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It's boom time for mobile phones in India. And people are looking forward to more information, faster data access and multimedia services through their mobile phones. 3G technology is here to turn this dream into reality. It's a technology anxiously awaited by telecom operations and subscribers in India.
What is spectrum? Radio spectrum refers to a range of radio frequencies. The bandwidth of a radio signal is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies of the signal. For example, in the case of a voice signal having a minimum frequency of 200 hertz (Hz) and a maximum frequency of 3,000 Hz, the bandwidth is 2,800 Hz (3 KHz). The amount of bandwidth needed for 3G services could be as much as 15-20 Mhz, whereas for 2G services a bandwidth of 30-200 KHz is used. Hence, for 3G huge bandwidth is required. How is 3G different from 2G and 4G? While 2G stands for second-generation wireless telephone technology, 1G networks used are analog, 2G networks are digital and 3G (thirdgeneration) technology is used to enhance mobile phone standards. 3G helps to simultaneously transfer both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information, exchanging email, and instant messaging. The highlight of 3G is video telephony. 4G technology stands to be the future standard of wireless devices. Currently, Japanese company NTT DoCoMo and Samsung are testing 4G communication. How will 3G services help you? 3G services will enable video broadcast and data-intensive services such as stock transactions, e-learning and telemedicine through wireless communications All telecom operators are waiting to launch 3G in India to cash in on revenues by providing high-end services to customers, which are voice data and video enabled. India lags behind many Asian countries in introducing 3G services. What is Trai's recommendation on 3G pricing? The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India has recommended auctioning radio frequencies for 3G telecom services at a reserve price of Rs 1,050 crore (Rs 10.50 billion) to companies seeking to offer nationwide high-speed Internet and streaming video. The base price for spectrum in cities like Mumbai and Delhi and Category A telecom circles is Rs 80 crore (Rs 800 million); in cities like Chennai and Kolkata and Category B circles Rs 40 crore (Rs 400 million); and in all other cities Rs 15 crore (Rs 150 million). What are the frequency bands and quota for CDMA? Trai has recommended three sets of frequency bands - 450 mhz, 800 mhz and 2.1 ghz. For CDMA players like Reliance [Get Quote] and Tata Teleservices [Get Quote] 1.25 MHz each is offered. CDMA operators are free to bid both in the 2.1 GHz and the 450 MHz bands, but they will be allocated spectrum only in one. The pricing of these two bands is linked to the auction in the 2.1 GHz band. CDMA operators will pay the same as the second-highest GSM bidder. And if there is more than one claimant in the 450 MHz band, the reserve price will be half of that arrived at in the 2.1 GHz band. Another rider is that if the highest bid is a quarter more than the lowest, the lowest bidder has to raise its bid to 75 per cent of the winning bid.
But CDMA operators are likely to face problems. Operating 3G services on 450 MHz is a problem because we they do not have dual-band phones that work both in 450 MHz and in 800 MHz (the band in which CDMA operates in India). What are the issues regarding 3G for providers and users? 3G has successfully been introduced in Europe. But several issues continue to hamper its growth. High spectrum licensing fees for the 3G services Huge capital required to build infrastructure for 3G services. Health impact of electromagnetic waves. Prices are very high for 3G mobile services. Will 2G users switch to 3G services. Takes time to catch up as the service is new. What are the issues regarding 3G pricing? Pricing has been a cause of concern. Spectrum auctions ran into billions of euros in Europe. In Europe, spectrum licensing fees were collected years before the 3G service was developed and it required huge investments to build 3G networks, hitting mobile operators' margins. However, in Japan and South Korea, spectrum licensing fees were not applicable as the focus of these countries were national IT infrastructure development. Which companies have applied for 3G license? 3G spectrum has been provided to GSM players like BSNL, MTNL [Get Quote], Bharti, and Hutch to carry out an interface check on a noncommercial basis ahead of the start of 3G mobile services. Trial spectrum has been given for a period of one month. This will be only 1/1000th of the actual 3G spectrum capability. Apart frm PSU majors, spectrum for carrying out 3G trials has been given to all those who have applied under the National Frequency Allocation Plan on the 2.1 GHz band. GSM players operate on 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz, while CDMA players operate on 800 MHz. What is the pricing issue in India? While Tatas have welcomed Trai's Rs 1,400-crore (Rs 14 billion) base price for a nationwide rollout of 3G services, the rest of the players find the price too exorbitant. Bharti-Airtel is disappointed with the pricing as they were expecting it to be Rs 300-400 crore (Rs 3-4 billion). The reserve price is a disincentive for telecom companies in India. Bharti has appealed to lower the prices specially for rural penetration. The Cellular Operators Association of India and the Association of Unified Service Providers of India are studying TRAI's recommendations and have not given their comments. However, Trai chairman Nripendra Misra has said that there is no reason to worry as players will not bid exorbitantly and derail the auction. Misra said telecom operators had matured from their experiences and global developments, and would bid sincerely. Where was 3G spectrum first introduced? Japan was the first country to introduce 3G on a large commercial scale. In 2005, about 40 per cent of subscribers used only 3G networks. It is expected that during 2006 the subscribers would move from 2G to 3G and upgrade to the next 3.5 G level.
The success of 3G in Japan also shows that video telephony was the killer application for 3G networks. Downloading music was the biggest draw in 3G services. In how many countries does 3G exist? There are about 60 3G networks across 25 countries . In Asia, Europe and the USA, telecom firms use WCDMA technology. The WCDMA standard provides seamless global evolution from today's GSM with support of the worlds' largest mobile operators. WCDMA technology is built on open standards, wide ranging mobile multimedia possibility, and vast potential economies of scale with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks
What are the differences between 1G Original, 2G Original, 3G, 4G iPods and iPod mini?
1st Generation iPods (Classic, Original, Gen 1, G1, 1G)
The G1(1st generation) has mechanical buttons around the moving mechanical scroll wheel, with each stretching over one quarter of the outer circumference of the wheel. The Gen 1 iPod has a white plastic top plate around the FireWire port, headphone port and 'Hold' switch. ALL 5GB iPod are G1s. (M8513 Mac, M8697 PC). There was never a G2 5GB iPod. G1s weren't only 5GB, however, since there was also a briefly available Mac-only 10GB Gen 1 (M8709). M8513: Original scrollwheel version 5GB (Mac only) M8541: Original scrollwheel version 5GB (Mac only) M8709: Original 10GB original scrollwheel version (Mac only) M8697: 'New' scrollwheel 5GB PC version
2nd Generation iPods (Gen 2, G2, 2G)
The G2 (2nd generation) iPod has the same buttons as the Gen 1, but these are located around a non-moving, touch sensitive, solid-state touchwheel. The top plate is primarily stainless steel. The FireWire Port was protected by a built in cover. The G2s came with the remote and Apple case as standard. There was never a 5GB G2 iPod. The G2 10GB iPod was marginally thinner than the original 5GB iPod and the G1 10GB iPod. (M8737 Mac, M8740 PC). The G2 20GB iPod was marginally thicker than the original 5GB iPod. (M8738 Mac, M8741 PC). M8737: Touchwheel 10GB Mac version M8740: Touchwheel 10GB PC version M8738: Touchwheel 20GB Mac version M8741: Touchwheel 20GB PC version
3rd generation iPods (Gen 3, G3, 3G, docking iPod)
The G3 (3rd generation, docking) iPods, also known as docking iPods, introduced a completely new form factor, with a single layer front (white plastic and lucite) and rounded edges front and back. The smaller body houses a smaller battery, of completely new design, with much reduced life. The G3 iPod has four touch sensitive (backlit) buttons in a row above the non moving touchwheel. All G3 models have the new dock connector on the bottom, though the Dock itself is only included with the 15, 20, 30 and 40 GB models, and is an optional extra for the 10GB model, like the case and remote. The wired remote and headphone plugs have been separated, with separate sockets on the top plate, but remain integrated as one unit.
All G3 iPods are Mac compatible 'out of the box'. PC users will have to install and format the iPod for use on Windows with the included software. Even the biggest G3 iPods are thinner than G1s and G2s. (M8976 10GB version, M8946 15GB version, M9244 20GB version, M8948 30GB version and M9245 40GB version) M8976: Touchwheel, 4-button 10GB Mac/PC version M8946: Touchwheel, 4-button 15GB Mac/PC version M8948: Touchwheel, 4-button 30GB Mac/PC version M9244: Touchwheel, 4-button 20GB Mac/PC version M9245: Touchwheel, 4-button 40GB Mac/PC version
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