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Biochemistry Notes-study guide

Biochemistry Notes-study guide


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Published by gmanb5
Study Guide for a unit on Biochemistry created for a middle school life science class.
Study Guide for a unit on Biochemistry created for a middle school life science class.

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Published by: gmanb5 on Jun 11, 2008
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Biochemistry Notes-study guide

Biochemistry Notes Energy transfer through cells

from www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/ photorespiration.jpg


from http://www.ftexploring.com/photosyn/photosynth.html

CO2+H2O+water -> sugar + O2 Two parts Light reaction: hydrogen is removed from water to form oxygen Dark reaction: carbon dioxide is converted to sugar. Opposite reaction to respiration Takes place in the chloroplasts (using chlorophyll) Respiration sugar + oxygen -> energy + carbon dioxide Completely the opposite of photosynthesis takes place in the mitochondria of cells


Biochemistry Notes in the mitochondria of cells takes place 2 parts aerobic respiration -- takes place in the presence of oxygen anaerobic respiration -- takes place without oxygen also called fermentation produces alcohol (plants) or lactic acid (muscles) energy released from glucose converted to a more available form of energy ATP <-> ADP + P + energy C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36 ATP Organic molecules Elements top 3: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen next 2: nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous Bonds Structure Organic Compounds Carbohydrates Made up of sugars Elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Proteins Made up of amino acids Elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur Lipids/Fats Made up of fatty acids and glycerol Elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (just like carbs) Enzymes Enzymes are proteins Enzymes speed up the process of just about every chemical reaction in a cell. They are called catalysts Enzymes work according to the lock and key theory Enzymes attache to substrate at active site This "connection" serves to speed up a chemical reaction When reaction is completed, enzyme and substrate separate.

from RegentsPrep.org

Structure determines function Factors influencing enzyme function pH 7 is optimal too high or too low is no good.

Factors influencing enzyme function pH too Biochemistry Notes high or too low is no good. temp too high - enzyme is denatured (destroyed) too low - not enough energy for reaction concentrations of enzyme and substrate too much of one and/or too little of the other is no good. Basic Concepts Chemical elements tend toward stability adding or losing electrons organic compounds are the result of this trend toward stability Structure is the key to biochemistry example: lock and key theory for enzymes, neurotransmitters Energy moves from where there's more to where there is less 2nd principle of thermodynamics: entropy increases toward randomness Organic systems seek to maintain homeostasis maintenance of stable internal environment despite changes to external environment. Dynamic equilibrium The process of various cellular and organ systems working together to maintain the homeostasis of a living, complex organism Systems rely on feedback mechanisms example: thermostat and furnace feedback can be neural (nerve messages) or chemical (hormones, blood levels) Surface area Many body systems make use of increased surface area Allows systems to do a lot of processing in a relatively small space Example: digestive system

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