Introduction: JavaScript is used in millions of Web pages to improve the design, validate forms, detect browsers, create cookies

, and much more. JavaScript is the most popular scripting language on the internet, and works in all major browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Firefox, Netscape, and Opera.

What You Should Already Know
Before you continue you should have a basic understanding of the following:

HTML / XHTML

If you want to study these subjects first, find the tutorials on our Home page.

What is JavaScript? • • • • • • •
JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages JavaScript is a scripting language A scripting language is a lightweight programming language A JavaScript consists of lines of executable computer code A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) Everyone can use JavaScript without purchasing a license

Are Java and JavaScript the Same?
NO! Java and JavaScript are two completely different languages in both concept and design! Java (developed by Sun Microsystems) is a powerful and much more complex programming language - in the same category as C and C++.

What can a JavaScript Do? • • • •
JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool - HTML authors are normally not programmers, but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page - A JavaScript statement like this: document.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an HTML page JavaScript can react to events - A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens, like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML element JavaScript can read and write HTML elements - A JavaScript can read and change the content of an HTML element

• • •

JavaScript can be used to validate data - A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser - A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser, and - depending on the browser - load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies - A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer

How to Put a JavaScript Into an HTML Page
<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write("Hello World!"); </script> </body> </html>
The code above will produce this output on an HTML page: Hello World!

Example Explained
To insert a JavaScript into an HTML page, we use the <script> tag (also use the type attribute to define the scripting language). So, the <script type="text/javascript"> and </script> tells where the JavaScript starts and ends:

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> ... </script> </body> </html>
The word document.write is a standard JavaScript command for writing output to a page. By entering the document.write command between the <script> and </script> tags, the browser will recognize it as a JavaScript command and execute the code line. In this case the browser will write Hello World! to the page:

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write("Hello World!"); </script> </body> </html>
Note: If we had not entered the <script> tag, the browser would have treated the document.write("Hello World!") command as pure text, and just write the entire line on the page.

HTML Comments to Handle Simple Browsers
Browsers that do not support JavaScript will display JavaScript as page content. To prevent them from doing this, and as a part of the JavaScript standard, the HTML comment tag can be used to "hide" the JavaScript. Just add an HTML comment tag <!-- before the first JavaScript statement, and a --> (end of comment) after the last JavaScript statement.

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> <!-document.write("Hello World!"); //--> </script> </body> </html>
The two forward slashes at the end of comment line (//) is the JavaScript comment symbol. This prevents JavaScript from executing the --> tag.

Where to Put the JavaScript
JavaScripts in a page will be executed immediately while the page loads into the browser. This is not always what we want. Sometimes we want to execute a script when a page loads, other times when a user triggers an event. Scripts in the head section: Scripts to be executed when they are called, or when an event is triggered, go in the head section. When you place a script in the head section, you will ensure that the script is loaded before anyone uses it.

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> .... </script> </head>
Scripts in the body section: Scripts to be executed when the page loads go in the body section. When you place a script in the body section it generates the content of the page.

<html> <head> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .... </script> </body>
Scripts in both the body and the head section: You can place an unlimited number of scripts in your document, so you can have scripts in both the body and the head section.

<html> <head>

<script type="text/javascript"> .... </script> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> .... </script> </body>

Using an External JavaScript
Sometimes you might want to run the same JavaScript on several pages, without having to write the same script on every page. To simplify this, you can write a JavaScript in an external file. Save the external JavaScript file with a .js file extension. Note: The external script cannot contain the <script> tag! To use the external script, point to the .js file in the "src" attribute of the <script> tag:

<html> <head> <script src="xxx.js"></script> </head> <body> </body> </html>
Note: Remember to place the script exactly where you normally would write the script!

Variables
A variable is a "container" for information you want to store. A variable's value can change during the script. You can refer to a variable by name to see its value or to change its value. Rules for variable names:

• •

Variable names are case sensitive They must begin with a letter or the underscore character

IMPORTANT! JavaScript is case-sensitive! A variable named strname is not the same as a variable named STRNAME!

Declare a Variable
You can create a variable with the var statement:

var strname = some value
You can also create a variable without the var statement:

strname = some value

Assign a Value to a Variable
You can assign a value to a variable like this:

var strname="Hege";
Or like this:

strname="Hege";
The variable name is on the left side of the expression and the value you want to assign to the variable is on the right. Now the variable "strname" has the value "Hege".

Lifetime of Variables
When you declare a variable within a function, the variable can only be accessed within that function. When you exit the function, the variable is destroyed. These variables are called local variables. You can have local variables with the same name in different functions, because each is recognized only by the function in which it is declared. If you declare a variable outside a function, all the functions on your page can access it. The lifetime of these variables starts when they are declared, and ends when the page is closed.

Conditional Statements
Very often when you write code, you want to perform different actions for different decisions. You can use conditional statements in your code to do this. In JavaScript we have the following conditional statements:

• • • •

if statement - use this statement if you want to execute some code only if a specified condition is true if...else statement - use this statement if you want to execute some code if the condition is true and another code if the condition is false if...else if....else statement - use this statement if you want to select one of many blocks of code to be executed switch statement - use this statement if you want to select one of many blocks of code to be executed

If Statement
You should use the if statement if you want to execute some code only if a specified condition is true.

Syntax if (condition) {

code to be executed if condition is true }
Note that if is written in lowercase letters. Using uppercase letters (IF) will generate a JavaScript error!

Example 1 <script type="text/javascript"> //Write a "Good morning" greeting if //the time is less than 10 var d=new Date(); var time=d.getHours(); if (time<10) { document.write("<b>Good morning</b>"); } </script> Example 2 <script type="text/javascript"> //Write "Lunch-time!" if the time is 11 var d=new Date(); var time=d.getHours(); if (time==11) { document.write("<b>Lunch-time!</b>"); } </script>
Note: When comparing variables you must always use two equals signs next to each other (==)! Notice that there is no ..else.. in this syntax. You just tell the code to execute some code only if the specified condition is true.

If...else Statement
If you want to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if the condition is not true, use the if....else statement.

Syntax if (condition) { code to be executed if condition is true } else { code to be executed if condition is not true }

Example <script type="text/javascript"> //If the time is less than 10, //you will get a "Good morning" greeting. //Otherwise you will get a "Good day" greeting. var d = new Date(); var time = d.getHours(); if (time < 10) { document.write("Good morning!"); } else { document.write("Good day!"); } </script>

If...else if...else Statement
You should use the if....else if...else statement if you want to select one of many sets of lines to execute.

Syntax if (condition1) { code to be executed if condition1 is true } else if (condition2) { code to be executed if condition2 is true } else { code to be executed if condition1 and condition2 are not true } Example <script type="text/javascript"> var d = new Date() var time = d.getHours() if (time<10) { document.write("<b>Good morning</b>"); } else if (time>10 && time<16) { document.write("<b>Good day</b>"); } else { document.write("<b>Hello World!</b>");

} </script>

The JavaScript Switch Statement
You should use the switch statement if you want to select one of many blocks of code to be executed.

Syntax switch(n) { case 1: execute code block 1 break; case 2: execute code block 2 break; default: code to be executed if n is different from case 1 and 2 }
This is how it works: First we have a single expression n (most often a variable), that is evaluated once. The value of the expression is then compared with the values for each case in the structure. If there is a match, the block of code associated with that case is executed. Use break to prevent the code from running into the next case automatically.

Example <script type="text/javascript"> //You will receive a different greeting based //on what day it is. Note that Sunday=0, //Monday=1, Tuesday=2, etc. var d=new Date(); theDay=d.getDay(); switch (theDay) { case 5: document.write("Finally Friday"); break; case 6: document.write("Super Saturday"); break; case 0: document.write("Sleepy Sunday"); break; default: document.write("I'm looking forward to this weekend!"); } </script>

Arithmetic Operators
Operator + Description Addition Example x=2 y=2 Result 4

x+y Subtraction x=5 y=2 x-y x=5 y=4 x*y 15/5 5/2 5%2 10%8 10%2 x=5 x++ x=5 x-3

*

Multiplication

20

/ %

Division Modulus (division remainder)

3 2.5 1 2 0 x=6 x=4

++ --

Increment Decrement

Assignment Operators
Operator = += -= *= /= %= Example x=y x+=y x-=y x*=y x/=y x%=y Is The Same As x=y x=x+y x=x-y x=x*y x=x/y x=x%y

Comparison Operators
Operator == === Description is equal to Example 5==8 returns false

is equal to (checks for both value and type) x=5 y="5" x==y returns true x===y returns false

!= > < >= <=

is not equal is greater than is less than is greater than or equal to is less than or equal to

5!=8 returns true 5>8 returns false 5<8 returns true 5>=8 returns false 5<=8 returns true

Logical Operators
Operator && Description and Example x=6 y=3 (x < 10 && y > 1) returns true || or x=6 y=3 (x==5 || y==5) returns false ! not x=6 y=3

!(x==y) returns true

String Operator
A string is most often text, for example "Hello World!". To stick two or more string variables together, use the + operator.

txt1="What a very"; txt2="nice day!"; txt3=txt1+txt2;
The variable txt3 now contains "What a verynice day!". To add a space between two string variables, insert a space into the expression, OR in one of the strings.

txt1="What a very"; txt2="nice day!"; txt3=txt1+" "+txt2; or txt1="What a very "; txt2="nice day!"; txt3=txt1+txt2;
The variable txt3 now contains "What a very nice day!".

Conditional Operator
JavaScript also contains a conditional operator that assigns a value to a variable based on some condition.

Syntax variablename=(condition)?value1:value2 Example greeting=(visitor=="PRES")?"Dear President ":"Dear ";
If the variable visitor is equal to PRES, then put the string "Dear President " in the variable named greeting. If the variable visitor is not equal to PRES, then put the string "Dear " into the variable named greeting.

Popup boxes: Alert Box
An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user. When an alert box pops up, the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.

Syntax:

alert("sometext");

Confirm Box
A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something. When a confirm box pops up, the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed. If the user clicks "OK", the box returns true. If the user clicks "Cancel", the box returns false. Syntax:

confirm("sometext");

Prompt Box
A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page. When a prompt box pops up, the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value. If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. If the user clicks "Cancel" the box returns null. Syntax:

prompt("sometext","defaultvalue");

JavaScript Functions
To keep the browser from executing a script when the page loads, you can put your script into a function. A function contains code that will be executed by an event or by a call to that function. You may call a function from anywhere within the page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .js file). Functions can be defined both in the <head> and in the <body> section of a document. However, to assure that the function is read/loaded by the browser before it is called, it could be wise to put it in the <head> section.

Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function displaymessage() { alert("Hello World!");

} </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" > </form> </body> </html>
If the line: alert("Hello world!!") in the example above had not been put within a function, it would have been executed as soon as the line was loaded. Now, the script is not executed before the user hits the button. We have added an onClick event to the button that will execute the function displaymessage() when the button is clicked. You will learn more about JavaScript events in the JS Events chapter.

How to Define a Function
The syntax for creating a function is:

function functionname(var1,var2,...,varX) { some code }
var1, var2, etc are variables or values passed into the function. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function. Note: A function with no parameters must include the parentheses () after the function name:

function functionname() { some code }
Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters, otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.

The return Statement
The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. So, functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.

Example
The function below should return the product of two numbers (a and b):

function prod(a,b)

{ x=a*b; return x; }
When you call the function above, you must pass along two parameters:

product=prod(2,3);
The returned value from the prod() function is 6, and it will be stored in the variable called product.

JavaScript Loops
Very often when you write code, you want the same block of code to run over and over again in a row. Instead of adding several almost equal lines in a script we can use loops to perform a task like this. In JavaScript there are two different kind of loops:

• •

for - loops through a block of code a specified number of times while - loops through a block of code while a specified condition is true

The for Loop
The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run. Syntax

for (var=startvalue;var<=endvalue;var=var+increment) { code to be executed }
Example Explanation: The example below defines a loop that starts with i=0. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than, or equal to 10. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs. Note: The increment parameter could also be negative, and the <= could be any comparing statement.

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var i=0; for (i=0;i<=10;i++) { document.write("The number is " + i); document.write("<br />"); } </script> </body>

</html>
Result

The The The The The The The The The The The

number number number number number number number number number number number

is is is is is is is is is is is

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The while loop
The while loop is used when you want the loop to execute and continue executing while the specified condition is true.

while (var<=endvalue) { code to be executed }
Note: The <= could be any comparing statement. Example Explanation: The example below defines a loop that starts with i=0. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than, or equal to 10. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs.

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var i=0; while (i<=10) { document.write("The number is " + i); document.write("<br />"); i=i+1; } </script> </body> </html>
Result

The The The The The

number number number number number

is is is is is

0 1 2 3 4

The The The The The The

number number number number number number

is is is is is is

5 6 7 8 9 10

The do...while Loop
The do...while loop is a variant of the while loop. This loop will always execute a block of code ONCE, and then it will repeat the loop as long as the specified condition is true. This loop will always be executed at least once, even if the condition is false, because the code is executed before the condition is tested.

do { code to be executed } while (var<=endvalue);
Example

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var i=0; do { document.write("The number is " + i); document.write("<br />"); i=i+1; } while (i<0); </script> </body> </html>
Result

The number is 0

JavaScript break and continue Statements
There are two special statements that can be used inside loops: break and continue.

Break
The break command will break the loop and continue executing the code that follows after the loop (if any). Example

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript">

var i=0; for (i=0;i<=10;i++) { if (i==3) { break; } document.write("The number is " + i); document.write("<br />"); } </script> </body> </html>
Result

The number is 0 The number is 1 The number is 2 Continue
The continue command will break the current loop and continue with the next value. Example

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var i=0 for (i=0;i<=10;i++) { if (i==3) { continue; } document.write("The number is " + i); document.write("<br />"); } </script> </body> </html>
Result

The The The The The The The The The The

number number number number number number number number number number

is is is is is is is is is is

0 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

JavaScript For...In Statement
The for...in statement is used to loop (iterate) through the elements of an array or through the properties of an object. The code in the body of the for ... in loop is executed once for each element/property. Syntax

for (variable in object) { code to be executed }
The variable argument can be a named variable, an array element, or a property of an object.

Example
Using for...in to loop through an array:

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x; var mycars = new Array(); mycars[0] = "Saab"; mycars[1] = "Volvo"; mycars[2] = "BMW"; for (x in mycars) { document.write(mycars[x] + "<br />"); } </script> </body> </html>
Events are actions that can be detected by JavaScript.

Events
By using JavaScript, we have the ability to create dynamic web pages. Events are actions that can be detected by JavaScript. Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger JavaScript functions. For example, we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. We define the events in the HTML tags. Examples of events:

• • • •

A mouse click A web page or an image loading Mousing over a hot spot on the web page Selecting an input box in an HTML form

• •

Submitting an HTML form A keystroke

Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions, and the function will not be executed before the event occurs! For a complete reference of the events recognized by JavaScript, go to our complete Event reference.

onload and onUnload
The onload and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page. The onload event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version, and load the proper version of the web page based on the information. Both the onload and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. For example, you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. The name is then stored in a cookie. Next time the visitor arrives at your page, you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".

onFocus, onBlur and onChange
The onFocus, onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields. Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field:

<input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">

onSubmit
The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it. Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. If the field values are not accepted, the submit should be cancelled. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. If it returns true the form will be submitted, otherwise the submit will be cancelled:

<form method="post" action="xxx.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()">

onMouseOver and onMouseOut
onMouseOver and onMouseOut are often used to create "animated" buttons. Below is an example of an onMouseOver event. An alert box appears when an onMouseOver event is detected:

<a href="http://www.w3schools.com" onmouseover="alert('An onMouseOver event');return false"> <img src="w3schools.gif" width="100" height="30"> </a>

JavaScript - Catching Errors
When browsing Web pages on the internet, we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. When users see errors, they often leave the Web page. This chapter will teach you how to trap and handle JavaScript error messages, so you don't lose your audience. There are two ways of catching errors in a Web page:

• •

By using the try...catch statement (available in IE5+, Mozilla 1.0, and Netscape 6) By using the onerror event. This is the old standard solution to catch errors (available since Netscape 3)

Try...Catch Statement
The try...catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. The try block contains the code to be run, and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.

Syntax try { //Run some code here } catch(err) { //Handle errors here }
Note that try...catch is written in lowercase letters. Using uppercase letters will generate a JavaScript error!

Example 1
The example below contains a script that is supposed to display the message "Welcome guest!" when you click on a button. However, there's a typo in the message() function. alert() is misspelled as adddlert(). A JavaScript error occurs:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function message() { adddlert("Welcome guest!"); } </script> </head>

<body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html>
To take more appropriate action when an error occurs, you can add a try...catch statement. The example below contains the "Welcome guest!" example rewritten to use the try...catch statement. Since alert() is misspelled, a JavaScript error occurs. However, this time, the catch block catches the error and executes a custom code to handle it. The code displays a custom error message informing the user what happened:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"); } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.\n\n"; txt+="Error description: " + err.description + "\n\n"; txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n"; alert(txt); } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html> Example 2
The next example uses a confirm box to display a custom message telling users they can click OK to continue viewing the page or click Cancel to go to the homepage. If the confirm method returns false, the user clicked Cancel, and the code redirects the user. If the confirm method returns true, the code does nothing:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var txt="" function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!");

} catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.\n\n"; txt+="Click OK to continue viewing this page,\n"; txt+="or Cancel to return to the home page.\n\n"; if(!confirm(txt)) { document.location.href="http://www.w3schools.com/"; } } } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html>

The onerror Event
The onerror event will be explained soon, but first you will learn how to use the throw statement to create an exception. The throw statement can be used together with the try...catch statement.

The Throw Statement
The throw statement allows you to create an exception. If you use this statement together with the try...catch statement, you can control program flow and generate accurate error messages.

Syntax throw(exception)
The exception can be a string, integer, Boolean or an object. Note that throw is written in lowercase letters. Using uppercase letters will generate a JavaScript error!

Example 1
The example below determines the value of a variable called x. If the value of x is higher than 10 or lower than 0 we are going to throw an error. The error is then caught by the catch argument and the proper error message is displayed:

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var x=prompt("Enter a number between 0 and 10:",""); try { if(x>10) throw "Err1"; else if(x<0) throw "Err2"; }

catch(er) { if(er=="Err1") alert("Error! The value is too high"); if(er == "Err2") alert("Error! The value is too low"); } </script> </body> </html>

The onerror Event
We have just explained how to use the try...catch statement to catch errors in a web page. Now we are going to explain how to use the onerror event for the same purpose. The onerror event is fired whenever there is a script error in the page. To use the onerror event, you must create a function to handle the errors. Then you call the function with the onerror event handler. The event handler is called with three arguments: msg (error message), url (the url of the page that caused the error) and line (the line where the error occurred).

Syntax onerror=handleErr function handleErr(msg,url,l) { //Handle the error here return true or false }
The value returned by onerror determines whether the browser displays a standard error message. If you return false, the browser displays the standard error message in the JavaScript console. If you return true, the browser does not display the standard error message.

Example
The following example shows how to catch the error with the onerror event:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> onerror=handleErr; var txt=""; function handleErr(msg,url,l) { txt="There was an error on this page.\n\n"; txt+="Error: " + msg + "\n"; txt+="URL: " + url + "\n"; txt+="Line: " + l + "\n\n"; txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n"; alert(txt); return true; } function message()

{ adddlert("Welcome guest!"); } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" /> </body> </html>
In JavaScript you can add special characters to a text string by using the backslash sign.

Insert Special Characters
The backslash (\) is used to insert apostrophes, new lines, quotes, and other special characters into a text string. Look at the following JavaScript code:

var txt="We are the so-called "Vikings" from the north."; document.write(txt);
In JavaScript, a string is started and stopped with either single or double quotes. This means that the string above will be chopped to: We are the so-called To solve this problem, you must place a backslash (\) before each double quote in "Viking". This turns each double quote into a string literal:

var txt="We are the so-called \"Vikings\" from the north."; document.write(txt);
JavasScript will now output the proper text string: We are the so-called "Vikings" from the north. Here is another example:

document.write ("You \& I are singing!");
The example above will produce the following output:

You & I are singing!
The table below lists other special characters that can be added to a text string with the backslash sign: Code \' \" \& \\ \n \r Outputs single quote double quote ampersand backslash new line carriage return

\t \b \f

tab backspace form feed

Guidelines:
Some other important things to know when scripting with JavaScript.

JavaScript is Case Sensitive
A function named "myfunction" is not the same as "myFunction" and a variable named "myVar" is not the same as "myvar". JavaScript is case sensitive - therefore watch your capitalization closely when you create or call variables, objects and functions.

White Space
JavaScript ignores extra spaces. You can add white space to your script to make it more readable. The following lines are equivalent:

name="Hege"; name = "Hege";

Break up a Code Line
You can break up a code line within a text string with a backslash. The example below will be displayed properly:

document.write("Hello \ World!");
However, you cannot break up a code line like this:

document.write \ ("Hello World!");

Comments
You can add comments to your script by using two slashes //:

//this is a comment document.write("Hello World!");
or by using /* and */ (this creates a multi-line comment block):

/* This is a comment block. It contains several lines */

document.write("Hello World!");

The ECMA-262 Standard
JavaScript's official name is "ECMAScript". The standard is developed and maintained by the ECMA organisation. ECMA-262 is the official JavaScript standard. The standard is based on JavaScript (Netscape) and JScript (Microsoft). The language was invented by Brendan Eich at Netscape (with Navigator 2.0), and has appeared in all Netscape and Microsoft browsers since 1996. The development of ECMA-262 started in 1996, and the first edition of was adopted by the ECMA General Assembly in June 1997. The standard was approved as an international ISO (ISO/IEC 16262) standard in 1998. The development of the standard is still in progress.

Objects:
JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types.

Object Oriented Programming
JavaScript is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language. An OOP language allows you to define your own objects and make your own variable types. However, creating your own objects will be explained later, in the Advanced JavaScript section. We will start by looking at the built-in JavaScript objects, and how they are used. The next pages will explain each built-in JavaScript object in detail. Note that an object is just a special kind of data. An object has properties and methods.

Properties
Properties are the values associated with an object. In the following example we are using the length property of the String object to return the number of characters in a string:

<script type="text/javascript"> var txt="Hello World!"; document.write(txt.length); </script>
The output of the code above will be:

12

Methods
Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. In the following example we are using the toUpperCase() method of the String object to display a text in uppercase letters:

<script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!"; document.write(str.toUpperCase()); </script>
The output of the code above will be:

HELLO WORLD!

Complete String Object Reference
For a complete reference of all the properties and methods that can be used with the String object, go to our complete String object reference. The reference contains a brief description and examples of use for each property and method!

String object
The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. Examples of use: The following example uses the length property of the String object to find the length of a string:

var txt="Hello world!"; document.write(txt.length);
The code above will result in the following output:

12
The following example uses the toUpperCase() method of the String object to convert a string to uppercase letters:

var txt="Hello world!"; document.write(txt.toUpperCase());
The code above will result in the following output:

HELLO WORLD!

JavaScript String Object Reference
String Object Methods
FF: Firefox, N: Netscape, IE: Internet Explorer Method anchor() big() blink() bold() charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fixed() fontcolor() fontsize() fromCharCode() indexOf() italics() lastIndexOf() link() match() replace() search() slice() small() split() strike() sub() substr() substring() sup() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() toSource() valueOf() Description Creates an HTML anchor Displays a string in a big font Displays a blinking string Displays a string in bold Returns the character at a specified position Returns the Unicode of the character at a specified position Joins two or more strings Displays a string as teletype text Displays a string in a specified color Displays a string in a specified size Takes the specified Unicode values and returns a string Returns the position of the first occurrence of a specified string value in a string Displays a string in italic FF N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 IE 3 3

Returns the position of the last occurrence of a specified string 1 value, searching backwards from the specified position in a string Displays a string as a hyperlink Searches for a specified value in a string Searches a string for a specified value 1 1 1

Replaces some characters with some other characters in a string 1 Extracts a part of a string and returns the extracted part in a new1 string Displays a string in a small font Splits a string into an array of strings Displays a string with a strikethrough Displays a string as subscript 1 1 1 1

Extracts a specified number of characters in a string, from a start 1 index Extracts the characters in a string between two specified indices 1 Displays a string as superscript Displays a string in lowercase letters Displays a string in uppercase letters Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a String object 1 1 1 1 1

String Object Properties
Property constructor length prototype Description A reference to the function that created the object Returns the number of characters in a string Allows you to add properties and methods to the object FF N 1 1 1 4 2 2 IE 4 3 4

Complete Date Object Reference

For a complete reference of all the properties and methods that can be used with the Date object, go to our complete Date object reference. The reference contains a brief description and examples of use for each property and method!

Defining Dates
The Date object is used to work with dates and times. We define a Date object with the new keyword. The following code line defines a Date object called myDate:

var myDate=new Date()
Note: The Date object will automatically hold the current date and time as its initial value!

Manipulate Dates
We can easily manipulate the date by using the methods available for the Date object. In the example below we set a Date object to a specific date (14th January 2010):

var myDate=new Date(); myDate.setFullYear(2010,0,14);
And in the following example we set a Date object to be 5 days into the future:

var myDate=new Date(); myDate.setDate(myDate.getDate()+5);
Note: If adding five days to a date shifts the month or year, the changes are handled automatically by the Date object itself!

Comparing Dates
The Date object is also used to compare two dates. The following example compares today's date with the 14th January 2010:

var myDate=new Date(); myDate.setFullYear(2010,0,14); var today = new Date(); if (myDate>today) { alert("Today is before 14th January 2010"); } else { alert("Today is after 14th January 2010"); }

Date Object Methods
FF: Firefox, N: Netscape, IE: Internet Explorer Method Date() getDate() getDay() getMonth() getFullYear() getYear() getHours() getMinutes() getSeconds() getMilliseconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCMonth() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMinutes() getUTCSeconds() getUTCMilliseconds() parse() setDate() setMonth() setFullYear() setYear() setHours() setMinutes() setSeconds() setMilliseconds() setTime() Description Returns today's date and time Returns the day of the week from a Date object (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object (from 0-11) FF N 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 IE 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3

Returns the day of the month from a Date object (from 1-31)1

Returns the year, as a four-digit number, from a Date object 1 Returns the year, as a two-digit or a four-digit number, from 1 a Date object. Use getFullYear() instead !! Returns the hour of a Date object (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object (from 0-999) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1, 1970 Returns the difference in minutes between local time and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) Returns the day of the month from a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Returns the day of the week from a Date object according to 1 universal time (from 0-6) Returns the month from a Date object according to universal 1 time (from 0-11) Returns the four-digit year from a Date object according to universal time 1

Returns the hour of a Date object according to universal time 1 (from 0-23) Returns the minutes of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the seconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-59) Returns the milliseconds of a Date object according to universal time (from 0-999) Takes a date string and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1, 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object (from 1-31) Sets the month in a Date object (from 0-11) Sets the year in a Date object (four digits) Sets the year in the Date object (two or four digits). Use setFullYear() instead !! Sets the hour in a Date object (from 0-23) Set the minutes in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the seconds in a Date object (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object (from 0-999) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Calculates a date and time by adding or subtracting a 1 specified number of milliseconds to/from midnight January 1, 1970 Sets the day of the month in a Date object according to universal time (from 1-31) 1

setUTCDate() setUTCMonth()

4 4

4 4

Sets the month in a Date object according to universal time 1

(from 0-11) setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMinutes() setUTCSeconds() setUTCMilliseconds() toSource() toString() toGMTString() toUTCString() toLocaleString() UTC() valueOf() Sets the year in a Date object according to universal time (four digits) Sets the hour in a Date object according to universal time (from 0-23) 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4

Set the minutes in a Date object according to universal time 1 (from 0-59) Set the seconds in a Date object according to universal time 1 (from 0-59) Sets the milliseconds in a Date object according to universal 1 time (from 0-999) Represents the source code of an object Converts a Date object to a string Converts a Date object, according to Greenwich time, to a string. Use toUTCString() instead !! Converts a Date object, according to universal time, to a string Converts a Date object, according to local time, to a string Takes a date and returns the number of milliseconds since midnight of January 1, 1970 according to universal time Returns the primitive value of a Date object 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Date Object Properties
Property constructor prototype Description A reference to the function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object FF N 1 1 4 3 IE 4 4

Complete Array Object Reference
For a complete reference of all the properties and methods that can be used with the Array object, go to our complete Array object reference. The reference contains a brief description and examples of use for each property and method!

Defining Arrays
The Array object is used to store a set of values in a single variable name. We define an Array object with the new keyword. The following code line defines an Array object called myArray:

var myArray=new Array()
There are two ways of adding values to an array (you can add as many values as you need to define as many variables you require). 1:

var mycars=new Array(); mycars[0]="Saab"; mycars[1]="Volvo";

mycars[2]="BMW";
You could also pass an integer argument to control the array's size:

var mycars=new Array(3); mycars[0]="Saab"; mycars[1]="Volvo"; mycars[2]="BMW";
2:

var mycars=new Array("Saab","Volvo","BMW");
Note: If you specify numbers or true/false values inside the array then the type of variables will be numeric or Boolean instead of string.

Accessing Arrays
You can refer to a particular element in an array by referring to the name of the array and the index number. The index number starts at 0. The following code line:

document.write(mycars[0]);
will result in the following output:

Saab

Modify Values in Existing Arrays
To modify a value in an existing array, just add a new value to the array with a specified index number:

mycars[0]="Opel";
Now, the following code line:

document.write(mycars[0]);
will result in the following output:

Opel

JavaScript Array Object Reference
Array Object Methods

FF: Firefox, N: Netscape, IE: Internet Explorer Method concat() join() pop() push() reverse() shift() slice() sort() splice() toSource() toString() unshift() valueOf() Description Joins two or more arrays and returns the result Puts all the elements of an array into a string. The elements are separated by a specified delimiter Removes and returns the last element of an array Adds one or more elements to the end of an array and returns the new length Reverses the order of the elements in an array Removes and returns the first element of an array Returns selected elements from an existing array Sorts the elements of an array Removes and adds new elements to an array Represents the source code of an object Converts an array to a string and returns the result FF N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 IE 4 4 5.5 5.5 4 5.5 4 4 5.5 4 6 4

Adds one or more elements to the beginning of an array and returns 1 the new length Returns the primitive value of an Array object 1

Array Object Properties
Property constructor index input length prototype Sets or returns the number of elements in an array Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Description A reference to the function that created the object FF N 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 IE 4 4 4 4 4

Complete Boolean Object Reference
For a complete reference of all the properties and methods that can be used with the Boolean object, go to our complete Boolean object reference. The reference contains a brief description and examples of use for each property and method!

Boolean Object
The Boolean object is an object wrapper for a Boolean value. The Boolean object is used to convert a non-Boolean value to a Boolean value (true or false). We define a Boolean object with the new keyword. The following code line defines a Boolean object called myBoolean:

var myBoolean=new Boolean();
Note: If the Boolean object has no initial value or if it is 0, -0, null, "", false, undefined, or NaN, the object is set to false. Otherwise it is true (even with the string "false")! All the following lines of code create Boolean objects with an initial value of false:

var var var var var var

myBoolean=new myBoolean=new myBoolean=new myBoolean=new myBoolean=new myBoolean=new

Boolean(); Boolean(0); Boolean(null); Boolean(""); Boolean(false); Boolean(NaN);

And all the following lines of code create Boolean objects with an initial value of true:

var var var var

myBoolean=new myBoolean=new myBoolean=new myBoolean=new

Boolean(true); Boolean("true"); Boolean("false"); Boolean("Richard");

JavaScript Boolean Object Reference
Boolean Object Methods
FF: Firefox, N: Netscape, IE: Internet Explorer Method toSource() toString() valueOf() Description Represents the source code of an object Converts a Boolean value to a string and returns the result Returns the primitive value of a Boolean object FF N 1 1 1 4 4 4 IE 4 4

Boolean Object Properties
Property constructor prototype Description A reference to the function that created the object Allows you to add properties and methods to the object FF N 1 1 2 2 IE 4 4

Complete Math Object Reference
For a complete reference of all the properties and methods that can be used with the Math object, go to our complete Math object reference. The reference contains a brief description and examples of use for each property and method!

Math Object
The Math object allows you to perform common mathematical tasks. The Math object includes several mathematical values and functions. You do not need to define the Math object before using it.

Mathematical Values
JavaScript provides eight mathematical values (constants) that can be accessed from the Math object. These are: E, PI, square root of 2, square root of 1/2, natural log of 2, natural log of 10, base-2 log of E, and base-10 log of E.

You may reference these values from your JavaScript like this:

Math.E Math.PI Math.SQRT2 Math.SQRT1_2 Math.LN2 Math.LN10 Math.LOG2E Math.LOG10E

Mathematical Methods
In addition to the mathematical values that can be accessed from the Math object there are also several functions (methods) available. Examples of functions (methods): The following example uses the round() method of the Math object to round a number to the nearest integer:

document.write(Math.round(4.7));
The code above will result in the following output:

5
The following example uses the random() method of the Math object to return a random number between 0 and 1:

document.write(Math.random());
The code above can result in the following output:

0.5261963742503588
The following example uses the floor() and random() methods of the Math object to return a random number between 0 and 10:

document.write(Math.floor(Math.random()*11));
The code above can result in the following output:

5

Math Object Methods
FF: Firefox, N: Netscape, IE: Internet Explorer Method Description FF N IE

abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y,x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) max(x,y) min(x,y) pow(x,y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) toSource() valueOf()

Returns the absolute value of a number Returns the arccosine of a number Returns the arcsine of a number Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians

1 1 1 1

2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 4 2 4

Returns the angle theta of an (x,y) point as a numeric value between 1 -PI and PI radians Returns the value of a number rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of a number Returns the value of E
x

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Returns the value of a number rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number Returns the number with the highest value of x and y Returns the number with the lowest value of x and y Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds a number to the nearest integer Returns the sine of a number Returns the square root of a number Returns the tangent of an angle Represents the source code of an object Returns the primitive value of a Math object

Math Object Properties
Property constructor E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI prototype SQRT1_2 SQRT2 Description A reference to the function that created the object Returns Euler's constant (approx. 2.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 0.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 2.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 1.414) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 0.434) Returns PI (approx. 3.14159) Allows you to add properties and methods to the object Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 0.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 1.414) FF N IE 1 2 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 3 1 2 3

The RegExp object is used to specify what to search for in a text

What is RegExp
RegExp, is short for regular expression. When you search in a text, you can use a pattern to describe what you are searching for. RegExp IS this pattern. A simple pattern can be a single character.

A more complicated pattern consists of more characters, and can be used for parsing, format checking, substitution and more. You can specify where in the string to search, what type of characters to search for, and more.

Defining RegExp
The RegExp object is used to store the search pattern. We define a RegExp object with the new keyword. The following code line defines a RegExp object called patt1 with the pattern "e":

var patt1=new RegExp("e");
When you use this RegExp object to search in a string, you will find the letter "e".

Methods of the RegExp Object
The RegExp Object has 3 methods: test(), exec(), and compile().

test()
The test() method searches a string for a specified value. Returns true or false

Example:
var patt1=new RegExp("e"); document.write(patt1.test("The best things in life are free"));
Since there is an "e" in the string, the output of the code above will be:

true
Try it yourself

exec()
The exec() method searches a string for a specified value. Returns the text of the found value. If no match is found, it returns null

Example 1:
var patt1=new RegExp("e"); document.write(patt1.exec("The best things in life are free"));
Since there is an "e" in the string, the output of the code above will be:

e

Try it yourself

Example 2:
You can add a second parameter to the RegExp object, to specify your search. For example; if you want to find all occurrences of a character, you can use the "g" parameter ("global"). For a complete list of how to modify your search, visit our complete RegExp object reference. When using the "g" parameter, the exec() method works like this:

• •

Finds the first occurence of "e", and stores its position If you run exec() again, it starts at the stored position, and finds the next occurence of "e", and stores its position

var patt1=new RegExp("e","g"); do { result=patt1.exec("The best things in life are free"); document.write(result); } while (result!=null)
Since there is six "e" letters in the string, the output of the code above will be:

eeeeeenull
Try it yourself

compile()
The compile() method is used to change the RegExp. compile() can change both the search pattern, and add or remove the second parameter.

Example:
var patt1=new RegExp("e"); document.write(patt1.test("The best things in life are free")); patt1.compile("d"); document.write(patt1.test("The best things in life are free"));
Since there is an "e" in the string, but not a "d", the output of the code above will be:

truefalse
Try it yourself

Complete RegExp Object Reference

For a complete reference of all the properties and methods that can be used with the RegExp object, go to our complete RegExp object reference. The reference contains a brief description and examples of use for each property and method including the string object

RegExp Object Methods
FF: Firefox, N: Netscape, IE: Internet Explorer Method compile exec test Description Change the regular expression (what to search for) FF N 1 4 4 4 IE 4 4 4

Search a string for a specified value. Returns the found value and 1 remembers the position Search a string for a specified value. Returns true or false 1

String Object Methods that supports Regular Expressions
Method search match replace split Description FF N 4 4 4 4 IE 4 4 4 4 Search a string for a specified value. Returns the position of the 1 value Search a string for a specified value. Returns an array of the found value(s) Replace characters with other characters Split a string into an array of strings 1 1 1

RegExp Modifiers
Property i g gi m ^ $ \b \B ?= ?! Description Pattern flags Ignore the case of characters 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Global search. Search all occurrences of the regular expression in 1 a string Global search, ignore case Multiline mode. Matches occurrences over multiple lines Position Matching Get a match at the beginning of a string Get a match at the end of a string 1 1 1 1 FF N IE

Word boundary. Get a match at the beginning or end of a word in 1 the string Non-word boundary. Get a match when it is not at the beginning 1 or end of a word in the string A positive look ahead. Get a match if a string is followed by a specific string 1

A negative look ahead. Get a match if a string is not followed by 1 a specific string Literals Find a NULL character Find a new line character Find a form feed character Find a carriage return character Find a tab character 1 1 1 1 1

\0 \n \f \r \t

4 4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4 4

\v \xxx \xdd \uxxxx [xyz] [^xyz] . (dot) \w \W \d \D \s \S {x} {x,} {x,y} ? * + () (?: ) |

Find a vertical tab character Find the ASCII character expressed by the octal number xxx Find the ASCII character expressed by the hex number dd Find the ASCII character expressed by the UNICODE xxxx Character Classes Find any character in the specified character set Find any character not in the specified character set Find any character except newline or line terminator Find any alphanumeric character including the underscore Find any non-word character Find any single digit Find any non-digit Find any single space character Find any single non-space character Repetition Finds the exact (x) number of the regular expression grouped together Finds the exact (x) or more number of the regular expression grouped together

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Finds between x and y number of the regular expression grouped 1 together Finds zero or one occurrence of the regular expression Finds zero or more occurrences of the regular expression Finds one or more occurrences of the regular expression Grouping Finds the group of characters inside the parentheses and stores the matched string Finds the group of characters inside the parentheses but does not store the matched string 1 1 1 1 1

Combines clauses into one regular expression and then matches 1 any of the individual clauses. Similar to "OR" statement Back references Back reference. Uses the stored matched string. i.e. from the ( ) 1 modifier

( )\n

4

4

RegExp Object Properties
Property global ignoreCase input lastIndex lastMatch lastParen leftContext multiline prototype rightContext source Description Specifies if the "g" modifier is set Specifies if the "i" modifier is set The string on which the pattern match is performed The last matched characters The last matched parenthesized substring The substring in front of the characters most recently matched Specifies if the "m" modifier is set Allows you to add properties and methods to the object The substring after the characters most recently matched The text used for pattern matching FF N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 IE 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

An integer specifying the index at which to start the next match 1

JavaScript HTML DOM Objects

In addition to the built-in JavaScript objects, you can also access and manipulate all of the HTML DOM objects with JavaScript.

More JavaScript Objects
Follow the links to learn more about the objects and their collections, properties, methods and events. Object Window Description The top level object in the JavaScript hierarchy. The Window object represents a browser window. A Window object is created automatically with every instance of a <body> or <frameset> tag Contains information about the client's browser Contains information about the client's display screen Contains the visited URLs in the browser window Contains information about the current URL

Navigator Screen History Location

The HTML DOM
The HTML DOM is a W3C standard and it is an abbreviation for the Document Object Model for HTML. The HTML DOM defines a standard set of objects for HTML, and a standard way to access and manipulate HTML documents. All HTML elements, along with their containing text and attributes, can be accessed through the DOM. The contents can be modified or deleted, and new elements can be created. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent. It can be used by any programming language like Java, JavaScript, and VBScript. Follow the links below to learn more about how to access and manipulate each DOM object with JavaScript: Object Document Anchor Area Base Body Button Event Form Frame Frameset Iframe Image Input button Description Represents the entire HTML document and can be used to access all elements in a page Represents an <a> element Represents an <area> element inside an image-map Represents a <base> element Represents the <body> element Represents a <button> element Represents the state of an event Represents a <form> element Represents a <frame> element Represents a <frameset> element Represents an <iframe> element Represents an <img> element Represents a button in an HTML form

Input checkbox Input file Input hidden Input password Input radio Input reset Input submit Input text Link Meta Option Select Style Table TableData TableRow Textarea

Represents a checkbox in an HTML form Represents a fileupload in an HTML form Represents a hidden field in an HTML form Represents a password field in an HTML form Represents a radio button in an HTML form Represents a reset button in an HTML form Represents a submit button in an HTML form Represents a text-input field in an HTML form Represents a <link> element Represents a <meta> element Represents an <option> element Represents a selection list in an HTML form Represents an individual style statement Represents a <table> element Represents a <td> element Represents a <tr> element Represents a <textarea> element

Advanced:
Browser Detection
Almost everything in this tutorial works on all JavaScript-enabled browsers. However, there are some things that just don't work on certain browsers - specially on older browsers. So, sometimes it can be very useful to detect the visitor's browser type and version, and then serve up the appropriate information. The best way to do this is to make your web pages smart enough to look one way to some browsers and another way to other browsers. JavaScript includes an object called the Navigator object, that can be used for this purpose. The Navigator object contains information about the visitor's browser name, browser version, and more.

The Navigator Object
The JavaScript Navigator object contains all information about the visitor's browser. We are going to look at two properties of the Navigator object:

• •

appName - holds the name of the browser appVersion - holds, among other things, the version of the browser

Example <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var browser=navigator.appName; var b_version=navigator.appVersion;

var version=parseFloat(b_version); document.write("Browser name: "+ browser); document.write("<br />"); document.write("Browser version: "+ version); </script> </body> </html>
The variable browser in the example above holds the name of the browser, i.e. "Netscape" or "Microsoft Internet Explorer". The appVersion property in the example above returns a string that contains much more information than just the version number, but for now we are only interested in the version number. To pull the version number out of the string we are using a function called parseFloat(), which pulls the first thing that looks like a decimal number out of a string and returns it. IMPORTANT! The version number is WRONG in IE 5.0 or later! Microsoft starts the appVersion string with the number 4.0. in IE 5.0 and IE 6.0!!! Why did they do that??? However, JavaScript is the same in IE6, IE5 and IE4, so for most scripts it is ok.

Example
The script below displays a different alert, depending on the visitor's browser:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function detectBrowser() { var browser=navigator.appName; var b_version=navigator.appVersion; var version=parseFloat(b_version); if ((browser=="Netscape"||browser=="Microsoft Internet Explorer") && (version>=4)) { alert("Your browser is good enough!"); } else { alert("It's time to upgrade your browser!"); } } </script> </head> <body onload="detectBrowser()"> </body> </html>

What is a Cookie?
A cookie is a variable that is stored on the visitor's computer. Each time the same computer requests a page with a browser, it will send the cookie too. With JavaScript, you can both create and retrieve cookie values. Examples of cookies:

• •

Name cookie - The first time a visitor arrives to your web page, he or she must fill in her/his name. The name is then stored in a cookie. Next time the visitor arrives at your page, he or she could get a welcome message like "Welcome John Doe!" The name is retrieved from the stored cookie Password cookie - The first time a visitor arrives to your web page, he or she must fill in a password. The password is then stored in a cookie. Next time the visitor arrives at your page, the password is retrieved from the cookie Date cookie - The first time a visitor arrives to your web page, the current date is stored in a cookie. Next time the visitor arrives at your page, he or she could get a message like "Your last visit was on Tuesday August 11, 2005!" The date is retrieved from the stored cookie

Create and Store a Cookie
In this example we will create a cookie that stores the name of a visitor. The first time a visitor arrives to the web page, he or she will be asked to fill in her/his name. The name is then stored in a cookie. The next time the visitor arrives at the same page, he or she will get welcome message. First, we create a function that stores the name of the visitor in a cookie variable:

function setCookie(c_name,value,expiredays) { var exdate=new Date(); exdate.setDate(exdate.getDate()+expiredays); document.cookie=c_name+ "=" +escape(value)+ ((expiredays==null) ? "" : ";expires="+exdate.toGMTString()); }
The parameters of the function above hold the name of the cookie, the value of the cookie, and the number of days until the cookie expires. In the function above we first convert the number of days to a valid date, then we add the number of days until the cookie should expire. After that we store the cookie name, cookie value and the expiration date in the document.cookie object. Then, we create another function that checks if the cookie has been set:

function getCookie(c_name) { if (document.cookie.length>0) { c_start=document.cookie.indexOf(c_name + "="); if (c_start!=-1) { c_start=c_start + c_name.length+1; c_end=document.cookie.indexOf(";",c_start); if (c_end==-1) c_end=document.cookie.length; return unescape(document.cookie.substring(c_start,c_end)); } } return ""; }

The function above first checks if a cookie is stored at all in the document.cookie object. If the document.cookie object holds some cookies, then check to see if our specific cookie is stored. If our cookie is found, then return the value, if not - return an empty string. Last, we create the function that displays a welcome message if the cookie is set, and if the cookie is not set it will display a prompt box, asking for the name of the user:

function checkCookie() { username=getCookie('username'); if (username!=null && username!="") { alert('Welcome again '+username+'!'); } else { username=prompt('Please enter your name:',""); if (username!=null && username!="") { setCookie('username',username,365); } } }
All together now:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function getCookie(c_name) { if (document.cookie.length>0) { c_start=document.cookie.indexOf(c_name + "="); if (c_start!=-1) { c_start=c_start + c_name.length+1; c_end=document.cookie.indexOf(";",c_start); if (c_end==-1) c_end=document.cookie.length; return unescape(document.cookie.substring(c_start,c_end)); } } return ""; } function setCookie(c_name,value,expiredays) { var exdate=new Date(); exdate.setDate(exdate.getDate()+expiredays); document.cookie=c_name+ "=" +escape(value)+ ((expiredays==null) ? "" : ";expires="+exdate.toGMTString()); } function checkCookie() { username=getCookie('username'); if (username!=null && username!="") { alert('Welcome again '+username+'!'); }

} </script> </head> <body onLoad="checkCookie()"> </body> </html>

else { username=prompt('Please enter your name:',""); if (username!=null && username!="") { setCookie('username',username,365); } }

The example above runs the checkCookie() function when the page loads.

JavaScript Form Validation

JavaScript can be used to validate input data in HTML forms before sending off the content to a server.

JavaScript Form Validation
JavaScript can be used to validate input data in HTML forms before sending off the content to a server. Form data that typically are checked by a JavaScript could be:

• • • •

has the user left required fields empty? has the user entered a valid e-mail address? has the user entered a valid date? has the user entered text in a numeric field?

Required Fields
The function below checks if a required field has been left empty. If the required field is blank, an alert box alerts a message and the function returns false. If a value is entered, the function returns true (means that data is OK):

function validate_required(field,alerttxt) { with (field) { if (value==null||value=="") { alert(alerttxt);return false; } else { return true;

} } }
The entire script, with the HTML form could look something like this:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function validate_required(field,alerttxt) { with (field) { if (value==null||value=="") {alert(alerttxt);return false;} else {return true} } } function validate_form(thisform) { with (thisform) { if (validate_required(email,"Email must be filled out!")==false) {email.focus();return false;} } } </script> </head> <body> <form action="submitpage.htm" onsubmit="return validate_form(this)" method="post"> Email: <input type="text" name="email" size="30"> <input type="submit" value="Submit"> </form> </body> </html>

E-mail Validation
The function below checks if the content has the general syntax of an email. This means that the input data must contain at least an @ sign and a dot (.). Also, the @ must not be the first character of the email address, and the last dot must at least be one character after the @ sign:

function validate_email(field,alerttxt) { with (field) { apos=value.indexOf("@"); dotpos=value.lastIndexOf("."); if (apos<1||dotpos-apos<2) {alert(alerttxt);return false;} else {return true;} }

}
The entire script, with the HTML form could look something like this:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function validate_email(field,alerttxt) { with (field) { apos=value.indexOf("@"); dotpos=value.lastIndexOf("."); if (apos<1||dotpos-apos<2) {alert(alerttxt);return false;} else {return true;} } } function validate_form(thisform) { with (thisform) { if (validate_email(email,"Not a valid e-mail address!")==false) {email.focus();return false;} } } </script> </head> <body> <form action="submitpage.htm" onsubmit="return validate_form(this);" method="post"> Email: <input type="text" name="email" size="30"> <input type="submit" value="Submit"> </form> </body> </html>

JavaScript Animation
It is possible to use JavaScript to create animated images. The trick is to let a JavaScript change between different images on different events. In the following example we will add an image that should act as a link button on a web page. We will then add an onMouseOver event and an onMouseOut event that will run two JavaScript functions that will change between the images.

The HTML Code
The HTML code looks like this:

<a href="http://www.w3schools.com" target="_blank"> <img border="0" alt="Visit W3Schools!" src="b_pink.gif" name="b1"

onmouseOver="mouseOver()" onmouseOut="mouseOut()" /> </a>
Note that we have given the image a name to make it possible for JavaScript to address it later. The onMouseOver event tells the browser that once a mouse is rolled over the image, the browser should execute a function that will replace the image with another image. The onMouseOut event tells the browser that once a mouse is rolled away from the image, another JavaScript function should be executed. This function will insert the original image again.

The JavaScript Code
The changing between the images is done with the following JavaScript:

<script type="text/javascript"> function mouseOver() { document.b1.src ="b_blue.gif"; } function mouseOut() { document.b1.src ="b_pink.gif"; } </script>
The function mouseOver() causes the image to shift to "b_blue.gif". The function mouseOut() causes the image to shift to "b_pink.gif".

The Entire Code
<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function mouseOver() { document.b1.src ="b_blue.gif"; } function mouseOut() { document.b1.src ="b_pink.gif"; } </script> </head> <body> <a href="http://www.w3schools.com" target="_blank"> <img border="0" alt="Visit W3Schools!" src="b_pink.gif" name="b1" onmouseOver="mouseOver()" onmouseOut="mouseOut()" /> </a>

</body> </html>

JavaScript Image Maps

An image-map is an image with clickable regions.

Examples
Simple HTML Image map Image map with added JavaScript

HTML Image Maps
From our HTML tutorial we have learned that an image-map is an image with clickable regions. Normally, each region has an associated hyperlink. Clicking on one of the regions takes you to the associated link.

Example
The example below demonstrates how to create an HTML image map, with clickable regions. Each of the regions is a hyperlink:

<img src ="planets.gif" width ="145" height ="126" alt="Planets" usemap ="#planetmap" /> <map id ="planetmap" name="planetmap"> <area shape ="rect" coords ="0,0,82,126" href ="sun.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Sun" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="90,58,3" href ="mercur.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Mercury" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="124,58,8" href ="venus.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Venus" /> </map> Result

Adding some JavaScript
We can add events (that can call a JavaScript) to the <area> tags inside the image map. The <area> tag supports the onClick, onDblClick, onMouseDown, onMouseUp, onMouseOver, onMouseMove, onMouseOut, onKeyPress, onKeyDown, onKeyUp, onFocus, and onBlur events. Here's the above example, with some JavaScript added:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function writeText(txt) { document.getElementById("desc").innerHTML=txt; } </script> </head> <body> <img src="planets.gif" width="145" height="126" alt="Planets" usemap="#planetmap" /> <map id ="planetmap" name="planetmap"> <area shape ="rect" coords ="0,0,82,126" onMouseOver="writeText('The Sun and the gas giant planets like Jupiter are by far the largest objects in our Solar System.')" href ="sun.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Sun" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="90,58,3" onMouseOver="writeText('The planet Mercury is very difficult to study from the Earth because it is always so close to the Sun.')" href ="mercur.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Mercury" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="124,58,8" onMouseOver="writeText('Until the 1960s, Venus was often considered a twin sister to the Earth because Venus is the nearest planet to us, and because the two planets seem to share many characteristics.')" href ="venus.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Venus" /> </map> <p id="desc"></p> </body> </html>

JavaScript Timing Events

With JavaScript, it is possible to execute some code NOT immediately after a function is called, but after a specified time interval. This is called timing events. It's very easy to time events in JavaScript. The two key methods that are used are:

• •

setTimeout() - executes a code some time in the future clearTimeout() - cancels the setTimeout()

Note: The setTimeout() and clearTimeout() are both methods of the HTML DOM Window object.

setTimeout()
Syntax var t=setTimeout("javascript statement",milliseconds);
The setTimeout() method returns a value - In the statement above, the value is stored in a variable called t. If you want to cancel this setTimeout(), you can refer to it using the variable name. The first parameter of setTimeout() is a string that contains a JavaScript statement. This statement could be a statement like "alert('5 seconds!')" or a call to a function, like "alertMsg()". The second parameter indicates how many milliseconds from now you want to execute the first parameter. Note: There are 1000 milliseconds in one second.

Example
When the button is clicked in the example below, an alert box will be displayed after 5 seconds.

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function timedMsg() { var t=setTimeout("alert('5 seconds!')",5000); } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Display timed alertbox!" onClick="timedMsg()"> </form> </body> </html> Example - Infinite Loop
To get a timer to work in an infinite loop, we must write a function that calls itself. In the example below, when the button is clicked, the input field will start to count (for ever), starting at 0:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var c=0 var t function timedCount() { document.getElementById('txt').value=c; c=c+1; t=setTimeout("timedCount()",1000); } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Start count!" onClick="timedCount()"> <input type="text" id="txt"> </form> </body> </html>

clearTimeout()
Syntax clearTimeout(setTimeout_variable) Example
The example below is the same as the "Infinite Loop" example above. The only difference is that we have now added a "Stop Count!" button that stops the timer:

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> var c=0 var t function timedCount() { document.getElementById('txt').value=c; c=c+1; t=setTimeout("timedCount()",1000); } function stopCount() { clearTimeout(t); } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" value="Start count!" onClick="timedCount()"> <input type="text" id="txt"> <input type="button" value="Stop count!"

onClick="stopCount()"> </form> </body> </html>

JavaScript Objects
Earlier in this tutorial we have seen that JavaScript has several built-in objects, like String, Date, Array, and more. In addition to these built-in objects, you can also create your own. An object is just a special kind of data, with a collection of properties and methods. Let's illustrate with an example: A person is an object. Properties are the values associated with the object. The persons' properties include name, height, weight, age, skin tone, eye color, etc. All persons have these properties, but the values of those properties will differ from person to person. Objects also have methods. Methods are the actions that can be performed on objects. The persons' methods could be eat(), sleep(), work(), play(), etc.

Properties
The syntax for accessing a property of an object is:

objName.propName
You can add properties to an object by simply giving it a value. Assume that the personObj already exists - you can give it properties named firstname, lastname, age, and eyecolor as follows:

personObj.firstname="John"; personObj.lastname="Doe"; personObj.age=30; personObj.eyecolor="blue"; document.write(personObj.firstname);
The code above will generate the following output:

John Methods
An object can also contain methods. You can call a method with the following syntax:

objName.methodName()
Note: Parameters required for the method can be passed between the parentheses. To call a method called sleep() for the personObj:

personObj.sleep();

Creating Your Own Objects
There are different ways to create a new object: 1. Create a direct instance of an object The following code creates an instance of an object and adds four properties to it:

personObj=new Object(); personObj.firstname="John"; personObj.lastname="Doe"; personObj.age=50; personObj.eyecolor="blue";
Adding a method to the personObj is also simple. The following code adds a method called eat() to the personObj:

personObj.eat=eat;
2. Create a template of an object The template defines the structure of an object:

function person(firstname,lastname,age,eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname; this.lastname=lastname; this.age=age; this.eyecolor=eyecolor; }
Notice that the template is just a function. Inside the function you need to assign things to this.propertyName. The reason for all the "this" stuff is that you're going to have more than one person at a time (which person you're dealing with must be clear). That's what "this" is: the instance of the object at hand. Once you have the template, you can create new instances of the object, like this:

myFather=new person("John","Doe",50,"blue"); myMother=new person("Sally","Rally",48,"green");
You can also add some methods to the person object. This is also done inside the template:

function person(firstname,lastname,age,eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname; this.lastname=lastname; this.age=age; this.eyecolor=eyecolor; this.newlastname=newlastname; }

Note that methods are just functions attached to objects. Then we will have to write the newlastname() function:

function newlastname(new_lastname) { this.lastname=new_lastname; }
The newlastname() function defines the person's new last name and assigns that to the person. JavaScript knows which person you're talking about by using "this.". So, now you can write: myMother.newlastname("Doe").

You Have Learned JavaScript, Now What?

JavaScript Summary
This tutorial has taught you how to add JavaScript to your HTML pages, to make your web site more dynamic and interactive. You have learned how to create responses to events, validate forms and how to make different scripts run in response to different scenarios. You have also learned how to create and use objects, and how to use JavaScript's built-in objects. For more information on JavaScript, please look at our JavaScript examples and our JavaScript reference.

Now You Know JavaScript, What's Next?
The next step is to learn about the HTML DOM and DHTML. If you want to learn about server-side scripting, the next step is to learn ASP. HTML DOM The HTML DOM defines a standard way for accessing and manipulating HTML documents. The HTML DOM is platform and language independent and can be used by any programming language like Java, JavaScript, and VBScript. If you want to learn more about the DOM, please visit our HTML DOM tutorial. DHTML DHTML is a combination of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. DHTML is used to create dynamic and interactive Web sites. W3C once said: "Dynamic HTML is a term used by some vendors to describe the combination of HTML, style sheets and scripts that allows documents to be animated." If you want to learn more about DHTML, please visit our DHTML tutorial.

ASP While scripts in an HTML file are executed on the client (in the browser), scripts in an ASP file are executed on the server. With ASP you can dynamically edit, change or add any content of a Web page, respond to data submitted from HTML forms, access any data or databases and return the results to a browser, customize a Web page to make it more useful for individual users. Since ASP files are returned as plain HTML, they can be viewed in any browser. If you want to learn more about ASP, please visit our ASP tutorial.

Web Glossary

This is an alphabetical list of Web Building Glossary Terms.

Access (Microsoft Access) A database system developed by Microsoft. Part of Microsoft Office Professional. Mostly used on low traffic web sites running on the Windows platform. ActiveMovie A web technology for streaming movies from a web server to a web client. Developed by Microsoft. ActiveX A programming interface (API) that allows web browsers to download and execute Windows programs. (See also Plug-In) Address See Web Address. Anchor In web terms: The starting point or ending point of a hyperlink. Learn more about links in our HTML tutorial Anonymous FTP See FTP Server. ANSI (American National Standards Institute) An organization that creates standards for the computer industry. Responsible for the ANSI C standard. ANSI C An international standard for the C programming language. ADO (ActiveX Data Object) A Microsoft technology that provides data access to any kind of data store. Learn more about ADO in our ADO tutorial

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) A special type of DSL line where the upload speed is different from the download speed. Amaya An open source web browser editor from W3C, used to push leading-edge ideas in browser design. Animation A set of pictures simulating movement when played in series. Anti-Virus Program A computer program made to discover and destroy all types of computer viruses. Apache An open source web server. Mostly for Unix, Linux and Solaris platforms. Applet See web applet. Archie A computer program to locate files on public FTP servers. API (Application Programming Interface) An interface for letting a program communicate with another program. In web terms: An interface for letting web browsers or web servers communicate with other programs. (See also Active-X and Plug-In) ARPAnet The experimental network tested in the 1970's which started the development of the Internet. Authentication In web terms: the method used to verify the identity of a user, program or computer on the web. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) A set of 128 alphanumeric and special control characters used for computer storing and printing of text. Used by HTML when transmitting data over the web. See the full list of ASCII codes in our HTML Reference ASF (Advanced Streaming Format) A multimedia streaming format. Developed by Microsoft for Windows Media. ASP (Active Server Pages) A Microsoft technology allowing the insertion of server executable scripts in web pages. Learn more about ASP in our ASP tutorial ASX (ASF Streaming Redirector) An XML format for storing information about ASF files. Developed by Microsoft for Windows Media. AVI (Audio Video Interleave) File format for video files. Video compression technology developed by Microsoft. Banner Ad A (most often graphic) advertisement placed on a web page, which acts as a hyperlink to an advertiser's web site.

Bandwidth A measure for the speed (amount of data) you can send through an Internet connection. The more bandwidth, the faster the connection. Baud The number of symbols per second sent over a channel. BBS (Bulletin Board System) A web based public system for sharing discussions, files, and announcements. Binary Data Data in machine readable form. Bit (Binary Digit) The smallest unit of data stored in a computer. A bit can have the value of 0 or 1. A computer uses 8 bits to store one text character. BMP (Bitmap) A format for storing images. Bookmark In web terms: A link to a particular web site, stored (bookmarked) by a web user for future use and easy access. Browse Term to describe a user's movement across the web, moving from page to page via hyperlinks, using a web browser. (See Web Browser). BPS (Bits Per Second) Term to describe the transmission speed for data over the web. Browser See Web Browser. Byte (Binary Term) A computer storage unit containing 8 bits. Each byte can store one text character. C An advanced programming language used for programming advanced computer applications. C++ (C Plus Plus) The same as C with added object-oriented functions. C# (C Sharp) A Microsoft version of C++ with added Java-like functions. Case Sensitive A term used to describe if it is of importance to use upper or lower case letters. Cache In web terms: A web browser or web server feature which stores copies of web pages on a computer's hard disk. Chat An on-line text-based communication between Internet users.

CGI (Common Gateway Interface) A set of rules that describes how a CGI program communicates with a web server. CGI Bin The folder (or directory) on a web server that stores CGI programs. CGI Program A small program that handles input and output from a web server. Often CGI programs are used for handling forms input or database queries. Cinepac A codec for computer video. Client See Web Client. Client/Server In web terms: The communication and separation of workload between a web client and a web server. Click In web terms: A mouse click on a hyperlink element (such as text or picture) on a web page which creates an event such as taking a visitor to another web page or another part of the same page. Clickthrough Rate The number of times visitors click on a hyperlink (or advertisement) on a page, as a percentage of the number of times the page has been displayed. Codec (Compressor / Decompressor) Common term for the technology used for compressing and decompressing data. Communication Protocol A standard (language and a set of rules) to allow computers to interact in a standard way. Examples are IP, FTP, and HTTP. Learn more about Communication Protocols in our TCP/IP tutorial Compression A method of reducing the size (compress) of web documents or graphics for faster delivery via the web. Computer Virus A computer program that can harm a computer by displaying messages, deleting files, or even destroying the computer's operating system. Cookie Information from a web server, stored on your computer by your web browser. The purpose of a cookie is to provide information about your visit to the website for use by the server during a later visit. ColdFusion Web development software for most platforms (Linux, Unix, Solaris and Windows). CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) A W3C recommended language for defining style (such as font, size, color, spacing, etc.) for web documents. Learn more about CSS in our CSS tutorial

Database Data stored in a computer in such a way that a computer program can easily retrieve and manipulate the data. Learn more about databases in our SQL tutorial Database System A computer program (like MS Access, Oracle, and MySQL) for manipulating data in a database. DB2 A database system from IBM. Mostly for Unix and Solaris platforms. DBA (Data Base Administrator) The person (or the software) who administers a database. Typical task are: backup, maintenance and implementation. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) An Internet standard protocol that assigns new IP addresses to users as need. DHTML (Dynamic HTML) A term commonly to describe HTML content that can change dynamically. Learn more about DHTML in our DHTML tutorial Dial-up Connection In web terms: A connection to Internet via telephone and modem. Discussion Group See Newsgroup. DNS (Domain Name Service) A computer program running on a web server, translating domain names into IP addresses. Learn more about DNS in our Web Hosting tutorial DNS Server A web server running DNS. DOM (Document Object Model) A programming model for web page objects. (See HTML DOM and XML DOM) Domain Name The name that identifies a web site. (like: W3Schools.com) Learn more about domains in our Web Hosting tutorial DOS (Disk Operating System) A general disk based computer operating system (see OS). Originally developed by Microsoft for IBM personal computers. Often used as a shorthand for MS-DOS. Download To transfer a file from a remote computer to a local computer. In web terms: to transfer a file from a web server to a web client. (see also Upload). DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) An Internet connection over regular telephone lines, but much faster. Speed may vary from 128 kilobit per second, up to 9 megabit per second. DTD (Document Type Definition) A set of rules (a language) for defining the legal building blocks of a web document like HTML or

XML. Learn more about DTD in our DTD tutorial Dynamic IP An IP address that changes each time you connect to the Internet. (See DHCP and Static IP). E-mail (Electronic Mail) Messages sent from one person to another via the Internet. E-mail Address The address used for sending e-mails to a person or an organization. Typical format is username@hostname. E-mail Server A web server dedicated to the task of serving e-mail. Encryption To convert data from its original form to a form that can only be read by someone that can reverse the encryption. The purpose of encryption is to prevent unauthorized reading of the data. Error See Web Server Error. Ethernet A type of local area network (see LAN). Firewall Software that acts as a security filter that can restrict types of network communication. Most often used between an individual computer (or a LAN) and the Internet. Flash A vector-based multimedia format developed by Macromedia for use on the web. Learn more about Flash in our Flash tutorial Form See HTML Form. Forum In web terms: The same as Newsgroup. Frame In web terms: A part of the browser screen displaying a particular content. Frames are often used to display content from different web pages. FrontPage Web development software for the Windows platform. Developed by Microsoft. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) One of the most common methods for sending files between two computers. FTP Server A web server you can logon to, and download files from (or upload files to). Anonymous FTP is a method for downloading files from an FTP server without using a logon account.

Gateway A computer program for transferring (and reformatting) data between incompatible applications or networks. GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) A compressed format for storing images developed by CompuServe. One of the most common image formats on the Internet. GB Same as Gigabyte. 10GB is ten gigabytes. Gigabyte 1024 megabytes. Commonly rounded down to one billion bytes. Graphics In web terms graphics describe pictures (opposite to text). Graphic Monitor A display monitor that can display graphics. Graphic Printer A printer that can print graphics. Graphical Banner See Banner Ad. Helper application In web terms: A program helping the browser to display, view, or work with files that the browser cannot handle itself. (See Plug-In). Hits The number of times a web object (page or picture) has been viewed or downloaded. (See also Page Hits). Home Page The top-level (main) page of a web site. The default page displayed when you visit a web site. Host See Web Host. Hosting See Web Hosting. Hotlink See Hyperlink. Trojan Horse Computer program hidden in another computer program with the purpose of destroying software or collecting information about the use of the computer. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) HTML is the language of the web. HTML is a set of tags that are used to define the content, layout and the formatting of the web document. Web browsers use the HTML tags to define how to display the text. Learn more about HTML in our HTML tutorial

HTML Document A document written in HTML. HTML DOM (HTML Document Object Model) A programming interface for HTML documents. Learn more about HTML DOM in our HTML DOM tutorial HTML Editor A software program for editing HTML pages. With an HTML editor you can add elements like lists, tables, layout, font size, and colors to a HTML document like using a word processor. An HTML editor will display the page being edited exactly the same way it will be displayed on the web (See WYSIWYG). HTML Form A form that passes user input back to the server. Learn more about HTML forms in our HTML tutorial HTML Page The same as an HTML Document. HTML Tags Code to identify the different parts of a document so that a web browser will know how to display it. Learn more about HTML tags our HTML tutorial HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) The standard set of rules for sending text files across the Internet. It requires an HTTP client program at one end, and an HTTP server program at the other end. HTTP Client A computer program that requests a service from a web server. HTTP Server A computer program providing services from a web server. HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure) Same as HTTP but provides secure Internet communication using SSL. (see also SSL) Hyperlink A pointer to another document. Most often a pointer to another web page. A hyperlink is a synonym for a hotlink or a link, and sometimes called a hypertext connection to another document or web page. Hypermedia An extension to hypertext to include graphics and audio. Hypertext Hypertext is text that is cross-linked to other documents in such a way that the reader can read related documents by clicking on a highlighted word or symbol. (see also hyperlink) IAB (Internet Architecture Board) A council that makes decisions about Internet standards. (See also W3C). IE (Internet Explorer) See Internet Explorer. IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) A subgroup of IAB that focuses on solving technical problems on the Internet.

IIS (Internet Information Server) A web server for Windows operating systems. Developed by Microsoft. IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) A standard communication protocol for retrieving e-mails from an e-mail server. IMAP is much like POP but more advanced. Learn more about IMAP in our TCP/IP tutorial Indeo A codec for computer video developed by Intel. Internet A world wide network connecting millions of computers. (See also WWW) Internet Browser See Web Browser. Internet Explorer A browser by Microsoft. The most commonly used browser today. Learn more about browsers in our browser section Internet Server See Web Server Intranet A private (closed) Internet, running inside a LAN (Local Area Network). IP (Internet Protocol) See TCP/IP. IP Address (Internet Protocol Address) A unique number identifying every computer on the Internet (like 197.123.22.240) IP Number (Internet Protocol Number) Same as an IP address. IP Packet See TCP/IP Packet. IRC (Internet Relay Chat) An Internet system that enables users to take part in on-line discussions. IRC Client A computer program that enables a user to connect to IRC. IRC Server An Internet server dedicated to the task of serving IRC connections. ISAPI (Internet Server API) Application Programming Interface (See API) for Internet Information Server (See IIS). ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) A telecommunication standard that uses digital transmission to support data communications over regular telephone lines.

ISP (Internet Service Provider) Someone that provides access to the Internet and web hosting. Java A programming language developed by SUN. Mostly for programming web servers and web applets. Java Applet See Web Applet. JavaScript The most popular scripting language on the internet, developed by Netscape. Learn more about JavaScript in our JavaScript tutorial. JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group) The organization that promotes the JPG and JPEG graphic formats for storing compressed images. JPEG and JPG Graphic formats for storing compressed images. JScript Microsoft's version of JavaScript. JSP (Java Server Pages) A Java based technology allowing the insertion of server executable scripts in web pages. Mostly used on Linux, Unix and Solaris platforms. K Same as kilobyte 10K is ten kilobytes.. KB Same as kilobyte 10KB is ten kilobytes.. Keyword In web terms: A word used by a search engine to search for relevant web information. In database terms: A word (or index) used to identify a database record. Kilobyte 1024 bytes. Often called 1K, and rounded down to 1000 bytes. LAN (Local Area Network) A network between computers in a local area (like inside a building), usually connected via local cables. See also WAN. Link The same as a hyperlink. Linux Open source computer operating system based on Unix. Mostly used on servers and web servers. Mail In web terms: the same as e-mail. Mail Server See e-mail server.

MB Same as Megabyte. 10MB is ten megabytes. Megabyte 1024 kilobytes. Commonly rounded down to one million bytes. Meta Data Data that describes other data. (See also Meta Tags). Meta Search The method of searching for meta data in documents. Meta Tags Tags inserted into documents to describe the document. Learn more about meta tags in our HTML tutorial MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) A standard protocol for communication between computers and musical instruments. Learn more about MIDI in our Media tutorial MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) An Internet standard for defining document types. MIME type examples: text/plain, text/html, image/gif, image/jpg. Learn more about MIME types in our Media tutorial MIME Types Document types defined by MIME. Modem Hardware equipment to connect a computer to a telephone network Typically used to connect to the Internet via a telephone line. Mosaic The first commonly available web browser. Mosaic was released in 1993 and started the popularity of the web. MOV A codec for computer video developed by Apple. Common file extension for QuickTime multimedia files. MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) An audio compression format specially designed for easy download over the Internet. MP3 File An file containing audio compressed with MP3. Most often a music track. MPEG (Moving Picture Expert Group) An ISO standard codec for computer audio and video. MPG Common file extension for MPEG files. MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) A general disk based computer operating system (See OS). Originally developed by Microsoft for IBM computers, then developed by Microsoft as a basis for the first versions of Windows.

Multimedia In web terms: A presentation combining text with pictures, video, or sound. MySQL Free open source database software often used on the web. NetBEUI (Net Bios Extended User Interface) An enhanced version of NetBIOS. NetBIOS (Network Basic Input Output System) An application programming interface (API) with functions for local-area networks (LAN). Used by DOS and Windows. Navigate In web terms: The same as Browse. Netscape The browser from the company Netscape. The most popular browser for many years. Today IE has the lead. Learn more about browsers in our browser section Newsgroup An on-line discussion group (a section on a news server) dedicated to a particular subject of interest. News Reader A computer program that enables you to read (and post messages) from an Internet newsgroup. News Server An Internet server dedicated to the task of serving Internet newsgroups. Node In web terms: A computer connected to the Internet, most often used to describe a web server. Opera The browser from the company Opera. Learn more about browsers in our browser section OS (Operating System) The software that manages the basic operating of a computer. Packet See TCP/IP Packet. Page Hits The number of times a web page has been visited by a user. Page Impressions The same as Page Hits. Page Views The same as Page Hits. PDF (Portable Document Format) A document file format developed by Adobe. Most often used for text documents.

Perl (Practical Extraction and Reporting Language) A scripting language for web servers. Most often used on Unix servers. PHP (PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor) A technology allowing the insertion of server executable scripts in web pages. Mostly for Unix, Linux and Solaris platforms. Learn more about PHP in our PHP tutorial. Ping A method used to check the communication between two computers. A "ping" is sent to a remote computer to see if it responds. Platform In web terms: The computer's operating system like Windows, Linux, or OS X. Plug-In An application built into another application. In web terms: A program built in (or added) to a web browser to handle a special type of data like e-mail, sound, or movie files. (See also ActiveX) PNG (Portable Network Graphics) A format for encoding a picture pixel by pixel and sending it over the web. A W3C recommendation for replacing GIF. POP (Post Office Protocol) A standard communication protocol for retrieving e-mails from an e-mail server. (See also IMAP). Learn more about POP and IMAP in our TCP/IP tutorial Port A number that identifies a computer IO (input/output) channel. In web terms: A number that identifies the I/O channel used by an Internet application (A web server normally uses port 80). Protocol See Communication Protocol. PPP (Point to Point Protocol) A communication protocol used for direct connection between two computers. Proxy Server An Internet server dedicated to improve Internet performance. Router A hardware (or software) system that directs (routes) data transfer to different computers in a network. QuickTime A multimedia file format created by Apple. Learn more about QuickTime in our Media tutorial RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) A standard for connecting multiple disks to the same server for higher security, speed and performance. Often used on web servers. RDF (Resource Description Framework) A framework for constructing languages for describing web resources. Learn more about RDF in our RDF tutorial

Real Audio A common multimedia audio format created by Real Networks. Learn more about Real Audio in our Media tutorial Real Video A common multimedia video format created by Real Networks. Learn more about Real Video in our Media tutorial Redirect In web terms: The action when a web page automatically forwards (redirects) the user to another web page. RGB (Red Green Blue) The combination of the three primary colors that can represent a full color spectrum. Learn more about RGB in our HTML tutorial Robot See Web Robot. Schema See XML Schema. Script A collection of statements written in a Scripting Language. Scripting Language In web terms: A simple programming language that can be executed by a web browser or a web server. See JavaScript and VBScript. Scripting Writing a script. Shareware Software that you can try free of charge, and pay a fee to continue to use legally. Shockwave A format (technology) developed by Macromedia for embedding multimedia content in web pages. Search Engine Computer program used to search and catalog (index) the millions of pages of available information on the web. Common search engines are Google and AltaVista. Semantic Web A web of data with a meaning in the sense that computer programs can know enough about the data to process it. Server See Web Server. Server Errors See Web Server Errors. SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) An international standard for markup languages. The basis for HTML and XML.

SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) A W3C recommended language for creating multimedia presentations. Learn more about SMIL in our SMIL tutorial SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) A standard communication protocol for sending e-mail messages between computers. Learn more about SMTP in our TCP/IP tutorial SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) A standard protocol for letting applications communicate with each other using XML. Learn more about SOAP in our SOAP tutorial Solaris Computer operating system from SUN. SPAM In web terms: The action of sending multiple unwelcome messages to a newsgroup or mailing list. Spider See Web Spider. Spoofing Addressing a web page or an e-mail with a false referrer. Like sending an e-mail from a false address. Spyware Computer software hidden in a computer with the purpose of collecting information about the use of the computer. SQL (Structured Query Language) An ANSI standard computer language for accessing and manipulating databases. Learn more about SQL in our SQL tutorial. SQL Server A database system from Microsoft. Mostly used on high traffic web sites running on the Windows platform. SSI (Server Side Include) A type of HTML comment inserted into a web page to instruct the web server to generate dynamic content. The most common use is to include standard header or footer for the page. SSL (Secure Socket Layer) Software to secure and protect web site communication using encrypted transmission of data. Static IP (address) An IP address that is the same each time connect to the Internet. (See also Dynamic IP). Streaming A method of sending audio and video files over the Internet in such a way that the user can view the file while it is being transferred. Streaming Format The format used for files being streamed over the Internet. (See Windows Media, Real Video and QuickTime).

SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) A W3C recommended language for defining graphics in XML. Learn more about SVG in our SVG tutorial Tag In web terms: Notifications or commands written into a web document. (See HTML Tags) TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) See TCP/IP. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) A collection of Internet communication protocols between two computers. The TCP protocol is responsible for an error free connection between two computers, while the IP protocol is responsible for the data packets sent over the network. Learn more about TCP/IP in our TCP/IP tutorial TCP/IP Address See IP Address. TCP/IP Packet A "packet" of data sent over a TCP/IP network. (data sent over the Internet is broken down into small "packets" from 40 to 32000 bytes long). UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration) A platform-independent framework for describing services, discovering businesses, and integrating business services using the Internet. Learn more about UDDI in our WSDL tutorial Unix Computer operating system, developed by Bell Laboratories. Mostly used for servers and web servers. UNZIP To uncompress a ZIPPED file. See ZIP. Upload To transfer a file from a local computer to a remote computer. In web terms: to transfer a file from a web client to a web server. (see also Download). URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) Term used to identify resources on the internet. URL is one type of an URI. URL (Uniform Resource Locator) A web address. The standard way to address web documents (pages) on the Internet (like: http://www.w3schools.com/) USENET A world wide news system accessible over the Internet. (See Newsgroups) User Agent The same as a Web Browser. VB (Visual Basic) See Visual Basic. VBScript A scripting language from Microsoft. VBScript is the default scripting language in ASP. Can also be

used to program Internet Explorer. Learn more about VBScript in our VBScript tutorial. Virus Same as Computer Virus. Visit In web terms: A visit to a web site. Commonly used to describe the activity for one visitor of a web site. Visitor In web terms: A visitor of a web site. Commonly used to describe a person visiting (viewing) a web site. Visual Basic A programming language from Microsoft. VPN (Virtual Private Network) A private network between two remote sites, over a secure encrypted virtual Internet connection (a tunnel). VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) A programming language to allow 3D effects to be added to HTML documents. W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) The organization responsible for managing standards for the WWW. Learn more about W3C in our W3C tutorial WAN (Wide Area Network) Computers connected together in a wide network, larger than a LAN, usually connected via phone lines. See also LAN. WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) A leading standard for information services on wireless terminals like digital mobile phones. Learn more about WAP in our WAP tutorial Web Address The same as an URL or URI. See URL. Web Applet A program that can be downloaded over the web and run on the user's computer. Most often written in Java. Web Client A software program used to access web pages. Sometimes the same as a Web Browser, but often used as a broader term. Web Browser A software program used to display web pages. Learn more about browsers in our Browser section Web Document A document formatted for distribution over the web. Most often a web document is formatted in a markup language like HTML or XML. Web Error See Web Server Error.

Web Form See HTML Form. Web Host A web server that "hosts" web services like providing web site space to companies or individuals. Web Hosting The action of providing web host services. Web Page A document (normally an HTML file) designed to be distributed over the Web. Web Robot See Web Spider. Web Server A server is a computer that delivers services or information to other computers. In web terms: A server that delivers web content to web browsers. Web Server Error A message from a web server indicating an error. The most common web server error is "404 File Not Found". Learn more about web server error messages in our HTML tutorial Web Services Software components and applications running on web servers. The server provides these services to other computers, browsers or individuals, using standard communication protocols. Web Site A collection of related web pages belonging to a company or an individual. Web Spider A computer program that searches the Internet for web pages. Common web spiders are the one used by search engines like Google and AltaVista to index the web. Web spiders are also called web robots or wanderers. Web Wanderer See Web Spider. Wildcard A character used to substitute any character(s). Most often used as an asterix (*) in search tools. Windows 2000, Windows NT, Windows 95/98, Windows XP Computer operating systems from Microsoft. Windows Media Audio and video formats for the Internet, developed by Microsoft. (See ASF, ASX, WMA and WMF). Learn more about Windows Media in our Media tutorial WINZIP A computer program for compressing and decompressing files. See ZIP. WMA Audio file format for the Internet, developed by Microsoft. (See also WMV). Learn more about media formats in our Media tutorial.

WMV Video file format for the Internet, developed by Microsoft. (See also WMA). Learn more about media formats in our Media tutorial WML (Wireless Markup Language) A standard for information services on wireless terminals like digital mobile phones, inherited from HTML, but based on XML, and much stricter than HTML. Learn more about WML in our WAP tutorial WML Script Scripting language (programming language) for WML. Learn more about WMLScript in our WMLScript tutorial Worm A computer virus that can make copies of itself and spread to other computers over the Internet. WSDL (Web Services Description Language) An XML-based language for describing Web services and how to access them. Learn more about WSDL in our WSDL tutorial WWW (World Wide Web) A global network of computers using the internet to exchange web documents. (See also Internet) WWW Server The same as a Web Server. WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) In Web terms: To display a web page being edited exactly the same way it will be displayed on the web. XForms A future version of HTML Forms, based on XML and XHTML. Differs from HTML forms by separating data definition and data display. Providing richer and more device independent user input. Learn more about XForms in our XForms tutorial XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language) HTML reformulated as XML. XHTML is the latest version of HTML. Developed by W3C. Learn more about XHTML in our XHTML tutorial XPath XPath is a set of syntax rules (language) for defining parts of an XML document. XPath is a major part of the W3C XSL standard. Learn more about XPath in our XPath tutorial XQuery XQuery is a set of syntax rules (language) for extracting information from XML documents. XQuery builds on XPath. XQuery is developed by W3C. Learn more about XQuery in our XQuery tutorial XML (Extensible Markup Language) A simplified version of SGML especially designed for web documents, developed by the W3C. Learn more about XML in our XML tutorial XML Document A document written in XML.

XML DOM (XML Document Object Model) A programming interface for XML documents developed by W3C. Learn more about XML DOM in our XML DOM tutorial XML Schema A document that describes, in a formal way, the syntax elements and parameters of a web language. Designed by W3C to replace DTD. Learn more about Schema in our XML Schema tutorial XSD (XML Schema Definition) The same as XML Schema. XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) A suite of XML languages developed by W3C, including XSLT, XSL-FO and XPath. Learn more about XSL in our XSL tutorial XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects) An XML language for formatting XML documents. A part of XSL developed by W3C. Learn more about XSL-FO in our XSL-FO tutorial XSLT (XSL Transformations) An XML language for transforming XML documents. A part of XSL developed by W3C. Learn more about XSLT in our XSLT tutorial ZIP A compressing format for computer files. Commonly used for compressing files before downloading over the Internet. ZIP files can be compressed (ZIPPED) and decompressed (UNZIPPED) using a computer program like WINZIP.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful