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TANK, COMBAT, 120 mm GUN

CHALLENGER

.PART2

FIGHTING SYSTEMS

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CONTENTS

Page

PRELIMINARY MATERIAL

Contents (this list) ....................................•....................... jfjj

Introduction .....•............................................................ i/ii

CHAPTERS

e

1 - FIGHTING COMPARTMENT, TURRET AND CUPOLA 2 - ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

3 ~ ARMAMENT

4 - GUN CONTROL EQUIPMENT

5 - OPTICAL FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM

6 - IMPROVED FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM 7 - AMMUNITION

8 - NBC FILTRATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION

The fighting systems are housed within the fighting compartment The compartment, enclosed by the turret shell, houses the main and secondary armament, all the optical fire control equipment required for surveillance and armament alignment, manual, power and computer operated equipment for gun elevation and turret traverse, radio equipment and the main stowage of ammunition for main and secondary armament.

The crew of three, housed in the compartment, consists of the commander and gunner seated on the rig ht and the loade r / rad io 0 perato r positioned on the left. Th e gun ner and loader have specifi cd uties, whereas the co m mander can. as req ui red. ave rri de the gu n ner in m ai n armam ent sighti ng, control and electrical firing.

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Chapter 1

FIGHTING COMPARTMENT, TURRET AND CUPOLA

CONTENTS

Turret Cupola hatch

Operation

To open the cupola hatch To close the cupola hatch

To lock the cupola hatch in the umbrella position To change the cupola hatch hinge catch setting

Cupola controls

Cupola traversing gear Operation

To rotate the cupola manually loader's hatches

Operation

To open the loader's hatches To close the loader's hatches Servicing

Commander's seat

Operation

To raise and lower the commander's seat Servicing

To top-up the seat pump reservoir Gunner's seat

Operation

To raise or lower the gunner's seat loader's seat

Operation

To adjust the loader's seat Charge bins and projectile racks Servicing

To check charge bin pressure

To top-up and pressurize a charge bin Refuse ejector

Operation

To eject refuse Servicing

Drinking water reservoir, fighting compartment Servicing

Turret

Commander's cupola , .

Cupola traversing gear .

loader's hatch .

Commander's seat

Gunner's seat .

loader's seat .

Charge bin location .

Charge bin .

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FIGHTING COMPARTMENT, TURRET AND CUPOLA

TURRET

1. The armoured turret (Fig 1) is capable of all round traverse, either manually or under power. The main gun is mounted on trunnions which allow the gun to be elevated 356 mils (20 degrees) and depressed 178 mils (10 degrees) from the horizontal, either manually or under power. The rear of the turret accommodates the turret batteries and the NBC unit which gives crew protection against the effects of Nuclear Bacteriological and Chemical warfare. Access to the fighting compartment for the commander and gunner is provided by the cupola hatch (19) and for the loader by two hatches (5) to the left of the cupola.

2. The commanders cupola (19) is capable of all round manual traverse and is fitted with nine unit power periscopes (20) and a periscopic day sight that may be changed from within the vehicle for a night vision sight. The sighting head of the periscopic sight is enclosed in an armoured hood which may be opened or closed from within the cupola. The periscopes and front glass of the armoured hood are fitted with a window wiper and washer system.

3. A machine gun, mechanically linked to the sighting head of the periscopic sight, is mounted on

the side of the cupola adjacent to the sight hood and operated from within the cupola.

4 Forward of the cupola is an armoured hood (15) that protects the gunners periscopic sight and houses the muzzle reference system light source. The hood is fitted with a hinged visor and a window wiper and washer system. A spring-loaded armoured cover protects the gunner's auxiliary sight (6) when the sight is in the stowed position. The loader is provided with a folding periscope housed in a rotatable mounting.

5. A multi-barrelled smoke discharger (9) is positioned on the sloping front face of the turret either

side of the main armament.

6. Two bolted covers (1) and (4), positioned to the rear of the hatches, provide access to the gun

control equipment metadynes and the turret batteries and water reservoirs.

CUPOLA HATCH

7. Access for the commander and gunner is through the cupola hatch (see Fig 2) which can be retained in either the vertical or rear horizontal positions by a catch. The hatch can be locked closed by two handles and when locked, cannot be opened from the outside. The hatch can also be retained partly open to provide umbrella protection.

Operation

To open the cupola hatch

8. Move the two locking handles (Fig 2(2)) to point inwards, then push the spring assisted hatch

upward until it is held by the hinge catch.

To close the cupola hatch

9. Pull down the spring-loaded spade handled catch (33) (coloured orange) to release the catch and close the hatch against spring pressure. Lock by pulling the locking handles back to the stops

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U4597/10

1 Metadyne cover 8 Coaxial MG
2 NBC unit 9 Smoke discharger
3 MG ammunition container 10 120mm main armament
4 Turret batteries cover 11 Fume extractor
5 Loader's hatch 12 MRS mirror and hood
6 Gunner's auxiliary sight 13 Gunner's laser sight
7 Loader's periscope 14 MRS light source
Fig 1 - Turret 15 Gunner's .sight hood 16 Commander's MG

17 Commander's sight 18 TOGS barbet

19 Cupola

20 Commander's periscopes 21 . Cupola hatch

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To lock the cupola hatch in the umbrella position

10. Movethe locking handles (Fig 2(2)) inwards, push hatch upwards. Pull and turn (against spring pressure) the spring-loaded bolt (1) from its stowed position and permit the bolt to engage with the recess in the rim of the commander's sight protective cowl. To release the hatch, pull the bolt and turn to engage with the stowage lug.

1

1 Bolt 12 MG cradle 23 Washer jet
2 Hatch locking handles 13 MG solenoid cable 24 Compensated link filler plug
3 Sight hood door 14 MG ammunition box cover 25 Wiper motor
4 Shield 15 MG depression stop 26 Periscope
5 Reservoir filler plug 16 MG ammunition box 27 Sight hood connector box
6 Washer spray 17 Loader's hatch 28 Cupola
7 Wiper unit 18 Hatch catch 29 Quick release pin
8 Door release 19 Auxiliary sight cover 30 Hinge lug
9 Spotlight cable 20 Sight cover lock 31 Catch arm
10 Spotlight 21 Gunner's sight hood 32 Cupola hatch
11 MG mounting pin 22 Washer jet 33 Spade catch
Fig 2 - Commander's cupola Part 2 Chap 1 Page 4

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To change the cupola hatch hinge catch setting

11. With the cupola hatch closed or partly open, withdraw the captive quick release pin (Fig 2(29)), disengage the catch arm (31) from the hinge lug (30), and rotate the arm to the required setting. Insert the quick release pin in the appropriate hole. Check that the hatch hinge catch engages correctly.

CUPOLA CONTROLS

12. The cupola is equipped with three electrical supply switch boxes. The master switch box is located on the turret wall to the right of the commander's position. The other two switch boxes are mounted either side of the periscopic sight on the cupola rotating ring and provide control and fuze protection for the machine gun, spotlight, sight and sight hood electrical systems.

Cupola traversing gear

13. The cupola traversing gearbox (Fig 3) is located to the right of the commander's position. The gearbox has a traversing handle with an engagement trigger (6). A control knob (5), positioned to the right of the traversing handle permits the gearbox to be locked in position to prevent rotation of the cupola. A spring-loaded striker plate (3) located on the gearbox housing engages with a striker arm (1) attached to the cupola rotating ring to retain the cupola in the 'line up' position.

1 Striker arm

2 Striker arm locating pin 3 Striker plate

4 Striker plate retaining spring 5 Locking control knob

6 Engagement trigger

7 Gearbox stem

Fig 3 - Cupola traversing gear

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Operation

To rotate the cupola manually

14. Ensure that the gearbox locking control knob (5) is rotated anti-clockwise to the released position and pull down the striker plate (3) to dis-engage the striker arm (1), squeeze the traversing handle trigger and rotate in the desired direction until the cupola is in the required position. When not required either lock the gearbox in posltlon or return the cupola to the 'line up' position and re-engage the striker plate.

LOADER'S HATCHES

I

15. The loader's access is via two spring assisted interlocking hatches (Fig 4) positioned in the turret top plate above the loader's position. The hatches are retained closed by two locking handles.

Note

In an emergency access to the fighting compartment can be gained from the driver's compartment after traversing the gun to the rear.

Operation

To open the loader's hatches

16. Move the two locking levers (Fig 4(1)) on the rearmost hatch inwards, push up both hatches, assisted by the hinge located torsion bars. The hatches are held in the fully open position by engaging with spring-loaded catches on the turret roof. The catches are released from inside the turret by pushing the roof catch release handles (2).

To close the loader's hatches

17. Release roof catches (2) and close front hatch first by pulling on the webbing strap. Keep fingers clear on closing the rearmost hatch, move the locking levers (1) rearwards to the stops, thereby securing the hatches.

Servicing

18. Lightly lubricate all catches, locking handles, hinges and the quick release pin. Remove any mud, debris etc from the cupola hatch seal.

19. Clean away any water, mud, debris etc which may have entered the open hatches. Clean and lightly lubricate the cupola traversing gear moving parts and check the operation of all controls. Clean the lubricating nipples on the loader's hatch hinge and inject grease until it appears round the working parts. Clean off surplus grease.

COMMANDER'S SEAT

20. The commander's seat (Fig 5) is mounted on a pillar, bolted to the commander's footplate, immediately below the cupola operrlnq. The seat can be raised manually by a pump operated hydraulic ram to give the commander headout vision. A further seat height can be gained by raising the seat backrest to the horizontal position, which gives the seated commander all-round external visibility. The seat hydraulic system is provided with a small reservoir, located to the rear of the seat.

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6

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(a)

.--------4

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U4373/31

1 Locking levers 2 Release handle

3 Radio operators light

4 Turret roof 5 Hatch catch

6 Hatch

(a) View from inside turret

Fig 4 - Loader's hatch

Operation

To raise and lower the commander's seat

21. To raise the seat: Turn the control valve knob (Fig 5(3)) fully to the right, operate the double acting pump handle (8) to give the required height.

22. To lower the seat: Remain seated and turn the control valve knob (3) to the left, the seat will then descend. To stop the descent, turn the valve knob to the right.

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23. To raise the seat backrest: Pull the lower edge of the backrest (2) out until the pad is held in the horizontal position by the support linkage (1).

24. To lower the backrest: Fold the support linkage (1) and lower the pad (2).

Servicing

To top-up the seat pump reservoir

25. Lower the seat and clean around the filler cap (4). Remove the filler cap and add fluid of the correct grade to fill the reservoir. Replace the filler cap and check the hydraulic system by operation of the seat.

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U4373/19

1 Support linkage 2 Backrest pad

3 Control valve knob

4 Filler cap, reservoir 5 Reservoir

6 Hydraulic ram

Fig 5 - Commander's seat

7 Seat pad

8 Pump handle

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GUNNER'S SEAT

26. The gunner's seat (Fig 6) is located forward of the commander's position. The seat pad has a spring-loaded scissors type mounting which can give, on selection, six height positions. A folding removable backrest pad is located, by its spigot, in the commander's footplate to the rear of the gunner's seat. The backrest can be lowered to give access to and from the gunner's position.

1

5

U4509/65

1 Backrest pad

2 Commander's toototete 3 Backrest hinge

4 Release lever

5 Seat pad

Fig 6 - Gunner's seat

Operation

To raise or lower the gunner's seat

27. Ease the weight of the body from the seat pad, lift the release lever (Fig 6(4)), located below the seat front edge. Allow the seat to rise under the action of the springs, or push down as required, then at the required height, release the lever to lock the seat.

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28. The seat backrest is lowered by lifting the pad (1) until the hinge (3) section of the backrest support tube is exposed, then lower the backrest to one side. To raise (or insert) the backrest: Lift and straighten the backrest hinge point (3) and permit the support tube spigot to slide into the mounting aperture in the commander's footplate.

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LOADER'S SEAT

29. The loader's seat (Fig 7) is located on the left of the fighting compartment, below the loader's access doors. The seat pad (1) engages with a bracket on the turret sill and is supported by a tubular frame bolted to the turret ring and turntable floor.

30 The seat pad can be removed, for loading operations access etc, by simply lifting and disengaging the seat tongue from the sill bracket. Stowage for the seat pad is provided on the turret left wall. The foot rest (4) may be removed and stowed by a strap to the two round projectile rack located on the turntable below the gun mounting.

Operation

To adjust the loader's seat

31. Position the seat pad so that the seat location plate (8) is inserted into the bracket (9) and the lugs (12) abut against the guard rail (13). Tighten the screw (11) until it locates against the bracket (9). ensuring that the lugs (12) are pushed firmly against the guard rail. but allow the seat to be unclipped for removal Refit the seat and tighten the lock-nut (10). Retest for security.

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U. 373/21A

1 Loader's seat pad 2 Turret (lng

3 Seat guard rat! 4 Fool rest

5 Charge bill

6 Loader's heel guard 7 Knee guard

B Seet iocetion plate 9 Bracket

10 Lock-nut

11 Screw

12 Locating lugs 13 Guard rail

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Fig 7 Loader's seat

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CHARGE BINS AND PROJECTILE RACKS

32. The charge bins (Fig 8) are situated around the fighting compartment to provide easy access and stowage for the main armament projectile propellant charges in conditions which minimise ammunition fire risk within the vehicle.

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U4597/105

1 Gunner's footplate 2 Gunner's pedestal

3 Commander's footplate

4 Commander's seat 5 Charge bins (with covers)

6 Loader's seat

7 Ready charge bin 8 Charge bins, left hoizontal

9 Charge bins, right horizontal

Fig 8 - Charge bin location

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33. Each charge container within a bin holds one APDS charge or two HESH/SMOKE charges. The charge containers are encased in a rubber envelope. The space between the charge containers and the envelope is filled with a liquid coolant pressurised to 7 Ibflsq.in (48 kN/sq.m). Two ball-type valves, marked FILL and BLEED respectively, mounted on the bin top face provide the fill/test facility. The valves and their recesses are protected by threaded plastic cups.

34. A spring-loaded damper is fitted in the bottom of each charge container to absorb the shock should a charge be allowed to drop. The mouth of each container is sealed by a 'rotate to lock' clear plastic lid which hinges from the bin casing.

35. The rear vertically mounted charge bins (5) are fitted with canvas covers to prevent contamination of the bin top face by rain (entering through open hatches), debris, etc.

36. The projectile racks within the fighting compartment are located on the turntable floor, turret rear sill, turret bustle and the forward sloping face of the turret adjacent to the loaders position.

Servicing

37. The bin faces must be kept clean and the covers (where fitted) in position and secure, except when inserting or removing charges. The containers must be kept dry and the lids (Fig 9(4)), valve caps (1) and (3) and dampers secure in place between servicing.

To check charge bin pressure

38. The charge bins are filled, charged and pressure checked by the use of a manual pressurizing kit, ie Maintenance Kit, Charge Bin, as follows:

38.1 If necessary, traverse the turret to give access to the charge bin.

38.2 Remove the dust cap from the bin 'Fill' valve (Fig 9(1)) and connect the charging kit stirrup pump connecting hose to the valve. Insert the pump into the fluid container, then screw the knob on the pump connector to open the valve.

38.3 Place the connected pressure gauge bleed tube into the container and open the gauge shut-off cock.

38.4 Operate the pump until bubble-free fluid flows from the bleed tube, indicating that all air has been expelled from the charge bin.

38.5 Close the gauge shut-off cock and continue pumping until the gauge registers 7 Ibf/sq.in (48 kN/sq.m) then immediately unscrew the pump connector knob, to prevent any flow back through the pump, remove the connector.

38.6 Unscrew and remove the pressure gauge connector.

38.7 Clean off any spilt fluid. Replace charges, closure lids, dustcaps, and canvas cover.

38.8 Repeat the procedure for all bins requiring pressurizing.

38.9 When the pressurization of the bins is complete, drain any surplus fluid from the pump, pressure gauge and tubes, then stow the equipment.

To top-up and pressurize a charge bin

39. If during the checking of the charge bins pressures (see paragraph 36), the gauge indicates below 7Ibf/sq.in (48 kN/sq.m) leave the pressure gauge/bleed tube assembly fitted to the 'Bleed' valve (2) and proceed as follows:

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1 Fill valve dust cap 2 Bleed valve

3 Bleed valve dust cap 4 Plastics lid

Fig 9 - Charge bin

Notes

(1) Before pressurizing, the bins which register zero pressure, check with soapy water that this loss of pressure is not due to faulty seals or valves.

(2) The topping-up of fluid consists of seven parts of clean water to three parts of an approved anti-freeze mixture (by volume).

39.1 Ensure that the 5 gallon (23 litre) container is clean and empty. Place in the container enough fluid to top-up and pressurize the bin. Place the container adjacent to the bin to be pressurized.

39.2 Remove the dust cap from the in 'Fill' valve (Fig 9(1)) and connect the charging kit stirrup pump connecting hose to the valve. Insert the pump into the fluid container, then screw the knob on the pump connector to open the valve.

39.3 Place the connected pressure gauge bleed tube into the container and open the gauge shut-off cock.

39.4 Operate the pump until bubble-free fluid flows from the bleed tube, indicating that all air has been expelled from the charge bin.

39.5 Close the gauge shut-off cock and continue pumping until the gauge registers 7 Ibf/sq.in (48 kN/sq.m) then immediately, unscrew the pump connector knob, to prevent any flow back through the pump, remove the connector.

39.6 Unscrew and remove the pressure gauge connector.

39.7 Clean off any spilt fluid. Replace charges, closure lids, dust caps and canvas cover.

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39.8 Repeat the procedure for all bins requiring pressurizing.

39.9 When the pressurization of the bins is complete, drain any surpluss fluid from the pump, pressure gauge and tubes, then stow the equipment.

REFUSE EJECTOR

40. A circular aperture, with armoured door, located in the left hull wall, is provided for the disposal of refuse when the tank is 'closed down' for long periods.

Operation

To eject refuse

41. Proceed as follows:

41.1 Unzip the refuse bag and place refuse in the bag, zip up the bag.

41.2 Unclamp the door by pulling the clamping handle upward.

41.3 Push refuse and bag through the aperture in the hull to eject the refuse.

41.4 Feel through the bag material for the door handle, and pull the door closed.

41.5 Push the clamping handle down to clamp the door shut.

Servicing

42. Clean out the refuse bag. Lubricate the clamping handle using a grease gun. Lightly oil the external hinges and check door operation.

DRINKING WATER RESERVOIR, FIGHTING COMPARTMENT

43. The drinking water reservoir is located in the turret bustle forward of the turret batteries. A funnel, stowed in a clip on the reservoir left side, is provided to facilitate filling. A push type tap, connected to the reservoir by a flexible clear plastic tubing, provides the means of drawing off water. This tap is stowed in a spring clip, mounted between the radio sets, when not required.

Servicing

44. Drain the water from the reservoir, via the dispensing tap, at least once a week. Drinking water stores for periods in excess of this time may be unfit to drink. Refill the reservoir (capacity 16litres (3.5 gal) with fresh drinking water using the funnel provided.

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Chapter 2

FIGHTING COMPARTMENT ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY

• CONTENTS

General description

Controls and elecrical services Hull batteries master switch

Main engine running with generator 'ON' load Generator unit engine running 'ON' load Turret batteries

To service the turret batteries (Warning) Turret batteries master switch

Hull main junction box

To select the 'battle link'

To revert to the training position To reset a circuit breaker

To change a fuse

Turret distribution box

To check the negative earth To change a fuse

Turret services junction box

To reset a circuit breaker Gunner's lighting control box Cupola interface switch box Cupola services switch box No 23 Cupola services switch box No 22 Rotary base junction

To change a fuse

Boiling/Cooking vessel

To use the vessel for boiling water To heat canned food

To heat decanted food

To use the vessel for frying (Warning) To service the boiling/cooking vessel

Drain tap Lid vent

Page

Fighting compartment electrical power supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Turret batteries and drinking water storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Hull main junction box 7

Turret distribution box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Turret services junction box 11

Cupola interface switch box 12

Cupola services switch box No 23 Mk 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Cupola service switch box No 22 Mk 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Boiling/cooking vessel .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

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FIGHTING COMPARTMENT ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. The vehicle is equipped with two sets of 12 volt batteries. One set of batteries is located in the driver's compartment and consists of four separate batteries, two on either side of the driver's position. The second set comprises two batteries (Fig 1 (10)) and is positioned in the rear of the turret 'bustle'. The batteries are kept in a state of charge by two generators, one generator being driven by the main engine and the other by the generating unit engine. Each set of batteries have their own battery master switches, hull (15) and turret (11). which form a link between the two sets of batteries.

UA597/1I

1 Turret services junction box 10 Turret batteries master switch
2 Gunner's lighting control box 11 Turret batteries
3 Cupola interface switch box 12 Radio master switch
4 Maintenance light 13 Turret distribution box
5 Commander's map light 14 Rotary base junction
6 Commander's control and 15 Hull battery master switch box
monitor unit 16 Hull main junction box
7 Cupola services switch box, No 23
8 Cupola services switch box, No 22
9 Gun ready light Fig 1 Fighting compartment electrical power supply

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2. The distribution of the electrical energy is achieved by the hull main junction box (16) and the turret distribution box (13), the connection between the two units is achieved by the rotary based junction (14).

6

3. In an emergency, or in certain battle conditions, the fighting compartment equipment can

continue to function for short periods when the generators are out of action. This is achieved by the introduction of the 'battle link' into the hull main junction box or by the Overriding Master Control (OMC) switch on the turret distribution box. Battle links override the GO Comm relays. OMC allows the turret system to be operated from the turret batteries when the generators and hull batteries are inoperative.

CONTROLS AND ELECTRICAL SERVICES

4. The availability of sufficient electrical power in the fighting compartment is dependent upon the system master switches and the generating equipment as outlined in the following paragraphs.

Hull batteries master switch

5. When the hull batteries master switch (15) is positioned to 'OFF' and the turret batteries master switch (11) and the radio master switch (12) are positioned to 'ON', the following services are fed by the turret batteries:

5.1 Power supply to radios.

5.2 Supply to the radio maintenance light.

6. With the hull batteries master switch positioned to 'ON', supply is given to the following: 6.1 A relay in the turret distribution box transfers the services outlined in paragraph 5 on the hull batteries.

6.2 Gun electrical firing circuits.

6.3 Laser rangefinder equipment.

6.4 Sight illumination and eyepiece heaters.

6.5 Turret lighting.

6.6 Sight washer system.

6.7 Commander's cupola supplies.

6.8 Smoke grenade dischargers.

6.9 Turret traverse indicator and illumination on quadrant fire control.

6.10 Main engine emergency stop circuits.

6.11 The computerized sighting system (not available for use until GCE is switched on).

6.12 Thermal observation system. (TOGS compressor will not run without a generator on line).

6.13 Fire warning system (Audible warning and flashing lights).

Main engine running with generator 'ON' load (ME idling)

7. With both master switches positioned to 'ON', the following additional services become available

when the main generator is on load:

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7.1 Powered turret traverse and gun laying equipment.

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7.2 NBC pack.

7.3 The turret batteries being charged in parallel with the hull batteries.

7.4 Boiling vessel.

Generator unit engine running 'ON' load

8. All services outlined in paragraphs 6 and 7, can be obtained without running the main engine,

providing the generator unit engine (GUE) is running on load.

9. The battery master switch box is mounted in the driver's compartment to the right of the driver's seat. The rotary type battery master switch has 'ON' and 'OFF' positions. In the 'OFF' position the switch isolates the hull batteries from all vehicle and fighting compartment circuits (with the exception of the audible fire alarm).

10. Warning lights on the switch box give an indication as to the state of charge of both hull and tu rret batteries.

Turret batteries

11. The two turret batteries (Fig 2(11)), connected in series, are housed in their container at the rear of the turret 'bustle' beneath the access cover (1). The access cover is locked by two clamps (2) which can be released with the aid of a tool. The batteries are retained in the container by a bolt retained single bar. The battery cells are vented via tubing and a roof-mounted combined flame trap and vent (3) - This permits the gases generated during battery charging to escape to the atmosphere.

To service the turret batteries

WARNING

THE GASES LIBERATED FROM A BATTERY BEING CHARGED ARE HIGHLY FLAMMABLE. ALL ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS MUST BE MAINTAINED CLEAN AND TIGHT AS AN INSURANCE AGAINST IGNITION OF THE GASES. A NAKED LIGHT MUST NEVER BE USED TO EXAMINE A BATTERY. BEFORE REMOVING OR REPLACING BATTERY CONNECTIONS, PUT THE BATTERY MASTER SWITCHES TO 'OFF'. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO REMOVE OR REPLACE THE BATTERY 'POSITIVE' CONNECTOR WITH THE 'NEGATIVE' (GROUND) CONNECTOR CONNECTED. BATTERIES CHARGED OUTSIDE THE VEHICLE MUST NOT BE INSTALLED IN THE VEHICLE UNTIL ALL GASSING HAS STOPPED. AFTER INSTALLATION, ENSURE THAT ALL BATTERY CELL VENT TUBES ARE FITTED.

12. Open the turret batteries access cover (Fig 2(1)) and put the master switch (4) to the 'OFF' position. Check the security of the batteries, and ensure that cable connectors are firmly attached to the battery terminal posts, then proceed as follows:

12.1 Check for signs of corrosion around the bottom of the connector cover. If corrosion is visible, lift the connector cover and disconnect the corroded connector from its post; always disconnect the negative terminal first (to prevent possible short circuit). Scrape away corrosion and clean the connector and terminal post with a solution of ammonia or soda to neutralize the acid.

12.2 Replace the connector, positive terminal first, and coat the connectors and terminal posts with the approved grease. On no account must ordinary lubricating grease be used for this purpose.

12.3 Carefully remove the rubber plugs from the battery cell filler holes. Check electrolyte level in each cell. If necessary, top up with distilled water to the top of the visible perforated separator plate.

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12.4 When checking in sub-zero weather conditions, topping up must be carried out when the battery is on charge and gassing freely. Do not add more than 15 ml of distilled water

at one time. •

12.5 Dry off any spilt water, replace cell plugs, put master switch (4) to 'ON'.

1 Access cover 7 Tap, drinking water
2 Cover clamps 8 Reservoir, drinking water
3 Battery vent 9 Vent tube washer reservoir
4 Turret batteries master switch 10 Reservoir sight washers
5 Filler funnel washer reservoir 11 Turret batteries
6 Filler funnel drinking water reservoir 12 Turret bustle Fig 2 Turret batteries and drinking water storage

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Turret batteries master switch

13. The turret batteries master switch (4) is located to the right of the batteries near the drinking water reservoir (on some older vehicles it is on the inner wall~~ the battery compartment adjacent to the turret batteries). The switch must always be in the 'Ul\l' position unless the batteries are removed or are being serviced.

Note

The master switch can be reached through the open batteries access cover.

Hull main junction box

14. The hull main junction box (Fig 3 (7)) is located on the fighting compartment right wall. Access to circuit breakers, fuses and 'battle links' is gained by removing the cover (1). A white collar on each circuit breaker button (6) shows when the circuit breaker 'trips'. The 2 amp fuses are retained in screw cap holders and spares are provided.

15. The 'battle link' is normally secured by a lead seal (4) in the training position.

To select the 'battle link'

16. Proceed as follows:

CAUTION

Serious damage may be caused to the batteries if full turret facilities are used with the 'battle link' selected, and the engine/generating unit not on load.

16.1 Traverse the turret to position the gun over the rear of the tank.

16.2 Position the hull master switch to 'OFF'.

16.3 From the loader's position remove the cover (Fig 3 (1)) and remove the two fuses, one engraved FA(2) and one engraved FC(5).

16.4 Break the lead seal (4) and pivot the two 'battle link' cover plates (3) to the left. Two empty fuse holders will be revealed.

16.5 Insert fuses FA and FC into the two exposed fuse holders.

16.6 Close and secure the junction box cover, position the hull master switch to 'ON'.

16.7 After starting the main engine or GUE check that full turret facilities are available.

To revert to the training position

17. Proceed as follows:

17.1 Traverse the turret to position the gun over the rear of the tank.

17.2 Position the hull master switch to 'OFF'.

17.3 From the loader's position remove the cover (1).

17.4 Remove the two fuses from the 'battle link' fuse holders and pivot the 'battle link' cover plates (3) to cover the now empty fuse holders.

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1 Cover, circuit breakers 2 Battle link fuse, stowed 3 Cover plates, battle link 4 Lead seal

5 Battle link fuse, stowed

6 Circuit breakers

7 Hull main junction box 8 Turntable

9 Loader's hip guard

10 Charge bin, right front

Fig 3 Hull main junction box

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17.5 Place the fuses in the holders engraved FA and FC.

17.6 Close and secure the cover.

Note

The lead seal (4) must be renewed by REME personnel.

To reset a circuit breaker

18. Proceed as follows:

18.1 Switch off the fau Ity ci rcu it.

18.2 Remove the cover (Fig 3 (1)) on the face of the junction box.

18.3 Press the button of the 'tripped' circuit breaker. (A white collar on the stem of the button is evident when a circuit breaker is 'tripped').

18.4 Switch on the affected circuit. If the circuit breaker 'trips' again - report to REME.

18.5 Close and secure the cover.

To change a fuse

19. Proceed as follows:

19.1 Switch off the faulty circuit.

19.2 Remove the cover (Fig 3 (1)) on the face of the junction box.

19.3 Pull off the cover marked 'SPARE FUSES'.

19.4 Remove the fuse carrier, discard and replace the blown fuse with a new fuse (2 amp).

19.5 Switch on the circuit and if the fuse blows again - report to REME.

19.6 Replace the spare fuse cover, close and secure the cover.

Turret distribution box

CAUTION

The use of equipment which has a heavy current demand ie gun control, NBC etc, will quickly discharge the turret batteries.

20. The turret distribution box (Fig 4) is located on the turret rear sill. On the front face of the box are two boiling vessel sockets (7) with controlling switches (5), the overriding master control (OMC) (1), six circuit breakers and four fuses mounted beneath a cover (8). The OMC switch (1) is for use in an emergency when the hull batteries or generators are inoperative. When the switch is moved to the 'ON' position, the following services are fully reliant upon the turret batteries:Radio, Armament circuits, Laser rangefinder, fixed rate turret traverse, (when the control cubicle emergency control switch is put to 'battery') and NBC. A compressor switch (2) allows the commander to manually switch 'ON' or 'OFF' the high pressure air compressor required for the operation of the thermal imaging system. A 'TOGS' switch (6) controls the operation of the thermal imaging system and is protected by circuit breaker C7. The ICU BITE indicator (4) provides an indication of ICU malfunction (light extinguished), on modified vehicles this is replaced by TOGS 'Door Open' indicator.

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l

21. The circuit breakers protect the following circuits:

21.1 C3, and C4 - are not used.

21.2 C1 (10 amp) - gun control equipment safety switch.

21.3 C2 (10 amp) - NBC power supply control.

21.4 C5 (35 amp) - earth connection.

21.5 C7 (25 amp) - TOGS system

2

3

4

1

U4597/12A

1 Overriding master control (OMC) 2 Compressor switch

3 Lead seal

4 ICU BITE indicator or Door open indicator

5 Boiling vessel switches 6 TOGS switch

7 Boiling vessel sockets 8 Fuse cover

Fig 4 Turret distribution box

To check the negative earth

22. Proceed as follows:

22.1 Put the following switches to the 'ON' position:

22.1.1 Hull and turret battery master switches.

22.1.2 Radio master switch.

22.1.3 Radio maintenance light.

22.2 Pullout circuit breaker C5.

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22.3 If no earth fault exists the radio maintenance light will extinguish, if it does not - report to REME.

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To change a fuse

23. Proceed as follows:

23.1 Switch off the faulty circuit.

23.2 Put the hull battery master switch to 'OFF'.

23.3 Remove the fuse cover.

23.4 Slacken the screws and remove the blown fuse.

23.5 Make sure the contact surfaces are clean.

23.6 Fit a new fuse of the indicated rating.

23.7 Replace the cover, put the hull battery master switch to 'ON' and switch on the circuit. If the fuse blows agai n - report to REM E.

Turret services junction box

24. The turret services junction box (Fig 5), located on the turret right wall, incorporates eleven circuit breakers and an 'ON/OFF' toggle switch (8) mounted on the face of the box, the switch when in the 'ON' (down) position provides the low tension power to the TLS. A guarded switch (4) is provided to enable the commander to switch off the main engine in an emergency. An 'ON/OFF' dimmer switch (2) controls the commander's map light which is stowed in a clip, behind the commander's seat.

25. The eleven circuit breakers, all rated at 10 amps protect the following circuits:

25.1 CB1 - Emergency battery charging and gun firing circuits.

25.2 CB2 - Maintenance lights and inspection light sockets.

25.3 CB3 - Corirnander's map light, gun ready light and maintenance lights.

25.4 C8~ - Gunner's sight services and temperature compensated link bar pump.

21::: - CB5 - Sight washers.

25.6 CB6 - QFC Clino and traverse indicator illumination.

25.7 CB7 - Gunner's sight illumination.

25.8 CB8 - Smoke dischargers.

25.9 CB9 - Muzzle reference system supplies.

25.10 CB10 - Not in use.

25.11 CB11 - Laser sight low tension supply.

To reset a circuit breaker 26. Proceed as follows:

26.1 Switch off the fau Ity ci rcuit.

26.2 Press the button of the 'tripped' circuit breaker (a white collar on the stem of the button is evident when a circuit breaker is 'tripped').

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26.3 Switch on the affected circuit. If the circuit breaker 'trips' again - report to REME.

27. The commander's map light is stowed in a clip at the rear of the commander's seat and is controlled by an 'ON/OFF' dimmer switch (2). The light circuit is protected by circuit breaker 3.

Gunner's lighting control box

28. The gunner's lighting control box (Fig 5 (7)) is located on the turret wall close to the gunner's position. The box incorporates seven toggle switches and three dimmer controls.

29. The switch (5) labelled 'EMERGENCY STOP' allows the gunner to switch off the main engine in an emergency. The switch is spring biased and must be held down until the engine has stopped.

30. The remaining switches and controls are clearly labelled as to their function.

2

1 Turret services junction box

2 Switch, commander's map light 3 Cover, inspection light socket

4 Stop switch, main engine (commander)

5 Stop switch, main engine (gunner) 6 Switch, maintenance lights

7 Gunner's lighting control box 8 TLS L T switch (SW(2))

Fig 5

Turret services junction box

Cupola interface switch box

31. The cupola interface switch box (Fig 6) is located to the right of the commander's position and contains a dimmer switch, periscope washer and wiper switches, four fuses marked F1, F2, F3 and F4, and a circuit breaker.

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32. The wing type switch (4) marked 'DIMMER' controls the brilliance of the projector reticle •

image reticle lamp. ..

33. A toggle switch (6) marked 'WASHERS', directs water to the periscopes and the periscopic sight when the cupola is in the 'line-up' position.

34. A toggle switch (5) marked 'WIPERS' controls the wipers for the cupola periscopes.

35. Four cartridge type fuses marked F1, F2, F3 and F4 protect the cupola periscope wiper motor circuits and the PRI (F4) circuit. All fuses are rated at 3A.

36. A circuit breaker (2) rated at 35A, when pulled outwards, isolates all cupola electrical services.

1 Fuse F1

2 Circuit breaker 3 Fuse F2

4 Dimmer switch, PRI

5 Switch, cupola vision wipers 6 Switch, cupola vision washers 7 Fuse F4

8 Fuse F3

Fig 6 Cupola interface switch box

Cupola services switch box No 23

37. The cupola services switch box No 23 (Fig 7(1 )), located on the right side of the cupola rotating ring (2), incorporates four fuses (3), (4), (5) and (6). A switch (7) labelled 'HEATER', controls the heating element incorporated in the front window glass of the commander'S sight wiper hood and a switch (8) labelled 'WIPER', which may be positioned in either the 'RUN' or 'PARK' positions, controls the wiper mounted on sight wiper hood.

38. Fuses

38.1 Fuse (3) 10 amp - Protects the commander's MIG firing circuit.

38.2 Fuse (4) 5 amp - Protects the commander'S spot lamp.

38.3 Fuse (5) 2 amp - Protects the commander'S image intensified sight circuits (sight not issued).

38.4 Fuse (6) 1 amp - Protects the commander's sight wiper.

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1 Cupola services switch box 2 Cupola rotating ring

3 MG fuse

4 Spot lamp fuse

5 "sight fuse

6 Sight wiper iuse

7 Switch, sight hood demister 8 Switch, sight hood wiper

Fig 7 - Cupola services switch box No 23 Mk 1

Cupola services switch box No 22

39. The cupola services switch box No 22 (Fig 8(1)) is mounted on the cupola rotating ring (2) adjacent to the machine gun elevation gear. The switch box incorporates a switch (4) and a warning light (3) labelled 'MACHINE GUN', the switch connects the electrical supply to the firing circuit and the light indicates the circuit is 'live'.

40. A switch labelled 'MIG GRA T' (6) and a rheostat (5) controls the electrical supply to the machine gun graticule lamp in the commander's periscopic sight and allows the illumination to be varied. Switches labelled '1.1. SIGHT' (7), 'HEATER' (8) and 'SPOT' (9) control the electrical circuits to the commander's image intensified sight, the sight eyepiece heaters and the spot lamp attached to the machine gun mounting.

Rotary base junction

41. Electrical connections to the turret are made through the rotary base junction which houses a 2 amp fuse to protect the commander's gun position indicator.

To change a fuse

42. Proceed as follows

42.1 Put the hull battery master switch to 'OFF'.

42.2 Unscrew the fuse holder cap, located beneath the cables protective flap and replace the cartridge fuse.

42.3 Switch on the hull battery master switch. If the gun position indicator does not respond - report to REME.

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.-, -_ .- .; ---~.

, . _ 1

II. MIG

"<JJ .;;!l

SPOT HEATER SIGHT _ GRAT

--

?--

9

1 Cupola services switch box 2 Cupola rotating ring

3 MG warning light

4 MG switch

5 Sight, MG graticule, lamp rheostat

6 Switch, MG graticule lamp 7 Switch, 1/ sight

8 Switch, eyepiece heater 9 Switch, spot light

Fig 8 Cupola services switch box No 22 Mk 1

BOILING/COOKING VESSEL CAUTION

Do not make 'coffee, soups etc' in the water compartment as this heavy fluid will cause the drain tap 10 malfunction.

43. The portable cooking vessel (Fig 9) can provide boiling water and at the same time heat canned or decanted foods. The vessel can also be used for frying. Power is supplied by two sockets on the turret distribution box, when a generator is on load.

44. The vessel comprises a stainless steel water compartment/casing (14), a removable stainless steel food container (8) and a removable lid (3). The lid is equipped with two securing hooks (15) which can be used for removing the hot food container during cooking operations.

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1

45. The water compartment is provided with a push type drain tap (11) and the lid has a carrying handle (2) and domed vent (1). The vessel must be stored securely when the tank is on the move and must not be stored on damp or flammable surfaces when hot.

To use the vessel for boiling water CAUTION

When boiling less than 2 pints (1 litre) of water, the food container must be placed in the compartment.

46. Release lid and remove inner container. Insert required measure of water, (do not have water level above the 7 pint (4 litre) mark in the compartment). Replace and secure lid, connect cable and switch 'ON'. When water is boiling, switch 'OFF' and drain using the drain tap.

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1 Domed vent

2 Carrying handle 3 Insulated lid

4 Locating hooks

5 Handle hinge posts 6 Warning plate

7 Foldaway lifting handle 8 Food container

9 Seal

10 Lid hook studs 11 Drain tap

12 Electrical supply plug 13 Lids toggle clips

14 Water compartment 15 Securing hooks

16 Spacer

17 Plastics lining 18 Gasket

Fig 9 Boiling/cooking vessel

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To heat canned food

47. Remove vessel lid and food container. Pour 2 pints of water into water compartment - (DO NOT FILL ABOVE 2 PINT MARK). Place cans (with tops pierced) into the food container, insert container into the vessel, replace and secure lid. Connect cable and switch 'ON'. Heating will take approximately 25 minutes. Switch 'OFF', disconnect the cable, remove vessel lid, lift hot cans from container 'with care'.

To heat decanted food

48. Remove vessel lid and food container. Pour 2 pints of water into compartment - (DO NOT FILL ABOVE 2 PINT MARK). Place the decanted food in the food container, insert container into vessel, replace and secure the lid. Connect cable and switch 'ON'. After approximately 25 minutes (time for the food to heat up), switch 'OFF', disconnect cable, and remove lid. Using the lid hooks to engage the 'hot' container folding handle, lift the container from the vessel.

To use the vessel for frying

WARNING

DEEP FRYING MUST NOT BE ATTEMPTED. THE BASE OF THE WATER COMPARTMENT BECOMES 'RED HOT' WHEN FRYING. DO NOT COOL BY POURING WATER INTO THE VESSEL. CARE MUST BE TAKEN WHEN INSERTING WATER SOON AFTER FRYING.

49. Remove lid and food container, ensure that both water compartment and food containers are clean and dry. Place a small quantity of cooking fat in food container and replace container in water compartment.

50. Connect cable and switch 'ON'. At the first indication of blue smoke rising from the heated fat, place food for frying into hot fat and fry until cooked. Switch 'OFF' and remove cable. Lift out food container (using the lid) and serve the food.

To service the boiling/cooking vessel

51. Clean the food container and water compartment by scouring, rinse with clean water, drain and wipe dry. Boiling water with added soda or detergent can be used to clean heavily soiled items. If the latter method is used, thoroughly rinse with clean water before use.

Drain tap

52. To clean the drain tap, unscrew the slotted end cap and remove the spring. Remove the tap plunger and clean all parts in clean water and dry off. Re-assemble and check that the drain tap operates normally.

Lid vent

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53. Remove the screws retaining the domed vent, clean the parts in clean water. Re-assemble and check that the vent apertures align.

ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATIONS

SUB CHAPTER

3-1 120 mm L 11 A5 gun and mounting
-- 3-2 7.62 mm machine gun
3-3 Commander's machine gun mount
3-4 Co-axial machine gun mount
3-5 Discharger smoke grenade
.,. 3-6 Armament accuracy checks Sept 83 (Arndt 3)

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Chapter 3 ARMAMENT

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Chapter 3-1

120 mm L 11A5 GUN AND MOUNTING

CONTENTS

Para

General description

4 120 mm gun

8 Gun mounting

13 Thermal sleeve

15 Fitting the thermal sleeve

17 Removing the thermal sleeve

18 Fume extractor

20 To unseat, service and re-seat the fume extractor

Recoil system (Warning)

21 Recoil system pressure gauge

22 Recoil system tell-tale

23 Recoil indicator (Warning)

24 Stop, running back

25 To fit the stop, running back

26 To remove the stop, running back

27 Breech opening and closing mechanisms

28 To open the breech

29 To close the breech

30 Loader's guard

31 To move the loader's guard rearwards

32 To move the loaders guard forward by hand

33 Routine cleaning of the gun

34 Preparation for firing

35 During firing

36 After firing

37 Care after firing

38 Gun firing circuits

39 Gunner's fire controf box

40 Commander's fire control box

41 Commander's firing handle

42 Gunner's firing handle

44 Gun junction box

46 Auxiliary/Emergency firing button

47 Gun ready light

48 To fire the gun using the normal firing circuits

50 To fire the gun using the auxiliary firing circuit

52 To fire the gun using the emergency firing circuit (Warnings)

User maintenance

53 Main gun mounting

56 Recoil system

57 Replenisher

58 To top-up the buffers and replenisher (Warning)

59 Testing the recoil system by pulling back

61 Recoil indicator

62 To set the recoil indicator

To test the main gun firing circuits

63 To test the normal firing circuit

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Para

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CONTENTS (Cont)

64 To test the auxiliary tiring circuit

65 To test the emergency tiring circuit

66 To prove the gun

67 Handling

68 To load the gun

69 Fail sate arrangement

70 To unload the gun with the round tired and breech open

71 To unload the gun when the round is not tired and breech closed

72 To ease springs

73 To make sate

74 Rules tor stripping and assembly

75 Opening the breech using the breech opening tool (BOT)

76 To strip the gun

77 To assemble the gun

Tests

79 To gauge the protrusion ot the tiring needle

80 To test the vent tube alignment

81 To test the breech closing springs

Fig

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

120 mm l11A5 gun .

Gun mountings and tiring gear ., .

Thermal sleeve .

Fume extractor

Air pressure gauge .

Recoil system tell-tale .

Recoil indicator .

Stop, running back .

Breech opening and closing mechanism .

loader's guard mechanism .

Main gun tiring equipment .

Gunner's tire control box .

Commander's tire control box .

Gunner's tiring handle .

Gun junction box .

Auxiliary/emergency tiring button .

Gun ready light .

Butter and replenisher .

Gun pulling back gear .

Breech ring (breech open) .

Obturator sleeve satety plunger .

Breech block , .

Breech wedge tool Breech opening tool Breech block hoist

Obturator assembly tool

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120mm L 11A5 GUN AND MOUNTING

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. The 120mm L 11A5 gun with its mounting may be traversed through 6400 mils (360deg) in either direction and 356 (20 deg) elevation to 178 mils (10 deg) in depression from the horizontal position. The gun is designed to fire high velocity armour piercing shot, medium velocity high explosive and smoke shells.

2. The gun is loaded by hand with breech loading ammunition, each complete round is in two parts

and comprises the projectile and a charge that is enclosed in a combustable material.

3. The charge is ignited by an electrically fired vent tube that is retained in a magazine on the breech

ring.

120mm GUN

4. The barrel of the gun is a single tube forging (Fig 1 (2)) provided with external interrupted threads at the breech end for the attachment of the breech ring. The bore is prepared internally at the rear to form the chamber, the remainder of the bore being rifled. A recess at the rear of the chamber is for a spring-loaded steel sleeve, (the obturator sleeve) which in conjunction with a steel insert in the front face of the breech block (breech block insert) provides the means of obturation. There are two plain seatings for the fume extractor (3) which is fitted roughly one third of the way down the barrel from the muzzle. Between the seatings there are eight ports. A platform at the muzzle end (1) allows the mirror of the muzzle reference system for gun/sight alignment to be fitted.

5. The breech ring (4) is rectangular in shape with vertical sliding breech block. The ring is secured to the barrel by interrupted threads and a locking plate. The breech ring houses the breech mechanism and has a clinometer plane on its upper left surface. A cut-away portion in the lower part of the rear of the breech ring houses the breech mechanism gearbox (8). A stop running back holds the breech ring to the gun cradle in the run out position, should the air pressure fail, when not in use.

6. The breech mechanism is mounted in the breech ring and is the means by which the breech is closed, the round fired, the breech opened and a fresh vent tube fed. The opening of the breech is done automatically during run out by a cam on the mounting and is held open by this cam until the closing lever is manually operated. The breech may also be opened by hand when firing has not taken place using a breech opening tool or the breech mechanism lever.

7. The yoke is secured to the front of the breech ring by four bolts and to the recoil system by the

gun nuts. It is the means by which the gun and recoil system are secured.

GUN MOUNTING

8. The gun is supported in the turret by the gun mounting which is attached to the nose of the turret by the cradle trunnions (Fig 2(10)). The vehicle turret has no mantlet to guard the gun aperture, the turret crew being protected by splinter-proof plates and a splash sheet (1) located inside the turret.

9. The recoil system consists of a twin cylinder hydro-pneumatic recuperator (12) secured to the underside of the cradle (9), which has the ability to hold the gun at rest through all angles of elevation, to absorb part of the recoil energy and restrains the gun to a fixed length of recoil and slows the gun on final runout. A buffer fluid replenisher cylinder (3) is located on top of the cradle adjacent to one of the buffer cylinders, this cylinder acts as a reservoir to maintain buffer fluid content during thermal expansion. The buffer and recuperator cylinders are connected to the gun by the gun yoke (5).

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9

U4597/130
1 Muzzle reference mirror mount 5 Cover plate 9 Electric firing pin
2 Barrel 6 Breech block 10 Vent tube loader
3 Fume extractor 7 Anti-rotation bracket 11 Actuating shaft spigot
4 Electric firing pin B Gearbox 12 Adjusting slide Fig 1 - 120mm L 11A5 gun

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U4597/120

1 Splash protection 2 Buffer, right

3 Replenisher, buffer

4 Coaxial machine gun

mounting 5 Gun yoke

6 Loader's guard 7 SA cam bracket

8 Breech opening lever 9 Cradle

10 Trunnions, gun mounting 11 Sighting linkage

12 Recuperator cylinder 13 Pedal, laser

14 Foot firing pedal, CO-AX MG

15 Elevating gear rack 16 Anti-rotation bracket 17 Quadrant fire control 18 Gun junction box

19 Emergency firing unit

20 Commander's/gunner's guard 21 Breech closing lever

22 Spent case chute

Fig 2 - Gun mountings and firing gear

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10. An anti-rotation bracket (16) positioned on the cradle right side, engages with a key on the gun breech ring. This bracket prevents the tendency of the gun to rotate due to the reaction of the torque exerted by the projectile on the rifling of the gun bore during shot travel. Also mounted on the right is the gunner's guard (20) which prevents the gunner or commander moving behind the gun as it recoils.

11. The gun breech is opened automatically during run out, by the semi-automatic (SA) cam (7) mounted on the left of the cradle. The breech is also held open by this cam until the lever (21) is operated manually to move the cam thereby releasing the block to close the breech. The breech may also be opened manually by operating the breech mechanism lever (BML) (8) also mounted on the cam bracket.

12. The loader is provided with a spring-loaded guard (6) located above the SA cam bracket. The guard is moved manually against spring pressure to the rear to the closed firing position and returned automatically to the open loading position by the run out of the gun. The electrical firing circuit is made inoperative when the guard is in the open leading position.

THERMAL SLEEVE

13. The thermal sleeve (Fig 3) maintains the barrel at a constant temperature in all weather conditions, this is achieved by the sleeve keeping a pocket of air around the barrel. Uneven cooling of the barrel will result if the thermal sleeve is not fitted or fitted incorrectly, this may cause the barrel to distort with subsequent loss of accuracy.

14. The lnsulation blankets are made .up of an outer covering of fibre glass and other compounds. They are retained in position with loop clamps located round the outside of the blanket, which when tightened compress a series of anti-friction pads to prevent movement. The blanket is further retained by quick release straps along the length of the barrel. A worm drive hose clamp secures the front blanket on to the fume extractor retaining nut.

4

5

6

2

U4597/108

1 Bellows 5 Gun crutch pads 9 Worm drive clip
2 Buckles and straps 6 Short cover 10 Clamp No 2
3 Long cover 7 Clamp No 1 11 Clamp No 4
4 Fume extractor 8 Clamp No 1
Fig 3 - Thermal sleeve ARMY EQUIPMENT SUPPORT PUBLICATIONS

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Fitting the thermal sleeve

15. Proceed as follows:

15.1 Bring the gun to the horizontal position.

15.2 Drape the No.17 rear blanket (3) over the barrel behind the fume extractor (4) with the yellow arrow on the outside of the blanket pointing towards the muzzle.

Note

There is a small ridge on the outer surface of the barrel just forward of the gun bellows, the rear set of anti-friction pads must be placed on the turret side of the ridge.

15.3 Wrap the lower portion of the cover arou nd the bottom of the barrel, foldi ng the top over and attaching the buckles on to the hooks. Tighten the straps. The overlap should be set at the 4 o'clock position when viewed from the rear and the yellow indicating arrow at the bottom of the barrel.

15.4 Pull the bellows over the blanket until it is in line with the rear set of anti-friction pads, fit clamp No.4 (11) over the front of the bellows. Ensure that the stud is positioned at the 11 O'clock position with the nut at the top. The washers must be positioned between the nut and the clamp prior to tightening.

15.5 Fit the clamp No.2 (10) over the front set of anti-friction pads, ensure that the stud is vertical and the nut is at the top and is positioned on the right side of the barrel. Tighten the nuts.

15.6 Using the block of wood as an intermediary, tap the second clamp towards the muzzle of the gun. The thermal cover will stretch; continue to tap the clamp forward until the cover contacts the rear of the fume extractor. Ensure that the clamp does not slip off the anti-friction pads. Tighten the clamp nuts evenly and retighten the straps, tucking the loose ends into the loops.

15.7 Drape the No.16 front blanket (6) over the barrel, with the yellow arrow on the outside pointing towards the muzzle.

15.8 Wrap the cover round the barrel and secure the buckles.

15.9 Position the rear set of pads in the groove of the fume extractor. Secure in position with the worm drive hose clip (9).

15.10 Fit clamp No.1 (8) over the larger set of anti-friction pads, to the rear of the blanket. Ensure that the stud is vertical with the nut at the bottom and is positioned on the right side of the barrel. Tighten the nuts.

15.11 Fit the second No.1 clamp (7) over the front set of anti-friction pads, ensure that the stud is vertical with the nut at the bottom and is positioned on the right side of the barrel. Tighten the nuts. Using a block of wood and hammer tap the clamp towards the muzzle stretching the blanket until it reaches the barrel swell.

15.12 When the thermal cover has made contact with the muzzle swell, retighten the muzzle clamp and the buckle straps, tucking the loose ends into the loops. Retighten the worm drive hose clip on the fume extractor retaining nut.

16. During the initial firings of the gun, some bedding down of the pads under the clamps will occur. All nuts on the clamps and the webbing straps should, therefore, be checked for tightness during firing and tightened as necessary.

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Removing the thermal sleeve

17. The procedure for removing the thermal cover is generally to remove the clamps, working from the muzzle end, and then release the straps and worm drive hose clip. It should be noted, however, that there will be a tendency for the clamps to have become bonded to the fabric of the covers and for the cover to have become bonded to the barrel, particularly at the clamping points. Great care must, therefore, be taken in removal to avoid undue bending of the clamps or tearing of the fabric or friction pads. If the pads are stuck to the barrel, they must be eased off, using a screwdriver. Great care must be taken to ensure that neither the pads nor the barrel are damaged. If the cover is torn off by jerking the overlap, the fabric may tear, thus making the cover unserviceable.

FUME EXTRACTOR

18. The fume extractor (Fig 4) prevents the passage of fumes from the fired propellant charge entering the fighting compartment when the breech opens.

19. The diameter of the fume extractor permits barrel removal with the extractor in position. The cylinder of the extractor is fitted with sealing rings (2 and 7) at either end to make a gas tight fit and has a drain plug (8) in its lower surface.

"

1 Seating

2 Sealing ring 3 Barrel

4 Anti-rotation key

5 Split locking ring 6 Bolt and washer 7 Sealing ring

8 Drain hole plug

9 Seating

10 Fume extractor casing 11 Gas ports

12 Counter balance weights

Fig 4 - Fume extractor

To unseat, service and re-seat the fume extractor

20. Proceed as follows:

20.1 Remove the No.16 front blanket from the barrel.

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20.2 Remove the drain plug and allow any fluid to drain away.

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20.3 Remove the eight securing bolts from the split locking ring (5), remove the ring.

20.4 Slide the fume extractor, complete with counterbalance weights (12), forward of its seating on the barrel.

20.5 Clean the barrel gas ports (11) and the cylinder seating.

20.6 Lightly grease the bearing surfaces of the barrel, do not grease any other parts.

20.7 Slide the casing over the seating of the barrel, ensuring that the drain plug is in the 6 o'clock position (3,200 mils).

20.8 Fit the split locking ring, ensuring that the anti-rotation key (4), on the upper half, fits into the recess of the barrel. Replace and fully tighten the securing bolts.

20.9 Refit and secure the thermal cover.

RECOIL SYSTEM WARNING

SHOULD THE RECOIL SYSTEM GAUGE PRESSURE FALL BELOW 500 Ibf/sq in, THE GUN MUST NOT BE FIRED AND THE RUNNING BACK STOP MUST BE FITTED.

Recoil system pressure gauge

21. The recuperator air cylinder is provided with an air pressure gauge (Fig 5(7)) to monitor the pressure of the hydro-pneumatic recuperator. The gauge registers from 0 to 2000 Ibf/sq in. in steps of 100 Ibf/sq in. When the recuperator is fully charged and serviceable, the gauge should register 500 Ibf/sq in.

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Firing solenoid, coaxial machine gun

2 120mm gun cradle

3 Cocking handle, coaxial machine gun

4 Lubricator, cradle front liner

5 Lubricator, cradle rear liner

6 Filler plug, lower buffer

cylinder

7 Pressure gauge, recuperator 8 Spent case chute

Fig 5 - Air pressure gauge

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Recoil system tell-tale

22. The recuperator air cylinder (Fig 6(6)) has an additional indicator or 'tell-tale' which gives a warning as to low oil quantity or overheating of the recuperator. The 'tell-tale' viewed from beneath the gun mounting, consists of an indicator rod (4) and a sleeve, with aperture, for viewing the rod. The rod has a black gauging mark which, when the recuperator is fully charged, aligns with a 'green' coloured engraving which states NORMAL. A second engraving on the sleeve coloured 'red' reads CEASE FIRE. Should the tell-tale rod mark reach the 'red' CEASE FIRE mark, the recuperator efficiency is below the safety requirement and the gun must not be fired.

1 Cradle 2 Buffer

3 Breech ring

4 Tell-tale rod

5 Recuperator low pressure cylinder

Fig 6 - Recoil system tell-tale

6 High pressure cylinder," Recuperator

Recoil indicator

WARNING

ON RECOIL, IF THE INDICATOR POINTER ALIGNS WITH OR EXCEEDS THE RED CEASE FIRE ARROW THE GUN MUST NOT BE FIRED AGAIN. THE RECUPERATOR PRESSURE GAUGE READING AND 'TELL-TALE' MUST BE CHECKED - REPORT.

23. The recoil indicator (Fig 7), mounted on the anti-rotation bracket (2) to the rear of the breech ring, has a slide (1) with screw retained pointer (4) and a scale with white and red engraved graduations to denote the amount of gun recoil. The red arrow and CEASE FIRE engraving provides the warning mark to indicate that the recoil has reached a dangerous length. During recoil the gun breech ring anti-rotation key strikes the indicator slide and the amount of recoil is recorded on the indicator scale. The slide remains in the recoil position. The indicator pointer is normally set to the forward white arrow (5).

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.F.ig 7 - Recoil indicator

1 Slide

2 Anti-rotation bracket

3 Emergency firing button 4 Pointer

5 Setting mark

Stop, running back

24. The stop, running back is a cranked reinforced stop plate (Fig 8(2)). The rear tip of the stop protrudes above the breech block and under the breech obturator sleeve protector (5), thereby preventlnq the breech from being opened when the stop is in position. The gun is securely held in the run-out position by the stop, and should the recuperator pressure fail the gun will not slide rearwards from the cradle.

To fit the stop, running back

25. The stop, running back (Fig 8) must be fitted at a" times, unless the gun is to be fired or pulled back or when topping up the replenisher with oil.

25.1 Place and seat the stop plate (2) over the cradle depression block-It) and breech ring stud, be sure not to damage the stud threads.

25.2 Screw the captive ring nut (4) home on the stud, seat the wedge and screw down the handwheel (3) to secure the stop.

To remove the stop, running back

26. The stop must be removed if the breech is to be opened for inspection etc, or the gun is to be fired.

26.1 Slacken the clamping wedge handwheel, unscrew the knurled nut and lift the stop from the mounting.

26.2 Stow in a convenient place.

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1 Gun depression stop block 2 Stop, running back

3 Wedge handwheel

4 Ring nut

5 Obturator sleeve protector 6 Breech block

7 Breech ring 8 Gun yoke

Fig 8 - Stop, running back

BREECH OPENING AND CLOSING MECHANISMS

27. A bracket, bolted to the left side of the gun cradle, provides the mounting for the semi-automatic (SA) cam, breech mechanism lever (BMl) and breech closing lever (BCl). The BMl (Fig 9(2)) pivots from the SA bracket (3) and is retained in the vertical position by a spring-loaded catch (7). The BMl is connected by a roller type chain (6) with an operation lever. When the BMl is pulled rearwards and down the operation lever forces the breech mechanism actuating shaft cranked arm downwards thereby opening the breech. The actuating shaft arm (and breech block) is held in the open position by the spring-loaded grooved SA cam (4). By pulling on the BCl (8) the SA cam is moved against spring pressure, and the breech actuating cranked arm is released, closing the breech under the force applied by the breech mechanism spring.

To open the breech

28. Check the recuperator gauge pressure 500 Ibf/sq in, if correct, remove and stow the stop running back, and ensure that the maintenance stop (Fig 20(9)) is protruding.

28.1 Grip the breech mechanism lever (Fig 9(2)) and squeeze the palm grip (1) to release the catch (7).

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28.2 Pull the lever backwards and down, against heavy spring pressure, until a click is heard (the breech cranked arm engaging with the SA cam groove). Lift the leverto the vertical position and engage the catch(7). The breech is now open and if the gun vent tube magazine is fitted, a vent tube will have been ejected and a new vent tube cartridge will be rammed into the firing chamber.

To close the breech

29. Proceed as follows:

29.1 Check that there is no obstruction to the breech and the breech mechanism lever is vertical and held by catch (7).

29.2 Pull the breech closing lever (8), when the breech will rapidly close.

Note:

A safety device in the breech mechanism lever prevents the breech closing lever from being used when the breech mechanism lever is not vertical.

8

/

5

Breech mechanism lever, 3 SA cam bracket

palm grip 4 SA cam

2 Breech mechanism lever (BML) 5 Loader's guard

6 Connecting chain 7 Retaining catch

8 Breech closing lever (BCL)

Fig 9 - Breech opening and closing mechanism

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Loader's guard

30. The loader's guard (Fig 10(7)) is provided as a protection for the loader when the gun is fired. Before the gun can be fired the guard must be pulled by hand to the rearward (firing) position. After the gun fires, the guard is automatically returned to the forward (open) position. The guard can also be operated by hand if required for maintenance purposes.

To move the loader's guard rearwards

31. Use the handle (8) to pull the guard rearward until the locki ng lever (5) engages the recess in the fixed plate.

To move the loader's guard forward by hand

32. Proceed as follows:

32.1 Pull on the handle (8) to remove spring pressure from the locking lever.

32.2 Depress the contact roller (6) to disengage the locking lever from the recess and allow the guard to move forward under control.

1

2

5

o

o

3

4

I

(a)

U4373!110

Breech mechanism lever 2 Breech opening lever

3 Safety switch

4 Fixed guard

5 Locking lever

6 Contact roller 7 Sliding guard 8 Guard handle

(8) Open (b) Closed

Fig 10 - loader's guard mechanism

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ROUTINE CLEANING OF THE GUN

33. The term 'routine cleaning' applies to the cleaning required during regular periodic servicing (see the Servicing Schedule). The cleaning should be carried out as follows:

33.1 Traverse the gun to the 1 ,600, 3,200 or 4,800 mil position and depress below the horizontal, remove the muzzle cover.

33.2 Lower the breech block to the maintenance stop.

33.3 Assemble the staves, push them up the barrel, through the chamber on to the top of the breech block.

33.4 Wrap one thickness of cloth around the brush (cleaner bore No.4) and fit it to the end of the staves. Draw the rod, brush and cloth through the barrel. Repeat this process until such time as the cloth emerges clean and dry.

33.5 Using clean cloth, or cloth and the 'brush, cleaning artillery', clean the walls of the chamber

thoroughly. '

33.6 Inspect the bore and chamber thoroughly to confirm that they are clean and dry and that there is no damage.

33.7 Satu rate a cloth in oi I and push it up the length of the barrel from the m uzzle end, in order to oil the bore.

33.8 Wipe the chamber with the same cloth and ensure, as far as possible, that there is a film of oil over the whole chamber and bore.

33.9 Fit the muzzle cover.

33.10 Ensure the breech block is on the maintenance stop.

33.11 Wipe the breech block and the inside of the breech ring with a clean cloth and inspect.

33.12 Wi pe clean the obturators and inspect, then re-oil the insert and sleeve and the area of the breech block surrounded by the insert.

33.13 Oil the rear and sides of the breech block, the escapement mechanism, the inclined recess, the breech block guides and the outside of the breech ring.

33.14 Remove the vent tube loader, clean and inspect for damage. If there is no damage, re-oil (liberally) and replace in the breech ring.

Preparation for firing

34. Before firing proceed as follows:

34.1 Strip the gun, including the fume extractor. Clean, inspect, lubricate, leaving the following parts dry clean:

34.1.1 Bore and chamber.

34.1.2 Vent tube chamber and flash channel.

34.1.3 Obturator sleeve and breech block insert mating surfaces.

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34.2 Assemble the gun and fume extractor. Complete the tests.

34.3 Check the fitting of the thermal sleeve.

During firing

35. During firing proceed as follows:

35.1 Every opportunity should be taken to clean, examine and lubricate the gun during lulls in firing. Dusty conditions will demand extra attention.

35.2 Obturators will be cleaned on the following occasions:

35.2.1 When ONLY the rigid combustible cases are fired AFTER EVERY 30 ROUNDS.

35.2.2 When mixed rigid combustible cases and cloth charge bags are fired AFTER EVERY 30 ROUNDS.

35.2.3 When ONLY cloth charge bags are fired AFTER EVERY 60 ROUNDS.

35.3 The crank retaining screw (Fig 20(16» must be checked for security.

35.4 Check security of the thermal sleeve.

After firing

36. After firing proceed as follows:

36.1 The gun is easier to clean immediately after firing, whilst it is still warm, but if this is not possible, a thorough oiling of the gas affected parts will greatly assist later cleaning.

36.2 The gun will be stripped and the cleaning should be carried out, as follows:

36.2.1 Barrel - Pour oil on to the brush, scour the bore and chamber throughout its length. Dry clean, examine to see that all fouling has been removed. Re-oil the bore and chamber.

36.2.2 Obturator - Clean with oil, wipe dry and examine for signs of gas erosion, which is indicated by light pitting on the sealing faces. REPORT any faults.

36.2.3 Breech block - Clean, inspect, re-oil.

36.2.4 Fume extractor - Remove, clean and re-oil. Remove the drain plug and allow any fluid to drain.

36.2.5 Thermal sleeve - Check condition and security.

Care after firing

37. The bore, chamber, obturators and breech block must be thoroughly cleaned, inspected and re-oiled daily for at least five days after firing. Inspection must be more frequent during humid conditions, keeping careful watch for rust. In extreme dus.y conditions the gun should be wiped dry.

GUN FIRING CIRCUITS

38. Three firing circuits are provided for firing the main armament, these are, the normal, the auxiliary and the emergency circuits, all three are electrically actuated. The location of the main controls of the gun firing circuit is shown in Fig 11.

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1 Commander's fire control 4 Loader's guard safety switch 8 Firing switch, firing handle
box and firing handle 5 Emergency firing button 9 Gunner's firing control box
2 Overriding master control 6 Gun junction box 10 Turret services junction box
(OMC) 7 Firing switch, elevating
3 Loader's safety switch handle Fig 11 - Main gun firing equipment

Gunner's fire control box

39. The gunner's fire control box (Fig 12), mounted on the right of the gunner's position, does not contain any operational controls but contains indicators and circuit breakers. The lamp coloured red (2) illuminates to indicate that main armament has been selected and a lamp coloured orange (3) illuminates to indicate that co-axial MG has been selected. Circuit breaker marked CB1 (4) protects the gun firing circuits and CB2 (1) protects the gun selection circuits.

Commander's fire control box

40. The commander's fire control box (Fig 13) provides a mount for the commander's firing handle (1) and houses the commander's/gunner's safety switch (2). The safety switch has three positions, two marked OFF and one marked ON.

Commander's firing handle

41. The commander's firing handle has a trigger which is used for firing the main gun and the co-axial MG as selected. Selection is made by moving the toggle switch located near to the top of the firing handle. The commander's controls, when operated, override the gunner's controls.

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4

Circuit breakers (gun selection) 2 Lamp, main

(red)

3 Lamp, co-axial (orange)

4 Circuit breaker (gun firing)

2

U4509/37

Fig 12 - Gunner's fire control box

1 Firing handle

2 Commander's safety switch

(GCE master switch) 3 PL 1 (TSJB, SK31)

4 PL4 (" shutter)

5 PL2 (TSJB, PL20) 6 PL3 (CIU, SK10)

Fig 13 - Commander's firing control box

4509/38

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Gunner's firing handle

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42. The gunner's firing handle (Fig 14(8)) is mounted convenient to the gunner's left hand and is identical to the commander's firing handle. It is mounted independent of the gunner's firing control box.

43. Both commander's and gunner's firing handle contain additional switches which are used during a CSS engagement.

Gun junction box

1 Elevating handwheel 2 Firing switch

3 Elevating gear

4 Ranging switch

5 Auto lay switch

6 Firing switch

7 Ammunition selector 8 Firing handle

9 Armament selector switch 10 Switch guard

Fig 14 - Gunner's firing handle

44. The gun junction box (Fig 15(3)) is located on the lower right side of the gun cradle, to the left of the gunner's position. Mounted in a recess on the box is the firing circuits 'Normal' or 'Emergency' selector switch. Mounted within the junction box are two 12 volt batteries which power the emergency firing system.

45. The selector switch is positioned at NORMAL for gun firing, but should the vehicle electrical systems become damaged or fail, the emergency batteries can provide the necessary electrical power for firing when the selector switch is positioned to EMERGENCY. Under emergency firing conditions the gun is fired by pressing the Auxiliary/Emergency firing button.

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1 Gunner's guard

2 Quadrant fire control 3 Gun junction box

Fig 15 - Gun junction box

Auxiliary/Emergency firing button

46. The auxiliary/emergency firing button (Fig 16), protected by a captive cap (2) is part of the electrical fi ri ng term i nal block (1) wh ich is located on the inside of the gun ner's shield and attached to the gun cradle anti-rotation bracket. Access to the firing button is gained via an aperture in the gunner's shield (3).

Gun ready light

47. The gun ready light (Fig 17), positioned on the turret roof above and left of the loader's position, illuminates when the following switches are in the correct position and indicates that the gun firing circuits are on line and ready to fire.

47.1 Hull master switch ON.

47.2 Loader's safety switch LIVE.

47.3 Gun junction box switch NORMAL.

47.4 Gunner/Commander armament switch to MAIN.

47.5 Loader's firing guard to the rear.

To fire the gun using the normal firing circuits

48. The gunner using the normal firing circuit:

48.1 Position the hull master switch to ON.

48.2 Position the loader's safety switch to LIVE.

48.3 Position the switch on the gun junction box to NORMAL.

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Electrical firing terminal block 2 Cap, firing button

3 Commander's/gunner's guard

1

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Fig 16 - Auxiliary/emergency firing button

Fig 17 - Gun ready light

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48.4 Position the gunner's armament switch to MAIN.

48.5 Pull the loader's firing guard to the rear.

48.6 Press the firing switch on the gunner's firing handle.

49. The commander using the normal firing circuit:

49.1 Position the hull master switch to ON.

49.2 Position the loader's safety switch to LIVE.

49.3 Position the switch on the gun junction box to NORMAL.

49.4 Position the commander's armament switch to MAIN.

49.5 Pull the loader's firing guard to the rear.

49.6 Press the firing switch on the commander's firing handle.

To fire the gun using the auxiliary firing circuit

50. The auxiliary circuit permits the main gun to be fired should the commander's or gunner's firing switches, or the loader's firing guard safety switch, cease to operate through a fault or damage.

51. Operation of the auxiliary firing circuit is as follows: 51.1 Position the hull master switch to ON.

51.2 Position the loader's safety switch to LIVE.

51.3 Position the switch on the gun junction box to NORMAL.

51.4 Position the gunner's firing handle selector switch to MAIN.

51.5 Pull the loader's firing guard to the rear.

51.6 The commander will now reach through the aperture in the gunner's firing guard and remove the firing button captive safety cover to press the button.

To fire the gun using the emergency firing circuit WARNING

(1) ALTHOUGH IT IS POSSIBLE TO FIRE THE MAIN GUN BY MEANS OF THE AUXILIARY/ EMERGENCY FIRING BUTTON WHEN THE VEHICLE IS ON THE MOVE, THIS PROCEDURE MUST NOT BE USED DURING TRAINING AS THERE IS A RISK OF INJURY TO THE COMMANDER'S HAND.

(2) THE FIRING CIRCUIT BY-PASSES ALL SAFETY INTERLOCKS WHENEVER THE GUN IS FIRED BY THIS MEANS. ALTHOUGH THE LOADER'S FIRING GUARD IS INOPERATIVE AS A SAFETY SWITCH, THE GUARD MUST BE PULLED TO THE REAR TO ACT AS A PHYSICAL SAFETY MEASURE.

52. The emergency firing circuit is a self contained system independent of the 'normal' or auxiliary firing circuits. The system is powered by a 24 volt storage battery housed in the gun junction box. The emergency system is selected by positioning the gun junction box selector switch to EMERGENCY and firing the gun by pressing the firing button.

Note

The emergency firing circuit will only be used when the normal firing circuits fail.

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USER MAINTENANCE Main gun mounting

53. During servicing of the gun mounting, and at all times, except when pulling back or firing, the stop, running back MUST BE FITTED.

54. Lubricate the cradle liners with two strokes of the grease gun at the two lubricators located adjacent to the recuperator pressure gauge.

55. Lightly lubricate with oil and check the operation of the breech opening lever, linkage chain, breech closing lever, semi-automatic cam and loader's firing guard.

Recoil system

56. Check the recuperator air pressure as follows:

56.1 Check the recuperator air pressure gauge registers not less than 500 Ibf/sq in. If the gauge indicates less than 500 Ibf/sq in - REPORT.

56.2 Check the position of the 'tell-tale' rod at the rear of the high pressure cylinder. If the mark has reached or is close to the CEASE FIRE mark - REPORT.

56.3 Check the system generally for leaks, security of plugs, bolts, etc.

Replenisher

57. Check the replenisher (Fig 18(1))for oil as follows:

57.1 Release the leaf spring clip retaining the replenisher indicator rod.

57.2 Check the recuperator air pressure gauge (7) registers not less than 500 Ibf/sq in.

57.3 Pull the replenisher indicator rod to the rear manually and measure the amount of protrusion from the face of the rear end cap of the replenisher cylinder to the front face of the round nut on the indicator rod.

57.4 The protrusion should measure more than 1.5 inches (37 mm). If the protrusion measures less than 1.5 inches (37 mm) the buffers and replenisher require topping up.

57.5 When the protrusion measures more than 1.5 inches (37 mm), push the replenisher indicator rod inwards manually and retain the rod in position with the leaf spring.

To top-up the buffers and replenisher WARNING

DO NOT REMOVE THE BUFFER FILLER PLUGS AS THE OIL IN THE CYLINDER WILL BE UNDER PRESSURE.

58. Top up the buffers and replenish as follows:

58.1 Check the recuperator air pressure gauge registers not less than 500 Ibf/sq in then remove the stop, running back (paragraph 26).

58.2 Fit the replenisher jacking tool (3) on the rear of the replenisher cylinder, engaging the sliding claw in front of the indicator rod round nut. For convenience, have the open end of the sliding claw facing left.

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58.3 Ensure the washer is fitted to the jacking tool bolt and rotate the bolt clockwise until it is hand-tight to take up all the free movement on the indicator rod.

58.4 In cases where deficiency of oil in the system is such that no free movement exists, it will be necessary to dismantle the tool and engage the sliding claw in front of the indicator rod by using the chamfered dogs to lever the indicator rod to the rear.

58.5 Level the gun, using the quadrant fire control (OFC) then after thoroughly cleaning the replenisher filler plug (2) and surrounds remove the filler plug.

58.6 Rotate the jacking bolt clockwise to withdraw the indicator rod simultaneously pouring clean oil into the replenisher using an oil injector. Continue until the sliding claw touches the tool body, preventing any further rotation of the jacking bolt.

58.7 Check the sealing washer is serviceable and replace the replenisher filler plug.

58.8 Remove the jacking tool from the replenisher by rotating the jacking bolt anti-clockwise and disengaging the sliding claw from the indicator rod.

58.9 Fully elevate and depress the gun several times. Level the gun using the OFC.

58.10 Pull the replenisher indicator rod to the rear manually and measure the amount of protrusion. The protrusion should be in excess of 1.5 inches (37 mm). If it is less, the topping up procedure must be repeated urtil the correct protrusion is obtained.

Replenisher

2 Filler plug, replenisher 3 Jacking tool

4 Spindle retaining clip 5 Filler plug, right buffer

6 Buffer cylinder, right

7 Pressure gauge, recuperetot

Fig 18 - Buffers and replenisher

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58.11 Slacken the replenisher filler plug and allow oil to bleed off until the indicator rod protrusion is reduced to 1.5 inches (37 mm).

58.12 Tig hten the replenisher filler plug and secure the leaf spring clip retaining the replenisher indicator rod.

58.13 Wipe the buffer system clean, check for oil leaks.

Testing the recoil system by pulling back

59. The following test proves that the recuperator cylinder returns the gun to the firing position and that the buffer cylinders give the required check to the final stages of 'run-out'. Additionally, pulling back keeps the cylinder packings and seals supple and the rods clean, and proves the automatic opening of the breech.

60. Traverse the turret to position the gun over the front of the vehicle and proceed as follows:

60.1 Check the recuperator air pressure registers 500 Ibf/sq in, and that the buffer cylinder's fluid levels are correct.

60.2 Remove and stow the running back stop, set the gun to the horizontal position.

60.3 Remove the gun muzzle cover and position the pulley assembly (Fig 19( 1)) in the muzzle, and secure with captive chain (11).

60.4 Connect the snatch block (3) coupled to the winch cable by shackle to the turret right lifting lug (9).

60.5 Lay the winch cable into the muzzle pulley, then lay the cable end onto the vehicle decking.

60.6 Attach the winch (6) to the left turret lifting lug as follows:

60.6.1 Connect the winch (6) to the turret left lifting eye (9) using the small and large shackles (5) and (4). The large shackle connects to the eye. Check that the winch connection pin (8) is fully home to the second locking position.

60.6.2 Push the winch release lever P(15) towards lever L2(14) into the notched position, and keep lever L2 close to lever P.

60.6.3 Insert the cable end (2) into the winch and pull cable through winch.

60.6.4 Press down lever P vertically and forward to engage the winching mechanism.

60.6.5 Checkthe operation of the winch by operating lever L 1 (13). to winch 'IN' and by operating lever L2 (14) to winch 'our.

60.6.6 Place the lever extension (7) over operation lever L 1 and operate the winch to take up the slack.

WARNING

DURING PULLING BACK OPERATIONS, ALL PERSONNEL MUST STAND WELL CLEAR OF THE GUN MUZZLE.

60.7 Commence winching to pull the gun back (35 cm (14 inches)) until the gun is fully back to the maximum recoil position. Do not over winch.

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f=-"'

7

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E

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F

Fig 19 - Gun pulling back gear

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Key to Fig 19
1 Pulley assembly 6 Winch 11 Captive chain, muzzle pulley
2 Cable 7 Lever extension 12 Gun muzzle
3 Snatch block 8 Winch connecting pin 13 Winch lever L 1
4 Large shackle 9 Turret lifting lug 14 Winch lever L2
5 Small shackle 10 Release lever, snatch block 15 Winch control lever P
A Kit layout D Winch/cable connector F Winch connection to turret
B Muzzle pulley assembly E Winch cable connected ready G Equipment ready for pulling
C Snatch block assembly, for winching back gun
connection to turret 60,8 When the gun is fully back, strike the snatch block lever (10) to release the gun, The gun will rapidly 'run out' then 'check' and slowly return for approximately 2,5 cm (1 inch), During run out a loud 'clunk' will be heard coming from inside the turret (breech opening),

60,9 Close the breech and check the recoil system for leaks, If the gun does not run out correctly or leaks occur etc - REPORT.

60,10 Fit the running back stop to the breech ring, Remove the muzzle pulley assembly and replace the muzzle cover,

60,11 Push winch release lever P into the notched position (15), pull winch cable from winch, Release winch from the turret lug,

60,12 Collect the winch, cable, pulley, shackles and winch lever extension etc and stow,

Recoil indicator

61, Clean and lubricate the indicator slide and check for security, Also lightly lubricate the antirotation bracket groove,

To set the recoil indicator

62, Push the indicator slide fully forward, check the pointer is in line with the scale front marking, If the marking does not align, proceed as follows:

62,1 Slacken the pointer retaining screws and move the pointer to align with the front marking, Tighten the screws,

62,2 Move the slide to the rear until the pointer aligns with the first arrow mark forward of the CEASE FIRE arrow marker,

62,3 After firing the first round, check the position of the indicator pointer, If the pointer is in or past the CEASE FIRE marking arrow, check the recuperator pressu re gauge reading and tell-tale position - REPORT.

CAUTION

Do not fire the gun again until the recoil system has been checked by REME.

To test the main gun firing circuits

To test the normal firing circuit

63, Check the gun is safe, fully run-out, and the breech is closed,

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63.1 Place the battery master switch to ON.

63.2 Depress the firing needle assembly (Fig 20(7)) retaining plunger, rotate the firing needle assembly one-eighth of a turn anti-clockwise and withdraw the assembly from the breech ring (2) .

63.3 Relieve spring tension from the firing needle, slide the circuit tester into the guideway on the front face of the firing needle casing, then replace and secure the firing needle assembly complete with tester in the breech ring.

63.4 Make the following switch selections:

63.4.1 Gunner's armament switch to MAIN.

63.4.2 Commanders armament switch to OFF.

63.4.3 Loader's safety switch to LIVE.

63.4.4 Gun junction box (GJB) selector switch to NORMAL.

63.4.5 Loader's firing guard to the rear.

63.5 Confirm that the red warning light (MAIN) on the GFCB, and the GUN READY warning light are both illuminated. If one of the lights fails to illuminate, check the lamp. If both lights fail to illuminate, check circuit breaker CB1 on the G FCB. If, after checks, light still fails - REPORT.

63.6 Press the firing switch on the elevating handwheel, whilst another crew member looks into the gap between the breech ring and the breech block, to check that 'the circuit tester lamp has illuminated. Replace the firing switch, check that the lamp is extinguished, if it is not report to REME.

63.7 Repeat the test in paragraph 63.6 using the firing switch on the gunner's firing handle.

63.8 Repeat the test in paragraph 63.6 with the commander's armament switch to MAIN and using the firing switch on the commander's firing handle.

63.9 Confirm that the red warning light (MAIN) on the GFCB and the GUN READY warning light are both illuminated. If one ofthe lights fails to illuminate check the lamp. If both lights fail to illuminate, check circuit breaker CB1 on the GFCB. If, after checks, lights still fail - REPORT.

63.10 Test the spare firing needle assembly using the same method.

To test the auxiliary firing circuit

64. On completion of the test at paragraph 63.9, through the recess in the gunner's shield, remove the protective cap and press the auxiliary/emergency firing button. The circuit tester lamp should illuminate. If the lamp fails to illuminate - REPORT.

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To test the emergency firing circuit

65. On completion of the auxiliary firing circuit test, place the battery master switch to OFF.

65.1 Place the GJB selector switch to EMERGENCY.

65.2 Press the firing button. The circuit tester lamp should illuminate. If the lamp fails to illuminate - REPORT.

65.3 Place the GJB switch to NORMAL.

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1 Clinometer plane 10 Cam control
2 Breech ring 11 Stud
3 Barrel locking plate 12 Firing needle actuating crank
4 Preserving screw 13 Firing needle assembly indicator pin
5 Obturator sleeve protector retaining 14 Breech opening tool latch
screw 15 Loader's firing guard cam
6 Breech block 16 Crank retaining screw
7 Firing needle assembly (FNA) A Free
8 Vent tube loader rammer handle B Lock
9 Maintenance stop
Fig 20 - Breech ring (breech open) Note

On completion of all the foregoing tests, carry out the following:

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(1) Place the battery master switch to OFF.

(2) Remove the firing needle assembly and circuit tester from the breech ring, disconnect the circuit tester from the needle assembly.

(3) Replace and secure the firing needle assembly in the breech ring and close the breech.

(4) Return all switches used during the tests to the OFF or SAFE positions.

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TO PROVE THE GUN

66. This action must be carried out before any work is attempted on the gun.

66.1 Open the breech.

66.2 Looking from the top of the chamber to the bottom of the muzzle end, confirm the chamber and bore are completely clear of any ammunition or fouling (ie rag, dirt or anything that can obstruct the passage of the projectile up the barrel, constitutes fouling).

66.3 If no further work is to be done on the gun, close the breech. If, however, it is intended to strip the gun, carry out maintenance or load the gun, the breech block should be left in the open position.

I

HANDLING

67. The full crew drill, relating to the word of command 'Action', is covered in the RAC training pamphlet, Volume 3, Armour. The drills carried out by the loader when operating the main armament, are given in the following paragraphs.

To load the gun

6B. To load the gun, proceed as follows:

6B.1 Open the breech, check bore is clear.

6B.2 Inspect the vent tube magazine and ensure the transparent end cap of the vent tubes are facing forward.

6B.3 Insert a full vent tube magazine into the magazine guide in the bottom of the vent tube loader. Push the magazine upwards and ensure the retaining catch on the vent tube loader engages correctly.

6B.4 Pull the rammer handle (Fig 20(B)), on the vent tube loader, fully to the rear. Release the rammer and check the rammer handle is fully forward and only the white part is showing. (If it does not happen, see the Gun Drill Manual - Vent Tube Stoppage Drills).

6B.5 Place the projectile on the loading platform and push firmly into the chamber, so that the round is clear of the charge retaining catch, taking care that the catch is not damaged by the projectile.

6B.6 Open the charge bin, remove the correct charge for the selected projectile, close and secure the lid of the charge bin.

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6B.7 Insert the charge into the chamber with the carrying handle towards the projectile and the igniter pad towards the breech. Push the charge well into the chamber with the knuckles of the right hand, ensuring that it goes forward of the obturator sleeve; failure to do this will result in the charge bag being split as the block rises on closing and igniter/propellant being spilt over the obturators and breech block. This could cause a flash back into the turret when firing takes place.

6B.B Close the breech.

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68.9 Pull the loader's firing guard to the rear.

68.10 Physically ensure the loader's safety switch is at LIVE.

68.11 REPORT-'Loaded'.

Fail safe arrangement

69. The gun cannot be fully loaded unless the obturator sleeve is fitted, due to the breech ring interlock preventing the block from rising to the load position. If the failure indicator pin (Fig 21 (5)) on the obturator sleeve (2) is protruding, the arm (4) on the sleeve protector will have been broken and will drop across the rear of the chamber. If this happens, the sleeve should be checked to confirm that the pin is protruding and if it is, firing must not take place until a new set of obturators have been fitted. It is possible that the sleeve protector arm may have dropped not as a result of the failure indicator pin protruding. but due to a weak retaining catch in the sleeve protector. If this is the case, the obturator sleeve should be checked by the commander to seethat the pin is not protruding. If it is not, the sleeve protector arm should be re-engaged in its catch. If the commander is in any doubt as to the state of the obtu rators, he should cease firi ng until examination has shown them to be serviceable or a new set has been fitted. If the insert is not fitted, loading is prevented by the breech block interlock indicator protruding.

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1 Obturator sleeve protector 2 Obturator sleeve

3 Obturator sleeve springs

4 Obturator sleeve protector arm

5 Primary seal failure indicator pin 6 Shear wire

Fig 21 - Obturator sleeve safety plunger

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To unload the gun with the round fired and breech open

70. With round fired and breech open, proceed as follows:

70.1 Set the loader's safety switch to SAFE.

70.2 Check the bore and chamber are clear.

70.3 Remove the vent tube magazine by pressing the magazine catch and pulling down on the magazine.

70.4 Remove the vent tube loader by depressing the locking plungers and withdrawing it to the rear.

I

70.5 Check the vent tube is clear.

70.6 Report 'gun clear'.

To unload the gun when the round is not fired and breech closed

71. When round is not fired and breech is closed, proceed as follows:

71.1 Set the loader's safety switch to SAFE.

71.2 Open the loader's firing guard by striking the roller from the inside of the guard with the palm of the hand.

71.3 Remove the vent tube magazine.

71.4 Remove the firing needle assembly by pushing in on the retaining plunger and rotating the assembly anti-clockwise as far as possible. Remove the unfired vent tube end and replace the firing needle assembly. Place the vent tube in the magazine and restow the magazine.

71.5 Request REME to remove the projectile.

To ease springs

72. Close the breech and fit the running back stop.

To make safe

73.1 Set the loader's safety switch to SAFE.

73. To make gun safe:

73.2 Open the loader's firing guard.

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73.3 Set the loader's safety switch to LIVE.

73.4 The gunner will set the gunner's selector switch to the OFF position. The commander will set the commander's switch to GUNNER.

73.5 The loader will report 'Main safe'.

RULES FOR STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLY

74. The following rules must be applied to all stripping and assembling operations.

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74.1 Ensure that the gun is unloaded (prove the gun).

74.2 Strip to the correct sequence.

74.3 Use the correct tools correctly.

74.4 Do not use force.

74.5 Place the parts in a clean, dry, safe place.

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1 Breech block guides

2 Obturator sleeve protector

retaining screw

3 Charge retaining catch 4 Plunger

5 Recess for breech block insert 6 Flame pocket

7 Inclined recesses

8 Interlock indicator lever

9 Breech block interlock indicator 10 Charge retaining catch axis pin

Fig 22 - Breech block

Opening the breech using the breech opening tool (BOT) 75. Open the breech as follows:

75.1 Check the recuperator air pressure gauge reads not tess than 500 Ib/sq in.

75.2 Remove the stop running back by slackening the handwheel on top of it until the stop can be lifted clear of the cradle.

75.3 Ensure the maintenance stop is protruding (Fig 20(9)). Hold the breech closing lever to the left (Fig 23(1)) and insert the wedge shaped tool (2) between the breech closing lever and the guard. Ensure that the rear of the tool locates in the guard slot (3).

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75.4 Fit the BOT (Fig 24(11)) in position. While turning the BOT handle alternately clockwise and anti-clockwise, an assistant should ease out to its limit the gearbox plunger (9) located in the gearbox coverplate, situated on the right side of the breech ring (1).

75.5 Rotate the BOT handle clockwise until the breech is fully open and resistence is met. The breech block is now on the maintenance stop.

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1 Breech closing lever 2 Wedge tool

3 Wedge tool locating slot

Fig 23 - Wedge tool

75.6 Rotate the BOT handle anti-clockwise and at the same time align the stud on the crank lever of the actuating shaft with the cam groove in the SA cam. Remove the wedge shaped tool and ensure that the stud is inside the groove now that the SA cam has been released.

75.7 Rotate the BOT handle anti-clockwise, the breech block will rise, until the gearbox plunger re-engages in the worm wheel located under the coverplate. The re-Iocation of the plunger should produce an audible click but the assistant should feel the plunger re-engaging to confirm that it has done so.

75.8 Remove and restow the BOT.

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To strip the gun

76. To strip the gun breech mechanism, proceed as follows:

76.1 Prove the gun but do not close the breech.

76.2 Slacken the obturator sleeve protector retaining screws (Fig 24(4)) and remove the protector (5) from the breech block (2).

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Breech ring 2 Breech block

3 Clinometer plane

4 Obturator sleeve protector retaining

screw

5 Obturator sleeve protector 6 Anti-rotation key

7 Retaining plunger

B Gearbox

9 Gearbox plunger

10 Breech ring electrical contact

(BREC)

11 Breech opening tool 12 Vent tube loader

13 Operating handle

Fig 24 - Breech opening tool

76.3 Remove the firing needle assembly (Fig 20(7)).

76.4 Remove the vent tube loader (Fig 24(12)).

76.4.1 Close the breech. Continue to hold the breech closing lever to the left and insert the wedge shaped (Fig 23(2)) tool between the breech closing lever and the guard.

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76.4.2 Fit the breech opening tool (BOT), release the breech gearbox plunger, rotate the BOT until the breech block is lowered to the maintenance stop.

76.5 Fit the obturator assembly tool (Fig 26(4)) to the breech ring with the front plate against the obturator sleeve (2), but clear the failure indicator pin. The rear plate should be horizontal against the inside rear face of the breech ring.

76.6 Tighten the handle of the tool until the obturator sleeve is compressed and clear of the retracting levers (1). Depress the axis pins (5) (a fired vent tube can be used) and remove the retracting levers and axis pins.

76.7 Remove the obturator assembly tool, being careful not to drop the front plate on to the obturator sleeve. Withdraw the sleeve from the chamber and check the breech firing interlock protrudes.

I

76.8 Remove the preserving screw (Fig 20(4)) from the top of the breech block and screw in the eye bolt.

76.9 Attach the breech block suspension bracket (Fig 25(2)) to the turret roof and tighten up the two bolts (3) with the tommy bar (5) provided.

76.10 Fit the cable (10) to the bracket. Elevate or depress the gun to attach the lower hook to the eye bolt (6).

76.11 Elevate the gun until the cable assembly is taking the weight of the breech block. Rotate the breech opening tool anti-clockwise until the breech block is clear of the maintenance stop. Lift the stop lock lever and, using a screwdriver, press the maintenance stop to the right as far as it will go. Pull down on the stop lock lever to hold the maintenance stop in the withdrawn position.

76.12 Rotate the breech opening tool clockwise while the gun is being depressed, until the breech block is clear of the breech ri ng and cran k arms. The assistant must ensu re that the steel hawser is taut at all times. As the breech block comes out of the guides, it will tend to spring backwards and rotate; this should be prevented by steadying it as it clears the breech ring.

Note

At this stage the gauging of the firing needle protrusion can be carried out (see paragraph 79).

76.13 Remove the sliding blocks from the crank arms after noting their positions.

76.14 Rotate the breech block through 3200 mils. Take the tension off the breech block interlock by pressing the interlock indicator (Fig 22 (9)) towards the side of the block. Remove the breech block insert from the recess in the breech block; place the insert into the transit box.

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76.15 Disconnect the electrical connector from the terminal block. Pullout the retaining catch and pull the block to the rear, removing it from its guides.

76.16 Pull out the breech ring electrical contact (BREC) (Fig 24(10)) retaining plunger situated in a recess in the rear face, right side, of the breech ring and withdraw the BREC to the right.

76.17 To lower the breech block to the turret floor:

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76.17.1 Depress the gun until the top of the breech ring is level with the metal link in the hawser. Insert the tommy bar (Fig 25(5)) through the metal link (4). Push the tommy bar towards the front of the turret ensuring that the machined surfaces are to the bottom and flush with the horizontal face at the top of the breech ring. Allow the bar to take the weight of the breech block.

76.17.2 Continue to depress the gun, allowing the tommy bar to take the weight of the breech block until sufficient slack has been reproduced to allow the hawser to be released by removing the captive quick release pin (1) from the suspension bracket.

76.17.3 Elevate the gun slowly to allow the breech block (9) to contact the turret floor.

9

1 Release pin
2 Suspension bracket
3 Bracket securing bolts
4 Link
5 Tommy bar
6 Breech ring
7 Hook
8 Eyebolt
9 Breech block
10 Cable Jun 83

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Fig 25 - Breech block hoist

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76.18 Disconnect the hook from the eye bolt and remove the eye bolt from the breech block.

76.19 Insert a screwdriver into the slot, on the right hand edge of the rear face, of the breech block and remove the axis pin (Fig 22(10)).

76.20 Remove the charge retaining catch from the guides together with the plunger and spring.

2

5

1 Retracting lever 2 Obturator sleeve

3 Primary seal failure indicator pin

4 Obturator assembly tool 5 Retracting lever axis pin

Fig 26 - Obturator assembly tool

To assemble the gun

77.1 Fit the spring and plunger into the recess of the breech block. Fit the charge retaining catch into its guides, align and press in on the axis pin.

77. To assemble the breech mechanism:

77.2 Screw the eye bolt into the top of the breech block.

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78. To raise the breech block from the floor:

78.1 Assemble the suspension tackle on to the breech block with the tommy bar correctly placed on top of the breech ring.

78.2 Depress the gun; this will lift the breech block clear of the floor and enable the cable to be attached by the relevant pin to the suspension bracket.

78.3 Elevate the gun until weight of the breech block is taken by the hawser.

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78.4 Remove the tommy bar.

785 Insert the BREC into the right side of the breech ring, pull up on the locating plunger and release it when the BREC is correctly seated in position.

78.6 Fit the terminal block to the anti-rotation bracket (Fig 24(6)), by pulling out on the retaining catch and pushing forward on the block, then release the retaining catch. Refit the electrical connector, ensuring that it is tight.

78.7 Rotate the breech block so that the front face is towards the rear of the turret. Press the breech block interlock indicator (Fig 22(9)) towards the side of the breech block, after depressing the plunger (4) situated to the side of the breech ring interlock. Place the insert into the recess (5) in the breech block.

Note

Obturator sets are stamped either with the prefix '5' or '0' to their registered numbers. It is imperative that the obturator sleeve and the breech block are of the same registered number.

78.8 Fit the sliding blocks on to the crank arms.

78.9 Elevate the gun slowly while guiding the breech block into the guides of the breech ring. Fit the BOT and rotate until the crank arms are just in front of the inclining recesses (Fig 22(7)) in the breech block. Continue to elevate the gun at the same time rotate the BOT anti-clockwise, ensuring that the sliding blocks enter the inclined recesses correctly.

78.10 Continue to elevate the gun and rotate the BOT until the breech block has risen just clear of the maintenance stop to reassert.

78.11 Wind the breech block back down on the maintenance stop.

78.12 Disconnect the breech block suspension tackle. Remove the suspension bracket and the eye bolt; replace the preserving screw and stow.

78.13 Compress the breech ring until it is inside the mortise. Pull down on the small cover plate. Insert the obturator sleeve into its seating in the end of the chamber, ensuring that the failure indicator pin is at the top.

78.14 Fit the tool obturator assembly to the breech ring. Tighten up the tool, thereby compressing the obturator sleeve into its recess.

78.15 Fit the retracting lever axis pins into their recesses in the breech ring. Fit the retracting levers making sure that the large smooth surface is towards the breech ring, with the lower projections pointing down and backwards.

78.16 Remove the tool obturator assembly.

78.17 Wind the breech block up and at the same time align the stud (boss) on the crank lever of the actuating shaft with the cam groove (path) in the SA cam. Remove the wedge shaped tool and ensure that the stud is inside the groove now that the SA cam has been released.

78.18 Wind the breech block up to the load position and check that the gearbox plunger re-engages in the gearbox housing.

Note

At this stage the vent tube alignment test may be carried out. (Paragraph 80).

78.19 Fit the vent tube loader.

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Note

At this stage the breech closing spring test may be carried out. (Paragraph 81).

78.20 Close the breech.

78.21 Fit the firing needle assembly.

78.22 Fit the obturator sleeve protector in the recesses on the top of the breech block with the pintle to the left and rear. Tighten the retaining screws.

78.23 Fit the stop running back and secure it.

TESTS

To gauge the protrusion of the firing needle

79. This may be carried out at any stage where the firing needle actuating crank (Fig 20(12)) is either on the flat of the actuating cam, or completely clear of it, ie the crank arms are either in the breech closed position or below the maintenance stop (9). The test is carried out as follows:

79.1 Fit the firing needle assembly (FNA) (7) into the breech ring.

79.2 Place the gauge firmly at right angle to the FNA on the rear inside wall of the breech ring, below the FNA.

79.3 Slide the gauge upwards with the needle in its path, checking that the gauge clears the FNA with the 0.110 inch part, but fouls the needle with the 0.090 inch part.

79.4 If the firing needle is too long or too short - REPORT.

To test the vent tube alignment

80. This test may only be carried out when the breech is in the load position, and is carried out as follows:

80.1 Remove the vent tube loader. (Fig 24(12))

80.2 Fit the plate of the alignment gauge in accordance with the engraved instructions, Ie rear and top.

80.3 Insert the plug of the tool through the plate and into the vent chamber on the breech block until the red scribe mark on the plug is in line with the rear edge of the gauge plate.

80.4 If the plug does not penetrate this far, then the block is out of alignment - REPORT.

To test the breech closing springs

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81. This test may only be done from the load position. The test is as follows:

81.1 Close the breech and watch for any sluggish movement of the breech block on its way up.

81.2 Check that the roller on the firing needle actuating crank is on the flat portion of the actuating cam.

81.3 If the movement of the breech block is sluggish or the firing needle actuating crank is not correctly positioned - REPORT.

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3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

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Chapter 3-2

7.62 mm MACHINE GUN

CONTENTS

General description (Warning) To prove the gun

To half load

To load from half load To make safe

To load from make safe To unload (clear guns) To ease springs

Conversion of Commander's 7.62 mm MG to ground role To convert the commander's MG

Stripping and assembly procedures The rules of stripping and assembly To strip the barrel assembly

To strip the gas regulator

The fume extractor

To strip the trigger mechanism To strip the recoil buffer

To strip the piston assembly

To strip the return spring assembly To strip the breech block

To strip the extractor

To strip the feed mechanism To strip the dust cover

To assemble the dust cover

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25 To assemble the feed mechanism

26 To assemble the extractor

27 To assemble the breech block

28 To assemble the return spring

29 To assemble the piston

30 To assemble the recoil buffer

31 To assemble the trigger mechanism

32 To assemble the gas regulator

33 To assemble the barrel

34 Eight point check

User maintenance

35 Routine cleaning of the gun

36 Preparation for firing the gun

37 During firing of the gun

38 After firing of the gun

39 Care after firing the gun

40 Balancing the commander's MG (Warning)

46 Gun balancing procedure

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Fig

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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CONTENTS (Continued)

7.S2 mm machine guns .

Gas regulator .

Barrel LSA 1 with fume extractor/flash hider .

Breech and piston .

Breech block and return spring assembly .

Removal of extractor .

Feed mechanism

Dust cover

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7.62mm MACHINE GUN

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. Two 7.62mm machine guns (Fig 1) form the secondary armament of the vehicle. One gun, model L8A2(2) is mounted coaxially with the main armament and the other gun L37A2(1) is mounted on the commander's cupola. The L37 A2 gun can be dismounted and used in the ground role with the addition of the L7 bipod assembly and the L7 butt assembly. The L 1A2 barrel which is provided with sights, must be fitted to the L37A2 gun, when used in the ground role.

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U4597/128

1 Machine gun 7.62mm L37A2 (Commander's)

2 Machine gun 7.62mm LBA2 (Co-axial)

Fig 1 - 7.62mm machine gun

WARNING

COMMANDERS MUST BE AWARE THAT A TOXICITY HAZARD EXISTS WHEN FIRING THE MG FOR LONG PERIODS WHEN THE TURRET HATCHES ARE EITHER OPEN OR CLOSED. THE SYMPTOMS OF A CREW MEMBER SUFFERING FROM THE EFFECTS OF TOXICITY ARE:

(1) SUDDEN LOSS OF CONCENTRATION.

(2) DIZZINESS.

(3) HEADACHES

(4) SICKNESS

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CAUTION

(1) Should both 7.62mm machine guns be stripped at the same time, ensure that, on assembly, the gun serial numbers correspond. The numbers are located on the left side of gun body, barrel right side forward of barrel locking catch and breech block top face. Whenever a gun is being assembled, and especially when prepared for firing, the numbers should be checked for correct serial. Failure to carry out this check could cause damage to the gun or possible injury to personnel.

(2) To conserve the life of the 7.62mm machine gun and to minimise the risk of an accidental discharge, the working parts of the gun should be eased forward under control unless it is intended to actually fire the gun. The gun must never be loaded with the working parts to the rear.

2. Both machine guns may be fired electrically or manually, this being via a cable connected foot switch with the co-axially mounted MG or by operating the pistol grip trigger of the cupola mounted MG.

To prove the gun

3. This action must be carried out before any work is attempted on the gun:

3.1 Move the working parts fully to the rear, to cock the gun, and hold them in this position.

3.2 Move the safety catch to SAFE and release the cocking handle.

3.3 Press the cover catches inwards and open the cover.

3.4 Lift the feed tray and check that the chamber, body and face of the breech block are clear. Lower the feed tray and close the cover.

3.5 Move the safety catch to FI RE, hold the working parts fully to the rear, press the trigger and ease the working parts forward.

To half load

4. To half load the gun proceed as follows:

4.1 Ensure the working parts are forward and the feed pawl depressor is to the left.

4.2 Open the cover and place the belt on the feed tray with the first round against the cartridge stops.

4.3 Hold the belt in this position and close the cover.

To load from half load

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5. To load the gun from half load, move the working parts fully to the rear, to cock the gun, and

release them. REPORT - 'Loaded'.

To make safe

6. -'-0 make the gun safe proceed as follows:

6.1 Move the working parts fully to the rear, to cock the gun, and hold them in this position.

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6.2 Move the safety catch to SAFE, release the cocking handle. REPORT -'Coax safe'.

To load from make safe

7. To load the gun from make safe, move the safety catch to FIRE. REPORT - 'Loaded'.

To unload (clear guns)

8. To unload the gun:

8.1 Move the working parts fully to the rear, to cock the gun, and hold them in this position.

8.3 Open the cover, remove the belt and rounds, restow them in the magazine.

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8.2 Move the safety catch to SAFE and release the cocking handle.

8.4 Raise the feed tray, check that the chamber, face of the breech block and gun body are clear.

8.5 REPORT - 'gun clear'.

To ease springs

9. To ease springs:

9.1 Lower the feed tray and close the cover.

9.2 Move the safety catch to FIRE, hold the working parts fully to the rear, press the trigger and ease the working parts forward.

CONVERSION OF COMMANDER'S 7.62mm MG TO GROUND ROLE

10. The commander's machine gun L37A2 can be converted to the ground role by fitting the following items:

10.1 Barrel gun assem bly L 1 A2.

10.2 Bipod MG 7.62mm.

10.3 Butt assembly stock.

To convert the commander's machine gun

11. The following procedure must be carried out to convert the commander's machine gun to the ground role.

11.1 Prove the machine gun (MG).

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11.2 Remove the MG from the commander's MG mounting by removing the front mounting pin and sliding the MG to the rear.

11.3 Remove the barrel assembly L6A 1.

11.4 Line up the bipod retaining lugs on the gas cylinder with the corresponding slots in the bipod head, bring the lugs and the slots together and rotate the bipod until it is positioned below the MG.

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11.5 Fit the barrel assem bly L 1 A2.

STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLY PROCEDURES The rules of stripping and assembly

12. The following rules must be applied to all stripping and assembling operations:

12.1 Ensure the gun is unloaded (prove the gun).

12.2 Strip to the correct sequence.

12.3 Use the correct tools correctly.

12.4 DO NOT USE FORCE.

12.5 Place the parts in a clean, dry, safe place.

To strip the barrel assembly

13. To remove the barrel proceed as follows:

13.1 Prove the gun.

13.2 Disengage the barrel locking nut catch by pressing on the thumb-piece

13.3 Rotate the barrel locking nut to the left, slide the barrel forward and lift it clear of the gun.

To strip the gas regulator

14. To strip the gas regulator (Fig 2) proceed as follows:

Gas block

2 Gas regulator 3 Gas port

4 Serrations 5 Gas plug

6 Gas regulator 7 Split collar

8 Regulator screw 9 Adjusting knob

10 Regulator spindle nut

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(a) L6A1 barrel

(b) L 1A2 barrel

(b)

Fig 2 - Gas regulator

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14.1 On the barrel (L6A1) unscrew the regulator spindle nut (10) and remove the regulator (2). Push the plug (5) rearwards and remove plug.

14.2 On the ground role barrel (L 1A2) unscrew the adjusting knob (9) and remove the two collets. Push the plug (5) rearwards and remove plug.

The fume extractor

15. The fume extractor (Fig 3), which aiso serves as a flash hider, is permanently attached to the muzzle of the barrel. No attempt must be made to remove the extractor from the muzzle.

To strip the trigger mechanism

16.1 Remove the mounting pin from the front of the assembly by pressing the spri ng on the left and pushing the pin to the right.

16. To remove the trigger mechanism proceed as follows:

16.2 Push out the retaining pin, located through the centre of the joint pin.

16.3 Remove the joint pin and remove the assembly from the gun body.

To strip the recoil buffer

17. Raise the securing latch and lift the recoil buffer upwards until it is clear of the gun.

3

U4509jl40

Fume extractor/flash hider

2 Gun barrel

3 Gas regulator

Fig 3 - Barrel L6A1 with fume extractor/flash hider

To strip the piston assembly

18. To remove the piston assembly (Fig 4) proceed as follows:

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18.1 Open the cover and pull the cocking handle gently to the rear; the piston assembly will now protrude from the rear of the gun.

18.2 Remove the piston assembly.

18.3 Push the cocking handle forward.

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1 Extractor
2 Cartridge seating
3 Breech block
4 Clearance breech block guideways
5 Primary extraction faces
6 Guides
-. Rear bent
/
8 Sear bent
9 Guides
10 Pistol extension
11 Forward stop
12 Piston
13 Rings
14 Piston cup
15 Case ejection opening
U4373!203 Fig 4 - Breech and piston 8

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U 4373/204 10
1 Feed horns 6 Locking bent 11 Locating pin
2 Ejector spring 7 Locking lever link 12 Return spring
3 Firing pin 8 Piston post 13 Plunger and spring
4 Locking lever 9 Buffer contact 14 Extractor
5 Roller 1:1 Slotted lug Jun 83

Fig 5 - Breech block and return spring assembly

To strip the return spring assembl.y

19. To remove the return spring assembly (Fig 5) proceed as follows:

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19.1 Push the rear end of the return spring rod forward with the thumb and upward to disengage the locating pin from the recess in the gun body.

19.2 Withdraw the return spring assembly.

To strip the breech block

20. To remove the breech block (Fig 5) proceed as follows:

20.1 Push the breech block to its forward position on the piston assembly and push out the link pin from the piston post.

20.2 Slide the breech block forward and upwards.

20.3 The firing pin is secured by a roll pin and will not be removed except by REME for replacement.

To strip the extractor

21. To remove the extractor (Fig 6) proceed as follows:

21.1 Hold the breech block with the extractor uppermost and raise the locking lever.

21.2 Insert the blade of the foresight and extractor tool into the slot of the extractor plunger, position the other end of the tool into the slot of the locking lever. (see Fig 6(a)).

CAUTION

Care must be taken to hold the tool firmly in position since, if it slips, the plunger or spring may be lost, or personal injury may result.

21.3 Hold the tool down firmly (see CAUTION) and rotate the locking lever dowanwards to disengage the plunger from the extractor and compress the spring (b). Maintain pressure on the tool.

21.4 Lift out the extractor (b) and rotate the locking lever slowly upwards to ease the tension on the extractor spring. Remove the tool and withdraw the plunger and spring (c).

To strip the feed mechanism

22. Remove the feed mechanism (Fig 7) as follows:

22.1. Push to feed pawl depressor to the left, lever the stop spring upwards and out of engagement with the cover. Remove the depressor to the left.

22.2 Press the cartridge guide and stripping pawls inwards, maintain pressure, disengage the paw, retaining pin from the cover, pull out the pin.

22.3 Remove he pawls and springs.

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22.4 Push downwards and remove the retaining clip on the feed arm pivot.

22.5 Disengage the feed arm control spring from the slot in the feed arm by moving it to the left.

22.6 Remove the feed arm and control spring. 22.7 Remove the circlip from the feed pawl pivot.

22.8 Lift out the feed pawls.

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(b)

t

(C)

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(a) Insertion of foresight and extractor tool

(b) Removal of extractor

(c) Removal of tool, plunger and spring

Fig 6 - Removal of extractor

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1 Securing catches 2 Cover

3 Feed arm

4 Forked feed arm 5 Inner feed pawl 6 Bullet guide

7 Cartridge stop 8 Feed tray

9 Feed aperture

10 Outer feed pawls

11 Feed arm control spring 12 Catch spring

Fig 7 - Feed mechanism

23.1 Unlock the bipod locking catch.

To strip the dust cover

23. Remove the dust cover (Fig 8) as follows:

23.2 Press in onthe spring (3) of the dust cover.

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23.3 Usi ng the th u mb g ri p (1), sl ide the dust cover (2) to the rear and remove from the gun body.

CAUTION

Before assembling the gun, ensure that the body, barrel and breech block bear the same serial number.

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To assemble the dust cover

24. Assemble the dust cover as follows:

24.1 With the rounded end forward, engage the dust cover with the guides in the gun body.

24.2 Ensure that the bipod catch spring is in the forward position.

24.3 Slide the dust cover forward until the spring reasserts itself.

24.4 Lock the bipod locking catch.

1 Thumb grip 2 Dust cover 3 Spring

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U4509!144

Fig 8 - Dust cover

To assemble the feed mechanism

25. Assemble the feed mechanism assembly as follows:

25.1 Ensure that the inner feed pawl is positioned correctly into the outer feed pawls.

25.2 Place the inner and outer feed pawls on to the pivot and secure them with the circlip.

25.3 Position the feed arm control spring on the feed arm pivot.

25.4 Place the forked end of the feed arm over the roller on the feed pawl linkage.

25.5 Fit the feed arm over the feed arm pivot, ensuring that the control spring remains correctly seated.

25.6 Engage the feed arm control spring into the slot in the feed arm.

25.7 Fit the retaining clip to the feed arm pivot by pushing it upwards.

25.8 Position the cartridge guide and stripping pawl springs on the projections in the cover.

._.,.1

25.9 Place the pawls over the springs, press down on the pawls and fit the retaining pin to the cover, ensuring that it is locked.

25.10 Check the operation of the feed mechanism assembly.

25.11 Engage the feed pawl depressor with the grooves in the cover with the stop spring uppermost and push it to the right until the spring is engaged.

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To assemble the extractor

26. Assemble the extractor as follows:

26.1 Replace the plunger and spring in the breech block.

26.2 I nsert the blade of the tool into the slot of the plunger, raise the locking lever ano hook the other end of the tool in the slot of the locking lever.

26.3 Hold the tool down firmly and force the locking lever down to compress the extractor spring; replace the extractor.

26.4 Release pressure from the plunger by rotating the locking lever away from the breech block. Remove the extractor removing tool.

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To assemble the breech block

27. Replace the breech block as follows:

27.1 Slide the breech block on to the firing pin.

27.2 Align the link with the piston post and insert the link pin.

To assemble the return spring

28. Assemble the return spring as follows:

28.1 Insert the return spring assembly into the piston extension.

28.2 Push the rod forward and engage the locating pin with the recess in the gun body.

To assemble the piston

29. Assemble the piston assembly as follows:

29.1 Guide the piston into the lower part of the gun body, at the same time ensuring that the breech block IS held fully forward and aligned with the guides in the upper part of the body.

29.2 Position 'the breech block in the guides and push the assembly forward.

To assemble the recoil buffer

30. To assemble the recoil buffer, engage the bottom of the recoil buffer with the guides on the gun body and press down until the securing latch engages.

To assemble the trig.ger mechanism

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31. Replace the trigger mechanism as follows:

31.1 Set the safety catch to FIRE.

31.2 Locate the assembly on to the gun body.

31.3 Insert the joint pin and secure it with the retaining pin.

31.4 Insert the mounting pin from the right.

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To assemble the gas regulator

32. To assemble the gas regulator: Both MG barrels - replace the gas regulator plug into the gas block, ensuring the flat on the gas block aligns with the flat on the gas regulator. Replace the regulator nut and screw up tight.

To assemble the barrel

33. Refit the barrel as follows:

33.1 Position the barrel on the barrel support with the gas regulator plug in line with the gas cylinder.

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33.2 Ensure that the barrel locking nut is in the 12 o'clock position; this aligns the interrupted th reads correctly with those in the gu n body; pull the barrel to the rear to insert the barrel locking nut into the gun body.

33.3 Rotate the barrel locking nut to the right to lock the barrel to the gun body. The barrel catch should not be depressed, but allowed to operate freely to engage the ratchet teeth of the barrel locking nut. ENSURE THAT THE BARREL LOCKING NUT CATCH HAS ENGAGED CORRECTLY.

EIGHT POINT CHECK

34. In order to ensure correct functioning of the machine gun mechanism, the following eight point check must be made to the machine gun before firing:

CHECK 1 - THE BREECH BLOCK

With the piston assembly complete but not mounted in the gun, hold the extension in one hand and pull the breech block fully to the rear. As this is done, the firing pin should protrude through the bush in the front of the breech block.

Pull the breech block fully forward and place an empty case so that it is held by the extractor and by supporting the case with a finger, the ejector is compressed. When support for the case is removed, it should be thrown from the face of the breech block by the action of the ejector reasserting itself.

CHECK 2 - THE PISTON

CHECK 3 - PISTON HEAD FRICTION

With the piston assembly still dismounted, rotate the rod slightly and confirm that it moves a small distance independent of the piston extension.

Place the piston assembly into the body; do not fit the return spring assembly. Push the piston assembly fully forward and then pull back on the piston post, checking for free movement of the piston in the gas cylinder.

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CHECK 4 - RECOIL BUFFER

Check. that tne cap is locked with a tab washer and that the securing latch operates correctly.

Check the condition of the guides.

CHECK 5 - THE TRIGGER ASSEMBLY

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With the gun fully assembled, cock the gun; set the safety catch to SAFE and press the trigger. The working parts should not be released.

Set the safety catch to FIRE and press the trigger and ease the working parts forward.

CHECK 6 - THE FEED MECHANISM

With the cover open, check the following:

That the securing catches are spring-loaded.

That the feed arm is spring-loaded.

That the feed arm retaining clip is secure.

That the movement of the feed arm is reflected by movement of the feed pawls.

That the feed pawls are spring-loaded.

That the guide and stripping pawls are spring-loaded.

That the bullet guide, feed aperture, cartridge stops, feed horns and feed tray are secure and not showing signs of burring.

The security of the roller on the breech block, confirm that it is spring-loaded.

CHECK 7 - THE GAS REGULATOR

Remove the barrel and check the gas regulator nut is secure.

CHECK 8 - THE FUME EXTRACTOR

Ensure the fume extractor flash hider is secure and free from damage.

USER MAINTENANCE Routine cleaning of the gun

35. The term 'routine cleaning' applies to the cleaning required during the servicing (see the Servicing Schedule). The cleaning should be carried out as follows:

35.1 Strip the MG.

35.2 Clean the bore with a piece of flannelette (as issued), attached to the cleaning rod/pull through.

35.3 Clean the chamber with the chamber brush and flannelette.

35.4 Inspect the bore and chamber for cleanliness and re-oit.

35.5 Attach the gas cylinder cleaning brush to the cleaning rod and wrap a piece of flannelette (as issued) around the brush. Clean the gas cylinder from the front.

35.6 Inspect the gas cylinder for cleanliness and re-oil it, using flannelette (as issued) wrapped around the brush.

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35.7 Clean the remainderof the gun, re-oil and assemble. During assembly, complete the eight point check.

35.8 Check and clean the spare parts.

Preparation for firing the gun

36. Strip the gun. Clean, inspect and lubricate the gun, leaving the following parts dry clean:

Bore and chamber.

Fume extractor.

Gas cylinder and gas regulator.

Face of the breech block.

Piston, especially the cup and between the rings.

Exterior of the weapon: Check the serial numbers, assemble the gun, complete the eight point check

'Juring firing of the gun

37. Every opportunity should be taken to clean, examine and lubricate the gun during lulls in firing. Dusty conditions will demand extra attention. Special attention should be given to the chamber and gas affected parts; if possible the breech block and piston should be removed, cleared of f0uling and then re-Iubricated. If this is not possible, open the cover and apply a few drops of oil to the locking lever, the locking lever link, primary extraction faces and the guides. ENSURE THAT THE BARREL LOCKING NUT CATCH IS ENGAGED CORRECTLY.

After firing the gun

38. The gun is easier to clean immediately after firing, whilst it is still warm, but if this is not possible, a thorough oiling of the gas affected parts will greatly assist later cleaning. The gun will be stripped and the cleaning should be carried out as follows:

38.1 Barrel - Clean the bore and chamber using the pull through and oiled flannelette (as issued). Dry clean and inspect. Clean the exterior of the barrel and, using the correct tools, clear all traces of fouling from inside and outside the gas regulator.

38.2 Gas cylinder - Clean the cannelure at the front of the gas cylinder with the correct tool. Clean the cylinder with an oiled cylinder brush and dry out with a piece of flannelette wrapped around the brush.

38.3 Breech and feed mechanism - Dry clean the rest of the body, paying special attention to the guides and the feed mechanism.

38.4 Piston assembly - Thoroughly clean the face of the breech block and clean the piston cup with the correct tool.

38.5 Examination - Examine all parts to ensure that all are free of flaws or burrs. If any are present or if any rivets are found to be loose, report the defect to the Unit Repairman.

38.6 Assembling - Oil all parts and assemble the gun. During assembly, complete the eight point check. If firing is anticipated in the immediate future, the gas affected parts should be left dry clean.

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Care after firing the gun

39. The bore, chamber, gas cylinder and gas affected parts must be thoroughly cleaned, inspected and re-oiled daily for at least five days after firing. Inspection must be more frequent during humid conditions, keeping a careful watch for rust. In desert conditions of extreme dust and sand, the gun should be wiped dry. The gun should be dried out by sweating in the sun and constantly wiping off any oil that remains. As the gun is dry, frequent inspection for rust is essential. If oil has to be used to remove rust, use it sparingly and remove all traces of oil when clean. Cleaninq brushes should be washed in rifle cleaning oil and dried before use.

BALANCING THE COMMANDER'S MACHINE GUN

WARNING

BLANK AMMUNITION GIVES INCREASED RECOIL AT ALL GAS REGULATOR SETTINGS AND MAY CAUSE SERIOUS DAMAGE TO THE GUN, WITH POSSIBLE INJURY TO THE FIRER IF NOT CORRECTLY BALANCED FROM THIS TYPE OF AMMUNITION.

40. The balancing of the MG is necessary in order to determ.ine the required gas port setting for a particular gun. The procedure for balancing the MG is detailed below, it will normally be carried out under REME supervision.

41. The gun must be balanced in the ground role and can only be balanced when a L 1 A2 barrel is fitted. Particular attention is to be paid to balancing when blank ammunition is to be fired.

42. Correct cocking is dependent on the right balance between the gas force of the piston and the resisting forces of the return spring being obtained. Because the return spring and gas regulating assemblies have a definite bearing on the performance of the gun, these assemblies should be kept to their mated gun whenever possible. Return springs are to be checked for serviceability before the gun is balanced.

43. With the two-bent sear fitted, it is possible for the gun to cock on either the front or rear bent on the termination of a burst. The front bent is intended as a safety measure only and should not come into operation during normal functioning. Therefore, it is essential to establish that the piston is cocking on the rear bent whenever firing ceases.

44. To establish which bent the gun is cocking on, a simple check involving the use of a scribe line is used. A line should be marked on the side of the gun body in line with the cocking handle when the handle has been pulled fully to the rear.

45. At the end of a fired burst, apply the safety catch. Draw the cocking handle carefuly to the rear and note the position at which contact with the piston is made. If, at this point, the cocking handle is in line with the scribe line, the piston is engaged with the rear bent of the sear. If the cocking handle is forward of the scribe line (approximately 13mm) the piston is engaged with the front bent of the sear. The balance must be adjusted.

Gun balancing procedure

46. Balance the gun as follows:

46.1 Set the gas regulator at No.6.

46.2 Fire a short burst.

46.3 Set the safety catch to the SAFE position. Check that the piston is cocked on the rear bent of the sear.

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46.4 Unscrew the gas regulator tNO notches, ie gas setting NO.6 to No.e, thereby decreasing the amount of gas.

46.5 Repeat sub-paraqraphs 46.2, 463 and 46.4 until the piston cocks on the front bent of the sear.

46.6 Apply the safety catch. Screw in the gas regulator four notches, ie gas setting NO.8 to No.4.

46.7 Fire a 10 round burst and recheck the sear engagement.

48. The final balance setting MUST NOT BE less than No.4. The gas setting is to be noted forfuture use. If the gas setting is less than No.4 - REPORT.

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Chapter 3-3

COMMANDER'S MG MOUNTING

CONTENTS

Para

1 General description

7 To mount the commander's machine gun

8 To dismount the commander's machine gun

9 To test the commander's machine gun firing circuit

10 To adjust the commander's machine gun firing circuit

11 To illuminate the commander's spotlight

12 User maintenance

13 To change the spotlight lamp unit

Fig

1 2

Commander's machine gun mounting .

Commander's spotlight .

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COMMANDER'S MG MOUNTING

GENE.RAL DESCRIPTION

1. The commander's MG mounting, No.10 Mk 3 (Fig 1) is located on the cupola to the left of the commander's sight hood. The mounting is rotated in unison with the cupola and may be elevated to the vertical position and depressed nine degrees below the horizontal position.

2. The mounting comprises a cradle which retains the machine gun in position with a mounting pin (2) at the front and a slide bracket that locates the rear mounting pin of the gun. Spring tension levers (7 and 8) at the rear of the cradle enable the safety catch of the gun to be positioned in either the SAFE or FIRE positions. An electrical solenoid mounted on the left of the cradle, actuates the MG trigger mechanism, this is connected to the cupola switch box via a junction box (13) and an armoured cable (14). The intermediate firing lever is located directly below the solenoid firi ng lever and bears against the trigger when the MG is mounted.

3. The cradle elevating mechanism comprises two trunnions, the left trunnion, adjacent to the ammunition boxes, contains a shaft and worm drive system that terminates at a block inside the cupola and onto which is fitted the elevating handle (11) and the MG firi ng switch (10). A clamping screw (12) on the lower face of the block may be used to lock the mounting in any angle of elevation. The right trunnion actuates the sight turnbuckle (6) via a secondary link (5).

4. The MG cocking mechanism is on the right.side of the cradle and moves on a slide bracket, the mechanism is actuated by asteel cord (4) which enters the top of the cupola and terminates in a handle (9).

5. The ammunition tray which will hold 3 boxes of belted ammunition is bolted on to the cupola on the left of the MG mounting. The three belts should be connected to allow the feed to the gun to commence from the single outer box and then to continue from the forward and rear inner boxes in turn.

6. The spotlight (1) is mounted co-axially on the left side of the cradle and follows all movements

made to the MG. An armoured cable (15) connects the spotlight to the junction box (13).

To mount the commander's machine gun

Note

The machine gun weighs 9.5 kg (21 Ib).

7. Check that the gun has the mounting pin inserted in the trigger guard and is set to

SAFE. Depress the gun mounting, withdraw the front mounting pin from the mounting.

7.1 Lift the gun and guide the weapon along the cradle, engage the gun rear location pegs with the cradle slotted lugs.

7.2 Push the gun home against the stop, check that the trigger tongue (displaced by the trigger guard) is resting on or close to the trigger.

7.3 Insert the captive front mounting pin through cradle and gun.

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U4597/13

1 Spotlight 7 Spring tension lever (FIRE) 13 Junction box
2 MG front mounting pin 8 Spring tension lever (SAFE) 14 Solenoid cable
3 Spent case chute 9 MG cocking handle 15 Spotlight cable
4 MG cocking wire 10 MG firing switch 16 Ammunition box
5 Secondary link 11 Elevating handle 17 Solenoid
6 Turnbuckle 12 Clamping screw
Fig 1 - Commander's machine gun mounting Jun 83

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To dismount the commander's machine gun

8. Put the gun to SAFE. Bring the gun to the horizontal position.

8.1 Withdraw the front mounting pin.

8.2 Slide the gun rearwards and out of the cradle.

8.3 Replace the front mounting pin.

To test the commander's machine gun firing circuit

9. Check the gun is safe, leave the gun working parts to the rear.

9.1 Place the battery master switch to ON.

9.2 Place the cupola services switch box (CSSB)) No.22 MG switch to ON.

9.3 Confirm the red warning light on the CSSB No.22 illuminates. If the light fails to illuminate, check the lamp, circuit breaker on CSSB No.23 and 50 amp fuse in the CSJB. If the checks are satisfactory and the lamp stil: fails to illuminate - REPORT.

9.4 Press the MG mount elevating handle firing switch. Check the gun working parts have been released. If the gun working parts are not released, check the firing solenoid plunger is being energized. If the firing solenoid is not energizing, check the security of the solenoid and cable. If checks are satisfactory and the solenoid still fails to energize - REPORT.

9.5 If the firing solenoid is being energized but the gun working parts are not released, adjustment is required (see paragraph 10).

To adjust the commander's machine gun firing circuit

10. Check the gun is safe, leave the gun working parts to the rear.

10.1 Slacken the firing lever locknut. Adjust the screw head until it is just touching the firing solenoid plunger and the firing lever on the MG contacts the firing shaft. Tighten the adjuster locknut.

10.2 Test the firing circuit (paragraph 9).

To illuminate the commander's spotlight

11. Operation of the spotlight (Fig 2) is as follows:

11.1 Position the hull batteries master switch to ON.

11.2 Position the cupola supplies switch box No.22 spotlight switch to ON.

11.3 If the light does not illuminate, check the cable connections and circuit breaker located on the cupola supplies switch box No.23. If it still fails to illuminate - REPORT.

USER MAINTENANCE

12. Check all nuts/bolts for tightness, check security of firing solenoid and cable. Lightly lubricate with oil and check the operation of the MG remote cocking gear, MG firing gear, safety catch buttons and mounting elevation gear and clamp. Check the sightlMG linkage and spotlight for security and operation. Check the cupola mounted magazine tray for security and lubricate and check operation of magazine attachment catch.

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U4597/110

1 Spent case chute

2 Solenoid connector 3 Solenoid

4 Ammunition box

5 Spotlight cable 6 Spotlight

7 MG front mounting pin 8 Cocking mechanism

Fig 2 - Commander's spotlight

To change the spotlight lamp unit

13. Position the spotlight switch to OFF.

13.1 Release six screws in light bezel and remove the bezel.

13.2 Carefully remove lamp unit from casing and disconnect cables from sealed beam lamp unit.

13.3 Connect new lamp unit to cables and tighten tho screws.

13.4 Seat the lamp unit in sealing ring, replace the bezel and six screws. Test.

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Chapter 3-4

CO-AXIAL MACHINE GUN (MG) MOUNTING

CONTENTS

Para

General description

4 To mount the co-axial machine gun

5 To remove the co-axial machine gun

Test and adjustments for the co-axial machine gun firing systems

6 To test the electrical firing circuit

7 To adjust the electrical firing system

8 To test the mechanical firing system

9 To adjust the mechanical firing system

10 User maintenance

Fig Page

2

Co-axial machine gun mounting .

Gunner's foot firing pedal .

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CO-AXIAL MACHINE GUN (MG) MOUNTING

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

1. The co-axial MG is fitted to a mounting (Fig 1) where it IS secured in position at the front by a quick-release mounting pin (2). The MG lever (9) operates the remote cocking gear and the MG can be fired by solenoid (10) or by a cable connected foot pedal on the gunner's footplate. Both systems utilise the same adjustable firing lever (6). A splash protection screen (1), is secured by bolts to the gun mounting. The ammunition belt is guided from the magazine to the gun by a quickly removable feed tray (17). the ejected cartridge cases and belt links being guided by a flexible chute to fall into a spent case bin on the compartment turntable.

2. The gunner is provided with a footfiring pedal (Fig 2(4)) located on his footplate (3). The pedal is connected by an adjustable flexible cable to the co-axial machine gun firing gear. The pedal can be hinged to the vertical or safety position, as required.

3. The co-axial MG firing pedal is connected mechanically to the MG and can fire the MG without

any safety interlocks being required.

To mount the co-axial machine gun

4. Mount the co-axial machine gun as follows:

Note:

The machine gun weighs 10.4kg (23 Ibs).

4.1 Slacken the jubilee clip on the external canvas sleeve and fully elevate the main armament.

4.2 Remove the captive retaining pin (Fig 1 (16)) from the ammunition feed tray (17) and pivot the tray to the left.

4.3 Remove the front MG mounting pin (2) and ensu re that the rear mounti ng pin is fitted in the trigger mechanism assembly.

4.4 Hold the link exit chute to the right and slide the MG into the mounting.

Note

A crew man should guide the MG fume extractor through the canvas sleeve.

4.5 Ensure that the rear mounting pin is engaged in the slide bracket, release the link chute.

4.6 Insert the front mount pin until it is secure and tighten the jubilee clip on the external canvas sleeve.

4.7 Replace the feed tray and retaining pin, test the MG cocking mechanism.

Note

The 'stop running back' must be removed to test the cocking mechanism, check that the air pressure gauge reads not less than 500 Ib/sq in before removal.

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e 13 12 10 11 10 9 U4597/129
1 Splash screen 10 Firing solenoid
2 MG front mounting pin 11 Solenoid retaining straps
3 Spent case chute 12 Solenoid plunger
4 MG firing cable 13 Firing lever adjusting screw
5 Contact lever, foot firing 14 Cartridge retaining flap
6 Firing lever 15 Thumb piece, firing lever
7 Firing lever roller 16 Feed tray retaining pin
B MG rear mounting slots 17 Feed tray
9 Remote cocking lever Fig 1 - Co-axial machine gun mounting

To remove the co-axial machine gun

5. Remove the co-axial MG from the mounting as follows:

5.1 Slacken the jubilee clip on the external canvas cover and fully elevate the main armament.

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5.2 Remove the captive retaining pin from the ammunition feed tray and pivot the tray to the left.

5.3 Remove the front MG retaining pin and hold the link exit chute to the right.

5.4 Slide the MG rearwards out of the mounting.

5.5 Insert the front mounting pin and reposition the ammunition feed tray.

Tests and adjustments for the co-axial machine gun firing systems

To test the electrical firing circuit

6. Test the electrical firing circuits as follows:

6.1 Check the gun is safe, and the working parts to the rear.

6.2 Confirm the battery master switch is ON.

6.3 Place the gunner's armament switch to COAX.

6.4 Confirm the loader's safety switch is to LIVE.

6.5 Confirm the amber warning light (COAX) on the GFCB illuminates. If the light fails to illuminate, check CB1 on the GFCB. If the circuit breaker is correct, check the lamp. If the lamp still fails to illuminate - REPORT.

6.6 Press the firing switch on the gunner's firing handle. Check the gun working parts have been released. If the gun working parts are not released, check the solenoid is being energized (ie the solenoid plunger withdraws on depressing the firing switch). If the solenoid pi unger does not withdraw, check circuit breaker CB2 on the GFCB and/or security of the solenoid cable. If these checks are correct - REPORT. If the solenoid is being energized but the gun working parts are not released, adjustments are required (see paragraph 7).

6.7 Re-cock the gun.

6.8 Place the commander's switch to COAX.

6.9 Confirm that the amber light (COAX) on the GFCB illuminates. If the light fails to illuminate, repeat checks as in sub-paragraph 6.5.

6.10 Repeat test as in sub-paragraph 6.6 using the commander's firing handle firing switch.

To adjust the electrical firing system

7. Adjust the electrical firing system as follows:

7.1 Check the gun is safe, leave gun working parts to the rear.

7.2 Check the front of the solenoid is flush with its mounting bracket and the retaining straps are tight.

7.3 Slacken the firing lever locknut. Adjust the screw head until it is just touching the solenoid plunger and check the lever roller contacts the gun trigger extension. Tighten the locknut.

7.4 Test the electrical firing system, as in paragraph 6.

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