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of atoms: 1 litre of water contains 3.3 x 1025 molecules. 1 gram of magnesium contains 2.5 x 1022 atoms. 100 cm3 of oxygen contains 2.5 x 1021molecules. Such numbers are not convenient to work with, so it is necessary to find a unit of "amount" which corresponds better to the sort of quantities of substance normally being measured. The unit chosen for this purpose is the mole. The number is chosen so that 1 mole of a substance corresponds to its relative atomic/molecular/formula mass measured in grams. A mole is thus defined as follows: A mole of a substance is the amount of that substance that contains the same number of elementary particles as there are carbon atoms in 12.00000 grams of carbon-12. One mole of One mole of One mole of One mole of carbon-12 has a mass of 12.0g. hydrogen atoms has a mass of 1.0g. hydrogen molecules has a mass of 2.0g. sodium chloride has a mass of 58.5g.
The number of particles in one mole of a substance is 6.02 x 1023. This is known as Avogadro's number, L. Thus when we need to know the number of particles of a substance, we usually count the number of moles. It is much easier than counting the number of particles. The number of particles can be calculated by multiplying the number of moles by Avogadro’s number. The number of moles can be calculated by dividing the number of particles by Avogadro’s number. (Number of particles) = (number of moles) x L
particles moles L
The mass of one mole of a substance is known as its molar mass, and has units of gmol-1. It must be distinguished from relative atomic/molecular/formula mass, which is a ratio and hence has no units, although both have the same numerical value. The symbol for molar mass of compounds or molecular elements is mr. The symbol for molar mass of atoms is ar.
Mass (m), molar mass (mr or ar) and number of moles (n) are thus related by the following equation:
MASS = MOLAR MASS X NUMBER OF MOLES or m = mr x n
Mass must be measured in grams and molar mass in gmol-1.
mass moles molar mass
REACTING MASSES It is possible to use the relationship moles = mass/mr to deduce the masses of reactants and products that will react with each other. When performing calculations involving reacting masses, there are two main points which must be taken into account: The total combined mass of the reactants must be the same as the total combined mass of the products. This is known as the law of conservation of mass. The ratio in which species react corresponds to the number of moles, and not their mass. Masses must therefore all be converted into moles, then compared to each other, then converted back. i) reactions which go to completion Eg What mass of aluminium will be needed to react with 10 g of CuO, and what mass of Al2O3 will be produced? 3CuO(s) + 2Al(s) Al2O3(s) + 3Cu(s) 10 g = 10/79.5 = 0.126 moles of CuO 3:2 ratio with Al so 2/3 x 0.126 = 0.0839 moles of Al, so mass of Al = 0.0839 x 27 = 2.3 g 3:1 ratio with Al2O3 so 1/3 x 0.126 = 0.0419 moles of Al2O3, so mass of Al2O3 = 0.0419 x 102 = 4.3 g ii) reactions which do not go to completion Many inorganic reactions go to completion. Reactions which go to completion are said to be quantitative. It is because the reactions go to completion that the substances can be analysed in this way. Some reactions, however, particularly organic reactions, do not go to completion. It is possible to calculate the percentage yield of product by using the following equation: % yield = amount of product formed maximum amount of product possible x 100
Eg 2.0 g of ethanol (C2H5OH) is oxidised to ethanoic acid (CH3COOH). 1.9 g of ethanoic acid is produced. What is the percentage yield? (assume 1:1 ratio) Moles of ethanol = 2/46 = 0.0435 Max moles of ethanoic acid = 0.0435 so max mass of ethanoic acid = 0.0435 x 60 = 2.61 g percentage yield = 1.9/2.61 x 100 = 73%
Eg When propanone (CH3COCH3) is reduced to propan-2-ol (CH3CH2CH2OH), a 76% yield is obtained. How much propan-2-ol can be obtained from1.4 g of propanone? (assume 1:1 ratio) Moles of propanone = 1.4/58 = 0.0241 moles So max moles of propan-2-ol produced = 0.0241 moles So actual amount produced = 0.0241 x 76/100 = 0.0183 moles So mass of propan-2-ol = 0.0183 x 60 = 1.1 g
ATOM ECONOMY When we carry out a chemical reaction in order to make a product, we often make other products, called by-products, as well. Eg In the production of NaOH from NaCl the following reaction takes place: 2NaCl + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 + Cl2 The atom economy of a reaction is the percentage of the total mass of reactants that can, in theory, be converted into the desired product. It can be calculated as follows: % atom economy = mass of desired product total mass of products x 100
Assuming we start with 2 moles of NaCl and 2 moles of H2O, we will make 2 moles of NaOH, and 1 mole of H2 and Cl2. So % atom economy = (2 x 40) x 100 = (2 x 40) + (1 x 2) + (1 x 71) 52.3 %
The remaining 47.7% of the mass is converted into less useful products and is hence wasted. So the higher the atom economy, the less waste and the more efficient the product process (assuming the reaction does actually go to completion). All reactions which have only one product have an atom economy of 100% Atom economy is an important consideration when considering how to make a particular useful product.
SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in which the proportions of the substances are identical throughout the mixture. The major component of a solution is called the solvent and the minor components are called the solutes. In most cases water is the solvent. The amount of solute present in a fixed quantity of solvent or solution is called the concentration of the solution. It is usually measured in grams of solute per dm3 of solution or in moles of solute per dm3 of solution. In the latter case (moldm-3) it is also known as the molarity of the solution. The number of moles of solute, molarity of the solution and volume of solution can thus be related by the equation:
Number of moles = volume x molarity n = C x V
The volume of solution in this case must always be measured in dm3 (or litres). If the volumes are given in cm3 then V/1000 must be used instead. If concentration is given in gdm-3, it must be converted to molarity before it can be used in the above equation. This can be done easily by dividing by the molar mass of the solute.
Concentration (gdm-3) = Molarity x molar mass Or Cg = Cm x mr
C(grams) mr molarity
The volume of one solution required to react with a known volume of another can be deduced from the above relationships and knowledge of the relevant chemical equation. Remember it is moles which react in the ratio shown, so all quantities must be converted to moles before the comparison can be made. The quantitative investigation of chemical reactions by comparing reacting volumes is known as volumetric analysis. The procedure by which reacting volumes are determined is known as a titration. In titrations, a solution whose concentration is unknown is titrated against a solution whose concentration is known. The solution of known concentration is always placed in the burette, and the solution of unknown concentration is always placed in the conical flask. Eg 28.3 cm3 of a 0.10 moldm-3 solution of NaOH was required to react with 25 cm3 of a solution of H2SO4. What was the concentration of the H2SO4 solution? Equation: H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O Moles of NaOH = 28.3/1000 x 0.1 = 2.8 x 10-3 2:1 ratio so moles of H2SO4 = 2.8 x 10-3/2 = 1.4 x 10-3 so concentration of H2SO4 = 1.4 x 10-3/25 x 1000 = 0.056 moldm-3. Eg Calculate the volume of 0.50 moldm-3 nitric acid required to react completely with 5 g of lead (II) carbonate. Equation: PbCO3 + 2HNO3 Pb(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O Moles of PbCO3 = 5/267 = 0.0187 1:2 ratio so moles of HNO3 = 0.0187 x 2 = 0.0375 Volume of HNO3 = 0.0375/0.5 x 1000 = 74.9 cm3.
The volume occupied by a gas depends on a number of factors:
i) ii) iii)
the temperature: the hotter the gas, the faster the particles are moving and the more space they will occupy the pressure: the higher the pressure, the more compressed the gas will be and the less space it will occupy the amount of gas: the more gas particles there are, the more space they will occupy
The volume occupied by a gas does not depend on what gas it is, however: one mole of any gas, at the same temperature and pressure, will have the same volume as one mole of any other gas. The pressure, temperature, volume and amount of gas can be related by a simple equation known as the ideal gas equation:
PV = nRT
P is the pressure measured in pascals (Pa) or Nm-2. One atmosphere, which is normal atmospheric pressure, is 101325 Pa. V is the volume in m3. Remember; 1 m3 = 1000 dm3 = 106 cm3. T is the absolute temperature, measured in Kelvin (K). Remember; 0 oC = 273 K. R is the molar gas constant and has a value of 8.31 Jmol-1K-1.
This equation can be rearranged to find the density of gases and the RMM of gases, using the relationship m = n x mr. PV = mRT/mr, so the mass of one mole is given by mr = mRT/PV, where m is the mass in kg. The answer m will also be in kg so it must be converted into grams. The density of a gas, or mass/volume, is given by (m/V) = mrP/RT.
SUMMARY – USING MOLES Using the four relationships described, it is possible to calculate the amount of any substance in a chemical reaction provided that the chemical equation is known and the amount of one of the reacting species is also known. The procedure is summarised in the table below:
for gases: n = PV RT
for solutions: n = CV
use the ratios in the equation to find the number of moles of other species
n = mass RMM
n = particles L
These relationships are frequently used in practical chemistry. Typical calculations in AS Practical Chemistry involve: i) ii) iii) Determining the concentration of a solution Determining the relative molecular mass of a solid Determining the percentage purity of a solid
The percentage purity of a substance can be calculated as follows: Percentage purity = mass substance would have if it was pure mass of impure substance x 100
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAE The empirical formula of a compound is the formula which shows the simplest whole-number ratio in which the atoms in that compound exist. It can be calculated if the composition by mass of the compound is known. The molecular formula of a substance is the formula which shows the number of each type of atom in the one molecule of that substance. It applies only to molecular substances, and can be deduced if the empirical formula and molar mass of the compound are known. The molecular formula is always a simple whole number multiple of the empirical formula. Eg a substance contains 85.8% carbon and 14.2% hydrogen, what is its empirical formula? If its relative molecular mass is 56, what is its molecular formula? Mole ratio = 85.8 12 = 7.15 7.15 1 : 14.2 1 14.2 7.15 2 so empirical formula = CH2
: : :
RMM = 56 = (CH2) so 14n = 56 and n = 56/14 = 4 Molecular formula = C4H8 It is also possible to calculate the percentage composition by mass of a substance, if its empirical or molecular formula is known. Eg What is the percentage composition by mass of ethanoic acid, C2H4O2? RMM = 60 % C = (12 x 2)/60 x 100 = 40.0% % H = (1 x 4)/60 x 100 = 6.67% %O = (16 x 2)/60 x 100 = 53.3%
FORMULAE OF IONIC COMPOUNDS An ion is a species in which the number of electrons is not equal to the number of protons. An ion thus has an overall charge, characteristic of the difference in the number of protons and electrons. Ions with a positive charge are known as cations and ions with a negative charge are known as anions. Compounds made up of ions are known as salts. They are all electrically neutral, so must all contain at least one anion and at least one cation. Salts do not have molecular formulae, as they do not form molecules. They are written as unit formulae. The unit formula of an ionic compound is the formula which shows the simplest whole number ratio in which the ions in the compound exist. This depends on the charges of the ions involved. Some important ions and their charges are shown below: i) Charge +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +3 +3 +3 cations Formula Na+ K+ Ag+ H+ NH4+ Cu+ Mg2+ Ca2+ Fe2+ Zn2+ Pb2+ Cu2+ Ni2+ Al3+ Cr3+ Fe3+ Name Sodium Potassium Silver Hydrogen Ammonium Copper(I) Magnesium Calcium Iron(II) Zinc Lead(II) Copper(II) Nickel(II) Aluminium Chromium(III) Iron(III)
Note that some atoms can form more than one stable cation. In such cases it is necessary to specify the charge that is on the cation by writing the charge in brackets after the name of the metal.
ii) anions Charge -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 Formula OHSO42CO32NO3HCO3Name Hydroxide Sulphate Carbonate Nitrate Hydrogencarbonate
CHEMICAL EQUATIONS The purpose of chemistry is essentially to study chemical reactions. In chemical reactions, elements or compounds react with each other to form other elements and/or other compounds. Chemical reactions involve the movement of electrons between different species. The nuclei always remain intact. Every chemical reaction can be represented by a chemical equation. A chemical equation indicates the species involved in the reaction and shows the way in which they react. Every chemical equation must contain three pieces of information: i) the identities of all the reactants and products
The chemical formulae of all the species involved in the reaction should be shown. Any species left unchanged should be left out. Reactants must be written on the left of the arrow and products on the right. Remember that in chemical reactions all the nuclei remain unchanged. Therefore the total number of atoms of each type must be the same on each side of the equation. Atoms themselves cannot be created or destroyed in chemical reactions; only transferred from species to species.
the reaction coefficients
Atoms, elements and compounds combine with each other in simple whole number ratios, eg 1:1, 1:2, 1:3. The ratio in which the species react and in which products are formed are shown in the reaction coefficients. These are the numbers which precede the chemical formula of each species in the equation. If no coefficient is shown it is assumed to be 1. Deducing the reaction coefficients for a reaction is known as balancing the equation. The total number of atoms of each element must be the same on both sides of the equation. When balancing chemical equations, always balance compounds first and elements second. It's easier that way. N.B. Reaction coefficients in no way show the actual amount of a substance which is reacting. They provide information only on the way in which they react. iii) The state symbols
The state symbol shows the physical state of each reacting species and must be included in every chemical equation. There are four state symbols required for Alevel chemistry: (s) - solid (l) - liquid (g) - gas (aq) - aqueous, or dissolved in water
IONIC EQUATIONS Many reactions that take place in aqueous solution do not involve all of the ions that are written in the equation. Some species remain in aqueous solution before and after the reaction. They therefore play no part in the reaction and are known as spectator ions. In ionic equations, spectator ions are left out. Eg BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq) This reaction involves the precipitation of barium sulphate. Notice that the Cl- ions and the Na+ ions remain in the aqueous state before and after the reaction. They are therefore spectator ions. The above reaction can then be rewritten as follows: Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) BaSO4(s) Eg Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 6NaOH(aq) 2Al(OH)3(s) + 3Na2SO4(aq) This reaction involves the precipitation of aluminium hydroxide. The Na+ and SO42- ions are spectator ions and can be left out The ionic equation for the reaction is: Al3+(aq) + 3OH-(aq) Al(OH)3(s) Ionic equations are very useful for simplifying precipitation reactions. They can also simplify acid-base reactions: Eg NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) The Na+ and Cl- ions are spectator ions, so the ionic equation for the reaction is: H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l) All reactions between strong acids and strong alkalis have the same ionic equation.
Topic 1.3 BONDING Types of bond States of matter Structure and physical properties Molecular shapes Intermolecular forces
Mill Hill County High School
TYPES OF BOND Atoms bond to each other in one of four ways: i) ionic bonding
An ionic bond is an attraction between oppositely charged ions, which are formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. Eg In sodium chloride, each sodium atom transfers an electron to a chlorine atom. The result is a sodium ion and a chloride anion. These two ions attract each other to form a stable compound.
oo Na x o Cl oo + Na o x o o o o
oo Cl oo
+ Na o x
oo Cl oo o o
A covalent bond is a pair of electrons shared between two atoms. In a normal covalent bond, each atom provides one of the electrons in the bond. A covalent bond is represented by a short straight line between the two atoms. Eg water
x O o x x xx
In a dative covalent bond, one atom provides both electrons to the bond. A dative covalent bond is a pair of electrons shared between two atoms, one of which provides both electrons to the bond. A dative covalent bond is represented by a short arrow from the electron providing both electrons to the electron providing neither. Eg ammonium ion
H+ H H N H H
x N o xo
Covalent bonding happens because the electrons are more stable when attracted to two nuclei than when attracted to only one. Covalent bonds should not be regarded as shared electron pairs in a fixed position; the electrons are in a state of constant motion and are best regarded more as charge clouds.
A metallic bond is an attraction between cations and a sea of electrons. Metallic bonds are formed when atoms lose electrons and the resulting electrons are attracted to all the resulting cations. Eg Magnesium atoms lose two electrons each, and the resulting electrons are attracted to all the cations.
e e e e
Metallic bonding happens because the electrons are attracted to more than one nucleus and hence more stable. The electrons are said to be delocalized – they are not attached to any particular atom but are free to move between the atoms.
IONIC OR COVALENT? - ELECTRONEGATIVITY Electronegativity is the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a covalent bond. The electronegativity of an atom depends on its ability to attract electrons and its ability to hold onto electrons. Electronegativity increases across a period as the nuclear charge on the atoms increases but the shielding stays the same, so the electrons are more strongly attracted to the atom. Electronegativity decreases down a group as the number of shells increases, so shielding increases and the electrons are less strongly attracted to the atom. An atom which has a high electronegativity is said to be electronegative; an atom which does not have a high electronegativity is said to be electropositive. Electronegativities are relative; electronegativity has no units and is measured on a scale from 0.7 to 4.0. The electronegativities of some elements in the periodic table are shown below: H 2. 1 Li 1. 0 N a 0. 9 K 0. 8 Be 1. 5 M g 1. 2 Ca 1. 0 B 2. 0 Al 1. 5 Ga 1. 6 C 2. 5 Si 1. 8 Ge 1. 8 N 3. 0 P 2. 1 As 2. 0 O 3. 5 S F 4. 0 Cl N e H e
Sc 1. 3
Ti 1. 5
V 1. 6
Cr 1. 6
M n 1. 5
Fe 1. 8
Co 1. 8
Ni 1. 8
Cu 1. 9
Zn 1. 6
2. 3. 5 0 Se Br 2. 4 2. 8
Note that the noble gases cannot be ascribed an electronegativity since they do not form bonds. Electronegativity is a very useful concept for predicting whether the bonding between two atoms will be ionic, covalent or metallic. Consider a covalent bond between two atoms A and B.
If both atoms have a similar electronegativity, both atoms attract the electrons with similar power and the electrons will remain midway between the two. The bond will thus be covalent - the electrons are shared between the two atoms. Eg H (2.1) and H (2.1)
a covalent bond
If one atom is significantly more electronegative than the other, it attracts the electrons more strongly than the other and the electrons are on average closer to one atom than the other. The electrons are still shared, but one atom has a slight deficit of electrons and thus a slight positive charge and the other a slight surplus of electrons and thus a slight negative charge. Such a bond is said to be polar covalent. Eg H (2.1) and O (3.0)
δ - x
a polar covalent bond
A slight positive charge or negative charge on an atom is represented by a ora symbol respectively. If the difference between the two atoms is large, then the sharing of electrons is so uneven that the more electronegative atom has virtually sole possession of the electrons. The electrons are, in effect, not shared at all but an electron has essentially between transferred from one atom to the other. The more electropositive atom is positively charged and the more electronegative atom is negatively charged. The bonding is thus ionic. Eg Na (0.9) and Cl (3.0)
+ Na x Cl o
an ionic bond If both atoms are electropositive, neither has a great ability to attract electrons and the electrons do not remain localised in the bond at all. They are free to move, both atoms gain a positive charge and the bonding is metallic. Eg Mg (1.2) and Mg (1.2)
x o x o
a metallic bond
Differences in electronegativity can be used to predict how much ionic or metallic character a covalent bond will have.
Given suitable electronegativity data, it is thus possible to predict whether a bond between two atoms will be ionic, polar covalent, covalent or metallic. If both atoms have electronegativities less than 1.6 - 1.9 then the bond is metallic. If either atom has an electronegativity greater than 1.9 and the difference is less than 0.5 then the bond is covalent. If either atom has an electronegativity greater than 1.9 and the difference is more than 0.5 but less than 2.1 then the bond is polar covalent. If the difference is greater than 2.1 then the bond is ionic.
These rules are not perfect and there are notable exceptions; for example the bond between Si (1.8) and Si (1.8) is covalent but the bond between Cu (1.9) and Cu (1.9) is metallic. The bond between Na (0.9) and H (2.1) is ionic but the bond between Si (1.8) and F (4.0) is polar covalent. However as basic giudelines they are very useful provided that their limitations are appreciated.
All bonds are assumed to be covalent in principle: differences in electronegativity can be used to predict how much ionic or metallic character a covalent bond will have. Electronegativity differences show that bonds between non-identical atoms are all essentially intermediate in character between ionic and covalent. No bond is completely ionic, and only bonds between identical atoms are completely covalent. Bonds between identical atoms cannot be ionic as there is no difference in electronegativity. They will therefore be either covalent or metallic.
STATES OF MATTER Matter can exist in one of three states; solid, liquid and gas. The state in which a certain substance is most stable at a given temperature depends on the balance between the kinetic energy of the particles, which depends on temperature, and the magnitude of the force of attraction between them. i) Solids
In a solid, the particles are tightly packed together in a lattice. A lattice is an ordered and infinitely repeating arrangement of particles. The properties of solids are dominated by the forces in between these particles which cause them to attract each other and preserve this ordered arrangement. A solid thus has a fixed volume and a fixed shape. At all temperatures above absolute zero, the particles have kinetic energy. In a solid, however, this kinetic energy is not enough to cause the particles to fly apart, and nor is it enough to cause significant separation of the particles. The particles are thus restricted to rotational and vibrational motion; no translational motion of the particles with respect to each other is possible. In a solid, the kinetic energy of the particles is not nearly enough to overcome the potential energy caused by their mutual attraction.
If a solid is heated, the kinetic energy of the particles increases, and they vibrate more. As they vibrate more, the bonds between the particles are weakened, some are broken and spaces appear between the particles. At this point the solid has melted.
In a liquid, the particles are by and large packed together in a lattice that extends across the range of 10 - 100 particles. However over a longer range the structure breaks down, and there is enough space between the particles for them to move from one cluster to another. The properties of liquids are still dominated by the forces between the particles, but these particles have enough kinetic energy to move between each other in the spaces that exist. There is thus short-range order but no long-range order. A liquid has a fixed volume but no fixed shape. The kinetic energy of the particles is now significant; it forces the particles apart to the extent that the spaces between them are often wider than the particles themselves. The particles are thus permitted some translational motion with respect to each other within these spaces. All solids will melt if they are heated strongly enough. In a liquid, the kinetic energy of the particles is still not large enough to overcome their mutual attraction, but is nevertheless significant and must be taken into account.
In a gas, all the particles are in rapid and random motion, and thus behave independently of each other. There is no ordered arrangement of any kind, and the spaces between the particles are much larger than the size of the particles themselves. The properties of a gas are dominated by the kinetic energy of the particles; the attraction between them is not significant. A gas has neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape. In a gas, the kinetic energy of the particles is much greater than the forces of attraction between them. Since the kinetic energy depends only on temperature, it follows that all gases at a similar temperature behave in a similar way. All liquids can be boiled if heated strongly enough.
IONIC STRUCTURES Bonding in ionic compounds An ionic bond is an attraction between oppositely charged ions. After the ions are formed they all come together to form a lattice. A lattice is an infinite and repeating arrangement of particles. All the anions are surrounded by cations and all the cations are surrounded by anions. The coordination number of an ion in an ionic solid is the number of oppositely charged ions which surround it. This varies from substance to substance but is usually 4, 6 or 8. Example – sodium chloride In sodium chloride, NaCl, each sodium ion is surrounded by six chloride ions and vice versa. The diagram below shows the structure of sodium chloride. The pattern repeats in this way and the structure extends (repeats itself) in all directions over countless ions. You must remember that this diagram represents only a tiny part of the whole sodium chloride crystal.
Each sodium ion attracts several chloride ions and vice versa so the ionic bonding is not just between one sodium and one chloride ion. There is a 3-D lattice.
It could also be represented as follows:
+ Na + Na + Na
Cl Cl -
1. Melting and boiling point The attraction between opposite ions is very strong. A lot of kinetic energy is thus required to overcome them and the melting point and boiling point of ionic compounds is very high. In the liquid state, the ions still retain their charge and the attraction between the ions is still strong. Much more energy is required to separate the ions completely and the difference between the melting and boiling point is thus large. Compound Melting point/oC Boiling point/oC NaCl 801 1459 MgO 2852 3600
The higher the charge on the ions, and the smaller they are, the stronger the attraction between them will be and the higher the melting and boiling points. In MgO, the ions have a 2+ and 2- charge and thus the attraction between them is stronger than in NaCl, so the melting and boiling points are higher. 2. Electrical Conductivity Since ionic solids contain ions, they are attracted by electric fields and will, if possible, move towards the electrodes and thus conduct electricity. In the solid state, however, the ions are not free to move since they are tightly held in place by each other. Thus ionic compounds do not conduct electricity in the solid state. Ionic solids are thus good insulators. In the liquid state, the ions are free to move and so can move towards their respective electrodes. Thus ionic compounds can conduct electricity in the liquid state. 3. Mechanical properties Since ions are held strongly in place by the other ions, they cannot move or slip over each other easily and are hence hard and brittle.
opposite ions attract
like ions repel – structure breaks
METALLIC STRUCTURES Bonding in metals Metallic bonding is the attraction between cations and a sea of delocalised electrons. The cations are arranged to form a lattice, with the electrons free to move between them. The structure of the lattice varies from metal to metal, and they do not need to be known in detail. It is possible to draw a simplified form of the lattice: Example - magnesium
e e ee e
This is a simplified 2D form of the metal lattice
Properties of metals a) Electrical conductivity: since the electrons in a metal are delocalised, they are free to move throughout the crystal in a certain direction when a potential difference is applied and metals can thus conduct electricity in the solid state. The delocalised electron system is still present in the liquid state, so metals can also conduct electricity well in the liquid state. b) Melting and boiling point: although not generally as strong as in ionic compounds, the bonding in metals is relatively strong, and as a result the melting and boiling points of metals are relatively high. Metal Melting point/ oC Boiling point/ oC Na 98 883 K 64 760 Be 1278 297 0 Mg 649 1107
Smaller ions, and those with a high charge, attract the electrons more strongly and so have higher melting points than larger ions with a low charge. Na has smaller cations than K so has a higher melting and boiling point. Mg cations have a higher charge than Na so has a higher melting and boiling point.
c) Other physical properties: Since the bonding in metals is non-directional, it does not really matter how the cations are oriented relative to each other. The metal cations can be moved around and there will still be delocalized electrons available to hold the cations together. The metal cations can thus slip over each other fairly easily. As a result, metals tend to be soft, malleable and ductile.
COVALENT STRUCTURES A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons between two atoms. When a covalent bond is formed, two atomic orbitals overlap and a molecular orbital is formed. Like atomic orbitals, a molecular orbital can only contain two electrons. Overlap of atomic orbitals is thus only possible if both orbitals contain only one electron (normal covalent bond), or if one is full and the other empty (dative covalent bond). Covalent bonding happens because the electrons are more stable when attracted to two nuclei than when attracted to only one:
1. Normal covalent bonds An overlap between two orbitals, each containing one electron, is a normal covalent bond. The number of normal covalent bonds which an atom can form depends on its number of unpaired electrons. Some atoms, like carbon, promote electrons from s to p orbitals to create unpaired electrons. 1s 2s 2p ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ F has 1 unpaired electron in a 2p orbital – forms one covalent bond
xx x x
Eg hydrogen fluoride 1s ↑ ↓ 2s ↑ ↓
Carbon rearranges slightly to make more unpaired electrons – 1s 2s 2p ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ C has 4 unpaired electrons – forms four covalent bonds
ox x o x o
Eg methane 1. Dative covalent bonds
Any atom which has filled valence shell orbitals can provide both electrons for a dative covalent bond. This includes any element in groups V, VI, VII or 0 but is most common in N, O and Cl. 1s 2s 2p ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ N has three unpaired electrons and one electron pair
Any atom which has empty valence shell orbitals can accept a pair of electrons for a covalent bond. This includes any element in groups I, II and III but is most common in Be, B and Al. 1s ↑ ↓ 2s ↑ ↓ 2p ↑
B promotes an electron from 2s to 2p to form 3 unpaired electrons: 1s 2s 2p ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ B has 3 unpaired electrons and an empty orbital
ox x o x x
ox x N o xo
2. Sigma and pi bonds
Atomic orbitals can overlap in one of two ways: If they overlap directly along the internuclear axis, as is most common, a bond is formed.
A bond is a bond resulting from direct overlap of two orbitals along the internuclear axis. All single bonds between two atoms are -bonds. It is only possible to form one -bond between two atoms, since another would force too many electrons into a small space and generate repulsion. If double bonds are formed, therefore, the orbitals must overlap in a different way. If two orbitals overlap above and below (or behind and in front of) the internuclear axis, then a bond is formed. -
A bond is a bond resulting from overlap of atomic orbitals above and below the internuclear axis. All double bonds consist of a -bond and a -bond. All triple bonds consist of a -bond and two -bonds. If the first -bond results from overlap above and below the internuclear axis, the second results from overlap behind and in front of the internuclear axis. Note that -bonds can only be formed by overlap of p-orbitals, since s-orbitals do not have the correct geometry. -bonds can also be represented by orbital diagrams. Eg ethene:
3. Strength of covalent bonds
Covalent bonds are in general strong. The smaller the atoms, the closer the electrons are to the two nuclei and the stronger the bond. Bond C-F C-Cl C-Br C-I Bond dissociation energy/ kJmol-1 467 346 290 228
4. Molecular, giant covalent and layered substances Covalent bonding can result in three very different types of substance: a) Molecular In many cases, the bonding capacity is reached after only a few atoms have combined with each other to form a molecule. If no more covalent bonds can be formed after this, the substance will be made up of a larger number of discreet units (molecules) with no strong bonding between them. Such substances are called molecular substances, and there are many examples of them: CH4, Cl2, He, S8, P4, O2, H2O, NH3 etc The molecules are held together by intermolecular forces, which are much weaker than covalent bonds but are often strong enough to keep the substance in the solid or liquid state. Example - Iodine
I I I I
I ... I I...I I ... I I ... I
I...I I I...I I ... I
I covalent bonds I I intermolecular forces
There are attractive forces between these molecules, known as intermolecular forces, but they are weak. In the gaseous state, the intermolecular forces are broken but the bonds within the molecule remain intact - they are not broken. The gas phase consists of molecules, not atoms. Molecular substances have certain characteristic properties:
Melting and boiling point: these are generally low, since intermolecular forces are weak. Intermolecular forces also decrease rapidly with increasing distance, so there is often little difference in the melting and boiling points. Substance Melting point /oC Boiling point /oC CH4 -184 -166 H2O 0 100 H2 -259 -253 He -272 -268
Electrical conductivity: There are no ions and no delocalised electrons, so there is little electrical conductivity in either solid or liquid state. Other physical properties: The intermolecular forces are weak and generally nondirectional, so most molecular covalent substances are soft, crumbly and not very strong. b) Giant covalent In some cases, it is not possible to satisfy the bonding capacity of a substance in the form of a molecule; the bonds between atoms continue indefinitely, and a large lattice is formed. There are no discrete molecules and covalent bonding exists between all adjacent atoms. Such substances are called giant covalent substances, and the most important examples are C, B, Si and SiO2. Example – diamond (diamond is an allotrope of carbon) Don't forget that this is just a tiny part of a giant structure extending on all 3 dimensions.
In giant covalent compounds, covalent bonds must be broken before a substance can melt or boil. Giant covalent compounds have certain characteristic properties: Melting and boiling point: these are generally very high, since strong covalent bonds must be broken before any atoms can be separated. The melting and boiling points
depend on the number of bonds formed by each atom and the bond strength. The difference between melting and boiling points is not usually very large, since covalent bonds are very directional and once broken, are broken completely. Substance Melting point /oC Boiling point /oC C 3550 4827 Si 1410 2355 B 2300 2550 SiO2 1510 2230
Electrical conductivity: there are no ions or delocalised electrons, so there is little electrical conductivity in either solid or liquid state. Other physical properties: since the covalent bonds are strong and directional, giant covalent substances are hard, strong and brittle. Diamond is in fact the hardest substance known to man. For this reason it is used in drills, glass-cutting and styluses for turntables. c) giant covalent layered
Some substances contain an infinite lattice of covalently bonded atoms in two dimensions only to form layers. The different layers are held together by intermolecular forces, and there are often delocalized electrons in between the layers. Examples of these structures are graphite and black phosphorus.
Example - graphite
or In graphite, each carbon atom is bonded to three others. The spare electron is delocalized and occupies the space in between the layers. All atoms in the same layer are held together by strong covalent bonds, and the different layers are held together by intermolecular forces. A number of characteristic properties of graphite result from this structure:
Electrical conductivity: due to the delocalised electrons in each plane, graphite is a very good conductor of electricity in the x and y directions, even in the solid state (unusually for a non-metal). However, since the delocalisation is only in two dimensions, there is little electrical conductivity in the z direction (i.e. perpendicular to the planes). Density: graphite has a much lower density than diamond (2.25 gcm-3) due to the relatively large distances in between the planes. Hardness: graphite is much softer than diamond since the different planes can slip over each other fairly easily. This results in the widespread use of graphite in pencils and as an industrial lubricant.
SUMMARY OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPOUND AND THEIR PROPERTIES SUBSTANCE IONIC Eg NaCl Nature of bonding Attraction between oppositely charged ions. Infinite lattice of oppositely charged ions in three dimensions Physical properties High mpt, bpt Good conductors in liquid state Poor conductors in solid state Hard, strong, brittle
METALLIC Eg Mg
Attraction between cations and delocalised electrons. Infinite lattice of cations in three dimensions, with delocalized electrons in the spaces Infinite lattice of atoms linked by covalent bonds in three dimensions. Covalent bonds are pairs of electrons shared between two atoms Discrete molecules. Atoms in molecule linked by covalent bonds. ( or , normal or dative) Weak intermolecular forces between molecules. Infinite lattice of atoms linked by covalent bonds in two dimensions to form planes. Planes held together by intermolecular forces. Delocalised electrons in between layers
High mpt, bpt Good conductors in solid state Good conductors in liquid state Strong, malleable
GIANT COVALENT Eg diamond
Very high mpt, bpt Poor conductors in solid state Poor conductors in liquid state Hard, strong, brittle
MOLECULAR Eg I2
Low mpt, bpt Poor conductors in solid state Poor conductors in liquid state Soft, weak, powdery
GIANT COVALENT LAYERED Eg graphite
High mpt, bpt Good conductors parallel to planes Poor conductors perpendicular to planes Soft
Don’t forget to learn the structures of • • • • Sodium chloride Iodine Diamond Graphite MOLECULAR SHAPES When an atom forms a covalent bond with another atom, the electrons in the different bonds and the non-bonding electrons in the outer shell all behave as negatively charged clouds and repel each other. In order to minimise this repulsion, all the outer shell electrons spread out as far apart in space as possible. Molecular shapes and the angles between bonds can be predicted by the VSEPR theory VSEPR = valence shell electron pair repulsion VSEPR theory consists of two basic rules:
All bonded electron pairs and all lone pairs arrange themselves as far apart in space as is possible. bonded electron pairs are excluded. Lone pairs repel more strongly than bonding pairs.
These two rules can be used to predict the shape of any covalent molecule or ion, and the angles between the bonds. a) 2 electron pairs If there are two electron pairs on the central atom, the angle between the bonds is 180o.
Molecules which adopt this shape are said to be LINEAR. E.g. BeCl2, CO2 b) three electron pairs
If there are three electron pairs on the central atom, the angle between the bonds is 120o.
Molecules which adopt this shape are said to be TRIGONAL PLANAR. E.g. BF3, AlCl3, CO32-, NO3-
If one of these electron pairs is a lone pair, the bond angle is slightly less than 120o due to the stronger repulsion from lone pairs, forcing them closer together.
bond angle = 118o Molecules which adopt this shape are said to be BENT. E.g. SO2, NO2c) Four electron pairs If there are four bonded pairs on the central atom, the angle between the bonds is approx 109o.
Molecules which adopt this shape are said to be TETRAHEDRAL. E.g. CH4, SiCl4, NH4+, SO42-
If one of the electron pairs is a lone pair, the bond angle is slightly less than 109o, due to the extra lone pair repulsion which pushes the bonds closer together (approx 107o).
Molecules which adopt this shape are said to be TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL. E.g. NH3, PCl3 If two of the electron pairs are lone pairs, the bond angle is also slightly less than 109o, due to the extra lone pair repulsion (approx 104o).
Molecules which adopt this shape are said to be BENT. E.g. H2O, OF2 d) Five electron pairs If there are five bonded pairs on the central atom, the three bonds are in a plane at 120o to each other, the other 2 are at 90 o to the plane.
Molecules which adopt this shape are said to be TRIGONAL BYPRYMIDAL. E.g. PF5, PCl5
d) Six electron pairs
If there are six electron pairs on the central atom, the angle between the bonds is 90o.
Molecules which adopt this shape are said to be OCTAHEDRAL. E.g. SF6 If there are 4 bonding pairs and 2 lone pairs, the bonded pairs are at 90o in the plane and the lone pairs at 180o. The angles are still exactly 90o because the lone pairs are opposite each other so their repulsion cancels out.
Molecules which adopt this shape are said to be SQUARE PLANAR. E.g. XeF4, ClF4-
SUMMARY OF MOLECULAR SHAPES Valence Bonding Lone shell pairs pairs electron pairs 2 2 0 shape Bond Angle (o)
3 3 0
B A B
3 2 1 BENT
115 - 118
B A B
B A B B
4 3 1 TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL 107
A B B
4 2 2 BENT
A B B
5 5 0 TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL 90 and 120
B B B A B B
6 6 0 OCTAHEDRAL 90
B B A B B
6 4 2 SQUARE PLANAR 90
B A B
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES There are no covalent bonds between molecules in molecular covalent compounds. There are, however, forces of attraction between these molecules, and it is these which must be overcome when the substance is melted and boiled. These forces are known as intermolecular forces. There are three main types of intermolecular force: 1. Van der Waal's forces Consider a molecule of oxygen, O2.
e eOe e e e
e Oe e
The electrons in this molecule are not static; they are in a state of constant motion. It is therefore likely that at any given time the distribution of electrons will not be exactly symmetrical - there is likely to be a slight surplus of electrons on one of the atoms.
δ e e e Oe e ee e e
This is known as a temporary dipole. It lasts for a very short time as the electrons are constantly moving. Temporary dipoles are constantly appearing and disappearing. Consider now an adjacent molecule. The electrons on this molecule are repelled by the negative part of the dipole and attracted to the positive part, and move accordingly.
δ e e e Oe e ee e e
δ e e e Oe e ee e e
This is known as an induced dipole. There is a resulting attraction between the two molecules, and this known as a Van der Waal's force. Van der Waal's forces are present between all molecules, although they can be very weak. They are the reason all compounds can be liquefied and solidified. Van der Waal's forces tend to have strengths between 1 kJmol-1 and 50 kJmol-1.
The strength of the Van der Waal's forces in between molecules depends on two factors: a) the number of electrons in the molecule
The greater the number of electrons in a molecule, the greater the likelihood of a distortion and thus the greater the frequency and magnitude of the temporary dipoles. Thus the Van der Waal's forces between the molecules are stronger and the melting and boiling points are larger. Eg noble gases: Substance Number of electrons Melting point/oC Boiling point/oC Eg alkanes: Substance Number of electrons Melting point/oC Boiling point/oC CH4 10 -182 -164 C2H6 18 -183 -88 C3H8 26 -190 -42 C4H10 34 -138 0 He 2 -272 -269 Ne 10 -252 -250 Ar 18 -189 -186 Kr 36 -157 -152
a) Surface area of the molecules The larger the surface area of a molecule, the more contact it will have with adjacent molecules. Thus the greater its ability to induce a dipole in an adjacent molecule and the greater the Van der Waal's forces and melting and boiling points. This point can be illustrated by comparing different molecules containing a similar number of electrons: Substance Number of electrons Melting point/oC Boiling point/oC Kr 36 -157 -152 Cl2 34 -101 -35 CH3CH(CH3)CH3 34 -159 -12 CH3CH2CH2CH3 34 -138 0
H H C H H H C C H H H H
H H C H H C H H C H H
Note that butane has a larger surface area than 2-methylpropane, although they have the same molecular formula (C4H10). Straight-chain molecules always have higher boiling points than their isomers with branched chains. 2. Dipole-dipole bonding Temporary dipoles exist in all molecules, but in some molecules there is also a permanent dipole. Most covalent bonds have a degree of ionic character resulting from a difference in electronegativity between the atoms. This results in a polar bond and a dipole.
In many cases, however, the presence of polar bonds (dipoles) does not result in a permanent dipole on the molecule, as there are other polar bonds (dipoles) in the same molecule which have the effect of cancelling each other out. This effect can be seen in a number of linear, trigonal planar and tetrahedral substances:
Cl F C Cl Cl B F
BF3 CCl4 In all the above cases, there are dipoles resulting from polar bonds but the vector sum of these dipoles is zero; i.e. the dipoles cancel each other out. The molecule thus has no overall dipole and is said to be non-polar. Non-polar molecules are those in which there are no polar bonds or in which the dipoles resulting from the polar bonds all cancel each other out. The only
intermolecular forces that exist between non-polar molecules are temporaryinduced dipole attractions, or Van der Waal’s forces. In other molecules, however, there are dipoles on the molecule which do not cancel each other out:
δ + H
C Cl Cl δ -
O δ - S O δ
N + H H δ+
In all the above cases, there are dipoles resulting from polar bonds whose vector sum is not zero; i.e. the dipoles do not cancel each other out. The molecule thus has a permanent dipole and is said to be polar. Polar molecules are those in which there are polar bonds and in which the dipoles resulting from the polar bonds do not cancel out. In addition to the Van der Waal's forces caused by temporary dipoles, molecules with permanent dipoles are also attracted to each other by dipole-dipole bonding. This is an attraction between a permanent dipole on one molecule and a permanent dipole on another.
δ + H
δ + H
δ + H
Dipole-dipole bonding usually results in the boiling points of the compounds being slightly higher than expected from temporary dipoles alone; it slightly increases the strength of the intermolecular bonding. The effect of dipole-dipole bonding can be seen by comparing the melting and boiling points of different substances which should have Van der Waal's forces of similar strength: Substance Number of electrons Permanent dipole Cl2 34 NO HBr 36 YES CH3CH(CH3)CH3 34 NO CH3COCH3 32 YES
Melting point/oC Boiling point/oC
3. Hydrogen bonding In most cases as seen above, the presence of permanent dipoles only makes a slight difference to the magnitude of the intermolecular forces. There is one exceptional case, however, where the permanent dipole makes a huge difference to the strength of the bonding between the molecules. Consider a molecule of hydrogen fluoride, HF. This clearly has a permanent dipole as there is a large difference in electronegativity between H (2.1) and F (4.0). The electrons in this bond are on average much closer to the F than the H:
The result of this is that the H atom has on almost no electron density around its nucleus at all and is therefore very small. The H atom is therefore able to approach electronegative atoms on adjacent molecules very closely and form a very strong intermolecular dipole-dipole bond.
This is known as hydrogen bonding. It is only possible if the hydrogen atom is bonded to a very electronegative element; i.e. N, O or F. It is not fundamentally different from dipole-dipole bonding; it is just a stronger form of it. A hydrogen bond can be defined as an attraction between an electropositive hydrogen atom (ie covalently bonded to N, O or F) and an electronegative atom on an adjacent molecule. Examples of substances containing hydrogen bonds are HF, H2O, NH3, alcohols, carboxylic acids, amines, acid amides and urea.
O H N H H hydrogen bonds H H H O H H N H H H H O
H H H
a) Effect on boiling point The effect of hydrogen bonding on melting and boiling points of substances is huge, unlike other dipole-dipole bonds. Many substances containing hydrogen bonds have much higher boiling points than would be predicted from Van der Waal's forces alone. Substance Structure CH3OCH3
CH3 CH2 OH
H H C H C OH H O
Number of electrons Hydrogen bonding Melting point/oC Boiling point/oC
26 NO -95 -44
26 YES -117 79
40 NO -81 56
40 YES -21 141
Another important series of trends are the boiling points of the hydrides of elements in groups V, VI and VII of the periodic table: Group V: NH3, PH3, AsH3, SbH3 Group VI: H2O, H2S, H2Se, H2Te Group VII: HF, HCl, HBr, HI The boiling points of these graphs are shown graphically below:
Graph to show how hydrogen bonding affects boiling point
boiling point (degrees celcius)
50 HF 0 0 -50 20 NH3 40 H2S HCl PH3 relative moleular m ass 60 80 H2Se AsH3 HBr 100 H2Te 120 SbH3 140 HI
In each case the hydride of period 2 shows a boiling point which is abnormally high ( H2O, NH3 and HF). The general increase in boiling point down the groups result from the increase in Van der Waal's forces which results from an increasing number of electrons in the molecules. There are permanent dipoles but they are not very strong. The abnormally high boiling points of H2O, NH3 and HF are a result of hydrogen bonding between the molecules. Thus results in very strong intermolecular forces between the molecules despite the fact that the Van der Waal's forces are weaker than in the other hydrides. b) other effects of hydrogen bonding The effects of hydrogen bonding on the physical properties of a substance are not restricted to elevated melting and boiling points; it can influence the properties of substances in other ways: The low density of ice. This is due to hydrogen bonding. In ice, the water molecules arrange themselves in such a way as to maximise the amount of hydrogen bonding between the molecules. This results in a very open hexagonal structure with large spaces within the crystal. This accounts for its low density. When the ice melts, the structure collapses into the open spaces and the resulting liquid, despite being less ordered, occupies less space and is thus more dense. Thus ice floats on water. The helical nature of DNA. This is also due to hydrogen bonding. Molecules of DNA contain N-H bonds and so hydrogen bonding is possible. The long chains also contain C=O bonds and the H atoms can form a hydrogen bond with this electronegative O atom. This results in the molecule spiralling, as the C=O bonds and the N-H bonds approach each other. This is an example of an intramolecular hydrogen bond, where the attraction is between a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom on the same molecule. This must be distinguished from intermolecular hydrogen bonding, in which the attraction is between a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom on an adjacent molecule.
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