J

I

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

WASHINGTON, D C

20546

lELS w o

w o 7-41

55

1-09? 5

P R E S S
K I
I

FOR RELEASE: FRIDAY PPI's

May 21, 1965
RELEASE NO: 65-158

CONTENTS
GENERAL NEWS RELEASE.

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION Possible Extravehicular Activity.......**... Primary Objectives Secondary O j c i e . . . . . . . . . . . . betvs............ 6 Mission Description 7-12 Flight Data. . . . . . . . . * . . . ~ . . . 2 ............*...1 Weather Requirements..... . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 .........1-4 C. o. u. n. t d o w n . . 15-16 Flight Crew Activities 17-18 Immediate Preflight Crew Activities 18-19 Flight Activities .l9-22 Post Flight Activities.... 23 Crew Safety ........................*........24 During Launch............................24-2 7 Abort Procedures (Illustration) .25 Inflight.................................28-2 9 Reentry, Landing, Recovery 29-33 Parachute Landing Sequence (Illustration)31 Gemini Survival Package 34-36 Manned Space Flight Tracking Network . . . . . . . . 3 7-38 Goddard Computer Support 38-39 Mission Control Center, Cape Kennedy .....39-40 MASA Communications Network. .40-42 Spacecraft Communications 42 Network Responsibility.. .43-44 Network, Configuration, Capability 45 Medical Checks ..............................46 Cardiovascular Effects of Space Flight.. .46-47 Gemin" i Fxperiments.. \ 048

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*;,+ti-

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is schecluled no e a r l i e r t'rian June 3 .

In-Flight Phonocardiogram 49 Bond Demineralization 49 Electrostatic Charge 50-51 Proton-Electron Spectrometer 51-52 Tri-Axis Flux-Gate Magnetometer .53-54 Two-Color Earth's Limb Photography 9-56 Synoptic Terrain Photography ..5 7-59 Synoptic Weather Photography 60-62 Food for Gemini 4 63-64 65-68 Gemini 4 Menu Gemini Spacecraft 69 Reentry Module 6 9-70 Adapter Section .7 0-76 Liquid Rocket Systems (Illustration) 7 1 Thrust Chamber Arran ement (Illustration)72 73 Maneuvering Control Illustration) Response to Control Thrust (Illustration)74 RCS Function (Illustration) 75 Gemini Launch Vehicie .7 7-80 Gemini Space Suit 81-82 Crew Biographies 83 James A McDivitt 83 Edward H White I 1 8 4 Frank Borman 85 James A Lovell, Jr 8 6 Project Officials 87 ' Previous Gemini lights 8 8-90 Orbits-Revolutions 91
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NOTE TO EDITORS:

Supplemental information will be released as rapidly as it develops

.

NEWS
RELEASE NO:

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20546

wo 2-4155
TELS. W O
3-6925

FOR RELEASE: FRIDAY P Ms ~ May 21, 1965

65-158
N S SCHEDULES FOUR-DAY AA M N E GEMINI FLIGHT A ND

FROM CAPE KENNEDY
The N a t i o n a l Aeronautics and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l launch t h e United S t a t e s ' l o n g e s t d u r a t i o n manned space
f l i g h t t o date from Cape Kennedy, Fla.,

no e a r l i e r t h a n June 3.

The two-man Gemini 4 mission i s scheduled t o c i r c l e the
Earth 62 times i n f o u r days to e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s of extended

space f l i g h t on crew performance and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n .

Astronaut James A. McDivitt i s command p i l o t and A s t r o n a u t Edward H. White I1 i s p i l o t f o r t h e f l i g h t . A s t r o n a u t s Frank

Borman and James A. Lovell, Jr., t h e back-up crew, w i l l r e p l a c e t h e primary crew should e i t h e r member o f t h a t team become i n e l i g i b l e f o r the f l i g h t .

The mission i s d e s i g n a t e d Gemini 4--the f o u r t h of 12 f l i g h t s planned i n t h e Gemini p r o j e c t . The f i r s t two m i s s i o n s , Astronauts V i r g i l

Gemini 1 and Gemini 2, were wunanned.
23 i n Gemini 3.

Grissom and John Young o r b i t e d t h e Earth t h r e e times March

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A s u c c e s s f u l f’ull-duration Gemini 4 f l i g h t w i l l more

than t r i p l e the manned space f l i g h t t i m e accumulated by the United S t a t e s .
To date t h e U.S. has n e a r l y 65 man-hours i n

space and t h e Gemini 4 mission would b r i n g t h e t o t a l t o a b o u t 257 man-hours. T o t a l U.S. manned s p a c e c r a f t time i n space Gemini

would be about 154 hours a f t e r the 97-hour-and-50-minute

4 flight.

Gemini 4 w i l l be launched by a two-stage T i t a n 1 , a 1 modified U.S. A i r Force I n t e r c o n t i n e n t a l B a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e , i n t o an o r b i t w i t h a h i g h p o i n t (apogee) 185 m i l e s and low p o i n t (perigee) of 100 m i l e s above t h e Earth. Each o r b i t w i l l

take about 90 minutes and range between 33 degrees n o r t h and

south of t h e Equator.

Recovery i s planned i n t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean about 400
m i l e s south of Bermuda.

Eleven experiments a r e planned f o r Gemini 4.

Three of

t h e s e are medical, f o u r engineering, two Department of Defense and two s c i e n t i f i c .

The medical experiments w i l l s t u d y e f f e c t s of e x e r c i s e

and work i n space, time h e a r t c o n t r a c t i o n s w i t h a phonocardiogram and determine whether bone d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e on long space f l i g h t s .

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- 3 Engineering experiments will measure electrostatic charges on the spacecraft surface, measure radiation immediately around the spacecraft, monitor direction and amplitude of the Earth's magnetic field with respect to the spacecraft and make two-color photographs of the Earth's "limb" (the outer edge of brightness).

DOD experiments concern radiation measurements inside the
spacecraft and simple devices for navigation.

Scientific experiments include wide-angle terrain and weather photography.

The Gemini 4 mission marks the first time that mission control will be exercised at the Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. The Mission Control Center at Houston was used to

monitor the Gemini 3 mission but control of that mission and all the Mercury manned space flights was done at Cape Kennedy.

The Gemini program is the second phase of the United State's manned space flight program.

I is designed to provide t

experience in orbiting maneuvers, rendezvous and docking, space

4 flights lasting up to 1 days and for manned scientific investigations in space.

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Gemini is under the d i r e c t i o n o f the O f f i c e o f Manned .. Space F l i g h t , NASA Headquarters, Washington, D C , and i s Gemini

managed by NASA's Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center, Houston.

i s a n a t i o n a l space e f f o r t and i s supported by t h e Department o f Defense i n such areas as launch vehicle development,

launch o p e r a t i o n s , t r a c k i n g and recovery.
(BACKGROUND DATA FOLLOWS)

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Orbit phase

Orient to retro attitude

Equipment adapter separation at retro fire (TR) minus 30 Retro seconds fire

Retro adapter At separation by crew. Orient alJtIroxiniately t o reentry 1.O ft/sec beyiii attitude re-eiitry control

a 50,000
Second staye s e p a r a t i o 5 g

Droyue chute deploy ft

\B

\

P i l o t chute

fairing jettison

Second staye cut-off

BASIC MISSION PHASES Pre-launch Launch Orbit Retrograde Reentry Landing Recovery

R and R section jettison and iliain chute de-

4.
Secoiid staye iy iii t ion

3.

Q
I

I

dis-reef

I

98800ft

F i r s t staye cut-off and jettison

1. Actuation of "D" handle between legs opens hatches

1.
2.

3.
4. 5. 6. 7.
Lift-off

and fires catapults, thrusting seats clear of spacecraft. Rocket portion of rocket catapult iynites, providing continued thrust and increased seat velocity. Rocket burnout. Man seat separation. Droyue motor fires, and chute is deployed. Chute iiiflated. Backboard and egress k i t released. Survival year stripped out on lanyard.

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T+4
seconds

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Gemini

4 Significant Events

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POSSIBLE EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY N o d e c i s i o n has been made whether i n t h e Gemini 4

mission t h e crew w i l l engage i n e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y .
This w i l l depend on t h e q u a l i f y i n g o f t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r

space s u i t s and the h a t c h .

During t h e i r t r a i n i n g t h e Gemini 4 crew performed a simulated e x t r a v e h i c u l a r t e s t i n t h e vacuum chamber a t McDonnell A i r c r a f t Corp., a t a simulated a l t i t u d e of l50,OOO feet.

A d e c i s i o n t o undertake t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r t e s t can
be made as l a t e as t h e day b e f o r e t h e launch.

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G E M I N I 4 PRIMARY OBJECTIVES

1.

Demonstrate and e v a l u a t e performance of the space-

c r a f t systems f o r a p e r i o d exceeding f o u r days.
2.

Evaluate e f f e c t s of prolonged exposure t o t h e space

environment of t h e two-man f l i g h t crew i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r
f l i g h t s of l o n g e r d u r a t i o n .

G E M I N I 4 SECONDARY OBJECTIVES

1.

Demonstrate O r b i t a l A t t i t u d e and Maneuver System's

c a p a b i l i t y t o perform r e t r o f i r e back-up.
2.

Demonstrate c a p a b i l i t y of the s p a c e c r a f t and f l i g h t maneuvers.

crew t o make i n - p l a n e and out-of-plane

3.

Conduct f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n of s p a c e c r a f t systems

as o u t l i n e d i n i n f l i g h t systems t e s t o b j e c t i v e s :

a.
b.
C.

S t r u c t u r e and thermal p r o t e c t i o n system. Environmental c o n t r o l system.

Crew station.
Guidance and c o n t r o l system.
O r b i t a l A t t i t u d e and Maneuver System

d.

e.

(oms).

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4 Execute the following experiments: .
a. M - 3 inflight exerciser.
b.

M-4 inflight phonocardiogram.

c . d. e .
f.

M-6 bone demineralization.
MSC-1 electrostatic charge. MSC-2 proton electron spectrometer. MSC-3 tri-axis magnetometer.

g.

MSC-10 two-color Earth's limb photographs.

h .
i.
j.

D-8 radiation in spacecraft.

D-9 simple navigation.
S-5 synoptic terrain photography.

k.

S-6 synoptic weather photography.
MISSION DESCRIPTION

The spacecraft will be launched from Pad 19 on a true azimuth of 72 degrees east of north. Slightly more than six

minutes after liftoff, it will be inserted into a 100-185statute-mile orbit inclined approximately 32.5 degrees to the Equator. (All miles are statute).

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Orbital insertion will occur about 680 miles from Cape Kennedy at a velocity of 2 , 6 feet per second (17,567 576

0 miles per hour), including up to 1 feet per second provided
by the spacecraft's aft-firing thrusters during the separation maneuver.

While in orbit, maneuvers totaling

55 feet per second
Additional

will be used to adjust the orbital lifetime and to demonstrate the maneuvering ability of the spacecraft.

maneuvers totaling 25 feet per secondwillbe performed separately, but in conjunction with orbit adjustment maneuvers, to check out operational procedures.

Retrofire is planned at

97 hours, 31 minutes and 43

seconds after liftoff as Gemini 4 is passing over the west coast of the United States before the end of the 62nd revolution. Landing is expected approximately

1 minutes after 7

retrofire in the Atlantic Ocean about 400 miles south of Bermuda

.

Each of the maneuvers will be calculated in realtime and adjusted to meet requirements as determined by the mission director. The maneuvers planned are:

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S e p a r a t i o n Maneuver

-- Twenty

seconds a f t e r t h e launch

v e h i c l e ' s second stage engine c u t s off- (SECO), the command

p i l o t w i l l a c t i v a t e the two a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s f o r 12

seconds t o a p p l y up t o 10 f e e t per second forward v e l o c i t y
t o the spacecraft t o s e p a r a t e it from the launch v e h i c l e . H e

w i l l n o t c o n t r o l the s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e d u r i n g the f i r s t
t w o seconds of t h r u s t , t h e n he w i l l c o n t r o l a t t i t u d e t o 0
degrees r o l l , 0 degrees yaw and -20 degrees p i t c h f o r t h e
remainder of t h e burn.

A t Second Apogee

-- The

forward v e l o c i t y will be i n c r e a s e d

seven feet per second t o raise the perigee and a c h i e v e a f i v e - d a y lifetime. P r i o r t o burn, t h e command p i l o t w i l l

yaw the s p a c e c r a f t 180 degrees, p l a c i n g the b l u n t end forward,
and the two f o r w a r d - f i r i n g , used f o r t h e maneuver. required. 85-pound t h r u s t e n g i n e s w i l l b e

About 1 seconds of t h r u s t w i l l be 1

The perigee of the o r b i t tdll be raised t o 105

m i l e s and t h e apogee w i l l remain a t 185 miles.

A t 30th Apogee

--

Forward v e l o c i t y w i l l b e i n c r e a s e d 1 2

f e e t per second t o raise t h e perigee and a c h i e v e a three-day

lifetime.

The 100-pound l e f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r will be used

and i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o yaw t h e s p a c e c r a f t -64 degrees t o a l i g n the t h r u s t e r with t h e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r . Thrusting

time w i l l b e about 30 seconds.

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Between 30th Apogee and 30th perigee

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A series of

five foot per-second maneuvers will be performed to evaluate
thruster operation and t o determine visual characteristics of thruster plumes. minute intervals. The burns will be performed at five-

The first will be up, using the 100-pound down-firing thruster while the spacecraft is at a -26-degree pitch angle
to align the thruster perpendicular to the velocity vector.

The second will be down, utilizing the 100-pound upfiring thruster while the spacecraft is at apitch angle of

26 degrees to align the thruster perpendicular to the velocity
vector.

The third will be to the left utilizing the 100-pound right-firing thruster while the spacecraft is at a yaw angle of -26 degrees to align the thruster perpendicular to the velocity vector.

Approximately 12 seconds of thrust will be required for each maneuver.

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A t 30th P e r i g e e

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A maneuver w i l l be performed t o

e v a l u a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of a t h r e e - a x i s change i n v e l o c i t y u s i n g the two 100-pound a f t - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s .
The space-

c r a f t a t t i t u d e w i l l be -169.3 degrees yaw and 10.9 degree
pitch,

V e l o c i t y v a l u e s w i l l be 26 f e e t p e r second a f t , About

f i v e feet per second up and f i v e feet p e r second l e f t .

34 seconds of t h r u s t w i l l be r e q u i r e d .
w i l l be i n a 108-154-mile o r b i t .

A t the end of a l l

t h e maneuvers beginning a t t h e 30th apogee, the s p a c e c r a f t

A t 45th Apogee

-- Forward v e l o c i t y

w i l l be i n c r e a s e d

f o u r feet per second t o raise t h e p e r i g e e and a c h i e v e a two-day lifetime.
The 85-pound f o r w a r d - f i r i n g t h r u s t e r s

w i l l be used while t h e spacecraft i s i n a 180-degree yaw
attitude. Burn time w i l l be about seven seconds.

A t 45th Perigee

-- R

s i x - f o o t a f t burn, u s i n g t h e

forward firing t h r u s t e r s , will be made t o lowerthe apogee. S p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e w i l l be 0 degrees i n a l l axes. Thrusting

time will be about 10 seconds.

A t t h e end of the two maneuvers

i n t h e 45th o r b i t , a e o r b i t a l elements will be 107-143 miles.

Twelve minutes b e f o r e R e t r o f i r e

--

A Orbital Attitude n

and Maneuver System r e t r o g r a d e maneuver of about 110 f e e t
per second w i l l b e performed t o p r o v i d e a r e e n t r y t r a j e c t o r y

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The a f t - f i r i n g

even if t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s should not f i r e .

t h r u s t e r s w i l l be used while t h e s p a c c c r a f t i s i n a 180degree yaw a t t i t u d e . Burn time w i l l be about 116 seconds.

FLIGHT DATA

Launch Azimuth
F l i g h t Duration

--

72 degrees.
Approximately 97 hours, 50 minutes.

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I n i t i a l O r b i t a l Parameters
Reentry V e l o c i t y m i l e s p e r hour. Reentry temperature

-- 100 -185 m i l e s .

About 24,000 f e e t p e r second, 16,450

--

About 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit on

s u r f a c e of h e a t s h i e l d . Landing P o i n t

-- A t l a n t i c
--

Ocean about 400 m i l e s s o u t h of

Bermuda, 25.20 d e g r e e s north, 65 d e g r e e s west. Oxygen

-- Primary

52 pounds, Secondary 13 pounds.
100 p e r c e n t oxygen p r e s s u r i z e d a t

Cabin Environment

f i v e pounds per square inch. Retrorockets

-- Each o f

f o u r r e t r o r o c k e t s produces
Will

approximately 2,500 pounds of t h r w s t f o r 5.5 seconds. f i r e separately.

WEATHER REQUIREMENTS

Recovery c a p a b i l i t y i s based p r i m a r i l y on r e p o r t s from recovery f o r c e commanders t o t h e recovery task f o r c e command a t Mission Control Center. more

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The f o l l o w i n g are guide l i n e s o n l y .

Conditions

a l o n g the ground t r a c k w i l l be e v a l u a t e d p r i o r t o a n d d u r i n g
the mission.

Launch Area

S u r f a c e Winds
Ceiling

-- 18 k n o t s

w i t h g u s t s t o 25 k n o t s .

--

5,000 f e e t cloud base m i n i m u m .

Visibility

-- S i x m i l e s m i n i m u m .

Wave Height

-- Five

f e e t maximum.

P l a n n e d L a n d i n g Areas

S u r f a c e Winds Ceiling

-- 1,500

--

30 k n o t s maximum

f e e t cloud base m i n i m u m .

Visibility Wave Height

-- S i x m i l e s m i n i m u m .

-- E i g h t

f e e t maximum.

Contingency L a n d i n g Areas

Weather a n d s t a t u s of contingency recovery f o r c e s w i l l
be c o n t i n u a l l y monitored.

Recommendations w i l l be made t o the

Mission D i r e c t o r who w i l l make the go-no-go d e c i s i o n based
upon c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e t h e .

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Pararescue
The d e c i s i o n t o use p a r a r e s c u e p e r s o n n e l depends upon

weather c o n d i t i o n s , s u r f a c e v e s s e l l o c a t i o n s a n d t h e a b i l i t y
to provide a i r dropped s u p p l i e s u n t i l t h e a r r i v a l of a

surface vessel.
t h e jump-master.

The f i n a l d e c i s i o n t o jump w i l l be made by

Weather g u i d e l i n e s f o r p a r a r e s c u e opera-

t i o n s are: S u r f a c e Winds
Ceiling

--

25 k n o t s maximum.

--

1,000 f e e t cloud base m i n i m u m .

Visibility

-- T a r g e t

visible.

Waves

-- Five

f e e t maximum, s w e l l s 10 o r 1 f e e t 1

maximum.

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LAUNCH COUNTDOWN T - 1 day T-270 minutes

P r e p a r a t i o n s for launch countdown' Awaken crcw

.

T-240 minutes T-225 minutes
T-190 minutes

Begin countdown. Engine c u t o f f , shutdown and d e s t r u c t test complete.
S t a r t e l e c t r i c a l connection o f Stage I and I1 d e s t r u c t i n i a t i a t o r s .

T-175 minutes

Ordnance e l e c t r i c a l connections complete, s a f e t y p i n s removed; blockhouse d o o r sealed. Begin s e n s o r placement and s u i t i n g o f crew. Launch v e h i c l e t a n k p r e s s u r i z a t i o n completed. S t a r t launch v e h i c l e s e c u r i n g p r e p a r a t i o n s . V e r i f y launch v e h i c l e "Go" f o r f l i g h t ; simulated malfunction t e s t . Crew e n t e r s s p a c e c r a f t . Nhite Room e v a c u a t i o n complete; e r e c t o r lowering p r e p a r a t i o n s complete; e r e c t o r c l e a r e d t o lower. S t a r t lowering e r e c t o r ; s t a r t range telemetry readout. A c t i v a t e s p a c e c r a f t communications l i n k s . S p a c e c r a f t t o i n t e r n a l power. Command t r a n s m i t t e r on. Spacecraft s t a t i c f i r i n g . F i n a l s t a t u s and communications check. S t a r t range t e l e m e t r y r e c o r d e r s . S t a r t analog and e v e n t r e c o r d e r s .

T-1.70 minutes

T-168 minutes
T-150 minutes
T-120 minutes

T-100 minutes

T-60 minutes

T-35 minutes T-30 minutes T-25 minutes T-20 minutes

T-15 minutes
T-6 minutes

T-5 minutes T-4 minutes

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T-3 minutes
T-2 minutes, 30

Set in launch azimuth ( 7 2 degrees), Range clearance

seconds

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T-1 minute, 30 seconds Roll program armed.
T-0

Engine start signal.

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FLIGHT CREW ACTIVITIES, GEMINI 4

The Gemini 4 flight crew was selected July 27, 1964. Concentrated mission training began in September. In addition

to the extensive general training received prior to flight

assignment--such as familiarization with high accelerations, zero gravity, and various survival techniques--the following preparations have or will be accomplished prior to launch:

a.

Familiarization with launch, launch abort, and

reentry acceleration profiles of' the Gemini 4 mission using the Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, Pa., centrifuge.
b.

Egress and recovery activities using a spacecraft

boilerplate model and actual recovery equipment and personnel. c. Celestial pattern recognition in the Moorehead

Planetarium, Chapel Hill, N.C.
d.

Hatch-open and standup exercises at a simulated

l50,OOO ft. in the McDonnell Aircraft Corp. pressure chamber.
e.

Parachute descent training over land and water using

a towed parachute technique.
f.

Zero gravity evaluation of extra vehicular activities,

food and other on-board equipment.
g.

Suit, seat, and harness fittings. Launch abort simulations at Ling-Temco-Vought in a configured simulator.

h.

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i.

T r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s t o t a l i n g over 110 hours p e r crew

member on t h e Gemi::i mission s i m u l a t o r s .
j.

D e t a i l e d systems b r i e f i n g ; d e t a i l e d experiment

b r i e f i n g s ; f l i g h t p l a n and mission r u l e s reviews.
k.

P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n mock-up reviews, S e r v i c e Engineering

Department R e p o r t (SEDR) reviews, subsystem t e s t s , and spacec r a f t acceptance review. I n f i n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r flight, t h e crew p a r t i c i p a n t s i n network launch a b o r t s i m u l a t i o n s , j o i n t combined systems
t e s t , rrJet mock s i m u l a t e d lm,~nck( and t h e

f i n a l simulated f l i g h t

test.

A t T-2 days, t h e major flight crew medical examinations

w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o determine r e a d i n e s s f o r flight and

o b t a i n data for comparison w i t h p o s t flight medical examination results.

Immediate P r e f l i g h t Crew A c t i v i t i e s Seven h o u r s p r i o r t o launch, t h e back-up f l i g h t crew r e p o r t s t o the 100-foot level o€ t h e White Room t o monitor
a the positioning ~ 1 ' l l cockpit switches.
By T-5 hours, t h e

p i l o t s ' ready room, the 100-foot level o f t h e White Room and
t h e crew q u a r t e r s are manned and made ready f o r t h e primary

crew.

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T-4 hours, 30 minutes

Primary crew awakened Medical examination Breakfast Crew leaves Q&C (Operations and Checkout) Building Crew arrives at ready room

T -4 hours

T-3 hours, 40 minutes
T-3 hours

T-2 hours, 50 minutes

on Pad 1 6

During the next hour, the biomedical sensors are placed, underwear and signal conditioners are donned, flight suits minus helmets and gloves are put on and blood pressure is checked.
The helmets and gloves are then attached and communications

and oral temperature systems are checked.
T-2 hours

Purging of suit begins

T - 1 hour,

49 minutes

crew leaves ready room
Crew arrives at 100-foot l e v e l Crew enters spacecraft

T-1 hour, T-1 hour,

44 minutes
40 minutes

From entry until ignition, the crew participates in or
monitors system checks and preparations. Flight kctivitles At ignition the crew begins the primary launch phase task of assessing system status and detecting abort situations.

At 45 seconds after staging the command p i l o t jettisons the
nose and horizon scanner fairings. Twenty seconds arter SECO, the command p i l o t initiates forward thrusting and tine p i l o t

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actuates spacecraft separation and selects rate command
attitude control. Ground computations of insertion velocity corrections are received and velocity adjustments are made by forward or aft thrusting. After successful insertion and completion of the insertion check list, the detailed flight plan is begun.

In addition to frequent housekeep-

tasks such as

systems tests, biomedical readouts and eating, the following significant events are planned:
Orbit

Events Thruster and control mode check, communications systems check, D-9 experiment (star to booster sextant measurements).

1

2

Translation manuever and night Apollo yaw orientation check.

4
5-6

Tracking tasks and synoptic weather photography. Cormand p i l o t sleeps, MSC-2 experlment (proton electron measurement), MSC-3 (magnetic field measurement),

l'4-3 (exercise) and MSC-10 (two-color Earth limb
photography).

8

Command pilot awakes, D-8 experiment (radiation'

measurements), pilot sleeps.

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9
1 1
12

D-9 experklent (star and horizon sextant sightings)
Pilot awakes.

.

M-3 (exercise).
Command pilot sleeps.

13

16

S-5 (synoptic terrain photography), command pilot
awakes, pilot sleeps.

17
19
20 21

High frequency communications tests. Pilot awakes, D-9 (star and horizon sextant measurements), Command pilot sleeps S-6 (synoptic weather photography). MSC-2 (proton and electron measurements) , MSC-3 (magnetic field measurements), D-8 (radiation measurements), S-5 (synoptic weather photography).

22

D-8 (radiation measurements), S-5 (synoptic weather
photography). Command pilot awakes, pilot sleeps.

23 25 26 27 28 29

Pilot awakes.

M-3 (exercise).
Command pilot sleeps, S-6 (synoptic weather photography).

S-5 (synoptic terrain photography).
S-6 (synoptic weather photography), M - 3 (exercise).
Command pilot awakes, translation maneuvers. Power down spacecraft, pilot sleep starts, S-5 (synoptic terrain photography) , S-6 ( s y n o p t i c weather photography).

30

31

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33
34 35

Pilot awakes.

I

M-3 (exercise).
Command pilot sleeps D-9 (star to horizon sextant measurements), MSC-2 (proton and electron measurements), MSC-3 (magnetic field measurements).

36
37
33

S-6 (synoptic weather photography).

S-6 (synoptic weather photography).
Command pilot awakes, pilot sleeps, D-9 (sextant measurements).

40

Pilot awakes. Power up and align platform. Translation maneuver,

45 46
47

M-3 (exercise).

Translation maneuvers, Apollo yaw orientation, pilot sleeps.

49
50
53

Pilot awakes, M - 3 (exercise).

D-9 (sextant measurements), command pilot sleeps.
Command pilot awakes, pilot sleeps. Pilot awakes.

55
57
60

M-3 (exercise).

M-3 (exercise), end of missions systems checkout,
Pre-retro checklist, TR-5-minute checklist, TR-1minute checklist, retrofire, retro jettison, postretro checklist.

52

63

Reentry, drogue deploy, main chute deploy, twopoint suspension, impact, post-landing checklist,

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P o s t Fll.ght A c t i v i t i e s

The p o s t f l i g h t a c t i v i t i e s w i l l involve expanded medjcal e v a l u a t i o n s compared w i t h p r e v i o u s m i s s i o n s .

It i s

planned t h e f l i g h t crew w i l l spend t h r e e n i g h t s aboard t h e recovery c a r r i e r performing taped d e b r i e f i n g s and undergoing e x t e n s i v e medical examinations. They w i l l r e t u r n t o Houston

f o r a p r e s s conference and then w i l l r e p o r t f o r more e x t e n s i v e
medical examinations and complete systems d e b r i e f i n g s for e i g h t t o 10 days a f t e r recovery.

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CREW SAFETY
C r e w s a f e t y i s paramount.

Gemini r e p r e s e n t s thousands

of hours of design, m o d i f i c a t i o n , f a b r i c a t i o n , i n s p e c t i o n ,

t e s t i n g and t r a i n i n g .

Every component o r system c r i t i c a l t o

crew s a f e t y has a redundant (back-up) feature.

During Laurich
The malfunction d e t e c t i o n system (MDS) i n t h e launch

v e h i c l e i s t h e heart of crew s a f e t y d u r i n g t h e powered phase of f l i g h t

--

l i f t - o f f t o second s t a g e shut-down.

T h i s system was designed f o r t h e Gemini launch v e h i c l e

and had no c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e T i t a n weapon system.

Its func-

t i o n i s t o monitor Gemini launch v e h i c l e subsystem performance and warn t h e crew of a p o t e n t i a l l y c a t a s t r o p h i c malfunction i n time f o r escape, i f necessary.
The MDS monitors engine

t h r u s t f o r both s t a g e s , s t e e r i n g r a t e s , p r o p e l l a n t t a n k pres-

sures, s t a g i n g , S t a g e I h y d r a u l i c p r e s s u r e , a s p a c e c r a f t
switchover command o r engine hardover.

During t h e powered phase of f l i g h t t h e r e are t h r e e modes
f o r crew escape.
These a r e ( 1 ) e j e c t i o n seats, ( 2 ) f i r i n g t h e

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I

ABORT PROCEDURES
MODE I - EJECT AFTER SHUTDOWN MODE II - SALVO RETROS AFTER SHUTDOWN

I I MODE I - SHUTDOWN, SEPARATE, TURN AROUND, RETROFIRE

MODE20,700 FPS VELOCITY

5 MlN. 10 SEC.

78,000 FT.

<///I

t \\\s u

I
DELAYED

L

n I I

k

d

MODE

I I
(WAIT 5 SECS )

A

50 SECON

s

I
15,000 FT.

MODE

T
50

I
)--

SECONDS

M
SEA LEVEL

--

.c

i

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26

-

r e t r o r o c k e t s t o separate t h e s p a c e c r a f t from t h e launch veh i c l e , then i n i t i a t i n g t h e spacecraft recovery system, ( 3 ) normal s p a c e c r a f t s e p a r a t i o n followed by u s e of t h e t h r u s t e r s and r e t r o r o c k e t s .
F o r malfunctions d i c t a t i n g r e t r o - a b o r t mode

which occur between 15,000 and 76,000 f e e t , t h e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l n o t i n i t i a t e a b o r t u n t i l aerodynamic p r e s s u r e has decreased t o

t h e p o i n t where s u c c e s s f u l s e p a r a t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t from
t h e launch v e h i c l e i s a s s u r e d .

Escape procedures w i l l be i n i t i a t e d by t h e command p i l o t following t w o v a l i d cues t h a t a malfunction has occurred. p a r t i c u l a r malfunction and t h e t i m e a t which i t o c c u r s w i l l determine a b o r t procedures as follows:
1.
The

Lift-off

t o 15,000 f e e t (50 seconds)

--

Immediate

e j e c t i o n for all malfunctions.
2.

15,000 ( 5 0 seconds) t o 78,000 f e e t (100 seconds)

--

Delayed r e t r o - a b o r t f o r a l l malfunctions.

This a c t i o n c o n s i s t s

of arming a b o r t c i r c u i t s , w a i t i n g u n t i l aerodynamic p r e s s u r e
has decreased, t h e n s a l v o f i r i n g the f o u r r e t r o r o c k e t s t o sepa-

r a t e from t h e launch v e h i c l e .
f i v e seconds.

T h i s d e l a y r e q u i r e s approximately

3.

After t h e launch v e h i c l e i s above 78,000 f e e t , a e r o -

dynamic d r a g w i l l have decreased t o t h e p o i n t where no d e l a y

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between engine shutdown and r e t r o - a b o r t i s r e q u i r e d f o r suecessful. separation. Retro-abort w i l l be u s e d u n t i l a v e l o c i t y

of approximately 20,700 f t / s e c (14,000 mph) o r 80 p e r c e n t of t h a t r e q u i r e d t o g e t i n t o o r b i t i s achieved.
F o r r a p i d mal-

f u n c t i o n s , r e t r o - a b o r t will be i n i t i a t e d immediately a f t e r r e c e i p t of two v a l i d cues. s p a c e c r a f t malfunctions,
For slow malfunctions and most

r e t r o - a b o r t w i l l be i n i t i a t e d a t a

f i x e d t i m e i n o r d e r t o l a n d n e a r p r e - p o s i t i o n e d recovery vessels.

I n boost-phase a b o r t s where more t h a n 80 p e r c e n t of
v e l o c i t y r e q u i r e d f o r o r b i t has been achieved, t h e normal

spacecraft s e p a r a t i o n sequence is used f o r a l l malfunctions. The most probable cause of a b o r t i n t h i s area would be e a r l y

shutdown of t h e b o o s t e r due t o f u e l d e p l e t i o n .

Also, a b o r t

might be requested by ground monitors i f t h e t r a j e c t o r y ex-

ceeds acceptable l i m i t s .

The g e n e r a l a b o r t p l a n i n t h i s

f l i g h t regime i s t o separate from t h e launch v e h i c l e , assume

r e t r o a t t i t u d e , i n s e r t l a n d i n g area parameters in t h e spacec r a f t computer, r e t r o f i r e , and descend t o a planned recovery

area

.
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28

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Inflight
There are no single p o i n t f a i l u r e s which would j e o p a r d i z e

crew s a f e t y d u r i n g i n f l i g h t o p e r a t i o n s .

A l l systems and sub-

systems have back-up f e a t u r e s o r t h e r e i s a n a l t e r n a t e method.

The Environmental C o n t r o l System (ECS) c o n t r o l s s u i t and

c a b i n atmosphere, crew and s p a c e c r a f t equipment t e m p e r a t u r e s and p r o v i d e s d r i n k i n g water and a means of d i s p o s i n g of waste

water.

Thespace s u i t i t s e l f I s a back-up system.

Should c a b i n

pressure f a i l , the spacesuit provides l i f e support.

It i s a f u l l p r e s s u r e s u i t which works i n c o n j u n c t i o n
w i t h t h e ECS.

Gaseous oxygen i s d i s t r i b u t e d through t h e s u i t

v e n t i l a t i o n system f i r c o o l i n g and r e s p i r a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n s a l l o w the a s t r o n a u t t o t a k e i n d r i n k i n g water w h i l e i n a hard s u i t (pressurized) condition.

A 100-percent oxygen environment a t 5 pounds p e r square

i n c h i n a p r e s s u r i z e d c a b i n or 3.7 p s i a i n a n u n p r e s s u r i z e d c a b i n i s provided i n s p a c e s u i t by the ECS. A d d i t i o n a l oxygen

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i s a v a i l a b l e from t a n k s i n t h e r e e n t r y module i n c a s e of
emergency and f o r u s e d u r i n g r e e n t r y .

I n e v e n t the f l i g h t must be t e r m i n a t e d b e f o r e mission completion, the Gemini p r o p u l s i o n systems w i l l permit a c o n t r o l l e d l a n d i n g i n a contingency r e c o v e r y area.

Reentry, Landing and Recovery
The Reentry Control System ( R C S ) c o n t r o l s t h e s p a c e c r a f t

a t t i t u d e d u r i n g r e t r o r o c k e t f i r i n g and r e e n t r y .

Two complete
The

and independent systems provide 100 p e r c e n t redundancy. f o u r r e t r o r o c k e t s are w i r e d w i t h d u a l i g n i t e r s .

The O r b i t A t t i t u d e and Maneuver System (OAMS) s e r v e s as

a back-up s a f e t y f e a t u r e should t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s f a i l t o f i r e . I n c a s e of r e t r o r o c k e t f a i l u r e t h e O M w i l l have been used A S t o lower t h e o r b i t t o t h e p o i n t where grav.ity and atmospheric
drag would cause s p a c e c r a f t r e e n t r y .

The OAMS i s normally u s e d t o perform t r a n s l a t i o n maneu-

v e r s a l o n g three a x e s of t h e spacecraft and provide a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l d u r i n g o r b i t a l phases of t h e mission.

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I n Gemini 4, s h o u l d t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s f a i l , r e e n t r y w i l l occur n e a r Ascension I s l a n d i n t h e South A t l a n t i c .

Parachutes are u s e d f o r d e s c e n t f o l l o w i n g s p a c e c r a f t reentry.
The crew has a n e x c e l l e n t view of parachute de-

ployment through t h e s p a c e c r a f t windows.

If there i s a para-

c h u t e malfunction t h e crew w i l l e j e c t themselves from t h e spacec r a f t and u s e t h e i r p e r s o n a l c h u t e s f o r landing. Survival

equipment i s carried on t h e backs of t h e e j e c t i o n seats and remains attached t o t h e a s t r o n a u t s u n t i l t h e y land.

Recovery f o r c e s w i l l be provided by t h e m i l i t a r y serv i c e s and d u r i n g mission time w i l l be under t h e o p e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l of t h e Department of Defense Manager f o r Manned Space F l i g h t Support Operations.

Planned and contingency l a n d i n g areas have been established.

Planned areas are t h o s e where t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of land-

i n g i s s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h to j u s t i f y p r e - p o s i t i o n i n g of recovery f o r c e s f o r support and recovery of crew and s p a c e c r a f t w i t h i n g i v e n access times.

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GEMINI PARACHUTE LANDING SEQUENCE
50,000 FEET

-

- HIGH ALTITUDE

DROGUE CHUTE DEPLOYED

21,000FEET

OPENCABIN VENT VALVE

10,600 FEET

-

9,600 FEET

- PILOT PARACHUTE DEPLOYED - R R SECTION
8,

SEPARATION

9,000 FEET

-

- MAIN CHUTE DEPLOYMENT

6,700 FEET

-

TWO -POINT SUSPENSION

SEA LEVEL

-

2

- SEAL

CABIN WATER CLOSED

TOUCHDOWN

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32

-

Contingency areas are a l l o t h e r areas a l o n g t h e ground t r a c k where t h e s p a c e c r a f t could p o s s i b l y land.
The p r o b a b i l i t y

of l a n d i n g i n a contingency area i s s u f f i c i e n t l y low t h a t spec i a l search and r e s c u e t e c h n i q u e s w i l l p r o v i d e adequate recovery s u p p o r t .

There are f o u r t y p e s of planned l a n d i n g areas:
1.

P r i m a r y Landing Area

--

Landing w i l l occur w i t h normal
T h i s area i s i n

t e r m i n a t i o n of the mission a f t e r 63 o r b i t s .

t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean, about 400 miles s o u t h of Bermuda.
2.

Secondary Landing Areas

--

where a l a n d i n g would occur

i f it i s desirable t o t e r m i n a t e t h e mission f o r any cause.

S h i p s and a i r c r a f t w i l l be s t a t i o n e d t o p r o v i d e support.

Air-

c r a f t w i l l be able to drop p a r a r e s c u e p e r s o n n e l and f l o t a t i o n

equipment w i t h i n one hour a f t e r s p a c e c r a f t l a n d i n g .

3.

Launch Abort Landing Areas

--

Along t h e launch ground

t r a c k between F l o r i d a and A f r i c a where l a n d i n g s would occur f o l l o w i n g a b o r t s above 45,000

f e e t and b e f o r e o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n .

S u r f a c e s h i p s w i t h medical p e r s o n n e l and r e t r i e v a l equipment, and s e a r c h and r e s c u e a i r p l a n e s w i t h p a r a r e s c u e p e r s o n n e l , f l o t a t i o n equipment and e l e c t r o n i c s e a r c h c a p a b i l i t y w i l l be s t a t i o n e d i n t h i s area b e f o r e launch.
After t h e s u c c e s s f u l i n -

s e r t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t i n t o o r b i t , some of t h e s h i p s and
p l a n e s w i l l deploy t o secondary areas t o p r o v i d e s u p p o r t on a

l a t e r o r b i t , and t h e remainder w i l l r e t u r n t o home s t a t i o n s .

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4, Launch

S i t e Landing Area

--

Landing w i l l o c c u r

f o l l o w i n g a n a b o r t d u r i n g countdown, launch and e a r l y powered
f l i g h t i n which e j e c t i o n seats are used.

It i n c l u d e s a n area

of approximately 26 miles seaward and t h r e e miles toward t h e

Banana R i v e r from Pad 19.
t h e l a u n c h azimuth.

I t s major a x i s i s o r i e n t e d a l o n g

A s p e c i a l i z e d r e c o v e r y f o r c e of l a n d v e h i c l e s , amphi-

b i o u s c r a f t , s h i p s and b o a t s , a i r p l a n e s and h e l i c o p t e r s w i l l
be s t a t i o n e d i n t h i s area from t h e time t h e a s t r o n a u t s e n t e r

t h e s p a c e c r a f t u n t i l l i f t - o f f p l u s f i v e minutes.

Recovery a c c e s s time v a r i e s from 0 minutes f o r a water

1 -

t o 10 minutes f o r a l a n d l a n d i n g .

The a s t r o n a u t s w i l l

be t a k e n t o t h e P a t r i c k A i r Force Base h o s p i t a l f o r examina-

t i o n s a f t e r pickup.

Contingency Landing Areas: Search and r e s c u e a i r c r a f t equipped w i t h e l e c t r o n i c s e a r c h equipment, p a r a r e s c u e men and f l o t a t i o n equipment w i l l be staged a l o n g t h e ground and sea t r a c k so t h a t t h e s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be l o c a t e d and a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n t o t h e a s t r o n a u t s w i t h i n 18 hours

a f t e r t h e r e c o v e r y f o r c e s a r e n o t i f i e d of t h e probable l a n d i n g
position.

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G E M I N I SURVIVAL PACKAGE

The Gemini s u r v i v a l package c o n t a i n s 14 i t e m s designed t o support a n a s t r o n a u t i f he should l a n d o u t s i d e normal recovery a r e a s .

The package weighs 23 l b s . a n d has two s e c t i o n s . s e c t i o n , holding a 33-pound water c o n t a i n e r a n d machete
i s mounted by the a s t r o n a u t ' s l e f t shoulder.

One

The m a i n package,

c o n t a i n i n g t h e l i f e raft, a n d r e l a t e d equipment, i s mounted on t h e back of t h e e j e c t i o n s e a t . Both packages are a t t a c h e d

t o t h e a s t r o n a u t ' s p e r s o n a l p a r a c h u t e h a r n e s s by a nylon
line.
A f t e r e j e c t i o n from t h e s p a c e c r a f t , as t h e s e a t f a l l s

c l e a r a n d t h e parachute deploys, the s u r v i v a l k i t will hang on a l i n e , ready f o r use as soon as t h e a s t r o n a u t l a n d s .

I n f l a t e d , t h e one-man l i f e r a f t i s f i v e a n d one half

ft. long a n d t h r e e ft. wide.
inflation.

A CO

2

b o t t l e i s attached f o r

The r a f t i s a l s o equipped w i t h a s e a anchor, s e a

dye markers, and a sun bonnet of nylon m a t e r i a l w i t h a n aluminized c o a t i n g which t h e a s t r o n a u t can p l a c e over h i s head

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I n h i s s u r v i v a l k i t , t h e a s t r o n a u t a l s o has a r a d i o
beacon, a combination s u r v i v a l l i g h t , s u n g l a s s e s , a medical
k i t , and a d e s a l t e r k i t assembly.

The combination s u r v i v a l l i g h t i s a new development

f o r t h e Gemini k i t , combining many i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s which
were c a r r i e d i n t h e Mercury k i t . About t h e s i z e of a paper-

back novel, i t c o n t a i n s a s t r o b e l i g h t f o r s i g n a l i n g a t n i g h t , a f l a s h l i g h t , and a s i g n a l m i r r o r b u 2 l t in on t h e end of t h e case.

It a l s o c o n t a i n s a small compass.

There a r e t h r e e c y l i n d r i c a l c a r t r i d g e s i n s i d e t h e case. Two c o n t a i n b a t t e r i e s f o r t h e l i g h t s . The t h i r d

c o n t a i n s a sewing k i t , 14 f e e t of nylon l i n e , c o t t o n b a l l s
a n d a s t r i k e r f o r k i n d l i n g a f i r e , halazone t a b l e t s f o r

water p u r i f i c a t i o n a n d a w h i s t l e .

The d e s a l t e r k i t i n c l u d e s e i g h t d e s a l t e r b r i c k e t t e s ,

a n d a p r o c e s s i n g bag,

Each b r i c k e t t e can desalt one p i n t of

seawater.

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The medical k i t c o n t a i n s a one-cubic-centimeter

injector

f o r pain, a n d a two-cubic-centimeter
sickness.

i n j e c t o r f o r motion

There a l s o a r e s t i m u l a n t , p a i n , motion s i c k n e s s ,

and a n t i b i o t i c t a b l e t s and a s p i r i n .

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MANNED SPACE FLIGHT TRACKING NETWORK
The Manned Space F l i g h t Network for Gemini 4 i s composed

of s p a c e c r a f t t r a c k i n g and data a c q u i s i t i o n f a c i l i t l e s throughout t h e world, a Mission C o n t r o l Center a t Cape Kennedy,

a r e a l - t i m e (no d e l a y ) computing and communications c e n t e r
a t t h e Goddard Space F l i g h t Center, G r e e n b e l t , Md., and a Mission Control Center i n NASA's Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center, Houston.

The b a s i c network c o n s i s t s of seven primary land s i t e s , two s h i p s , ( t h e Rose Knot and C o a s t a l S e n t r y ) s i x a d d i t i o n a l land s t a t i o n s , and remote v o i c e d a t a s w i t c h i n g s i t e s .
This

network and i t s o p e r a t i n g procedures remain unchanged from t h e Gemini 3 mission, however, primary m i s s i o n control and computing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l s w i t c h from t h e Mission Control Center, Cape Kennedy, and Goddard Space F l i g h t Center, to t h e Manned Spacecraft Center.

The l o c a t i o n s of t h e land s t a t i o n s a r e as follows:

Primary S t a t i o n s
. -

Add - tional Kano, N i g e r i a

Stat .ons

Cape Kennedy, F l a . , and down-

range A i r Force Eastern T e s t Range sites
Bermuda Grand Canary I s l a n d

Madagascar (Tananarive)

Canton I s l a n d Po3.nt Arguello, C a l i f .

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Carnarvon, A u s t r a l i a

k h i t e Sands, N.M.

Hawaii
Guaymas , Mexico Corpus C h r i s t i , Tex. Two Ships:
The Rose Knot

E g l i r i AFB, F l a .

and C o a s t a l S e n t r y

Other t r a c k i n g and d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , such a s r e l a y a i r c r a f t , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s h i p s , communications. r e l a y s t a t i o n s , e t c . , w i - l l be c a l l e d up a s r e q u i r e d and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e b a s i c network.

>
Countdown -phase--The Goddard Realtime Computing Center
. -

w i l l provide back-up computing s u p p o r t to t h e Manned S p a c e c r a f t
Center Realtime Computing Complex throughout t h e mission. During t h e pre-launch countdown Goddard w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e for checking t h e Manned Space F l i g h t Network's r e a d i n e s s to s u p p o r t Gemini 4 through its CADFISS (Computer and Data Flow I n t e g r a t e d Subsystems) T e s t s .

The Goddard Realtli-me Computing Center a l s o w i l l provide prime computer s u p p o r t for a l l netowrk t r a c k i n g and data a c q u i s i t i o n systems ( R a d a r s - D i g i t a l Command System-Pulse Code Modulation t e l e m e t r y and t h e Launch Monitor Subsystem) roll call.

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-

Data flow t e s t s from t h e world-wide network to t h e Manned S p a c e c r a f t C e n t e r ' s Realtime Computing Complex w i l l
be conducted from

MSC RTCC under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f Goddard's

CADF'ISS Test D i r e c t o r .

Launch Phase--During powered f l i - g h t , Goddard's r ealtime
computers w i l l r e c e i v e launch t r a j e c t o r y d a t a from JASA s Bermuc .a t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n , compute t h e t r a j e c t o r y and d i s p l a y t h e
data on p l o t b o a r d s and consoles a t Mission C o n t r o l Center,

Cape Kennedy.

O r b i t Phase--During

t h e o r b i t phase, Goddard's computing

c e n t e r w i l l update t h e 0 r b j . t based on d a t a r e c e i v e d from network radars. Refined o r b i t a l parameters w i l l be d i s p l a y e d a t Mission

Control Center, Cape Kennedy as r e q u i r e d . Mission C o n t r o l Center - Cape Kennedy
The Mission Control Center, Cape Kennedy i s t e c h n i c a l l y

s u p e r v i s e d , operated and maintained by Goddard.

During Gemini

4 it

w i l l be f u l l - t i m e back-up to Mission Control Center,

Houston.

It w i l l o p e r a t e on a 24-hour basis i n c o n c e r t with

Houston Mission C o n t r o l requirements.

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40 -

During t h e launch phase, Kennedy Mission Control will
provide realti-me d a t a d i s p l a y and command c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t y
l'or i.ts flight c o n t r o l team.

I n t h e e v e n t o f communications f l i g h t - c o n t r o l team w i l l

breakdown from Houston, t h e Kennedy

be a b l e bo assume f l i g h t d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l immediately.

Kennedy Mission C o n t r o l a l s o w i l l provide f l i g h t dynamics

data simultaneously to Goddard and Houston computers f o r t h e
c r j t i c a l "GO-NO-GO''o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n d e c i s i o n .
All Gemini

Launch Vehicle and s p a c e c r a f t t e l e m e t r y data a c q u i r e d by
A i r Force E a s t e r n T e s t Range s t a t i o n s are processed i n r e a l

time a t Kennedy Mission C o n t r o l and forwarded t o t h e Houston
MSC Realtime Computer Complex.

For t h e f i r s t time, Kennedy IvIission C o n t r o l w i l l provlide

a c o n t r o l c e n t e r p o s i t i o n to t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t checkout
team.
I n t h e p a s t t h i s has n o t been p o s s i b l e because o f
The team w i l l be a v a i l a b l e for s p a c e c r a f t

space l i m i t a t i o n s .

systems a n a l y s i s throughout t h e m i s s i o n .

NASA Communications Network (NASCOM)

This D i v i s i o n , a Goddard r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w i l l e s t a b l i s h
and o p e r a t e t h e w o r l d - w i d e ground communications network
t h a t provj-des t e l e t y p e , voice, and d a t a l i n k s between t h e

s t a t i o n s and c o n t r o l c e n t e r s for t k e rletwork.

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It l i n k s 39 s t a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g 3°C o v e r s e a s p o i n t s , with
message, voice and d a t a communications.

Its c i r c u i t s and

terminals span 100,000 r o u t e m i l e s and 500,000 c l r c u i t m i l e s .
F o r Gemini

4 the Communications Network (NASCOM)

w i l l be

used i n

h ," e

same b a s i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n a s for Gemini 3 .

Several

v o i c e a n d data c i r c u i t s between Goddard and Houston Mission

Control have been added t o accommodatc: t h e i n c r e a s e i n t r a f f i c .

During Gemini 3, voice communication w i t h t h e s p a c e c r a f t
v i a t h e Syncom I1 communications s a t e l l i t e and N S O ground AC M

s t a t i o n s was s u c c e s s f u l l y achieved over t h e I n d i a n Ocean.

For

Gemini 4 a s i m i l a r e x e r c i s e i s planned u s i n g the Syncom I11 communications s a t e l l i t e s t a t i o n e d over t h e P a c i f i c Ocean.

Also p a r t of NASCOM i s t h e v o i c e communication n e t .

A switchboard system, w i t h m u l t i p l e d u a l - o p e r a t i n g c o n s o l e s ,

e n a b l e s one o p e r a t o r t o c o n c e n t r a t e on s p e c i a l mission c o n f e r e n c e s .
T h i s system i s c a l l e d S A A I1 ( S t a t i - o n Conferencing and CM

Monitoring Arrangement).

SCAMA I1 can now handle 100 l i n e s and

can u l t i m a t e l y be expanded to handle 220 l i n e s .

Both p o i n t -

t o - p o i n t connections and conference arrangements a r e possible.

All l i n e s can be connected i n t o one conference w i t h o u t loss o ' f
quality. The SCAMA o p e r a t o r can add c o n f e r e e s or remove them.

H e a l s o c o n t r o l s which o f t h e c o n f e r e e s can t a l k and which can l i s t e n only. - more -

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-

The SCAMA has 10 t i m e s t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e network
u s e d for Mercury.

S p a c e c r a f t Communications -

All Manned Space F l i g h t Network s t a t l o n s having both
h i g h frequency (HF) and u l t r a high frequency (UHF) spacec r a f t communications can be c o n t r o l l e d e i t h e r by t h e s t a t i o n o r remote c o n t r o l l e d by Goddard. Houston Mission Control

o r Kennedy Mission C o n t r o l .

The following s i t e s w i l l have a Capsule Communicator

who w i l l c o n t r o l s p a c e c r a f t communications a t t h e s i t e : I s l a n d ; Carnarvon; Kuai, H a w a i i ; Corpus C h r i s t i ; Guaymas; Rose Knot; and C o a s t a l S e n t r y .

Canary

o m The following s t a t i o n s w i l l n o t h a re Capsule C m i n i c a t o r s and w i l l be remoted t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e Mission C o n t r o l Center: Grand Bahama I s l a n d ; Tananarive (Madagascar); Kano, N i g e r i a ; 9ermuda; Grand Turk I s l a n d ; Antigua I s l a n d ; Ascension I s l a n d ; Canton I s l a n d ; Pt. Arguello, C a l i f . ; Range Tracker ( s h i p ) and t h e voice r e l a y a i r c r a l ' t .

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Network Responsibility Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA's Office of Tracking

and Data Acquisition has centralized the responsibility for
the planning, implementation, arid technical operations of

manned space flight tracking and data acquisition at Goddard. Technical operation includes operat-jon, maintenance, modification, and augmentation of tracking and data acquisition facilities as an instrumentation network in response to mission requirements. About 370 persons directly support the network at Goddard.

Manned Spacecraft Center.

The MSC has the overall The direction

management responsibility of the Gemini program.

and mission control of the network immediately preceding and during a mission simulation or an actual mission is the responsibility of the MSC.

Weapons Research Establishment.

The W E , Department of

Supply, Commonwealth of Australia, is responsible for the maintenance and operation of the netoaork stations in Australia. Contractual arrangements and agreements define this cooperative effort.

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Department o f Defense.

DOD i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the

maintenance and o p e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l o f t h o s e DOD a s s e t s and f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d to s u p p o r t Gemini.
These i n c l u d e

network s t a t j - o n s a t t h e E a s t e r n T e s t Range, Western Test Range, t h e A i r Proving Ground Center and t h e White Sands Missile T e s t Range.

Voice Communications Remote Air to Ground Voice Communications Air to Ground Voice Communications
F1 i g h t C o n t r o l l e r
X

I
X

X

X

x x

x X

X

x x

x x
x x
X

x

x

X

Manned

X

X
X

Telemetry Communica-

-xx
x x
X

tions
I 1

x x
I

RF Command
lDom Range Up Link

X

x

xx

X

x
X

I
1

I

1

x

I

x

Digital Command System

l x

I

Ix x X

Gemini Launch Vehicle Command
X X

X

On Site Data Processor (1218)

X

X

X

Telemetry Real Time Display Telemetry Receiver
& Recorder

Ix
X X X

x

xx

xx
X

xx
xx

xx

Acquisition Aid C-Band Radar

x x

x -X X

xx
x x

xx

I -Band Radar S

I

r x
n

xx

- 45 -

MEDICAL CHECKS

Medical checks will be based on biomedical t e l e m e t r y
a n d voice communications.

T h i s d a t a w i l l be used t o e v a l u a t e

g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n of t h e crew, blood p r e s s u r e , and o r a l temperature.

Cardiovascular E f f e c t s o f Space Flight

T h i s i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of experiments d u r i n g P r o j e c t

Mercury a n d Gemini 3 t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s of prolonged w e i g h t l e s s n e s s on t h e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r system.
It i s considered

a n o p e r a t i o n a l procedure and no l o n g e r a n experiment.

Comparisons w i l l be made of t h e a s t r o n a u t * s p r e r ' l i g h t
a n d p o s t f l i g h t blood p r e s s u r e s ,

Dlood volumes, p u l s e rates,

and electrocardiograms.

Tne data w i l l r e v e a l t h e c a r d i o v a s c u i a r

a n d Plood volume changes due t o n e a t stress, t h e e r f e c t of

prolonged confinement, dehydration, f a t i g u e , a n d p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of w e i g h t l e s s n e s s .
There a r e no i n f l i g h t requirements.

Measurements w i l l be taken before, during, a n d a f t e r a head-up t i l t of UO degrees I'rom m e h o r i z o n t a l .

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-

I f t h e astronauts remain i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t while i t

i s h o i s t e d aboard t h e recovery v e s s e l , p o r t a b l e biomedical

r e c o r d e r w i l l be a t t a c h e d t o each one b e f o r e he l e a v e s t h e s p a c e c r a f t , a n d blood p r e s s u r e a n d e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m measurements w i l l be taken. Each a s t r o n a u t then will leave t h e
Blood pressure

s p a c e c r a f t a n d s t a n d on t h e s h i p ' s deck.

a n d e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m measurements will be recorded

a u t o m a t i c a l l y before, during, a n d f o r a s h o r t time a f t e r t h e crew l e a v e s t h e s p a c e c r a f t .
The a s t r o n a u t s will t h e n go t o

t h e s h i p ' s medical f a c i l i t y f o r t h e t i l t - t a b l e t e s t s .

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G E M I N I 4 EXPERIMENTS NASA has scheduled l l e x p e r i m e n t s f o r t h e Gemini 4
flight.

Three of these a r e m e d i c a l experiments, f o u r are two Department of Defense experiments and two

engineering, scientific.

Medical Experiments
I n - f l i g h t Exercise: Work Tolerance

The a s t r o n a u t s w i l l use a bungee cord to a s s e s s t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o do p h y s i c a l work under space f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s . The bungee cord r e q u i r e s a 60-pound p u l l t o s t r e t c h i t to i t s

l i m i t of one f o o t .

The cord w i l l be h e l d by l o o p s about t h e

a s t r o n a u t ' s f e e t r a t h e r t h a n being a t t a c h e d t o t h e f l o o r as i n P r o j e c t Mercury t e s t s .

P l a n s c a l l f o r each of the Gemini 4 a s t r o n a u t s tomake
t h e 60-pound s t r e t c h once p e r second f o r a minute a t v a r i o u s

times d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t .

Heart and r e s p i r a t o r y rates and b l o o d

p r e s s u r e w i l l be taken b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e e x e r c i s e f o r evaluation. Time for heart r a t e and blood p r e s s u r e t o r e t u r n t o

pre-work l e v e l s following t h e e x e r c i s e i s an index of t h e g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n of t h e a s t r o n a u t .

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I n - F l i g h t Phonocardiogram The purpose of t h i s experiment i s to s e r v e a s a s e n s i t i v e i n d i c a t o r o f h e a r t muscle d e t e r i o r a t i o n when compared t o a simultaneous e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m . Heart sounds of t h e Gemini

4 a s t r o n a u t s w i l l be picked up by a microphone on t h e i r
c h e s t s and recorded on t h e biomedical r e c o r d e r .
be compared w i t h t h e e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m to

This w i l l

determine t h e t i m e

i n t e r v a l between h e a r t c o n t r a c t i o n s .

Bone Demineralization X-rays u s i n g a s p e c i a l technique
be taken b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e f l i g h t s .

(bone d e n s i t o m e t r y ) w i l l The h e e l bone and

t h e end bone of t h e f i f t h f i n g e r on t h e r i g h t hand of each a s t r o n a u t w i l l be s t u d i e d to determine whether any d e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n
has taken p l a c e and, if s o , to what e x t e n t .

The a n t i c i p a t i o n

of p o s s i b l e l o s s o f calcium from t h e bones d u r i n g w e i g h t l e s s f l i g h t i s based on y e a r s o f c l i n i c a l experience w i t h p a t i e n t s confined to bed or i n c a s t s .

The medical experiments a r e sponsored by t h e NASA O f f i c e of Manned Space F l i g h t ' s Space Medicine D i v i s i o n .

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ENGINE;EXING EXPERUVIENTS

E l e c t r o s t a t i c Charge UDp-Sctive
IS to

d e t e c t and measure any accumulated

e l e c t r o s t a t i c charge on t h e s u r f a c e of t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t . N a t u r a l charging mechanisms and charged p a r t i c l e s e j e c t e d from r o c k e t engines cah cause a n e l e c t r o s t a t i c p o t e n t i a l , and this must be i n v e s t i g a t e d b e f o r e rendezvous and docking missions a r e attempted.

D i f f e r e n c e s i n p o t e n t i a l between docking space v e h i c l e s can cause an e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e which could damage t h e
v e h i c l e s k i n and e l e c t r o n i c equipment and i g n i t e p y r o t e c h n i c s

aboard t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

If t h e s p a c e c r a f t p o t e n t i a l and

c a p a c i t a n c e i s known, i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to c a l c u l a t e t h e n e t charge on t h e s p a c e c r a f t and t h e energy a v a i l a b l e f o r an e l e c t r i c a l d i s c h a r g e between t h e s p a c e c r a f t and a n o t h e r space v e h i c l e of known p o t e n t i a l .

Any accumulated charge on t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e Gemini 4 spacec r a f t w i l l be measured by an e l e c t r o s t a t i c p o t e n t i a l meter. experiment w i l l be conducted d u r i n g a l l p e r i o d s of e x t e n s i v e s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e maneuvering and d u r i n g r e t r o f i r e . o b t a i n e d w i l l be t e l e m e t e r e d to ground s t a t i o n s . Data The

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The e l e c t r o s t a t i c p o t e n t i a l meter c o n s i s t s of a s e n s o r
b

u n i t and an e l e c t r o n i c s unit, Both a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e spacec r a f t ' s adapter section. The s e n s o r u n i t ' s f a c e i s f l u s h with

t h e o u t e r s u r f a c e of t h e s p a c e c r a f t and o b t a i n s e l e c t r i c a l signals proportional t o the spacecraft potential. The

e l e c t r o n i c s u n i t p r o c e s s e s t h e information from t h e s e n s o r and a d a p t s . i t t o t h e t e l e m e t r y system.

The data obtained i s

t r a n s m i t t e d t o ground s t a t i o n s v i a t h e s p a c e c r a f t t a p e r e c o r d e r / reproducer system.

The experiment i s c o n t r o l l e d from t h e c a b i n by a s w i t c h . Experiment equipment weighs 1.8 pounds.

It w i l l be a c t u a t e d

by t h e p i l o t , who w i l l r e c o r d on-off t i m e s on t h e voice recorder

.

Proton-Electron Spectrometer The o b j e c t i s t o measure t h e r a d i a t i o n environment immediately o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t .
The data w i l l be used

t o c o r r e l a t e r a d i a t i o n measurements made i n s i d e t h e spacec r a f t and t o p r e d i c t r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s on f u t u r e m i s s i o n s .

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The number and energy o f t h e e l e c t r o n s and p r o t o n s w i l l

be measured by a p r o t o n - e l e c t r o n spectrometer l o c a t e d i n t h e equipment a d a p t e r sectli.on.
r e a r of t h e s p a c e c r a f t .
The s e n s o r f a c e w i l l l o o k to t h e

The spectrometer w i l l be operated w h i l e t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s

p a s s i n g through t h e r e g i o n known as t h e South A t l a n t i c Geomagnetic Anomaly.

It i s bounded by 30 degrees e a s t and 60 d e g r e e s west

l o n g i t u d e , and 15 d e g r e e s s o u t h and 55 d e g r e e s south l a t i t u d e .
'Ibis i s t h e r e g i o n i n which t h e i n n e r Van Allen r a d i a t i o n b e l t

d i p s c l o s e to t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e because o f t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r e n g t h of t h e E a r t h ' s magnetic f i e l d .
be telemetered to t h e ground.

Data obtained w i l l

The spectrometer i s operated by t h e p i l o t by means o f

a switch.

H e w i l l r e c o r d on-off t i m e s on t h e voice r e c o r d e r .

Equipment f o r t h e experiment weighs approximately 12.5 pounds.

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T r i.-Axis Flux-Gate Magnetometer

O b j e c t i v e i s to monitor t h e d i r e c t j o i i arid amplitude o r t h e E a r t h ’ s magnetic f i e l d w i t h rlespect to t h e s p a c e c r a r t . The data w i l l be used to c o r r e l a t e racliatrioii measurements made by t h e Proton-Electron Spectrometer experlment.

The s p e c t r o m e t e r cannot determine the d i r e c t i o n a l
d j s t r j b u t ; o n oi” t h e trapped radliat !.on

a t spacecraft a l t l tudes.

I n a d d i t i o n , s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e data : j s n o t adequate to determi.ne t h e r e l a t i v e o r i - e n t a t i o n of the E a r t h ’ s geomagnetic f i e l d during driftj..ng f l i g h t .

Both t y p e s of‘ i n f o r m a t i o n a r e

necessary t o c o r r e l a t e t h e r a d f a t i o n measurements.

A t r i - a x i s f l u x - g a t e magnetometer w i l l be used for this

experiment.

It c o n s i s t s o f an e l e c t r o n i c s unit and seiisors

l o c a t e d i n t h e equipment a d a p t e r s e c t i o n , w i t h t h e s e n s o r s ?acing aft.
The s e n s o r s a r e on a boom which can be exteiided

beyond khe end o f t h e d a p t e r .

The magnetometer w i l l be o p e r a t e d j.n the same r e g i o n and

a t t h e same time as t h e s p e c t r o m e t e r experLment.

The s e n s o r s
By

w i l l measure v e c t o r components o f t h e magnetic f i e l d .

measuring each component, t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the f i e l d l i n e s can be r e f e r e n c e d to t h e s p a c e c r a f t and t h e s p e c t r o m e t e r experiment.
With f i e l d line d i r e c t i o n and p i t c h a n g l e Of ’che

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-

charged particles known, interpolation of data from spectrometer can be related to the total charged particles incident on the spacecraft. Data obtained will be telemetered to the ground. The pilot operates the experiment with two switches. One switch actuates the boom and is a one-time operation since the boom will not be retracted. The second switch operates The

both the spectrometer and magnetometer experiments.

magnetometer experiment weighs approximately 3.5 pounds. The preceding three experiments will be conducted by the Radiation and Fields Branch of the Advanced Spacecraft Technology Division of the Manned Spacecraft Center. is sponsored by the Office of Manned Space Flight. Two-Color Earth's Limb Photography Objective is to photograph the Earth's limb in an effort to determine the excess elevation of the blue limb over the red. The limb is the Earth's outer edge of brightness,

I t

and this experiment is an extension of the horizon definition experiments begun in Project Mercury. Postflight measurements of the photographs will be used to determine if the elevation of the Earth's limb can be a reliable aid in future manned space flight guidance and navigation sightings.

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The p i l o t w i l l use a hand-held Hasselhlad camera, black

a n d white i ' : l m ,

and a s p e c i a l r i l t e r mosaic which w l l l allow

each p i c t u r e to be taken p a r t l y through a r e d f j l t c r alid p a r t l y through a b l u e f ' j - l t e r . The modified f i l m magazii;e has a

two-color P i l t e r mounted j u s t i n front o r t h e f i l m p l a n e .
The c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of each p i c t u r e w i l l be through the r e d

f i l t e r and the s i d e p o r t i o n s through t h e b l u e f i l t e r .

The experiment w i l l be conducted d u r i n g t h e day-side p o r t i o n o f one o r b i t .

A s t h e s u n l i t E a r t h ' s l i m b becomes

v i s i b l e , t h e p i l o t w i l l t a k e t h r e e photographs i n succession, aiming t h e camera a t t h e horizon d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t or t h e s p a c e c r a f t along t h e l i n e - o f f - f l i g h t .

In a b o u t f i v e

minutes, he w i l l again-take a group of t h r e e pictures.
Nine or more such groups may be o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e day-side

p o r t i o n of t h e o r b i t i n which t h e s u n l i t l i m b i s v i s i b l e .

The p i l o t may perform o t h e r t a s k s between t h e groups o f photographs, b u t t h e experiment f i l m magazine must not be removed from t h e camera and t h e s e t t i n g s must n o t be a l t e r e d .
If t h e experiment i s i n t e r r u p t e d ,

t h e s e r i e s may be continued

i n t h e similar p o r t i o n o f a l a t e r day-side o r b i t , but t h e
f i l m magazine must n o t be removed u n t i l t h e experiment i s completed.

The magazine c o n t a i n s aPProximately 36 rrames, a l l o w i n g up t o n i n e exposures if t h e a s t r o n a u t s wish t o r e c o r d a n u n r e l a t e d phenomenon d u r i n g t h i s experiment. - more -

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The experj-metit does n o t r e q u i r e a t t i t u d e maneuvering other

than t o o r i e n t t h e s p a c e c r a f t a l o n g the o r b i t a l t r a c k while
each s e r i e s o f photographs i s being taken.

The e x p e r i m e n t a l f i l m magazine weighs approximately one

pourid,

The experiment w i l l be conducted by t h e I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n

Laboratory, Department o f Aeronautics and A s t r o n a u t i c s , Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Cambridge,
i s t h e O f f i c e o f Manned Space F l i g h t ,
Sponsor

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SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS

S y n o p t i c T e r r a i n Photography Experiment

Primary o b j e c t i v e i s t o g e t h i g h - q u a l i t y p i c t u r e s of

l a r g e land areas t h a t have been p r e v i o u s l y well-mapped by

a e r i a l photography.

Such photographs can s e r v e as a s t a n d a r d

f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p i c t u r e s of unknown a r e a s on E a r t h , t h e Moon, and o t h e r p l a n e t s .

A secondary o b j e c t i v e i s t o o b t a i n h i g h - q u a l i t y p i c t u r e s

of r e l a t i v e l y poorly-mapped a r e a s of t h e E a r t h f o r s p e c i f i c

s c i e n t i f i c purposes.

F o r example, g e o l o g i s t s hope t h a t such

photographs can h e l p to answer q u e s t i o n s of c o n t i n e n t a l d r i f t , s t r u c t u r e of t h e E a r t h ' s mantle, and o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of t h e continents.

The c o n t i n e n t a l United States w i l l be t h e p r i o r i t y photo-

g r a p h i c o b j e c t i v e , followed by t h e Arabian Peninsula and E a s t A f r i c a , and t h i r d , o t h e r p a r t s of A f r i c a .
Of particular in-

t e r e s t are rift v a l l e y s which are g e o l o g i c a l l y analogous t o
t h e r i l l s found on t h e Moon.

These r i f t v a l l e y s extend from

Turkey, through S y r i a , Jordan, t h e Red Sea a r e a and e a s t e r n A f r i c a as f a r southasMozambique. By photographing these rift v a l l e y s , g e o l o g i s t s f e e l t h a t may g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g

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on t h e Moon.

58

-

of t h e c r u s t and u p p e r mantle of t h e E a r t h as w e l l as the r i l l s

A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s area p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e Sahara d e s e r t ,
has many wind-blown

sand dunes, c a l l e d seif dunes, which are

s e v e r a l hundred f e e t high and extend many hundreds of miles i n length,
There has been some s c i e n t i f i c s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t t h e

familiar c a n a l s on Mars may be a type of s e i f , o r sand dunes. Photographs of these dunes from t h e Gemini 4 f l i g h t are expected t o a l l o w s c i e n t i s t s t o b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t photographs from

the upcoming ( J u l y 14, 1965) Mariner N f l y - b y of Mars.

Addi-

tionally, it should r e s u l t i n b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of photographs t a k e n of Mars by Earth-based t e l e s c o p e s .

Photography w i l l be performed d u r i n g p e r i o d s of maximum
d a y l i g h t , from 9 A.M.

t o 3 P.M.

l o c a l time.

If cloud c o v e r

i s over 50 p e r c e n t i n t h e p r i o r i t y areas, t h e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l
photograph s u b j e c t s of opportunity-any i n t e r e s t i n g l a n d areas.

A 70-mm modifiedHasseIblad (Swedish make), Model 500C w i l l
be u s e d ,

The magazine c a p a c i t y of t h i s camera i s 55 frames p e r

roll.

The nose of t h e Gemini 4 s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be t i l t e d

s t r a i g h t down.

Normally, t h e camera w i l l be i n u s e from f i v e

t o 10 minutes, t a k i n g a photograph e v e r y six seconds of a 100mile-wide area, t h u s g i v i n g continent-wide coverage when t h e i n d i v i d u a l frames are mounted as a continuous photogrip h i c
strip

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Space photography,

i n comparison w i t h a e r i a l photography,

i s thought t o have t h e advantage of providing g r e a t e r p e r -

s p e c i m e , wider coverage, g r e a t e r speed, and r a p i d r e p e t i t i o n
of coverage.

These f a c t o r s s u g g e s t a p p l i c a t i o n s i n many areas

of geology, weather, topography, hydrology and oceanography.

For example:
1.
Geologic reconnaissance can t e l l u s more of our own

p l a n e t , l e a d i n g t o b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e geology of t h e Moon and o t h e r p l a n e t s .
2.

Topographic mapping of E a r t h can g i v e u s newer and b e t t e r

maps w i t h a s c a l e of 1:1,000,000.

3.

Hydrology mapping could, for example, p e r m i t estimates

of the amount of s n o w f a l l i n p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s and what t h e
amount of run-off would be i n the s p r i n g t i m e , of great i n t e r e s t

i n f l o o d p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l .

4 .

Oceanographic mapping Could, among o t h e r t h i n g s , show

t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and temperature of ocean c u r r e n t s ; the l o c a t i o n
of i c e of danger t o shipping.

Space photography a l s o shows p o t e n t i a l f o r f o r e s t r y mapping, f o r example, n o t i n g v e g e t a t i o n changes.
It a l s o can

supplement t h e TV-type photography of o u r weather s a t e l l i t e s s i n c e f i l m p r o v i d e s greater r e s o l u t i o n .

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60

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The experiment i s being conducted by Dr. Paul D. Lowman, Jr.,

a g e o l o g i s t a t NASA's Goddard Space F l i g h t Center, Greenbelt,
M d

Synoptic Weather Photography Experiment
The Synoptic Weather Photography experiment i s designed

t o make u s e of man's a b i l i t y t o photograph cloud systems
selectively-in c o l o r and i n greater d e t a i l t h a n can be o b t a i n e d

from t h e c u r r e n t TIROS m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s a t e l l i t e .

The Gemini 4 crew w i l l photograph v a r i o u s cloud systems.

They w i l l be u s i n g t h e same 70-mm Hasselblad camera and Ektachrome
f i l m as f o r t h e Synoptic T e r r a i n Photography experiment.

A primary purpose of t h e experiment i s t o augment i n f o m a -

t i o n from m e t e o r o l o g i c a l s a t e l l i t e s .

Observations from meteoro-

l o g i c a l s a t e l l i t e s a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o knowledge of t h e E a r t h ' s weather systems, I n many a r e a s t h e y provide i n Such p i c -

f o r m a t i o n where f e w o r no o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s e x i s t .

t u r e s , however, are e s s e n t i a l l y t e l e v i s i o n views of l a r g e a r e a s t a k e n from a n a l t i t u d e of 400 miles o r more. They l a c k the de-

t a i l which can be o b t a i n e d i n photographs taken from t h e Gemini
h e i g h t of about 100 miles.

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One of t h e aims of t h e S-6 experiment i n t h e Gemini4 and
subsequent f l i g h t s i s to g e t a b e t t e r l o o k a t some of t h e cloud
1

p a t t e r n s seen on TIROS p i c t u r e s , b u t n o t f u l l y understood.

There

are c e l l u l a r p a t t e r n s , cloud bands r a d i a t i n g from a p o i n t , app a r e n t shadows of i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e h i g h c l o u d s on low cloud decks, and small v o r t i c e s sometimes found i n t h e l e e of mountainous islands.

Another o b j e c t i v e i s to g e t p i c t u r e s of a v a r i e t y of storm systems, such a s weather f r o n t s , s q u a l l l i n e s , o r t r o p i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s , s o t h a t t h e i r s t r u c t u r e can be b e t t e r understood.

F i n a l l y , t h e experimenters hope t o g e t s e v e r a l sets of

views of t h e same area on subsequent p a s s e s o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t
t o see how v a r i o u s weather phenomena move and develop.

The e x p e r i m e n t e r s a r e Kenneth M. Nagler and S t a n l e y D. Soules,
b o t h of t h e Weather Bureau's N a t i o n a l Weather S a t e l l i t e Center. Nagler has a d u a l r o l e i n t h e Gemini
11

spaceflight, serving both

as a n experimenter i n t h e weather photography e f f o r t and as Head
of t h e S p a c e f l i g h t Meteorology Group which p r o v i d e s N A S A t h e

f o r e c a s t i n g support f o r i t s manned s p a c e f l i g h t programs.

Soules

i s w i t h t h e Meteorological S a t e l l i t e Laboratory.

He p r e v i o u s l y

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p r e p a r e d photographic experiments conducted by Astronauts

S c h i r r a and Cooper i n t h e i r Mercury f l i g h t s .

I n these t h e

Earth and its cloud systems were viewed i n d i f f e r e n t portions
of t h e v i s u a l and i n f r a r e d s p e c t r a .
The experiment monitor

i s Capt. Robert D. Mercer, USAF, a s s i g n e d t o t h e NASA Manned

S p a c e c r a f t Center.

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The meals planned for t h e Gemini 4 crew c o n t a i n

49

different i t e m s .

E e r e a y e some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e menus f o r
or1

each a s t r o n a u t , >asec;

imdividual p r e f e r e n c e s , b u t t h e

c a l o r i e balance i s t h e same.

The a s t m n a u t s w i l l . e a t f o u r meals a day.

The meals a r e

s t o r e d i n 1-8 packages, 14 two-man meals and f o u r one-man meals, i n a compartment above t h e command pilot's l e f t s h o u l d e r . They

a r e marked by day and meal and a r e placed i n t h e compartment i n o r d e r s o t h a t t h e f i r s t day meal i s on t o p ,
The packages

a r e connected by a nylon lanyard which p r e v e n t s them from

g e t t i n g o u t o f o r d e r when f l o a t i n g i n s i d e t h e compartment.

The food c o n s i s t s o f f r e e z e - d r i e d items, dehydrated items

i n powder form and compressed b i t e - s i z e d items.

The dehydrated

food and some of t h e f r e e z e d r i e d items w i l l be r e c o n s t i t u t e d by adding water w i t h a s p e c i a l water gun.
The compressed

items do n o t need water.

Each package of f r e e z e - d r i e d food c o n t a i n s a d i s i n f e c t a n t t a b l e t which i s placed i n t h e food pouch a r t e r t h e a s t r o n a u t has eaten.
The t a b l e t a c t s chemically to prevent s p o i l a g e of t h e

remaining food.
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The food forrnulation concept was developed by t h e U . S .

A r m y L a b o r a t o r i e s , Natick, Mass.

Overall food procurement,

p r o c e s s i n g , and packaging w a s performed by the Whirlpool Corp., S t . Joseph, Mich. P r i n c i p a l food c o n t r a c t o r s a r e

S w i f t and Co.,

Chicago, and P i l l s b u r y Co., Minneapolis.

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- 65 GEMINI 4 MENU

F i r s t Day

M Div it t c

White

Calories
& Egg B i t e s

Calories

Bread Cubes
( R ) Orange J u i c e

165

91 283

T i T ? I i I S t a r Cereal
Bacon & Egg B i t e s Toasted Bread Cubes (R) Orange J u i c e

MEAL A

022
148

283 165 83

91

I1
B B R

105
Toast F r u i t c a k e (Date) Tea
202

78

( R ) Tea

220

220

238 78
( R ) Orange J u i c e

83
705
mL D A
r u i t Jc.

86

704
Jc. 83

237 78 86 -83

296
719
Total Calories 2611 Food O n l y Weight 549.8 g m

83 184 156

184

296
719
Total Calories 2610 Food Only Weight 550.8 gm

156

( R ) R e c o n s t i t u t e d w i t h water

1 ounce ( a v o i r d u p o i s ) e q u a l s

( B ) B i t e size, no water added
NOTE:

28.3 grams 1 gram e q u a l s .035 ounce

The same menu w l l l be used by t h e back-up crew, i f necessary.

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Second Day IvIcDivitt Calories White Calories Apricot Cerea.1 Bars 154 Ham & Applesauce 127 Toast . 76

ii

B R B R

Apricot Cereal B a r s Ham & Applesauce Cinnamon Toast Cocoa

154
127

m
161
145
211

75 186

m
Beef B i t e s 167 P o t a t o Salad 145 Fruitcake (Pineapple)211 83 Orange J u i c e

186

Beef B i t e s P o t a t o Salad Fruitcake (Pineapple) Orange J u i c e Banana Pudding Chicken Salad

606
141 237

83

E m
141
237

Banana Pudding Chicken Salad

68

68

m
P o t a t o Soup Chicken & Gravy 222

202

68 4
202 Chicken & Gravy

202

91 78

91 78
296

719
Total Calories 2516 Food Only Weight 521.8 gm

296 32

32
719
Total Calories 2516 Food Only Weight 521.8 gm

( R ) R e c o n s t i t u t e d w i t h water
( B ) B i t e s i z e , no water added

1 ounce ( a v o i r d u p o i s ) e q u a l s 28.3 grams
1 gram e q u a l s .035 ounce

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T h i r d Day

McDivitt Calories Sugar F r o s t e d F l a k e s 139 Bacon Squares( D b l . Serv)203 76 Cinnamon Toast Orange-Grapefruit Jc. 83

Whit e

Calories Sugar F r o s t e d F l a k e s 139 Sausage P a t t i e s 202 Cinnamon Toast 78 Orange-Grapefruit J c . 83
502

501
204 231

Tuna S a l a d Cheese Sandwich A p r i c o t Pudding R ) Orange J u i c e

147

Beef & Gravy Cheese Sandwich Apricot Pudding Orange J u i c e

148

609
116 74

147 83

231

116
Toasted Bread Cubes Pineapple Cubes

74 165

Toasted Bread Cubes Pineapple Cubes

165

Total Calories 2574 Food O n l y Weight 542.9 g m .

Total Calories 2519 Food O n l y Weight 537.9 gm

( R ) R e c o n s t i t u t e d w i t h water

(B) B i t e s i z e , no water added
1 ounce ( a v o i r d u p o i s ) e q u a l s 28.3 grams 1 gram e q u a l s

.a35 oucne

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F o u r t h Day

McDivitt

White

Calories Orange J u i c e Beef Sandwiches Orange J u i c e Beef Sandwiches

543

20 2

m

202

B e e f Sandwich

Gingerbread Cho co l a t e Pud d i ng

Beef' Sand wich

793

Gingerbread Pudding, Chocolate

156
793

Chicken Toasted Bread Cubes

&

Vegetables

113
(R)

85
7%
(R)

Spaghetti

&

Meat Sauce
281 32

28 1 Tea

5 %

Apri cot Cubes Tea

77 3

Total Calories 2520 Food Only Weight 542.5 rn

T o t a l Calories 2501 Food Only Weight 532.5 gm

(R) (B)

Reconstituted with water B i t e s i z e , no water added

1 ounce ( a v o i r d u p o i s ) ei1uaI.s 28.3 grams
1 gram equals .035 ounce

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GEMINI SPACECRAFT The Gemini s p a c e c r a f t i s c o n i c a l 18 f e e t , 5 inches long, 10 f e e t a c r o s s a t t h e base and 39 i n c h e s a c r o s s a t
the top.

It has two major

s e c t i o n s , t h e r e e n t r y module

and t h e a d a p t e r s e c t i o n .

Reentry ---.

Module

The r e e n t r y module i s 1 f e e t high and 1

7$ f e e t i n

diameter a t its base.

It has t h r e e primary s e c t i o n s : (1)

rendezvous and recovery s e c t i o n (R&R) ; ( 2 ) r e e n t r y c o n t r o l s e c t i o n (RCS);

(3) cabin section.
and ------ c t i o n i s t h e forward (small) recovery s e Housed i n t h i s s e c t i o n are the

The rendezvous -

p o r t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

drogue, p i l o t and main p a r a c h u t e s and t h e rendezvous radar. However, t h e rendezvous radar w i l l n o t be c a r r i e d on Gemini 4.

The r e e n t r y c o n t r o l system i s l o c a t e d between t h e rendezvous

and recovery s e c t i o n and t h e c a b i n s e c t i o n .

It c o n t a i n s f u e l

and o x i d i z e r tanks, v a l v e s , t u b i n g and t h r u s t chamber a s s e m b l i e s
(TCA).
A parachute a d a p t e r assembly I s on t h e forward f a c e

f o r t h e main parachute attachment.

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-

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The c a b i n s e c t i o n

i s l o c a t e d between t h e r e e n t r y

c o n t r o l s e c t i o n and t h e a d a p t e r s e c t i o n .
seated side-by-side,

It houses t h e crew

e l e c t r i c a l and l i f e s u p p o r t equipment and Above each s e a t i s a h a t c h opening f o r
Th5 crew compartment i s

e x p e r i m e n t a l devj-ces.

e n t e r i n g and l e a v i n g t h e c a b i n .

p r e s s u r i z e d and spaces c o n t a i n i n g equipment t h a t r e q u i r e no p r e s s u r i z a t i o n o r which a r e i n t e r n a l l y p r e s s u r i z e d are l o c a t e d between t h e p r e s s u r i z e d s e c t i o n and t h e o u t e r s h e l l .
The

o u t e r s h e l l i s covered w i t h overlapping s h i n g l e s t o provide aerodynamic and h e a t p r o t e c t i o n .
A dish-snaped heat s h i e l d

forms t h e l a r g e end of t h e c a b i n s e c t i o n and r e e n t r y module.
Adapter S e c t i o n

The a d a p t e r i s

7$ f e e t high and

10 f e e t i n diameter a t

t h e base.

It c o n s i s t s o f a r e t r o g r a d e s e c t i o n and a n equipment

s e c tion.

-

The ret=rade -----o n c o n t a i n s r e t r o g r a d e r o c k e t s and secti

p a r t of t h e r a d i a t o r f o r t h e c o o l i n g system,

- more -

LIQUID ROCKET SYSTEMS GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
25 LB ATTITUDE THRUST CHAMBER (TYPICAL 8 PLACES) HELIUM% /-- OXIDIZER b / 85 LB DECELERATE THRUST CHAMBER / n (TYPICAL 2 PLACES)

FUEL^^
I

I I
\

I

'

\A

H/v //I

I

er-\

,/
j

\

LB MANEUVER THRUST CHAMBER ,(TYPICAL 6PLACES)

ORBIT ATTITUDE
AND

25 LB THRUST CHAMBER (TYPICAL 16 PLACES)

REENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM

THRUST CHAMBER ARRANGEMENT
ATTITUDE CONTROL 25 LBS. THRUST PER UNIT MANEUVER CONTROL 100 LBS. THRUST PER UNIT * 85 LBS. THRUST PER UNIT AFT

Z

MANEUVERING CONTROL
VERTICAL

I

-4
I

w

LATERAL

AFT

SPACECRAFT RESPONSES TO ORBIT ATTITUDE CONTROL THRUST

I

2
I

- 75 -

Z

- 76 -

The equipment

s e c t i o n holds b a t t e r l e s for e l e c t r i c a l
1

power, f u e l f o r t h e orbit a t t l t u d e and maneuver system ( O A M S ) ,
t h e p r i n a r y oxygen f o r t h e environmental c o n t r o l s.jstem.

It a l s o serves a s a r a d i a t o r Tor t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s c o o l i n g
system which i s contained i n the s e c t i o n .
The equi.pment

s e c t i o n i s j e t t i s o n e d immediately b e f o r e the r e t r o r o c k e t s a r e f'lred f o r r e e n t r y and t h e r e t r o g r a d e section i s j e t t i s o n e d

a f t e r t h e r e t r o r o c k e t s are f i r e d .

The Gemini s p a c e c r a f t weighs approxS.mately 7,000 pounds

a t launch,
i t lands.

The r e e n t r y module

weighs about 4,700 pounds when

McDonnell A i r c r a f t Corp., S t
Tor t h e Gemini s p a c e c r a f t .

Louis, i s prime c o n t r a c t o r

-

77

VXHICL!.<

G --E M I N I- LAUNCH

The Gemini Launch Vehic1.e i s a m o d i f i e d U . S . A i r Force T i t a n I1 i n t e r c o n t i n e n t a l b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e c o n s i s t i n g o f two stages.

The f i r s t stage i s 63 f e e t high and t h e second s t a g e i s

27 f e e t h i g h

D i a m e t e r o f both s t a g e s ris 10 f e e t .

Overall

h e i g h t of the launch v e h i c l e p l u s t h e sL:acecraft i s 1 9 f e e t . 0

Launch weight i n c l u d i n g t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s about 3'cO,OOO pounds

The first s t a g e has two r o c k e t engines and t h e second

s t a g e has a s i n g l e engine.

A l l engines burn a 50-50 blend

o f monomethyl hydrazine and unsymmetrical-dlmethyl hydrazine

a s f u e l w i t h n i t r o g e n t e x t r o x i d e as o x i d i z e r .

The f u e l i s

h y p e r g o l i c , t h a t i s it i g n i t e s spon"dneous1y when i t comes i n c o n t a c t w i t h the o x i d i z e r , and i s sgorable. i'irst s t a g e erigiiies produce a com'uiirieu 430,000 pounds

Tile

o f t h r u s t a t 1;-f't-off and t h e second stage engine produces

about 100,000 pounds t h r u s t a t a l t i t u d e .

T i t a n I1 was choser, f o r t h e Gemini program because of i t s s.imp1:i.fied o p e r a t i o n , t h r u s t and a v a l l a b l l i t y . The following

m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made i n t h e T i t a n I1 t o make i t s u i t a b l e f o r manned space f l i g h t launches:

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- 78
1 .

-

Addition of a malfunction d e t e c t i o n system t o d e t e c t

and t r a n s m i t information or problems i n t h e b o o s t e r system
t o t h e crew.

2.

M o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f l i g h t c o n t r o l system t o provide

a back-up system shou1.d t h e primary system fail i n f l i g h t .

3.

M o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l system.

4. S u b s t i t u t i o n
5.

o f r a d i o guidance for i n e r t i a l guidance.

D e l e t i o n o f r e t r o r o c k e t s and v e r n i e r r o c k e t s .

5.

N e w second s t a g e equipment truss.

7. N e w second s t a g e forward o x i d i z e r
8.

s k i r t assembly.

S i m p l i f i c a t i o n of t r a j e c t o r y t r a c k i n g requirements

I

9. M o d i f i c a t i o n o f h y d r a u l i c system.
M o d i f i c a t i o n of i-nstrwnent system.

1. 0

Gemini Launch Vehicle program management for NASA i s under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Space Systems D i v i s i o n o f t h e Air Force Systems Command C o n t r a c t o r s include:
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A J . r Frame and system i n t e g r a t i o n , Martin C o . , Baltimore

D i v i s i o n s , Baltimore.

Propulsion systems, Aerojet-General Corp., Sacramento, Calif.

Radio command guidance system, General E1ectrS.c Co., Syracuse, N . Y .

Ground guidance computer, Burroughs Corp., P a o l i , P a .

Systems e n g i n e e r i n g and Corp., E l Segundo, Calif.

t e c h n i c a l d i r e c t i o n , Aerospace

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* E q u i ~ m ~ ~ tcontains: bay
0 0
0
0

Batteries'
Malfunction d ~ t ~ t i o n system MDSI units Range safety c o m ~ a n d control system

e
0

~r~rammer Three-axis reference system (TARS)
Radio guldance system ( R G 5 l
I nstrument~lon and ~ @ l ~ ~ ~ t r y system

e Autopl~~t

- 81

-

G E M I N I SPACE S U I T

Gemini e x t r a v e h i c u l a r s u i t

will be worn by t h e G e m i n i 4

crew t o e v a l u a t e a n d f l i g h t - q u a l i f y i t .

This i s t h e s u i t

planned f o r a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e t h e s p a c e c r a f t .

The e x t r a v e h i c u l a r s u i t d i f f e r s from t h e r e g u l a r G e m i n i space s u i t i n t h r e e ways:
1.

An e x t r a l a y e r f o r thermal a n d micrometeroid

p r o t e c t i o n has been added t o t h e b a s i c s u i t .
i n t e g r a l part of t h e s u i t .

It i s a n

T h e e x t r a l a y e r weighs about

3 3/4 pounds a n d i s white, t h e same c o l o r as t h e b a s i c s u i t .
It i s made of a cover l a y e r of h i g h temperature nylon and l a y e r s
of aluminized mylar a n d f e l t .
2.

Two e x t e r n a l v i s o r s have been a d d e d t o t h e helmet.

The i n n e r v i s o r i s m a d e of a m a t e r i a l c a l l e d Lexan, which i s about 30 t i m e s s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e p l a s t i c used i n a i r c r a f t canopies.

It i s coated w i t h a s p e c i a l s o l u t i o n which p r e v e n t s
This v i s o r p r o v i d e s
The

heat leak from the s u i t i n t o a vacuum.

micrometeroid a n d thermal p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e f a c e p l a t e .

o u t e r v i s o r i s t i n t e d and provides g l a r e p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e astronaut.

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-

82 -

3.

A s t r a i n r e l i e f z i p p e r has been a d d e d beneath t h e

p r e s s u r e s e a l i n g z i p p e r of the s u i t .

The new z i p p e r i s

designed t o take t h e s t r a i n from t h e p r e s s u r e s e a l i n g z i p p e r d u r i n g opening a n d c l o s i n g of t h e s u i t .

The b a s i c Gemini suit i s a c l o s e f i t t i n g f u l l p r e s s u r e s u i t w i t h a n i n n e r l a y e r of a rubberized material covered by a nylon m a t e r i a l . The helmet a n d g l o v e s may be removed

i n flight.

Oxygen i n l e t a n d o u t l e t connections are l o c a t e d a t

waist l e v e l .

The s u i t i s e n t e r e d through a z i p p e r opening

which runs from t h e c r o t c h up t h e e n t i r e back of t h e s u i t .

A small b a t t e r y pack a n d i n d i v i d u a l f i n g e r t i p l i g h t s

are mounted on each glove so that t h e a s t r o n a u t s can read
i n s t r u m e n t s on the n i g h t s i d e of the E a r t h while the c a b i n
light i s off.

The s u i t has been developed by MSCIs C r e w Systems Division. Prime c o n t r a c t o r i s t h e D a v i d Clark Co., Worcester,

Mass.

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83 -

CREW BIOGRAPHIES
James A .
pilot

( f o r A l t o n ) McDivitt, Gemini 4 command

Born: Chicago, June 10, 1929

HEIGHT: ?ft, 11 i n . , WEIGHT: 155
blue eyes.
EDUCATION:

l b s ; Brown h a i r ,

Bachelor o f Science degree i n a e r o n a u t i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g from t h e U n i v e r s i t of' Michigan 1959 ( g r a d u a t e d f i r s t i n c l a s s y . Attended Jackson J u n i o r College, 1948-1950. Married to t h e former P a t r i c i a Ann Haas o f Cleveland, Ohio

MARITAL STATUS:

CHILDREN:

Michael A . , Apr. 16, 195'7; Ann Lynn, J u l y 21, 19%; Patri-c W . , Aug. 3 0 , 1960 ORGANIZATIONS: Member, S o c i e t y of Experimental T e s t P i l o t s and American I n s t i t c h ? o f Aeronautics and A s t r o n a u t i c s

PROFESSIONAL

EXPERIENCE:

McDivitt, a n Air Force M a j o r , j o i n e d the A i r Force i n 1951. He flew 145 combat missions and F-861s. durring t h e Korean a c t i o n i n F - 8 0 ' ~ H e was awarded t h r e e D i s t i n g u i s h e d F l y i n g Crosses, f i v e Air Medals, and t h e Choo Moo Medal from South Korea.

He is Pilot Pilot Base,

a g r a d u a t e of t h e USAE Experimental Test School and t h e USAF Aerospace Research c o u r s e . H e served a t Edwards A i r Force
C a l i f . , as an experimental t e s t p i l o t .

McDlvitt has logged more than 3,000 hours f l y i n g time, i n c l u d i n g 2,500 hours i n j e t a i r c r a f t ,
CURRENT ASSIGNMENT:

McDivitt was s e l e c t e d as a n a s t r o n a u t by NASA i n September 1952. I n a d d i t i o n to participating i n the overall astronaut t r a i n i n g program he has had a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z e d d u t i e s . These d u t i e s i n c l u d e monitoring t h e d e s i g n and development of t h e guidance and n a v i g a t i o n systems for t n e Gemini and Apollo s p a c e c r a f t , as w e l l as monitoring t h e o v e r a l l Apollo Command and S e r v i c e Modules.

M c D i v i t t J . s son

of M r . & Mrs. James McDivitt, Jackson, Mich. - more -

- 84 -

Edward H.
BORN:

(for Higgins) White 11, Gemini 4 p i l o t

San Antonio, Tex., Nov. 1 4 , 1930

HEIGHT: 6 ft.; WEIGHT: 171 l b s . ; Brown-hair, Brown eyes
EDUCATION:

Bachelor o f Science degree from United S t a t e s M i l i t a r y Academy, 1952, Master o f Science degree i n a e r o n a u t i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, 1959 Married t o former P a t r i c i a E i l e e n o f Washington, D.C. Finegan

MARITAL STATUS:

CHILDREN:

Edward, May 15,

1953; Bonnie Lynn, Sept. 15, 1956
A s s o c i a t e member of I n s t i t u t e of Aero-space Sciences; Member o f Sigma Delta P s i , a t h l e t i c honorary; and Member o f Tau Beta P i , e n g i n e e r i n g honorary

PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:

EXPERIENCE:

White, an A i r Force Major, r e c e i v e d f l i g h t t r a i n i n g i n F l o r i d a and Texas, following h i s g r a d u a t i o n from West Point. He s p e n t 37 y e a r s i n Germayy w i t h a f i g h t e r squadron, f l y i n g F - 8 5 ' s and F-100 S. He a t t e n d e d t h e A i r Force T e s t P i l o t School a t Edwards A i r Force Base, C a l i f . , i n 1959. White was l a t e r a s s i g n e d t o Wright-Patterson A i r Force Base, Ohio, as a n experimental t e s t p i l o t w i t h the Aeronautical SystemDivision. In this assignment he made f l i g h t t e s t s f o r r e s e a r c h and weapons systems development, wrote t e c h n i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g r e p o r t s , and made recommendations f o r improvement i n a i r c r a f t d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t h n . He has logged more t h a n 3,600 hours f l y i n g time, i n c l u d i n g more than 2,200 hours i n jet a i r c r a f t .

CURRENT ASSIGNMENT:

White i s a member o f t h e a s t r o n a u t team s e l e c t e d by N S i n September 1962. AA of M a j . Gen. and Mrs. Edward H. White,

White i s t h e son S t . Petersburg, Fla.

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-

Frank Borman, Gemini

4 back-up crew, Command P i l o t
l b s . ; Blonde h a i r , b l u e

BORN:
HEIGHT:
cycs

Gary, Ind. , Mar. ill, 1928

5 Y t . , 10 i n . ; WEIGHT: 163

EDUCATION:

Bachelor o f Science degree, United S t a t e s M i l i t a r y Academy, 1950; Master o f Science degree i n a e r o n a u t i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g , C a l i f o r n i a I n s t i t u t e o f Technology, 1957. Married to t h e former Susan Bugbee o f Tucson, Ariz.

MARITAL STATUS: CHILDREN:
EXPERIiZNCE:

F r e d e r i c k , Oct. 4, 1951; Edwin, J u l y 20, 1953 Upon g r a d u a t i o n from West P o i n t , Borman, now a n A i r Force Major, chose a n A i r Force Career and r e c e i v e d h i s p i l o t t r a i n i n g a t Williams A i r Force Base, C a l i f . From 1951 to 1956 he served w i t h f i g h t e r squadrons i n t h e United S t a t e s and i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s and was a n i n s t r u c t o r a t t h e A i r Force Fighter IqJeapons School. From 1957 t o 1950 he was a n i n s t r u c t o r o f thermodynamics and f l u i d mechanics a t t h e U . S . M i l i t a r y Academy. He was graduated €rom t h e USAF Aerospace Research P i l o t s School i n 1960 and latei- served there as a n i n s t r u c t o r . I n t h i s c a p a c i t y he prepared and d e l i v e r e d academic l e e t u r e s and s i m u l a t o r b r i e f i n g s , and f l i g h t t e s t b r i e P i n g s on t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e 0 : ' s p a c e c r a f t t e s t i n g . Borrnan has logged more t h a n lC,400 hours f l y i n g t i m e , i n c l u d i n g more t h a n 3,500 hours i n j e t aircraft.

CURRENT ASSIGNMENT:

Borman was one of t h e n i n e a s t r o n a u t s named' by NASA i n September 1962.
of' M r . & Mrs. Edwin Borman, Phoenix,

Borman i s t h e son

Ariz.

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- 86 -

James A . crew p i l o t
BORN:

(for A r t h u r ) Lovell, J r . , G e m i n i 4 back-up

Cleveland, Ohio, March 25, 1928

HEIGHT:
b l u e eyes
EDUCATION:

6 f t . ; wSIGHT: 165 lbs.;-Blond hair,

Bachelor of Science degree from t h e United S t a t e s Naval Academy, 1952; a t t e n d e d U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin,

1946-1948.

MARITAL STATUS: CHILDREN:

Married to t h e former N a r i l y n Gerlach of Milwaukee Feb. 15,

Barbara Lynn, Oct. 13, 1953; James A . , 1955; Susan Kay, J u l y l&, 1958

EXPERIENCE:

Lovell, a Navy L i e u t e n a n t Commander, r e c e i v e d
f l i g h t t r a i n i n g Tollowing h i s g r a d u a t i o n from Annapolis.
H e served i.n a number of Naval a v i a t o r assignments including a three-year t o u r as a t e s t p i l o t a t t h e Naval A i r T e s t Center a t Patuxent River, Md. H i s d u t i e s t h e r e included s e r v i c e as program manager :or t h e F4H Weapon System E v a l u a t i o n .

L o v e l l was graduated from t h e Aviation S a f e t y
S c h o o l of t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Southern C a l i f o r n i a .

He served a s f l i g h t i n s t r u c t o r and s a f e t y o f f i c e r w i t h F i g h t e r Squadron 101 a t t h e Naval A i r S t a t i o n a t Oceana, V a .
L o v e l l has logged 3,000 hours f l y i n g t i m e , more than 2,000 hours i n jet a i r c r a f t .
CURRENT ASSIGNMENT:

including

L o v e l l was s e l e c t e d as a n a s t r o n a u t by N S i n September 1962. I n a d d i t i o n to AA p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the overall astronaut t r a i n i n g program, he has been a s s i g n e d s p e c i a l d u t i e s monitoring desj-gn and development o f recovery and i n c l u d i n g crew l i f e support systems and developing techniques for l u n a r and e a r t h l a n d i n g s and r e c o v e r y .

mgewajer $ea&,

ove 1 i

th son of M r . & Mrs. James A. L o v e l l , Sr., FTa. - more -

- 87

-

PROJECT OFFICIALS

George E. M u e l l e r

Associate Administrator, O f f i c e of Manned Space Flight, N S Headquarters. AA ActLng D i r e c t o r , Gemini Program. Deputy D i r e c t o r , Gemini Program, O f f i c e of Manned Space F l i g h t , N S HeadquarAA ters. D i r e c t o r , Missions Operat i o n s , N S Headquarters AA Gemini Program Manager, Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center, Houston Mission D i r e c t o r , Manned S p a c e c r a f t Center, Houston

W i l l i a m C. Schneider

E. E. C h r i s t e n s e n
Charles W. Mathews

C h r i s t o p h e r C . Kraft

Lt. Gen. Leighton I. Davis

USAF, N a t i o n a l Range D i v i s i o n Commander and DOD Manager of Manned Space F l i g h t Support Operations.
USAF, Deputy DOD Manager Director, Directorate Gemini Launch V e h i c l e s , Space Systems D i v i s i o n , A i r Force Systems Command. Chief, Gemini Launch D i v i s i o n , 6555th Aerospace T e s t Wing, A i r Force M i s s i l e Test Center, Cape Kennedy, F l a .
USN,

M a g . Gen. V. G. Huston
Col. Richard C . Dineen

L t . Col. John G . Albert

R. Admiral B. W. S a r v e r

10 4

. Commander Task Force

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PREVIOUS GEMINI FLIGHTS Gemini 1, A p r i l 8, 1964
T h i s w a s a n unmanned o r b i t a l f l i g h t t o t e s t t h e Gemini

launch v e h i c l e performance and t h e a b i l i t y of t h e s p a c e c r a f t and launch v e h i c l e t o w i t h s t a n d t h e launch environment. The

f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n Gemini s p a c e c r a f t was u s e d .

It w a s equipped

w i t h i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n designed t o o b t a i n d a t a on e x i t h e a t i n g ,

s t r u c t u r a l l o a d s , temperatures, v i b r a t i o n s and p r e s s u r e s .

The

launch v e h i c l e was e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same c o n f i g u r a t i o n a s w i l l
be flown on a l l Gemini missions.

P r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s of Gemini 1, a l l s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished:
1. f ormance. 2.

Demonstrate and q u a l i f y Gemini launch v e h i c l e p e r -

Determine e x i t h e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s on t h e s p a c e c r a f t

and launch v e h i c l e .

3.
4.

Demonstrate c o m p a t i b i l i t y of t h e launch v e h i c l e and

s p a c e c r a f t through o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n . Demonstrate o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n .

The combined s p a c e c r a f t and launch v e h i c l e second stage

o r b i t e d f o r about f o u r days.

Recovery was n o t attempted.

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Gemini 2, Jan. 19, 1965
T h i s was an unmanned b a l l i s t i c f l i g h t to q u a l i f y space-

c r a f t r e e n t r y h e a t p r o t e c t i o n and t e s t t h e major Gemini systems
r e q u i r e d f o r manned o r b i t a l f l i g h t s .
P r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s o f Gemini 2, a l l s u c c e s s f u l l y accom-

plished :
1,

Demonstrate t h e adequacy of t h e s p a c e c r a f t a f t e r b o d y

h e a t p r o t e c t i o n d u r i n g a maximum h e a t i n g r a t e r e e n t r y .
2.

Demonstrate s p a c e c r a f t s e p a r a t i o n from t h e launch ve-

h i c l e and s e p a r a t i o n of t h e equipment and r e t r o g r a d e s e c t i o n s .

3.
4.

Q u a l i f y a l l s p a c e c r a f t and launch v e h i c l e systems

as r e q u i r e d f o r manned o r b i t a l f l i g h t s .
Demonstrate combined s p a c e c r a f t and launch v e h i c l e

checkout and launch procedures

.

5.

Demonstrate s p a c e c r a f t r e c o v e r y systems and r e c o v e r

the spacecraft.
The Gemini 2 f l i g h t was d e l a y e d t h r e e t i m e s by a d v e r s e

weather--damage

t o t h e e l e c t r i c a l systems by l i g h t n i n g i n
In

August 1964, by Hurricanes Cleo and Dora i n September.

December t h e attempted launch was t e r m i n a t e d because of a hyd r a u l i c component f a i l u r e .
The v e h i c l e had s h i f t e d t o t h e

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back-up h y d r a u l i c system b u t t h e man-rating c a p a b i l i t y of t h e launch v e h i c l e p r o h i b i t s l i f t o f f ' when t h e v e h i c l e i s o p e r a t i n g on a back-up system.

Gemini 3, March 23,1965
T h i s w a s t h e f i r s t manned f l i g h t .

Astronauts Virgil I.

Grissom and John W. Young made t h r e e o r b i t s of t h e E a r t h i n f o u r hours and 53 minutes. The s p a c e c r a f t landed about 50

miles s h o r t of t h e planned l a n d i n g area i n t h e A t l a n t i c Ocean
because t h e s p a c e c r a f t d i d n o t provide a s much l i f t as expect e d d u r i n g t h e r e - e n t r y and l a n d i n g phase.

O b j e c t i v e s of t h e Gemini 3 mission:
1.

Demonstrate manned o r b i t a l f l i g h t i n t h e Gemini space-

c r a f t and q u a l i f y i t f o r long-duration missions.
2.

Evaluate t h e Gemini d e s i g n and i t s e f f e c t s on crew

performance c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e mission p e r i o d .

3.
tem.

Exercise t h e o r b i t a l o r i e n t a t i o n and maneuvering s y s -

4 Evaluate c o n t r o l l e d .

f l i g h t p a t h r e e n t r y by c m t r o l l i n g

t h e s p a c e c r a f t r o l l and u t i l i z i n g t h e f o r c e r e s u l t i n g from a n

o f f s e t i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t c e n t e r of g r a v i t y .

5.

Conduct experiments.

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ORBITS - REVOLUTIONS
During long-duration Gemini f l i g h t s the s p a c e c r a f t ' s course i n space may be measured i n e i t h e r o r b i t s or r e v o l u t i o n s .
O r b i t s a r e space r e f e r e n c e d and t a k e i n t o account E a r t h

rotation.

Gemini 4 i s a planned 97-hour-and-fifty-minute

flight.

The planned o r b i t a l p e r i o d i s about 90 minutes o r 16 o r b i t s e v e r y 24 hours.

Revolutions w i l l be measured each time Gemini

4

passes

over 80 degrees west l o n g i t u d e , about once e v e r y 96 minutes.

This method of measurement r e s u l t s i n about 15 r e v o l u t i o n s p e r day, o r l e s s r e v o l u t i o n t h a n o r b i t s .

The longer time f o r r e v o l u t i o n s i s caused by t h e r e t a t i o n of t h e E a r t h .
A s the spacecraft o r b i t s , the Earth turns

underneath i t s o t h a t on each ascending pass a c r o s s t h e e q a a t o r t h e s p a c e c r a f t r e g r e s s e s about 22.5 degrees, about

s i x minutes i n time.

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