Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 1.


In current days the petrol stations are operated manually. These petrol pumps are time consuming and require more manpower. To place petrol stations in distant area it very costly to provide excellent facility to the consumers all these problem are sorted out by the use of unmanned power pump which requires less time to operate and it is effective and can be installed anywhere the customer self going to avail the services the payment is done by electronic clearing system. These petrol stations easily monitor with the video capturing and alarming system over the time by a central control unit.

Today’s consumers are more mobile and more demanding than ever. Consumers want more choices, more speed and more convenience. They’re less forgiving of slow pumps and outdated features and searching for petrol station all over the place. To upgrade market we need a dispenser that is reliable, user-friendly and ready to increase our profitability. We need unmanned petrol station. Designed from the ground up, this flexible, dependable and scalable fuel dispenser will meet our needs, today and tomorrow. The world’s most consumer-friendly fuel dispenser. The world’s most consumer-friendly fuel pump. It has the easy operated ATM machine. It had easy operated graphics user interface (GUI). It is interface with high speed petrol dispenser which is convenient for consumer to operate Centralized control unit As in today world men have no time to waste in this competitive world for the search of petrol. Centralized control unit can easily access many number of unmanned petrol stations situated at various locations. As by this technology we can reduce our expenditure, we can generate more revenue from it. Security from the outside Unmanned petrol stations are growing in popularity largely to the fact that they provide petrol at reduced prices. We understand that theft and fraud are a growing concern for today’s retailers.

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So we have applied our innovation toward developing dispensers that deter criminal activity however not having a person keeping an eye on the customers or the station changes the security requirements. The customers need to feel safe when filling up and any vandalism to the station has to be quickly identified. We provide an all encompassing security system that can constantly monitor multiple petrol stations from a central location, ensuring the customers and stations well being at all times. Video surveillance of the station at all times Customers are only a push button away if assistance is needed Pumps and pay terminals are constantly monitored one central monitoring point for multiple stations

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1.1 OTHER APPLICATION  Automated teller machine
An automated teller machine (ATM) or automatic banking machine (ABM) is a computerized telecommunications device that provides the clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public space without the need for a cashier, human clerk or bank teller. On most modern ATMs, the customer is identified by inserting a plastic ATM card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smart card with a chip, that contains a unique card number and some security information such as an expiration date or CVVC (CVV). Authentication is provided by the customer entering a personal identification number (PIN). Using an ATM, customers can access their bank accounts in order to make cash withdrawals (or credit card cash advances) and check their account balances as well as purchase cellphone prepaid credit. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is different from that which the bank account is denominated in (e.g.: Withdrawing Japanese Yen from a bank account containing US Dollars), the money will be converted at a wholesale exchange rate. Thus, ATMs often provide the best possible exchange rate for foreign traveler and are heavily used for this purpose as well. ATMs are known by various other names including Automated Transaction Machine, automated banking machine, cash point (in Britain), money machine, bank machine, cash machine , hole-inthe-wall, Bancomat (in various countries in Europe and Russia), Multibanco (after a registered trade mark, in Portugal), and All Time Money in India.

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 Hardware

FIG 1:ATM STRUCTURE An ATM is typically made up of the following devices: 
 

CPU (to control the user interface and transaction devices) Magnetic and/or Chip card reader (to identify the customer) PIN Pad (similar in layout to a Touch tone or Calculator keypad), often manufactured as part of a secure enclosure.

  

Secure crypto-processor, generally within a secure enclosure. Display (used by the customer for performing the transaction) Function key buttons (usually close to the display) or a Touch screen (used to select the various aspects of the transaction)

  

Record Printer (to provide the customer with a record of their transaction) Vault (to store the parts of the machinery requiring restricted access) Housing (for aesthetics and to attach signage to)
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Vending Machine

The Machine Accepts Money
When a customer approaches a machine and becomes interested in making a purchase, he must first insert money to pay for his item. If the machine accepts paper money, the money is pulled in using rollers. Once inside, the machine uses a digital scanner to identify the bill's denomination before storing the bill away in a cash box. For coins, the machine identifies the value of the coin using certain values specific to each coin. A quarter, for example, is identified by its diameter of .955 inches, its thickness of 1.75 millimeters and its 119 ridges around its edge. A dime is recognized by its diameter of .705 inches and its thickness of 1.35 millimeters. Other coins are similarly recognized, making counterfeiting possible but exceptionally difficult.

The Customer Makes a Choice
Once sufficient money is inserted, the customer informs the machine of which product he would like to purchase. In older vending machines, pulling or turning a knob activates a strictly mechanical dispensing mechanism. In more modern machines, the customer enters a series of letters and numbers corresponding to his selection before a basic processor electronically activates a motor to dispense the merchandise. Finally, the machine compares the selection's programmed price to the amount of money inserted; if the inserted funds total less than the price of the item, the machine either simply refuses to dispense or sends an electronic message to a display asking the customer to insert additional funds.

The Machine Dispenses the Product
Once the selection is made and has been paid for, the machine must dispense the product. While some vintage machines used a strictly mechanical dispensing coil, most modern machines electronically activate a motor which spins a spiraled merchandise dispenser. The metal coil is shaped in a spiral with products inserted between each ridge. As a motor spins the coil, the rotation pushes products forward in much the same way as a screw pulls debris out of a hole. The metal coils are sized very slightly longer than the shelf supporting the product, so when the purchased item reaches the end of the shelf it simply falls (due to gravity) into a receiving bin at the bottom of the machine. After the product falls, the customer simply retrieves the item from the bin.
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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 2. FUEL DISPENSER
A fuel dispenser is a machine at a filling station that is used to pump gasoline, diesel, CNG, CGH2, HCNG, LPG, LH2, ethanol fuel, bio-fuels like biodiesel, kerosene, or other types of fuel into vehicles. Fuel dispensers are also known as browsers (in Australia), petrol pumps (in Commonwealth countries), or gas pumps (in North America).

2.1 History
The first gasoline pump was invented and sold by Sylvanus F. Bowser in Fort Wayne, Indiana on September 5, 1885. This pump was not used for automobiles, as they had not been invented yet. It was instead used for some kerosene lamps and stoves. He later improved upon the pump by adding safety measures, and also by adding a hose to directly dispense fuel into automobiles. For a while, the term bowser was used to refer to a vertical gasoline pump. Although the term is not used anymore in the United States, it still is used sometimes in Australia and New Zealand. Many early gasoline pumps had a calibrated glass cylinder on top. The desired quantity of fuel was pumped up into the cylinder as indicated by the calibration. Then the pumping was stopped and the gasoline was let out into the customers tank by gravity. When metering pumps came into use, a small glass globe with a turbine inside replaced the measuring cylinder but assured the customer that gasoline really was flowing into the tank.

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2.2 Design Implemented
A fuel dispenser is logically divided into two main parts — an electronic "head" containing an embedded computer to control the action of the pump, drive the pump's displays, and communicate to an indoor sales system; and secondly, the mechanical section which in a ‘self contained’ unit has an electric motor, pumping unit, meters, pulsars and valves to physically pump and control the fuel flow. In some cases the actual pump may be sealed and immersed inside the fuel tanks on a site, in which case it is known as a submersible pump. In general submersible solutions in Europe are installed in hotter countries, where suction pumps may have problems overcoming cavitation with warm fuels or when the distance from tank to pump is longer than a suction pump can manage. In modern pumps, the major variations are in the number of hoses or grades they can dispense, the physical shape, and the addition of extra devices such as pay at the pump devices and attendant "tag" readers. Historically, fuel dispensers had a very wide range of designs to solve the mechanical problems of mechanical pumping, reliable measurement, safety, and aesthetics. This has led to some popularity in collecting antique dispensers.  Nozzles Nozzles are attached to the pump via flexible hoses, allowing them to be placed into the vehicle's filling inlet. The hoses are robust to survive hardships such as being driven over, and are often attached using heavy spring or coil arrangements to provide additional strength. The nozzles are usually color coded to indicate which grade of fuel they dispense, however the color coding differs between countries or even retailers. For example, a black handle in the UK indicates that the fuel dispensed is diesel. In the US, diesel pumps commonly use green hoses and green slipcovers over the nozzle.

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 Blending

In some countries, pumps are able to mix two grades of fuel together before dispensing; this is referred to as blending or mixing. Typical usages are in a "mix" pump to add oil to petrol for two-stroke motorcycles, to produce an intermediate octane rating from separate high and low octane fuels, or to blend hydrogen and compressed natural gas (HCNG).  Flow measurement

One of the most important functions for the pump is to accurately measure the amount of fuel pumped. Flow measurement is almost always done by a 4 stroke piston meter connected to an electronic encoder. In older gas pumps, the meter is physically coupled to reeled meters (moving wheels with numbers on the side), while newer pumps turn the meters movement into electrical pulses using a rotary encoder.  The metrology of gasoline

Gasoline is difficult to sell in a fair and consistent manner by volumetric units. It expands and contracts significantly as its temperature changes. A comparison of the coefficient of thermal expansion for gasoline and water indicates that gasoline changes at about 4.5 times the rate of water. In the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) specifies the accuracy of the measurements in Handbook 44. Table 3.30 specifies the accuracy at 0.3% meaning that a 10-US-gallon (37.9 L; 8.3 imp gal) purchase could vary between 9.97 US gal (37.7 L; 8.3 imp gal) and 10.03 US gal (38.0 L; 8.4 imp gal) as to the actual amounts at the delivery temperature of the gasoline. The reference temperature for gasoline volume measurement is 60 °F (16 °C). Ten gallons of gasoline at that temperature expands to about 10.05 US gal (38.0 L; 8.4 imp gal) at 85 °F (29 °C) and contracts to about 9.83 US gal (37.2 L; 8.2 imp gal) at 30 °F (−1 °C). Each of the three volumes represents the same theoretical amount of energy. In one sense, ten gallons of gasoline purchased at 30° F is about 3.2% more potential energy than ten gallons purchased at 85° F.
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Most gasoline is stored in tanks underneath the filling station. Modern tanks are non-metallic and sealed to stop leaks. Some have double walls or other structures that provide inadvertent thermal insulation while pursuing the main goal of keeping gasoline out of the soil around the tank. The net result is that while the air temperature can easily vary between 30° F and 85° F, the gasoline in the insulated tank changes temperature much more slowly. Temperature compensation is common at the wholesale transaction level in the United States and most other countries. At the retail consumer level, Canada has converted to automatic temperature compensation and the United States has not. Where automatic temperature compensation is used, it can add up to 0.2% of uncertainty for mechanical-based compensation and 0.1% for electronic compensation. There are many fewer retail outlets for gasoline in the United States today than there were in 1980. Larger outlets sell gasoline rapidly, as much as 30,000 US gal (113,562 L; 24,980 imp gal) in a single day, even in remote places. Most finished product gasoline is delivered in 8 to 16 thousand gallon tank trucks so two deliveries in a 24 hour period is common. The belief is that the gasoline spends so little time in the retail sales system that its temperature at the point of sale does not vary significantly from winter to summer or by region. Canada has lower overall population densities and geographically larger gasoline distribution systems, compared to the United States. Temperature compensation at the retail level improves the fairness under those conditions. Higher energy prices have raised awareness of this issue for consumers. At the same time, alternative fuel applications are now reaching the retail market and accurate comparisons between them in normal usage are needed. Eventually the basis for retail sales will change from volume units in liters or gallons to energy units such as the BTU, joule, therm, or kWh so that electricity, liquids, liquefied gases and compressed gases can all be sold and taxed uniformly. In some regions, regular required inspections are conducted to insure the accuracy of fuel dispensers. For example, in the US state of Florida, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services conducts regular tests of calibration and fuel quality at individual dispensers. The department also conducts random undercover inspections using specially designed vehicles
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that can check the accuracy of the dispensers. The department issues correction required notices to stations with pumps found to be inaccurate.[4] Most other US states conduct similar inspections.  Communications components

The technology for communicating with gas pumps from a point of sale or other controller varies widely, involving a variety of hardware (RS-485, RS-422, current loop, and others) and proprietary software protocols. Traditionally these variations gave pump manufacturers a natural tie-in for their own point-of-sale systems, since only they understood the protocols. [5] An effort to standardize this in the 1990s resulted in the International Forecourt Standards Forum, which has had considerable success in Europe, but has less presence elsewhere. ("Forecourt" refers to the land area on which the fuel dispensers are located.)  Automatic cut-off in fuel dispenser

The shut-off valve was invented in Olean, New York in 1939 by Richard C. Corson. At a loading dock at the Socony Vacuum Oil Company, Corson observed a worker filling a barrel with gasoline and thought it inefficient. The sound of a toilet flushing later gave him the idea for a "butterfly float." After developing a prototype with his assistant, Paul Wenke, Corson gave the suggestion to the company who later filed for a patent in his name. The initial intent of the device was to "allow a person to fill more than one barrel [of gasoline] at the same time." This mechanism eventually developed into the modern gasoline pump cut-off valve. Most modern pumps have an auto cut-off feature that stops the flow when the tank is full. This is done with a second tube, the sensing tube, that runs from just inside the mouth of the nozzle up to a Venturi pump in the pump handle. While the tank is being filled, air displaced from the tank is drawn up this tube. Once the fuel level reaches the mouth of the sensing tube, air is no longer drawn up the sensing line. A mechanical valve in the pump handle detects this change of pressure and closes, preventing the flow of fuel.

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 Other components A modern fuel pump will often contain control equipment for the vapor recovery system, which prevents gasoline vapor from escaping to the air. in the UK for example any new forecourt with a predicted throughput in excess of 500 M3 per month is required to have active vapour recovery installed.

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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 3. BASIC DESCRIPTION











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The unmanned petrol pump is a system in which we have defined the co-relation of fuel dispenser presently used to the new adaptive electronic component. So, we tried to make the system more efficient at a low cost of manufacturing. We had a system in which we added the feature of microcontroller and other electronic devices to sense the need of fuel and also make the gateway to the payment mode from the outside sources (such as from banks, local prepaid account, etc.). As a person come into this system he/she enter his/her requirement of need of the fuel on the desktop computer. The command entered into the desktop computer, the computer send the command to the control unit that a person want to access the system and require specific amount of fuel ,then the server at control unit check that petrol pump could be able to fulfill the requirement of the customer. It is done by checking the level of fuel in the fuel dispenser. If the fuel dispenser is not able to fulfill the requirement of the customer then the server tell to the customer that it requirement could not be fulfill your requirement. If the requirement of the customer could be fulfilled then server asks to the customer to select the payment mode he/she want to select, if the plastic money payment mode is selected. Then server asks to swap its card then the payment of customer is debited through the customer’s account. Once the payment is made then the server commands the fuel dispenser to fulfill the requirement of the customer by providing fuel to the customer. The command received by the desktop computer through network interface then it pass the command to the microcontroller through serial port connection. The command received by the microcontroller. It manipulate for how much time a motor is to be run to fulfill the requirement of the customer. This process in done by the internal program stored in the microcontroller.

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A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When a potential difference (voltage) exists across the conductors, an electric field is present in the dielectric. This field stores energy and produces a
FIG 3:A typical electrolytic capacitor

mechanical force between the conductors. The effect is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor hence capacitor conductors are often called plates. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, which is measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. In practice, the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow of direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, to filter out interference, to smooth the output of power supplies, and for many other purposes. They are used in resonant circuits in radio frequency equipment to select particular frequencies from a signal with many frequencies.

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Charge separation in a parallel-plate capacitor causes an internal electric field. A dielectric (orange) reduces the field and increases the capacitance. A simple demonstration of a parallel-plate capacitor. A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. The non-conductive substance is called the dielectric medium,

although this may also mean a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net electric charge and no influence from an external electric field. The conductors thus contain equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces and the dielectric contains an electric field. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them:

Sometimes charge buildup affects the mechanics of the capacitor, causing the capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:

In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device.

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Dielectric is placed between two conducting plates, each of area A and with a separation of d .The simplest capacitor consists of two parallel conductive plates separated by a dielectric with permittivity ε (such as air). The model may also be used to make qualitative predictions for other device geometries. The plates are considered to extend uniformly over an area A and a charge density ±ρ = ±Q/A exists on their surface. Assuming that the width of the plates is much greater than their separation d, the electric field near the centre of the device will be uniform with the magnitude E = ρ/ε. The voltage is defined as the line integral of the electric field between the plates

Solving this for C = Q/V reveals that capacitance increases with area and decreases with separation

. The capacitance is therefore greatest in devices made from materials with a high permittivity.

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Series and parallel circuits For capacitors in parallel


For capacitors in series


Practical capacitors are available commercially in many different forms. The type of internal dielectric, the structure of the plates and the device packaging all strongly affect the characteristics of the capacitor, and its applications. Values available range from very low (pico-farad range; while arbitrarily low values are in principle possible, stray (parasitic) capacitance in any circuit is the limiting factor) to about 5 kF super capacitors. Several solid dielectrics are available, including paper, plastic, glass, mica and ceramic materials. Paper was used extensively in older devices and offers relatively high voltage performance. However, it is susceptible to water absorption, and has been largely replaced by plastic film capacitors. Plastics offer better stability and aging performance, which makes them useful in timer circuits, although they may be limited to low operating temperatures and frequencies.
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 Ceramic capacitors
Ceramic capacitors are generally small, cheap and useful for high frequency applications although their capacitance varies strongly with voltage and they age poorly.

 Electrolytic Capacitors
Electrolytic capacitors and super-capacitors are used to store small and larger amounts of energy, respectively, ceramic capacitors are often used in resonators, and parasitic capacitance occurs in circuits wherever the simple conductor-insulator-conductor structure is formed unintentionally by the configuration of the circuit layout. Electrolytic capacitors use an aluminum or tantalum plate with an oxide dielectric layer. The second electrode is a liquid electrolyte, connected to the circuit by another foil plate. Electrolytic capacitors offer very high capacitance but suffer from poor tolerances, high instability, gradual loss of capacitance especially when subjected to heat, and high leakage current. The conductivity of the electrolyte drops at low temperatures, which increases equivalent series resistance. While widely used for power-supply conditioning, poor high-frequency characteristics make them unsuitable for many applications. Tantalum capacitors offer better frequency and temperature characteristics than aluminum, but higher dielectric absorption and leakage. 

Super Capacitors

Super-capacitors store large amounts of energy. Super-capacitors made from carbon aerogel, carbon nanotubes, or highly porous electrode materials offer extremely high capacitance (up to 5 kF as of 2010) and can be used in some applications instead of rechargeable batteries. Alternating current capacitors are specifically designed to work on line (mains) voltage AC power circuits. Capacitors have many uses in electronic and electrical systems. They are so common that it is a rare electrical product that does not include at least one for some purpose.

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 APPLICATIONS  Energy storage  Power factor correction  Signal coupling  Decoupling  Noise filters  Motor starters  Signal processing

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A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome). The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance, maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance is determined by the design, materials and dimensions of the resistor. Resistors can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits, as well as integrated circuits. Size, and position of leads (or terminals) are relevant to equipment designers; resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power.

(a) Ohm's law The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's law:

Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I) through it where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R).

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Resistors in a parallel configuration

The current through resistors in series stays the same, but the voltage across each resistor can be different. The sum of the potential differences (voltage) is equal to the total voltage. To find their total resistance: Resistors in series configuration

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Most axial resistors use a pattern of colored stripes to indicate resistance. Surface-mount resistors are marked numerically, if they are big enough to permit marking; more-recent small sizes are impractical to mark. Cases are usually tan, brown, blue, or green, though other colors are occasionally found such as dark red or dark gray. Early 20th century resistors, essentially uninsulated, were dipped in paint to cover their entire body for color coding. A second color of paint was applied to one end of the element, and a color dot (or band) in the middle provided the third digit. The rule was "body, tip, dot", providing two significant digits for value and the decimal multiplier, in that sequence. Default tolerance was ±20%. Closer-tolerance resistors had silver (±10%) or gold-colored (±5%) paint on the other end.

Four-band resistors

Four-band identification is the most commonly used color-coding scheme on resistors. It consists of four colored bands that are painted around the body of the resistor. The first two bands encode the first two significant digits of the resistance value, the third is a power-of-ten multiplier or number-of-zeroes, and the fourth is the tolerance accuracy, or acceptable error, of the value. The first three bands are equally spaced along the resistor; the spacing to the fourth band is wider. Sometimes a fifth band identifies the thermal coefficient, but this must be distinguished from the true 5-color system, with 3 significant digits. For example, green-blue-yellow-red is 56×104 Ω = 560 kΩ ± 2%. An easier description can be as followed: the first band, green, has a value of 5 and the second band, blue, has a value of 6, and is counted as 56. The third band, yellow, has a value of 104, which adds four 0's to the end, creating 560,000 Ω at ±2% tolerance accuracy. 560,000 Ω changes to 560 kΩ ±2% (as a kilo- is 103) Table at next page:

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Color Black

1st band 2nd band 3rd band (multiplier) 4th band (tolerance) Temp. Coefficient 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ×100 ×101 ×102 ×103 ×104 ×105 ×106 ×107 ×108 ×109 ×10−1 ×10−2 ±5% (J) ±10% (K) ±20% (M) ±0.5% (D) ±0.25% (C) ±0.1% (B) ±0.05% (A) ±1% (F) ±2% (G) 100 ppm 50 ppm 15 ppm 25 ppm

Brown 1 Red 2

Orange 3 Yellow 4 Green 5 Blue 6

Violet 7 Gray 8

White 9 Gold Silver None


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 5-band axial resistors

5-band identification is used for higher precision (lower tolerance) resistors (1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.1%), to specify a third significant digit. The first three bands represent the significant digits, the fourth is the multiplier, and the fifth is the tolerance. Five-band resistors with a gold or silver 4th band are sometimes encountered, generally on older or specialized resistors. The 4th band is the tolerance and the 5th the temperature coefficient.

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An inductor or a reactor is a passive electrical component that can store energy in a magnetic field created by the electric current passing through it. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance, in units of henries. Typically an inductor is a conducting wire shaped as a coil, the loops helping to create a strong magnetic field inside the coil due toFaraday's Law of Induction. Inductors are one of the basic electronic components used in electronics where current and voltage change with time, due to the ability of inductors to delay and reshape alternating currents. In everyday speak inductors are sometimes called chokes, but this refers to only a particular type and purpose of inductor. Inductance (L) (measured in henries) is an effect resulting from the magnetic field that forms around a current-carrying conductor which tends to resist changes in the current. Electric current through the conductor creates a magnetic flux proportional to the current, and a change in this current creates a corresponding change in magnetic flux which, in turn, by Faraday's Law generates an electromotive force (EMF) that opposes this change in current. Inductance is a measure of the amount of EMF generated per unit change in current. For example, an inductor with an inductance of 1 henry produces an EMF of 1 volt when the current through the inductor changes at the rate of 1 ampere per second. The number of loops, the size of each loop, and the material it is wrapped around all affect the inductance. For example, the magnetic flux linking these turns can be increased by coiling the conductor around a material with a high permeability such as iron. This can increase the inductance by 2000 times, although less so at high frequencies.

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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 5. MICROCONTROLLER

A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessorsused in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, and toys. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at clock rate frequencies as low as 4 kHz, for low power consumption (milliwatts or microwatts). They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt; power consumption while sleeping (CPU clock and most peripherals off) may be just nanowatts, making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. Other microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like a digital signal processor (DSP), with higher clock speeds and power consumption. A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and peripherals and can be used as an embedded system. The majority of microcontrollers in use today are embedded in other machinery, such as automobiles, telephones, appliances, and peripherals for computer systems. These are called embedded systems. While some embedded systems are very sophisticated, many have minimal requirements for memory and program length, with no operating system, and low software complexity. Typical input and output devices include switches, relays, solenoids, LEDs, small or custom LCD displays, radio frequency devices, and sensors for data such as temperature, humidity, light level etc.

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Interrupts Microcontrollers must provide real time (predictable, though not necessarily fast) response to events in the embedded system they are controlling. When certain events occur, an interrupt system can signal the processor to suspend processing the current instruction sequence and to begin an interrupt service routine (ISR, or "interrupt handler"). The ISR will perform any processing required based on the source of the interrupt before returning to the original instruction sequence. Possible interrupt sources are device dependent, and often include events such as an internal timer overflow, completing an analog to digital conversion, a logic level change on an input such as from a button being pressed, and data received on a communication link. Where power consumption is important as in battery operated devices, interrupts may also wake a microcontroller from a low power sleep state where the processor is halted until required to do something by a peripheral event. Programs Microcontroller programs must fit in the available on-chip program memory, since it would be costly to provide a system with external, expandable, memory. Compilers and assemblers are used to turn high-level language and assembler language codes into a compact machine code for storage in the microcontroller's memory. Depending on the device, the program memory may be permanent, read-only memory that can only be programmed at the factory, or program memory may be field-alterable flash or erasable read-only memory. Other microcontroller features Microcontrollers usually contain from several to dozens of general purpose input/output pins (GPIO). GPIO pins are software configurable to either an input or an output state. When GPIO pins are configured to an input state, they are often used to read sensors or external signals. Configured to the output state, GPIO pins can drive external devices such as LED's or motors. Many embedded systems need to read sensors that produce analog signals. This is the purpose of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Since processors are built to interpret and process digital data, i.e. 1s and 0s, they won't be able to do anything with the analog signals that may be sent to it by a device. So the analog to digital converter is used to convert the incoming data into a form that the processor can recognize. A less common feature on some microcontrollers is a digital-toanalog converter (DAC) that allows the processor to output analog signals or voltage levels.

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In addition to the converters, many embedded microprocessors include a variety of timers as well. One of the most common types of timers is the Programmable Interval Timer (PIT). A PIT just counts down from some value to zero. Once it reaches zero, it sends an interrupt to the processor indicating that it has finished counting. This is useful for devices such as thermostats, which periodically test the temperature around them to see if they need to turn the air conditioner on, the heater on, etc. Time Processing Unit (TPU) is a sophisticated timer. In addition to counting down, the TPU can detect input events, generate output events, and perform other useful operations. A dedicated Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) block makes it possible for the CPU to control power converters, resistive loads, motors, etc., without using lots of CPU resources in tight timer loops. Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) block makes it possible to receive and transmit data over a serial line with very little load on the CPU. Dedicated on-chip hardware also often includes capabilities to communicate with other devices (chips) in digital formats such as I2C and Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI).

High Integration In contrast to general-purpose CPUs, micro-controllers may not implement an external address or data bus as they integrate RAM and non-volatile memory on the same chip as the CPU. Using fewer pins, the chip can be placed in a much smaller, cheaper package. A micro-controller is a single integrated circuit, commonly with the following features:          central processing unit - ranging from small and simple 4-bit processors to complex 32- or 64-bit processors discrete input and output bits, allowing control or detection of the logic state of an individual package pin serial input/output such as serial ports (UARTs) peripherals such as timers, event counters, PWM generators, and watchdog volatile memory (RAM) for data storage ROM, EPROM, EEPROM or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage clock generator - often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal, resonator or RC circuit many include analog-to-digital converters in-circuit programming and debugging support
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This integration drastically reduces the number of chips and the amount of wiring and circuit board space that would be needed to produce equivalent systems using separate chips. Microcontroller architectures vary widely. Some designs include general-purpose microprocessor cores, with one or more ROM, RAM, or I/O functions integrated onto the package. Other designs are purpose built for control applications. A micro-controller instruction set usually has many instructions intended for bit-wise operations to make control programs more compact. For example, a general purpose processor might require several instructions to test a bit in a register and branch if the bit is set, where a micro-controller could have a single instruction to provide that commonly-required function. Microcontrollers typically do not have a math coprocessor, so floating point arithmetic is performed by software.

Programming environments Microcontrollers were originally programmed only in assembly language, but various high-level programming languages are now also in common use to target microcontrollers. These languages are either designed specially for the purpose, or versions of general purpose languages such as the C programming language. Compilers for general purpose languages will typically have some restrictions as well as enhancements to better support the unique characteristics of microcontrollers. Some microcontrollers have environments to aid developing certain types of applications. Microcontroller vendors often make tools freely available to make it easier to adopt their hardware.

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DEVICE OVERVIEW The PIC16F72 belongs to the Mid-Range family of the PICmicro devices. A block diagram of the device is shown in Figure. The program memory contains 2K words, which translate to 2048 instructions, since each 14-bit program memory word is the same width as each device instruction. The data memory (RAM) contains 128 bytes. There are 22 I/O pins that are user configurable on a pin-to-pin basis. Some pins are multiplexed with other device functions. These functions include:

      

External interrupt Change on PORTB interrupt Timer0 clock input Timer1 clock/oscillator Capture/Compare/PWM A/D converter SPI/I2C

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High Performance RISC CPU

       

Only 35 single word instructions to learn All single cycle instructions except for program branches, which are two-cycle Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle 2K x 14 words of Program Memory, 128 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Pin-out compatible to PIC16C72/72A and PIC16F872 Interrupt capability Eight-level deep hardware stack Direct, Indirect and Relative Addressing modes.

Peripheral Features

 High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA  Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler  Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented during SLEEP via external crystal/clock  Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler  Capture, Compare, PWM (CCP) module  Capture is 16-bit, max. resolution is 12.5 ns  Compare is 16-bit, max. resolution is 200 ns  PWM max. resolution is 10-bit
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 8-bit, 5-channel analog-to-digital converter  Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI™ (Master/Slave) and I2C™ (Slave)  Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR)

CMOS Technology  Low power, high speed CMOS FLASH technology  Fully static design  Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V  Industrial temperature range  Low power consumption:  < 0.6 mA typical @ 3V, 4 MHz  20 µA typical @ 3V, 32 kHz  < 1 µA typical standby current

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MEMORY ORGANIZATION There are two memory blocks in the PIC16F72 device. These are the program memory and the data memory. Each block has separate buses so that concurrent access can occur. Program memory and data memory are explained in this section. Program memory can be read internally by the user code. The data memory can further be broken down into the general purpose RAM and the Special Function Registers (SFRs). The operation of the SFRs that control the “core” are described here. The SFRs used to control the peripheral modules are described in the section discussing each individual peripheral module. Additional information on device memory may be found in the PICmicro Mid-Range.

Program Memory Organization PIC16F72 devices have a 13-bit program counter capable of addressing a 8K x 14 program memory space. The address range for this program memory is 0000h - 07FFh. Accessing a location above the physically implemented address will cause a wraparound. The RESET Vector is at 0000h and the Interrupt Vector is at 0004h.

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Data Memory Organization The Data Memory is partitioned into multiple banks that contain the General Purpose Registers and the Special Function Registers. Bits RP1 (STATUS<6>) and RP0 (STATUS<5>) are the bank select bits.

Each bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The lower locations of each bank are reserved for the Special Function Registers. Above the Special Function Registers are General Purpose Registers, implemented as static RAM. All implemented banks contain SFRs. Some “high use” SFRs from one bank may be mirrored in another bank, for code reduction and quicker access (e.g., the STATUS register is in Banks 0 - 3).

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A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core, and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying

electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the seconddary winding. This effect is called mutual induction. If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (V S) is in proportion to the primary voltage (VP), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (NS) to the number of turns in the primary (NP) as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC)voltage to be "stepped up" by making NS greater than NP, or "stepped down" by making NS less than NP. In the vast majority of transformers, the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core, air-core transformers being a notable exception. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, although the range of designs is wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains")

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voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.

The transformer is based on two principles: firstly, that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron, so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils.  Induction law

The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated fromFaraday's law of induction, which states that:

where VS is the instantaneous voltage, NS is the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ equals the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, the flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts. The area is constant, being equal to the crosssectional area of the transformer core, whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer, the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals

Taking the ratio of the two equations for VS and VP gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the voltage

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6.2 Voltage regulator-7805
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. With the exception of passive shunt regulators, all modern electronic voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal fixed reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce the voltage error. This forms a negative feedback control loop; increasing the open-loop gain tends to increase regulation accuracy but reduce stability (avoidance of oscillation, or ringing during step changes). There will also be a trade-off between stability and the speed of the response to changes. If the output voltage is too low (perhaps due to input voltage reducing or load current increasing), the regulation element is commanded, up to a point, to produce a higher output voltage - by dropping less of the input voltage (for linear series regulators and buckswitching regulators), or to draw input current for longer periods (boost-type switching regulators); if the output voltage is too high, the regulation element will normally be commanded to produce a lower voltage. However, many regulators have over-current protection, so that they will entirely stop sourcing current (or limit the current in some way) if the output current is too high, and some regulators may also shut down if the input voltage is outside a given range  PIN Diagram


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6.3. MAX232
The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals. The drivers provide RS-232 voltage level outputs (approx. ± 7.5 V) from a single + 5 V supply via onchip charge pumps and external capacitors. This makes it useful for implementing RS-232 in devices that otherwise do not need any voltages outside the 0 V to + 5 V range, as power supply design does not need to be made more complicated just for driving the RS-232 in this case. The receivers reduce RS-232 inputs (which may be as high as ± 25 V), to standard 5 V TTL levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V, and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V. The later MAX232A is backwards compatible with the original MAX232 but may operate at higher baud rates and can use smaller external capacitors – 0.1 µF in place of the 1.0 µF capacitors used with the original device. The newer MAX3232 is also backwards compatible, but operates at a broader voltage range, from 3 to 5.5V.  Voltage levels
FIG 16: MAX 232 Interface

It is helpful to understand what occurs to the voltage levels. When a MAX232 IC receives a TTL level to convert, it changes a TTL Logic 0 to between +3 and +15V, and changes TTL Logic 1 to between -3 to -15V, and vice versa for converting from RS232 to TTL. This can be confusing when you realize that the RS232 Data Transmission voltages at a certain logic state are opposite from the RS232 Control Line voltages at the same logic state. To clarify the matter, see the table below. For more information see RS-232 Voltage Levels.

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In communications, RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232) is a standard for serial binary singleended data and control signals connecting between a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment). It is commonly used in computer serial ports. A similar ITU-T standard is V.24. Section 1.02 Scope of the standard The Electronics Industries Association (EIA) standard RS-232-C[1] as of 1969 defines:

Electrical signal characteristics such as voltage levels, signaling rate, timing and slewrate of signals, voltage withstand level, short-circuit behavior, and maximum load capacitance.

  

Interface mechanical characteristics, pluggable connectors and pin identification. Functions of each circuit in the interface connector. Standard subsets of interface circuits for selected telecom applications.

The standard does not define such elements as
   

character encoding (for example, ASCII, Baudot code or EBCDIC) the framing of characters in the data stream (bits per character, start/stop bits, parity) protocols for error detection or algorithms for data compression bit rates for transmission, although the standard says it is intended for bit rates lower than 20,000 bits per second. Many modern devices support speeds of 115,200 bit/s and above

power supply to external devices.

Details of character format and transmission bit rate are controlled by the serial port hardware, often a single integrated circuit called a UART that converts data from parallel to asynchronous start-stop serial form. Details of voltage levels, slew rate, and short-circuit behavior are typically controlled by a line-driver that converts from the UART's logic levels to RS-232 compatible signal levels, and a receiver that converts from RS-232 compatible signal levels to the UART's logic levels.
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Limitations of the standard Because the application of RS-232 has extended far beyond the original purpose of interconnecting a terminal with a modem, successor standards have been developed to address the limitations. Issues with the RS-232 standard include:

The large voltage swings and requirement for positive and negative supplies increases power consumption of the interface and complicates power supply design. The voltage swing requirement also limits the upper speed of a compatible interface.

Single-ended signaling referred to a common signal ground limits the noise immunity and transmission distance.

Multi-drop connection among more than two devices is not defined. While multi-drop "work-arounds" have been devised, they have limitations in speed and compatibility.

Asymmetrical definitions of the two ends of the link make the assignment of the role of a newly developed device problematic; the designer must decide on either a DTE-like or DCE-like interface and which connector pin assignments to use.

The handshaking and control lines of the interface are intended for the setup and takedown of a dial-up communication circuit; in particular, the use of handshake lines for flow control is not reliably implemented in many devices.

No method is specified for sending power to a device. While a small amount of current can be extracted from the DTR and RTS lines, this is only suitable for low power devices such as mice.

The 25-way connector recommended in the standard is large compared to current practice.

Standard details In RS-232, user data is sent as a time-series of bits. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the data circuits, the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction, that is, signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits, the
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interface can operate in a full duplex manner, supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream, or character encoding.  Voltage levels

The RS-232 standard defines the voltage levels that correspond to logical one and logical zero levels for the data transmission and the control signal lines. Valid signals are plus or minus 3 to 15 volts – the range near zero volts is not a valid RS-232 level. The standard specifies a maximum open-circuit voltage of 25 volts: signal levels of ±5 V, ±10 V, ±12 V, and ±15 V are all commonly seen depending on the power supplies available within a device. RS-232 drivers and receivers must be able to withstand indefinite short circuit to ground or to any voltage level up to ±25 volts. The slew rate, or how fast the signal changes between levels, is also controlled. For data transmission lines (TxD, RxD and their secondary channel equivalents) logic one is defined as a negative voltage, the signal condition is called marking, and has the functional significance. Logic zero is positive and the signal condition is termed spacing. Control signals are logically inverted with respect to what one would see on the data transmission lines. When one of these signals is active, the voltage on the line will be between +3 to +15 volts. The inactive state for these signals would be the opposite voltage condition, between -3 and -15 volts. Examples of control lines would include request to send (RTS), clear to send (CTS), data terminal ready (DTR), and data set ready (DSR).


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(a) Connectors RS-232 devices may be classified as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) or Data Communication Equipment (DCE); this defines at each device which wires will be sending and receiving each signal. The standard recommended but did not make mandatory the D-subminiature 25 pin connector. In general and according to the standard, terminals and computers have male connectors with DTE pin functions, and modems have female connectors with DCE pin functions. Other devices may have any combination of connector gender and pin definitions. Many terminals were manufactured with female terminals but were sold with a cable with male connectors at each end; the terminal with its cable satisfied the recommendations in the standard.

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The MOC3041, devices consist of gallium arsenide infrared emitting diodes optically coupled to a monolithic silicon detector performing the function of a Zero Voltage Crossing bilateral triac driver. They are designed for use with a triac in the interface of logic systems to equipment powered from 115 Vac lines, such as solid–state relays, industrial controls, motors, solenoids and consumer appliances, etc.
FIG 18: MOC 3041

• Simplifies Logic Control of 115 Vac Power • Zero Voltage Crossing • dv/dt of 2000 V/ms Typical, 1000 V/ms Guaranteed.

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Typical circuit for use when hot line switching is required. In this circuit the “hot” side of the line is switched and the load connected to the cold or neutral side. The load may be connected to either the neutral or hot line. Rin is calculated so that IF is equal to the rated IFT of the part, 5 mA for the MOC3043, 10 mA for the MOC3042, or 15 mA for the MOC3041. The 39 ohm resistor and 0.01 mF capacitor are for snubbing of the triac and may or may not be necessary depending upon the particular triac and load used.

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6.5. TRIAC
A TRIAC, or Triode for Alternating Current is an electronic component approximately equivalent to two silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs/thyristors) joined in inverse parallel (paralleled but with the polarity reversed) and with their gates connected together. The formal name for a TRIAC is bidirectional triode thyristor. This results in a bidirectional electronic switch which can conduct current in either direction when it is triggered (turned on) and thus doesn't have any polarity. It can be triggered by either a positive or a negative voltage being applied to its gate electrode (with respect to T1). Once triggered, the device continues to conduct until the current through it drops below a certain threshold value, the holding current, such as at the end of a half-cycle of alternating current (AC) mains power. This makes the TRIAC a very convenient switch for AC circuits, allowing the control of very large power flows with milli-ampere-scale control currents. In addition, applying a trigger pulse at a controllable point in an AC cycle allows one to control the percentage of current that flows through the TRIAC to the load (phase control).

Triacs (BT136)
Glass passivated triacs in a plastic envelope, intended for use in applications requiring high bidirectional transient and blocking voltage capability and high thermal cycling performance. Typical applications include motor control, industryFIG 20: TRIAC

ial and domestic lighting, heating and static switching.  PIN Configuration


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In electronics, an opto-isolator (or optical isolator, optical coupling device, optocoupler, photocoupler, or photoMOS) is a device that uses a short optical transmission path to transfer an electronic signal between elements of a circuit, typically a transmitter and a receiver, while keeping them electrically isolated—since the electrical signal is converted to a light beam, transferred, then converted back to an electrical signal, there is no need for electrical connection between the source and destination circuits. The opto-isolator is simply a package that contains both an infrared light-emitting diode (LED) and a photo-detector such as a photosensitive silicon diode, transistor Darlington pair, or silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). The wave-length responses of the two devices are tailored to be as identical as possible to permit the highest measure of coupling possible. Other circuitry—for example an output amplifier—may be integrated into the package. An opto-isolator is usually thought of as a single integrated package, but opto-isolation can also be achieved by using separate devices.


A common implementation is a LED and a phototransistor in a light-tight housing to exclude ambient light and without common electrical connection, positioned so that light from the LED will impinge on the photo-detector. When an electrical signal is applied to the input of the opto-isolator, its LED lights and illuminates the photodetector, producing a corresponding electrical signal in the output circuit. Unlike a transformer the opto-isolator allows DC coupling and can provide any desired degree of electrical isolation and protection from serious overvoltage conditions in one circuit affecting the

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other. A higher transmission ratio can be obtained by using a Darlington instead of a simple phototransistor, at the cost of reduced noise immunity and higher delay. With a photodiode as the detector, the output current is proportional to the intensity of incident light supplied by the emitter. The diode can be used in a photovoltaic mode or a photoconductive mode. In photovoltaic mode, the diode acts as a current source in parallel with a forward-biased diode. The output current and voltage are dependent on the load impedance and light intensity. In photoconductive mode, the diode is connected to a supply voltage, and the magnitude of the current conducted is directly proportional to the intensity of light. This optocoupler type is significantly faster than photo transistor type, but the transmission ratio is very low; it is common to integrate an output amplifier circuit into the same package. The optical path may be air or a dielectric waveguide. When high noise immunity is required an optical conductive shield can be integrated into the optical path. The transmitting and receiving elements of an optical isolator may be contained within a single compact module, for mounting, for example, on a circuit board; in this case, the module is often called an opto-isolator or optoisolator. The photo-sensor may be a photocell, phototransistor, or an optically

triggered SCR or TRIAC. This device may in turn operate a power relay or contactor. Analog opto-isolators often have two independent, closely matched output phototransistors, one of which is used to linearize the response using negative feedback.

Photo-Transitor Opto-Coupler (4N35)  PIN Diagram


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6.7. Darlington transistor
In electronics, the Darlington transistor (often called a Darlington pair) is a compound structure consisting of two bipolar transistors (either integrated or separateed devices) connected in such a way that the current ampFIG 25: POWER DARLINGTON

lified by the first transistor is amplified further by the second one. This configuration gives a much higher current gain (written β, hfe, or hFE) than each transistor taken separately and, in the case of integrated devices, can take less space than two individual transistors because they can use a shared collector. Integrated Darlington pairs come packaged singly in transistor-like packages or as an array of devices (usually eight) in an integrated circuit.

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6.8. Solenoid valve
A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid coil. Solenoid valves may have two or more ports: in the case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold. Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service life, good medium compatibility of the materials used, low control power and compact design. Besides the plunger-type actuator which is used most frequently, pivoted-armature actuators and rocker actuators are also used.  Working principle

A solenoid valve has two main parts: the solenoid and the valve. The solenoid converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which, in turn, opens or closes the valve mechanically. A direct acting valve has only a small flow circuit, shown within section E of this diagram (this section is mentioned below as a pilot valve). This diaphragm piloted valve multiplies this small flow by using it to control the flow through a much larger orifice. Solenoid valves may use metal seals or rubber seals, and may also have electrical interfaces to allow for easy control. A spring may be used to hold the valve opened or closed while the valve is not activated.
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The diagram to the right shows the design of a basic valve. At the top figure is the valve in its closed state. The water under pressure enters at A. B is an elastic diaphragm and above it is a weak spring pushing it down. The function of this spring is irrelevant for now as the valve would stay closed even without it. The diaphragm has a pinhole through its center which allows a very small amount of water to flow through it. This water fills the cavity C on the other side of the diaphragm so that pressure is equal on both sides of the diaphragm. While the pressure is the same on both sides of the diaphragm, the force is greater on the upper side which forces the valve shut against the incoming pressure. In the figure, the surface being acted upon is greater on the upper side which results in greater force. On the upper side the pressure is acting on the entire surface of the diaphragm while on the lower side it is only acting on the incoming pipe. This results in the valve being securely shut to any flow and, the greater the input pressure, the greater the shutting force will be. In the previous configuration the small conduit D was blocked by a pin which is the armature of the solenoid E and which is pushed down by a spring. If the solenoid is activated by drawing the pin upwards via magnetic force from the solenoid current, the water in chamber C will flow through this conduit D to the output side of the valve. The pressure in chamber C will drop and the incoming pressure will lift the diaphragm thus opening the main valve. Water now flows directly from A to F. When the solenoid is again deactivated and the conduit D is closed again, the spring needs very little force to push the diaphragm down again and the main valve closes. In practice there is often no separate spring, the elastomeric diaphragm is molded so that it functions as its own spring, preferring to be in the closed shape. From this explanation it can be seen that this type of valve relies on a differential of pressure between input and output as the pressure at the input must always be greater than the pressure at the output for it to work. Should the pressure at the output, for any reason, rise above that of the input then the valve would open regardless of the state of the solenoid and pilot valve. In some solenoid valves the solenoid acts directly on the main valve. Others use a small, complete solenoid valve, known as a pilot, to actuate a larger valve. While the second type is actually a solenoid valve combined with a pneumatically actuated valve, they are sold and packaged as a single unit referred to as a solenoid valve. Piloted valves require much less power to control, but they are noticeably slower. Piloted solenoids usually need full power at all times to open and stay open, where a direct acting solenoid may only need full power for a short period of time to open it, and only low power to hold it.

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6.9. Submersible pump
A submersible pump (or electric submersible pump (ESP)) is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor close-coupled to the pump body. The whole assembly is submerged in the fluid to be pumped. The main advantage of this type of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation, a problem associated with a high elevation difference between pump and the fluid surface. Submersible pumps push water to the surface as opposed to jet pumps having to pull water. Submersibles are more efficient than jet pumps.  Working principle


A system of mechanical seals are used to prevent the fluid being pumped from entering the motor and causing a short circuit. The pump can either be connected to a pipe, flexible hose or lowered down guide rails or wires so that the pump sits on a "ducks foot" coupling, thereby connecting it to the delivery pipework.

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 Applications

Submersible pumps are found in many applications. Single stage pumps are used for drainage, sewage pumping, general industrial pumping and slurry pumping. They are also popular with aquarium filters. Multiple stage submersible pumps are typically lowered down a borehole and used for water abstraction or in water wells. Special attention to the type of ESP is required when using certain types of liquids. ESP's commonly used on board naval vessels cannot be used to dewater contaminated flooded spaces. These use a 440 volt A/C motor that operates a small centrifugal pump. It can also be used out of the water, taking suction with a 2-1/2 inch non-collapsible hose. The pumped liquid is circulated around the motor for cooling purposes. There is a possibility that the gasoline will leak into the pump causing a fire or destroying the pump, so hot water and flammable liquids should be avoided.  ESP usage in oil wells

Submersible pumps are used in oil production to provide a relatively efficient form of "artificial lift", able to operate across a broad range of flow rates and depths. By decreasing the pressure at the bottom of the well (by lowering bottom-hole flowing pressure, or increasing drawdown), significantly more oil can be produced from the well when compared with natural production. The pumps are typically electrically powered and referred to as Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP). ESP systems consist of both surface components (housed in the production facility, for example an oil platform) and sub-surface components (found in the well hole). Surface components include the motor controller (often a variable speed controller), surface cables and transformers. Subsurface components typically include the pump, motor, seal and cables. A gas separator is sometimes installed. The pump itself is a multi-stage unit with the number of stages being determined by the operating requirements. Each stage consists of a driven impeller and a diffuser which directs flow to the next stage of the pump. Pumps come in diameters from 90mm (3.5 inches) to 254mm
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(10 inches) and vary between 1 metre (3 ft) and 8.7 metres (29 ft) in length. The motor used to drive the pump is typically a three phase, squirrel cage induction motor, with a nameplate power rating in the range 7.5 kW to 560 kW (at 60 Hz). New varieties of ESP can include a water/oil separator which permits the water to be reinjected into the reservoir without the need to lift it to the surface. The ESP system consists of a number of components that turn a staged series of centrifugal pumps to increase the pressure of the well fluid and push it to the surface. The energy to turn the pump comes from a high-voltage (3 to 5 kV) alternating-current source to drive a special motor that can work at high temperatures of up to 300 °F (149 °C) and high pressures of up to 5,000 psi (34 MPa), from deep wells of up to 12,000 feet (3.7 km) deep with high energy requirements of up to about 1000 horsepower (750 kW). ESPs have dramatically lower efficiencies with significant fractions of gas, greater than about 10% volume at the pump intake. Given their high rotational speed of up to 4000 rpm (67 Hz) and tight clearances, they are not very tolerant of solids such as sand.

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6.10. Nozzle
A nozzle is a mechanical device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe via an orifice. A nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area, and it can be used to direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas). Nozzles are frequently used to control the rate of flow, speed, direction, mass, shape, and/or the pressure of the stream that emerges from them. Types of nozzles  Jets

A gas jet, fluid jet, or hydro jet is a nozzle intended to eject gas or fluid in a coherent stream into a surrounding medium. Gas jets are commonly found in gas stoves, ovens, or barbecues. Gas jets were commonly used for light before the development of electric light. Other types of fluid jets are found in carburetors, where smooth calibrated orifices are used to regulate the flow of fuel into an engine, and in jacuzzis or spas.  High velocity nozzles

Frequently the goal is to increase the kinetic energy of the flowing medium at the expense of its pressure and internal energy. Nozzles can be described as convergent (narrowing down from a wide diameter to a smaller diameter in the direction of the flow) or divergent(expanding from a smaller diameter to a larger one). A de Laval nozzle has a convergent section followed by a divergent section and is often called a convergent-divergent nozzle ("con-di nozzle").  Propelling nozzles

A jet exhaust produces a net thrust from the energy obtained from combusting fuel which is added to the inducted air. This hot air is passed through a high speed nozzle, a propelling nozzle which enormously increases its kinetic energy.

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 Magnetic nozzles

Magnetic nozzles have also been proposed for some types of propulsion, such as VASIMR, in which the flow of plasma is directed bymagnetic fields instead of walls made of solid matter.

Spray nozzles

Many nozzles produce a very fine spray of liquids.  Atomizer nozzles are used for spray painting, perfumes, carburettors for internal combustion engines, spray on deodorants,antiperspirants and many other uses.  Air-Aspirating Nozzle-uses an opening in the cone shaped nozzle to inject air into a stream of water based foam (CAFS/AFFF/FFFP) to make the concentrate "foam up". Most commonly found on foam extinguishers and foam handlines.  Swirl nozzles inject the liquid in tangentially, and it spirals into the center and then exits through the central hole. Due to the vortexing this causes the spray to come out in a cone shape.  Vacuum nozzles Vacuum cleaner nozzles come in several different shapes.  Shaping nozzles Some nozzles are shaped to produce a stream that is of a particular shape. For example extrusion molding is a way of producing lengths of metals or plastics or other materials with a particular cross-section. This nozzle is typically referred to as a die.

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6.11. Counter
In digital logic and computing, a counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal. In practice, there are two types of counters:
 

Up counters, which increase (increment) in value Down counters, which decrease (decrement) in value

In electronics
In electronics, counters can be implemented quite easily using register-type circuits such as the flip-flop, and a wide variety of designs exist, e.g:

Asynchronous (ripple) counter – changing state bits are used as clocks to subsequent state flip-flops

     

Synchronous counter – all state bits change under control of a single clock Decade counter – counts through ten states per stage Up–down counter – counts both up and down, under command of a control input Ring counter – formed by a shift register with feedback connection in a ring Johnson counter – a twisted ring counter Cascaded counter

Each is useful for different applications. Usually, counter circuits are digital in nature, and count in natural binary. Many types of counter circuit are available as digital building blocks, for example a number of chips in the 4000 series implement different counters. Occasionally there are advantages to using a counting sequence other than the natural binary sequence -- such as the binary coded decimal counter, a linear feedback shift register counter, or a Gray-code counter. Counters are useful for digital clocks and timers, and in oven timers, VCR clocks, etc.

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Asynchronous (ripple) counter

FIG 28 Asynchronous counter created from two JK flip-flops

An asynchronous (ripple) counter is a single D-type flip-flop, with its D (data) input fed from its own inverted output. This circuit can store one bit, and hence can count from zero to one before it overflows (starts over from 0). This counter will increment once for every clock cycle and takes two clock cycles to overflow, so every cycle it will alternate between a transition from 0 to 1 and a transition from 1 to 0. Notice that this creates a new clock with a 50% duty cycle at exactly half the frequency of the input clock. If this output is then used as the clock signal for a similarly arranged D flip-flop (remembering to invert the output to the input), you will get another 1 bit counter that counts half as fast. Putting them together yields a two bit counter:

Cycle Q1 Q0 (Q1:Q0)dec 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 1 0 2 3 1 1 3 4 0 0 0

You can continue to add additional flip-flops, always inverting the output to its own input, and using the output from the previous flip-flop as the clock signal. The result is called a ripple counter, which can count to 2n-1 where n is the number of bits (flip-flop stages) in the counter. Ripple counters suffer from unstable outputs as the overflows "ripple" from stage to stage, but

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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010
they do find frequent application as dividers for clock signals, where the instantaneous count is unimportant, but the division ratio overall is. (To clarify this, a 1-bit counter is exactly equivalent to a divide by two circuit; the output frequency is exactly half that of the input when fed with a regular train of clock pulses).The use of flip-flop outputs as clocks leads to timing skew between the count data bits, making this ripple technique incompatible with normal synchronous circuit design styles. Synchronous counter

FIG 29 :A 4-bit synchronous counter using JK flip-flops

A simple way of implementing the logic for each bit of an ascending counter (which is what is depicted in the image to the right) is for each bit to toggle when all of the less significant bits are at a logic high state. For example, bit 1 toggles when bit 0 is logic high; bit 2 toggles when both bit 1 and bit 0 are logic high; bit 3 toggles when bit 2, bit 1 and bit 0 are all high; and so on. Synchronous counters can also be implemented with hardware finite state machines, which are more complex but allow for smoother, more stable transitions. Wdware-based counters are of this type. Please note that the counter shown will have an error once it reaches 1110.

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Ring counter A ring counter is a shift register (a cascade connection of flip-flops) with the output of the last one connected to the input of the first, that is, in a ring. Typically a pattern consisting of a single 1 bit is circulated, so the state repeats every N clock cycles if N flip-flops are used. It can be used as a cycle counter of N states. Johnson counter A Johnson counter (or switchtail ring counter, twisted-ring counter, walking-ring counter, or Moebius counter) is a modified ring counter, where the output from the last stage is inverted and fed back as input to the first stage. A pattern of bits equal in length to twice the length of the shift register thus circulates indefinitely. These counters find specialist applications, including those similar to the decade counter, digital to analog conversion, etc. Decade counter A decade counter is one that counts in decimal digits, rather than binary. A decimal counter may have each digit binary encoded (that is, it may count in binary-coded decimal, as the 7490 integrated circuit did) or other binary encodings (such as the bi-quinary encoding of the 7490 integrated circuit). Alternatively, it may have a "fully decoded" or one-hot output code in which each output goes high in turn; the 4017 was such a circuit. The latter type of circuit finds applications in multiplexers and demultiplexers, or wherever a scanning type of behavior is cuseful. Similar counters with different numbers of outputs are also common. The decade counter is also known as a mod-counter. Up–down counter A counter that can change state in either direction, under control an up–down selector input, is known as an up–down counter. When the selector is in the up state, the counter increments its value; when the selector is in the down state, the counter decrements the count.

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Mechanical counters

Mechanical counter wheels showing both sides. The bump on the wheel shown at the top engages the ratchet on the wheel below every turn. Several mechanical counters Long before electronics became common, mechanical devices were used to count events. These typically consist

of a series of disks mounted on an axle, with the digits 0 through 9 marked on their edge. The right most disk moves one increment with each event. Each disk except the left-most has a protrusion that, after the completion of one revolution, moves the next disk to the left one increment. Such counters were originally used to control manufacturing processes, but were later used as odometers for bicycles and cars and in fuel dispensers. One of the largest manufacturers was the Veeder-Root company, and their name was often used for this type of counter.

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6.12. Photo resistor
A photo resistor or light dependent resistor or cadmium sulfide (CdS) cell is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor. A photo resistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, e.g. silicon. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (i.e., longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor.

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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 7. WORKING OF UNMANNED PETROL PUMP









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The unmanned petrol pump is the electronic based pump, to easy the use of the pump for the customer. It also provides the mobility to the server to serve the customer through the control unit and also provide control over petrol pump working. The control unit also keeps the control over the quantity stored in the fuel dispenser, commanding to the microcontroller, filling and also restores the micro-controller. So, after receiving the task of filling the tank of automobile. It provides the level of fuel stored at the fuel dispenser by checking the level of the level indicator (this indicator is based on light dependent resistor). This input is received at the port A of the microcontroller. The microcontroller manipulates the level through the internal program, and then it sends the value to the control unit via network interface which is connected to the desktop computer used in fuel dispenser end. Now, when the microcontroller received the command to fulfill the requirement of the fuel to customer up to the specific value provided the customer. Then microcontroller gives a signal to the MOC-3041, which is an input of 5V. The MOC-3041 is connected to the port C of the microcontroller. This pin is kept high till the pump value could not be achieved to that value. Till the MOC-3041 is provided the high signal it provide the high signal to the AC control circuit which is connected to the submersible pump, which provides the outlet flow of the fuel. To let the customer to know how much fuel is filled to the tank, a counter is provided to the fuel dispenser. To run the counter micro-controller provides the high signal to the DC control circuit till the pump signal is kept high. This signal is provided by another micro-controller pin of port C. After completion of the task microcontroller provide the signal of task completion to the control unit. This signal via serial port of desktop computer connected to the micro-controller. The signal is passed to the control unit via interface unit desktop computer.
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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010
AC control circuit

R1 1o K 1 Watt Resistor R2 1o0 K Potentiometer (Variable Resistance) C1 0.1 uF (500V or above ) Polyester Capacitor T1 BT 136 Triac D1 DB2 Diac

FIG 33: AC Control Circuit

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DC control circuit

FIG 34: DC Control Circuit

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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 8. SOFTWARE
8.1. Micro-controller programmer: PICBASIC


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Simplicity and ease which higher programming languages bring in, as well as broad application of microcontrollers today, were reasons to incite some companies to adjust and upgrade BASIC programming language to better suit needs of microcontroller programming. What did we thereby get? First of all, developing applications is faster and easier with all the predefined routines which BASIC brings in, whose programming in assembly would take the largest amount of time. This allows programmer to concentrate on solving the important tasks without wasting his time on, say, code for printing on LCD display.

Programming language is a set of commands and rules according to which we write the program. There are various programming languages such as BASIC, C, Pascal, etc. There is plenty of resources on BASIC programming language out there, so we will focus our attention particularly to programming of microcontrollers.

Program consists of a sequence of commands written in programming language that microcontroller executes one after another.

Compiler is a program run on computer and its task is to translate the original BASIC code into language of zeros and ones that can be fed to microcontroller. The process of translation of BASIC program into executive HEX code is shown in the figure below. The program written in BASIC and saved as file program.pbas is converted by compiler into assembly code (program.asm). The generated assembly code is further translated into executive HEX code which can be written to microcontroller memory.

Programmer is a device which we use to transfer our HEX files from computer to microcontroller memory.

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8.2. Computer Programming: Visual Basic 6

FIG 36: Visual basic 6

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Like the BASIC programming language, Visual Basic was designed to be easily learned and used by beginner programmers. The language not only allows programmers to create simple GUI applications, but can also develop complex applications. Programming in VB is a combination of visually arranging components or controls on a form, specifying attributes and actions of those components, and writing additional lines of code for more functionality. Since default attributes and actions are defined for the components, a simple program can be created without the programmer having to write many lines of code. Performance problems were experienced by earlier versions, but with faster computers and native code compilation this has become less of an issue. Although programs can be compiled into native code executables from version 5 onwards, they still require the presence of runtime libraries of approximately 1 MB in size. This runtime is included by default in Windows 2000 and later, but for earlier versions of Windows like 95/98/NT it must be distributed together with the executable. Forms are created using drag-and-drop techniques. A tool is used to place controls (e.g., text boxes, buttons, etc.) on the form (window). Controls have attributes and event handlers associated with them. Default values are provided when the control is created, but may be changed by the programmer. Many attribute values can be modified during run time based on user actions or changes in the environment, providing a dynamic application. For example, code can be inserted into the form resize event handler to reposition a control so that it remains centered on the form, expands to fill up the form, etc. By inserting code into the event handler for a keypress in a text box, the program can automatically translate the case of the text being entered, or even prevent certain characters from being inserted. Visual Basic can create executables (EXE files), ActiveX controls, or DLL files, but is primarily used to develop Windows applications and to interface database systems. Dialog boxes with less functionality can be used to provide pop-up capabilities. Controls provide the basic functionality of the application, while programmers can insert additional logic within the appropriate event handlers. For example, a drop-down combination box will automatically display its list and allow the user to select any element. An event handler is called when an item is selected, which can then execute additional code created by the programmer to perform some action based on which element was selected, such as populating a related list. Alternatively, a Visual Basic component can have no user interface, and instead provide ActiveX objects to other programs via Component Object Model (COM). This allows for serverside processing or an add-in module.

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The language is garbage collected using reference counting, has a large library of utility objects, and has basic object oriented support. Since the more common components are included in the default project template, the programmer seldom needs to specify additional libraries. Unlike many other programming languages, Visual Basic is generally not case sensitive, although it will transform keywords into a standard case configuration and force the case of variable names to conform to the case of the entry within the symbol table. String comparisons are case sensitive by default, but can be made case insensitive if so desired. The Visual Basic compiler is shared with other Visual Studio languages (C, C++), but restrictions in the IDE do not allow the creation of some targets (Windows model DLLs) and threading models.

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Un-availability of the resources. Many electronics components are not available in Market. Typical to design. Different type of design available, but due to unavailability of resources it lead to difficulty in designing. Difficult to Fabricate Due the difference in theory and practical in subject, it is difficult to fabricate. Difficulty at the microcontroller programming end Deep study is done at programming end, to program a micro—controller. Difficulty at the computer programming end Unawareness about the computer programming on VB6. Hard to find the microcontroller programmer Only few microcontroller programmer are available, and expensive to buy a microcontroller programmer.

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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 10. FUTURE APPLICATION
 Unmanned petrol station was required for over the years to fulfill the requirement of consumers over the wide area.  Unmanned petrol station concept is not limited petrol station, but it can be applicable for the availability of food grades at long distinct area.  It can make human more safe from robbery, fraud, and any other unwanted incidences by the use of plastic money.

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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 10. CONCLUSION
The project Unmanned Petrol Pump is a successful, with our knowledge provided during our academics and with the concerned to the faculty. During our project we learnt about many components used in our project. This project could not be a successful if hard work and patience was not devoted to it. This project had bridged the gap between the theory and the practical about the subject. This project taught us about many realistic things such as Management, Time Work.

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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 APPENDIX-A

device 16c72 xtal = 4 input porta output portb output portc DECLARE SERIAL_BAUD 300 DECLARE RSOUT_PIN portc.1 DECLARE RSIN_PIN portc.0

Dim l1 As Byte Dim l2 As Byte Dim l3 As Byte Dim l4 As Byte Dim inval as Byte low portc.3 low portc.4

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Loop: inval = rsin if inval="A" then goto rl1 if inval="B" then goto rl2 if inval="C" then goto rl3 if inval="H" then goto rl4 if inval="X" then goto rxd

goto loop rl1: toggle portc.3 goto loop rl2: toggle portc.4 goto loop

rl4: rsout "Automatic Petrol Pump" rsout 10 rsout 13 rsout "Press A to Control Pump"
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rsout 10 rsout 13 rsout "press B to Control Counter" rsout 10 rsout 13 rsout "Press H as Help" rsout 10 rsout 13 rsout "press X to get Level" rsout 10 rsout 13 goto loop

rl3: toggle portb.4 goto loop rxd: l1=adin 0 delayms 50 rsout "The level in tank is" rsout 10
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rsout 13 rsout dec l1 rsout 10 rsout 13 goto loop

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Unmanned Petrol Pump 2010 REFRENCES

1. Donald G. Fink and H. Wayne Beaty, “Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers”, Eleventh Edition. 2. A. O. Smith: “The AC’s and DC’s of Electric Motors” Edwin J. Houston and Arthur. 3. Kennelly, “Recent Types of Dynamo – Electric Machinery”. 4. Kackie Cohen, Andrew Daniel: “Radio Frequency”, from Windows XP Networking. 5. Irving Morris Gottieb: “Electric Motors, Control Techniques”, 1994, pp-304. 6. John Hereward Reyner: “Radio Electronics”. 7. R. Buyya: “Parmon: A portable and Scalable Monitoring System fot Clusters”, International journal on software, Practice and Experience, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. USA, pp-723-739, June 2000. 8. Dennis Clark, Michael Owings: “Building Robots Drive”, Published in 2002, Mc Graw Hill, pp-400. 9. Thomas R. Powers: “The Integrated Circuit Hobbyist’s Handvook”, Published in 1995 Newness Technology and Industrial Arts, pp-128. 10. 11. www.wikipedia.org www.elecrtonics4u.com

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