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Zoology as a Science

Zoology: from the Greek words zoon


animal and logos study
Zoology is a broad and complex branch of
biology that deals with the study of
animals
Zoology has diverse foci and/or divisions
of study

Principal Divisions of Zoology


Divisions of Zoology

I. Structural Zoology

1. Morphology

- configuration of organisms

2.Anatomy

- structure of organisms and their parts

3.Histology

- study of tissues

4.Cytology

- structure and function of cells


II. Developmental Zoology

1.Embryology

- development from fertilized egg to birth

2.Ontogeny

- development of the organism throughout its lifetime

3.Genetics- mechanisms of transmission of traits from parents to


offspring.

III. Functional Zoology

1.Animal Physiology

- chemical and physical functions of organisms, their systems and


organs

2.Animal Behavior / Ethology

- behavior of animals in response to the biotic (other organisms)


and abiotic (non-living) factors environment

IV. Systematic Zoology

1.Taxonomy and systematics - description and classification of


organisms, often based on evolutionary relationships

2.Protozoology animal-like protists

3.Entomology insects

4.Conchology mollusks

5.Ichthyology fishes

6.Herpetology amphibians and reptiles

7.Ornithology birds

8.Mammalogy mammals
V. Distributional Zoology

1.Zoogeography - geographic distribution of species and their


attributes; how patterns of animal biodiversity vary over space
and through time

2.Ecology - interaction of organisms with their environment

VI. Historical Zoology

1.Paleontology - study of prehistoric life based on fossils

2.Phylogeny- evolutionary relatedness among organisms

3.Evolution- study of the changes in the genetic composition of a


population over time

VII. Medical Zoology

1.Parasitology - study of parasites, their hosts, and the


relationship between them

2.Pathology - study and diagnosis of disease through autopsies or


the examination of organs, tissues, body fluids, and whole bodies

Characteristics of Animals

1. Eukaryotes

2. Heterotrophic

3. Multicellular; differentiated into tissues

4. Capable of movement

5. Mostly capable of sexual reproduction, some asexual

6. Diploid

7. Lack cell wall

2. Heterotrophic
Animals obtain organic food molecules by eating other
organisms.

Autotrophs synthesize their own food from inorganic


molecules.

1.Multicellular

As opposed to the unicellular bacteria and protists.

Except in sponges, animal cells are differentiated into diff.


tissues that perform diff. functions.

During development, multipotent stem cells differentiate


into many types of cells and form diff. tissues.

2.Capable of movement

Unlike plants and except sponges, animals are motile. They


could transfer from one location to another.

Plants depend on wind, water or animals to disperse pollen,


seeds or spores; sponges on water current to disperse
spores.

5.Mostly do sexual reproduction; some asexual


reproduction

Sexual: sperm fertilizes egg cell to form a zygote which


develop into new individuals

Asexual: (1) parthenogenesis - fertile eggs are produced


without mating; (2) budding localized mass of mitotic cells
develop into a new individual

6.Diploid
Somatic cells are diploid, containing two sets of
chromosomes (2n); gametes are haploid, containing one set
of chromosomes (n).

Haploid gametes fuse and form a diploid zygote which later


develops into an individual.

Diploid germ cells undergo meiosis to form haploid gametes.

7. Lack cell wall

Animal cells lack cell walls which provide structural support


and protection in plant cells.

But the plasma membrane of animal cells are supported by


collagen and elastic glycoproteins
Significance of Zoology

Why study zoology?

Animals are used as subjects to explain many biological


principles.

Treatments are tested on animals first before humans.

Conservation and management of world resources are


executed only after understanding the relationships of many
animals with the environment.