ECO-HERITAGE CIRCUIT TOURISM OF HYDRABADKARNATAKA REGION

DINESH K.D
Chapter CONTENTS No
1 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 OBJECTIVES 1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1.4 LIMITATIONS 2 2.1 BIRD VIEW ON HYDRABAD KARNATAKA A. HISTORY B. GEOGRAPHY C. CULTURE 2.2TYPES OF TOURIEM RESOURCES IN BIDAR AND GULBAR 2.3BACKGROUND HISTORY OF TORISM DEVLOPMENT 2.4 MAIN ATTARCTIONS OF GULBARGA 3 3.1 CONCEPT OF CIRCUIT TUORISM 3.2 CIRCUITS OF KARNATAKA 3.3 CIRCUIT TOURISM OF BIDAR AND GULBARGA 3.4 ROLE OF TOURISM TO DEVELOP BACKWARD REGION 4 4.1 FINDINGS 4.2 CONCLUSION 5 ANNEXURE 5.1PHOTOS
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Chapter 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM
According to WTO Tourism encompasses the activities of persons travelling and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one year for leisure, business and other purposes. In general tourism is defined as a person travelling from his own residence at least 50Kms (1way) and he has to stay overnight with payable accommodation. In order to understand tourism systematically it is very important to know various components, which together make tourism, happen. There are three major components in tourism. They are 1. Transportation 2. Attraction 3. Accommodation

1. Transportation:
There can be no travel if there is no transportation. Travel involves movement of people from their origin to destination and it is possible only if there is some mode of transport. Connectivity is very important in tourism development; this could be possible only if adequate transportation infrastructure is efficient, comfortable and inexpensive. A tourist in order to get to his destination therefore needs some mode of transport. This may be a motor car, a coach, an aero plane, a ship or a train which enable a traveler to reach to a predetermined destination. In many countries tourism is developed only because of adequate major components. Especially a good transportation facility makes these countries to become a major tourist destination. The development of technology is

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caused for invention of new mode of transportation. Today a man can travel anywhere in the world with safety and also with inexpensive fare.

2. Attractions:
Attraction is yet another important major component of it may include what it offers to tourist. The holiday destination may offer natural attractions like sunshine, scenic beauty and sporting facility. Man made attractions like historical monuments, archeological sites or any type of entertainment. The destination with attractions and amenities is the most important as these are very basic for tourism. Unless these are not there the tourist will not motivated to go a particular place. However since interest and taste of tourist varies widely, they might choose from a wide range of attractions available at various destinations all over the world.

Types of attractions:
Traditions: National festivals, Arts and Handicrafts, Music, Folklore, Native life, Costumes. Cultural: Sites and areas of archeological interest, Historical Buildings, places of Historical Significance, Political and Educational institutions, Religious institutions etc Scenic: National parks, Wild life, Flora and Fauna, Beach resort, Mountain resort etc. Entertainment: Participation and visiting sports, Amusement and Recreation parks, Cinemas, Nightlife, Cruises. Other Attractions: Climate, Health Resorts and Spas.

3. Accommodation:
Accommodation plays a central role and vary basic tourist destination. WTO on its definition of tourist has stated that the tourist must spend at least one night in the

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destination visited to be qualified as a tourist. The availability of good accommodation makes a destination very popular tourist attraction. Accommodations provide hospitality and also tourist feels “Home Away From Home”. These are the three major components of tourism which motivate tourist to travel towards destinations. Along with these three major components there are various minor components which help to make tourism development at the destination. They include 1. Travel Agent. 2. Tour Operator. 3. Tourist Guide. 4. Car Rental Companies. 5. Shopping Complex.
6. Health Centers etc.

IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM IN INDIAN ECONOMY
Tourism is a powerful economic force providing employment, foreign exchange, income and tax revenue. The generators of economic impact for a city a state, a country or a destination area or visitors their expenditure and the multiplier effect. The economic impact of tourism spending is a function of numbers of domestic and international visitor’s expenditure. Because goods and service provided to tourist are really inputs to the process of providing the experience demand for them is derived from demand for tourism. Some goods and services are complimentary and their demand is interrelated in a positive fashion. Package tours have the characteristics of putting all parts and services together, so they can become complementary. Competitions occur among tours, tour operator can maximize profits by selling tour of different values and costs in order to cater who as many people as possible among demand. The number of people can be
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accommodated can be determined from the marginal cost of the tour and the marginal revenue to be derived from a given price level
a)

Employment Generation:
The WTTC (World Tour and Travel Council) estimated that employment in the travel and tourism is 8.2% of the total employment. Tourism provides both direct and indirect employment. Firms such as hotels, restaurants, airlines, cruise liners and resorts provide direct employment because their employees are in contact with the tourist and provide tourist the experiences. Employees of firms providing goods and services to the direct employment firms such as aircraft manufacturing, construction firms and restaurant suppliers create direct employment.

b)

Tourism increases tax revenue :
Tourist must pay taxes like most other people. Because they come from other regions or countries, their expenditure represent an increased tax based for the host government in addition to usual sales tax. Tourist sometimes pays taxes less direct way. Airport taxes –exit fee, custom duty, and charges applied for granting VISA, these are just few examples of commonly used methods of taxing tourist. In some countries for instance the room rate at a hotel can be different for the tourist than for resident. Apart from these special cases the actual tax collected for both tourism and residents increase because of tourism expenditure.

c) Income:
Tourism stimulates the economy of the area in which the development occurs. Most of all in popular tourism destination local community were generating income by tourist expenditure. In international tourism the rate of expenditure will be more compared to domestic tourism. Service providers to tourist like local transportation,

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linkage, accommodation, operator, entertainer, shopping complex etc. they can earn money from tourism activities.

d)

Foreign exchange earnings:
Earning of foreign exchange is one of the most major benefits of tourism. Many countries including India give preferences to tourism because of its contributions towards Foreign exchange. International tourism defines a person must stay at least 24 hours and less than one year when length of stay of an international tourist increase his expenditure generates maximum foreign exchange to any host country in any tourist destination service provided to international tourist, the service provider will charge high.

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Objective
 To know the history of Bidar and Gulbarga district.
 To know the different tourism destinations in Bidar and Gulbarga district.  To know the current situation of the monuments/destinations.  To know what type of development still do there.  To study the art, and architecture of Bidar and Gulbarga district. 

To know the important destination in Bidar and Gulbarga district.

 To study the promotional activities to develop Bidar and Gulbarga tourism destinations.
 To understand the problems related to tourism.

 To know the culture, tradition, festival, of Bidar and Gulbarga district.  To check the recent development works taken up by ASI.  To know the contribution of Bidar and Gulbarga in H.K. region tourism.
 To know the importance of Bidar and Gulbarga tourism in H.K region.

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1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The study is based on primary as well as secondary data. Primary data was collected using both qualitative as well as quantitative techniques. The following methods were used to get the data.

Primary Data
Consists of information gathered for some specific purposes and primary data is that you collect through researches, surveys, questionnaires etc. (i) Interviews: formal, informal,

(ii) Case studies: simple and intensive;

(iii) Group meetings: facilitated and non facilitated;

(iv) Observations: simple and intensive;

Secondary Data

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Secondary data consists of information that already exists somewhere having being collected for some purposes. (i) Documents related to Bidar and Gulbarga tourism. (ii) Other literatures: reports, articles and books related to Bidar, Gulbarga history and tourism. We consulted and approached several libraries to collect reports, articles, notes related to Tourism with special reference to history of Bidar and Gulbarga. These documents proved useful in understanding the position of different developmental schemes of Bidar and Gulbarga Tourism regarding implementation, alternatives, solution, etc.

1.4 Limitations.
This project is limited to the geographical area of Hyderbad- Karnataka and my research is concentrated on Bidar and Gulbarga district tourism places.

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Chapter 2

2.1 A BIRD VIEW ON H.K.A.D.B (HYDERABAD –KARNATAKA AREA DEVELOPMENT BOARD)
A. History:Since the reorganization in 1956, people of old Bombay Karnataka, Hyderabad Karnataka and other border areas were airing their voices against the extent of regional disparity between the old Mysore taluks and those that have joined the new state. Several committees and academic studies went into the regional disparity aspects in the past. Among the many, keeping in view of acute backwardness of the then Hyderabad Karnataka region, a Committee was set up under the Chairmanship of Shri Dharma singh in 1980. After some debate and consultations, Hyderabad Karnataka Area Development Board (H.K.A.D.B) came into existence following Karnataka Government Act 35 dated December 10, 1991. It was based partly on the recommendations of Shri Dharma Singh Committee and partly with the intention of developing the most backward region of the state comprising Gulbarga, Bidar, Raichur (now Koppal as another district), and Bellary districts in respect of social and economic infrastructures such as roads and bridges, health care, educational facilities, enhancing drinking water supply, providing minor irrigation, catering to animal husbandry, promoting sericulture, forestry and urban development. The HKADB

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started functioning from 10-03-1992, having its head quarters at "Abhivrudhi Bhavan, Iwan-E- Shahi Road, Gulbarga"

Vision of H.K.A.D.B -To reduce the regional imbalances in the state more
particularly to overcome the grave differences in the status of development between the district-to-district, taluk to taluk.

Mission
1. Identifying the gaps in regional development under different sectors and the backwardness of the area in general. 2. Bridge the gaps through the planning process systematically in a definite period of time, by preparing the annual plan containing programme and projects by involving the public representatives, Deputy Commissioners, Chief Executive Officers of Zilla Panchayats and other development departments for the development of Hyderabad Karnataka Area; and also to monitor and evaluate the implementation of its plan.

Constitution
The Board consists of the following members, namely;
1. Members of the Parliament, Members of State Legislative assembly and Council representing a part or whole of Hyderabad-Karnataka Area whose constituencies lie within the jurisdiction of the Board. 2. The Adhyakshas of the Zilla Parishads of Bellary, Bidar, Gulbarga, Raichur and Koppal districts.
3. Not exceeding ten persons nominated by the State Government of whom two

persons shall be from amongst the persons belonging to Scheduled Castes and one from Scheduled Tribes

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4. The Secretary of the Board M.L.A., M.P., M.L.C., Z.P. Presidents., Nominated non-Official Members Member Secretary (Official)

Area of Jurisdiction - It Covers 6 districts i.e., Bidar, Gulbarga, Raichur,
Koppal, Yadgiri and Bellary. The total number of taluks are 32 including Harpanalli of Davanagere District.

Hyderabad-Karnataka liberation day
The Hyderabad-Karnataka liberation day is celebrated by the Government of Karnataka to commemorate the liberation and subsequent integration of the districts of Bidar, Gulbarga and Raichur with Karnataka state. It is observed on 17 September every year. The architect of this liberation was Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, who liberated this region from Nizam of Hyderabad. To respect the duty of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel a statue has been installed in Timmapuri Chowk (circle) at Gulbarga, and subsequently the circle is named after him now. Now it is called as sardar patel chowk. The Hyderabad Karnataka area now has 4 districts namely Bidar, Gulbarga, Raichur and Koppal. Gulbarga is the biggest district in Karnatka at present. Recently Govt of Karnataka has announced Yadgir as a District, which is now a part of Gulbarga District. The area is most beautiful and fantastic with its rich culture and heritage. The lifestyle of the people is very simple. The food costume language that people of this region is traditional and unique. Jawar roti is one the main food of the region. This region also grows highest quantity of red gram in the entire Asia.

B. Geography
1. Bidar

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Most of north Karnataka, including Bijapur, Gulbarga and Bidar are dry areas. The summer season in Bidar starts in the first week of February and lasts until June. This is followed by southwest monsoon which continues till late September, and from September to end of January is winter. May is the hottest month with average daily maximum temperature of 38.8 °C while December is the coldest with average daily minimum of 16.4 °C, The highest temperature recorded at Bidar was 43.3 °C on May 8, 1931, and the lowest 3.9 °C on January 5, 1901. The average annual precipitation at Bidar is 847 mm with most of the rainfall received during the monsoon season. The variation in rainfall from year to year is large and the district is prone to drought.

2. Gulbarga
Gulbarga is located at 17°20′N 76°50′E17.33°N 76.83°E. It has an average elevation of 455 meters (1492 feet). The weather in Gulbarga constitutes of 3 main seasons. The summer which spans from late February to mid June. It is followed by the south west monsoon which spans from the late June to late September. It is then followed by dry winter weather until mid January. Temperatures during the different seasons are:
• • •

Summer : 40 to 45°C Monsoon: 27 to 34 °C Winter : 10 to 26 °C

3. Raichur

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The district is bounded by the Krishna River on the north and the Tungabhadra River on the south. The wedge of land between the rivers is known as the Raichur Doab, after the city of Raichur. Bijapur and Gulbarga districts lie to the north across the Krishna River. Bagalkot and Koppal districts lie to the west. Across the Tungabhadra lies Bellary District of Karnataka to the southwest and Anantapur Districtof Andhra Pradesh to the southeast. Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh state lies to the east, and includes the lower portion of the Raichur Doab.

4. Koppal
The district occupies an area of 7,190 km² and has a population of 1,196,089, which 16.58% were urban as of 2001.The Koppal district was formed after split of Raichur district

5. Bellary
Bellary is located at 15°09′N 76°56′E15.15°N 76.93°E.It has an average elevation of 445 meters (1459 ft). The summer temperatures can reach a scorching 48 degrees and the winter as low as 11 degrees.

C. Culture
Cuisine
The North Karnataka Cuisine can be primarily found in the northern districts of Karnataka, including Bidar Kalburgi, Vijapura, Bagalakote,Belagaavi, Raayachooru, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri, Koppala, and parts of Ballari.

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The wheat and jowar rottis (unleavened bread made of millet) are the popular delicacies of North Karnataka. Here, one can find a wide range of rottis like Jolada rotti, thali peet, khadak rotti and sajji rotti (bajra rotti). They are mainly served with a variety of chutneys or spicy curries. Other dishes with which these rottis are served are the yenne badanekayi, kaalu palya, soppu palya, usli (made from spicy sprouted gram) and jholka (made from channa dal flour). Dharwad Peda, Gokak Kardantu and Belgaum/Belagavi Kunda are the most popular snacks from the region.

The following are typical items in a typical vegetarian Northern Karnataka meal:
 rotti or bhakri, Rice, Saaru, Happala, kosambari

 Badane kaayi gojju/enne-gai/tumbu-gai - Stuffed and/or sauteed  Shenga/Ellu dry chutney in powder form - sometimes called Hindi (not hindi

language). kempu khaara - hot chutney paste made with/of red chillis, consumed as a condiment
 Bele palya - cooked split or whole beLe, chana, moong with greens such as

methi and spinach, or spring onion
 Raitha - salad involving yogurt, Mosaru and majjige, bennee or tuppa. Raw

Salads - of spring onion, onion, green chili, methi leaves, sometimes with oggaraNe of sasive and/or jeerige Dharwad pedha' Hubli-Dharwad is famous for its Dharwad pedha - a milk-based sweet. Meerchi and Bhaji Hubli-Dharwad is also famous for meerchi - bhaji, and girmit made by murmure its basically prepared by rice.

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ECO-HERITAGE CIRCUIT TOURISM OF HYDRABADKARNATAKA REGION Major festivals and associated traditional foods
Major festivals and associated traditional foods.
 Sankranti (January) (Festival of harvest): Madeli, Holige of gingelly seeds,

Bengal gram dhal, Ground nut; Jowar roti, Bajra roti, Bharta, Chutney powders of niger, linseed, ground nut.  Sharnbasweshwar Fair: Holige of gingelly seeds, Bengal gram dhal, Ground nut; Jowar roti, Bajra roti, Bharta, Chutney powders of niger, linseed, ground nut.  Kwaza Bandenawaz Urs: Biriyani, Raitha.
 Shivarathri (February / March) (Foods consumed after a day’s fast): Godhi

huggi, Allittu, Bengal gram usali, Moth bean usali and Holige.
 Holi (March) (Destruction of evil): Holige, Jowar wade, Pumpkin gargi (some

caste groups prepare nonvegetarian curry.
 Ugadi (April / May) (New Year of Kannadigas): Holige, Karigadabu, Vermicelli

payasam, Bevu bella, and Godhi huggi.
 Basava Jayanti (May) (Birthday of Basava): Holige, Karigadabu and mango

Shikarane.  Karahunnive (June) (Bullocks worshipped): Holige, Karigadabu, Jowar wade, Pumpkin gargi, Kodabale and mango Shikarane.  Mannettina Amavasye (June) (Clay bullocks worshipped): Karigadabu, Holige, Jowar wade, Sajjaka, Pumpkin gargi and Vermicelli payasam.
 Naga Panchami (July) (Cobras worshipped): Laddu of semolina, Bunde,

Besan, Sev, Ground nuts, Gingelly seeds, Gulladki, Puffed jowar, Kuchagadabu, Allittu, Bengal gram usali, Moth bean usali, Bajra roti and Jowar roti.

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 Ganesh Chaturthi (August) (Ganesha worshipped): Godhi huggi, Holige,

Modaka, Vermicelli payasam, Sajjaka, Jowar roti, Mesta bhaji, Curds rice, and Panchakajjaya, Karigadabu, and Gudagana huggi.
 Dasara/

Mahanavami (September) (Durga puja): Holige, Karigadabu,

Sajjakada holige, Sajjaka, Durga puja Taraga, Foxtail millet holige, Karachikayi, Pumpkin gargi and Jowar wade.  Shigehunnive (October) (Farmer’s festival; Worship of standing crop): Foxtail millet holige, Chakli, Akki huggi, Kodabale, Holige, Karigadabu, Undigadabu, Kuchchida khara, Bhaji of capsicum, cluster beans, pumpkin; Chutney powders of niger, linseed, ground nut (some communities prepare nonvegetarian curry)
 Diwali (October) (Lakshmi puja): Holige, Karigadabu, Karachikayi, Laddu of

semolina, Besan and Sajjakada holige.

2.2 TYPES OF TOURISM RESOURCES IN BIDAR AND GULBARGA DISTRICT.
1. Heritage tourism
The National Trust defines cultural heritage tourism as traveling to experience the places, artifacts and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present. It includes cultural, historic and natural resources.

2. Eco-tourism
Among the types of tourism in India, ecotourism have grown recently. Ecotourism entails the sustainable preservation of a naturally endowed area or region. This is becoming more and more significant for the ecological
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development of all regions that have tourist value. For ecotourism in India, tourists can go to places such as Kaziranga National Park, Gir National Park, and Kanha National Park.
3.

Pilgrimage Tourism
India is famous for its temples and that is the reason that among the different Kinds of tourism in India, pilgrimage tourism is increasing most rapidly. The Various places for tourists to visit in India for pilgrimage are Vaishno Devi, Golden Temple, Char Dham, and Mathura Vrindavan.

Heritage sites  Gavan Madarsa.  Bidar Fort.

Basvakalyan Fort.

 Jalsangi.  Kalgi suryanarayana temple.
 

Malkhed Fort. Shirval.

 Narayanpur. Eco-Tourism  Bonal Tank Bird Sanctuary.  Dev Deva Vana

Narayanpur Dam

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Pilgrimage Sites  Guru nanaka jhara  Narasimha Jharani.  Aravin Mane.  Anubhava Mantap.  Akkamahadevi Cave.  Naagavi temple.  Chandralambika temple.  Venugopalswamy temple.  Sharanabasaveshwara temple.  Khaja Banda Nawaz Darga.  Dattatreya Temple.  Triveni Sangam.

2.3 BACKGROUND HISTORY OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN GULBARGA AND BIDAR DISTRICT
In record history, there have been instances whereby one is able to know that man has been traveling throughout the ages. From the very early historical period, travel has had a fascination for humankind. Much of the travel in the beginning was largely unconscious and a simple affair. People travelled by foot over paths, open fields as also forests. Movement across the landscape was a tough adventure requiring great skills and endurance. There were no travel

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procedures and formalities as there were no frontiers. All human activities focused on day-to-day survival. Hyderabad Karnataka has a very rich history. It dates back to the pre-historic period. Civilizations of that era were believed to have existed at a few places. Archeologically important locations like Sannati, Kanaganahalli in Gulbarga district have thrown more light on Buddhist centers of the 1st. c. BCE.3rd c. CE era. The first ever statue of Emperor Asoka with his queens and a Prakrit inscription Rayo Asoka (ASI) has been found. The travel history of HyderabadKarnataka traces from Indus valley and Vedic civilization as we are all know that the Indus valley people were travelled other parts of the word we have enough evidences that Hyderabad- Karnataka region having connection With Indus valley civilization which shows that the travel activities e during this period. In the 3rd century B.C Hyderabad- Karnataka parts were ruled by the Maurya’s specially Ashoka the great because during his period he constructed many dharmshalas, drinking water facilities, to the tourists which today we are concerning basic amenities for tourism already existed in that period but it was unstructured and traveling activities associated with religious, business purposes . Recorded history of this district dates back to the Mauryans and the Shatavahanas, and in the 6th century AD, the Chalukyas of Badami ruled over this territory. The Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Kalachuris, the Yadavas of Devgiri and the Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra ruled over the district till the 12th century. About the same period, they Kakatiyas of Warangal came into prominence and the present region formed a part of their domain. The Kakatiyas were subdued in 1321 AD and the district was passed under the control of the Muslim emperors of Delhi. Hassan Gangu made Gulbarga the capital of the Bahamani Kingdom in 1347 AD. Later, the Kingdom broke up into five independent sultanates and parts of the present region were brought under Bidar and Bijapur sultanates. Rashtrakuta monuments at Lokapura, Bilgi and Kuknur and Kalyani Chalukyas monuments built in Gadag style of architecture at Lakkundi, Gadag, Itagi (in Koppal District) and the Vijayanagara empire temples at Hampi are some examples. Hampi in Bellary District has ruins spread over an area of 36 km. with some fiftyfour world heritage monuments and six hundred and fifty national monuments (ASI). An additional three hundred monuments await protection. Aurangzeb in 17th century brought the areas back to Mughal control. Asif Jha, a General of Aurangzeb formed the Hyderabad state in which a major portion of the Hyderabad Karnataka was included. In 1948, the Hyderabad State became a part of the Indian Union. As a result of the reorganization of the states on linguistic grounds in 1956, the Gulbarga district was integrated with the erstwhile Mysore State, presently Karnataka.

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ECO-HERITAGE CIRCUIT TOURISM OF HYDRABADKARNATAKA REGION 2.4 MAIN ATTRACTIONS OF GULBARGA DISTRICT
The glorious past of Gulbarga has ensured that the present and subsequent generations have plenty of historical and cultural heritages to be proud of. The fascinating monuments and heritage sites in the city stand quietly today to retell their story of joy, sorrow, courage and sacrifice before you. Each of the stories is so enchanting and singular that you will be left asking for more at the end of the each narration. As one turns the pages of history, the rich heritage of Gulbarga comes alive with all its fragrance and colour which are still breathing in the heritage forts, mosques, temples and monuments fringed in each and every corner this multi facet city of Gulbarga. The splendid architecture, minutely carved sculptures, embellished facades of the heritage monuments narrates the immense skill of the craftsmen of the yore which have been fascinating the world for many centuries. The number of important monuments in Gulbarga is so great that a single tour to discover the multifarious facets of its wonderful heritage is not enough. Nevertheless it will give you an admirable glimpse into the Gulbarga’s rich history and heritage. At the end of your trip, you will surely develop a huge respect for the Gulbarga’s heritage while carving for more such tour in the near future. Gulbarga the melting pot of culture where one can see the unique cultural diversity and rich historical monuments if you want to trace the history of Gulbarga than you have to go to the bygone era of Neolithic and Mesolithic ages (sites like Sannati is the best example). Dynasties like Maurya, Shatavahana, Rashtrakuta’s, Kalachuri’s, Chalukya’s of Kalyana, Bahamani ruled Gulbarga and philosophers and saints like Lord Sharnabasaveshwara, Khaja Bande Nawaz, and Siddappaji enriched the culture and tradition of Gulbarga.

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Heritage is the concept that should be passed one generation to other. The heritage places like Sharanabasaweshwar temple, Gulbarga fort, Haft Gumbaz, Shor Gumbaz, Kanchin Mahal, Do-Minar, K.B.N Dargah, Buddha vihar etc. signifies the past glory of Gulbarga. So let’s begin our journey to know about the precious heritage of Gulbarga

 Lord Sharanabasaweshwar Temple
Sharnabasaweshwar a native of Aralagundagi in Jewargi Taluk, came propagating Virashaivisim and stayed in Gulbarga. He made it his area of activity and having devoted himself to the three types of Dasohas, he passed away here. A tower was later raised for the sacred tomb of Sharanabasaweshwara and this is now called the Sharanabasaweshwara temple. Adi Doddappa Sharan had become the beloved disciple of Sharanabasaweshwar in Karburgi (Gulbarga) and stood by him. Their joint effort resulted in founding the Sharanabasaweshwar Mahadasoha Peetha. After Sharanabasaweshwar, Adi Doddappa Sharana (1822-46) remained on the holy throne for 24years. Though he took up the project of constructing a tower over Sharanabasaweshwara’s sacred tomb on the model of the tower over the Siddarameshwara’s tomb in Sholapur, it could be completed only during the time of Sharana Basavappa Appa II (1846 – 71). Though the temple assumed its present form during 1912-15 in time of Dodda basappa Appa VII, the lower two tiers of its superstructure and miniature mortar sculptures over the low wall of the upper storey were added in 1977. The Sharanabasaweshwara temple built incorporating the Samadhi of Lord Sharanabasaweshwara is an excellent piece of architecture of the 20 th century. In the Garbagriha containing the Samadhi of Sharanabasaweshwara, on the Gudduge a pair of images of Sharanabasaweshwar and his preceptor with gold faces are installed to indicate symbolically the inseparable relationship of the preceptor and his disciple. This is the central spot for work ship by devotees today. Incorporating this are a large sabhamandapa and a pradakshinapatha. The sabhamandapa, which is constructed by using pilasters, independent pillars, pillar-pairs and 36 arches, is very

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attractive and its pillars are decorated with peacock, garuda, naga, parrot, elephant, lion, flowers and creepers. Its ceiling is distinctive. In front the garbagriha they are splendid sculptures carved out of granite marbles which depicts the life story of Lord Sharanabasaweshwara. The sculptures are installed by Poojya Dr. Sharanabasavappa appa. The sabhamandapa may be entered from three sides. The pranala of the garbagriha is noteworthy for being in form of cow feeding its young. The superstructure includes small stucco figures of various divinities, while on the parapet wall stucco sculptures representing the miraculous deeds of Sharanabasaweshwara. Of these the elephant carrying howdah on their back depicted at the corners of the superstructures are excellent. In front of this temple are six gadduges of Adi Doddappa Sharana and others who were successors of Sharanabasaweshwar for Mahadasoha Peetha. The east-facing building of the Sharanabasaweshwara Mahasamstana standing to the left of the temple is old temple and it was here that Sharanabasaweshwara performed dasoha after coming over to Kalburgi. This has a beautiful shrine where perpetual lamp burns. The Makara – Sankranti and Vijaya- Dasami festivals are specially celebrated in the Sharanabasaweshwar peetha for promoting social and religious amity among the people. On the middle Monday of the month Sharavana, people participate in thousands in the palanquin festival of Sharanabasaweshwara. The Sharanabasaweshwara Mahadasoha fair also takes place for fifteen days commencing from Chaitra Bahula Panchami. A cattle fair also takes place on that occasion. Mahatma Gandhiji had visited the Temple when he was in Gulbarga in around 1927. During the freedom movement the Sharanabasaweshwara Mahadasoha peetha had played an important role. The Sharanabasaweshwara Mahadasoha peetha is presently also engaged in Jnanadasoha (spreading education) through the institution called “Sharanabasaweshwara Vidya Varshak Samsthe”.

Khwaja Bande Nawaz Dargah
Syed Muhammas Hussain commonly known as Hazrat Khwaja Banda Nawaz

Gesu Daraz (July 13, 1321 – November 1, 1422), was a famous Sufi saint from India of

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Chishti Order, who advocated understanding, tolerance and harmony among various religious groups. Syed Mohammed Hussaini was born in Delhi in 1321. At the age of four his family shifted to Daulatabad in Deccan (Now in Maharashtra). In 1397, he went to Gulbarga, Deccan (Presently in Karnataka) at the invitation of Sultan Taj ud-Din Firoz Shah of the Bahamani Sultanate. Bande Nawaz authored about 195 books in Arabic, Persian and Urdu languages. At the age of 15, he returned to Delhi for his education and training by the famous Sufi saint Hazrat Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi, who bestowed him with his Khilafath and succession after about fifteen years. He was also a very enthusiastic student of Hazrat Kethli, Hazrat Tajuddin Bahadur and Qazi Abdul Muqtadir. After teaching at various places such as Delhi, Mewath, Gwalior, Chander, Aircha, Chatra, Chanderi, Miandhar, Baroda, Khambayat and Gulbarga in 1397 and died in Gulbarga in the year 1422 in November. His name as well as patronymic was Abul-fatah and Gesu Daraz his title. Among the scholars and theologians, he was Sheik Abul-fatah Sadr Uddin Muhammad Dehlavi but people called him Khwaja Bande Nawaz Gesu-Daraz.

Parentage
He was the descendant of Hazrat Ali (Karam Allahu Wajhu). His forefathers resided in Hirat. One of them came to Delhi and settled down here. Hazrat Sheikh Muhammad (RA) was born here on 4, Rajab, 721 Hijri. His father Hazrat Syed Yousaf or Shah Raju Quatal (RA) was holy figure and devoted to Hazrat Nizam Uddin Aulia (RA). Sultan Muhammad – Bin Tughlaq once transferred his capital to Daulatabad (Devgiri) and along with him went many scholars, theologians, and mystics. His parents also migrated to the place. He was four years at that time Malik-ul-Umar Hazrat Syed Ibrahim Mustafa, his maternal uncle, was the governor of Daulatabad.

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Childhood and Early Education
From the very beginning, his father put him on the right track i.e. to learn and to study and gave him his early education. From his childhood, he was inclined towards Religion and spent time in meditation and prayer. He was ten when his father died and his maternal grand father assumed the responsibility of his education and training and taught him initial books but he took lessons on "Misbah" and "Qadoori" from another teacher.

Again in Delhi
On the expiry of his father, his mother grew angry with her brother, and returned to Delhi. He was fifteen at the time. He had heard a lot about Hazrat Nizam Uddin Auliya and Hazrat Nasir Uddin Roshan Chiragh Dehlavi from his father and maternal grandfather and grew devoted to them. One day he went to say his prayer in the Jama-Majid of Sultan Qutub Uddin, there he saw Hazrat Sheikh Nasir Uddin Mahmud Chiragh Dehlavi and pledged Obedience to him on 16, Rajab. Completion of Outer and intrinsic studies. Under the guidance of Hazrat Nasir Uddin Chiragh Dehlavi he engaged himself in prayers and meditation and so much enjoyed, them that lie forbade studies and requested his teacher to allow him to do so. Hazrat Nasir Uddin strictly denied him permission and instructed him to study with attention Usool-e-Bizoori, Risals Shamsia, Kashaf, and Misbah so he restarted the studies under the guidance of renowned teachers. Maulana Syed Sheriff Uddin Kaithli, Maulana Taj Uddin Muqaddam and Maulana Qazi Abdul Muqtadir and qualified for the degree at the age of nineteen.

Books
He was a great scholar on material as well as spiritual subjects. He left many books. It is said, he was the first writer of a magazine on mysticism in Urdu. He wrote so many books on Persian and Arabic. Some of them are: Tafseer (Commentary)-e-Qu'Orane-e-Majeed. Multaqit.

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Havashi Kashaf. Shairah-e-Mashareq. Shairah Fiqah-e-Akbar. Shairah Adab-Ul-Murideen. Shairah Ta-arruf. Risala Sirat-Ul-Nabi. Tarjuma Mashareq. Ma-Arif. Tarjuma Awarif. Sharah Fasoosul Hukm. Tarjuma Risala Qerya, Hawa Asahi Quwwat-Ul-Qalb, etc.

Heritage Site of Dargah
At the age of 80 Khwaja Bande Nawaz comes to Gulbarga and stayed more than 22 years after the 2 year of the demise, the construction of Dargah was started and it was completed during the period of Ahmed Shah Waliya (1422-36) the construction of Dargah took nearly seven years. In the Dargah complex, some big and small tombs were looks like architectural jewels of Bahamani period. Though of great dimension, the simple walls of this Dargah are decorated with sentences of Quran painted in Gold. The painting on its wall and domes are in Turkistani and Iranian style and the saints corporeal remains are preserved in the Dargah. Besides this is located Dargah of the saint’s son. In the library located nearby there are about 10,000 books on history, philosophy, religion etc, in Urdu, Persian and Arabic languages. Nearby it, are Mosque,

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the Sarai and the college established in 1687 by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The annual Urs in memory of saint takes place.

Urs
People from various walks of life, irrespective of caste and creed, assemble even today to celebrate the Urs - death anniversary - (which takes place on the 15, 16 and 17 day of Zul-Qa`dah of Muslim calendar at the famous Bande Nawaz Dargah in Gulbarga every year. His descendents still live in Gulbarga. Almost all family members along with several hundred thousand devotees from near and far irrespective of religion and beliefs gather to seek blessings. The present head of the family amongst his descendents is Dr. Syed Shah Mohammed Gesu Daraz Khusro Al Hussaini, who has written many books about his great forefather.

 Haft Gumbaz
Haft Gumbaz or Seven Domes is a mausoleum of the Bahamani Dynasty and is located in Gulbarga, Karnataka. Situated on the eastern outskirts of Gulbarga, this magnificent tomb extends from east to west. The tombs include that of Mujahid Shah, Daud shah, Ghiyath al Din Shah and Shams al Din Shah. This mausoleum of the Bahamani royal family situated on the eastern outskirts of Gulbarga and it extends from east to west. From the west, Mujahid Shah (3rd Bahamani Sultan/ 1375-78), and Daud Shah (4th B.S./1378). To the northeast of these are Ghiyath al Din Shah (6 th B.S./1397), and Shams al Din Shah (7th B.S. / 1397). To the southeast of these is Firuz Shah (8 th B.S.1397-1422), and to the south and northeast there are some anonymous tombs.

A) TOMB OF DAUD SHAH
Tombs of seven rulers after the middle period of the Bahamani Dynasty were built in the outskirts of Gulbarga, separated from the tombs of two predecessors. From the number of tombs, this place has been called "Haft Gumbaz" or "Seven Domed Architecture". On the south side of a narrow road, there are nine tombs including two,

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which are anonymous. This tomb of the 3rd sultan (1375-78) remains at the west end of the tombs in this area. The tomb is built on a low but a large basement, crowned by a dome and having 3 arch-shaped entrances in different sizes on each wall except the west and the north. It is a tomb with considerable dignity, built on a Bahamani style square plan.

B) TOMB OF MUJAHID SHAH
This tomb of the 4th sultan, who was in reign for less than one year in 1378, remains on the east side of the above tomb. This is one of the examples of a special feature of rectangular tombs built in Haft Gumbaz, having two connected square buildings on the same basement. Probably because he was a minor sultan, his tomb is smaller in scale compared to the above tomb of the 8th sultan.

c) TOMBS OF SHAMS AL-DIN & GIYATH AL-DIN Tomb of Shams al-Din
  This tomb is built as if it is connected with the tomb of Ghiyath al-Din, sharing the same basement and two tombs show various similarities. However, the gentle inclination of the walls is more prominent in this tomb. Like the above tomb, it shows significant influence from buildings in the Delhi Tughlaq period. This young puppet sultan, Shams al-Din was also forced to step down from the throne due to an internal strife. After he was made blind, he was allowed to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca, but he died there.

Tomb of Ghiyath al-Din
  It is a domed tomb built on a square plan on a low basement. It has a battlement

at the edge and small towers at the four corners of the roof. On the same basement on the east side, there is tomb of his son Shams al-Din Bahamani built with nearly the

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same style. Ghiyath al-Din became the 6th sultan in 1397 but he was in power for only 1 month and 26 days. He was made blind and forced to step down from the throne. At the double-arched entrance, there is a screen of Jali; despite of his tragic life, his tomb looks more splendid than tombs of the other sultans.

D) TOMB OF FIROZ SHAH BAIHMANI
The masterpiece of the series is the tomb of Taj-Uddin Firuz. Monumentally conceived and elaborately ornamented, it is a thoroughly developed composition with geometric patterns in pierced masonry, bands of lotus and arabesques and temple-like brackets supporting the angled eaves. His younger brother Ahmad Khan divested Firuz, who became sultan succeeding Shams al-Din in 1397, of his throne just before his death. In the history of Bahamani power, he can be seen as the last ruler in Gulbarga. In fact, his tomb looks most majestic among all tombs built in Haft Gumbaz, as if to reflect his position. This tomb, built in Tughlaq style with two domes, is not two independent buildings adjacent to each other, unlike the tombs of his predecessors in two generations. It is a single building of extended walls, like the one of his predecessors, Sultan Daud Shah, back three generations. This rectangular building has a total of 6 openings, two on the north and south sides and one in the east and west sides. The walls are divided into two tiers in all directions. All arch-shaped niches in the upper part form openwork windows. The lower part of the walls, having a double-arch-shaped entrance surrounded by windows of Jali screen, also has double-arch-shaped niches like the upper part. This tomb having 60 arches in its outer wall which is dived into two distinctive parts 30 small arches on the upper side of the outer wall and 30 big arches on lower side of the outer walls and inside there are 12 arches at the both corners of the arches one can find the stone pillars just like in the temples even that can be seen in the entrance door also, inside arches are decorated like Torana in the temples (except 1 st right and left side arches which having windows on the top). The south entrance, seeming to be the front, has a prominent structure and decorations. The arch-shaped entrances and the upper part of the niches are decorated with a circular pattern, giving dignity to this building. The
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mihrab in the west side, lines of arch-shaped niches and squinches inside of the tomb chamber show a more complex form and display more excellence than other mausoleums in this region. It is assumed to have been built in 1422.

SHOR GUMBAZ
It is a majestic tomb remaining in the north side of the old fort city, and is said to

have been built in 1420 for a famous Sufi saint of this area named Bande Nawaz Gesu Daraz. However, it is said that this tomb was not actually used. The four walls are divided into two tiers, and on each wall there are arch-shaped entrances and windows at the centre and two arch-shaped niches with circular patterns at the upper part in right and left: it is a grand exterior. Small kiosk-like architecture at the four corners of the roof surrounding dome has an interesting structure, possessing an entrance with a stair. What is more remarkable is the squinch seen inside and the double lines of lotus petals under the ceiling, and small arch-shaped niches forming a small line above the lotus petals. This unique decoration is not seen in any other buildings.

 Massive fort of Gulbarga
Today massive fort of Gulbarga is the prominent attraction for the tourist who visits Gulbarga they don’t want to miss the treasure trove of this region, Lakkanna Dandesha the Prime Minister of Prouda Devaraya was staying here and made Gulbarga as an important provincial headquarter. The fabulous fort, occupying an area of 200 acres of land & 3 k.m consist of the two round fortifications. The outer wall is of lesser height while the inner wall is of greater height; there is a 30 feet deep moat around. The fort carries tene at regular intervals & has 15 bastions with sum of 26 guns, one of cannons is about 25 feet long, and Arabic and Persian words were carved on the stone in the premises. Where at the principal entrance to the fort is located a well called Kamana Bavi, inside the fort is an elevated ‘Ranamandal’ a huge structure situated in the center of the fort used for cannons firing position, Ranamandal consists of well equipped three cannons. There is a flight of steps in Ranamandal with arched doors and small arches were located in the premises. Inside the fort Horse and elephant

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stables and other small structure can seen. There is an opinion that in the architecture of Gulbarga fort there is deep influence of west Asia & European Military Architecture.

 Jumma Masjid.
Though the palace & other structures inside the fort are now laid to ground, the splendid, Jumma Masjid, which is still in well preserved condition, is noteworthy, built & completed in 1367 by Rafi, an architect hailing from Kwajwin province of Iran, During the period of Mohammad I. This Masjid is one among the oldest mosque in south India. Jumma Masjid was built in an area of 40,000 sq.feet & it is a testimony for artistic temperament, which still surviving in Gulbarga’s fort this distinctive mosque has a length of 216 feet (east-west)& a width of 176 feet (north-south), this is only one mosque is located in India which neither the open courtyard nor hauz fund in a traditional mosque is noticed in this supported on 140 pillars, this mosque has 250 arches & five large domes of which the central dome is 63 feet in diameter, domes on the top it seems like a collection of huge pots. The style of architecture was showing influence of Persian with stilted domes & narrow doors. Its interior surface is decorated with flowers & creepers. There are 63 smaller domes also. The impact of Persian architecture tradition in this monument. Inside the mosque on the 2nd, 8th and 9th rows arched line on the dome they carved small windows for the ventilation purpose by that light spread mosque. The plan of the mosque resembles the famous mosque of Cordova city of Spain. Amazing arched lines shows architectural splendor one can get wonderful experience by standing the corner of the mosque he will be visible till who stands at other corner of the arched line. Inside the fort there is a Vishnu Temple but the statue of Vishnu is missing here. The temple is in the ruined condition only pillars can be seen still today. Two more temples can be seen in the fort, which is also in the ruined condition. The Swyamprabu temple which is situated in eastern side of the fort. There is little opinion that this temple was built during the period of Lakkanna Dandesha and the temple also built in the 14th

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century. The temple pillars carvings which still survive and the same carvings we can see in Jalasangi temple, which is situated few K.M away from Humana bad taluk. The Gulbarga fort contains large buildings, temples, stables, ammunition go downs, carriage and several beautiful courtyards. The fort and the buildings in the fort, have been recognized as national monuments by A.S.I, and are guided by Ancient Monuments & Archaeology Remains Act 1958 (24oct1958). The fort is repaired by the A.S.I; Gulbarga Urban Development Authority has stated that land will be identified where the families of the encroachers will be shifted. Over 150 families are currently encroaching the fort and they have been quite successful in destroying the historical monument. Whatever little is left of the fort, will also be totally destroyed it some measure is not taken immediately.

 Tomb of Hasan Bhaman Shah
The tombs west of the fort stand in the fields a short distance beyond the west gate of the citadel. Those of Ala- ud-din Hasan Bahaman Shah built in 1358. It means it was built before the death of the Hasan Bahaman Shah the constriction of the tomb is very simple in plan the tomb was raised on the rectangular basement and walls are very thick in size small shaped domes are very attractive. The domes was designed like umbrella by Turkish architects they built this tomb beautifully and Muhammad – I (1375) and Muhammad-II (1397) are typical of the series with square domed chambers, sloping walls, flattish domes and corner finales’ derived from Tughluq models.

 Do-minar
Dominar is situated in Shah Bazaar; the minar is the gate way of Sheik rouza Darga which is dedicated to Hazarat Shiek Zunaidi. The life story of Hazarat Sheik Zunaidi start from 1271 he was born in Peshawar. He came with Muhammad- bintughluk towards Deccan regions. For some sort information that he suggested to take Islam to King Pratap Uday and he succeeded.

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He came to Gulbarga in 30th may 1330 he was stayed in Bijapur and during the period of Muhammad All Wali he came to Gulbarga and he became court saint for the carnation of Sultan’s. Hazarth Sheik Zunaidi died in 1381 at the age of hundred and eleven year. The place of the holy tomb kept becomes the Famous Darga called Sheik Rouza. This beautiful monument built in the style of Bijapur architecture style which consist massive entrance with two minars. This Darga was famous in 15 th century the Darga was constructed by Yusuf adil shah.

 St. Mary’s Church
This church is located in the heart of the city at S.B. Temple Road Gulbarga, Dedicated to St. Mary the mother of Lord Jesus. It has been said that the Jesus was not born with Wedlock but with Holy Spirit. The church was built in the year 1965. A group of Christian community people used to live in that area and they built the Church. This church is a Roman Catholic Church which comes under Pope Benedict XVI. The Church institution is headed by the Bishop, who controls the 4 districts of north Karnataka (Gulbarga, Bidar, Raichur and Bijapur) and local head is Parish Priest. The important festivals celebrated here are Christmas, Yester and Good Friday with same rituals performed all around the world.

 Gulbarga Museum or Government Museum
Government Museum established in the year 1964, where the states Archeological Department have kept the antiquities of Gulbarga and it surroundings. It is the place where the rare collections of sculptures, manuscripts, inscriptions etc. have been preserved. The museum building seems to be having been empty Gumbaz before, now they have been converted into museum. It was built in Tughlaq style of architecture. The collections include small cannon guns, chair, cupboard and china wares (Cups, Plates, vessels, Teapots etc.) used by Meadows Taylor, Copper and Brass utensils of 18th century, swords, armors, iron balls etc. We can also find the sculptures

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and hero stones of Mauryan’s, Chalukya’s, Rashtrakuta’s, and Vijayanagara’s and also of Hoysala period. Apart from these they have also preserved the Palm leaves manuscripts of around 17th century written by Siddeshwara Prabhu, Channa Basava and Kalidasa’s Kalmiki manuscripts. Going back to Old age one can also find the Terracotta figures, pottery pieces, stone hand axe and arrows of the 8th century.

Chapter 3 3.1 Concept of Circuit Tourism

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ECO-HERITAGE CIRCUIT TOURISM OF HYDRABADKARNATAKA REGION Circuit Tourism Definition:A tourist Circuit is defined as a route on which at least three major tourist destinations are located such that none of these are in the same town, village or city. At the same time, they are not separated by a large distance such that a tourist would not like to cover them in a sequence. It should have well defined entry and exist points. A tourist who enters at the entry point should get motivated to visit all the places identified on the circuit. The objective of having a tourist circuit is to increase the total number of visits to all the destinations on the circuit on one hand and to provide to the tourist the attraction of all the destinations located on the circuit.

3.2 Circuit Tourism in Karnataka Heli -Tourism Circuit:
Introduction
The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India; in association with the Department of Civil Aviation has taken active measures to develop heli-tourism across the country and in pursuance of this, during the National Seminar on Helicopter Tourism held in October 2008 earmarked the year2008 as the year for ‘Helicopter Tourism’. The Department of Tourism, Government of Karnataka has been instrumental in promoting Karnataka as the premiere tourist destination in the country and in bringing Karnataka on the World Tourism Map. In continuation of these efforts, Department Of Tourism has initiated the development of air-borne tourism in the State in the form of Heli-tourism. One State, Many Worlds’, the caption of Karnataka Tourism, Government of Karnataka says all about the diverse offerings that the State has in the domain of tourism in the Country. Inspire of the conducive physical features and connectivity within Karnataka, Department Of Tourism, and Government of Karnataka is desirous of developing heli-tourism in order to give tourism a new dimension to offer travel as exciting as the destination itself. Karnataka has a huge number of tourist inflow which is increasing at a steady rate year on year. In 2006, Karnataka accounted for7.84 percent
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of the total domestic tourist arrivals and4.83 percent of total foreign tourist arrival in the country. Amongst the foreign tourists, Mysore is the most sought after destination followed by Hampi. In fact, a large number of foreign tourists who visited India also visited Mysore. It was ranked 4th and 8th respectively among all the States with respect to the number of domestic and international tourist arrivals in the country for the same year. There has also been steady increase in the number of tourist inflow to the State every year and development of heli-tourism in the State would propel the inflow of tourist to the State in the years to come.

Heli-Tourism Circuits
 Coastal circuit

It takes the tourist through the beautiful coastlines, Beaches, estuaries, lagoons, dunes, islands and Backwaters in Karnataka. Mangalore- Kaup- Udupi-Kundapur- Kollur- Gokarna-Karwar
 Heritage circuit

Includes the ancient ruins and magnificent monuments, That has witnessed the evolution of the State. Hampi- Badami- Pattadakal-Aihole- Bijapur
 Malnad-circuit

The exotic Western Ghats in itself is a paradise to explore in the State with its serene valleys, gorges, waterfalls and trails of trekking within the dense jungles. Shimoga- Chikamagalur-Coorg- Hassan  Pilgrimage Circuit The coastal belt which extends towards the Ghats is an abode of various pilgrim destinations which is visited by tourists across the world. GokarnaMurudeshwar-KollurUdupiKarkal-Dhramasthala KukkeSubramanya- Sringeri-Hornadu.

Karnataka to launch 'golf tourism' circuit
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The state-owned Karnataka State Tourism Development Corporation (KSTDC), in an effort to attract high-end travelers from India and abroad, is developing ‘golf tourism’ packages. It intends to launch a new tourism circuit for avid golfers in the next couple of months. For a start, the corporation will promote Bangalore, Mysore, Belgaum, Chikmagalur and Madikeri as preferred golf tourism destinations.

 Golden Chariot Circuit in Karnataka
Welcome aboard a fascinating journey through the many worlds of Karnataka. Embark on a luxurious voyage of discovery through the Cradle of Stone Architecture. The Golden Chariot - Pride of The South train named after the famous Stone Chariot in Hampi, a world heritage site, in Southern India will travel through timeless Historical Heritage Sites, Resplendent Palaces, Wildlife and Golden Beaches. It’s 7 Nights / 8 Days colorful journey begins every Monday from Bangalore and traverses through Mysore, visiting Srirangapatna, Mysore Palace; the Nagarhole National Park (Kabini) and continuing to the historical sites of Shravanabelagola, Belur-the 11th century cradle of Hoysala architecture and a world heritage site, Halebidu, Hampi and thereafter entering into the triangular heritage site of Badami, Pattadakal, Aihole, and finally the Golden Beaches of Goa before ending in Bangalore

Golden Chariot Circuit

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3.3 Circuit Tourism of Gulbarga and Bidar District
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Itinerary
Form Bidar Bidar Narayanpur To Local Narayanpur Basavakalya n Humnabad Jalsangi Humnabad Kalgi Malkhed Chittapur Sannati Shirval Shahapur Shorapur Bonal Mudnoor Gulbarga Ghangapur Gulbarga Distance Approximat e time To travel 15 km 45km 03km 1 hour 45 min 05 min Tourist places To see 4 hour 30 min 30 min Gavan Madarsa, Bidar Fort, Nanaka Jhara,Dev Dev vana Hooysala temple Aravin Mane, Anubhava Mantapa, Akkamahadevi cave, Basavakalyan Fort Chalakapur(sanjeevi ni hill) Darpana sundari Suryanarayana temple Malkhed Fort Naagavi Temple Chandralambika Temple Vastu shilpa Arts Sleeping Buddha Venugopalswamy Temple Bonal Tank Bird Sanctuary Jedar Dasimayya Pushkarni Sharanabasaveshwar a Temple, Khaja Banda Nawaz Darga Dattatreya Temple, Triveni Sangam

Basavakalya n Humnabad Jalasangi Humnabad Kalgi Malkhed Chittapur Sannati Shirval Shahapur Shorapur Bonal Mudnoor Gulbarga Ghangapur

75km 10km 15km 80km 40km 30km 50km

2 hour 15 min 20 min 1.1/2 hour 1 hour 30 min 1 hour

30 min 30 min 30 min 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 1hour 30 min

15km 30km 10km 30km 120km 50km 50km

20 min 30 min 15 min 40 min 2 hour 1 hour 1 hour

1 hour Stay/Back

 Bidar
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Bidar is a walled fortress town lying 673 metres above sea level on a red laterite plateau in northern part of the Indian state of Karnataka. Although only a small regional centre today, it was once a flourishing capital of two major Sultanates of the Deccan – the Bahmanis and the Barid Shahis. The ninth ruler of the Bahmani kingdom, Ahmad Shah I, shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1424. He rebuilt the old Hindu fort to withstand cannon attacks, and laid out beautiful palaces and gardens. As the Bahmani capital declined, the Barid Shahi family took over the reins of the state from 1487. They continued to hold power till 1619, when Bidar was annexed to Bijapur. The town and the surrounding area fell to Aurangzeb in 1656. The Asaf Jahi dynasty, founded by Nizamul-Mulk took over Bidar. It continued as part of Hyderabad state till 1956, when it became part of the expanded state of Mysore, later named Karnataka. Although Bidar’s period of glory lasted for less than 200 years, it still attracts travellers with its haunting beauty, modesty and lack of pretension as well as old-world charm. It lies a little over 100 kilometres to the northwest of Hyderabad, and about 25 kilometres north of Mumbai-Hyderabad national highway.

 Nanak Jhira
The famous Nanak Jhera - the largest Sikh temple atleast in Karnataka, carries the tale that Guru Nanak - the first guru of the Sikhs visited this place and got rid of the scarcity of drinking water in the region. A popular spot is the Sikh temple, Guru Nanak Jhera, where fresh crystal clear spring water appears from nowhere.During his second 'Udasi' (missionary tour) of South India, Guru Nanak after sojourning through Nagpur and Khandwa visited the ancient Hindu Temple of Om Kareswar on the Narbada and reached Nanded (where 200 years later Guru Gobind Singh spent his last days). From Nanded he proceeded towards Hyderabad and Golkonda where he met Muslim saints and then came to Bidar to meet Pir Jalaluddin and Yakoob Ali. Origin

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The Guru accompanied by his companion Mardana stayed in the outskirts of the Bidar town where 'Nanak Jhira' Gurdwara is now located. Nearby were huts of Muslim fakirs, who took keen interest in the sermons and teachings of the great Guru. The news soon spread throughout Bidar and its surrounding areas about the holy Saint of the North and large number of people started coming to him to have his "Darshan" and seek his blessings. There used to be acute shortage of drinking water in Bidar. All efforts of the people to dig wells were of no avail. Even when wells produced water the water was found to be unfit for drinking. The Guru was greatly moved by the miserable condition of the people. With divine name on his lips and the mercy in his heart he touched the hillside with his toe and removed some rubble from the place. To the utter surprise of all, a fountain of sweet, cool water gushed out of the hillside. The place soon came to be known as 'Nanak-Jhira'. A beautiful Gurdwara has now been constructed by the side of the fountain. The water of the fountain is collected in a small 'Amrit-Khud' built in white marble. There is a free kitchen (guru ka langar) where free food is given to pilgrims 24 hours night and day. A Sikh museum has been built in the memory of Guru Tegh Bahadur, depicting the important events of Sikh history through pictures and paintings. The birthday of Guru Nanak and the Hola Mohalla festival attract large numbers of devotees from all over India. At the spot where the spring originated, the management had an Amrit Kund built with the contributions of devotees. With the water channeled into a sarovar close by, the devotees now take dips in the sacred water, which is thought to cure several ailments. The management of Gurdwara Sri Nanak Jhira Sahib now runs a free hospital, an engineering college, a Polytechnic, a college and two schools, one of them being in Hyderabad.

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About 4 to 5 lakh (half a million) pilgrims and tourists visit Nanak Jhira every year. During the three melas held during Holi in March, Dashera in October and Guru Nanak’s birthday in November, the numbers of visitors swells to about 30,000 a day. Another version of Guru Nanak's visit to Bidar has him visiting a Sufi saint who lived with his family and followers here - amidst a source of fresh, sweet water - and that is where the Gurudwara eventually came to be. Whatever the origin, the presence of this important Sikh shrine and the sizable Sikh presence is one of the many layers of Bidar that we encounter. In the course of his tours across the area people thronged to hear him. Guru Nanak listened to their complaints that only brackish water could be found in the area. Pir Jalaluddin and his followers from the nearby Muslim monastery also paid obeisance to the Guru and impressed upon him the need for sweet water in Bidar. In deference to their wishes, the compassionate Guruji uttering Sat Kartar shifted a stone with his wooden sandal, and lo and behold out gushed a spring of sweet water that has flowed to this day.

Narasimha Zarni
The Narasimha Zarni is located in the outskirts of the Bidar city. It is cave temple

dedicated to lord Vishnu. The cave temple is linked with purnaic history and it is considered one of the important pilgrimage site of Bidar. The legend goes that, Lord Narasimha after killing Hiranyakashpu, proceeded to kill a demon named Jalasura. Jalasura was a staunch devotee of Lord Shiva. After he was killed by Lord Narasimha, Jalasura turns into water starts flowing from Lord's feet. And to this day water keeps flowing from lord’s feet and fills the cave. So to reach the lord people has to wade through a 300 feet long cave, with water about 4 feet deep. Lighting and ventilation have been recently installed. The water is a little muddy, since it is flowing water it is not uncomfortable to walk through it. At the end of the cave Lord Narasimha and also the

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Shiva linga which Jalasura was worshiping. There is very less place to stand, around 8 people can see the lord at once. If there are more people they have to wait in water.

Mohammad Gawan Madrasa
One of the attractions of the old town of Bidar is the remains of the ancient

theological college, Mohammad Gawan Madrasa. Built in 1472 by Gawan, a Persian exile and scholar of the Bahmani court, this was one of the greatest centers of Islamic learning of its time, attracting students from all over. This Persian-style, massive threestoried building was once surmounted by large bulbous domes and its walls are adorned with exquisite colorful tile work and inscriptions from the Quran. It once housed a world-famous library, a mosque, a laboratory, lecture halls, quarters for the teaching faculty and a students’ hostel. Though it suffered extensive damages, a large portion of the building still remains unharmed.

Bidar Fort
The Bidar fort, constructed on the edge of the plateau, has a haphazard

quadrangular layout plan of 0.75 miles (1.21 km) in length and 0.5 miles (0.80 km) breadth. The peripheral length of the fort walls measure 4,500 yards (4,100 m). The walls, bastions, gates and barbicans of Bidar, though in ruins, are well preserved and considered as some of the most stylish in India. It is surrounded by a triple moat. There are seven gates in the fort. The dominant main gate exhibits Persian style architecture. The ‘Gumbad Darwaza’ depicts arches with stilted size, also in Persian style. The ‘Sherza Darwaza’ of Bidar Fort, the second gate of entry, depicts two images of tigers carved on its fascia; according to Shia belief, the tiger decorations are indicative of Ali who was also known as Asadullah-Al Ghalib that assured protection to the building from enemy attack. The other gates are the Fateh Gate on the south (has octagonal towers and drawbridge); the Talghat Gate in the east; the Delhi Gate and the Mandu Gate. The prominent bastion at the entry is known as the ’Munda Burj’ with guns positioned on it.

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It is said that the Bahmani Sultanate claimed lineage of the Sasanians and the motifs on their buildings, particularly the crowns of the arches that they built depicted a crescent and occasionally a disk that was closely reminiscent of the crowns of the Sassanian emperors.

Ashtur the Bahmani tombs
As you look from the fort's east walls, a cluster of eight bulbous white domes

floats alluringly above the trees in the distance. Dating from the fifteenth century, the mausoleums at Ashtur, 3km east of Bidar (leave the old town via Dulhan Darwaza gate), are the final resting places of the Bahmani sultans and their families, including the son of the ruler who first decamped from Gulbarga, Alauddin Shah I. His remains by far the most impressive tomb, with patches of coloured glazed tiles on its arched facade, and a large dome whose interior surfaces writhe with sumptuous Persian paintings. Reflecting sunlight onto the ceiling with a small pocket mirror, the chowkidar picks out the highlights, among them a diamond, barely visible among the bat droppings. Royal artistic patronage of the later Bahmanis is best exemplified in the royal and saintly funerary complexes at Ashtur, located a few kilometres east of the Bidar fort. Bahmani rulers and royalty are buried here in a series of mausoleums located in a pleasant grove. In general, both the political and artistic environment in Bidar during the later Bahmani rule reflected increased contacts with the Persian and Central Asian world. The tomb of Allaudin's father, the ninth and most illustrious Bahmani Sultan, Ahmad Shah I, stands beside that of his son, decorated with Persian inscriptions. Beyond this are two more minor mausoleums, followed by the partially collapsed tomb of Humayun the Cruel (1458-61), cracked open by a bolt of lightning. Continuing along the line, you can chart the gradual decline of the Bahmanis as the mausoleums diminish in size, ending with a sad handful erected in the early sixteenth century, when the sultans were no more than puppet rulers of the Barid Shahis.

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 Deva Deva Vana
It is situated 10k.m away from Bidar city and it was protected by Forest Department. Deva Deva vana declared as reserved forest. This is an ideal spot for the nature lovers; here one can see the thousands of different types of flora. Here additional attractions like Navagraha vana, Rasi vana, Navaniketana vana also available. It is one of most mesmerizing eco-tourism destination of HyderabadKarnataka.

 Narayanpur Dam
It is located 3k.m away from BasavaKalyan. In this village one can found a beautiful hoysaleswara temple (dedicated to lord Shiva), which was built during the period of Vikaramadithya 6th. value. There are splendid sculptures on the temple walls. The pardakishina patha contains sculptures of Shilabalika’s and this temple had rich historic

 Basavakalyan
Basavakalyan's history dates back to 3000 years with its name being mentioned in Guru Charitra. Before India's independence, Basavakalyan was called Kalyan. After independence and division of states on linguistic basis in 1956, Kalyana was renamed as BasavaKalyana in memory of Vishwaguru Basavanna, a great revolutionary who established Anubhava Mantapa (spiritual democracy) in 12th Century in India. Basavakalyana was ruled by Western Chalukyas, Kalachuris, Yadavas of Devagiri, Bijapur Sultanate, Bahamani Sultanate (Bidar, Gulbarga), Mughals, Hyderabad Nizams.

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 Arivina Mane
Arivina Mane of Basavkalyan Taluk of Bidar district is very old maonument, here Akkanagamma cave is very famous. On the way to Anubhava mandatapa there so many caves of saints, this known as Arivina Mane of Basavanna.Inside the arivina mane we can see the meditation hall, outside garden and also a well.

 Anubhava Mantapa
Anubhava Mantapa was an academy of mystics, saints and philosophers of the Lingayata faith in the 12th century. It was the fountainhead of all religious and philosophical thought pertaining to the Lingayata. It was presided over by the mystic Allama Prabhu and numerous Sharanas from all over Karnataka and other parts of India were participants. This institution was also the fountainhead of the Vachana literature which was used as the vector to propagate Lingayata religious and philosophical thought. Other giants of Lingayata theosophy like Akka Mahadevi, Channabasavanna and Basavanna himself were participants in the Anubhava Mantapa. The Anubhava Mantapa was originally called the Shivanubhava Mantapa. One of the monumental works that Basaveshwara did was the establishment of an institution named Anubhava Mantapa. It was a spiritual as well as a social academy presided over by Allama Prabhu. That this rare but monumental institution in the cultural history of India was founded by Basaveshwara is corroborated by the sayings of his contemporaries. It was a nucleus around which gathered persons of all shades and all professions and of all ranks, ranging from the prince to the peasant, to take part in the deliberations of the Anubhava Mantapa.

 Sadanda Matta
Sadanada Matta was situated in the center of the Bidar city; it was one of the important cultural centers of Bidar. Here one can see the Shrine of Sadanada Maharaja and there is a facility of accommodation for the devotees as well as a Kalyana Mantapa

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(Marriage Hall). In the outer veranda a splendid seven rounded well which is proving the craft men ship of this region and it can be considered one of the architectural wonder of this region.

 Basava kalyan fort
Basavakalyana, with its fort as its headquarters, was the royal capital of the Western Chalukya (Kalyani Chalukya) dynasty from 1050 to 1195. The fort is strategically built as a defense structure in a camouflaged setting, which is not discernible till the enemy is at close quarters of the fort. This gives advantage for the defense forces holed up in the fort to repulse enemy attacks. This strategy of locating the fort in naturally camouflaged locations was popular in the forts built in the Deccan. In the Basvakalyan fort, as an economy measure, the defenses of the fort were built by inter-connecting large boulders scattered on the hills with strong fort walls. The fort was made defensively complex with guard rooms and barbicans, which was a novelty at that time. The fort consisted of three concentric irregular fort walls. The fort has seven gates, out of which five are in good shape. At the entrance to the fort, there is solid arch with balconies on the flanks accessed by series of steps on either side. The fort walls encircling the central courtyard have guardrooms, which are also combined with many bastions and mounted by canons (some of the canons are also ornamented). Canons are also lined along the approach path to the citadel. The fort walls are engraved with images of Yalis. At the top of gateways, openings are seen, which were likely used to douse the enemy with boiling oil. Another defense measure is the deep moat that surrounds the fort. The citadel is centrally located within the fort, on a high ground. The main door to the citadel is known as the 'Akhand Darwaza' built with four red stone slabs. From the door way, up a flight of steps is the passage to the Rajmahal palace (mostly in ruins). However, the ceiling in the palace hall displays colorful designs. The central wall in the hall has patterns of vases and urns. Adjoining the
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palace is a temple that does not have any deity. However, at its entrance the vertical stone columns depict well-carved sculpture. There is a square pond in front of the temple. Behind the temple to the west is the Rani Mahal (queen's palace), from where there is an exclusive approach to the temple.

 Humnabad  Chalkapur
Chalkapur is a small village coming under Bidar district Humanbad Taluk. The history of this village is associated with Indian great epic Ramayana. In Ramayana While Hanuman taking Sanjivini Hill towards Lanka a piece of hill was dropped on the earth and it became Chalkapur hill(Chaluke means a Piece). Here one can see the Hanuman temple and lakhs together devotees visit round the year, the village has played vital role in Hyderabad Karnataka Liberation.

Jalasangi
Jalsangi is a village situated 10 K.m away from Humanbad; the beautiful Mahadeva temple is noteworthy to see here. Temple belongs to Badami Chalukya‘s period and this temple is the best example of craftsmanship of the Badami Chalukya, on the temple walls one can see the beautiful sculptures of God and goddess.

 Kalgi
Kalgi is on the Gulbarga-Chincholi road, 50 km north-west of Chitapur, the Taluk headquarters, and 60 km east of Gulbarga. Referred to as “Kaluge” in ancient inscriptions, it was the capital of the Mannedadi-1000 division. So far 11 inscriptions are reported from here. Half a km. south of the village, in front of the Kalinga temple complex, on its right flank is the ruined Karideva (Surya-Narayana) temple. A 13th_Century inscription here refers to Adityabhattopadhyaya, the worshipper of the

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feet of god Jayalingeshvara; it gives scope to suspect that this Kalinga temple is the Jayalingeshvara temple referred to in the inscription. Consisting of three separate garbhagrihas, an open antarala, a navaranga at the centre and a mukhamandapa on its east, this large trikiga temple stands facing north on a high jagati and decorated adhishthana. But today only garbhagriha and antarala portions are partially preserved and the remaining portions are destroyed. The garbhagriha doorways are very attractive with sapta-shakha decoration. The principal garbhagriha and the eastern garbhagriha contain Shivalingas with right and left lustral water chute respectively; the third is badly dilapidated and retains nothing whatsoever. The exterior of the wall of the temple carries images of Vishnu, Brahma, Ishvara, Bhairava, Nataraja, UmaMaheshvara, Mahishamardini, Ganapathi, beautiful Sil.abalikas in various postures, and varieties of miniature shikharas. The ceilings of the garbhagriha and antarala have unusual decorations. It can be stated that this is a unique construction of the time of Vikramaditya VI. The Kaleshvara temple beside this temple is the same as the Svayambhu Kaleshvara temple referred to in the inscriptions, the earliest to refer to it being dated 1103. This is a temple complex comprising the east-facing Nilakantheshvara, Kaleshvara (Svayambhu Kaleshvara), Revana Siddhesvara and Ishvara temples, and the north-facing Someshvara and Virabhadra temples which together have a large open sabhamanelapa. By its side is the pusbkarani (sacred tank) and not far away from it is the stream. The Someshvara, Bibbeshvara and Kaleshvara temples are in its vicinity. In its compound are the sculptures of four-faced Ganesha, Kartikeya, kirana-stambha and hero-stones. The Someshvara temple has a linga with its lustral right water chute. In the roof of the antarala of this temple is an inscribed stone slab of Kalyana Chalukya period which a beautiful carving of an elephant at top. The spacious .cabhamandapa has kakshasana along its brim and attractive ceilings. By the side of this temple are the temples of Kahivishvanatha, Ramalinga, and Nandi. A beautiful image of Surya is found near the Ramalinga temple. To the north of the Kalagi rivulet, near the pushkarani are a Ishvara temple and in another temple adjacent to it are the Narasimha and Ishvara sculptures. This has stellate plan and is beautiful. To the right of this temple is the Sahasralinga Netreshvara temple whose beautiful garbhagriha

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doorframe is decorated with six Shakhas. The ceiling of the antarala has a star-shaped chhatri. Here are loose sculptures of Shaivdvarapalakas and Rati-Manmatha. In the centre of the village there is a dilapidated rikuta Basadi in front of the Banasakari temple. Consisting of three separate garabhagrihas with open antaralas and a common ravaranaga and mukhamandapa, this is dedicated to Parshvanatha. Its principal garbhagriha enshrines a Parshvanatha image scatcd in padmasana. The garbhagriha doorways arc trisakha variety while the principal doorway is decorated with saptasakhas. The remaining two garbhagri has retained only pithas. Navaranga has four aevakoshthas, while its central pillars are beautiful and ceiling is decorated with lotus carving. The mukhamandapa has kakshasana and the chandrasila is very attractive

 Malkhed fort
Malkhed today has the remains of a fort with four entrances and 52 bastions and in the village there is a Mallinarha Basadi which may be described as ancient, considerably renovated, this Basadi consists of a garbhagriha, a navaranga and a hazara. In the garbhagriha there are images of Neminatha and Mallinatha Tirthankaras. The doorframe has four decorated shakhas with Gajalakshmi in the lalata. The doorframe of the’ navaranga consists of five shakhas and shaivadvarapalakas. In the man tapa in front of the temple there are numerous beautiful Jaina images and in a nearby room there are some more stone and bronze sculptures. The pillars of this temple recall the pillars of the Rashtrakuta period and as such they may be considered to have continued from that period. Some 59 manuscripts in Prakrit, Sanskrit and Kannada languages have been found in this Basadi. The Ishvara temple here, which belongs to about 11-12th Century and consists of a garbhagriha, an antarala and a navaranga, is renovated. In the garbhagriha of this east-facing temple is a huge Shivalinga and its doorframe is decorated with five shakhas. Above, in the architrave are five small superstructure models. On either side of the antarala are jalandras (lattice windows) and a makaratorana. In the navaranga are four devakoshthas and the central ceiling is decorated with lotus surrounded by ashthadikpalakas. There are entrance
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doorways from the east and north sides while the superstructure of the temple has disappeared. In the compound of the Hanumanta temple are found pillars, UgraNatasimha, Shivalinga, Nandi, makaratorana, pitha of Aditya, Masti stone and nine images of Ganapathi belonging to the Kalyana Chalukya period. In the khilla (fort) there are a Jumma Masjid, and Ashurkhana. Further there are Sayyad Zaffer Husseini, Khalif Fatar Rehman, and Sheik Phari Sakat Ganj and Ladle Mashak dargahs. Outside the village on the Gulbarga road, on the bank of river Kagina, is the Uttaradi Matha of the Madhva ttadition.Akshobhyatirtha, who was the last among the disciples of Madhvacharya to have adorned the Madhva pitha, is understood to have composed a work called ‘Vcdasara-stotra’. His vrindavana is located here. Similarly the vrindavana of his disciple, Jayarirrha (1365-88), famous by the epithet of Tikacharya, who enriched the field of Dvaita Vedanta through his more than 22 works comprising Thtva Sankhyana Tika, Vishnu Thtva Nirnaya Tika, Tatvaprakasika, Nyayasudha etc., is also located here. In addition to these there are the vrindavanas of R.aghunathatirtha (150257), Vyasatirtha (c.1350-1410), Satyanidhitirtha (1560-80) and others and the Madhvas from various parts of the State frequent this place through out the year. Apart from these, there are temples of Venugopala, Hanumanta, Lakshmi, etc. besides the Gangadharamutya Matha and Karanika-mutya Matha.

 Chitapur  Nagavi
Nagavi is a place of historical importance situated three km south-east of Chitapur, the Taluk headquarters. Mentioned as “maha agrahara Nagavavi” and sarvanamasyada agrahara Nagavavi”, it was in the past the capital of Aralulation division. Five inscriptions belonging to the period of Chalukyas of Kalyana are reported this place. The oldest of these is a pillar inscription in the compound of aravattu-ka gudi (Temple of sixty pillars) and belongs to the regin of Kalyana Chalukya king vikramadity VI it informs that in 1126 Ganada Mallisetti (Mallisetti of the oil mill) caused to be

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constructed, the Mulsathandeva temple in Nalvara and made grant of a site for the satra and two matters of land for annadana (boarding). On the same occasion a gift of one Lokkiya huaga for each okkalu was made by the people of the place, Nakharas, Telligas, manikaras, Binagas and Ankakaras. It is also revealed by the inscription that a fort rising to the sky’s height existed as Nalvara. The present temple containing the inscription itself is the Mulasthanadeva temple referred to in it. It has been renovated partially. The place is now famous for the Shri Kori Siddheshvara Matha.

 Sannati
Sannati is situated 48 km south-west of Chitapur, the Taluk headquarters, 56 km north-west of Yadagiri and 19 km from Nalwar Railway Station. Located 19 km north of Shahpur, this place can be reached easily by a boat from Shirival on the river bank. Locally called ‘Sonthi’, this village is a significant pre-historic and historic site situated on the left bank of the river Bhima. Old Stone Age tools, and Major Rock Edicts of Ashoka have already been reported from here, and Buddhist Stupa remains of the Satavahana period have been discovered in good numbers in the recent excavations; these discoveries have certainly added to the fame of the place but it is the Chandralamba temple that is the chief centre of attraction for the tourists. Being one of the chief Buddhist centres in the State, Sannati is the oldest Buddhist centre of Karnataka, and the credit of bringing to light this site goes to Kapataral Krishnarao. Since then by the efforts of several scholars four inscriptions of Ashoka’s time (B.C.3rd Century) and 77 inscriptions of the Satavahana period (2n14r5 Century AD) (total 81), all in Prakrit language and Brahmi script, have so far been reported from Sannati and it is noteworthy that this is the only site where Brahmi inscriptions are found in such large numbers. The oldest of the Brahmi inscriptions reported from here are the four fragmentary inscriptions of Ahoka’s reign and .of these two are Ashoka’s Major Edicts No.12 and 14, while the remaining two are Special Edicts. In Karnaraka so far only Minor Edicts had been discovered and since the Sannati Ashokan inscriptions include Major Edicts and Special Edicts they assume significance. Though the edicts are

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damaged they can be recognized, on the analogy of similar epigraphs found elsewhere, as Dharmahipis (inscriptions relating to Dharma). This apart they prove that the Bhima valley was under the rule of Ashoka. In Karnataka, the highest number of Shatavahana inscriptions is found in Sannati. These inscriptions mention the Sharavahana kings Sin Satakarni Vasishthiputra Sin Pulamayi and Shatavahana Agnisarma, who ruled during 2od4d Century, along w:th the amatyas (ministers), the officers and important traders and record the activities of that period. Some of these inscriptions are accompanied by interesting sculptural carvings which attract our attention. Sculptures depicting a cart with yoke freed from bullocks and resting bullocks of this period are found in large numbers in several places and they are considered to be the memorial stones of Buddhist laity; some of them carry inscriptions also. The inscribed sculpture depicting the touching scenes of Gautamiputra Sarakarni in his death-bed and Vasisthiputra Pulamayi suffering the pangs of separation from his father is another noteworthy sculpture. Several such sculptures may be seen in the State Government Museum in Gulbarga and several similar sculptures are found in the collections of various museums in the State. Worthy of mention are a beautiful Buddhist sculptured panel depicting the Bodhi tree, the empty throne and the foot-prints found near a tree in front of ChandralaParameshvari temple as also inscribed hero-stones nearby. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of Stupas and brought to light several important facts in Kanaganahalli, two km away from Sannati. The Chandrala-Paramesvari temple at Sannati is on an elevated mound and the excavation of this temple complex is likely to reveal impoirant aspects of the Mauryan rule. The Central and State Archaeology departments have already taken up scientific excavation of the environs of Sannati and already a pre-Mauryan stone pendent depicting a Buddhist Yakshi and a jade pendent depicting Roman emperor Tiberius have been discovered. In Hurasagundagi a village located opposite Sannati on the other bank, two Budhist mounds have been noticed and of the Buddhist remains reported from here, the sculpture of a Yaksha wearing a beautiful necklace containing

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the figure of a seated Gajalakshmi is the most important and it is noteworthy that this happens to be the earliest Instance of Gajaiakshmi available in South India.These excavations have confirmed the existence of stupas in Sannati and Kanaganahalli. Aparat from this, several objects including lead, potin and copper coins of the Shatavahana period have been found in Sannati. In ‘Ranamandala’ area, about one and half km south on rivet Bhima’s bank, the State Archaeology Department conducted excavations and successfully brought to light, apart from remains of Old Stone Age and Microlithic cultures, remains of a two row brick fortification said to be of the Shatavahana period, royal enclosure and a structure of brick consisting of eight granaries and five square cells. Since the Roman potsherds are found with the Maurya-Satavahana pottery it becomes clear that in addition to being a Buddhist place of pilgrimage, Sannati was an important commercial ceItre. The Roman pendent and Roman pottery reported from here confirm the important fact that Sannati had contacts with Rome. A platform at the spot where the river Bhima is to be crossed to reach Sannati via Shiraval is locally called ‘Seturajana-katte’ (Satavahana Platform). It is opined that this could be” a corrupt form of ‘Satavahana-kote’ (Satavahana Fort). A puranic legend has it that when Sri RaTna and Sita having been born as Narayana and Chandravada were living here, Seturaja having fallen in love with Chandravada (Sita) tried to rape her and that goddess Chandraladevi having appeared in the form of a bee killed the demon; after that she attained union at the feet of the goddess. Even today the local people show the five holes near the feet of the goddesss the spots marking the merger of the bees. On the way froti Sannati to Shiraval, on the bank of the river is the Someshvara temple belonging to circa 10th and 11th Century. The temple, which has undergone several additions, has noteworthy doorframe and pillars. Beside this temple, there is another temple of the same period which comprises a garbhagriha, an open antarala and a navaranga. The garlihagriha contains only a pitha at present. Its doorframe has five decorated shakhas. The navaranga has entrances from both sides and its front part is covered with jalandras decorated with elephant, lion, hamsa etc.

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About a km away from the village on the bank of the river Bhima is the temple of Chadralaparameshvari. Located on a mound likely having the remains to the Maurya period, this temple appears to have been erected during the Rashtrakuta period and enlarged during the rule of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. The mahadvara and the rajagopura of the prakara of this temple was got constructed in 1990 as a service to the goddess by Annasaheb Deshpande of Bijapur. The gopura, which is in dravida style, is very attractive on account of the beautiful sculptures. This east-facing temple located within a large compound consists of a garbhagriha, an open antarala and ‘a navaranga with a spacious sabhamandapa attached to it. The garbhagriha, having a plan of Srichakra, is decorated with a lotus shaped superstructure. In the garbhagriha is a bronze prabhavali carved with Sarpa, Mahakali, Lakshmi and Sarasvati as also dhvaja (flag), sankha and charka. In front of this, are small sculptures of Mahakali at the right end, Srichakra ir the centre iand at the left is Chandralaparamesvari, the last one being the chief deity here. The doorframe of the garbhagriha is decorated with four shakhas and contains carvings of Ganapathi and Mahishamardini. The entrance, to the’ navaranga also has four .chakhas. In the sabhamandapa before it are beautifully decorated pillars, which attract attention. The mantapa in the prakara of this temple has been reconstructed by using Rashtrakua-Kalyana Chalukya pillars and behind the temple may be seen the stone carrying Ashoka’s inscription, a sculpture of Kali and numerous sculptures of the Shatavahana period. The kshetra is famous for bathing at the Sankramana, Kumkum-arhcana in Sharavana month and illumination festival during the Shravana month. In the compound of t4he temple, but slightly behind to the left it the renovated temple of Adishakti. In fact the damaged Ashokan inscriptions on the pitha of the goddess Kalika were discovered during renovation of this temple and these are now protected in the mantapa of the rakara by the Archaeological Survey of India. This almost eight feet high image of goddess Kalika is broken into two and appears to be a sculpture of the Rashtrakuta period. There are Shatavahana remains in the region of Hurasagundagi, Anabi and Shiravala on the other side of the river and in Kanaganahalli region on this side of the river; being located amidst t4hese sites,

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Sannati has great historical significance and to bring to light its significant aspects, it is necessary to undertake large scale excavations of this site before its submergence.

 Shirval
Shiraval is a small village, which is about 10km. from Shahapur taluk of Gulbarga dist. It is situated near the right bank of the river Bhima. During the rule of the Rastrakutas, Shirval was an important town. In 939 A.D. in the reign of Rastrakuta, king Akalvarshakrishna III. There are forty-six monuments at the site. These include five wells, seven Koshthagaras/mathas and thirty-four temples. Most of them are in groups while some are scattered around. Most of these monuments are of the Rastrakuta period. This is only site containing such a large group of monuments of this period. Most of the temples are in dilapidated condition and are not in worship. This important historic village was a famous Shaiva centre and was known as Southern Varanasi or Dakshina Varanasi. It was a home of religion (Dharmada mane) and first or earliest town, which was known as Adipattana. The archeological remains at the site indicate that it was in continues occupation at least from the Rastrakuta period till today. Many temples, which are not in worship, do not have any names now. Such temples have been given serial numbers for convenience. These numbers are marked on the site plan (see diagram no.1.1). The monuments are built by locally available limestone. Most of the monuments and sculptures are of the Rastrakuta period datable to the 10th century. It was believed that the Rastrakutas constructed more temples in Ellora, Elephanta, and other places of Maharastra and few temples in Karnataka. This opinion has to be changed because; there are 46 monuments of this period are existed in the Shiraval. These monuments are very important, as they are located near the Rastrakutas capital Mnyakheta/Malkhed in Sedum Taluk. Though many monuments are in ruin condition but some best pieces of Rastrakuta architecture style temples, sculptures, and wells are still in good condition and the temples are worshiped daily by the local people.

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Different types of ground plans are adopted for the construction of temples. Majority of temples consist of a Garbhagriha (sanctum), Antarala and a Sabhamantapa. The temples, which are still in good condition, are 1. Nannayya temple 2. Nadayya temple 3. Sudnyaneshwara temple 4. Mallikarjuna temple 5. Ishwara temple 6. Siddheshwara temple

Surpur  SRI VENUGOPALASWAMY TEMPLE
The temple of Lord Venugopala swamy is located on an elevated place on the foot of the hillock of Surpur. The temple is an architectural feat and stands for the traditional Vastu art of Surpur artisans. The main temple is built by using beautifully carved granite stone available locally. The pillars in the front of the temple are beautifully erected on the shoulders of elephants carved out of monolithic granites. In precincts of the temple also every pillar has a unique carving which reminds us of architectural acumen of Vijayanagara carvings. Since it is the main temple of the Samsthana, it has an elaborate plan which consists of all components of the temple such as Garbagriha (Sanctum-Sanctorum), Antarala, Ardhamandapa, Sabhamandapa, pillared mukhamandapa, rectangular pillared veranda, a vahanamandapa and dvajastamba. The temple is enclosed by prakara walls. A broad flight of steps on the east leads to the temple. The Adhistana of the temple consists of Upana, Jagati, Tripatta, Kumuda moldings. The tripatta moldings of the garbagriha antarala and sabhamandapa are plain, while those of mukhamandapa contain series of sculptural panels. These sculptures include processions, stories of
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Krishna, horses, birds, erotic scenes etc. The exterior walls of the sabhamandapa and mukhmandapa have sculptures of snakes, monkeys, elephants and square medallions with lotus figure. The dvarpalas are in tribhanga posture bearing Vaishnava attributes such as Sanka, Chakra, Gada and Abhymudra. The Sabhamandapa is square on plan and it has four main pillars in the center and has three doorways on the east, south and north. The northern and southern doorways are simple and contain a lotus figure on the lintel. The eastern doorway, which leads to the mukhamandapa, is more elaborately decorated. It has five sakas, which are decorated with petals, scrolls, diamonds, and the fifth has horizontal bands. The lintel is a rectangular block, which has Vaishnava symbols such as chakra, sanka, and ‘V’ shaped Vaishnava mark. The mukhamandapa is rectangular on plan and consists of a total of 38 pillars, raised kaksasana, and three entrance passages. The tripatta bands of the pillars a series of sculptural panels depicting the scenes of processions, log snakes, elephants, Hanuman, floral, geometric motifs, etc. In the front of the temple is a large stepped well (Pushkarni). It measures 50meters on each side. It has a large flight of steps on four sides. There are rectangular arched corridors on the northern and eastern sides of the tank. The arched corridors are plastered and have the circular medallions and a pair of fish facing each other.

 Bonal Bird Sanctuary
The Bonal reservoir is the second largest bird sanctuary in Karnataka after Rangantittu bird sanctuary near Mysore. The reservoir is situated about 1 l0kms south of Gulbarga and covers an area of 40.96 Sq. miles. Shorapur King Raja Pam Naik built the reservoir in 17th century, and later Captain Meadows Taylor a Captain in British rule increased the capacity of fank from 4ft to 1 2ft depth. The name Bonal reservoir is established primarily on Bonal Village. The reservoir was under the control of irrigation department, Govt of Karnataka, Gulbarga Division till

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1998. It is an ornithologist’s paradise. The Bonal reservoir is one of the most favorite hubs of rare and endangered Aquatic Migratory Birds. Some of the birds flock here from Himalayas and even some birds come from snow-kissed hills of Siberia. October to January is time for travelling birds such as Painted Storke, Brahminy duck; Flamingo etc. early morning and mid-evening are best viewing time. The best option to reach the reservoir is by foot, a one and half km walks because most of the species of birds are spotted on the track. The Bonal reservoir attracts 22 residents, 8 non-residents and 8 migratory birds because of its perennial nature and availability of food through out the year. It is a favorite nesting place for these birds because of its full vegetation, there is an increased protection of fish population and attraction of various birds from around the world. The most notable and migratory birds’ species in the sanctuary include Cotton Teal, Twin tail Duck, Bar Headed Goose, White Necked Storke, Black Necked Storke, Painted Storke, Flamingo and Little Grebe. Apart from these migratory birds the local migratory birds which are found here are Large Egret, Brahminy Duck, Common Teal, Common Pochard, Little Ringed Plover, and Lesser Whisting Teal. Including migratory and local migratory birds one can also find resident birds in the Bonal reservoir which occupy about 33% of bird population. Commonly you can Duck etc. find Herons, Moorhen, Coot, Kingfishers, Spot Bill Fish fauna is one of the major components of the Wetland eco-system of Bonal reservoir. Millions of fry enter the Bonal reservoir along with the water every year. And as the fry reach the reservoir the fish-eating birds began to congregate in large numbers and breed. The fish fauna of Bonal reservoir consists 24 species belonging to 10 different families. The major types of fish found in reservoir are Gibelion catla, Rohu (Labeo rohita), Cirrhina mrigala and these fishes are used for food by local fishermen.

 Narayanpur Dam
Narayanapur Dam (Basavasagara) situated five km from Narayanpur in Surpur Taluk, 22 km from Lingasugur and 30 km from Muddebihal, it is located in the area of
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Siddapur village in Muddebihal Taluk of Bijapur District and it is a lovely place enjoyed by tourists. Because of the dam constructed here to the river Krishna under the Upper Krishna Project several areas of Bijapur and Gulbarga districts are expected to get benefits of irrigation and electricity. The dam runs about half a km and the tourists crossing the dam will experience, even in the hot sun, an explicable amount of pleasure from the cool breeze floating across the reservoir. Near, the dam a fine rose garden is being raised. July-August is the most suitable period to visit this place. There is a government tourist bungalow for the use of tourists. There is much scope for tourism development here.

 Mudanuru
Mudanuru is 35 m north-west of Surpur, the Taluk headquarters, and 10 km southwest of Kembhavi, and is located on the Kembhavi-Hunasagi road. So far 21 inscriptions are reported from. This village which is the birth-place of Jedara Dasimayya, a pre-Basava period vachanakara. This was the original centre of the Abhinava Pasupata tradition of the Yalamela Simhaparshe and the founder of this tradition, Maleyalapandita, hailed from this place.

Gulbarga
Gulbarga the melting pot of culture where one can see the unique cultural diversity and rich historical monuments if you want to trace the history of Gulbarga than you have to go to the bygone era of Neolithic and Mesolithic ages (sites like Sannati is the best example). Dynasties like Maurya, Shatavahana, Rashtrakuta’s, Kalachuri’s, Chalukya’s of Kalyana, Bahamani ruled Gulbarga, philosophers, and saints like Lord Sharnabasaveshwara, Khaja Bande Nawaz, enriched the culture and tradition of Gulbarga. Gulbarga had an university, T.V. Station, Radio station, Agriculture research station.

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 Sri Lord Sharnbasveshwar Shrine
Maha Dasohi Sharnabasaweshwara was born in the year 1746 in the village of Aralagundagi in Jewargi Taluk 0f Gulbarga district came propagating Virashaivisim and stayed in Gulbarga. He belongs to noble Veerashiva family his parents were “Sangamma and Malakappa. He propogated virashivism in this region, after his death a shrine was builted today’s this shrine is very important pilgrimage site of Gulbarga.

Khwaja Banda Nawaz Dargah
Syed Muhammas Hussain commonly known as Hazrat Khwaja Banda Nawaz Gesu

Daraz (July 13, 1321 – November 1, 1422), was a famous Sufi saint from India of Chishti Order, who advocated understanding, tolerance and harmony among various religious groups. In the memory of Khwaja Banwaz Bhamani rulers built the present Darga.

 Gangapur
Sri Kshetra Gangapur, One of the most famous Dattatreya Peethas, is associated with Sri Narasimha Sarasvati Swami, an incarnation of Lord Dattatreya. It stands on the bank of the river Bhima in Afzalpur taluka in Gulbarga district of Karnataka. This Nirguna Math is adorned with the Nirguna Padukas. The water of the rivers Bhima and Amaraja, especially at the spot of their confluence, are considered extremely holy. “Bhima-Amarja Sangam at Gangapur is very sacred. There are Koti Theerthas there. The Aswatha Tree at Gangapur is as powerful as tha KalpaVriksha. Near the Aswatha Tree is Narasimha Teertha, and northwards to it are the PapaVinasini Teertha, Varanasi Teertha, Rudrapada Teertha, Chakra Teertha, Koti Teertha, manmadha Teertha etc. There is the Kalleshwara temple there. It is holy as Gokarna.", Sri Narasimha Saraswati lived in Gangapur continuously for a period of 24 years.

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 Narona
Narona is a place of historical importance 25 km southeast via Kadaganchi from Alanda, the Taluk headquarters, and 34 km north-west of Gulbarga via Chinchanasuru. The local tradition asserts that Rarna, on his way back to Ayodhya after slaying Ravana, came to Narona and having worshipped the Kartika linga here got rid of the sin of having slain Ravana; hence the place came to be known as ‘Na Ravana’. It is also believed that Sage Agastya had rested here. On the basis of inscriptions the antiquity of Narona can be traced back to 1 1_12d Century. Mentioned as ‘Naravani’ in inscriptions, it was an administrative headquarters of 12 villages (kampana) located iti Gonka-120 in Alande-1000 division, as is known from the stone inscription of 1142 from the neighbouring village of Bodhan. But so far no inscription has been reported from this place. However, owing to the presence of temples of Kartikeya and Kshemalingesvara and an underground temple of Vishnu it has assumed fame and has grown into a sacred kshetra named ‘Kshetrapala’.

 Martur- Vijnaneshwara’s memorial hall
Martur is situated near to Shabad of Chitapur Taluk, Gulbarga district. Martur is famous by the Vijnaneshwara who wrote “Mithakshara” A Book on Law, recently for the researcher and students of law a Research centre was started and also here we can find the a big inscription and Statue of Vijnaneshwara.

 Yanagundi
Yanagundi is the Place Where the living legend Matha Manikeshwari lives, since from 50 years, she didn’t eat food and water and she is doing so many miracles till today.

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3.5 ROLE OF TOURISM TO DEVELOP BACKWARD REGION
Tourism play very important role in the development of backward region. Tourism provides the various opportunities for the local people and its region. The development of tourism in backward region its develop the infrastructure of that region. Infrastructure like transportation facility, accommodation facility etc. Development of tourism in backward region is also creates the...  Employment- (labor intensive, few adiministrative positions, little upward mobility.)  Infrastructure development - (roads, water, electricity, telecom and cybercom, but not necessarily local priorities.)  Cultural preservation - (economic incentives to preserve food, fashion, festivals and physical history, but these tend to be superficial elements of a culture.)  environmental protection- (econ incentives to preserve nature, wildlife and urban cleanliness)  Foreign exchange - (generates resources to import food, pharmaceuticals, technology, consumer goods.)  Development of health care services- (those these aren't always available to local people.)
 Income for the local people- (selling the handy craft items)

 It helps the local economy.  Demand for local handy craft.  Revenue income.
 Region (city) can get more importance.

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 Awareness about tourism- (in local people and tourist)  It can, by using the gains of tourism, improve the lifestyle of the locals.

 Local culture, tradition, festivals can get more importance.

Findings
 There are no proper signboards to show the way to visit.

 Lack of advertaisment in domestic and international.
 Some destination has proper transportation facility and they have good connectivity.  Lack of awernees in local people about monument and tourism.  These destinations had safficent basic amenities like toilet and drinking water facility.  Proper security to the monument and tourist are available.  Proper infrastructure development in some destinations.  Adquate tourist inflow in the distination because of basic facility.  Proper guidelines to distination development.  Proper information to the tourist to know about the distinaton.  Tourism marketing strategy still to develop.  People prefer one-day tour to these regions.  Local people contributions in tourism are supportive.  Tourist information centre still to develop. P.G. DEPARTMENT IN TORISM [M T A] Page 64

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Conclusion
As per our academic project of MTA IV SEM, we visited Bidar and Gulbarga chose the same as my project. I came to know about is history, culture of the local area. In the region, we can also see the various cultural contribution of the Bahaman kingdom. They gave the lot of cultural contributions like Gulbarga fort, jumma masjid which is considered as a largest in Asia. These destinations are the finest examples of indo –Islamic architecture; the glorious past of Gulbarga and Bidar has ensured that the present and subsequent generations have plenty of historical and cultural heritages to be proud of. The fascinating monuments and heritage sites in these cities stand quietly today to retell their story of joy, sorrow, courage and sacrifice before you. Each of the stories is so enchanting and singular that you will be left asking for more at the end of the each narration. As one turns the pages of history, the rich heritage of Gulbarga and Bidar comes alive with all its fragrance and colour which are still breathing in the heritage forts, mosques, temples and monuments fringed in each and every corner this multi facet region. The splendid architecture, minutely carved sculptures, embellished facades of the heritage monuments narrates the immense skill of the craftsmen of the yore which have been fascinating the world for many centuries. The number of important monuments in Gulbarga and Bidar is so great that a single tour to discover the multifarious facets of its wonderful heritage is not enough. Nevertheless, it will give you an admirable glimpse into the Bidar and Gulbarga’s rich history and heritage. At the end of your trip, you will surely develop a huge respect for the Bidar and Gulbarga’s heritage while carving for more such tour in the near future.

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Bibilography 1. Gulbarga gazeetter
2. Tourism management by A.K. Bhattiya

3. Medival history of India by Palaksha 4. Cultural tourism development of India by S.P. Gopta 5. Culture and Heritage Tourism by Prem nath Dhar 6. Sustainable tourism development by Harish Bhatt and B.S Badan 7. Eco-tourism development by P.C. Sinha
8. www.Bidar.nic.in 9. www.gulbarga.nic.in 10. www.gulbargacity.gov.in

11. http://dpal.kar.nic.in/.%5C35%20of%201991%20%28E%29.pdf

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SHARANABASAVESHWARATEMPLE

KHAJA BANDA NAWAZ DARGA

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GULBARGA FORT JUMMA MASJID

BIDAR FORT

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A INNER VIWE OF BIDAR FORT

GUGRU NANAKA JHARA

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BASAVAKALYAN FORT

ANUBHAVA MANTAPA AND AKKANAGAMMA GAVI

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JALSANGI TEMPLE (HUMNABAD)

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SHIRVAL (SHAHAPUR)

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SANNATI (EXCAVATION SITE)

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GHANGAPUR

NARAYANPURA TEMPLE AND DAM

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