Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-ѳ þ kwhmZw XpS-cs«!

Xp©s¯-gp-¯-ѳ ae-bm-f-`m-j-bpsS ]nXm-sh¶v hnti-jn-¸n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ D¶-X-ioÀj-\mb
hyàn-bm-Wv. DÅq-cn-s\-t¸m-se-bpÅ ]n¡me bi-Ên-I-fm hne-bn-cp-¯-s¸« Bfm-Wv. Poh-Ncn{Xw kw_-Ôn¨pw IrXn-I-fpsS kmln-Xy]chpw kmaq-ln-I-hp-amb {]k-àn-sb-¡p-dn-¨p-sams¡
[mcmfw hne-bn-cp-¯-ep-I-fp-−m-bn-«p-−v. Ahsb IS¯n sh«m³ {ian-¡p¶ ]pXnb ]T-\-§Ä
B[n-Im-cn-I-am-bn-cn-¡-Ww. B[n-Im-cn-I-a-Ãm¯ ]T-\-§Ä amXr-`qan t]mse-bpÅ hmcn-I {]kn²o-I-cn-I-cp-¯-Xm-Wv. Imc-Ww, amXr-`qan F¶ t]cv Hcp am\-Z-WvU-am-Wv. amXr-`q-an-bn {]kn²oIcn¡-s¸-Sp¶ Hcp ]T\w \msf kÀÆ-I-em-im-e-I-fnse Kth-jW {]_-Ô-§-fn t]mepw
D²-cn-¡-s¸-Spw. A\m-[n-Im-cn-I-ambn Fgp-¯-Ñsâ Pohn-Xw, hyàn-Xzw, ]Ým-¯-ew, kmln-Xy-k]-cy-bpsS kmaq-lnI {]Xn-_-²-X, am\-hn-IX Ch-sbms¡ tNmZyw sN¿p¶ ]T-\-§Ä amXr-`q-anbn hcp-¶Xv ae-bm-f-`m-jm-kw-_-Ôn-bmb ]T-\-K-th-j-W-§sf ]nt¶m«v \bn-¡p¶ {]h-W-Xbm-Wv. DZm-l-c-W-¯n-\v, sabv c−mw Xob-Xn-bnse hmcn-I-bn h¶ Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñsâ ISp-]«À _Ôw Xs¶ FSp-¡p-I. ]T-\-hn-t[-b-am-Ip-Ibpw BÀ¡pw t_m[n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ sXfn-hp-ItfmsS Fgp-¯-¨-s\¶ t]cns\ PmXo-b-am-¡p¶ Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-§Ä XÅn-¡-f-b-s¸-Sp-Ibpw
sNbvX-Xm-Wv. {io. kn.-cm-[m-Ir-jvWsâ Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñs\ kw_-Ôn¨ t\mh-en\v A\p-_-Ôambn Ah tNÀ¯n-«p−v. CâÀs\-än Xnc-bp-¶-hÀ¡pw hyà-amb sXfn-hp-IÄ D²-cn-¡p¶
teJ\w e`y-am-Wv. A§-s\-sbmcp kml-N-cy-¯n ]T\ \ne-hm-cs¯ ]pd-tIm«v \bn-¡p¶
Hcp teJ\w Fgp-¯-¨³ PmXn-bpsS D]-Ip-e-]XnbpsS t]cn {]kn-²o-I-cn¨v kwhmZw Ah-km\n-¸n-¡p-¶Xv icn-b-söv tXm¶p-¶p.

Xp©w ]d¼pw ISp-]-«À CXn-lm-khpw þ
kXyhpw anYybpw
{io. hn.-kn. {ioP³ Bcw`w Ipdn¨ Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñ-s\-¸-än-bpÅ ]pXnb kwhm-Z-km-²y-XIÄ¡v s{]m^. Sn.-_n. hnP-b-Ip-amcs\gp-¯-¨sâ (sabv 2) ISp-]-«À CXn-lmkw ae-bm-f-`m-jmkw-_-Ôn-bmb ]T-\-K-th-j-W-§sf ]pd-tIm«v \bn-¡p-¶pthm F¶ i¦ Dfhm-¡p-¶p. {io\m-cmb-W-Kpcp hmgv¯-s¸-Sp¶ tIc-f-¯nÂ, {ioi-¦-c\v NWvUm-e³ Kpcp-hmb `mc-X-¯n \mbcpw
\¼q-Xn-cnbpw ]Wn-¡cpw Fgp-¯-¨-·mcpw AssZz-X-ZÀi\w hmbv¯mcn sIm−v km£m-XvI-cn¨v,
{`m´m-e-b-sa¶v kzman hnth-Im-\-µ³ IÂ]n¨p \ÂInb ]Zhn \ne-\nÀ¯p¶ ImgvN, k¼qÀ®km-£-c-X¡v ]pXnb am\w \ÂIp-¶p. Ncn-{X-]p-cp-j-·msc PmXn-bpsS apJ-Im-¸-Wnbn¡W-sa¶v
ae-bm-fn-IÄ¡v \nÀº-Ô-ap-ÅXp t]msebmWv kmaq-ln-I-cw-Ks¯ {]Xn-[z-\n-IÄ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶Xv. {ioi-¦-cs\ \¼q-Xn-cn-bmbpw {io\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hns\ Cug-h-\mbpw N«-¼n-kzm-ansb \mbcmbpw \mw {]Xn-jvTn-¡p-t¼mÄ kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw Fgp-¯Ñ
- -s\¶ JymXn-bmÀ¶ t]cn\v Hcp
PmXn-¨ph A\p-`-h-s¸-SpI kzm`m-hn-I-am-Wv. C¯-cp-W-¯n ISp-]«À CXn-lmkw \mw AÂ]w
KmV-ambn Ah-tem-I\w sNt¿-−-Xp-−v. {i²n-¡-s¸-SmsX t]mb ISp-]-«nþenJnX§sf¸än
bpÅ ]T\w Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñ-s\-¸än hfsc {]k-à-amb Fs´m-s¡tbm hkvXp-X-IÄ
]pd¯p sIm−p-h-cp¶p F¶ BwKy-t¯m-sS-bmWv teJ\w Bcw-`n-¡p-¶-Xv. XpS-¡-¯nse Ncn{Xm-h-tem-I\hpw amXr-`qan hmcn-I-bnse Ah-X-c-Whpw {i²n-¨m tNmf-þ-]-Ãh tcJ-I-fnÂ
Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñsâ ]qÀÆn-I-cpsS Ombm-Nn{Xw Xs¶ e`yamsb¶pw AXnsâ tIm¸n 1428 Â
ae-¸p-dwþ\S-¡m-hnepw \qdm-−p-IÄ¡p tijw Xp©³]-d-¼nepw e`y-am-bXn\v A²ym-ß-cm-ambWw Infn-¸m-«nse X¯-tbm-sSm-¸-apÅ Fgp-¯-Ñsâ ]S-hp-ambn hfsc kmZr-iy-ap-Å-XmsW¶pw aäp-w B[n-Im-cn-I-ambn Øm]n-¡p¶pthm? F¶v BÝ-cy-ap-f-hm-¡pw. s{]m^-. Fgp-¯¨³ ]d-bp¶ tNmf-þ-]-Ã-h-þ-I-Sp-]«n _mÔ-h-tc-J-IÄ¡v Xp©s¯-gp-¯-Ñ-\p-ambn bmsXmcp
_Ôhpw CÃ. 1428  Xncp-\m-hm-bn ISp-]-«n-IÄ F¯n-sb-¶-Xn\v Xp©\p-ambn GsX-¦nepw
_Ô-ap-Å-Xmbn Øm]n-¡p-hm³ s{]m^-kÀ¡v Ign-ªn-«n-Ã. tNmf-hw-im-h-en¡pw Ah-cpsS
enJn-X-§Ä¡pw ISp-]-«-·m-cp-ambn _Ô-ap-−mImw. ]s£ Cu _Ô¯n\v Xp©-¯m-Nm-cy-\pamtbm, tIc-f-N-cn-{X-¯nse JymXn-bmÀ¶ CXc Fgp-¯-Ñ-·m-cp-amtbm bmsXmcp _Ô-hp-an-Ã.
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Ahn-b-ep-t]mse Hcp Ncn-{Xm-h-tem-I-\hpw AXn\p tat¼m-Sn-bmbn C. lÂSvkv apXÂ tSm¡ntbm-hnse Icm-jna hsc GXm\pw Ncn-{X-Im-c-·m-cpsS t]cpIÄ D²-cn¨v \ÂIp¶ ISp-]« CXnlm-k-hp-w þ Chsb Xp©s¯gp-¯-Ñ\pambn _Ô-s¸-Sp-¯p¶ bmsXmcp sXfnhpw io. hnP-bIp-amÀ \ÂIp-¶n-Ã. ISepw IS-em-Snbpw t]mse hn`n-¶-amb c−p kwK-Xn-Isf, \jvS-am-ImsX
\n¡p¶ PmXy-`n-am\w \ndw-]-I-cp¶ ho£-W-tIm-Wn-eqsS t\m¡n-b-Xn-ep-f-hmb Øe-þ-Im-e-þhn-{`m-´n-bmWv s{]m^-k-dn \ng-en-¡p-¶-Xv.
sshZn-Iw, Xm{´nIw F¶n-§s\ c−mbn \ne-\n¶ `mc-X-¯nse A[ym-ßn-I-hn-Zym-]m-c-¼-cy¯n sshZn-IimJ NmXpÀhÀ®yw ASn-Øm-\-ambpw (D-Zm: C¶pw ImWp-hm³ Ign-bp¶
Im©n-þ-irw-tK-cn-þ-]p-cn-þ-Zzm-cIm apX-emb im¦-c-]o-T-§-fpsS ]mc-¼-cyw) Xm{´n-Iþkn²-]m-c-¼-cy¯n a\p-jys\ a\p-jy-\mbn am{Xw I−v PmXn-þ-enw-K-hy-Xym-ktaXp-an-ÃmsXbpw (DZm: {iocm-aIr-jvW-]-c-a-lw-kcpw Kpcp ss`chn tbmtK-iz-cnbpw) Kpcp-þ-in-jy-]-c-¼cIÄ¡v P·w \ÂIn.
tXmSm-]p-cn-bpsS ]n¡me in£Ww D²-cn¨v {iocm-a-Ir-jvWs\ thZm-´n-bm-¡p-¶-hÀ tXmSm]pcn \mK-Xm-{´n-I-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n AssZz-Xm-\p-`hw ssIh-cn-¨-bm-fm-sW¶ kXys¯ {_mÒWy-¯n\p IqSp-X \ndw ]I-cm-\mbn ad¨p sh¡m³ {ian-¡p-¶-h-cm-Wv. {ioi-¦-cm-Nm-cy-cpsS
PK-·n-YymþambmhmZw bYmÀ°-amb AssZzXZÀi-\-a-Ã. AssZz-X-sa¶ A\p-`-hhpw AssZz-XZÀi-\hpw c−pw c−m-Wv. ssZzX-ZÀi-\-sa¶v ]d-ªm AXv AssZz-Xm-\p-`-h-¯nsâ \ncm-I-cW-a-Ã. adn¨v ssZzX-ZÀi\w AssZz-Xm-\p-`-h-¯n-\pÅ D]m-[n-I-fn-sem-¶m-Wv. PK-ßn-Yym-hm-Zsa¶ IpXÀ¡mssZzXs¯ XÅn-¡-f-bp¶ imà-þ-imw-`h ]mc-¼-cy-§fpw kmwJy-ZÀi-\hpw
ssZzX-ZÀi-\-¯nsâ `mK-am-Wv. {ioi-¦-cm-Nm-cyÀ Ah-ti-jn-¸n¨ thZm´w I]-S-Zr-jvSm-´-cq-Vamb Alw {_Òmkvan F¶ {]Ñ-¶-_u²þhmbv¯mcn ZÀi-\-am-Wv. XÀ¡-¯n\p am{Xw DXIp¶ i¦-cmNmcy-cpsS _u²n-I-I-kÀ¯pIfpw XpSÀ¶p h¶ kKp-tWm]m-k\mþ-hym-Jym-\-§fpw cmPm-¡-·msc Iq«p-]n-Sn¨v {_mÒWyw kn²-hn-Zym-]m-c-¼-cys¯ Nhp«n saXn-¨-Xn\v DZm-l-cW-am-Wv. kzÀ¤-{]m-]vXn-sb¶ aqV-kz]v\w \ÂIn tlma-{In-b-I-fpsS amkva-cn-I-X-bn cmPm-¡·m-scbpw I]-S-Zr-jvSm-´-§-fn-eqsS km[m-c-W-P-\-§-sfbpw hi-¯m¡n XmWvU-h-am-Snb {_mÒWy-¯nsâ kw`m-h-\-bm-bn-cp¶p NmXpÀhÀWyw. \mK-£-{Xn-b-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n ]nd¶ Pn\-þ-a-lmho-c\pw _p²\pw {_mÒ-Wy-¯nsâ apX-e-]n-Sp-¯s¯ AXn-Po-hn¨ kn²-]m-c-¼-cy-¯nsâ {]kn²-cmb {]Xn-\n-[n-I-fm-Wv. ssP\ZÀi-\w {Zmhn-U-P-\-X-Xn-bn Im«p-Xo-t]mse ]SÀ¶p-sh-¶-Xn\v
N{µ-Kp-]vX-au-cy-sâbpw `{Z-_m-lp-hn-sâbpw Z£n-Wm-b\w sXfn-hm-Wv. _u²-ZÀi-\-¯nsâ
Z£n-Wm-Xy-im-J¡v sXfn-hmbn tIc-f-¯nse ]Ån-¡m-hp-IÄ aXn-bm-Ipw. {_mÒ-W-cpsS BK-a\-¯n\p ap¼v PmXn-c-ln-X-amb ZÀi-\-]m-c-¼cyhpw BNm-cm-\p-jvTm-\-§fpw ssIh¶ {Zmhn-U-P\-X-bn PmXo-b-amb tNcn-Xn-cn-hp-IÄ F¶v? F§s\? Bcw-`n¨p? AbÂtZ-i-§fmb tNmf-þ]mWvUycpsS t£{X-§-fn ]utcm-lnXyw C¶pw A{_m-Ò-WÀ \nÀºm[w XpS-cp-t¼mÄ tIc-f¯nse ]utcm-lnXyw \¼q-Xn-cn¡v Xosd-gp-Xs¸«Xv GXp kml-N-cy-¯n-emWv? t£{Xm-cm-[\bpw iniv\mZn hn{K-l-]q-P-Ifpw \njn-²-amb sshZnI {_mÒ-W³ ]qWq-en«v Aán-tlm{Xw
DuXn-s¡-Sp¯n {Zmhn-Usâ enwK-þ-tbm-\n-I-fn ]qhpw shÅhpw NmÀ¯m³ XpS-§n-b-sX-§s\?
I\ym-Ip-am-cn-bnse Ipam-cn¡pw sImSp-§-Ãq-cnse I®-In¡pw Xfn-¸-d-¼nse iniv\-tZ-h\pw Ncn{X-¯n-te¡v hfsc \o−p InS-¡p¶ AkvXn-Xzp-ap-−v þ lc-¸-bnse DuÀ²z-tc-X-Êmb ]ip-]Xn
hsc. tbmK-ZÀi-\hpw BkvXn-I, \mkvXnI kmwJy-ZÀi-\-§fpw ssP\-þ-_p-²-Im-e-§Ä¡v ap¼v
Xs¶ \ne-hn-en-cp-¶p-sh-¶-Xn\v Ae-Ivkm-−-dpsS Imew apX-epÅ {Ko¡v tcJ-Ifpw D]-\n-j¯p-¡-fnse emRvO-\-Ifpw aXn-bmb sXfnhp \ÂIp-¶p. `mc-X-¯n \ne-\n¶ kn²-hn-Zym-]m-c¼-cy-¯nsâ ]Ým-¯-e-¯n t\m¡n-bmÂ, {_mÒ-W-t\m, \mb-tcm, Cug-ht\m Ihn-Isf
krjvSnt¨m? Nn´-Isc krjvSnt¨m? Cuhn[w [z\n DbÀ¯p¶ NÀ¨-IÄ tcmKm-Xp-c-amb at\mhr-¯n-I-fpsS {]I-S-\-amWv. \¼q-Xn-cnbpw \mbcpw Cug-h\pw Fgp-¯¨\pw þ Cu PmXn-t¡m-a-c§-sfÃmw Xs¶ IogvPm-Xn-ItfmSv kmaq-ln-I-amb AI¨bpw ta[m-hn-Xzhpw ]peÀ¯p-Ibpw
cl-ky-amb “thfn¡pw thgvN”¡pw \á-amb Cc-«-¯m¸v kao-]-\-¯n-eqsS Ahkcw tXSn-b-h-cpam-Wv. \¼q-Xn-cn-tb-¡mÄ Hcp ]Sntbm c−p ]Sntbm Xmsg-bm-b-Xp-sIm−v am{Xw BÀ¡pw
hnip²n ssIh-cp-¶n-Ã. ssP\-þ-_p-²-]m-c-¼cyw hn«v tIc-f-¯nse Cug-hÀ {_mÒ-Wsâ I]-SmssZzXw ssIs¡m-−-sX-´n\v? ISp-]-«-cpsS CXn-lmkw cNn-¡p¶ s{]m^-kÀ tNmf-þ-]-Ã-h-cm-P_m-Ôhw D²-cn¨v Xsâ PmXnbpsS taÂt¡mbva Øm]n-¡p-hm³ {ian-¡p-Ibpw Sn {ia-¯nsâ
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]Ým-¯-e-¯n _u²-]m-c-¼-cys¯ {]iw-kn-¡p-I-bpw sN¿p¶p þ Cuhn-[-amb Cc-«-¯m-¸pIÄ, {]kw-Khpw {]hÀ¯nbpw X½n-epÅ B\-hn-S-hmWv FÃm PoÀ®-X-I-fp-sSbpw aqe-Im-c-Ww.
Fgp-¯nepw hmb-\-bn-ep-w sXmgn-enepw tZio-b-X-bnepsaÃmw k¦p-Nn-X-Xzhpw kzmÀ°-Xbpw
]peÀ¯p¶ Hcp lw_Kv kaq-l-¯nsâ apJ-ap-{Z-IÄ am[y-a-§-fn-ep-S-\ofw \ndªp \n¡p-¶p.
Xp©s¯gp-¯-Ñsâ PmXn {]k-à-am-Ip¶ Hcp \qX\kwhm-Z-¯nsâ kml-N-cy-an-Xm-Wv.
ssP\-þ-_p² ]mc-¼-cy-§-sf-¸än tIc-f-¯n-en-cp-s¶-gp-Xp¶ ]e hnZzm-·mÀ¡pw B[p-\n-I-K-th-jW-§-sf-¸än Ah-Km-ltam ASn-Øm-\-]-c-amb Adn-hp-Itfm CÃ. Fs´m-s¡tbm Fgp-Xn-¯Ån
t\Snb tUmIvS-sdäv _ncp-Z-¯nsâ ]n³_-e-¯n _u²nIPoÀ®X _m[n¨ tIc-fw -ap¼msI
Ncn-{X-Im-csâ thjw sI«n-bmSp¶ Ipsd s{]m^-k-d-·mÀ CS-Xp-þ-h-eXp Nn´m-K-Xn-I-tfmSv
ASp¯pw AI¶pw Ah-k-c-hm-Z-]qÀÆw Ac§p XIÀ¡p-¶p. Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñs\ khÀ®þ\mbÀ aqcm¨nbm¡p-¶-Xn\pw iq{Z-hn-¹-h-Im-cn-bm-¡p-¶-Xn\pw th− tIm¸p-I-sfms¡ Ch-cpsS ASp¡-f-I-fn-ep-−v. PmXy-`n-am\w sXm«p-sX-dn-¨n-«n-Ãm¯ Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñs\ At±-l-¯nsâ IrXn-Ifn-seÃmw {]Xn-^-en¨p ImWm-sa-¦nepw Ah-bn-sems¡ Fgp-Xm-¸pdw hmbn¨v PmXn-\nÀWbw
F§s\ \S¯mw F¶-XmWv ae-bm-f-¯n Gähpw {]k-à-am-Ip¶ B[p-\nI Kth-j-Ww.
PmXn-\m-a-enw-K-t`-Zm-Zn-IÄ¡-Xo-X-amb Hcp kaqlw {Zmhn-U-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n \ne-\n-¶n-cp-¶-Xmbn
Nn´n-¡p-hmt\m hniz-kn-¡p-hmt\m C¶v \ap¡v Ign-bp-¶n-Ã. Xan-g-I¯nsâ kn²-]m-c-¼-cy¯n \n¶pw thÀ ]ncnªv i¦-cm-Nm-cy-sc¶ {]Ñ-¶-_p-²³ ]IÀ¶ I]-S-þ-Zr-jvSm-´-þ-B-khw
Alw {_Òmkvan F¶ hmbv¯m-cn-bnsemXp-¡nb A[ym-ßn-I-k-]-cy-bmWv Cu Zpc-h-Ø¡p
Imc-Ww. Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñ\pw {io\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn\pw Bßo-tbm-Xv¡Àjw e`yam-bXv tIc-f¯n Xan-g-I-¯nsâ kn²-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n \n¶msW¶ hkvXpX C¯-cp-W-¯n kvac-Wo-bw.
Cu kn²-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n-te¡v At±-ls¯ \bn-¨Xv P·m-´-c-ambpw ]mc-¼-cy-ambpw e`y-amb
{iohn-tZym-]m-k-\-bpsS ]cn-W-Xn-bm-sW¶p Icp-Xp-hm³ [mcmfw Imc-W-§-fp-−v. Xp©-s¯-gp¯-ѳ imà-\-Ã, thZm-´n-bm-Wv, A²ym-ß-cm-am-b-Whpw lcn-\m-a-IoÀ¯-\hpw thZm-´-amWv
Fs¶m-s¡-bpÅ A_-²-{]-kw-K-§Ä sIm«n-tLm-jn-¡-s¸-Sp¶ tIc-f kaql-¯n At±lw
{iohn-tZym-]m-k-I-\m-bn-cp¶p F¶v Øm]n-¡pI hfsc ITn-\-amb {]bXv\w Bh-iy-s¸-Sp¶
kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. almImfyp-]m-k-I-\mb {iocm-a-Ir-jvW-s\bpw j×p-tJm-]m-k-I-\mb {io\m-cm-bW-s\bpw Adn-bp¶ B[p-\n-I-k-aq-lw Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñs\ F´p-sIm−v {iohn-tZym-]m-k-I\mbn Adn-bp-¶nÃ? {ioN-t{Im-]m-k-\-bpsS ss__n-fmb kuµ-cy-e-lcn {ioi-¦-cm-Nm-cy-Ir-Xsa¶v hniz-kn-¡p¶ hen-sbmcp hn`mKw thZm-´n-I-fpÅ \m«n {iohn-Zym-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n IrXl-kvX-\mbn Hmw lcnx{ioK-W-]-Xsb \ax F¶v {iohn-Zy-¡v \qX\ at{´m²mcWw \ÂInb
Xp©s¯gp-¯-Ñs\ ]WvUn-X-tI-k-cn-IÄ Adn-bmsX t]mb-sX´v?
Cu tNmZy-¯n\v D¯cw hmb-\-¡mÀ kzbw tXtS-−-XmWv.

NWvUmen amXw-Kn-bpsS Xp©¯v ]d¼v
A²ym-ß-cm-am-b-Whpw tZho-am-lm-ßyhpw Infn-s¡m-©-em¡n kI-e-P-\-X-Xn¡pw enwK-þ-PmXn
hyXym-k-an-ÃmsX ]IÀ¶p \ÂInb Xp©¯v ]d-¼n PmXn \ne-\n¡pI km[y-am-bn-cp¶pthm? ae-bm-f-`mj A¼-s¯m-¶-£-cm-fn-bmbn ]nd¶p hoW, ]n¡m-e¯v Ducpw t]cpw
\jvS-amb Cu Xd-hm-Snsâ ]mc-¼-cy-sa-´mWv? DÅqcpw aäp Ncn-{X-Im-c-·mcpw \S-¯nb Dulmt]m-l-§Ä¡-¸pdw Xp©-¯m-Nm-cy-s\-¸än At±-l-¯nsâ IrXn-IÄ kwkm-cn-¡p-¶ntÃ? Fgp-¯Ñs\ Adn-b-W-sa-¦n Xp©¯v ]d-¼nsâ ]mc¼-cy-a-dn-b-Ww þ AXn\v Ime-¯n\p aqIkm£nbmbn C¶pw ImWp¶ Imªn-c-¯n\p Xmsg AS-ªp-In-S-¡p¶ amXw-Kn-bpsS \S Xpd¶p
t\mt¡−-Xp-−v. AsX, amXw-Kn-bpsS \S! Xp©¯v ]d-¼nse B amXw-Kn-bpsS X¯-bmWv
Xp©-¯m-cysâ Infn-s¸-®v þ HmwIm-c-]-RvP-c-ip-In. {ioiym-a-fm-\-h-c-Xv\-am-e-bn ImWp¶
amXw-Kn-bpsS IoÀ¯n þ
HmwIm-c-]-RvP-c-ipIow D]-\n-j-Zp-Zym-\-tI-fo-I-e-IWvTow
BK-a-hn-]n-\-a-bqcow Bcymw A´Àhn-`m-htb Kucow

3

Infn-a-Ifpw alm-am-bbpw X½n-epÅ _Ôw Cu IoÀ¯-\-h-cn-I-fn hfsc hyàw. HmwIm-c-]RvPcw “A£-c”þ-]-c-{_-Ò-kz-cq]w Xs¶-sb¶v {ioX-{´m-`n-[m\w t]mse-bpÅ IrXn-I-fnÂ
\n¶v a\-Ên-em-¡mw. kvtXm{Xm-h-km\w ImWp¶ ^e-{ipXn Infn-¸m-«ns\ A\-iz-c-am-¡nb
Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñsâ Imcy-¯n \qdp-i-X-am\w kXyw.
\h-c-Xv\-am-ey-ta-X-{Z-NnXw amXw-K-I-\y-Im-`-cWw
bx ]TXn `àn-bpàx k `thXv hmKo-iz-c-Êm-£mXv
ae-bmfw I− hmKo-iz-c-·m-cn Fgp-¯-Ñs\ t{ijvT-\m-¡n-bXv amXwKn Xs¶. Xp©³]-d-¼nen¶v ASªp InS-¡p¶ Xncp-\-S-bn [ym\-\n-ao-e-\mb Fgp-¯-Ñsâ a\-Ên-te¡v amXw-Kn-bpsS
Infn tNt¡-dn-b-Xnsâ ^e-am-bmWv \qX\ ae-bmf¯nsâ ]nd-hn.
L\-iym-a-fmwKow ØnXmw cXv\-]otT
ipI-tkym-ZnXw irWzXow cà-hkv{Xmw
kpcm-]m-\-a¯mw ktcm-P-Øn-Xmw{Low
`tP hÃIow hmZ-b´nw amXwKow
cà-h-kv{X-ap-Sp¯ Idp¼nsb, aZy-]n¨v atZm-·-¯-bmbn Infn-sam-gn-tI«v B\-µn-¡p-¶-hfpw hoWhmbn¡p¶-h-fp-amb amXw-Knsb Rm³ `Pn-¡p-¶p.
Imfn-Zm-k-Ir-X-sa¶v Icp-X-s¸-Sp¶ iyma-fm-jvS-I-¯n ImWp¶ [ym\-tÇmIw Gsd {]kn²w:1
amWn-Iy-ho-Wm-ap-]-em-f-b´ow
aZm-ekmw aRvPpfhm-Kzn-emkmw
amtl-{µ-\o-e-Zyp-X-n tIm-a-fmwKow
amXw-K-I\ymw a\-km-kva-cman
iymaf Xs¶-bmWv amXw-Kn-sb¶v iyma-fm-Z-WvU-I-¯n \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw. Xm{´n-I-hm-Ü-b¯n amXwKn AÀ°-tZym-X-I-amb \mZsshJcnbmWv. aqem-[m-c-¯n ]c-bmbn (ss`-c-hn)
DZn¨v ]iy-´n (Xm-c)2, a[yam (N-WvUn) F¶n-§s\ aq¶p-L-«-§Ä IS¶v \memw L«-¯nÂ
hnip-²n-bn sshJ-cn-bmbn ]nd-¡p¶ hmKvtZ-hn-bmWv amXw-Kn. D·m-Zn-\n-bmb buÆ-\-KÀhn-Xbmb Cu NWvUm-ensb D]m-kn-¡p-hm³ ss[cy-s¸-Sp-¶-hÀ hnc-f-am-Wv. Hmwlcnx{ioK-W-]-Xsb
F¶ Fgp-¯-Ñsâ hnh£ Cu sshJ-co-kz-cp-]-s¯-bmWv e£y-am-¡p-¶-Xv. KW-]-Xsb
F¶Xv A¼-s¯m-¶-£-c-§-fm-bpÅ I¦m-f-am-en-\n-bpsS Ah-Xm-cs¯ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. ipIhmWn tIÄ¡p¶ amXwKn a\p-jysâ ]cn-Wm-a-¯nse Gähpw {it²b L«-§-fn-sem-¶mb
`mj-bpsS DÛ-h-kq-NIw IqSn-bm-Wv. `mj-bpsS ]ndhn Adn-hp-Isf Hcp Xe-ap-d-bn \n¶pw
ASp¯ Xe-ap-d-bn-te¡v ]I-cpI km[y-am-¡n. amXw-Kn-bpsS A\p-{K-l-¯m-emWv Úm\-hnÚm-\-§-fpsS Kpcp-þ-injy ]c-¼c kwPm-X-am-b-Xv. a{´-¯nsâ AYhm a{´m-£-c-§-fpsS
iàn-sb-bmWv amXwKnbpsS [ym\-tÇm-I-§-fn aZyw ]I-cp¶ atZm-·-¯-X-bmbn hnti-jn-¸n-¨ncn-¡p-¶-Xv.
Hmw = A + Da = Hm¦mcw AYhm \mZ-{_-Ò-am-Ip-¶p. A\mZn aqe-X¯zamb inhs\ (A-Im-cw)
{]Im-in-¸n-¡p¶ ]cm-i-àn-bpsS (D-a) A£-c-cq-]-amWv ]cm-hm-Iv. ]c-bpsS ]cn-W-Xn-bmbn ]iy´nbpw (\m`n hsc) XpSÀ¶v Nn¯-hr-¯n-bn a[y-abpw (A-\m-lXw apX hnip²n hsc)
kwPm-X-am-Ip-¶p. hm¡pw AÀ°hpw hyXn-cn-à-am-Ip¶ Cu kn²-tem-I-¯n-emWv Xm{´n-I-amb
Úm\-hn-Úm-\-§-fp-sS-sbÃmw ssIamäw \S-¡p-¶-Xv. XpSÀ¶v {]mWs\ B{i-bn¨v IWvT-¯neqsS apJ¯v sshJ-cn-bmbn amdp-¶p. Fgp-¯-Ñ\p hÀ®-sa-¶m Cu sshJcn am{Xambn-cp-¶p.
Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñsâ IrXn-I-sfÃmw Xs¶ hÀ®hnthN\s¯ \ncm-I-cn¡p¶ Xm{´n-I-]-Y¯nsâ hÀ®m-ß-I-amb {]I-S-\-§-fm-Wv. AsX, hÀ®m-ßIw þ I¦m-fa
- m-en-\n-bmb alm-Imfn
1

Sri Tattvanidhi describes the goddess as Rājamātangi of black complexion, sitting upon a ratnaparyanka, her one
leg dangles down and placed on a lotus, the other being on the throne itself. In one hand she holds a Vīn̟ ā and in
the other a mālā. There is a crescent moon on her head. She is shown listening the talks of a parrot which is at her
side. Her garments are of red color and her forehead is adorned with tilaka (Ref: p. 71: Dasa Mahavidyas and
Tantra Sastra, Sarbesvar Satpathi, Punthi Pustak, Calcutta)

2

hyXy-kvX-amb hymJym-\-§Ä \ne-\n¡p-¶p. Xmcm AYhm \oe-k-c-kzXn ]cm-hmIvcq]n-Wnbmbn Adn-b-s¸-Sp-¶p.
4

AtLm-cn-bn \n¶p Xs¶ tI« \mZ-{_-Ò-kz-cq-]nWnbpsS hÀ®-\sb A´x-¡-c-W-¯nepÄs¡m−v AXns\ a\p-jy-\-·-¡mbn {]Im-in-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn\v NWvUm-en-bmbn, amXw-K-]p-{Xnbmb amXw-Kn-bmbn Ah-X-cn-¨p. ChnsS I¦m-f-am-en\n apWvU-am-e-b-Wnª alm-Im-fn-bmWv þ
Cu apWvU-am-e-bmWv A¼-s¯m-¶-£-cm-fn-bmb a{´-am-Xr-I, A£-c-cq-]w. kc-kzXn \Zn-bpsS
Ic-bn-emWv sFXn-ly-§-f-\p-k-cn¨v amXw-Km-{i-aw. amXw-K-s\¶ t]cn\v B\-sb-¶À°-ap-−v.
aqem-[m-c-¯nse B\-bmWv Cu amXw-K-s\¶v AÂ]w Nn´n-¨m t_m²y-s¸-Smw.
i_vZ-{_-Ò-kz-cq-]-kvXZv BZn-£m´w PKXv {]`px: A apX £ hsc kzc-hy-RvP-\-§Ä KpW{Xb--þinh-i-àn-kz-cq-]-am-Wv. Cu hÀ®-§-fm-emWv tacp-hnsâ Xp©¯v kl{kmc]ßw \nÀ½nX-am-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xv3. CXn Gähpw D]-cn-bmbn {_Ò-c-{Ôhpw AXn hnkÀKhpw iwJn\n apXemb tZhn-amcpw ØnXn sN¿p-¶p. Xp©w F¶ Xd-hm-Snsâ t]cn\p ]n¶n Xs¶ imà-hm-Üb-¯nsâ kzm[o\w Cuhn[w \ap¡v ImWm-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. IZw-_-h\w4 tacp-Z-WvU-¯nsâ Xp©¯n-emIbm IZw-_-h-\-hn-lm-cn-Wn-bmb amXw-Kn-bpsS ]d-¼n\v Xp©¯v F¶ t]À \ÂIs¸«p F¶p Nn´n-¡pI hfsc bpàn-k-l-am-Wv. Xpco-bm-Xo-X-kz-cq-]-ambn thZm-´s¯ Nhp«n
\n¡p¶ `{Z-Im-fn-bpsS Øm\-¯n\pw Xp©w F¶ t]cv Gähpw A\p-tbmPyw Xs¶.
NWvUm-en-bmb amXw-Kn-bpsS D]m-k-I-\m-b-Xn-\m Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-ѳ NWvUm-e-\m-sW¶v ]dbp-¶-Xn-emWv Fgp-¯-¨t\m tNmf-]-Ã-h-kw-_-Ôntbm BsW¶v hf-s¨m-Sn¨p ]d-bp-¶-Xnepw
Gsd bpànbpÅXv. hm{Kq-t]W {]kv^p-c-am-Im³ sh¼p¶ Nn´-bmWv amXw-Kn-bpsS {]Xy-£m\p-`hw F¶v ]d-bmw. C¡m-cW¯memWv Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-ѳ Bß-X-¯zs¯ {]Im-in-¸n-¡p¶
Xsâ ZÀi-\-kw-{K-l-¯n\v Nn´m-cXv\w F¶ t]cv \ÂIn-b-Xv.
Nn´n¡pw tXmdpw kmc-ap-−-Xn-\m-eXp aqew
Nn´m-c-Xv\-sa¶p t]cn-Sp¶p `àn-tbmsS
Xmc-X-tay\ A{]-i-kvX-amWv Cu IrXn-sb-¦nepw Xp©-¯m-Nm-cy-s\-¸än IqSp-X-e-dn-bp-hm³
B{K-ln-¡p-¶-hÀ Ahiyw ]Tn-¨n-cn-t¡− IrXn-bm-Wn-Xv. hmNI IkÀ¯p-I-tfm, ZrjvSm-´-§fpsS t]am-cntbm IqSmsX Xsâ Adnhpw A\p-`-hhpw tNÀ¯v aIÄ¡v Bß-X¯zw D]-tZ-in¡p¶ Xp©-¯m-Nm-cy³ CXn {]I-S-am-Ip-¶p.

imà]mc¼-cy-¯n amXw-Kn-bpsS {]kàn
Infn-¸m-s«¶ KoX-k-t¦X¯nsâ DÛhw Fhn-sS-bm-sW-¦nepw AXv kn²-hn-Zym-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n-emsW¶v a\-Ên-em-¡p-hm³ iyma-fm-Z-WvI-¯nse Xmsg \ÂIp¶ hcn-IÄ D]-I-cn-¡pw.
kÀÆ-hn-Zym-hn-ti-jm-ßIw NmSp-Km-Ym-k-ap-¨m-cWw IWvT-aq-tem-Ã-k-ZzÀ®-cm-Pn-{Xbw tIma-f-iyma-tfm-Zm-c-]-£-Zzbw XpWvU-tim-`m-Xn-Zq-cn-`-hÂInw-ipIw Xw ipIw emf-b´o ]cn-{Io-U-tk,
ck-I-c-ambn kZmKoXmem]w sN¿p¶, Igp-¯n aq¶p \nd-apÅ hc-I-tfm-Sp-IqSn tim`n-¡p¶Xpw sNs´m-−nsb AXn-i-bn-¡p¶ Np−p-I-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-Xp-amb kÀÆ-hnZymkzcq-]amb \nsâ
]¨-¡n-fnsb emfn¨p sIm−v \o hnt\m-Zn-¡p-¶p-shtÃm...

3

AIm-cmZn £Im-cmss´x kv^pc-ZzÀ®-hn-Pm-cnXw
XXvIÀ®n-Imbmw tZthio A´-cmßm XtXm Kpcp
(k-l-{km-c-s¯-¸-än-bpÅ {]Xn-]m-Z-\w. Kpcp-hmWn amXw-Kn-bpsS A\p-{Klw sIm−v am{Xw
km[y-am-Ip¶p. kc-kzXn {_ÒhmWn-bm-Ip-t¼mÄ amXwKn ssIem-k-¯nse ]c-a-Kp-cphmWnbmb inh-Im-anbmWv)
4
IZw_w F¶m tPymXnx-im-kv{X-¯n `qan-bpsS A¨p-X−pw tbmK-im-kv{X-¯n tacp-ZWvU-hp-am-Wv. A+£ AXm-bXv AþIp-e-in-h-X¯zw apX £ F¶ `qan hsc tbmK-i-cocw
Ah-ew-_-ambn eLphymJym-\w \ÂImw. IZw-_-hr£w Cu ASn-Øm-\-¯n tacp-Z-WvUamWv þ Bdp-N-{I-§Ä AYhm ap«p-I-fn-embn aq¶v hÅn-I-fpw A¼-s¯m-¶neIfp-apÅ
IÂ]hr£w.
5

kÀÆ-XoÀ°m-ßn-tI, kÀÆ-a-{´m-ßn-tI, kÀÆ-b-{´m-ßn-tI, kÀÆ-i-àym-ßn-tI...-kÀÆ-i-_vZmßn-tI...-kÀÆcqt] PK-·m-Xr-tI...-F-¶n-§s\ t]mIp¶ amXwKnkvXpXnbn Xp©-s¯-gp-¯Ñsâ tZho-am-lm-ßy-¯nse hÀ®-\-I-fpsS emRvO\ Zriy-am-Wv. apI-fn \ÂInb amXw-KnbpsS X¯¡v A©p-\n-d-am-Wv. aq¶v \ndw Igp-¯nÂ, ]¨ DSepw Nnd-Ip-Ifpw Nph¶ Np−v
C§s\ ]©-hÀ®-¡n-fn-bmb X¯--bmWv Xp©¯v KoXw sNmÃn-s¡mSp¯-sX¶v tZho-am-lmßy-¯n hyà-am-Ip-¶p-−v. “tZhn-X·m-lm-ßys¯s¨mÃp-hm³ Infn-a-I-fm-thmfw hµy-·msc
hµn¨p sNmÃo-Sn-\mÄ” F¶ BZy A²ym-b-¯nse {]tbmKhpw “A©p-\n-d-apÅ sIm©pw
samgn-bmsf s\©w sXfnªp \o sNmÃoSp tijhpw” F¶ \mema[ym-b-¯nsâ XpS-¡hpw
t\m¡n-bm Infn-bpsS cq]w t_m²y-am-Ipw.
Xm{´n-I-hm-Ü-b-¯n Zi-a-lm-hn-Zy-I-fn-sem-¶mbn amXwKn ]cm-aÀin-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.
Imfo Xmcm alm-hnZym tjmUio `ph-t\-izco
ss`cho On¶-akvXm N hnZym [qam-hXo XYm
_Kfm kn²-hnZym N amXwKo Ia-em-ßnIm
GXm Zi-almhnZymx kn²-hnZymx {]IoÀ¯nXmx
CXmWv Gsd kzoIm-cy-ambn tXm¶nb Zi-a-lm-hn-Zy-I-fpsS hnh-c-Ww. \ncp-¯-c-X-{´-¯nÂ
kn²-hn-Zy¡v Imfo-Ipew {ioIpew F¶ c−v imJ-Ifpw {ioIp-e-¯n\v hyXy-kvX-amb ]¯p
alm-hn-Zy-IfpsS ]cm-aÀihpw ImWp-¶p.
kpµco ss`cho _mem _Kfm Ia-em]n N
[qam-hXo N amXwKo kz]v\m-hXohnZym {]ntb
a[p-aXo alm-hnZym {ioIpew ]cn-`m-jnXw
CtX IrXn-bn Xs¶ AjvSm-Z-i-a-lm-hn-Zy-I-fpsS hnh-c-Whpw e`y-am-Wv. {iohn-Zym-]-c-¼-cbnÂ
alm-tbm-Kn-\n-bmb {Xn]p-c-kp-µcn Zim-a-lm-hn-Zy-I-fn ImWp¶ alm-hn-Zym-þtjm-U-in-bm-Ip-¶p.
hyXy-kvX-cq-]-`mh-\ma§-fn Bcm-[n-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p-sh-¦nepw aqe-cq-]-¯n a·-Y-I-esb B{i-bn¡p-¶ amÀ¤§fmWv tjmU-inbpw amXw-Knbpw. NWvUm-en, ]nimNn apX-emb t]cp-IÄ \ÂIs¸«p ImWp-¶-Xn-\m kXz-Kp-W-{]-[m-\-aà amXw-Kn-sb¶v a\-Ên-em-¡mw. {Xn]p-c-kp-µ-cn-bpsS
Bcm-[-Isc kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw amXw-Knbpw iyma-fbpw {iohn-Zybpw Htc kpµ-cn-bpsS
hyXykvX apJ§Ä Xs¶-sb¶v Nne IoÀ¯\-tÇm-I-§Ä kqN\ \ÂIp-¶p.
IpNm-©n-X-hn-]-©nImw IpSn-e-Ip-´-fm-ew-IrXmw
Ipti-i-b-hm-kn\ow IpSn-e-Nn-¯-hn-tZz-jnWow
aZm-cp-W-hn-tem-N\mw a\-kn-Pmcn kt½m-ln\ow
aXw-K-IpeI\yImw a[p-c-`m-jn-Wo-am-{itb
kvac{]Y-a-]p-jv]nWow cp[n-c-_n-µp-\o-emw-_cmw
Krlo-X-a-[p-]m-{XnImw a[p-hn-LqÀ®-t\-{Xm-©emw
L\-kvX-\-`-tcm-¶Xmw Kfn-X-Nq-fnImw iymafmw
{Xntem-N-\-Ip-Spw-_n\ow {Xn]p-c-kp-µ-co-am-{itb
Z£n-W-`m-c-X-¯n {]Nm-c-apÅ Cu IoÀ¯-\-§-fn ImWp¶ amXw-Kn\n hÀ®\If-\p-k-cn¨v
Adp-]-¯n-\m-ep-hn-Zy-I-fpsS A[n-tZ-h-X-bmb cmP-am-Xw-Kn-bm-Wv. Xma-c-¸q-hn-\p-Ån (hnip-²n-N{I-¯n-se) Iµ-a-[y-{XntImW¯n IZw-_-]p-jv]-am-e-b-Wnªv cXv\-]o-tTm-]-hn-jvS-bm-bn-cn¡p¶ alm-bu-Æ-\-KÀÆn-X-bmb ]Xn-\mdp hb-ÊpÅ NWvUm-en. hnbÀ¸p s]mSn-bp-¶Xn\mÂ
Xnf-§p-¶Xpw Nncn-¡p-¶-Xp-amb apJw, N{µ-I-e-sIm−pw s]m«p-sXm-«n-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\mepw Gsd
at\m-l-cw. \o−apSnbpw aZy-e-lcn _m[n¨ I®p-I-fpw... ipIhpw imcnbpw kZm AI-¼Snbpw....C§s\ t]mIp¶p cmP-hnZy-bpsS kÀÆm-[n-Im-cn-bmbn AÀ²-]-cym-¦m-k-\-¯n-e-a-cp¶
cmPam-Xw-Kn-bpsS AwK-{]-XywK hÀ®-\.
aZy-]n¨v atZm-·-¯-bm-Ip¶ amXw-Knsb `Pn¨v Ah-fpsS Infn-sb-s¡m−v IY-sbÃmw ]d-bn¨
imà-\mb Fgp-¯-ѳ B[p-\n-I-a-e-bm-fn-bpsS “Ago-t¡m-S³”]WvUnXk¦Â]-§-fp-ambn
s]mcp-¯-s¸-Sp-¶-bm-f-Ã. ]cm-]-cm-sb¶mcw-`n-¡p¶ IÀ®-]ÀÆ-¯nse hcn-IÄ aZy-]n¨v ]mSn-bXm-sW¶ sFXn-lyw hfsc {]kn²w Xs¶. AXp-t]m-se, Fgp-¯-Ñ\v sh«-¯p-\m-Sp-ambn
6

D−m-bn-cp¶ {iohn-tZym-]m-k-I-s\¶ \ne-bn-epÅ _Ô-s¯-¸än {io.-Ir-jvW³ \mbÀ (1981)5
{io. kn. cm[m-Ir-jvWsâ t\mh-en Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñsâ sh«-¯p-\m-Sp-am-bpÅ _Ôw hyàam-¡p-¶-Xn\p hfsc ap¼p Xs¶ kqNn-¸n-¨n-«p-−v.

amXw-Kn-bpsS Xm¯znI AkvXnXzw
ap¸-¯n-ap-t¡mSn Poh-Pm-e-§Ä {]Ir-Xn-bn Cuim-hm-ky-anZw kÀÆw F¶ {]tLm-j-t¯msS
{]]-©-þ-{]m-W-hr¯n sN¿p-¶p. {]Whw = Hmw = A + Da = inh-i-àym-ßI {]þ]©w AYhm
AÀ²-\m-co-iz-c-\mb inh-X¯zw Cu Poh-hr-¯n-¡-Sn-Øm-\-amb \mZ-{_-Ò-am-Wv. tNmZy-§sfÃmw \ne-¡p¶ ]c-a-kzm-X-{´ym-h-Ø-bn Cu AssZz-X-Úm\-kz-cq]w B\-µ-e-l-cn-¡mbn
{[pho-I-cn¨v {]IrXn kwPm-X-am-Ip-¶p. AÀ²-\m-cn-bpsS Cu ]cn-W-Xn-sb-¸än kuµ-cy-e-l-cnbnepw aäpw at\m-l-c-amb {]Xn-]m-Z-\-§-fp-−v. alm-am-bm-`-K-hXn inh-þ-i-àn-kz-cq-]-¯nÂ
BWpw s]®p-ambn hm\-c\pw \c\pw hsc \nc-h[n Pohn-IÄ¡v P·w \ÂInsb¦nepw ASnØm-\-ambn kw`-hn¨ {[pho-I-c-Ww B\-µ-e-_v[n¡v XS-Ê-am-bn. s]®n \n¶pw s]®p am{Xw
P\n-¡p¶ ambm-`-K-h-Xn-bpsS, AÀ²-\m-cn-bpsS, ]cm-[o-\Xbn inh³ ]ip-]-Xn-bmbn Imbm-tcmlWw sNbvXp. Poh-]-cn-Wm-a-K-Xn-bn a\p-jysâ P·w ChnsS kw`-hn-¨p þ Nn´m-i-àn-bpÅ
Pohn, tlmtam tk]n-b³kv (Man the Wise). imà-hm-Ü-b-¯n Cu ]cn-WXn Ah-iy-am-bn-cp-¶pþ-Im-c-Ww,
inh-i-àym-ß-I-amb
{_ÒmWvUkz-cq-]-¯n\v
X¯p-ey-am-b,
]qÀ®-amb
]nWvUmWvUw krjvSn-bpsS A\n-hm-cy-X-bm-bn-cp-¶p. inh-i-àym-ßI \]pw-k-I-cq]w C§s\
kwPm-XambtXmsS {_Ò-Pn-Úmk Df-hm-bn, tbmK-im-kv{X-¯n\p hgn sXfn-ªp. BZn-Kpcp
a\p-jy-\n Bth-in¨p hm¡p-Ifpw AÀ°-§-fpw sIm−v imkv{X-§Ä¡v P·w \ÂIn a\p-jy\n kz´w D×-bpsS clkyw tXSp¶ _u²n-I-{]-bm-W-¯n\v XpS-¡-an-«p. tIZmcw apXÂ
ipNo{µw hscbpw tkma-\mYw apX inh-km-Kcw hscbpw sshZn-I-{_m-Ò-Wm C¶v AÀ¨n¡-s¸-Sp¶ inh-enwKw ]nWvUmWvU {]Xn-_nw-_-amb tbm\n-bnse enwK-{]-Xn-jvT-bm-Wv. tbm\n
AÀ²-\m-cnbpw enwKw tbmK-ZÀi\ X¯z-amb Cuiz-c-\p-am-Wv. tbmKw F¶ ]Z-¯nsâ
bYmÀ° hypXv]¯n tbm\n+enwKw F¶-Xm-Wv. alm-am-b-mkz-cq-]-¯n ]nd-¡p¶ Poh-\v,
a\pjytbm\nbn Kpcphnsâ Imbm-tcm-l-W-amWv tbmKw. Nn´n-¡p¶ a\p-jy³ tbmK-¯nsâ
krjvSn-bm-Wv. tbmKw {]Ir-Xn-bn hnti-j-amb Adn-hn\p XpS¡w Ipdn-¨-t¸mÄ alm-am-bm-kz-cq]-¯n {iohn-Zy {]I-S-am-bn. Kpcp-hnsâ Imbm-tcm-l-W-t¯msS PnÚm-kp-hmbn {]Ir-Xn-bnÂ
\n¶p thdn« kzXz-hp-ambn tNmZy-§-fp-bÀ¯n \S¶ _p²n-bpsS NWvU-{]-hmlw NWvUm-e\pw
A§-s\-bpÅ NWvUm-e³ D¯-c-§Ä¡mbn ‘kc-kz-Xn-‘bpsS Xoc¯v X]-Êp-sNbvXv A´ÀapJ\mb-t¸mÄ aXw-K-ap-\n-bp-am-bn. Cu aXw-K-ap-\n¡v e`y-amb hc-{]-km-Z-¯m {iohnZy amXw-Knbmbn P\n-¨p.
sFXn-ly-§-f-\p-k-cn-¨v, inh-\nµ sNbvX Z£{]Pm-]-Xn-bpsS -bm-K-¯n\v ]pd-s¸-Sm-s\m-cp-s¼«
kXnsb inh³ XS-ªp. tIm]n-jvT-bmb kXn `oI-c-cq]w [cn¨v inhs\ `b-s¸-Sp-¯n. ]emb\w sNbvX inh\v ]¯p-Zn¡pIfnepw tZhn-bpsS cq]w ImW-s¸-«p. A§s\ hS-¡p-]-Sn-ªmdv
ImW-s¸« tZhn-bmWv ]¯v alm-hn-Zy-I-fn-sem-¶mb amXw-Kn-.
a[pc-bnse ao\m£n amXw-Kn-bm-sW¶v Icp-Xp-hm³ \ymb-ap-−v. IoÀ¯-\-§-fn ao\m-£nsb
ap\n-kp-tX, iymamwt_, {iohntZy, i_vZ-{_-Ò-a-bo, hmÜ-bo... F¶n-§s\ hnti-jn-¸n¨p ImWp¶Xpw inh-kp-µ-tc-isâ ]mWvUy-_mem cmP-am-Xw-Kn-bmW¶ kqN\ \ÂIp-¶p.

Fgp-¯-Ñ-·m-cpsS IY
s{]m^. hnP-b-Ip-am-dnsâ tNmf-þ-]-Ã-h-]p-cmW¯n ISp-]-«À PmXy-`n-am\w Xp©-¯m-Nm-cys\
A[x-Ir-X-\m-¡m³ \ÂIp¶ t{]c-W-b-ÃmsX asäm¶pw Xs¶ Zriy-am-Ip-¶n-Ã. ]c-kv]-c-_-Ô-anÃmsX Fs´m-s¡tbm D]-\y-kn¨p Fgp-¯-¨³ kamPw D]-k-am-P-]Xnsb¶ \ne-bnÂ
A_²\nK-a\§fpsS Hcp tLmj-bm{X Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡p-¶p. Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñ-\p-ambn bmsXmcp
5

{ioN-{Iw, sI. IrjvW³ \mbÀ, I®qÀ
7

_Ôhpw ISp-]-«À PmXn Fgp-¯-¨-·mÀ¡n-sö hkvXpX B[n-Im-cn-I-amb ]T-\-§-fn-eqsS
t_m²y-amb kwK-Xn-bm-Wv. CâÀs\-äneqsS {]kn-²-am-bn-cn-¡p¶ hkvXp-X-I-Ä am{Xw aXn ISp]-«À CXn-lmkw kwi-b-teiw IqSmsX XÅn-¡-f-bp-¶-Xn-\v. {]k-à-amb GXm\pw hnh-c-§Ä
ChnsS kw{K-ln-¡p-¶p6.
1.

Fgp-¯-¨-s\¶ PmXn-bpsS BhnÀ`mhw Xmc-X-tay\ kao-]-Im-e-kw-`-h-am-sW¶v sk³kkv
tcJ-IÄ hyà-ambn sXfn-bn-¡p-¶p. {InkvXp-hÀjw 1921 \p ap¼v Fgp-¯-¨-s\¶ PmXn
D−m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. ISp-]-«-·m-cpsS \nth-Z-\s¯ XpSÀ¶v ISp-]-«-s\¶ PmXn\mas¯ Fgp-¯-¨s\¶v amänb hkvXpX sIm¨n sk³kkv dnt¸mÀ«n \n¶pw hyà-am-Wv7.

2.

1921

3.

{_mÒ-W-sc¶v Ah-Im-i-s¸-Sp¶ ISp-]-«À kap-Zm-b-¯n iq{Z-s\¶v kzbw {]Jym-]n¨
Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-ѳ DÄs¸-Sp-¶-sX-§s\? F¶ adp-tNmZyw G©Â ^bÀ teJ-\-¯nÂ
Zriy-am-b-Xn\v s{]m^. hnP-b-Ip-amÀ F´p adp-]-Sn-bmWv \ÂIpI?

4.

ISp-I-kvtX-bmÂXyàx þ Cu Ien-kwJy F§s\ {In.-h. 1428 teXmIpw? Xp©s¯gp¯Ñsâ Ime-¯n\p ap¼v ISp-]-«À Xncp-\m-hm-bn-se-¯n-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¶-Xn\pw aäp IYm-I-Y-\§Ä¡pw sXfn-sh´v?

5.

hneyw temKsâ ae-_mÀ am\p-h-en Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-ѳ \mbcmbn ]nd¶ Imcyw ]d-bp¶p. _ÀW kmbvs]-gp-Xnb9 tI«p-tIÄhn am{X-amWv s{]m^. hnP-b-Ip-amÀ D²-cn¨p ImWp¶Xv.

6.

Fgp-¯-¨-s\¶ PmXn ]nd¡pw ap¼v Xs¶ Fgp-¯-Ñ-s\¶ t]cn \mbcpw hmcycpw
tat\m\pw Xc-I\pw [mcm-f-ambn tIc-f-¯n Pohn-¨n-cp-¶p10. Xp©-¯m-Nm-cysâ {]kn-²-cmb
injy-·mcn Icp-Wm-I-c-s\-gp-¯-ѳ \mb-cpw, kqcy-\m-cm-b-W-s\-gp-¯-ѳ Xc-I-\pw,
tKm]m-e-s\-gp-¯-ѳ ta\-h\pw Bbn-cp-¶p. {]Nm-c-¯n-epÅ CuhI hkvXp-X-Isf ISptImfw t]mepw ]cn-K-Wn-¡m-sX-bmWv Xp©³ ]d-¼ns\ ISp-]« CXn-lm-k-¯nsâ `mK-am¡m³ Cu ]pXnb kwhm-Z-¯n-eqsS s{]m^-k-dpsS {iaw.

se a{Zmkv sk³kkv dnt¸mÀ«n ISp-]-«-s\¶v Xs¶ tcJ-s¸-Sp¯n ImWp-¶p. 1931
se sIm¨n sk³kkv dnt¸mÀ¨n PmXn-bpsS t]cv amdn-bXv kw_-Ôn¨ {]kvXmhw
ImWmw. Cu t]cp-amäw a{Zmkv Kh¬saâv AwKo-I-cn-¡m-Xn-cp-¶-Xn-\m ae-_m-dn \S-¸mbn-Ã. C¡m-c-W-¯m tIc-f-kw-Øm\w cq]w sIm− tijw 1958  kÀ¡m-cn\v ISp-]«À¡pw (ae-_mÀ) Fgp-¯-¨³ (sIm¨n) kap-Zm-b-¯n\pw ]nt¶m¡ B\p-Iqeyw \ÂInbXv
shtÆsd JWvUn-I-I-fn-em-bm-Wv8.

6

Angelfire, Article on Tunjath Ezhuthachan's caste

7

Report on the Census of Cochin, 1921, Chapter XI, page 60: 'Consequent on the representations made by the
community, the term 'Eluthassan' has been substituted this time for 'Kaduppattan' of the last census, with the
approval of Government.' It is also stated that the status name Ezhuthachan (title) used by the learned members of
the community is being taken by (assume) all people of the community and the caste name Kaduppattan is being
discarded.
Government Order (No. 1526.17.12.1958) and Gazette notifications (No. 50.23.12.1958), privileges and
reservations were given separately to both Ezhuthachan caste (Item 18), and Kaduppattan caste (Item 26).

8

9

"Eluttachchan lived in the 17th century; there is no reason for supposing that he was a Brahman father's
illegitimate son; he was certainly an Eluttachchan ( or schoolmaster ) by caste."

10

Othenan Ezhuthachan who established an Ezhuthu pallikkoodam for the first time in Narath, in 1800 A.D.,
belonged to the Nair caste. Berlin Kunjananthan Nair is the great grandson of Othenan Ezhuthachan.
(Mathrubhumi Weekly, February 22, 2004). Pothera Narayanan Nambiar is the nephew of the famous astrologer
late Pothera Krishnanezhuthachan, who was the writer of the historically important book Sooryasthuthi. Pothera
Ezhuthachan learnt Sanskrit and Astrology from the famous Astrologer Kandabath Sekharanezuthachan. The well
known astrologer V. P. K. Poduval is the son of the famous astrologer Karayil Kandambath Kunhambu
(Ramanezhuthachan).

8

tIc-f-¯nse imtàb ]mc-¼cyw
B[p\nIw, ]ptcm-K-a\w Fs¶s¡ hnti-jn-¸n-¡-s¸-Sp¶ Nn´m-KXnbn ]mc-¼-cy-¯n\v henb
{]k-àn-bn-Ã. k\m-X-\-am-sW-¦nepw ]g-b-Xn-s\-sbms¡ N¡n-em«n Imtem-Nn-X-ambn kwkvIcn¨v ks¯-Sp¯v hcpw Xe-ap-d-IÄ¡v \ÂIp-I-sb¶ hnIrXn imà-\mb {iocma-Ir-jvWs\
thZm-´n-bpsS thj-a-Wn-bn-¨-t¸mÄ Bcw-`n-¨-Xm-Wv. \nc-£-c-Ip-£n-bm-bn-cp¶ cma-Ir-jvW-\nÂ
thZm´w ]SÀ¶p ]´-en-¡p¶ kml-Ncyw krjvSn¨ ss`chn tbmtK-iz-cnsb C¶mÀ¡-dnbmw?
Imacq-]-¯n\v sXm«-cn-In Xg¨ Imfo-Ip-e-¯n\p Xs¶ C¡-gnª H¶-c-\q-äm-−p-IÄ I−
]cn-jvIm-c-Nn-´m-K-Xn-bn kzXzw ssItamiw h¶n-cn-¡p-¶p. hn{K-lm-cm-[\ Aim-kv{Xo-b-am-Wv,
Imfn-bpw inh\pw {]Xo-I-§-fmWv kÀ¸]qP `oXn-bpsS {]Xn-^-e-\-am-Wv... C§s\ kmam-\ybpàn ASn-Øm\amb Nn´m-K-Xn-IÄ kaq-l-¯n Ønc-{]-XnjvT t\Sn-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. tIc-f¯nsâ Imcy-sa-Sp-¯m {io\m-cm-b-W-Kpcphnsâ PohnXk]cy ‘Hcp PmXn Hcp aXw Hcp
ssZhw’ am{Xtam F¶v tXm¶n-t¸mIpw. ImcWw At±-l-¯nsâ Ah-Im-in-I-fmbn Na-bp¶
DÂ]-Xn-jvWp-¡Ä {io\m-cm-b-W-Kpcphnsâ aäp kw`m-h-\-IÄ¡v henb {]m[m\yw IÂ]n¨p
ImWp-¶n-Ã. hn{K-lm-cm-[-\-bp-sS, IpWvU-en-\n-bpsS imkv{X-bpàn Adn-bmsX `{Z-Im-fnsb
XÅn-¸-dªv im¦-cm-ssZz-X-amWv `mc-Xo-b-Nn-´-bpsS sImSp-apSn F¶p hcp-¯n-¯oÀ¡p¶
{_mÒ-W-Nn-´m-K-Xn¡v hi-s¸«v inhm-ssZz-Xn-bpw imà-\p-amb Kpcp-hns\ PÜn-Yym-hm-Zn-bmb
AssZz-Xn-bm¡n i¦-cm-Nm-cy-cpsS ]n¶n \nÀ¯p-hm-\mWv ]e-cp-sSbpw {iaw. Xm{´n-I-]-Y¯nsâ aq¶v imJ-I-fn-sem-¶mb (Imivao-cw, Ima-cq-]w, tIcfw) tIcf¯nse imtàb ]mc-¼cy¯nsâ `mK-amWv {io\m-cm-b-W-Kpcphnsâ Pohn-Xhpw kmaq-lnIkw`m-h-\-I-fpsa¶v At±-l¯nsâ Pohn-Xs¯ A]-{K-Yn-¨m BÀ¡pw t_m[ys¸Smw. tIc-f-¯n s]mXpsh Bcm-[n-¡s¸-Sp¶ -Imfn `{Z-bm-Ip-¶Xv Hcp ]s£ {iohn-Zym-k-{¼-Zm-b-hp-am-bp-−mb NmÀ¨-IÄ sIm−mImw. {io\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hnsâ cN-\-I-fn amXwKn {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp-¶Xv `{Z-Im-fy-jvS-I-¯n-em-sW¶Xv {]tXyIw {i²n-t¡− Imcy-am-Wv.
amXw-K-{ip-Xn-`q-jnWow a[p-[co hmWo kp[mt]mjnWow
{`qhn-t£-]-I-Sm-£-ho-£-W-hn-kÀ¤-t£-a-kw-lm-cnWow
amXwKow aln-jm-kp-c-{]-a-Yn\ow am[pcy[pcym-I-cþ
{iowIm-tcm-¯-c-]mWn]¦-P-]pSow {io`-{Z-Imfow `tP
tÇmI¯nsâ icn-bmb ]mTw Xn«-an-Ã. a[p-[co hmWo kp[m-t]m-jnWow F¶-Xn\v a[p-[-co,
hmWokp[mtam£nWow Fs¶ms¡ ]mTw \ÂIn a[p-Xp-fp-¼p¶ hm¡p-IÄ sIm−v AarXs¯ Pbn-¡p-¶-hÄ Fs¶ms¡ hnZzm-·mÀ AÀ°w ]dªp ImWp-¶p. a[p-[-co, aZyN£Iw
]nSn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-hÄ AYhm aZy-]n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-hÄ F¶-XmWv AÀ°w. hmWo, kq[m-t]m-jnWow
þN-{µ-¡e [cn¡p¶h-fmb hmWn AXns\ t]mjn-¸n-¡p¶p þ tjmU-i-I-e-bmbpw kl-{km-c¯n k]vX-Z-in-bmbpw Iem-hr-²n-bp-−m-¡p-¶p. amXwKow aln-jm-kp-c-{]-a-Yn\ow a[p-[co {io`{Z-Imfo þ C{]-Imcw {io\m-cm-b-W-Kpcp kvXpXn-¡-W-sa-¦n imà-]m-c-¼-cy-¯n aXn-bmb
km[q-I-cWw D−m-bn-cn-¡-Ww.
Aw_n-I-amcpsS aq¶v tIcf kt¦-X-§fpw þ _m-emw-_n-I (I\ymIpamcn), tlamw-_nI (]m-e¡m-Sv), apJmw-_nI (sIm-ÃqÀ) – iohn-Zym-k-{¼-Zm-b-¯n-em-hnÀ`-hn¨bmbn-cn-¡-Ww. {ioN-{I-]q-P-bpambn _Ô-s¸« Xm{´n-I-]m-c-¼cyamWv Imivao-c-s¯bpw Ima-cq-]-s¯bpw At]-£n¨v tIcfs¯ hyXy-Ø-am-¡p-¶-Xv. Ipgn-¡m«p ]¨-bn D²-cn¨p ImWp¶ {XnIq-Sm-h-ew-_n-bmb `{Z-Imfym-hm-l\w {i²n-¨m {io{Xn-]p-c-kp-µ-cnbpw `{Z-Im-fnbpw ¢owIm-cn-bmb almImfnbn \n¶pw
thdn«p \n¡p¶ ssNX-\y-kz-cq-]-am-sW¶v t_m²y-s¸-Smw.
Nnäq-cnse B{i-a-¯n Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-ѳ ]qPn-¨n-cp¶ {ioN{Iw C¶pw ImWm-sa¶v
IrjvW³ \mbÀ Fgp-Xn-¡m-Wp-¶p. Imhp-Ifpw If-cn-Ifpw Ipf-§fpw \ndª ]pcm-X-\-tI-c-f¯n Imhp-IÄ imkv{X-I-em-km-ln-Xym-Zn-I-fpsS P·-`q-an-Ifmbn-cp-¶p-sh¶v Icp-Xp-hm³ \ymb-ap−v. tPymXnx-im-kv{X-cw-Ks¯ AXn-I-Tn-\-amb {]b-Xv\-§Ä¡v t{]c-W-bm-bXv aX-]-c-amb Bhiy-§-fm-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶ hkvXpX hfsc {]kn-²-am-Wv. {io. kn. cm[mIrjvWsâ t\mh-enÂ
Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñsâ Pohn-X-¯n\v \ÂIp¶ Fgp-¯p-I-f-cn-bp-sSbpw sabv¡-f-cn-bp-sSbpw ]Ým¯-e-w shdpsX Nncn¨p XÅm-hp¶ kwK-Xn-b-Ã. imtà-b]mc¼cyw C´y-bn-ep-S-\ofw bp²w
9

sXmgn-em-¡nb \mK-hw-i-P-cpsS krjvSn-bm-bn-cp-¶p. \mK-þ\-µn\n, `pPwKn apX-embn tZhnbpsS
{]kn-²-am-b \ma-§Ä, A£-cm-h-en¡v e`y-amb \mKcn F¶ \maw (tZ-h-\m-K-cn), CS¯p
\n¶pw he-t¯m«p he¯p \n¶pw CS-t¯m«pw Fgp-Xp¶ hma-Z-£n-Wm-Nm-c-§Ä, A£-c-am-e¡v
imà-þ-imw-`-h-hm-Ü-b-¯n-epÅ AXn-{]-[m-\-amb Øm\w, Xm{´n-I-]-Zm-h-en-bnse A£-c-§Ä
sIm−pÅ \nKq-V-bp-àn-Ifpw {]tbm-K-§fpw apX-em-bh [mcmfw Kth-jWw Bh-iy-s¸-Sp¶
taJ-e-I-fm-Wv.
tIc-f-¯nse \qX-\-hn-¹-h-Im-cn-Ifm Fgp-X-s¸-Sp¶ Ncn-{X-¯n acp-a-¡-¯mbw þam-Xr-hgn ]c¼c þ AXn-]p-cm-X-\-sam-¶p-a-Ã. H³]tXm ]t¯m \qäm-−p-I-fn kmaq-ln-I-km-l-N-cy-§Ä hcp¯n-¯oÀ¯ hn\-bm-Wv. F¶m temI-sa-§p-w Ipe-ssZ-h-X-k-¦Â]-ap-−m-bn-cp¶ P\-]-Z-§-fnÂ
amXr-h-gn-]-c-¼c \ne-\n-¶n-cp-¶p-sh¶v aäp Ncn-{X-Im-c-·mÀ Is−¯n-bn-«p-−v. Bcy-£-{Xn-b-cmbn
s]mXpsh Icp-X-s¸-Sp¶ _p²\pw alm-ho-c\pw amXr-]-c-¼-cbpw apd-s¸®pw \ne-\n¶ \mK-£{XnbIpe-§-fn ]nd-¶-h-cm-sW¶v ASp-¯-Im-e¯v ]pd-¯p-h¶ ]T-\-§Ä hyà-am-¡p-¶p-−v11.
tIcfw am{X-a-Ã, alm-_-en-bpsS cmPy-sa¶v ]pcm-W-{]-kn-²-amb \À½-Z-bpsS {]m´-§-fnepw
cmP-Øm-\nse _mkzmU t]mse-bpÅ `n tI{µ-§-fnepw amXr-hgn ]c-¼-cbpw imà-k-{¼-Zmbhpw C¶pw \ne-\n¡p-¶p.

imà-e-£Ww iq{Zþ-cm-am-b-W-¯nÂ
hÀ®hn-{K-lbpw hmWn-am-Xm-hp-amb amXwKn cmam-b-W-¯nse hµ-\-tÇm-I-¯n {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp¶Xp IqSm-sX, Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñsâ IrXn-bn ImWp¶ Dam-a-tl-iz-c-kw-hmZw Xm{´n-I-{K-Ù§-fnse Kpcp-þ-injy kwhm-Z-¯nsâ X\n-¸-IÀ¸m-Wv.
ssIem-km-Nte kqcy-tImSn tim`ntX hna-em-etb12
cXv\-]otT kwhnjvSw [ym\n-\njvTw
^me-tem-N\w ap\n-kn-²-tZ-hm-Zn-tkhyw
\oe-tem-lnXw \nP-`À¯mcw hntiz-izcw
hµn¨p hmtam-ÕwtK hmgp¶ `K-hXn
kpµcn ssla-hXn tNmZn¨p `àn-tbmsS
CXym-Zn-bmb hcn-IÄ, Xm{´n-I-amb BJym-\-§sf A\p-I-cn¨v {iocm-a-tZ-h-X¯zw BZy-ambn
inh³ ]mÀÆ-Xn¡v D]-tZin-¡p¶ kµÀ`w atäXp cmam-b-W-¯n-em-Wp-Å-Xv? A[ym-ß-cm-am-bWs¯ B{i-bn¨v imà-ZÀi-\-]-c-amb X¯z-§sf hni-Zo-I-cn-¡pI F¶ e£yhpw Fgp-¯Ñ³ cmam-b-W-¯n-eqsS \nÀÆ-ln-¡p-¶p-−v. \mc-Z-kvXp-Xn-bn Fgp-¯-ѳ koXsb kotXm-]-\nj-¯nse¶Xp-t]mse (im-tàm-]-\n-j-¯v) alm-am-bm-`-K-h-Xn-bmbn hÀ®n-¡p-¶p.
ip¢-c-àm-knX hÀ®-t`Zw ]q−p
kXz-c-P-kvX-tam-\maKpW-{X-bbp-à-bm-bo-Sn\ hnjvWp-a-lm-ambm
iàn-btÃm Xh ]Xv\n-bm-Ip-¶Xpw
tZho-am-lm-ßy-¯nse ambm-kz-cq-]s¯ cmam-b-W-¯n ]dn¨p \SpI imtà-b-IÀ½-a-ÃmsX
asä-´mWv? BkvXn-I-kmwJyamWv imtà-b-ZÀi\¯n-\-Sn-Øm-\w. Pohm-ß-]-c-am-ß-_-Ôhpw
ambm-X-¯zhpw Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡p-t¼mÄ aqehmßoIo-cm-am-b-W-¯n-ep-−mb A]m-IX Xp©-s¯-gp-

11

12

kn²mÀ°\pw ]nXmhv ipt²mZ\\pw Htc tKm{X¯nÂs]« apds¸®ns\bmWv hnhmlw
sNbvXncp¶sX¶ hkvXpX _p²Ncn{X¯n e`yamWv. _p²s\ BcyhwiP\m¡p¶ ]pcmW
Ncn{X§Ä s]mfnbmsW¶v CXn\m hyàamIp¶p. almhocsâ Imcy¯nepw CXv Xs¶bmWv
ØnXn. Bcy£{Xnb]mc¼cy¯neà ipt²mZ\³ cmPmhmbsX¶pw tIcf¯n \ne\n¶ s]cpamÄ
hmgvNt]mse sXcsªSp¡s¸SpIbmbncp¶psh¶pw _p²NcnX§fn tcJs¸Sp¯nbncn¡p¶p.

ssIem-k-in-J-cm-ko\w tZh-tZhw PK-ZvKp-cpw, ]{]-tÑZw ]cm-\µw ]mÀÆ-Xo...
10

¯-ѳ Xncp-¯p-¶Xv tUm.-]n.-Dj Fgp-¯-Ñsâ `ànbpw ZÀi-\hpw13 F¶ IrXn-bn Nq−n¡m-Wn-¡p-¶p-−v.
hmßoIn:

At{K-bm-ky-maylw ]ÝmXv Xa-t\zln [\pÀ²cx
Bh-tbmÀa-[yKm koXm amtbhmß-]-c-am-ßt\m
Rm³ aps¼ \S¡mw \o ]pdsI hcn-I. koX Pohm-ß-]-c-am-ß-¡Ä a[y-Ø-bmb amb-sb-¶t]mse koX CS-bnÂ...
tLmc-kw-km-c-hn-]n-\-amb ZWvU-Im-c-Wy-¯n {]th-in-¡p-t¼mÄ hmßoIn ]c-am-ßm-hns\
ap¶n \S-¯p-¶p. X¯zm-h-X-c-W-¯n hmßo-In¡v ]änb t\m«-¡p-dhv ]cn-l-cn-¨mWv Fgp-¯Ñ³ Pohm-ß-hmb e£va-Ws\ ap¶n \S-¯p-¶-Xv.
Fgp-¯-ѳ:

ap¶n \o \S-t¡Ww hgntb sshtZ-lnbpw
]n¶mse Rm\pw \S-¶o-Sp-h³ KX-`bw
Pohm-ß-]-c-am-ßm-¡Ä¡p a[y-Ø-bmIpw
tZhnbmw alm-am-bm-i-àn-sb-¶-Xp-t]mse

hmßo-Insb Xncp-¯m-\pÅ [mÀjvSyw iq{Z³ ImWn-¨p-sh-¶Xv hyà-am-sWtÃm? Fgp-¯-Ñs\
im¦cmssZzXhnhÀ¯-hm-Zn-bm-¡p-¶-hÀ¡pÅ D¯-chpw cmam-b-W-¯n-ep-−v. koX l\p-am\v
\ÂIp¶ Xt¯zm-]-tZiw þ F¶psS ]Xn-bmb ]c-am-ßmhp Xsâ k¶n[nam{XwsIm−p
Rm\nh krjvSn-¡p¶p þ \qdp iX-am\w kmwJyw Xs¶.
thZ-im-kv{X-§Ä¡v A[n-Im-cn-b-sö {_mÒWsâ hmZs¯ \ntj-[n¨v kmwJy-þ-tbm-K-þ-C-Xnlm-kmZn imkv{X-§sf “iq{Z\v” kpK-a-ambn e`y-am-Ipw hn[w amXw-Kn-bpsS hn{K-l-ambn
XoÀs¯-Sp¯ A¼-s¯m-¶-£-c-§-fpsS `mj-bn Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡p-I-bmWv Fgp-¯-ѳ sNbvX-Xv.
kwkvIr-X-`m-jsb ssI¿-S¡n sh¨v ta[m-hnXzhpw NmXpÀhÀWyhpw ]peÀ¯n-bn-cp¶ {_mÒWs\ (hÀ®m-ß-I-ambn hÀ®-hn-{K-l-bmb amXw-Kn-bn-eq-sS) _u²n-I-amb Xe-¯n shÃp-hn-fn¡p-I-bmWv Xp©s¯ Fgp-¯-ѳ sNbvX-Xv. {io\m-cm-b-W-Kpcp ]n¡m-e¯v {]Xn-jvTn¨ Cugh-Èn-h-s\-t¸mse kmaq-ln-I-{]-kàn iq{Z-þ-cm-am-bm-W¯
- n\pw Ds−¶v ae-bm-f-¯nsâ Ncn{Xw
{i²n-¨m t_m²y-s¸-Smw. iq{Z-cm-am-b-Ww Imes¯ AXn-Po-hn-¡p-Ibpw ]n¡m-e¯v {_mÒW³ Xe-bn-te-äpIbpw sNbvX-Xn-\m-emWv ]Xn-\mdmw \qäm-−n-e-Xn\v D−m-bn-cp¶ kmaq-ln-I-hn¹-h-[z-\n-IÄ B[p-\nI ae-bm-fn¡v A\p-`-h-s¸-Sm-¯-Xv.
cmam-b-Whpw `mc-Xhpw tZho-am-lm-ßyhpw amXw-Kn-bpsS Infn-sb-s¡m−p ]mSn-¨pw kw£n-]vXkmw-Jy-þ-tbm-K-ZÀi-\-§fpsS, A[ym-ß-hn-Zy-bpsS s]mcpÄ lcnx-\m-a-IoÀ¯-\-¯n-eqsSbpw
kmÀÆ-P-\o-\-am-¡nb PmXn-\m-am-`n-am-\-§-fn-Ãm-¯ {iohn-tZym-]m-k-I-\m-bn-cp¶p Xp©-s¯gpѳ.
A§-s\-bpÅ Fgp-¯-Ñ\v {]tXy-In-s¨mcp PmXn IÂ]n-t¡− Imcy-an-Ã. Xp©s¯ Fgp-¯Ñ³ þ Xp©w {iohn-Zy-bp-sS, amXw-Kn-bpsS Xd-hm-Sm-b IZw-_-h-\amWv, tacp-hnsâ Xp©w þ
A§s\ Xd-hm«½ PmXn-bn NWvUm-en-bm-Ip-t¼mÄ -]p-{X³ NWvUm-e-s\¶v hcp-¶p.
ISp-]-«cpw \mb-cp-w Cug-h\psaÃmw Fs¶ Ipe-tZ-hnsb {_mÒ-W\v ssIs¿m-gnªv Xp©w
Imen-bm¡n \c-I¸d-¼nse \mcm-b-W-·m-cmbn. tPyjvTm-`-K-hXn¡v efn-Xm-k-l-{k-\maw sNmÃpI
am{X-amWv Ct¸mÄ Cu \mcm-b-W-·m-cpsS Ipe-ssZh]qP. Xp©³ ]d-¼nse amXw-Kn-bpsS \S
ASªp InS-¡p-thmfw Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñ\v Ipew \jvS-s¸« PmXn CÃmXncn-¡p¶XmWv Gsd
DNn-Xw. Cug-hÀ¡v A`n-am-\n-¡m³ hI-bp−v þ Nne-bn-S-§-fn-se-¦nepw `{Zm-Im-fnsb X{´hpw
a{´hpw Adn-bm¯ {_mÒ-W\v ASn-bd sh¨n-«nà þ {io\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hnsâ P·w sIm−p
In«nb ]pWyw. Xp©-s¯-gp-¯-Ñsâ PohnXw ]IÀ¶ ]pWy-sam¶pw Hcn-S¯pw Zriy-a-Ã. t]cpw
PmXnbpw Nn¯-hr-¯n-bpsS D]-I-c-W-§-fmWv. Fgp-¯-Ñsâ If-cn-bn PmXn¡pw t]cn\pw {]kàn-bp-−m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã.
kÀÆ-th-Z-hp-sams¡ \nXyhpw P]n-¡nepw
kÀÆ-XoÀ°-§-fnepw \nXyhpw Ipfn-¡nepw
kXy-¯n ^ew kl-{kmw-i-an-Ã-dn-ªmepw
kXy-¯nÂ]csamcp [À½-an-tÃmÀ¡Ww \o

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tUm.-]n.-Dj Fgp-¯-Ñsâ `ànbpw ZÀi-\hpw, ]pdw 81

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sI. N{µ-lcnx
05 sabv 2010,
chandra_hari18@yahoo.com09428007935

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