Seamanship 2 - Cargo Handling and Stowage | Corrosion | Ships

Frenzie Mae V.

Feb. 23, 2010 Seamanship 2 – Cargo Handling and Stowage

COVERAGE FOR FINALS Inspect and Report defects and damage to cargo spaces and hatch covers and ballast tanks A Cargo hold is an enclosed structure in a ship whose main purpose is to store cargoes in the ship. A ballast tank is a compartment within a boat or ship that holds water. A vessel may have a single ballast tank near its center or multiple ballast tanks typically on either side. A large vessel typically will have several ballast tanks including double bottom tanks, wing tanks as well as forepeak and aftpeak tanks. Adding ballast to a vessel lowers its center of gravity, and increases the draft of the vessel. Increase draft may be required for proper propeller immersion. A ballast tank can be filled or emptied in order to adjust the amount of ballast force. Ships designed for carrying large amounts of cargo must take on ballast water for proper stability when travelling with light loads and discharge water when heavily laden with cargo. Small sailboats designed to be light weight for being pulled behind automobiles on trailers are often designed with ballast tanks that can be emptied when the boat is removed from the water. In submarines ballast tanks are used to allow the vessel to submerge, water being taken in to alter the vessel's buoyancy and allow the submarine to dive. When the submarine surfaces, water is blown out from the tanks using compressed air, and the vessel becomes positively buoyant again, allowing it to rise to the surface. A submarine may have several types of ballast tank: the main ballast tanks, which are the main tanks used for diving and surfacing, and trimming tanks, which are used to adjust the submarine's attitude (its 'trim') both on the surface and when underwater. A hatch or hatchway is the opening at a wall or floor particularly on the ship’s deck at the top of a cargo hold. The mechanical devices which allow hatches to be opened and closed are called hatch covers. In general, hatch covers are between 45% and 60% of the ship's breadth, or beam, and 57% to 67% of the length of the holds. To efficiently load and unload cargo, hatches must be large, but large hatches present structural problems. Hull stress is concentrated around the edges of the hatches, and these areas must be reinforced. Often, hatch areas are reinforced by locally increasing the scantlings or by adding structural members called stiffeners. Both of these options have the undesired effect of adding weight to the ship.

General Guidance : Preparation for Survey
1. Tanks and spaces are to be safe for access, i.e. gas freed, ventilated and illuminated. 2. In preparation for survey, thickness measurements and to allow for a thorough examination, all
spaces are to be cleaned including removal from surfaces of all loose accumulated corrosion scale. Spaces are to be sufficiently clean and free from water, scale, dirt, oil residues etc. to reveal corrosion, deformation, fractures, damages or other structural deterioration. However, those areas of structure whose renewal has already been decided by the owner need only be cleaned and de-scaled to the extent necessary to determine the limits of renewed areas.

3. Sufficient illumination is to be provided to reveal corrosion, deformation, fractures, damages or
other structural deterioration.

4. Means are to be provided to enable the Surveyor to examine the structure in a safe and
practical way. 5. For surveys, including close-up survey where applicable, in cargo spaces and ballast tanks, one or more of the following means of access, is to be provided: a) Permanent staging and passages through structures. b) Temporary staging and passages through structures. c) Lifts and movable platforms. d) Boats or rafts.

e) Other equivalent means.

6. Survey at sea or anchorage may be undertaken when the Surveyor is fully satisfied with the
necessary assistance from the personnel onboard and provided the following conditions and limitations are met:

a) Surveys of tanks by means of boats or rafts is at the sole discretion of the attending
Surveyor, who is to take into account the safety arrangements provided, including weather forecasting and ship response in reasonable sea conditions. Appropriate life jackets are to be available for all participants. The boats or rafts are to have satisfactory residual buoyancy and stability even if one chamber is ruptured. A safety checklist is also to be provided. An oxygen-meter, breathing apparatus, lifeline and whistles are to be at hand during the survey. For oil tankers and chemical tankers an explosimeter is also to be provided.

b) A communication system is to be arranged between the survey party in the tank and the
responsible officer on deck. This system must include the personnel in charge of ballast pump handling if boats or rafts are to be used.

c) Surveys of tanks by means of boats or rafts will only be permitted for the under deck areas
of tanks when the coating of the under deck structure is in GOOD condition and there is no evidence of wastage. The only exception to this, at the discretion of the Surveyor, is where the depth of under deck web plating is 1,5 m or less. Alternatively, rafting may be used if a permanent means of access is provided in each bay to allow safe entry and exit. This means of access is to be direct from deck via a vertical ladder and a small platform fitted approximately 2 m below deck. Where these conditions are not met, then the under deck area will require to be staged for survey. 7. On ships of 20,000 tonnes deadweight and above, and where the notation ESP is assigned starting with Special Survey III, all special and Intermediate hull surveys are to be carried out by at least two exclusive surveyors attending on board to jointly perform the Survey. On single side skin bulk carriers of 100,000 tonnes deadweight and above the Intermediate Survey between 10 and 15 years of age is also to be carried out by at least two exclusive Surveyors attending onboard to jointly perform the Survey. Though each attending Surveyor is not required to perform all aspects of the required survey, the attending Surveyors are required to consult with each other and to do joint examinations to the extent necessary for them to agree on actions required to complete the survey (i.e. with respect to Overall surveys, Close-up surveys, renewals, repairs, and conditions of class).

Corrosion in Cargo Spaces and Ballast Tanks
Corrosion of cargo tank structure is a fact of life when operating oil tankers in the harsh environment encountered at sea. The internal structure of the cargo tanks, often un-coated, is exposed to potentially corrosive gases, sea water, crude oil and oil products. The effect of this corrosion over a period of years is to reduce the material thickness and hence the strength of the structure. Corrosion in the cargo tanks of oil tankers can generally be classified as general corrosion, local corrosion, pitting corrosion or weld metal corrosion.


General Corrosion

This type of corrosion generally appears in tanks that are un-coated as a crumbly scale that is evident over large areas and which, when it is dislodged, exposes fresh steel to the corrosion cycle. General corrosion is allowed for in the design and construction of the oil tanker and an average value of in-service wastage is generally accepted as being around 0.1mm/year or less. Classification Society corrosion allowances would typically offer a useful life for structural members of around 20-25years.

b. Local Corrosion

Highly stressed structural components tend to "work" during alternate compression and tension cycles when the ship is in-service. Surface rust or scale on these components becomes dislodged during this flexing process, exposing bare steel to further insidious corrosive attack. To further exacerbate the situation, as the material thickness diminishes, the stress on the component is incrementally raised and the corrosion continues at an accelerated rate. Localized corrosion, in grooving form, occurs at structural intersections where water collects or flows. Grooving corrosion can also occur on the vertical structural members at the water flow path or on the flush sides of bulkheads in way of flexing of plating.


Pitting Corrosion

Pitting corrosion is a localized corrosion that is more commonly found in the bottom plating of tanks and horizontal surfaces or structural detail where water tends to accumulate. Bare steel plates in cargo tanks are often coated with black rust and a residual waxy oil coating from previous cargoes which tends to protect the metal surface from heavy corrosion. Localized breakdown of these natural tank coatings, particularly in way of cargo bell mouths, or cleaning medium impingement areas, can quickly cause very severe pitting where seawater collects and electrolytic and/or microbial induced corrosion can occur. Severe pitting corrosion creates a tendency for the pits to merge to form long grooves or wide scabby patches with an appearance resembling that of general corrosion. Extreme pitting corrosion in addition to causing loss of structural strength necessitating extensive and costly steel renewals can, if not adequately repaired, lead to hull penetration and a serious pollution incident. d. Weld Metal Corrosion Weld metal corrosion is an electrolytic action between the weld material and the base metal which can result in pitting or grooving corrosion.

OCIMF has examined a variety of causes of accelerated corrosion identified as possible contributing factors for a number of reasons, including: • Evidence obtained when examining the vessel experiencing accelerated corrosion. • noting the cause to be one which normally contributes to corrosion. • differences in the design, materials, operating procedures and trading routes between those oil tankers experiencing accelerated corrosion and those which are not. These causes of corrosion in the cargo tanks include, inter alia: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. Coating not applied Excessive crude oil/water washing High sulphur content of cargo oil Inert gas quality Inadequate Earthing/Grounding of Electrical Equipment Localized coating defects Material of Construction Microbial Attack Sludge/Scale Accumulation Water in Cargo Tanks High Humidity High Temperature Structural Flexing

Detection of Defects and Damages in cargo holds and ballast tanks (Regulation 12, SOLAS Chapter XII)
Hold, ballast and dry space water level detectors
(This regulation applies to bulk carriers regardless of their date of construction)

1. Bulk carriers shall be fitted with water level detectors: (1) in each cargo hold, giving audible and visual alarms, one when the water level above the inner bottom in any hold reaches a height of 0.5 m and another at a height not less than 15% of the depth of the cargo hold but not more than 2.0 m. On bulk carriers to which regulation 9.2 applies, detectors with only the latter alarm need be installed. The water level detectors shall be fitted in the aft end of the cargo holds. For cargo holds which are used for water ballast, an alarm overriding device may be installed. The visual alarms shall clearly discriminate between the two different water levels detected in each hold; (2) in any ballast tank forward of the collision bulkhead required by regulation II-1/11, giving an audible and visual alarm when the liquid in the tank reaches a level not exceeding 10% of the tank capacity. An alarm overriding device may be installed to be activated when the tank is in use; and (3) in any dry or void space other than a chain cable locker, any part of which extends forward of the foremost cargo hold, giving an audible and visual alarm at a water level of 0.1 m above the deck. Such alarms need not be provided in enclosed spaces the volume of which does not exceed 0.1% of the ship’s maximum displacement volume. 2. The audible and visual alarms specified in paragraph 1 shall be located on the navigation bridge. 3. Bulk carriers constructed before 1 July 2004 shall comply with the requirements of this regulation not later than the date of the annual, intermediate or renewal survey of the ship to be carried out after 1 July 2004, whichever comes first

The enhanced survey requirement has undoubtedly improved the safety performance of those ships which have now been subjected to more rigorous inspection. ESP effectively covers the vessel’s structural condition forward of the accommodation block and within the aft peak tank. However, Engine Room (E/R) structure is not specifically included within the ESP remit, but is nevertheless important, particularly below the bottom floor plates where corrosion can continue unnoticed. In order to address this shortcoming, OCIMF recommends that an examination of E/R structure be carried out in conjunction with Special and Intermediate Surveys. This examination should include tank tops, shell plating in way of tank tops, brackets connecting side shell frames and tank tops, and engine room bulkheads in way of tank top, bilge wells and other areas below the bottom floor plates. Thickness measurements may also be required if areas of corrosion are found. Presently, ESP has no requirement for recording pitting corrosion in tank bottoms despite the potential source of hole leaks which it represents. The Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) recommends that pitting corrosion is specifically examined and reported as part of the Enhanced Survey. Recognizing the importance of structural integrity within ballast or combined cargo / ballast tanks, and understanding the benefits of reduced corrosion levels when anode protection is utilized, OCIMF recommends that, where a coating has not been applied or where a coating is found in Fair or Poor condition as defined in IMO resolution A744 (18), the overall anode condition should also be recorded as a function of the close-up survey. Failure of oil piping, including all associated valves, located on the cargo deck of a ship exposes the operator to a significant risk of pollution should the pipe accidentally fracture and spill its contents onto the deck. OCIMF recommends that all such deck piping is visually examined and operationally tested to at least working pressure at least once per year. The results should be recorded and held aboard the ship.

The risk of machinery failure is significantly higher immediately following an extensive repair or lengthy vessel deactivation period. This can be particularly relevant to the safe and reliable operation of the ship if the repair facility is nearby the first loading port to which the ship is ordered. To reduce the risk of machinery failures at this critical time, OCIMF recommends that if significant maintenance or repair is carried out on the main propulsion machinery and / or the steering gear system and / or any auxiliary machinery / systems essential to the propulsion and safety of the ship, then on conclusion of the repair period the operation of the complete machinery system should be verified under controlled conditions by a test run which includes at least 1 hour at full power. OCIMF further recommends that should the vessel be required to be deactivated for a period exceeding 2 weeks then upon reactivation the operation of the complete machinery system should be verified under controlled conditions by a test run which includes at least 1 hour at full power.

In order to plan the proper disposition and availability of the cargo so as to meet the ship’s loading plan, the loading terminal should be given the following information.. 1. The ship’s estimated time of arrival (ETA) off the port as early as possible. This advice should be updated as appropriate.. 2. At the time of initial ETA advice, the ship should also provide details of the following:. 2.1. name, call sign, IMO Number of the ship, its flag State and port of registry;. 2.2. a loading plan stating the quantity of cargo required, stowage by hatches, loading order and the quantity to be loaded in each pour, provided the ship has sufficient information to be able to prepare such a plan; 2.3. arrival and proposed departure draughts; 2.4. time required for de-ballasting; 2.5. the ship’s length overall, beam, and length of the cargo area from the forward coaming of the forward-most hatch to the after coaming of the aft-most hatch into which cargo is to be loaded or from which cargo is to be removed; 2.6. distance from the water line to the first hatch to be loaded or unloaded and the distance from the ship’s side to the hatch opening; 2.7. the location of the ship’s accommodation ladder;. 2.8. air draught;. 2.9. details and capacities of ship’s cargo handling gear; 2.10. number and type of mooring lines; and 2.11. any other item related to the ship requested by the terminal..3Similar information in respect of ETA, unloading plan and details of the ship are required by unloading terminals. 3. Ships arriving at loading or unloading terminals in a part loaded condition should also advise: 1. berthing displacement and draughts; 2. previous loading or unloading port; 3. nature and stowage of cargo already on board and, when dangerous goods in bulk are on board, the name of the material, IMO Class and UN Number or BC Number. 4. Distribution of cargo on board, indicating that to be unloaded and that to remain on board. 4. Combination carriers (OBO or O/O) should advise of the following additional information: 1. nature of the preceding three cargoes; 2. date and place at which the last oil cargo was discharged; 3. advice as to content of slop tanks and whether fully inerted and sealed; and 4. date, place and name of authority that issued the last gas free certificate which includes pipe lines and pumps

5. As soon as possible the ship should confirm that all holds into which cargo is to be loaded are clean, and free from previous cargo residues which in combination with the cargo to be loaded could create a hazard. 6. Information on the loading or unloading plan and on intended arrival and departure draughts should be progressively updated, and passed to the terminal as circumstances change. 7. On receipt of the ship’s initial notification of its ETA, the terminal should give the ship the following information as soon as possible:.1the name of the berth at which loading or unloading will take place and the estimated times for berthing and completion of loading or unloading;

1. On receipt of the ship’s initial notification of its ETA, the terminal should give the ship the following information as soon as possible: 1. the name of the berth at which loading or unloading will take place and the estimated times for berthing and completion of loading or unloading; 2. characteristics of the loading or unloading equipment, including the terminal’s nominal loading or unloading rate and the number of loading or unloading heads to be used; 3. features of the berth or jetty the master may need to be aware of, including the position of fixed and mobile obstructions, fenders, bollards and mooring arrangements; 4. minimum depth of water alongside the berth and in approach or departure channels; 5. water density at the berth; 6. the maximum distance between the water line and the top of cargo hatch covers or coamings, whichever is relevant to the loading operation, and the maximum air draft; 7. arrangements for gangways and access; 8. which side of the ship is to be alongside the berth; 9. maximum allowable speed of approach to the jetty and availability of tugs, their type and bollard pull; 10. the loading sequence for different parcels of cargo, and any other restrictions if it is not possible to take the cargo in any order or any hold to suit the ship; 11. any properties of the cargo to be loaded which may present a hazard when placed in contact with cargo or residues on board; 12. advance information on the proposed cargo handling operations or changes to existing plans for cargo handling; 13. if the terminal’s loading or unloading equipment is fixed, or has any limits to its movement; 14. mooring lines required; 15. warning of unusual mooring arrangements; 16. any restrictions on de-ballasting; 17. maximum sailing draught permitted by the port authority; and 18. any other items related to the terminal requested by the master.

2. Information on estimated times for berthing and departure and on minimum water depth at the
berth should be progressively updated and passed to the master on receipt of successive ETA advices.

3. The terminal representative should be satisfied that the ship has been advised as early as possible
of the information contained in the cargo declaration as required by chapter VI of SOLAS 1974, as amended.

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