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'The Claudel Hobson dupleX carburettor type AV'I'o 853M .. B. ditfers considerably from all previous types of carburet tcrs of this make. in so far that in addition tOmaDY deslan 1mprOveme~ts, it incorporates an integral automatic boost and mixture cont ro 1 unit.
The carburettor consists of two identical cart1lrettors, side by side, each unit comprising a separate tloat chamber and aeohe.nism.. tuel feed, ,diffuser, main and slow-running jetse shrunk: in choke and cast delivery shroud and altitude control cocko
The only interconnection provided between the two halves is through t~e air balance passage, and the transverse passages connecting the two main jets and the two slow-running air box nozzles respectively. All three passages are situated in the top half casting.
The automatic boost and mixture cotltrol unita are common to both sides.
OONTROL 01 THE CARBURETTOR.
The throttle . lever is movable through a' total 0::: 1000• Each degree 01' movement 01' this lever trom closed (slov\T.-ruiming)
to tull open (take-ott) position gives a detinite increase; in boost pressl:U'e, and when the lever is moved to any part ic ul.ar' pcsition, the same boost pressure will always be obtained, provided the airoraft 1s tlying at or below rated altitude.
There are,~,hree separate adjustments on the~hree-stage boost control, and these'are set so as to giv~ a definite serios
01' boost pressures corresponding with the tollowing positions 01' the carburettor throttle lever. gates in the pilot' 6 cockr_.J~'t control being provided to locate them. As tho throttle lCY;3r is moved tram slow-running position, the boost pressure gradually ),~croasos until. when the lever is 600 open, the max~um boost pressure at whioh it is peDDisslble to use weak mixture (corrosponding to that obtained by the 3% revolution drop method) is reached.
)loving beyond this point. the boost pressure increases until., at 800 open, rated boost position is reached. A further . movement ot 20° again increases the boost pressur~ untj_l ~ at full open position ot (100°) take-otf boost 1s obtained. Thi.s latt~r movement ot the throttle lever also automatically operatos the enriohment' jet. thus providing the neoossary enrichment for take-ott.
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CONTROL OF THE CARBURETTOR - Cont'd.
The mixture control lever has two positions only~ One posi tion provides "normal" mixture and the other "weak" mirture, but in both cases correction for altitude is automatic, and is not under the pilot's control. The "weak" setting corresponds to the weakening off which is obtained by the 3% revolution drop method.
Interconnection between the throttle lever and the two-position automatic mixture control lever is provided for in the pilot's cockpit controlo The mixture control lever can only remain in the "weak" position while the throttle lever is in the weak mixture cruising range, i.e. up to 600 open , Movement of
the throttle lever beyond this point automatically returns the mixture control lever to "normal". Likewise, it the thro-:;tle lever is moved back to the slow-running position, the mixture control lever is again automatically returned to "normal"o The pilot can. however, it he Wishes, leave the mixture control lever in
the nor.mal mixture pOSition throughout the range ot the throttle lever movement. This is an advantage for manoeuvring at small throttle openings on the ground.
The only other control lever provided is for the operation at the slow-running cut-off valve.
FUNCTIONAL DETAIIS OF THE CARBURETWR.
The Main Jet System
The main jets are situated in the base ot the float chambers, immediately beneath the diffusers, which are screwed into the bottom half casting on the split centre lineo The diffusers cannot be removed without first splitting the carbuTettoro
Air is supplied to the outside ot the diffusers from a passage way in the top half casting, which in turn is fed from the main air balance screen situated between and towards the rear of the chokes; in the air intake~
Slow Running System
The quantity at fuel delivered trom these jets ts governed by the altitude dontrol codks (see separate paragraph on page 6~. These two jet deliveries are balanced by means of a'transverse passage connecting the two delivery shrouds,
The jets are situated in the base of the float chamber, and feed upwards through cast-in passage ways in the bottom half casting, which match Up with equivalent passages
in the top half casting. Immediately inside the top half casting, air is introduced to break up the fuel into an emulsion,
FUNCTIONAL DETAIIS OF THE CARBURE'ITOR - Cont I do jlow--Runnins System
the air being obtained fram a point immediately above the top ot the main jet diffusers which~ of course, are not in operation When the slow-running system is in operation~
The amount of air is regulated by means of a hexagonal headed adjusting screw, provided with a screw driver slot and loektns nut, situated one on each side of the carburettor top halt casting.
To enrioh the mixture, the adjusting screw is turned 1n a clookwise direction. This adjustment is made in conjunction with the throttle stop situated on the port side, which latter governs the slow-running engine speedo
The emulsion then passes into a transverse tube, passing along until it reaohes two holes in the tube, drilled opposite two more passages leading upwards into the air box plugs.
The operation of the slow-running cut-off lever situated on the starboard side of the top half casting, rotates the transverse tube through 450, thus cutting off the fuel feed to the air box plugs •.
Should it be necessa~J to remove the air b~: plugs, unsorew the two hexagonal headed securing screws, and insert a rod screwed in BSF into the famale thread provided for withdrawal ot the plugs.
To provide the correct mixture at low engine speeds, I.e. from slow-running until the main jets come into operation,
a passage is drilled transversely across the butter fly throttles. Two small holes are also drilled through the throttles into this passage, one being on the up~er and one on the under surface.
The position of the air box jets is so arranged that when the throttle is closed, the upper one is in line with the transverse passage in the throttle, whilst the lower jet is immediately below the bottom edge of the throttleo
The sequence of operations is as follows:-
When the engi.ne is running with the throttles in the slow-running position, the throttles are almost closed and consequently a high depression exists above the throttleso Fuel
is flowing from the slow-running jets~ but in order to break down the depression slightly, and obtain the correct mixture strength with the throttle in this position, and at the same time further to emulsify the fuel admitted, air is allowed to enter through.-
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Slow-Running System - Cont'd • . ta) the lower air bleed jet.
(b) through a small hole in the underside of the throttle and (c) through the air adjusting screws.
As the throttle is opened, the transfer l8ssage comes opposite the lower air bleed jet, thus reversing the flow through this jet, which now supplies fuel to the transfer passage and thus to the engine. By this means a slight additional quantity of fuel is supplied to compensate for the increased quantity of air reaching the engine with the throttle open.
When the throttle is opened a little further, the depression on the slow-running jets via the air bleed holes is diminished and the main jets come into operation; from this point onwards the effect of the air box jets is lessened. The sizes ot air bleed jets are set by the manufacturers and should not be altered.
Power Jet System
This sibgle jet is situated in the base of the float chamber on the port side, and is fed trom the port tloat chamber through a spring loaded valve operated by a cam located oh the pilot's layshatt. Fuel, having passed through the valve and restrictor jet, is drawn upwards until it meets the transverse passage connecting the two main jet deliveries, and then passes into the chokeS via the main jet deliveries. The jet is only cOlTected for altitude.
Float Chamber Base Plugs
These, as would be expected, are situated one in each tloat chamber at its lowest point, and completely drain the whole carburettor, with the exception ot the accelerator pump which should be emptied by operating the pilot's layshatt lever several times.
Power Bleed Jet (sometimes marked P.B.)
This uncorrected jet forms a by-pass around the cam operated power jet, and is always in operation; the delivery follows the same course as the power jet delivery. The object
ot the jet is to enable the desired shape ot throttle curve to
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Enrichment Jet System
This single jet' is t-::i tuated in the base Of the starboard float chamber, and operates in a similar manner to the power jet, the operating cam being located on the pilot's layshaft. When the jet is in operation for take-off or all
out level flight, it delivers neat fuel into the starboard choke tube via a hole in the choke wall, and is therefore uncorrected for altitude.
This is of tho conventional delayed action type
as fitted to Bristol.,engini3s for a numbe r of years. It consists of two pistons, f i·tted with piston rings, and cylinders in tandem. The uppermost mass discharge piston is connected to the pilot's lays haft by means of a piston rod, while the lower delayed action piston, which is considerably the larger of the two, is free to slide up or down on another piston rod screwed into the base of the mass discharge piston.
A spring is interposed between the two, thus keep1ng
The actiOn of the pump is as follows:-
Fuel is fed from a common entry into the base of the mass discharge cylinder and top of the delayed acti9.~.lcylinderf from the starboard float chamber via a non-return c~k valve ..
The fuel is therefore in communication with the underside of the mass discharge piston, and the top of the delayed action piston.
The mass disch,arge doli very is via a non-return ball valve situated underneath the air balance intake screen, and thence via the two calibrated delivery tubes, integral with the screen. into each choke. The delay~d action cylinder is filled via the common entry, fuel passing through a non-return clack valve in tho piston.. The discharge is through a combined restrictor jet and non-return ball valve, thence upwards to join tho cammon mass
discharge delivery behind the air balance screen. Access to the delayed action restrictor jet iS,by means of removing the pump base plate, when tho jet will be seen.
Operation of Pump
At tho slow-running position on the pilot's layshaft lever, both pistons a~e at the top of their stroke, and both cylinders full of fuel •. Upon moving the pilot's lever to the take-off position, the mass discharge piston expels all the fuel 1n its cylinder v~a its own non return valve.
Operation of Pump ~ Corrt ' do
The pressure set up is, of course, communicated
to the top of the delayed action piston~ This howeverJ cannot expel the fuel in front of it as quickly as the mass discharge piston, on account of the delayed action restrictor jeto The piston rod attached to the base of the mass discharge piston therefore passes downwar-ds through the centre of the delayed action pistonJ and at the same time compresses the spring interposed between the two pi5tons~ vVhen the mass discharge piston reaches the bottom cf its rrGroke under the Lnf Luonc e of the spring, arriving approximately two seClonds later.
Two cocks are provided, one on either side of the carburettor9 These are supplied with air direct from the main air balance syst em,
At ground level these cocks are completely shut, the main jet diffusers obtaining their air supply direct from
the air balance intake screen, the quantity of air being regulated by the size of holes in the diffusers.
The automatic mixture control unit opens the two cocks gradually with increased in altitude, thus ndmHting a controlled amount of ai.r on to' the top of the diffusers, thus weakening the mixture by reducing the depression on the :.~~. in jots crea ted by the chcb_;;; 0
Splitting the carburettoro
The sequence of operations is as follows:-
(1) Disconnect the accelerator pump piston rod from the pilot's layshaft by removing a pino
(2) Disconnect the automatic mixture control unit by removing the pin from the cam t rack,
(3) Disconnect the links connected to the boost control piston rod at the piston rod endo
(4) Remove spindle on which the rocker arm supporting the adjustable tappets is supportedo The spindle is provided with a screw driver slot, and screws into the top half casting on the port side.
(5) Remove all nuts and washers from studs inside the control chamber, also those adjacent to the boost and mixture control units, outside the control chamber.
(6) The combined automatic boost and mixture control units can
now be wi tihdrawn ,
(7) Remove remainder of nuts and washers on the carburettor split centre line~
(8) The carburettor can now be split. It may be necessary to top the two halves apart with a rubber mallet; never'use a metal one as the casting is fragile.
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Operation of the Automatic 3 Stago Boost Control
This unit is exactly the sarno functionally as a standard Mk. XXXB unit, with the exception that the variable datum cam and override device have now been removed from the top of the barometric capsule chamber. Instead, there is a rocker arm, complete with adjustable tappets at one end and a fork end at the other. This rocker arm is supportod on a spindle at its centro, independently of the boost control unit.
Three oams are fitted to the pilot's throttle lever shaft, and each of the three tappets will, in turn, come into contact with, and ride upon the cam, depending upon the position of the throttle lever~ In the position shown, the take-off boost cam and tappet ara
in contact and the barometric capsule is compressed by the fork end of the rocker arm to control the tc~e-off boost.
The effect of this arrangement is the same as if an ordinary variable datum boost control were fitted with a cam having three definite stages of dwell, corresponding to max~um weak mixture cruising boost, rated boost and take-off boost.
The disadvantages of such a scheme, however, would be that there would be no individual adjustment for each of the three boost pressures, whereas with the new arrangement this is provided.
The method of adjusting the boost pressures to any desired figure is as follows:-
Firstly, tho engine is run up until the throttle lever is 80° open (marked on a quadrant e:i:.tuated on the carburettof. Then, by means of the knurled adjuster "A" on the boost control the rated boost is adjusted to the required value, the rated boost cam ''B'' boing in contact with the fixed tappet.
Maximum boost using ultra-weak mixture can then be set, with the throttle lever moved back to the 600 open posl. tion, by means of adjustable tappet·nC", which is screwed clockwise to increase the boost pressure.
Take-off boost is adjusted in a similar manner by means of the adjustable tappet ItC", the throttle lever being
set in the take-off position, i.e. 1000 open.
After making these adjustments, tho correct boost . pressure will always be obtained when the throttle lever is moved to any particular position.
The contour of the cams is such that the boost pressure is raised progressivelY with the angular movement of the throttle lever, thereby, giving the variable datum effect. A slight
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dwell 1s made on the peak ot each cam which is at a radius with the centre ot the throttle lever. These per10ds of dwell correspond to the three adjustable boost positions.
The boost control, complete With its cam, rocker and adjustments, 1s housed completely within the body of the carburettor, The external linkages which previously existed between the boost oontrol un1t and the carburet tor ar thus eliminated, and apart fram the resUlting simplification and neatness, the possibility ot the adjustments becoming disturbed is avoided.
The Two-stage Auto~t1c Mixture Control
two-stage automatic ~ixture control as fitted to the carburettor . contains a barometric capsule, valve gear, and servo piston, very similar to a boost control unit, but with the following dlfferences:-
The capsule chamber is open to atmospheric pressure instead of being affected by boost pressure, as is the case with the boost control. One end of the capsule is linked up to the servo piston in such a way that a change in atmospheric pressure causes a small and not complete stroke ot the piston~ which is communioated to the mixture control valve in the carburettor. For a decrease in atmospheric pressure the barometric capsule eXpands s11ghtly_ moving the p1ston oil valve a corresponding amount, thus opening .the oil ports and allowing oil under pressure to pass to the underside of the piston, which commenoes to move towards the top of its stroke. In,so doing, the capsule, which
is connected to the piston rQd by means of a link on an adjustable fulcrum, 1s drawn bodily upwards, bringing the piston oil valve with it. Thus after a certain movement of the piston in an upward direction, the oil supply is cut off, and the piston
ceases to move further until another change in atmospheric pres~ sure takes place.
Surrounding the valve is a rotatable sleeve containing two sets of holes at different heights, The rotation of this sleeve opens up one pair of holes. closes the other pair, and causes the servo piston to choose one or other of two datums, from which it 1s sens1tive to changes in altitude.
The piston has a total movement of about Ii inches.
In the normal position at sea level it is at the extreme bottom
of its stroke, Movement of the sleeve to uncover the second pair ot holes causes the piston to take up its second datum position farther up the cylinder, and its movement with increases in altitude commences from this new point, the piston travelling to the extreme top position at very high altitude. The distance between these
two pairs of holes in the sleeve varies With different types of
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TOO Two.alaja Automatl0 ll1X1;ure Control - Cont·d.
of engines. and depends on the decrease in mixture strength that is tound to be most suitable between the "ngmal" and ~eak" sett1ngs~
Like the boost control, the automatic mixture eontrol unit and 1 ts linkages to the mixture val. ve ere contained eompletel,. 16d.tb1J:I. 1;.ba oarburettor.
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