wefe Aši 3| 1028 wU B‡jKUªb I mgmsL¨K †cÖvUb 10m `i‡Z¡ ci¯•i‡K KZ e‡j AvKl©Y K‡i? (P.†ev. 2000)  K. 1027N L. 1026N 28 M. 10 N N. 1025N 4| wb‡Pi †Kvb&wU kb¨¯’v‡bi †f`‡hvM¨Zv?
(P.†ev. 2006; Kz.†ev. Õ04; e.†ev. 2001; iv.†ev. 2004; Xv.†ev. 2000; Õ04, iv.†ev. 2002)  K. 8.854 × 10−11 CN−1M−2 L. 8.854 × 1011CN−1m−2 M. 8.854 × 10−11CNm−2 N. 8.854 × 1011CNm−2

5| gvbe‡`‡n enb‡hvM¨ †cÖvU‡bi msL¨v KqwU? (iv.†ev. Õ99)

5.

K. wظY n‡e  L. GKPZz_©vsk M. Pvi¸Y n‡e N. A‡a©K n‡e
w¯’i Zwor ej F, Avavb q I Zwor‡¶‡Îi ZxeªZv E Gi g‡a¨ m¤•K© wK? (Kz.†ev. 2002; 2000; h.†ev. 2006; Õ99; wm.†ev. 2003; Xv.†ev. iv.†ev. 2005) K. E = qF L. F = q/E  M. F = qE N. E = q/F.

AwZwi³ ˆbe©¨w³K cÖ‡kœvËi
1| cwievn‡Ki `y cÖv‡ši wefevši eRvq ivLvi Rb¨ AbeiZ wK‡mi †hvMvb †`qv cÖ‡qvRb?
(Xv.†ev. 2001, Kz.2001; iv.†ev. 2000)

6| Zwor ZxeªZv †Kvb& cÖKv‡ii ivwk? (Kz.†ev. 2005; Õ99)  K. †f±i L. †¯‹jvi M. †gŠwjK N. Dcii †KvbwUB bq 7| Zvgvi cvZ B‡jKUªb `vb K‡i wKiƒc ZworMÖ¯ nq?  K. abvÍK L. FYvÍK (iv.†ev.
Õ99)

(h.†ev. 2005; iv.†ev. 2004; ewi.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2003) K. 1027  L. 1028 M. 1020 N. 1019

M. PvR©nxb N. †KvbwUB bq 8| Avweó cwievn‡Ki †h cÖvš Av‡ekx e¯‘i wbK‡U _v‡K †mB cÖv‡š †h Avav‡bi mÂvi nq Zv‡K wK e‡j?
(Kz.†ev. 2002)

131

GUg  gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb wbY©‡qi Rb¨ †K Zworex¶Y hš D™¢veb K‡ib? K. wbDUb  L. †e‡bU M. AvBb÷vBb N. ievU© i‡qj 17| †Kvb PvR© †_‡K Amxg `i‡Z¡ wef‡ei gvb−  K. kb¨ L. mgvb M. GK N. `yB 18| Gm. AvB GK‡K wefe cwigvc Kiv nq−  K. †fvë GK‡K L. Kzj¤^ GK‡K M. wbDUb GK‡K N. A¨vw¤•qvi GK‡K 19| nvB‡Wªv‡Rb cigvYy‡Z KZwU B‡j±«b _v‡K? K. 1wU  L. 2wU M. 3wU N. 4wU 20| wnwjqvg cigvYy‡Z KZwU B‡j±«b _v‡K? K. 1wU  L. 2wU M. 3wU N. 4wU 21| nvB‡Wªv‡Rb cigvYy‡Z KZwU †cÖvUb _v‡K?  K. 1wU L. 2wU M. 3wU N. 4wU 22| wnwjqvg cigvYy‡Z KZwU wbDUªb _v‡K? K. 1wU  L. 2wU M. 3wU N. 0wU 23| wb‡Pi †Kvb&wU mn‡R cigvYy †_‡K wQbœ n‡q †h‡Z cv‡i? K. wbDwK¬qvm L. †cÖvUb M. wbDUªb  N. B‡jK±«b 24| †Kvb& †Rvov‡Z Avavb ci¯•i mgvb? K. †cÖvUbÑwbDUªb  L.†cÖvUbÑB‡j±«b M. wbDUªb-B‡j±«b N. wbDwK¬qvmцcÖvUb 25| †Kvb&wU‡Z FYvÍK Avavb _v‡K?  K. B‡j±«‡b L. †cÖvU‡b

K. Av‡ekx Avavb L.Avweó Avavb M. gy³ Avavb N. e× Avavb 9| c„w_exi wefe KZ? (Kz. 2002; wm.

10| `ywU Avav‡bi ga¨eZ©x AvKl©Y ev weKl©Y e‡ji gvb †Kvb&wUi Dci wbf©i
Xv.Õ99) (h.†ev.

2002, 2001) iv.†ev. 2006; Xv.†ev. 2005; 2001; m.†ev. Õ98) K. 2 †fvë  L. 0 †fvë M. 1 †fvë N. 4 †fvë

2002;

K. Avavb `ywUi cwigv‡Yi Dci L. Avavb `ywUi ga¨eZ©x `i‡Z¡i Dci M. Avavb `ywU †h gva¨‡g _v‡K Zvi cÖK…wZi Dci  N. Avavb `ywUi cÖK…wZi Dci 11| wbDwK¬qv‡mi g‡a¨ _v‡K−
(wm.†ev. 2005)

K. B‡jKUªb I †cÖvUb L. B‡jKUªb I wbDUªb  M. †cÖvUb I wbDUªb N. B‡jKUªb I cwRUªb 12| Zwor wbi‡c¶ KwYKv †KvbwU? K. B‡j±«b  L. wbDUªb M. †cÖvUb N. cwRUªb 13| cigvYy‡Z B‡jKUªb I †cÖvU‡bi msL¨v ci¯•i−  K. mgvb L. Avmgvb M. wظY N. wZb ¸Y 14| nvB‡Wªv‡Rb cigvYy‡Z Av‡Q−  K. GKwU †cÖvUb I GKwU B‡jKUªb L. GKwU †cÖvUb I GKwU wbDUªb M. GKwU †cÖvUb I `ywU wbDUªb N. GKwU †cÖvUb 15| nvB‡Wªv‡Rb cigvYy‡Z †bB−
(Xv.†ev. 2002) 

K. wbDUªb L. †cÖvUb M. B‡jKUªb N. †KvbUvB bq 16| ¯^Y©cvZ Zworex¶Y hš †K Avwe®‹vi K‡ib? (e.†ev. Õ06,
Õ02)

A_ev, Avav‡bi Dcw¯’wZ I cÖK…wZ

w¯’i Zwor M. wbDUª‡b N. wbDwK¬qv‡m 26| abvÍK Avav‡bi cwievnK‡K nvZ w`‡q ¯•k© Ki‡j ev cwievnK Zvi Øviv f‚-ms‡hvwRZ Ki‡j wK N‡U? K. P+ f‚-c„‡ô P‡j hvq (Kz.†ev. 2001)  L. e- f‚Ñc„‡ô P‡j hvq M. f‚wg †_‡K e cwievn‡K Av‡m N. Avavb ¯’vbvšwiZ nq bv 27| †h h‡ši mvnv‡h¨ †Kvb e¯‘‡Z Avav‡bi Aw¯Z¡ I cÖK…wZ wbY©q Kiv hvq Zv‡K wK ejv nq? K. A¨vwgUvi L. M¨vjfv‡bvwgUvi  M. Zworex¶Y hš N. †fvë wgUvi 28| Kzj‡¤^i m‡Î k Gi GKK †Kvb&wU? (ewi.†ev. 2006) K. Nm2C L. N2mC−2 M. NM−1C  N. Nm2C−2 29| Zwor †¶Î †Kvb we›`y‡Z GKwU GKK abvÍK Avavb ¯’vcb Ki‡j †mwU †h ej jvf K‡i Zv‡K H we›`yi wK ejv nq?  K. Zwor ZxeªZv L. Zwor †f`¨Zv M. Zwor †¶Î N. Zwor Pvc 30| Zwor ZxeªZvi GKK †Kvb&wU?
(wm.†ev. Õ04) Õ05, Õ01; P.†ev.

132 

K. 15 N L. 10 N M. 100 N N. 1 N 33| kb¨¯’v‡b Gi gvb KZ? (h.†ev.
2006; Xv.†ev. 2003) K. 9 × 109 Nm2c2 L. 9 × 109 Nm2c−2 M. 9 × 109 N−2m2c2N. 9 × 1010Nm2c2

34|

GKwU KuvP`Û‡K †ikg Øviv Nl‡j †KvbwU †Kvb Avav‡b AvwnZ nq? (Kz.†ev. 2003) K. DfqB abvÍK Avav‡b L. DfqB FYvÍK Avav‡b M. †ikg abvÍK Ges KuvP`Û FYvÍK Avav‡b  N. †ikg FYvÍK Ges KuvP`Û abvÍK Avav‡b 35| `yBwU Zwor Avav‡bi ga¨eZ©x `iZ¡ A‡a©K Kiv n‡j, G‡`i ga¨eZ©x e‡ji wK NU‡e?  K. Pvi¸Y n‡e L. wظY n‡e M. A‡a©K n‡e N. GKPZz_©vsk n‡e| 36| mgcwigvY I mgag©x `yBwU Avavb kb¨ gva¨‡g ci¯•i 1m `i‡Z¡ †_‡K ci¯•i ci¯•‡ii Dci hw` 9 × 109N e‡j weKl©Y K‡i Z‡e Avavb `yBwUi cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki Avav‡bi cwigvY KZ?  K. 1 Kzj¤^ M. kb¨ 37| 5 Kzj‡¤^i Avavb †_‡K 0.5 wgUvi `ieZx© †Kvb we›`y‡Z Zwor †¶‡Îi ZxeªZv KZ? K.  L. M. N. 38|
[Kz.†ev. 2006] 1.8 × 10−11NC−1 1.8 × 1011NC−1 1.8 × 1011NC 1.8 × 1011C (Kz.†ev. 2003) L. 9 × 109 Kzj¤^ N. 2 Kzj¤^ (h.†ev. 2003) 

31|  32|

K. wbDUb/Kzj¤^ L. Kzj¤^/wbDUb (ewi.†ev. Õ05) M. wbDUb/Kzj¤^ N. wbDUb/Kzj¤^2 †Kvb&wU wefe, KvR I Zwor Avav‡bi g‡a¨ mwVK m¤•K©? K. v = L. v = w + q M. q = wv N. v = w + q †Kvb Zwor †¶Î 10 Kzj‡¤^i GKKwU AvwnZ e¯‘ ¯’vcb Ki‡j †mwU 10 N ej jvf K‡i| H we›`y‡Z 15 Kzj‡¤^i GKwU AvwnZ e¯‘ ¯’vcb Ki‡j e‡ji gvb KZ?
(P.†ev. 2003)

†KvbwU mwVK?
[P.†ev. 2005]

K. 1V = 1J L. 1V = 1C  M. 1V = 1JC N. 1V = 1J−1 39| †Kvb gva¨‡gi †f`b †hvM¨Zvi

133 GKK †Kvb&wU?

GUg  gva¨wgK c`v_© weÁvb
[h.†ev. 2004] 2 −1  L. C N M−2 N. C2M−2N−1

K. CN−1M−2 M. C−2M−2N 40| Gm AvB GK‡K wefe cwigvc Kiv nq †Kvb GK‡K?

K. IÕg  L. †fvë M. IqvU N. Kzj¤^ 41| †cÖvUb B‡j±«‡bi Z‚jbvq KZ¸Y fvix? [ewi.†ev. 2004] K. cÖvq 500 ¸Y L. cÖvq 2000 ¸Y M. cÖvq 200 ¸Y N. cÖvq 1500 ¸Y

[wm.†ev. 2004]

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful