NAIIC)NAL AER()NAUII(5 AND SPACEADMINISTRATION WASHINC,ION, DC 20%46

Wr:'z 4! ,, TELS wr_ _-_,9"z,

FOR RELEASE:

FRIDAY MARCH

A.M. ii, 1966

RELEASE

NO.

86-52

PROJECT:

GEMINI (To be than

8 launched March 15, no earlier

1966)

CONTENTS
GENERAL RELEASE ................................... PREFLIGHT ACTIVITIES AND INTEGRATED COUNTDOWN Launch MISSION Vehicle DESCRIPTION Countdown ....................... ............................... 1-5 ..... 6-8 9-11 12 12-13 14-16 16-17 17-19 19-21 21 21-22 22 22-23 24 25 26 26-30 30-33 34 34-36 37 37-38 38-39 40 40-41 41-42 42-43

Launch ......................................... Rendezvous ..................................... Docking Checks ................................. Activity ........................ .................................... ............................... Extravehicular Re-Rendezvous Final

Separation

Agena Activities Following Rendezvous .......... Retrofire ...................................... Orbits Gemini - Revolutions ........................... 8 Maneuvers .............................

Agena Maneuvers ................................ EXPERIMENTS ....................................... Scientific ..................................... Technological .................................. Medical ........................................ Operational Tasks .............................. CREW PROVISIONS Craw Training Gemini AND TRAINING ...................... Background .......................

8 Suit ..................................

Extravehicular Life Support System (ELSS) ...... Extravehicular Support Pack (ESP) .............. Umbilical Tether ............................... Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit ..................... -more-

_2_

_

l

70MM 16MM

Hasselblad Maurer Movie

Camera

......................... .......................

44 44-45 46 46 47-49 50 50 51 51 52-55 56 56-57 "-57 57-58 58-59 59-60 60 61-62 63 64 64-65 65 66 67 68 68 69 69-70 70-71 71 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78-79 80-82 83-85 86 86-89 90 91-94 95 96-97 98-99

Camera

Water Measuring System ........................ Food ........................................... Gemini Medical Body MANNED 8 Flight Menu ........................... Checks ................................. Disposal ............................ FLIGHT TRACKING NETWORK .............. Requirements ..................

Waste SPACE

Gemini Tracking Agena Mission

8 Mission Target

....................................... Vehicle Systems Command ........................... ............................ ................. ...................... System

Acquisition Spacecraft

Message

Requirements

Spacecraft Communications ...................... Spacecraft Systems Support ..................... Ground Communications .......................... Network Network ABORT AND Crew Planned Gemini Responsibility .........................

Configuration .......................... RECOVERY ................................ .................................... Landing Areas .......... Sequence .............. and Contingency Parachute Landing

Safety

Atlantic Recovery Area Communications .......... Planned Landing Areas .......................... Contingency Landing Areas ...................... SPACECRAFT AND LAUNCH VEHICLES .................... Gemini Spacecraft Power .............................. System ........................ Electrical Propellant Rendezvous Liquid Thrust

..................................... Radar ............................... Systems General Arrangement ...... Arrangement ..................... ............................

Rocket Chamber

Maneuvering

Control

Spacecraft Responses to Orbit Attitude ......... RCS Function ................................... Status Gemini Agena Atlas HISTORY Charge Launch Target Launch AND Device ........................... vehicle .......................... Vehicle vehicle ........................... ........................... ...........................

CONTRACTORS

Crew biographies ............................... U.S. Manned Space Flights ...................... Previous Gemini flights ........................ Project Officials .............................. Spacecraft Contractors ......................... Abbreviations and Symbols -endFrequently used ......

NEWS
RELEASE NO: 66-52

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION WASHINGTON, D.C. 20546

TELS. WO _-6995

wo_4,.

FOR RELEASE:

FRIDAY A.M. March ii, 1966

GEMINI 8 LAUNCH SET FOR MARCH 15

The National attempt to achieve

Aeronautics

and Space Administration and docking

will

the first rendezvous

of two schedFla.

spacecraft

in Earth orbit during the Gemini 8 mission

uled for launch no earlier

than March 15 from Cape Kennedy,

The Gemini 8 is scheduled 100 minutes after

to be launched

at ll:40 a.m. EST, (GATV)., a modi-

the Gemini Agena Target Vehicle

fied Agena D, lifts off the pad at Cape Kennedy at l0 a.m. Flight crew for the three-day missi'on is Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot, vilian and David R. Scott, pilot. is an Air Force major. Armstrong Backup is a ci-

and Scott

crew is Navy

Comdr. Charles Richard

"Pete" Conrad,

command pilot_ and Lt. Comdr.

F. Gordon, pilot. into orbit by the two-stage 430,000 pounds of Titan

Gemini 8 will be boosted

II Gemini Launch Vehicle which generates thrust.

The Gemini Agena Target Vehicle will be launched by which develops 390,000 pounds thrust at

an Atlas booster liftoff.

-more-

3/8/66

The cular mately

Agena by

will

be

launched

into

a 185-statute-mile Launch Vehicle

cir-

orbit

an Atlas before

Standardized Gemini

approxi-

IO0 minutes

8 liftoff.

Gemini orbit and

8 will rendezvous five

go

into

a i00

by

168-statute the after

mile

elliptical

as planned and one-half

during hours

fourth

revolution,

approximately

liftoff.

After of four

rendezvous

the

command Agena, Agena.

pilot

will the

perform Gemini

the will

first be

dockings

•with the

in which

physically

connected

to the

Several spacecraft and until

operational will remain

tests docked

will during

be

conducted,

and

the period

two

a 7½-hour-sleep begins.

after

extravehicular

activity

Scott minutes about elapsed two

is

scheduled the mission and

to

open

the

hatch one and the

at 20 hours a half

and

25

into

and

spend

revolutions, Total be

two hours time and

40 minutes,

outside to

spacecraft. will

from

hatch-opening

hatch-closing

hours

51 minutes.

In the umbilical will

first

daylight with

segment,

he

will from

remain the

on a 25-foot He the the

tether,

oxygen

supplied

spacecraft. from on and

retrieve

a nuclear

emulsion

radiation

experiment

spacecraft Agena tighten and

adapter, use the

activate minimum

a micrometeoroid reaction on the power tool

experiment to loosen

bolts

on a work

panel

adapter.

-more-

--3m

During the night, the spacecraft adapter.

Scott will don a backpack With the backpack

contained

in

is a 75-foot

tether

which he will attach remain in the adapter before adapter continuing section,

to the original

25-foot tether.

He will

section of the spacecraft activities. before

until daylight (Gemini 8's is an un-

the extravehicular which is jettisoned

reentry,

pressurized,

instrumented

ring at the aft end of the spacecraft.) Armstrong will undock the spacecraft

At second daylight, and fly formation

on the Agena at distances up to 60 feet. maneuvering unit which This unit

Scott will then use a hand-held fires bursts

of freon gas to control his movements. Edward

is similar to the one used by Astronaut the Gemini _ mission.

H. White during

Approximately vehicular activity,

four hours after the completion the Gemini 8 will maneuver

of extra-

into a different with

orbit from that of Agena and then attempt to re-rendezvous the target vehicle. Five scientific, perlment ments four technological and one medical

ex-

will be carried on Gemini 8.

Technological

experinight

include mass determination,

UHF/VHF polarization,

image intensification, experiments

and power tool evaluation. light photography, nuclear emulsion,

Scientific

are zodiacal

frog egg growth,

cloud top spectrometer, collection.

and micrometeorite

-more-

4

Primary docking activity with by

objectives a Gemini the pilot

of the Agena in the

mission

are

rendezvous and 15th

and

Target 13th

Vehicle through

extravehicular revolutions.

Secondary

objectives

are:

I.

Rendezvous

and

docking

during

the

fourth

revolution

2.

Perform pulsion

a docked system

maneuver

with

Agena

secondary

pro-

3,

Conduct vehicle

systems

tests

on both

spacecraft

and

target

4.

To

conduct

assigned

experiments

5.

To

conduct

separation

and

docking

practices

6.

To

perform

a passive-type

re-rendezvous

7.

To evaluate memory unit

the

performance

of the

auxiliary

tape

8.

To

demonstrate

the

capability

of

the

reentry

guidance

system

9.

To maneuver target for

the

Agena

into

a parking flight

orbit

as

a

a later

Gemini

-more-

-5-

The medical Landing Recovery

exper_ment

is the bio-assays is scheduled

of body fluids.

of the spacecraft

in the West Atlantic after ap-

Zone at the beginning 71 hours of flight.

of the 45th revolution

proximately

(END OF GENERAL RELEASE BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOLLOWS)

-6-

I

PREFLIGHT

ACTIVITIES

AND

INTEGRATED

COUNTDOWN

NASA's responsibility of the Gemini

John

F. for

Kennedy pre-flight

Space

Center

has

the

overall and launching 8 mission.

testing, vehicles

checkout for the

and

Atlas/Agena

Gemini

The with Jan. the 6.

Gemini first The Jan.

launch stage

vehicle arriving

was Jan. at

shipped 4 and launch

to the

KSC second

by

aircraft stage on

stages 13.

were The

erected

complex was the flown

19, to

Cape KSC

Kennedy from St.

Gemini 8. It

8 spacecraft was taken Island, • to

Louis,

Jan.

pyrotechnic inspection, and

installation ordnance recovery were

building,

Merritt and

for

receiving The of

installation section and of and the the

assembly control buildup"

checks.. section was seats,

rendezvous the

reentry "premate pilot

spacecraft with

mated,

completed seat

installation and parachutes.

ejection

pyrotechnics

The as the

modified

Atlas

booster

for (SLV),

the first

target

vehicle, at

known

a standard Cape in

launch Aug. ii

vehicle of last

arrived

year.

The Kennedy

Agena Center

and Jan.

its 21.

docking _ese

adapter two

were

shipped and

to the

the Gemini

components

-more-

%

-7-

spacecraft KSC's prime craft Radio Gemini on

were

mounted

atop Test

a

50-foot site

"Timber Jan.

Tower" 27-28. the

at The

Frequency 8 crew tower

Systems backups a

and to

their

boarded of the Radio Agena

space-

the

conduct Gemini

series 8 and were

Frequency target. the

Capability Docking two

Tests

between

compatibility The Jan. 31

checks spacecraft and of hoisted premate flight

also was

made

between to

vehicles. 19

transported the launch

launch vehicle. that systems, II rocket

complex Following included the Feb.

above

a series a simulated 8 was

verifications to verify mated to

tests,

spacecraft its Titan

Gemini i0.

e±ectrically

The vidual to

launch

crew

then tests

conducted of of the both

some spacecraft were

%wo

weeks and

of

indivehicle The and The mating i.

and

combined that was all

launch

insure

systems for

ready of

for

flight. batteries

spacecraft remated pilots of the for

removed

installation and simulated space Agena systems A -suits. was

fresh

final

systems in

flight

testing.

participated Atlas booster

their the

Mechanical March

and and

performed were

Combined with the

interface complete dress

joint

tests

conducted countdown completed --

vehicle. rehearsal

simultaneous was scheduled

launch to be

a complete March 9.

-more..

The different different the wide two

Gemini

8 count

actually mostly

is

a combination simultaneously. the two launch and

of

ii The vehicles, worldRadio-

countdowns, counts spacecraft, are

running with

associated Houston the

Mission Eastern

Control Test Range

the

tracking Guidance is

network, System. critical In the

and

the

Command

Timing the

in

this

count final

in

order countdown

to

complete on launch

rendezvous.

so-called

day craft the in

the at

Atlas T-360

Agena

count

starts and the

at

T-530

minutes,

the

spaeejoins set

minutes, countat

Gemini {all

launch these

vehicle times are

combined relation

240 GLV

minutes

to

the

liftoff).

Liftoff minute will on If be the mark

for in

the

target

vehicle

is

scheduled The Gemini later, the

for

the

95-

the

simultaneous

count. i01

spacecraft depending Agena. to

launched exact

approximately and

minutes of be

location a built-in Gemini pass

performance hold time the the will to Cape. count

orbiting at T-3 the launch

necessary, the

called

minutes Agena sequence

adjust target's

liftoff over

coincide After will

with the

first are

adjustments

computed,

resume.

-more-

_9

_

LAUNCH TIME F-3 F-I days day minutes minutes
r

VEHICLE

COUNTDOWN ATLAS-AGENA Countdown

GEMINI Start Start GLV pre-count mid-count loading

T-720 T-530 T-420

propellant

Begin Back-up flight crew reports to the 100-foot level of the White Room to participate in final flight preparations Complete propellant loading

terminal

count

minutes

T-390 T-300

minutes minutes

Begin terminal countdown Pilots' ready room, 100-foot level of White Room and crew quarters manned and made ready for prime crew Primary Medical crew awakened

T-270 T-240 T-235 T-220 T-195 T-185

minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes

examination Start tower removal

Breakfast Crew leaves quarters at ready room on

Crew arrives Pad 16 Purging Crew Flight of

T-135 T-124 T-120

minutes minutes minutes

suit

begins room 19

leaves Crew

ready to

Complex

-more-

-i0-

TIME T-119 T-f15 T-100 T-95 T-86 T-70 minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes minutes White Crew Crew Close

GEMINI arrives enters at 100-foot level

ATLAS-AGENA

spacecraft hatches Lift off into orbit

spacecraft

Insertion Room evacuation

T-55 T-20 T-04 T-0 T+2

minutes minutes seconds seconds minutes seconds 36

Begin

erector OAMS

lowering static firing

Spacecraft GLV Lift ignition off

Booster

engine

cutoff

(BECO)

T+5:41 T+5:57

Second

stags

engine

cutoff vehicle

(SECt)

Spacecraft-launch separation Insertion into

T+6:07

orbit

REENTRY

(Elapsed 70:12z33 70:13z18 70:34:34 Retrofire Jettison 400,000

Time

from

Gemini

Lift-Off)

retrograde feet altitude

section

-more-

-ii-

70:37:58 70:40:58 70:42:26 70:44:09 70:46:00 70:52:04

Communications Initiate Blackout Drogue Main

blackout

guidance ended chute deployed (50,000 feet) feet)

chute

fully landing

deployed

(9,800

Spacecraft

-more-

-12-

II.

MISSION DESCRIPTION (All Miles are Statute)

Mission based or on

information mission. to meet

presented Plans changing

in this may be

press

kit prior

is £o

a normal flight

altered

during

conditions. of all vehicles involved in

Simultaneous are one,

Countdown coordinated the others

-- Countdowns so may that be

if a hold held also.

is encountered

LAUNCH Launch Times Gemini Launch Window Agena the -- Atlas-Agena 8 - 11:40:52 -- Begins launch and - i0 a.m. a.m. EST, EST, Launch Complex Complex 19. after the on 14.

Launch

approximately lasts If the on for six

I01 minutes and a quarter is not

minutes

first

day.

Gemini the first

launch day,

accomplished may be fol-

during achieved lowing ing last

this by four

window

rendezvous windows days

launching days. Agena The orbit

during windows but

varying on

on the vary

these planned

accordthe_

to the for

under

conditions

approximately

47 minutes.

-more-

-13

Azimuth

--

Atlas-Agena for yaw

biased steering

from

83.7

to

about

84.4

to burn .2 de-

provide to shift to

during nodes

Atlas or

sustainer crossings azimuth

orbital east.

equatorial Gemini launch

grees

vehicle

will

be

98.8 small the

degrees, amount spacecraft

but of

will

be

biased in

slightly second

so

that will

a place

yaw

steering

stage

in Agena's

plane.

Out-of-Plane

Capability

--

Fuel

budget

allows

spacecraft

to

burn if

five-tenths yaw

of

one

degree does greater not

out-of-plane place Gemini must

if

necessary in Agena's performed

booster

steering of

plane. by the

Corrections Agena, capable

magnitude

be

of

i0

degrees

out-of-plane

maneuvering.

Inclination Vehicle

--

28.87 (GLV).

degrees

for

both

Agena

and

Gemini

Launch

-more-

-lit-

RENDEZVOUS

Orbits

--

Agena

at

near-circular in elliptic

185

miles

(298 miles

kilometers). (161-270

Gemini

initially

100-168

kilometers).

Incremental

Velocity a burn

Adjustment will actual if per the be

Routine made velocity spacecraft If if

-the

At

spacecraft parameters will be no is than

insertion do made more not at than

insertion It

match

the

desired. is the

insertion 30 or per feet if

underspeed spacecraft is be more

second.

overspeed 30 but be feet a

the

velocity the IVAR of

difference will at not least are

second,

performed, fps will

separation

maneuver

five

done.

Aft. firing

thrusters

used.

Height

Adjustment orbit, at to first raise a one

--

Because

of

drag

during

initial burn time of is

spacecraft scheduled

foot-per-second at about a ground .58 may a

posigrade elapsed (.93

perigee apogee

1:35:01

miles

kilometers). a (270 larger maneuver.

Insertion The object or

dispersions is 17 to

necessitate 168-mile Agena

achieve below

kilometers)

apogee,

miles

orbit.

-more-

-15-

Phase

Adjustment of 2 hours,

-18

Near

spacecraft 52

second seconds

apogee (2:18:52) velocity perigee reduce degrees at third

at

a

time

minutes, Posigrade

ground addition to about catchup orbit

elapsed of 134 rate and 53.3 mil_s

time. feet

horizontal will raise It to will 4.51

per

second

(198 about

kilometers). 6.68 degrees phase

the per

from provide

necessary

relation

apogee.

Co-elliptical 3:48:11, (270

Maneuver the crew

--

Near

the

third

spacecraft orbit to by

apogee 168 miles

at

will This fps

circularize will be

kilometers). of At 52.8 this

achieved

a posi_ade up 4.5 by on-

maneuver degrees. about board 171

with

spacecraft spacecraft

pitched trails

time, (275

Agena have

miles

kilometers)

and

should

radar

lock-on.

Terminal

Phase to

Maneuver rendezvous and

--

At mode

3:52:34, and At crew of begin

crew

will

switch phase one a burn to

comsystems minute of

puter

terminal about

checkout after 33 will will fps be be

procedures. darkness, line-of-sight 38 miles of

5:03:47, will Agena.

entering along about 130

perform Range and from up

Agena

(63 kilometers), angular will be travel pitched aft

spacecraft point 27 of

degrees

rendezvous. for the

Spacecraft

degrees

posigrade

maneuver

with

thrusters.

-more-

-16Intermediate _orrections -Twelve minutes after initial im-

pulse, by the

computer crew. is

displays Twelve applied. and The out

first

correction later, is then a use at

to 5:28:06

be

applied another miles

z

minutes Range crew crew

correction (seven approach directly

about

four

kilometers) to to Agena. read

begins will and

semi-optical radar rate. information

range

range

Velocity

Matching

Maneuver

--

The

magnitude at 5:35:54 will

of is be

a theoretical about 42 fps.

velocity-matching However, final since the by

maneuver command semi-optical

pilot

controlling he will make

approach

techniques,

real-time

decisions.

DOCKING

CHECKS

When it will

the

spacecraft relative

comes motion

within and 45

50 fly

feet

of

the

Agena, the

stop vehicle Then

its

formationwith before will be the

target docking. to its

for a if

approximately

minutes check of the

first

platform the

parallelism system are

performed retains

determine accuracy

guidance two vehicles

spacecraft

while

joined.

-more-

-17-

Then which a yaw bending are rates will foot down used on is loaded into using is set done up the Agena at Agena

a stored memory,

program is

command, to perform first

activated system. propulsion moment Gemini

maneuver test to the

attitude The check

control Gemini the

The

7:35. and

systems or crew a 20power

rates cone

bending Then the

docking the Agena

interface.

command per the

secondary burn. 7½ hour

propulsion The rest crew

system will

in then

second

out-of-plane for a

spacecraft

period.

EXTRAVEHICULAR

ACTIVITY

At for pack ment) tether cabin the

the

18th

hour

after

liftoff, activity. for the

the

crew The

will ELSS of

prepare chest equip-

pilot's Crew be "Y"

extravehicular Provisions unstowed, connectors. to 3.5 cabin. and psi

(see will and

Section along with The for The at

details 25-foot pilot check

EVA

umbilical will lower completely the

command

pressure

systems pilot is at from

and

then to

depressurize hatch at 20:30

the

scheduled the the end of

open

GET, pilot

sunrise emerge

the

13th at

revolution, 20:41 GET.

the

will

spacecraft

-more-

-18-

On

the

first

daylight

pass

over

the

United

States,

the

pilot the

will seat,

perform he then will

the mount

following the the

tasks.

While

standing facing retro

on

extravehicular S-9 experiment

camera on the

forward,

retrieve

adapter target ment f_im

directly docking

behind adapter

his and

seat. open the

Then S-10 to

he

will

move

to

the experichange the

micrometeroid spacecraft, and

mounted in the

there. camera

He and

will face

return it aft,

the

then

clean

sample

spacecraft adapter the Prior to don retro to

windows. section adapter sunset, ESPo to

The check and he

pilot the

then ESP

moves

to

the He

rear returns

of

the to

equipment. D-16 of power the

performs to

the the

tool adapter

experiment. section

moves

rear

the

During in At the adapter

the

night

pass

(45 minutes) the pilot feet

the

pilot

will

stay

section, the

donning conm_and 60 He and

extravehicular will undock

equipment. the to the to Gemini fly back the pack nose

second the

sunrise, Agena with adapter and the

from

translate Agena.

out-of-plane separate will move

formation from of the

will the

then pilot

section

the

Gemini. EVA He pilot will will move then out evaluate from the the 75-foot to tether the and 15-foot

The the HHMU.

spacecraft

-more-

-19point
the the craft to on the the on the by tether. ten to feet, null The and any The point he has will pilot the will command then translate will below maneuver the space-

Agena

pilot

spacecraft and EVA

angular EVA and

motion will

between move

crewman. connect When

pilot the

successively point at to 75 the

45-foot tether. the

75-foot HHMU the

connect

finished maneuver

maneuvers spacecraft

feet, pilot.

command

pilot

The to 50 the feet

command

pilot The pilot

will will pilot 15th feet.

follow then

the

pilot the from while of

as

he

translates at

Agena. as will Agena the be

follow

spacecraft the Agena.

command in at the 250

translates revolution Total time

Ingress with hours, the

flying EVA will

formation be two

i0

minutes.

RE-RENDEZVOUS

After with the

EVA Agena. by two

is

completed, Another

the

command test will

pilot be

will

re-dock

bending and crew

performed, At

followed 27 hours

more

docking the

undocking will begin

maneuvers. the

into It

the will and

flight be a a

re-rendezvous using informathe

maneuver. the tion. computer, The

completely held

onboard to

operation obtain

hand of the

sextant

guidance simulate

purpose

re-rendezvous -more-

is

to

-20-

terminal performed used

phase on a as

of

a

passive Gemini if

target mission. visual

rendezvous, The contact radar is

which will with

will not

be be

later

except

a backup

lost

the

target. At feet period of the per 27:27:55 second the do will GET, will Agena not an be upward made, radial The i.e. but new the the of translation orbit perigees orbital miles will and of be 20 equi-

with orbits Gemini of The

orbit, coincide,

apogees is an the

period and

same. apogee

have

a perigee

181.5

188.5

miles. will maximum A mid travel above and behind will be the be GATV 13 if miles

spacecraft The GATV.

into behind

sunset. the

separation course

distance may

correction

made,

necessary. At begin. to vous The put 28:40:09 A the 1.8 foot GET, per the terminal burn 80 phase initiation will will be _.e. that made rendezpoint. the must be Line be scaled toward be

second on an

retrograde intercept, earth to The phase

spacecraft occur will 80 be

degree the

will pilots

degrees in heads

around down

from

attitude sunlight.

shield target

spacecraft visually of for the sight a

windows acquired elevation

from to

direct

perform

terminal time the

maneuvers. will the

and

sun-angle so that

histories side and of range

passive

rendezvous, is per

GATV

spacecraft at 40

illuminated. cent. -m0re-

Range

rate

will

scaled

-21-

At second orbit. at

29:00:23 is made Docking GET. to

the

velocity the be

match spacecraft

maneuver back over the

of to a

16

feet mile

per

bring

185

should

completed

Rose

Knot

Victor

29:05:00

FINAL

SEPARATION

At from the 19 the

approximately Agena in an

29:50:00 out-of-plane 1,500 the feet

GET,

the

Gemini which of

will will the

separate place about

maneuver to the side

spacecraft minutes later

about for

GATV plume

Primary

Propulsion

System

photography.

AGENA After by the Eight during of a these 253-mile the crew final of

ACTIVITIES undocking, Gemini by 8.

FOLLOWING an They Agena will exhaust ground III

RENDEZVOUS maneuver also as will be and is later for will as It commanded photograph fired. times

observe the engine at

plume more the

produced maneuvers mission.

rocket will See be Table

commanded this section the will be

details be in

burns.

After

fuel

depletion, where future it

Agena left

circular for will

orbit, possible decay

a passive is expected The will

target that

vehicle the orbit of the

rendezvous. miles in four with the

to

230

months. Agena

purpose

out-of-plane

maneuvers

-more-

-22-

demonstrate a late

the

rocket's situation

ability and

to will

make also

these

maneuvers the

for re-

rendezvous

evaluate

start

performance

of

the

Agena

primary

propulsion

system.

RETROFIRE

Retrofire spacecraft's west Atlantic

will 44th

occur

at

about

70:12:30

GET will

during occur GET. in

the the

revolution. area

Splashdown (26N69W) at

recovery

70:48:00

ORBITS

-

REVOLUTIONS

The the Earth.

spacecraft's A 80 every revolution degrees 96

course is west

is

measured each or

in

revolutions time the

around

completed longitude,

spacecraft altitudes

passes about

over once

at

Gemini

minutes.

Orbits 90 minutes.

are

space

referenced

and

in

Gemini

take

about

The rotation. about craft six 22.5

longer As

time the

for

revolutions circles same in

is the

caused Earth,

by

the

Earth's moves spaceanother

spacecraft in the

the

Earth the

degrees an the

direction. 90

Although it degrees

completes minutes for and

orbit

about to

minutes, 80

takes west

spacecraft a

reach

longitude

complete

revolution.

-more-

-23Gemini crosses 15 the completes 80th 16 orbits of per day, 15 but in 24 -hours hence

meridian day.

longitude

times

revolutions

per

-more-

0

0

_

_

0

_

_

_

0

c_

c_.

p_

_,

_8

_+o_

_o_
0

_

_+_++ '+'o

+,_
_

_'

1_

I_

I_

I_

_0
P

_

0

-"I--I 0 0 ,, °1, .o °°

_n-+ _
°+

POlk) <0<0 °° o, ,+

h) PO <0<0 ,,.,

oo

Ik)I<) COCO +° .+

_

PO B_ -q-q ,, ,°

_

0 0 <nLn ,. ,.

L_
°o

0 0 'o7'Ol o. ,+

0 0 toO,}

0 0 I_) I'0

oo

2-_
,+ °°

;5;_ co&
°° °, °, °.

0 _ +.

0 P_ •

0 0 ,,

oo
°°

0 0 ,, *o

bJ t_ C'] _ _ _cl

.._9-_
oo f)

°o

°°

++ _°

°o

.+

o*

,o

N _ 03 _J 0 .... r_ 0

N fD -

r_ 0

I 0

_

Oh

_

0

f_

LO

DO

0

_ @ m I_ H H PO i

mra

t_

_1

U_

_

-_

{20

ua

-_

09

CO

00

CO

H-

_

_21

o

_

_

L ,+

_o

_

I DO

o',

o-,

o',

o',

+,+ o' 0
(Tq _ (+

-q

h)

Oo

_t-

<0

"J_

--,]

I

!

t_

m ;L

_a

9_

9a

D

_

_

g_

D

9a

9a

9)

0

,,.

rn

c+

c:-

c_

01_

m

r_ -_oi_e -

_

m

d_

el-

00_ m

-25AGENA _TV Maneuver No. Site/Agena Rev. _4T (day:hr:min) Delta fps V Yaw deg Purpose Resultant apogee/ perigee Plume photo 220/185
O

MANEUVERS

Hawaii/20

1:22:49

103.5

0.

Canarvon/28

2:11:34

1600.

-9_.8

Plane Change 220/185 Circularize 220/220 GPO 1 Test Firing GPO 2 Test Firing GPO 3 Test Firing GPO 4 Test Firing Inclination Adjust Fuel Depletion

Canarvon/31

2:16:22

104.

0.

Hawaii/33

2:20:07

I00.

-90.

Guaymas/33

2:20:17

i00.

-90.

Rose

Knot/34

2:20:37

i00.

-90.

Hawaii/34

_:21:40

I00.

-90.

Canton/58

4:13:17

_-690.

-90.7

Hawaii/61

4:18:18

_800

-90.9

-more-

-26III. EXPERIMENTS

Ten being previous

experiments for the

will first They

be

carried three

on

Gemini been three

8.

Seven

are on

flown

time, are

have into

performed categories:

flights. four

divided

technological, medical, one.

experiments;

scientific,

five

experiments;

SCIENTIFIC

S-I

Zodiacal Purpose layer,

Light - To and

Photography photographs light of zodiacal light, day airglow sky 5. view 50

obtain dim

other from

phenomena,

including Flown on

brightness Equipment

orbital

altitude. Model degrees. Weight 400

Gemini of

- Widelux degrees length Tri-X

camera, by 26 35 130 mm. mm ASA

Fo

VI. Lens

Field speed Film

f/1.

Focal

3.5 b&w 20

ibs.

- Eastman

exposures. in is At pilot's oriented plus will 15 window to i0 operate second exexposure place

Procedure

- Camera prior sunset seconds

and to in

bracket

is

mounted

sunset. field of is for 30

Spacecraft view. switched five

sunset It

camera

on.

automatically exposures posures. is made with For every At five the

minutes

making

seconds of

interval night with

between pass, an

remainder four earth

minutes

S/C

in

orbital left

plane. on for

terminator,

camera

minutes. -m0re-

-27-

Experimenter

- Dr. of

E.

P. Ney

and

Mr.

W.

F.

Huch,

University

Minnesota.

S-3

Frog

Egg

Experiment - To ment study in a the effects of subgravity which each four species on developis hatch two gravity sill celled chambers, oriented.

Purpose

biological one

system on has the

Equipment

- Two

units,

mounted unit of

structure. one and each Procedure - The for one unit pilot which and frog for is

Each eggs

rana

pippens of

fixitive. four ibs.

(Formalin).

Weight

will

arrest

egg formalin

development to on unit

by flow

turning into egg

lever cells for

allows stop egg 1 and 4.

growth 2, The and

at 210

T-15

minutes for

chambers

T plus

minutes will

chambers development hours

3 and in

command 1 and

pilot 2 on 3 and

arrest at be 27

chambers

his

unit

after

launch.

Chambers

4 will

activated (no

just

prior

to

reentry recovery, of zero

or

returned eggs will on

alive be their

activation). for any

After effects

examined development. Experimenter - Dr.

gravity

Richard

Young,

Ames

Research

Center,

California. -more-

-28-

S-7

Cloud

Top

Spectrograph - To determine from the feasibility spacecraft of measuring using cloud-

Purpose top

altitudes

orbiting

a hand-held

spectrograph. Equipment Camera and - Spectrograph has 75 mm time fitted focal of with 35 mm shutter Leica speed camera of is body.

length,

f/11; 25 ,tm_ of

exposure length, 1/8. of

1/100th. speed is of

Spectrograph f/8, exposure

focal 1/4

shutter

time

and

Resolution 7500-7800 is Kodak determine Guam, ESSA

5 Angstroms

with

a special

bandwith Procedure Bureau Dakar, stations photograph based time. oxygen cloud oxygen below flown Experimenter D. C.

Angstroms. high speed IR. U.S. Weather U.S.,

- Film will

cloud and

targets

in southern using Crew exposure altitude of

Africa, and

Hawaii

areas,

ground will Ground same by

satellite twice, measure the the

reports. at two

members times. at the

the

cloud will

aircraft The film

cloud amount

records of

absorption ray

in the and has

path

reflected can

solar

between since

spacecraft. a constant or 5. Faud i00

Altitude mixing

be determined in the This

ratio

atmosphere was

62 miles on Gemini - Dr.

kilometers.

experiment

Saiedy,

U.S.

Weather

Bureau,

Washington,

-mare-

-29-

S-9

Nuclear

Emulsion

Purpose Equipment

-

to - A well

study

cosmic

radiation package, adapter a

at

orbital

altitudes mounted in a

rectangular in the retro

8½"x6"x3", behind spring the

cold Procedure will will fore

right

hatch.

- At

orbital

insertion, the attitude

loaded

fairing

jettison fly EVA, in to

exposing heads-up give

experiment. as much time will as

Spacecraft possible cosmic a track bei

maxium the Krst

exposure emulsion £ask

to leave

rays. on will command

Particles the be

striking The the be

negative. to retrieve It will

after and the

hatch hand it

opening to the

experiment stowed on

pilot.

centerline

storage

compartment Experimenter and Dr.

door. Carl Ficht_ll, Naval Goddard Space Flight Center,

- Dr. Maurice D.

Shapiro, C.

Research

Laboratory,

Washington, S-10 Micrometeorite Purpose impacts analysis. _quipment target - To and

Cratering collect return samples them of micrometeoroids to earth and for their laboratory

uncontaminated

- Micrometeorite docking adapter

collection of the

package Agena. The

mounted

on

the

rectangular

-more-

-30-

package of highly

is

hinged polished

to

fold

open

and as

expose metal,

eight

plates glass,

surfaces

such

plastic,

etc.

Procedure in

- The the

package

will

be

launched pilot, to the

onboard after Agena on a

the leaving and

Agena the

closed on

position. EVA, It will

The move be

spacecraft the package.

open ren-

would

retrieved

later

dezvous Expmrimenter

flight. - Dr. Curtis Hemenway New Yor_. and Royce Coon, Dudley

Observator_

Albany,

TECHNOLOGICAL D-3 Mass Determination - To contact determine method the of technique and the accuracy of an of a

Purpose direct object. Procedure

measuring

mass

orbiting

- Before by

docking, computing change 25 second

the

aft

firing needed phase is made

thrusters to produce

are

calibrated desired While The the The the

thrust during burn

velocity docked a

adjustment. with aft in thrusters. the Agena,

first last mass sum

17 eight of of

seconds seconds

stabilizes is for can

propellants computation be determined thrust the time known

purposes. by by dividing the delta

both the

vehicles thrust By -moretimes

the

velocity

obtained.

subtracting

weight

-31of
the spacecraft, the weight of the Agena is

obtained.

Experimenter Systems D-14 UHF/VHF Purpose operating Equipment

- Deputy Division,

for Los

Technology, Angeles,

Air Calif.

Force

Space

Polarization - To obtain information the ionosphere. transmitter on the top with centerline section. is over tracking will be stations turned A up the 30 on foot 8-ft. of extendable the spaceon communication systems

through - An

IFHF/VHF

antenna craft Procedure at to on

mounted the

retro the

adapter

-When Hawaii broadcast dish

spacecraft the at ground audio

and a

Antigua, signal the on

system

two

wavelengths. pick a

antenna and be

on

would tape on will

signal and

recorded visual picture to

chart be

recorder by

signal motion is

characteristics from an

recorded The

oscilloscope. information and radio on

experiment and irthrough

designed

provide of radar

regular

regular the Experimenter

fading

signals

coming

ionosphere. - Robert D. C. -moreEllis, Naval Research Laboratory

Washington,

-32-

D-15

Night Purpose system

Image - To can

Intensification determine used for whether night a low light of level sea television and land

be

observation

features. Equipment 20 ° - An field image-orthicon of A a TV view and television 4-inch monitor control square and unit, 16 and camera portable mm with viewing

monitor° camera, unit.

recording camera

photographic control

equipment

Procedure below A six

- The the inch

camera crew

is

located

in

the of mirror

adapter the is

behind

and

oll the

centerline

spacecraft. deployed so

diameter will be

reflecting scanning and

the axis same

camera of area will orbital the observe crew the the

along the

the camera out

longtitudinal will the out view window. and the and up sea by the The

spacecraft, the warmed on pilot up

which be

can and

see

system with point and The on will

checked

beginning crew will

night

the at

30th

revolution land picked and by

spacecraft whether perform selected_ recorded

different carl be

objects camera. tasks camera later

they both

the

will areas be

sweeping scanned

tracking the film video for

Areas on motion

also

picture

analysis. Experimenter Pa. - U°S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville,

-m0_'e -

-33D-16 Power Tool Evaluation

Purpose in

- To

determine suit minimum

man's under

ability gravity. power

to

perform

work

tasks

pressurized - A amp

zero

Equipment 12

reaction

too_ 7.6

- battery 10.7 plate and

powered, inches with three on long,

hours mode

lifetime, - rachet

weight hand

pounds, work on face

impacting seven reverse Procedure tion below pulls

tool, four

non-detachable side, a knee goes

bolts, tether. to of the

- The on the

pilot right

experiment retrQ

hardware

loca-

side the

the

adapter location. it. by Then

directly He he and

and out

behind the the work knee

S-9

experiment and to the opens his suit

panel tether end to its

attaches _lamps the four over he

velcro He

the

other tool on

handrail. and He

unstows it to work loosen panel Then

power bolts and _htens hand

from the

housing panel. to the

uses

work it

turns

the

reattaches a separate tool. the same

experiment bolt operation

package. with is knee the

instrumented tethered

rachet he

After

completed, tether. AFB,

repea_s

operations Laboratory,

without Wright

the

Experimenter ohio.

- Propulsion

Patterson

-more-

-514Medical

M-5

Bioassay

of

Body

Fluids

Purpose

- To

collect after

body flight proteins,

fluids for

before, analysis acids flight. in a

during, of and

and

im-

mediately electrolytes, which Method might

hormones, enzymes

amino space

result will A be

from

- Urine elimination. will amount amount of be

collected

special of

bag

for water a

each

specified automatically.

amount

tritiated water has

added of of

The By

tracer the amount the will

radioactive tritium placed in in

tritium. the it, 75 will will be sample

comparing the can known

with

tritium

biochemists cc be capacity drawn

measure bags

total be The dump

volume. A

Sixteen sample urine of the

sample for each into

carried. remaining system

elimination. the urine

transferred

spacecraft. TASKS the involve flown - The on crew will carry or out a

OPERATIONAL In number tion of addition of to the expmriment_ which be

operational which

tasks will

spacecraft later will

evalua-

equipment

spacecraft. obtain be used photoas guidance at the ease

Apollo

Landmarks graphs orbit system. acquisition of

Evaluation earth landmarks

crew

which in

could the

navigational They of will the

references take an

Apollo

oblique and

photograph on

landmark -more-

comment

-35-

of Auxiliary

acquisition Tape Memory

and

the

weather

conditions. in the Gemini

- A

new

subsystem

Inertial Gemini Memory The bilities the ATM

Guidance 8 Mission. (ATM), ATM in did

System This

(IGS)

is

being called onboard

tested the

on

the

upcoming Tape

subsystem, additional the Gemini any

Kuxiliary capacity. of onboard

provides will the not allow future require

memory

furtherdevelopment Missions. modifications The to

capaof Gemini

incorporation the present

computer The stores of

system. ATM is a bits bits. are fifteen-track on each track magnetic resulting clocking, tape in and The recorder a total computer provides bits that present which storage pro-

835,000

12,500,000 bits

Data

parity, in for

cessing triple can be

recorded storage external

triplicate. approximately of computer

ATM

redundant used has for

1,170,000 programs.

storage

The

computer launch, storage. The mechanical and an

provided

onboard and reentry

computer and has

program 156,000

capability bits of

for program

rendezvous,

ATM

is

a hermetically-sealed assembly assembly and mounted

unit on the

which vibration power

contains

a

transport

isolators, supply, control

electronic record

containing playback -mo_e-

logic,

logic,

logic.

-36The unit The which magnetic inch tape transport 525 is a feet flangeless of one-inch by an endless, the reel, wide peripheral magnetic drive tape.

contains tape wide

is driven mylar belt

seamless

threedrive belt. capstans

quarter The

called turn

peripheral by

peripheral are

drive by the

belt

is in

driven

two drive mylar

which By not

coupled

smaller magnetic

endless, tape

seamless

belts. its useful

exposing

to drive

stresses,

life

is extended. The unit and weighs twenty-six pounds, eighteen contains watts. 700 The cubic ATM is built

inches, by

uses

approximately

Raymond

Engineering to the

Laboratories International New York,

of Middletown, Business who was

Connecticut, Electronics to the

under Systems

contract

Machines, contracted Manned

Division,

Owego, and

National Center's

Aeronautics prime Gemini

Space

Administration, the McDonnell

Spacecraft Corporation.

contractor,

Aircraft

-more-

-37IV. CREW PROVISIONS AND TRAINING

CREW

TRAINING

BACKGROUND

In prior Gemini to

addition flight

to the extensive assignment the to and

general the

training

received for will the be

training

received have or

8 mission, prior

following launch: training Procedures

preparations

accomplished i. and the 2. boilerplate Pad emergency

Launch Dynamic Egress model

abort Crew and

in

the

Gemini

Mission

Simulator

Simulator. activities recovery using using equipment elevator and a spacecraft and personnel. wire.

recovery actual training

and

egress

slide

3.

Celestial Chapel Zero

pattern Hill,

recognition N. C. In KC-135

in

the

Morehead

Planetarium, 4.

gravity

training

aircraft

and

a heavy

trainer is done

to in

practice aircraft. EVA

EVA. HHMU is

Stowage firing performed

and is

donning done in 20 on

of Beta

EVA

equipment

trainer. chamber at

Additional vacuum 5. 6. crew

training

foot

conditions. Suit, Training on the seat, and harness fittings. approximately and docking 20 hours per

sessions Gemini systems plans

totaling translation briefing;

member 7.

simulator.

Detailed flight

detailed rules

experiment

briefings;

and

mission

reviews.

-more-

-388. subsystem During in network wet At be for Participation tests, final launch mock T-2 and in mock-up reviews, acceptance for flight, joint the crew systems review. the crew participates systems flight review,

spacecraft

preparation abort

simulations, launch, major confirm post and flight

combined final

test, tests. will data

simulated days, the to with

simulated

medical for flight

examinations and obtain results.

administered comparison

readiness flight

medical

examination

GEMINI

8 SUIT

The to the

pressure

suit

worn

by

the suit

Gemini with

8 crew the

is

identical two

Gemini

4 extravehicular

following

exceptions.

i.

No

extravehicular protection suit is same

thermal for the

over hands

gloves is

will now

be

worn. in

Thermal a 2. The basic

integrated

glove. now a laver-up as the of neoDhrene-coate_ retention layer.

material the

Nylon,

material

pressure

The

Gemini

extravehicular

suit

has

seven

layers:

i.

White around

cotton the

constant waist to

wear hold

undergarment

with

pockets

biomedical

instrumentation

equipment. -more-

-39
2. 3. 4. Blue Black nylon comfort layer nylon dacron garment pressure teflon maintain garment link its of net to

neoprene-coated layer pressure protective with spacers of

Restraint restrain

and and

shape. aluminized

5.

Thermal mylar

laye r of between

seven each

layers

layer.

6. 7.

Micrometeoroid White HT-I

protective outer

layer

nylon

layer

For detachable the The helmet inner

extravehicular everviser and visor can be

activity! which has

the

pilot points

will

carry

a of

a_tach into

on both over which outer eyes the

sides

swiveled

position material The for the

faceplate.

is a polycarbona_e

provides visor from is solar

impact

and

micrometeoroid and provides

protection. protection

gold-coated glare.

When the

the

cabin the

is depressurized, suit automatically

and

the

pilot

is outside to 3.7

spacecraft, per

pressurizes and

pounds oxygen

square

inch crew

to provide The

pressure

breathing suit weighs

for both

members.

extravehicular

33 pounds.

-more-

-40-

EXTRAVEHICULAR A 42-pound

LIFE

SUPPORT box

SYSTEM is

(ELSS) worn on the chest.

rectangular

which

It

provides the high, pump

electrical, EVA i0 for astronaut inches

mechanical, and wide the

and

life

support System

connections is 18

between inches ejector a 30

spacecraft. inches deep.

and a

six heat

It for and

contains air,

circulation, oxygen

exchanger Controls are the

cooling a warning on the

minute for unit.

emergency the emergency Used in

supply. supply with supply

system of as the a

oxygen combination and air

mounted ESP, the

top functions

ELSS EVA.

suit

pressurization

system

during

EXTRAVEHICULAR A EVA. adapter extended oxygen The 92-pound Before use, backpack the It in with of The holds worn

SUPPORT by the

PACK

(ESP) during center with the extended rear of the for

astronaut in the

unit supplies space fuel the

is

mounted the EVA

section. operation supplyoand components bottles. the for of unit 79

astronaut from Held two

oxygen spacecraft

independently for unit the Hand

Maneuvering high pressure left

Unit. gas as sufhas Maneuvering

major

include on the of

storage he wears

container seven normal the

astronauts breathing The for right the

side

pounds useage. supply

oxygen, container Hand Held

ficient 18 pounds

minutes 14,

Freon

fuel

Unit. -more-

-41-

Extravehicular in on the the cradle, ESP in which shape and

crewman secure

will himself

back to of

into the the

pack, by

seat a The

himself strap is

unit ELSS.

nylon ESP a

fastens to the

in

front

similar contained flights. inches Center. carries tions. top of

Astronaut which

Maneuvering will high, be 21 used inches at freon

Unit, on

selfGemini and 17

maneuvering The deep. In a ESP It is was

pack 26

later

inches

wide, Manned

fabricated to the

in-house and

the

Spacecraft it

addition

oxygen

containers, and is

28°volt

battery

for and voice the

instrumentation wedge antenna

communicain the the

A UHF the unit

transceiver for radio and

mounted between

Communications spacecraft.

extravehicular

crewman

UMBILICAL There outside side It and The of in the the are two tether lines The

TETHER _hich the astronaut is the will carried use inharness. tether,

spacecraft. and

25-foot to the

umbilical ELSS and

cabin an

attached supply for

parachute nylon

contains electrical oxygen aluminized a white

oxygen hardline is

lin_,

1000-pound and

test

communications from around temperature it. The is

bioinstrumentation. extremes by is the layers encased nose

line

protected wrapped The

mylar nylon

whole attached

unit to

sleeve°

umbilical

-more-

J

of with

the

spacecraft is used The point or

during to strap

portions the secured the near

of

EVA.

A nylon to the near or eye in

strap space-

hook nose. attach

attach is

umbilical around

craft This from

umbilical. the spacecraft external

prevents drifting

umbilical thrusters

looping

other

equipment. The pound for also 75-foot with umbilical 13 hardline and a is composed connections of nylon in an cord, electrical It 1000wire is

test,

communications covered Total with

bioinstrumentation

information. white metal and in 75

close-fitting is 75 feet, at in a The is 15

high-temperature with feet, bag allows to the When intermediate 45 feet,

nylon

sleeve. snap The the on hook long ESP both

length

attachment tether by the is

points stored

feet. on pay rod out of

nylon bag

fixed the

Dlace to

astronauts. O,e to the side the bag

tether

sides. the other out,

attached tether.

parachute the tether

harness is

ring,

25-foot can be

completely

jettisoned. MANEUVERING UNIT

HAND-HELD

This Gemini from unit IV, the is

unit

is

similar that The the freon

to

the

unit

used

by have in

Ed

White

on

except

oxygen fuel is

bottles stored

been the ESP.

removed The with from point The

frame. used to

provide of zero of his

the

extravehicular and to

astronaut propel of him

positive to point

control in the

attitude

gravity the gun

environment include -morethe

free

space. two

major

components

handle,

spring-

-43-

loaded and one

poppet

valves,

foldable

tubes,

two 3.4

one-pound pounds during The and and

nozzles, is stored The between reand as

two-pound of the ESP

nozzle. in the long by

It weighs adapter 4½

on top unit the

section high. inches,

launch. distance 15 inches

is 12 tractor

inches nozzles Tractor delta

inches is 28 thrust the gun on

extended and braking of

tracted. the total

ranges is 54 Gemini

up to feet IV. per

2 pounds, second

velocity per

compared

with

6 feet

second

-more-

-4470MM I. Camera HASSELBLAD CAMERA

A.

Equipment i. Camera 80 MM f2.8 Time (Inboard) lens to f22.0 aperture and speeds up to 1/500 l_nes/mm seconds approximately 125

exposures

Resolution:

Approximately I.SX magnification General Purpose - EVA 2. EVA Camera Hasselblad

70MM superwide angle 90 ° field of view 38 MM lens All 3. 70 other MM Mauer Lens in General later MAURER details

same

as

inboard

camera

F=2.8 80MM

Purpose: be used 16MM I. Camera i.

development flight for MOVIE CAMERA

and evaluation. To sci_,tific experiments.

Outboard Camera 5 mm lens 160 ° 5.4 field inches of view length focal

2.

Inboard 18 All mm other

Camera and 75 lenses are of the same as outboard for field view. characteristics

camera II. Film A.

except

Eleven magazines of film Kodak S.O. 217

each

containing

approximately

80

feet

B.

color

film

-more-

-45-

III.

Purpose

Agena and rendezvous photographs Extravehicular activity General Purposes

-more

-

WATER

MEASURING

SYSTEM

A gun. metal

mechanical It consists

measuring of a

system

has

been

added in

to a

water small holds

neoprene at base When of gun

bellows of gun.

housed The of

cylinder ounce pushes in

mounted of water.

bellows is

one-half a spring

plunger bellows registers

gun

depressed, gun. times he A bellows by

water side Each

out of

and

through of much

counter is

right

number how

activated.

crewman

will

record

drinks

noting

numbers

at

beginning

and FOOD

end

of

each

use

of

gun.

Number days. Type rehydratables hydration. Storage polyethelene, aft food box --

of

Meals

--

Three

per

day

per

astronaut

for

three

Bite-sized with

and

rehydratable. gun. Bite-sized

Water items

is

placed no

in re-

special

need

--

Meals

individually laminate, pilot's right

wrapped All meals

in

aluminum are stored

foil in

and the right

polyamide over the

shoulder.

-more-

GEMINI

8 FLIGHT

MENU

DAY Meal (R) (R) (B) (B) (R) (R)

1: B Chicken Apricot Toasted Brownies Orange Grapefruit & Gravy Pudding Bread Cubes (6) Drink Drink (6) Calories 92 300 161 241 83 83 960

Meal (R) (B) (B) (B) (R) (R) (R) DAY DAY Meal (R) (R) (B) (B) (B) (R) (R) (R) 1

C CP Tuna Salad Cheese Sandwiches Peanut Cubes (6) Cinnamon Toast (6) Butterscotch Pudding Drink Grapefruit Drink Orange-Grapefruit TOTAL 2048 (2075) (6) 214 --297 99 312 83 83 1088 P 214 324 222 99 312 83 83 (1115)

2: A Sausage Patties Beef & Gravy Strawberry Cereal Beef Sandwiches Toasted Bread Peaches Grapefruit Drink Orange Drink Calories CP P 223 --(6) 169 --161 98 83 83 817 --160 --298 161 98 83 83 (853)

Cubes (6)

(6) Cubes

-more-

-48-

DAY Meal (R) (R) (B) (R) (B) (R)

2 B

(Contd) Calories Pot Roast Toast Pudding (6) Grapefruit Drink (6) 119 143 99 307 241 83 992

Beef Potato

Salad

Cinnamon Chocolate Brownies Orange

Meal

C

(R) (R) (B) (B) (R) (R)

Spaghetti

& Meat (6) (4)

70 165 324 262 83 83 987

Applesauce Cheese Sandwiches Fruitcake (Date) Orange Drink Grapefruit Drink

DAY THREE

2 TOTAL DAY

2796 AVERAGE

(2832) C__P 2748 2787

DAY Meal (B) (R) (B) (B) (R) (R)

3 A CP Bacon Frosted Apricot Cinnamon Applesauce Cocoa Squares Flakes Cereal Toast Cubes (6) (6) (8) 180 --171 99 165 190 P 180 140 --99 165 190

888
-more-

(857)

49-

DAY Meal (R) (R) (B) (B) (B) (R) (R)

3 _ontd) B CP Shrimp Beef Cocktail & Vegetables Cereal Bread Cubes (4) cubes 119 98 (6) 169 --253 83 Drink 83 805 P i19 98 --161 253 83 83 (797)

Strawberry Toasted Fruitcake Grapefruit Orange

(Pineapple) Drink Grap@fruit

Meal (R) (B) (B) (R) (R) (R)

C Chicken Salad (_) 237 161 183 282 83 83 1029

Toasted Bread Cubes Gingerbread (6) Banana Orange pudding Drink Drink

Grapefruit

DAY

3 TOTAL

2722

(2683)

ONE

SNACK

PACK

PER

CREW

MEMBER

(R) (R) (R)

Choc. Pudding Peaches Salmon Salad

307 98 246 641

-more-

-50-

MEDICAL At crew a least one medical

CHECKS a day will be made by each

check over

member. wili

Performed consist food and of:

a convenient temperature,

ground blood

station, pressure

check

Oral

measurement,

water WASTE

intake

evaluation.

BODY Solid secure formation seal and for Wastes -to

DISPOSAL bag with adhesive germicide lip in lip which also empty used food to provide

Plastic body. and and

attachment of bag

Contains gas. bag

prevents to form

bacteria after back use for

Adhesive is stowed

container

brought Urine

analysis. into fitted device receptacle or overboard connected dump. by

--Excreted a

hose

to

either

collection

-more-

-51V. MANNED SPACE FLIGHT 8 MISSION TRACKING NETWORK

GEMINI

REQUIREMENTS

NASA by using

operates its for own

the

Manned

Space and those and

Flight of

Tracking the

Network of

facilities

Department

Defense

mission

information

control.

For (i) launch and the (2) onboard The the

Gemini

8 the

network tracking,

will

provide and

flight telemetry

controllers: data from

Continuous orbital

command of the

through Gemini

insertion

Agena

Target

Vehicle

spacecraft. of and also computer reentry the proper target. update provide for via the control center, space operation of the systems

Verification the Gemini

Agena will to

network

spacecraft and

ephemeris the

(computed

position)

displays

astronauts.

Immediate through Manned receive Eastern computing impact Spacecraft launch Test

computing by the

support Real-Time During data

will Computer

be

provided Complex flight, and Cape

from (RTCC) the Air

launch at RTCC the will

Center. trajectory

powered Bermuda the

from

Force CDC-3600

Range

(AFETR)

radars

via

Kennedy

complex.

-52-

TRACKING The four Target Vehicle SLV-3. and of one the space Gemini mission will the Titan require separate tracking the Gemini Agena Launch called C-band bounce) launch of

vehicles: (ATV), and as

Gemini [I

spacecraft, which the is Atlas the

vehicle (GLV), The

required, Vehicle Skin

Booster one

Gemini

Target

will

carry (radar and

S-band

beacon. Agena

tracking vehicle, is

signal Gemini

spacecraft, throughout Wallops

target

vehicle The and MSFN

orbital Station of be

lifetime (WLP) the Space North for the

a mission Radar Air

requirement. (SPANDAR) Defense However,

Range American

various

facilities will track

Command NORAD

(NORAD) will not

used

this

mission. phase.

during

rendezvous

For assignments tion

Gemini will

8, be

various carried sites

combinations out have according radar on

of

spacecraft to individual capable Gemini

tracking staof and

capability. space

Some position

systems both the

providing Agena and have will

information through Data capability, Mission needs.

vehicles

simultaneously antennas. system by to the

their

Verlort

(S-band) however,

FPS-16 only be

(C-band) a single

transmission therefore, Director or

links,

priority Flight Dynamics

established according

officer

their

-53-

After

Titan

II

launch,

the

spacecraft

will

be

the

prime

target Manned Cape

for Space Kennedy

C-band Flight

tracking. Tracking Network Grand Pt. White Configuration Island california N. M

Canary Arguello, Sands, Hawaii Rose

Merritt Patrick Grand

Island AFB Bahama Island

Kauai, USNS

Ascension

Island

Knot

Antigua Bermuda

Island Island, BWI

USNS USNS Canton

Coastal Range

Sentry Tracker

Island

Pretoria, Kano,

south

Africa

Grand

Turk

Island Malagasy

Nigeria Australia

Tannanarive, Eglin, Corpus Fla.

Carnarvon,

Christi, are: N.

Texas

Stations Merritt Patrick Grand Antigua Ascension Carnarvon, Bermuda Pretoria,

Capable Island AFB

of

C-Band

Tracking White USNS

Sands, Range Fla. Turk Canary Arguello, Hawaii

M.

Tracker

Bahama Island

Island

Eglin, Grand Grand Pt.

Island Island Calif.

Island Australia Island, South BWI Africa

Kauai,

-more-

-54-

Stations Cape

Capable

of

S-Band

Tra.cking Carnarvon,

are: Australia

Kennedy Island, Canary Arguello, BWI

Bermuda Grand Pt.

Kauai, Guaymas, Corpus Skin (radar

Hawaii Mexico Christi, signal and Texas Trackinq Tarqet the

Island calif. of

Stations Gemini Vehicle Merritt Patrick Grand

Capable Launch are: Island AFB

bounce) the A@ena

vehicle

I Spacecraft,

Carnarvon, White Island Sands,

Australia N. M.

Bahama

Antigua Ascension

Island Island

Eglin, Grand

Fla. Turk Island

skin mission Other

tracking

procedures permit.

will

be

used

as

needed

as

priorities Computer

Support Space 8 Flight the the Center realtime of and computing realtime suptracking be-

The port for

Goddard Gemini

includes from

processing Titan II

information ginning recovery with and

obtained mission Agena

Agena

systems spacecraft

simulations lifetime.

through

Gemini

-more-

-55-

Goddard's work's system, method Flow also when readiness

computer to

also

will Gemaini

certify

the worldwide a system-bycheckout and

net-

support

8 through

station-by-station, called CADFISS tests.

computer-programmed CADFISS checkout of during (Computation network

Data

Integrated will the be

Subsystem) performed are

facilities periods by within some ac-

by Goddard not

postlaunch "visible" are again

spacecraft and continue

electronically the vehicles

stations quisition

until

range. of the entire Gemini in 8 mission Houston, will Texas. be As Complex exercised it did will

Control by on the the Mission Gemini as the

Control 7/6

Center

missions, center.

Houston's

Realtime

serve

computer

Gemini

Spacecraft The spacecraft (spacecraft) DPN-66* ACF model has will two be tracking installed (adapter) prime DPN-66 for as beacons. in in the the The reentry adapter insertion, for these model ACF*

beacon and the

module package.

beacon will be the

The and

beacon phase,

launch, a backup

reentry

using

periods. -more-

-56-

AGENA

TARGET

VEHICLE

The one S-band

Agena

Target

Vehicle The C-band

will

contain will

one be

C-band a modified

and

beacon.

beacon

DPN-66. tenna. Vehicle will be

Each The prior the

beacon

will beacon

use will

one be

linearly prime The for

polarized Agena Target

an-

C-band to prime

the

Gemini for

launch. C-band

Gemini

spacecraft

target

tracking

following

launch.

ACQUISITION Sites Agena and

SYSTEMS with Gemini (RF) spacecraft spacecraft inputs and and aid systems capable will to their Sites track of tracking the radio

simultaneously pointing data

provide associated which the

frequency telemetry have

receivers

steerable

antennas. will

do

not

simultaneous-tracking

capability

Gemini

-more-

-57-

spacecraft Vehicle MISSION Low from

only. until MESSAGE speed

All

stations insertion S data manned Center. Christi

will of

track the

the

Agena

Target

orbital

Gemini

spacecraft.

REQUIREMENT telemetry

(on-site stations

teletype will be

summaries) sent to the

flight

controller Control Corpus

Houston

Mission and

Bermuda

transmit

Gemini

spacecraft

or

Agena to

Target Houston III, will Houston

Vehicle Mission Grand

PCM

telemetry Center

via in

high-speed computer Turk Agena the

digital format. and data

data

Control

MCC-K/TEL Antigua to the

Bahama Gemini

Island, spacecraft Center

Grand and in

Island, wide-band

remote

Mission

Control

same

manner,

SPACECRAFTCOMMAND The Digital out from the imum the prime Command worldwide through Director

SYSTEM ground System system (DCS) in effecting at rendezvous key stations of be the is the

located Command will as

throughmission by Max-

network. recovery at

control always

launch Flight command

provided Center.

Houston is

Mission

Control

coverage

required

throughout

the

mission.

Grand the DCS all two

Canary USNS and data

Island_ Coastal by

Carnarvon, Sentry flight

Australia_ and USNS Rose

Hawaii_ Knot# will

and are initiate

ships,

equipped uplink

manned command

controllers

who

transmissions.

-more -

-58Following astronaut recovery, further commands will be

required System Vehicle

for support

the

Agena be

Target continued

Vehicle.

Network the

Digital Agena

Command Target

will

throughout

battery

lifetime.

The and All be

Texas, sites data in

Cape will

Kennedy, not

Grand

Bahama, by

Grand

Turk,

Antigua,

Bermuda uplink remoted

bemanned

flight

controllers. these Control sites will

command real time

transmissions from Houston

through Mission

Center.

In date

addition

to the

real-time following

commands digital

and

on-board

clock may be

upsent:

commands,

instructions

a.

Gemini i. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

spacecraft

b.

Agena i. 2. 3.

Target Maneuver Ephemeris Engine

Vehicle

Preretro Preretro Orbital Maneuver

with maneuver without maneuver navigation

burn

time

Rendezvous Accelerometer corrections

error

SPACECRAFT All munications mote (tone)

COMMUNICATIONS MSFN stations can be having both either HF and by UHF spacecraft or by and comre-

controlled from Houston

the

station

keying

Mission

Control

Center

Goddard.

-more-

-59-

The communicator Control Cape

following (Cap

sites Corn)

are and

not

scheduled be remoted

to to

have

a command Mission

will[

Houston

Center: Kennedy, Kano, Grand Bahama Island; Bermuda; Antigua USNS Range Tananarive, Grand Island; Tracker, Turk Malagasy Island;

Republic; Pt.

Nigeria; california; Island;

Arguello, Canton aircraft. SYSTEMS Gemini voice light,

Ascension and the voice

Island; relay SPACECRAFT The beacons, covery ing the of

SUPPORT communications telemetry system) system (antennas, retrack-

spacecraft communications, and digital

transmitters, allows radar

command

the

spacecraft, and the of

two-way

voice and from

communications astronaut to

between astronaut;

ground

spacecraft the and link

ground data

command transmission, The is

spacecraft, postlanding between by these

instrumentation and the recovery and

systems data the transGemini

mission. spacecraft

sole

ground

provided

systems.

The beacons, allows

Agena

Target

Vehicle

communications and vehicle digital from both

system command the

(antennas, system) ground and

telemetry radar

transmitters, of the

tracking

-more-

-60the Gemini to spacecraft. the Agena also Ground are station accomplished and Gemini through spacecraft this sytem.

command

Agena

Target

vehicle by

On-Board Network

Gemini Systems Stations Table

Spacecraft Supported

On-Board by Network

Systems Stations Table #i

supported

#2 Module Module Module Module Module Package Module Package Package Package Module UHF(voice)xmit-Rcv HF(voice)xmit-Rcv Telemetry(Real Telemetry(Dump) Telemetry(Backup) L-Band Radar C-Band Transponder Time)

Telemetry Telemetry L-Band S-Band C-Band Command (Range

(Real (Dump) Transponder Transponder Transponder Receiver Safety)

Time)

Reentry Reentry Reentry Reentry Reentry Adapter Reentry Adapter Adapter Adapter Reentry

Command Receiver (Command Control)

C-Band Transponder Acquisition Aid Beacon Digital System UHF Command Beacon

Recovery

.GROUND

COMMUNICATIONS NASA used Communications for Gemini Sentry ship 8. Ship network Shore (NASCOM) for be used USNS for Rose upon radio Gemini Knot the propa7/6

The will and be USNS

stations will

Coastal

support and

based HF

mission-designated gation conditions.

positions

predicted

-more-

-61-

NETWORK

RESPONSIBILITY Spacecraft responsibility control of the Center of (MSC). the Gemini The MSC has the The preceding is overall direction and

Manned management and mission

program.

Net_;ork or an

immediately actual mission

during bility

a mission of the MSC.

simulation

responsi-

Goddard and the Data

Space

Fli_ht has

Center. centralized and and

The

NASA

Office

of

Trackin@ for of the defined

Acquisition

the technical

responsibility operations at is

planning, space Space

implementation, flight Flight tracking Center.

manned Goddard as of the

data

acquisition operation and to

Technical

operation, and

maintenance, data acquisition in

modification, facilities to the

augmentation as an

tracking

function

instrumentation About 370 persons

network directly

response support the total

mission network

requirements. at level Goddard; to some

contractor 1500.

personnel

bring

network

Department Commonwealth and operation of of

of

Supply,

Australia. is responsible at

The

Department for the

of

Supply,

Australia, the NASA

maintenance

station and

Carnarvon, define

Australia. this cooperative

Contractual effort.

arrangements

agreements

-more-

-62Department the and clude Range, and the maintenance facilities network White of and Defense (DOD). The control DOD of is responsible DOD assets These Western Ground inTest Center, for

operational to at

those Gemini. Range, Proving

required stations Sands

support the

Project Test Air

Eastern the

Missile and

Range,

tracking

telemetry

ships.

-more-

-63-

NETWORK

CONFIGURATION

I

I

_

c+

C-band _ _ _ _4_ _4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ X _ _ _ _ _ >_ _ >4 S-band

Radar Radar

_ _ _4 _ _ _ _ _ >4

Telemetry Receive & Record Telemetry Real Time Display Low Speed (TTY) Telemetry Data Transmission

_4

_

>4 _

_4

'>4 _ _ _

_4 _4 _ >4 _

Wide Band Data High Speed Data

_

On Site Data _ Process & Summary

Gemini Launch Vehicle Telemetry >4 >4 Gemini Launch Vehicle Command Digital System Command

_

_

_

_4

_ _

Radio Frequency Con_nand System Voice - Transmit & Receive _ _ _ >__ _ _ _ _ _ >4 _ _4 >4 _ _ _ _ >4 _ _ _ _4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ >4 >4 _ >_ _ _ _ x _ _ _ _ Teletype-Transmit & Receive Flight Control Team Manned Spacecraft Aid System Acquisition

_ _ _ _ _

Flight Controller Air & Group Voice MCC-H-Air to Ground Remote Voice

_

_4 _

_ _

_

_4 >4

_ _

_

>4

_

-more-

-6_-

Vl

ABORT

AND

RECOVERY CREW SAFETY

Every dant aboard and in

Gemini

system

affecting The

crew

safety

has

a redunSystem

(backup) the

feature. vehicle of

Malfunction

Detection

launch the crew

monitors

subsystem

performance malfunction

warns time

a potentially

catastrophic

for

escape. are three modes of escape: seats, ground and level powered reentry. used personal and flight, parachutes, first or during

There MODE I

Ejection used at

during

50 seconds of descent after MODE II (Delayed) Retrorockets seconds, all four after MODE III Normal using

between

50

and

i00

allowing crew to solid retrorockets shutdown is

salvo fire five seconds commanded.

engine

separation from launch vehicle, OAMS thrusters, then making normal using computer. from Gemini reentry Launch and

reentry, Except Vehicle, landing Survival for Mode I, spacecraft forward,

separates then

turns with

blunt-end crew aboard.

completes

package gear, mounted parachute on each ejection by seat and line, attached weighs

Survival to 23 the

astronaut's

harnesses

nylon

pounds. -more -

-65-

Each

astronaut

has:

3.5

pounds .

of

drinking

water.

Machete One-man flation, sea

life

raft, dye

by

3

feet, nylon

with sun

CO

2

bottle

for

in-

anchor, light

markers, with

bonnet. signal mirror,

Survival

(strobe),

flashlight,

compass, striker,

sewing halazone

kit,

14

feet

of

nylon

line, and

cotton batteries voice

balls for

and power.

tablets, with

a whistle, homing beacon

Survival Sunglasses. Desalter of seawater. Medical and and antibiotic motion

radio,

and

reception.

kit,

with

brickettes

enough

to

desalt

eight

pints

kit,

containing tablets and

stimulant, aspirin,

pain, plus

motion

sickness for pain

injectors

sickness. pLANNED AND CONTINGENCY of landing are LANDING areas those AREAS for where and track Gemini 8, planned forces a short

There and are

are

two

types Planned to

contingency. pre-positioned All other

areas

recovery crew are within

recover under

spacecraft the orbital

time.

areas

contingency

areas, longer

requiring recovery

special period.

search

and

rescue

techniques

and

a

-more-

^

-66-

GEMINI PARACHUTE LANDINGEQUENCE S
50,000 FEET I_

¥
i_ _ _ _

HIGH ALTITUDE DROGUECHUTE DEPLOYED

21,000 FEET

OPEN CABIN VENT VALVE

10,600 FEET

DEPLOYEDPILOT PARACHUTE

DEPLOYMENT

6, 700 FEET

_"

TWO - POI NT SUSPENSION

1,500 FEET

_

_

CABIN WATER SEALCLOSED TOUCHDOWN

SEALEVEL

_

-

JETTISONCHUTE

I

-more-

--t)[

_

/

-68p_anned Landihq Areas Landing in the West Atlantic (45-1) where the primary recovery vessel, an aircraft carrier, is pre-positioned. Landing in East and Mid-Pacific deployed. Atlantic, West Pacific areas where ships are

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

LAUNCH

SITE

Landing in the event of off-the-pad abort or abort during early phase of flight, includes an area about 47 miles seaward from Cape Kennedy, 3½ miles toward Banana River from Complex 19. Landing in the event of abort during powered flight, extending from 47 miles at sea from Cape Kennedy to west coast of Africa. Areas beneath Planned aircraft of the spacecraft's Areas are ground track except Landing recovery

LAUNCH

ABORT

Contingency All those Areas, within the

Landinq area

designated requiring a period Recovery

Landing and

Contingency for

pararescue

support

18 hours will time

from

splashdown. by the the military services, control Flight

forces

be provided be under

and of

during the

mission

will

operational Space

Department Operations.

of Defense

Manager

for Manned

Support

-more-

-69-

VII.

SPACECRAFT

AND

LAUNCH GEMINI

VEHICLES SPACECRAFT

The I0 the the feet top.

Gemini in

spacecraft at major its

is base

conical, and are 39

18

feet, in

5 inches diameter module

long, at and

diameter Its two

inches

sections

the

reentry

adapter

section.

Reentry The at its

Module reentry It module has (2) and is ii main feet high and 7½ (i) and feet in diameter and

base. (R&R),

three reentry recovery

sections: (RCS), is the

rendezvous (3) cabin. (small)

recovery

control section drogue,

Rendezvous of and the spacecraft,

forward and main

end

containing

pilot

parachutes

radar.

Reentry tains eight fuel

control and

section tanks, thrusters

between valves, each

R&R

and

cabin and

sections two rings

conof

oxidizer control

tubing for

attitude

control for main

during parachute

reentry.

A parachute attachment. Cabin crew each hull. seated seat is

adapter

assembly

is

included

section

between

RCS their

and

adapter

section, and

houses

the Above

side-by-side, a hatch. not Crew

instruments is

controls.

compartment pressurized

pressurized environment

titanium is located

Equipment

requiring

-?0-

between
corrugated

pressure and

hull shingled

and to

outer

beryllium

shell

which and large heat

is

provide shield

aerodynamic forms the

protection. cabin

Dish--shaped

heat

end

of

section.

Adapter The its base,

Section adapter is 7½ feet high and and i0 feet in diameter at

containing

retrograde contains for contains and the

equipment solid

sections. retrograde rockets

Retrograde and part of the

section radiator section orbit

four

cooling fuel cells

system. for system electrical (OAMS), power, primary

Equipment fuel oxygen oxygen radiator section. for the

attitude

maneuver

for and

the

environmental for cooling fuel

control cell

system

(ECS), It also in

cryogenic serves the as a

hydrogen the

system° also

for

@ystem,

contained

equipment

NOTE: fore is

The

equipment are

section fired for are

is

jettisoned The

immediately retrograde

besection

retrorockets jettisoned after

reentry. fired.

retros ELECTRICAL

POWER fuel

SYSTEM cells for the primary of oxygen power three and

Gemini supply stacks hydrogen during of 32 are

8 will launch

carry and

two

orbit. cells.

The

cells

consist liquid

individual used as

Cryogenic to produce

reactants

electrical

energy

-more-

-?l-

by

the

process in a 45 to

of

electrolysis reaction batteries a will the continuous also fuel squib be

which to will

combines produce also

hydrogen as a

and by-product. in the

oxygen

controlled amp/hour insure They with

water be

Four spacecraft and in

carried during

power used

supply

reentry and launch,

landing. conjunction Three 15

during

prelaunch

cells. batteries will be used in the

amp/hour for all

reentry during

section the

squib-actuated

pyrotechnic

separating

mission. PROPELLANT

Total Mission

Useable

--

678.6

pounds with }_DAR No Dispersions -53_.25 pounds

Propellant

budget RENDEZVOUS

Purpose bearing System angle

-to

Enables Agena. so crew

crew

to

measure data

range, to

range

rate, Guidance

and

Supplies can

Inertial

computer

determine

maneuvers

necessary

for

rendezvous.

Operation and returns Radar Location rendezvous and them

--

Transponder to spacecraft only end

on at

Agena a

receives

radar frequency

impulses and pulse

specific processed on

width.

accepts -small

signals of

by

transponder. face of

spacecraft

forward

recovery

section.

-more-

-72-

-73-

-74-

g3

u
0
Z
m

_U

-more-

-75-

-more-

-76-

@

-more-

-??-

Size

--

less

than

two

cubic

feet.

Weight Power

--

less

than --

70

pounds. than 80 watts.

Requirement

less CHARGE

STATUS

DEVICE

Experiments _roblem ,\gena of during a

on

Gemini charge but

4

and

5 indicated the

there

is and be

no the considered fingers

static docking,

between these

spacecraft cannot flexible to make

experiments protruding cone will a be

conclusive. _re _ith _n installed the the

Therefore, on the

three Agena Any

copper first to

docking charge at

contact a ground

spacecraft. and

carried rate.

Agena

dissipated

controlled

-more-

-78-

GEMINI

LAUNCH

VEHICLE

The Force of two

Gemini II

Launch

Vehicle

(GLV-8) ballistic

is

a modified missile

U.S.

Air

Titan

intercontinental identical to the

consisting used in previous

stages, flights.

launch

vehicles

Gemini

HEIGHT DIAMETER

FIRST STAGE 63 feet i0 feet

SECOND STAGE 27 feet i0 feet

THRUST

430,000 pounds (two engines) 50-50 and blend of

i00,000 pounds (one engine) monomethyl hydrazine hydrazine

FUEL

unsymmetrical-dimethyl tetroxide in hypergolic, upon contact vehicle and

OXIDIZER

Nitrogen (Fuel eously

ignites spontanwith oxidizer.) is 109 feet.

Overall Combined

height is

of about to

launch

spacecraft

weight

340,000 II GLV

pounds. for use as as the Gemini Launch 5) and trans-

Modifications Vehicle i. mit include: Malfunction

Titan

(NOTE:

8 same system

GLV

1 through to crew. to provide detect

detection

added to the added

booster 2.

performance flight if

information control

Back-up system Radio Retro

system

a

secondary 3. 4.

primary

system

fails. for inertial guidance.

guidance and

substituted rockets

vernier

deleted.

5.

New

second

stage

equipment -more-

truss

added.

79-

6. 7. 8.

New

second

stage

forward

oxidizer

skirt

assembly

added.

Trajectory Electrical Launch of

tracking hydraulic vehicle the Space

requirements and program Systems instrument

simplified. systems for of the NASA Air modified. is unde_

Gemini the direction

management Division

Force

System

Command.

-more-

-80_

AGENA The of the Agena Air target Force which Moon as a and

TARGET vehicle Agena

VEHICLE for Gemini stage, Ranger 8 is a modification to the space-

U.S.

I) upper propel

similar and

space craft

vehicles to It the acts

helped

Mariner

planets. stage into either orbit by of the with Atlas/Agena its main or launch propulsion, the Gemini 8

separate itself

vehicle, and crew, can

placing be

maneuvered two

ground

control

using HEIGHT LENGTH

propulsion

systems. 36.3 26 feet feet Including Minus adapter shroud and

(liftoff) (orbit)

shroud

DIAMETER WEIGHT THRUST

5

feet pounds pounds Primary Secondary Secondary In orbit, Propulsion Engines, Engines, Unit Unit II I fueled

7,000 16,000

400 pounds 32 pounds FUEL OXIDIZER UDMH IRFNA in

(Unsymmetrical (Inhibited Red

Dimethyl Fuming system; in

Hydrazine) Nitric MON Acid) (Mixed propul-

primary

propulsion

oxides of Nitrogen) sion system COMBUSTION IRFNA and on contact UDMH are

secondary

hypergolic,

ignite

Primary Main engine

and places

secondary Agena Secondary

propulsion into orbit

systems and two is

are

restartable. large

used

for

orbital

changes.

system, -more-

200-pound-thrust,

-_iaft-firing thrust, vernier engines, aft-firing adjustments. by six are for small are velocity for ullage (roll, on changes. orientation pitch, Agena yaw) aft Two 16-poundand is

thrusters Attitude nitrogen to Agena

control jets for mounted as

accomplished

end.

Modifications spacecraft i. nection 2. 3. visually 4. 5. ment and 6. crew or 7. capability. Agena the Space program Systems include: Docking with Radar Displays locating Secondary Auxiliary telemetry. Command ground

use

Gemini

rendezvous

collar

and

equiplf_ent flight. compatible

to

permit

mechanical

con-

Gemini

during

transponder and and

with plus

Gemini strobe

radar. lights for

instrumentation, inspecting Agena system rack for

before for small

docking. orbital rendezvous changes. equip-

propulsion equipment

special

control controllers.

equipment

to

allow

control

by

Gemini

8

Multi-restartable

engine

to

provide

in-orbit

maneuver

management Division of

for the

NASA Air

is Force

under

the

direction Command.

of

Systems

-mo_e-

-87-

-more-

-83-

ATLAS

LAUNCH

VEHICLE

The of the

Atlas

Standard U.S. to Air the into

Launch Force launch orbit.

Vehicle Atlas vehicle

(SLV-3)

is

a

refinement ballistic Project

modified similar Astronauts

intercontinental which placed

missile, Mercury

Atlas three booster engine vernier main

is

a one-and-a-half on the pad,

stage then

vehicle, dropping the

igniting off the

all outboard

engines at

engines to

staging, thrusting

allowing at

single aided

sustainer by two small

continue

altitude,

engines. 66 16 i0 Feet Feet Feet i0 inches Minus Lower Tank Agena Booster Sections Upper fueled, payload End minus Payload Section

HEIGHT DIAMETER

5 Feet, WEIGHT 260,000

Tapered Fully Agena

pounds

THRUST

390,000 330,000

pounds pounds

Total at liftoff Two booster (outer engines)

57,000 Balance

pounds

One

Sustainer

center)

engine Two small engines and final control

vernler for trajectory velocity

FUEL OXIDIZER

RP-I, Liquid

a hydrocarbon oxygen -moreat -297

resembling degrees

kerosene F.

-85-

COMBUSTION

Unlike Titan's ignition, Atlas

hypergolic, combustion

spontaneous is achieved

by forcing propellants under pressure, burning generators turbines. Modifications the Gemini 8 mission to the Atlas which drive

to chambers them in gas propellant pump

Standard

Launch

Vehicle

for

include:

i. 2. simultaneous 3. Agena

Special Improved

autopilot propellant of

system

for

rendezvous system

mission. to assure

utilization both of fuel Atlas

depletion Increased stage.

oxidizers. structure for support of

thickness

upper 4. 5.

Simplified Retrorockets

pneumatic moved

system. from exterior equipment pods to

upper

interstage 6. Uprated

adapter MA-5

section. system (used on later Mercury

propulsion

flights.) 7. Atlas is under Modular telemetry Launch of kit tailored for each mission. for of NASA Air

Standard the direction

Vehicle the Space

program Systems

management Division

the

Force

Systems

Command.

_mo_e

-

-86\TIII. HISTORY AND CONTRACTORS

CR_W

BIOGRAPHIES

Neil BORN:

A.

Armstrong_ Wapakonetaj Bachelor from

Gemini Ohio, of

8

command 5,

pilot 1930. in Aeronautical Engineering

August Science

EDUCATION:

degree

Purdue Married Illinois. June

University. former Janet Shearon of Evanston,

MARITAL

STATUS:

CHILDREN: EXPERIENCE:

Eric,

30, was 78

1957; a

Mark,

April

8, from

1963. 1949 the to 1952 action.

Armstrong and flew

naval

aviator

combat

missions Lewis Flight

during

Korean

He joined NASA's (then NACA Lewis

Research Center in 1955 Propulsion Laboratory) High as and he was Speed Flight an aeroAs X-15 an

and later transferred to the NASA Station at Edwards AFB, California, nautical an project 200,000 research pilot research for NACA aeronautical pilot,

NASA.

pilot, flying that aircraft feet and approximately 4,000

to over mphu Other the X-I rocket F5D, B-47, and

fliglht test work included piloting airplane, the F-100, F-101, F-102, paraglider. He has logged more than in 3,400 jet hours

flying

time,

including CURRENT NASA phases pilot in of ASSIGNMENT: September of the the backup astronaut

1,900 Armstrong

hours was addition the

aircraft. as he an astronaut in as all by

selected to

1962. crew

In for

participating served 5 flight.

training

program, Gemini

command

-inol_e-

David BORN:

R.

Scott,

Gemini

8 pilot June 6, 1932. in science, United

San

Antonio, Bachelor

Texas, of

EDUCATION:

Science

degree

States Military in aeronautics Institute MARITAL STATUS: of

Academy; Master and astronautics Technology. to the former Ann

of Science degree from Massachusetts

Married San

Lurton

Ott

of

Antonio, March 25,

Texas. 1961; Douglas Force West W., October 8, 1963.

CHILDREN: EXPERIENCE:

Tracy

L.,

Scott, fifth His

a United States Air in a class of 633 at at MIT concerned

Major, Point.

finished

thesis

interplanetary

navigation.

He is Pilot Pilot Scott

a graduate School and School. has logged more Scott in

of the Air Force Experimental Test the Air Force Aerospace Research'

more than

than 2,800

3,000 hours

hours in jet group to

flying aircraft. of

time,

including CURRENT nauts ASSIGNMENT: named by NASA

was

among 1963.

the In

third he of

astrofor naviga-

October

addition

partici-

pation in the astronaut specific participation tion. Charles BORN: Conrad, Jr.,

training program, in the development

is responsible guidance and

Gemini

8 backup

command June 2, in

pilot 1930.

Philadelphia,

Pennsylvania,

EDUCATION:

Bachelor of Science degree from Princeton University. STATUS: Married Texas. to the former

aeronautical

engineering

MARITAL

Jane

DuBose

of

Uvalde,

-more-

-88 -

Conrad CHILDREN:

Biography Peter, Andrew, 1960.

(Continued) December April 25, 30, 1954; Thomas, Christopher, May 3, 1957; 26,

1959;

November

EXPERIENCE:

He

entered

the He is

Navy now the

following and a Navy Navy

his

graduation a naval

from

Princeton

University

became

aviator. Conrad Patuxent tion of in the served

Commander. Test Pilot School at

attended

River, Maryland, that course was armaments at Patuxent engineer as a F4H test as a at flight

and following a project test there. instructor Pilot flight the Test

complepilot He also and School. and at as a

division

performance He served

instructor

safety officer for Miramar, California, He in He was pilot on

Fighter Naval 5

Squadron 96 Air Station. flight which

the

Gemini

took

place

August has

1965. more than than 2,500 3,200 hours flying in jet hours, aircraft. in-

logged more

cluding

Richard BORN:

P.

Gordon,

Jr.,

Gemini

8 backup 5,

pilot 1929. in chemistry, University

Seattle,

Washington,

October

EDUCATION:

Bachelor of Science of Washington. STATUS:

degree

MARITAL

Married to the former Freeland, Washington. July 8, 1954; December 18, April 26, 1960;

Barbara

J.

Field

of

CHILDREN:

Carleen, Lawrence, James,

Richard, October 6, 1957; Thomas, March Diane, April 23,

1955; 25, 1959;

1961.

--more -

-89Gordon Biography (continued) a United States Navy Lieutenant 1951. After in 1953, he received Commander, receiving attended transi-

EXPERIENCE:

Gordon,

entered aviation training in his wings as a Naval aviator All-Weather Flight School and tional training squadron at the Station. He attended the

jet

before reporting to an Jacksonville, Florida,

all-weather Naval Air

Navy's Maryland,

Test in

Pilot 1957,

School and During test

at served this FJ test Fury, pilot

Patuxent

River,

as a flight test tour of duty, he work A4D for He on the F8V Skyhawk, the F4H served

pilot until 1960. performed flight Crusader, FIIF first

Tigercat, project

and was the Phantom II. Fighter

with

Squadron

121

at

the

Miramar,

California, Naval Air Station as a flight instructor in the F4H and participated in the introduction of that aircraft to the Atlantic and Pacific fleets.

He was flight safety officer, officer, and ground training Squadron 96 at Miramar. In May 1961, Gordon from Los Angeles to speed record of transcontinental minutes. won New

assistant operations officer for Fighter

the Bendix Trophy York, establishing miles record per of hour two and hours

Race a new a and 47

869.74 speed

He at

was a student at the Monterey, California.

U.S.

Naval

Postgraduate

School

He has logged more than 3,000 hours including more than 2,500 hours in CURRENT of to the the ASSIGNMENT: In October ]963, Gordon was

flying time, jet aircraft. named as one

third group of astronauts chosen by NASA. In regular astronaut training, he is responsible layouts, systems instrument displays and displays are appropriately

addition for monitor-

ing cockpit insure that cockpit

pilot controls to integrated into

panels.

-more--

-90-

U.S. MISSION MR-3 (Shepard) SPACECRAFT HRS. MIN. 15

MANNED HRS. SEC. 22

SPACE REVS. S.O.

FLIGHTS MANNED HOURS IN MISSION HRS. MIN. 15 SEC. 22 TOTAL MANNED CUMULATIVE HRS.MIN. 15 SEC. 22 HRS

MR-4

(Grissom)

15

37

S.O.

15

37

30

59

MA-6

(Glenn)

4

55

23

3

4

55

23

5

26

22

MA-7

(Carpenter)

4

56

05

3

4

56

05

l0

22

27

MA-8

(Schirra)

9

13

ii

6

9

13

ii

19

35

38

MA-9

(Cooper)

34

19

49

22

34

19

49

53

55

27

Gemini

3

(Grissom 4 53 00 3 9 46 00 63 41 27

& Young)

Gemini 4 (McDivitt & White)

97

56

ii

62

195

52

22

259

33

49

Gemini

5

(Cooper 190 56 01 120 381 52 02 641 25 57

& Conrad)

Gemini

7

(Borman 330 35 00 206 661:10:00 1302 35 57

& Lovell)

Gemini &

6

(Schirra 25 51 24 15 51:41:48 1354 17 45

Stafford)

-more-

-91PREVIOUS GEMINI
Gemini I, Apr. 8, 1964 flight, vehicle to using first production and ability spacecraft, of launch Spacefour FLIGHTS

Unmanned to test Gemini and and No II,

orbital launch

performance launch

vehicle craft days. Gemini

spacecraft second stage

withstand vehicle

environment. for about

launch

orbited

recovery Jan. 19,

attempted. 1965

Unmanned heat protection

ballistic and

flight

to

qualify

spacecraft Delayed three Dora.

reentry times December system shut by

spacecraft

systems.

adverse launch engines recovered Gemini

weather, attempt down

including terminated

hurricanes after

Cleo

and

malfunction component into

detection failure. Ocean.

because

of

hydraulic reentry

Spacecraft

after III, Mar. manned as

ballistic 23, 1965

Atlantic

First John 53 W.

flight, crew. about

with Orbited 50

Astronauts earth three

Virgil times

I. in

Grissom four

and hours,

Young

minutes. area lift plane,

Landed in

miles

(81 kilometers) spacecraft manned did not

short

of

planned ex-

landing pected out of

Atlantic

because First orbit. to

provide to

during after is

reentry. its first own man

spacecraft who made

maneuver

Grissom, into space

suborbital

Mercury

flight,

fly

twice.

-92-

Gemini

IV, Second

June

3-7,

1965 Gemini flight completed area A. II 62 after revolutions 97 hours, and 56

manned primary flight.

landed minutes pilot. minutes

in of

Atlantic Astronaut Edward H.

recovery James White

McDivitt pilot, using

was

command 21

Astronaut of

was

accomplished a hand held

Extravehicular unit for stage of fuel first was for

Activity time not the in

(EVA), space.

maneuvering with GLV

Near-rendezvous after use of in preInertial

second amount System

accomplished maneuver. to perform

planned Guidance

Malfunction zero-lift

required

crew

reentry.

Gemini

V,

Aug.

21-29, L.

1965 Cooper in and seven Charles days, space supply 22 (Pete) hours Conrad, and 56 Jr., minutes. of mission power, crew

Astronauts circled Cooper oxygen during and and the was earth first

Gordon 120

times two fuel

to system

make in

orbital cell

flights. system

Failure

heating first

threatened electrical by flight from both

day

of

flight,

but

careful of to

use fuel

of

excellent ground

operational personnel, landed about vessel into planned. carried fuel

management crew

cells

permitted i00 miles

complete kilometers)

successfully. primary informaitself

Spacecraft Atlantic tion

(161 of

recovery

because

erroneous although with

base-line computer

programmed as pod with

onboard Plan aloft by

computer, to rendezvous

performed bearing problem

a transponderbecause of

Gemini supply.

5 was

cancelled

cell

oxygen

9j-

Gemini

VII t Dec. Holds current Borman in

4-18, world and days,

9965 record Pilot 18 for manned Loveli and 35 as space completed minutes. target in up list the and flight 206 On for as Command

Pilot of of the

Frank earth

James hours, VII

revolutions 12th Gemini In weeks, day VI

13

the the

their

flight, on the to

the

Gemini

served

spacecraft man's crew ments a test

first operate

successful in space out an

re_dezvous for period

space. to of two

proving the

ability of Gemini

VII all

carried medical

ambitious in

twenty

experi-

including of laser VII the

experiments from continuous

Gemini visual with system

program, acuity. the delta

communications experienced fuel cell

space,

The P

Gemini on

difficulty the

light the

system. The of only a yaw

However, other

performed was

for the

entire

mission. malfunction

problem on 18, of

encountered the making the spacecraft. a

temporary VII

thruster on l0 Dec. miles

Gemini reentry Gemini

landed

in

the

Atlantic within

controlled carrier.

which Vl,

brought 15-16

them r 1965

recovery

Dec.

The in orbit. their

first

spacecraft Pilot

to

rendezvous Schirra by 167 Gemini

with and mile VII It

another Pilot orbit over

spacecraft Stafford a 185 mile

Command spacecraft

Walter a i00

Thomas into the

flew

from

circular Ocean at

orbit, 5 hrs.

rendezvousing 47 min. after

with

Pacific one of the

llftoff.

demonstrated

ma_or

objectives

of

the

program,

and

also

paved

the

way

for

Apollo

-more

-

-94-

Lunar landing

Orbit on

Rendezvous the Vl moon. was

in

the

accomplishment

of

the

first

manned

Gemini on the third

launche On

d on the

its first

historic try, Oct. start

rendezvous 25, of the

mission Agena

attempt. was

Target engine. liftoff pad

vehicle On when

destroyed the

by

a hard Launch

its failed rocket

propulsion to with achieve the

Dec_ an

12,

Gemini plug

Vehicle the

electrical system

connecting out prematurely.

electrical

dropped

-more-

-95PROJECT OFFICIALS

George

E.

Mueller

Associate Office Flight, Acting

Administrator, of Manned Space NASA Headquarters Director, Gemini Program.

Leroy

E.

Day

Aetin_ Deputy Director, Gemini Program, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Heaaquar_e_s Gemini Manned Program Spacecraft Manager, Center, Houston.

Charles

W.

Mathews

Christopher

C.

Kraft

Assistant Director Operations, Manned Center, Houston Deputy Launch Center,

for Flight Spacecraft for Space

G.

Merritt

Preston

Mission Director Operations. JFK Fla.

Lt.

Gen.

Leighton

I.

Davis

USAF, National Commander and Manned Space Operations.

Range Divisgon DOD Manager df Flight Support

Maj. Col.

Gen.

V.

G. C.

Huston Dineen

USAF,

Deputy

DOD

Manager

Richard

Director, Directorate Gemini Launch Vehicles, Space Air Systems Force Division, Command Division, Systems

Lt.

Col.

John

G.

Albert

Chief,

Gemini

Launch

6555th Aerospace Air Force Missile Cape R. Admiral C. B. W. Sarver USN, Kennedy, Commander

Test Wing, Test Center,

Fla. Task Force 140

William

Schneider

Deputy Directors Mission Operations Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, Gemini 8 Mission Director

-96-

SPACECRAFT

CONTRACTORS

McDonnell tractor for the

Aircraft Gemini

Corp.,

St.

Louis, Others

Mo.,

is

prime

con-

spacecraft. Co.

include: Control

AIResearch Los The Angeles, Eagle

Manufacturing calif. Pitcher Mo. Electric Mass. Corp° Park, Calif. Co. Co.

Environment System Batteries

Joplin, General West

Fuel

Cells

Lynn,

Northrop Newbury Rocketdyne Canoga Thiokol Elkton,

Parachutes

OAMS, calif. Corp.

RCS

Park,

Chemical Md.

Retrorocket

System

Weber Aircraft Burbank, Calif. Westinghouse Baltimore, Atlas contractors

Corp.

Ejection

Seats

Electric [_d. include:

Corp.

Rendezvous

Radar

System

General Dynamics, Div., San Diego, Rocketdyne American Canoga General Syracuse,

Convair Calif.

Airframe and Integration Propulsion

Systems

]9iv., North Aviation, Inc. Calif. Co.

Systems

Park,

Electric New York

Guidance

-more-

-97Titan
II contractors include:

Martin Co., Baltimore Divisions, Baltimore, Aerojet-General Corp. Sacramento, Calif. General Syracuse, Electric N.Y. Co.

Md.

Airframe and Integration Propulsion

Systems

System

Radio System Ground

Command

Guidance

Burroughs Corp. Paoli, Pa.

Guidance

Computer

Aerospace Corp. E1 Segundo, Calif. Agena D contractors include:

Systems Engineering Technical Direction

and

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Sunnyvale, Bell Aerosystems Niagara Falls, McDonnell St. Louis, Food Contractors: Co. Y. Co.

Calif.

Airframe and Integration Propulsion

Systems

Systems

N.

Aircraft Mo.

Target

Docking

Adapter

U.S. Army Laboratories Natick, Mass. Whirlpool Corp. St. Joseph, Mich. Swift and Pillsbury Suit Contractor: The David R. Clark Co. Co., Co., Chicago and Minneapolis

Food

Formulation

Concept

Procurement, Packaging Principal

Processing,

Food

Contractors

Worcester,

Mass.

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ABBREVIATIONS ASCO CGLVTC

AND

SYMBOLS

FREQUENTLY

USED CUT OFF TEST

AUXILIARY CHIEF

SUSTAINER LAUNCH

GEMINI

VEHICLE

CONDUCTOR ECS ESP ETR EVA ELSS FLT GAATV GATV GEN GLV GN2 GT HHMU IMU IRFNA LC LD LD LMD (14) (14) (19) (S/C) ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL PACK SYSTEM

EXTRAVEHICULAR EASTERN TEST

SUPPORT RANGE ACTIVITY LIFE

EXTRAVEHICULAR EXTRAVEHICULAR FLIGHT GEMINI GEMINI GENERAL GEMINI GASEOUS GEMINI HAND DIRECTOR ATLAS AGENA

SUPPORT

SYSTEM

(HOUSTON) TARGET VEHICLE VEHICLE

AGENA TARGET

INFORMATION LAUNCH VEHICLE

NITROGEN TITAN

HELD

MANEUVERING MEASURING RED FUMING UNIT

UNIT

INERTIAL INHIBITED LAUNCH LAUNCH LAUNCH LAUNCH

NITRIC COMPLEX

ACID 14 14 19

CONDUCTOR DIRECTOR DIRECTOR MISSION

COMPLEX COMPLEX

DIRECTOR

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-99LN2 LO2 LTC MCC LIQUID LIQUID LOCKHEED MISSION NITROGEN OXYGEN TEST CONTROL CONDUCTOR CENTER THE WORD HOUSTON OR

(DEFINED WITH CAPE) MD OAMS PCM S/C SPCFT SLD SLV STC SRO TDA UDHM WMSL MISSION ORBIT PULSE

DIRECTOR _TITUDE CODE

(HOUSTON) MANEUVERING SYSTEM

MODULATION

(GEMINI) CHIEF

SPACECRAFT TEST CONDUCTOR

SPACECRAFT

SIMULTANEOUS STANDARD SLV TEST

LAUNCH (ATLAS)

DEMONSTRATION VEHICLE

LAUNCH

CONDUCTOR OF RANGE OPERATIONS

SUPERINTENDENT TARGET DOCKING

ADAPTER DIMETHLHYDRAZINE LAUNCH

UNSYMMETRICAL WET MOCK

SIMULATED

-End-

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