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I.

"THERE IS OJTLY THE FIGHT ••• "

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An AnA.]ynla of tho Alihsky Nodol ,-~

)

A thoGio uuhnl t t.eel in pArtiAl fuL"'lllillont

{l[ tho r~quirol'llont5 for the Bache.Lor- of Arto' rlor,reourrlor tho Spocinl Honors ,Progrrun, "7 '.i.ollo51oy Colle go , Hcllosloy, Hasaachuset.ts ,

Hilln.ry D. Redham Politicnl Scicnco 2 Hay, 1969

r@ 1969" Hillary D. Rodham]

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So· her-e 1 am, in tho. rdddlo 'f.1A:y ~ having had tt·!(!ntyyoClt's'l.\ronty YOArs In.r(:oly W'ASted, tho yo:u"s or 1 t ontro deux euarl:""s Trying to Learn t.a~ut;o '\fords t And ovory attempt

It: A wholly new sta.rt, rurl a. difforent kind of f:rlluro Boc:tuoo 07'10 hQ.s only Leurnt, to got th·., ~ttor o'r werds

fer,tho thing eno n~ In!'r:~r hAS to nAY, or tho "say in '.zhich One ia no .longer dit1;>'1tDOd to GAS' it •. And GO .each venturo ....

Is A now bogin:'lirlS. :~ rA.1d on tho' 1nA.rticulato ..

"11th shabbjr equipment Alu:1.ys ilotorlct'AtinC

In the £:tonera.l ~!;O ef 1.r.7proc1t;1on ~r fooling, ' ..

Undisc1pllnod squads or omotion. And 'WhAt thoro is t·o oonqu'or

l)y. st,rength ArrltrUbriistJlon, has .;.1ron.dy been dineoverod .

.one" or tlnco, or .several timet:;, b".r non whom. one eO:nn~t ho~ To o1mllAto-but thoro is t!~ eornpoti tioT'l-

Thero air;. on).;l:...the·fieht: to_roeovor Hha.~ hat; been It'tst

AM f~u.td. am lost ,A1t.:d.n o.1"d agnin I and no''', urd.or 00001 tions ~'hAt seem unpropitious. l\lt per-haps noither g:l.in nor los~ _

For us, thero is only. the tr.fing. Tho rest is not our business •. . T ,S _ .. Eliot, "EAst Cekor "

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,- '"' .-_" .. , ........ ., 4.;.-

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->;-'-."_'.

TJW'!..E OF OJNTiNTS

pAGe

Ackno·l'il cdsc)"lcnts •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••. ~ ••••• ' i ....

"

I. S;.UI/ DAVID /.LINS:~: ,AN AHE:iuCAll RADICAL

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1

II. TIE;' AI .. n:SKY Hh'T}iOD OF OmfJUZING: THREE

C •. i""~i ~"MUDI\.·C'

•• ~-.- ~J.. LN •••• " t ." t t' ••••

1.~'----~

14

III" "A 'PRIZE PIZCr; OF PJLTIC;~roru;OGn.l~HYtt •

44

I~r

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53

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v t RE:J..IZrr;G Ltrn fJ'TEit BIRTH t

t

• - 68

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AI1Pondi.,ccs '.~ ••

nib' i -.. \.,..,. . ,. . .

"""" 0 b4.. p J • •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ' ••

84

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/\CKt:O~~LSwL1-l1~:\TS'

" ;-~..A.1.thoui';~ 1 X'n"lo no "lovine wife" to thnr.lc for keoping

t~10 elu.t dron ... !.~.;.·w Hhilo I 1.:roto, I do havo tii\ny rrl~nds and'

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'toaohot"n who hnyo contl":tbutf>d to tho pro co ns of thoo1tl-writin.g.

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. And. I th'1ok thcr'lf.;.rUv:lll" tirol<![HJ hulp ond. ,nnoOUl"'Agc)%nortt.

" ree,'lt"d to tho nn.r>'cr i tr;olf, thoM m-o throe pooplo who

spocinl .,,~?~cic.~i()n: ltr. Alinnky for providing 0. topio, ~ha~ng

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hi5 time and offorinS roon 'job; Hiss' Alon:\ E. Diems fpr her

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thou.e~tful qUbsti·.H1ins ant] C3 r-of'ul. edi tine thnt clnrifiod fUZ7.y

thfhkine. /lOU tort.ured pro ao ; and J nn Krlgbnum for hor sp1ri ted

.

intolloctuM cornpnnionship nnd typewrl tor rt"v-Scuo Hork.

hdl"

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CHAPTER I

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SAtrlJ'DAVID ALn:SKY: AU AHERICA1J RADICAL

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, 1ot .... n ~.t.A ..... 'tT O,,$.t.i.ek "ttd. ... "Ul.eni.fii:.. 'rna 'lteonomist referred

" ' 1

to Saul. Alinsky as "thut r-ar-e spoe1~on, tho succossful radical." This'

, ' I '.

is one of tho blAndor d05criptionG nppli~l to AlinGKy during A th1r~-

ye:tr caz-ecr- in l>7h1ch opi thets ,h:lvO he on collocted mor-e rogulArly thn.n

,p:tychocks. Th~ opit.hptD arc not surprising as most people 'Who doal with

Alinsl\,Y' need to cAter;ol"izo 1n ol"'dI'H' to 'handlo him. It i!J far otlDior t. ~

cepe :with a man if, ,deporYlinr, on 1de8lor;icAl per-ape ct1vo , he is 0111s81-

f1.*"d an tt "craclr.pot." thor, to r:rnppl~ wH,h the t'l\lbotnntlvo 10ftUftll he pre-

I

lilcont;.t!. F .. r S.u1.. 1.11 nblOt' 1." ~~r" thQt\ A J1H:lt'l whQ hao cr"Q.ted D. .,p.:Lrt1culAl-

Approach to CO WI uuni ty orr,Q.n1.zing, he in tho ~rt1C'UIAte proponent.r what-"

Many- c:onsidor to be D. d ange r-ous -..x:acio/political phi18sophy. An, undorstl1rrlingof tho "Alinsky-typo zao thod" (i.~. his org:;tnizing,~ethod) a~ well as t.ho philosophy on which 1 t is based nlot st~t Jd th an under-

standing of tho roan hirnsolf.

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Alinsky was born in It Chi.caGo slum to RussianJ ewish ,immigrant parents, Rnd thc5e oarly conditions of siu~ livin~ And Pbvorty in' Chi«,11

CAr;o 0rJt'n.blishod tho cent.ext, of hiG idoAS And modo of action. He trl100s

hiG identificationuith tho peor bACk to a homo in the rear of A storo

'oi-

whoro h1.s icon of luxury was us:!ng tho bat.hr-eem without a custemer bang-

2 .' , .....

ing en tho·,door. Chicago itself has also greatly innuenced him:

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Whoro did I como from? Chicago. Icancllrs~."And hAte th~town bat-lot :lnyon~ oJ:s-o do it Arrl they're in fora battle,,'rhel"~~,Ir»V'e

bad the ,happiest aM the worst times or rq life., r:v~l"Y'stree~,,~Il#,.;

,1.ts.personal joy AM pain to mo., On this streotisthe'".church:~~·~·:;'·i

a . Catholic Bisb.p whe was" a big part or D\Y lifa, ru:rther "d.'Wllj.S"., anether church rthe"e the p~stor teo has meant 41o~,te'~J :'~}~,.d:>.; eouple nziles nll~y isacemotery-well, 'skip 1t •. :ManyChicag.'.s~~".,ts,.'·

.;....; are pieces of nur lire and wQrk. Things that hAppenedliere have rocked a lot .r boats in A lot of cities. Now:days .. I fly all-: 1tver: ... the country in the ceur-se tJf rtzy' \o1crk. But whenthosefl~ps g~ ~own .

r.ver~.~e .Chicage sKyline, -r kne'" I'm-home.) .... -

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Although Alinsky calls Ch1c-=tgG his "city", the' place rea.l..l3. rep;, resonts' to him the Americ~ DreQ.t.1--inill its idghtmare and its glary.~

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He liv~ the Dream as he m~ved from the Chicago s lums to CAlifornia' then

back t. attend the University of Chicago. A1ins~credits his developing

an active imaginati~n, which is ossentiRl fer a good, organizer, to his'

majoring in archaee~agy. An imagination focusing ~n Inca artifacts, how-

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ever, needs ox~suro to s~ci~l problems before it can become useful in

ccmmunityorganizing. Exposure began for Alinsky 101hen ~eand othor S1:Udents collocted food for the starving cQal ~iners in southern Illineis

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who were rebelling against John L. Lewis and the United Hine' Werkors •

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Lewis became ~ rolernodel fer A1ins~ who learned ~bout labor's crgan-

izatien:tl Utctics from watching and workin~ 'vri th Lewis during thCt earJy years of the' CIO. Alinsky soon "elcognized that ono of the hardest jobs

of the leader is an imaginativ~ ono as he struggles t. develop a. rationue lor spontnneous nction:

. For instance, when t.he first;i t-dov1n strikes teok plAco ).n Flint, no one :really planned them. They Here clearly 'n violatien

Gf thG lRw~trespassing, soizur~ of private property. Laber leaders ran for cevor , nef'used to cemmerrt , But Lev1is issued apontifioal statement, 'a. tuln's right to t2. job transcends the right.r.private· property, '. ·t-:hich sounded pla.usible.4

After gr:uhUl ting from tho' Uni versi ty of Chicago, Alinsky re-

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. clJived· a. .fell.wship·.in.-:cH.fuin<;logy with a first assignment"to. get a lock-

~, , ~ ,,':,' .'';' .. ". . . - . -- . - , '

at crime from the inside ,of gangs. He attached himself t'~ the CaPone- gang,

-, ;-ttttaining- a porspoctive-from whichho vie'tved the. garftr·-as-· .. -·1nige quasi..;

publio- utility s~Mrin~ the peeple of Chicago • Alln.sf<Yt S 001000£10 11f,8

• • •

during'tho.thirties, 'Working with gAngs, raising money for the Inte~-

.t:i.onal B'_l;":?(i~ ~ ~'h1 "l('"'''':~ ~r'- t.he plight of ~~~.u~hern'~~~~12E!i.t~;.~:_ .. ";,,.c:~~:~:",

....

• _ __ ~~r

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fighting for public housang, reached a turnint point in 19)8 When he'

"

WllS offornd the job as head 0'£ probation and paro'Le for the City of Pn.na.d~lphill. Security,. Pre std.go , Honey. Each of thoso Lnducomerrt.s

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'alona' has been enough to: turn many a Lean and hungry agita.tor into .

a ,well-fed establish"1le~tari.m. Alin5ky rojected the offer and its· triple threat. for a. career of organizing tho poor. to hel-p thomsel vos. ,_His first ta.rCOt ;z:cne. was, the Back of the Ya-rds area in Chicngo;,

the immediate impetus was his intenso hntred of fascism:

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••• I 'trent into 'Back of the Yaros' in Chi.c ago , This was Upton SinclD.il', s 'Jung1e~' This was. not tho slum across the tracks.

,This 'tva.:;, tho slum across the tracks fro1across the tracks. Also, "

this wns the heart, inChicago, of all the native fascist move_ " : :.

I

ments--the Coughlinites, the Silver Shirts, the Pe~ley movement •••

I went :t,n there to fight fascism. If you' had 'asked me then what

'my profossion was, I wouldhave'toldyou I was a professionat antifascist • .5

Alinsky's anti-fascism, built around anti-authoritarianism, anti-raoial -

sup~riority,anti-oppression, was the ideological justification for his move into organizing and the first social basis on which he began .con-,

strncting ,his theory of action.

rlorkingi·n.ChicAgo and other communi ties be tveen 1938 and 1946 Alinsky refined his nothods and expanded,;his' theory~ Then in 1946,

I

Alinsky's' first book,Reveille for Radicals, was published. Since Minsky

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is firstly an activist and secondly a theoretlcian,more than one-hill

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the book is concerned with the tactics t of building 'Teople" s Organizations."

There are 'chapter'discussions of "Native Leadorship," "Community Traditions

: and Organizs.tions,ff "Conflict,Tactics," "Popular Educa.tion," and "Psych-

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ological Observations on Mass Organizatiorts." The b09k'begins'by asking

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the question: What 'is a Radical ? This is a barlcquestion tor Alinsky

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'pro~idfy:":r;f o-:;';-+~~':~-;:~;ir "~~'-i~-r!tdIc-aJ. .--

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htericanss .tfThey Are a peepl,e creating a nov oridge 0:(' mankind iJfbetween

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the p.s.st ot narroW' nAtion~istic ohauvinism and the horizon ot ~newman.o.

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.. ld.nd .. -a. ,p,eople of the world." At t.hough the book was wr1 tten right after

World War II, whioh deeply affected Alinsky, his belie! 1rfm'erlcan democracy has deep historical roots--'at'least, as ho. interprets, historY':

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The Amerioan people 'WeNf,in the beginning, Revolutionarios And Tonos.-·The Amel"icM Peoplo ever since have been, Rov--olut,ione.ries "and Tories ••• regnrdloss of the .labols o:yt.he past and present •••

Tho clash of Radicals, Conservativos, nndLiborals which 'makes up America's poli~icn1 history opens the door to the most.fundamental question of What is America? How do the people of Amerioa.

foel? Thore were and are a number -of Amoricans--few, to be. sure.... . fUled with deep feelings for people. They know .that peoplei~' the / __ _./' stuff that makes up the dr-eam of demo cz-acyv. These few were and. are. ", ', the American Radicals and the only Hay we can understand the _Amer-

ican Rndical is to understand ~hat we mean by this feeling for 'and ,with the people;?

What AlinskY monns by this "feeling for and ~i. th the peopled is simply hov much one per~orr~allY c aro s about people .. unlike hiros~lf. He illustratesl~he feoling by II series of examples in_ whichl~e po~es questions·

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such as: So you are' a. whi to , native-born Protestant. Do you like people?

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He then proceeds to demonstrate how,in spite 'of prOtostations, the ProtQS-

tant (or tho Irish Catholic 'or the Jew or the Negro or the_Mexican) ~only

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. pays lip' GArVico~ to tho idea of equality. Tllls::technique of confrontation

in Alin5ky~s Hriting offectiyely involves most of his reader-s who will

-_.'_

reco gm.ze in tho:r.s~lves at least one of tho charnct~r1stics he deneunces.,

Hhving confronted his readers 'With tho1r~ hypocrisy, Minsky 6o:rines ~o A'nsrl,CM Radical as :t ••• that unique person who not.ually· beli~vo8 what he

f • ,...'

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.. 'says::-. to,":'Whomltho . ~ommon'eood is. tho greatest~ers~na; V41U,e.-:.Who' gen_i .'

,uinely and completely belioves in l!1lU)kind •••• '*.

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"rttd1cal t" o,~~frontinr; his re adez-s agnin with the "unique" way llIl1ot1.C.1nS " hevo. synthesized" the al.Len roots ,of radicalism, l·!a.r:d~, Utop1:m 50C-

il!lism, syndic t'J.ism, tho French Revolution ,wi th thoir own co'ndi tions'

and experiences:

""'here nrc tho American Rqdical~7 They 'Here with Patrick Horay 1r(r,he Virt:;inn. Hall of Bur-go s so sj tllby Hore Hi th Sr..r.~\druns in Boston; they were with that peer of all J\znc:::ic::n Radic:tls, Tom Pr.1no,i'rom' tho di:;t:1.btr.:ion of Com:-non'Se.nse t!'"!l';;UCh t.ho so dar-k days of the

Alllerican Rovolution... '

The /~'1leric!l.n Radicals ,·jore in tlc,' co Lorri.e s v-imly forcing the' addi'tion of tho Bill of Rights to C·.~;' Constitution. They stood 9.t', '

. " the side of Tom Jefferson inthc fi:"~;t bir. battle botvrocn the To'ries

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of Ha!nilton ~nqtho lunorlcnn people. They founded and fought in,the .

7Loco-"Focos. :'They 'j-lers, :inthe,~firsttili<?n ::ti"ike iI"fUnDricn and ~hey

, fought for ·the diatrlbution of the lm~tern Lands to the masses of

._ peop.Lo in·sto.2.d of tho fm.; ••• They wo~ inthe shadows of tho under-

ground r.oilro:d c.nd/thcy openly rode in the. sUnlight with John'Drorm to Harper-s Farry e, •• They ,.rere m t.h Horace Hann fighting for the. extension of educational opport_uni tics ••• They bull t the, A.~E'lri'ca.n Labor

movo~~t... '

, Httny of their deeds nrc not anqheve::r will bo recorded in America's

" Hstory, Thoy uerc~onG the CriL'W men in.' the dust bO~-11, they suoatCld llith 'the share, c roppe r-s , They were llt the, ddc o~the Okies fncin~

the California vigilantes. They stood and stand before the fur,r of lynching mobs. They WON and are on the picket lin~s gazine unf'linchin&ly nt t.ho throatoning, flushed, anGry facos of :the pol.Lce ,

A::1erican Radd.c al.s arc to be f'ound vlherever and whenevor- Amorica. . moves cl.o sor- to the fulfillment of its domoc i-ctd,c dream." ,':lhenever Arne-nctt t s heo rt.s are bre aki.ng , these Al'floricnn Radfcru.'s wore andlnre. A'1\oricc W[ts bcr.un by its Radicals. Jrhe hope ~and futuN of America.

" lies td th its Radicals.9

Hords such as t.ho so coupl.ed ,vi th his co:rtpelline p.ersonnlity enabl.ed A11n~ky

to hold a. sidetTRll-: seminar durinG tho 1968 Democratic Party Convention in'"

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Chicago. 'He socr.:o,ticlllly gathered ar-ound him II group of<v-oun'g dornobstr4to~s

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on tho cor-ner- of Hichiean and Bilbo on }!ondny nieht tel,lin'g, them thnt they, ....

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were an.other genor-atd.on of' A'11orican RAdicals.

Alins}(y att:.mpts to encoapass all those worthy o¥sdesCrlpt1on

,tradical tt into an ideologio,tll. Hel tl\nsch,~uu..¥\£:

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\'1h~t. does tho Radical l.,~t7 Ho wa...,ts a. world in which theliortli of the "individual is recogni~ed ••• :.I. worid based on tho MOralitY. of',

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Mankind ••• The, RadicAl. believes thllt all peoples should haVe a high,:'--

-standard of food, housing,and health ••• The Radical places hunum~""'·· .'

right!rtar above property riGhts. Ho is for universal,£reo publiC education and reeoGl'lizcs this as. f.undn..-nonta.l to,,.thedemoVl'o.tic 'wttY'

ll, ' to,; ~. _ -t' _ " _ _ __ , _, "

of life ••• Domocrncy to him, is lo1orldng from the bottom. up ••• The Rn.dioal

belie'vas co~lo~~lY ~l\l equality of opportunity:\f'or all peoples regardless of race', color, or creed.I1 '/ , .

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Huch of what Aliiu:;ky professes does not sound "rl'l.dicnl." His are the words

·-used.in our- rscbco.l.s and churcho s , by our parents and their frlonds, by our

~

peers. The difforenco '~is tha.t Alinsky really bnLa.ovo s in them and 1"Ocog-

, t

m.zo s the necossi t:,r o1'cliang:tnll the present structures of our lives in

order 't.o rotliizo them.

"

Thoro arc ,many inconsistencios.~n AlinskJT's,thou~~t 'yrhich he himself rocogn~zes 3J1d di5:1liss?s. 'He believes that lifo is inconsistent an~·that, one needs .flexibility in de af.Lng with its -many I'ace t s , His writings reflect· the flavor of incon5istency which ~ parmeat o s his approach to orgrurl.z1ng~ They

, i>

also sUGGest Alinsky's pl.ace in the .runeriean Radi.cal. tradition. In order

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to discu~!:>,his pl~ce,it 'i::o nocessary to circUIilvent hi::; definition of "rndLeal, It ba:;~~ ·or..fi11nC~ psychol.o gi c.al. sil.9~ngth and conmi, tmcnt, and to consider more converrtd.onnl, u so s of tho tenn.

A1.t:10u~h there is Grea.t·disagre~ent ronong urlters about the dof-

.

i!'.1ticn of "r:.dic=-1. tt ·a.nd among radicals t.hemseL vo» over the scope of the

word'3 lneanin~~ thero is sufficient 'nt,rOoment to pomit a canora! definition •

. -----A.-r.ulic.:!L_is ... _ono .... uho itdvocatos·swecpin_g- .. chanr:es--inthe-existing-I.aws--and---;-

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mothod~ of c"vorrun0!1t. 'I'he so proposed changes are aimed.llt the·roots.o! ... _

. -:polit1ea1. problems 'l:1hi~h:in }1nrxian "toms aro'-il1o' lltti tucles'-n-nd.the bahav1or~--'

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. .. 'of men'. RndionlR. flre not interested :in B..'1lolioratinc the' symptonsof' decay.

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,hut in' draSt1.c:tll:;'" ~l taring the ~_U~05 of socl'ot.~ 90nditibris. RadiC"~1St1l

.

"clI1phai1.zos reason rathar than roverence , 0.1 thou::h ~'\d1ca1s, have oftonbocm

12 ..

tho'most <m1ot.ional and loltst r-e asonabl,e or r.tCtn.t'

c('nturY Enlia~tcment' s fnith. in human reason And th~· po·ssible portect.1-

. -.... ~

bUity of ~o.n.Th1s faith 1~ the 'cont1~~inr:; 1:mprov~~-~f·~~·;~;'~d·-i;

do;W;~tod by V.llUOS derived f'rom tho French and ~,=,rico.n RQ"~l11tlons and profoundly lnfJ uonccd by the Industrial Revolution. The Indu5trfili~RevoI::"";

~ :, <

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. ution shifted the cmphasd s of rndicalfsm to an uruan orientatiun. Alinsky

...

holds to thG basic 'radicnl tenets of equality nnd,t~he ur~an?r1ent~tion,

but he does not 8,dvoc:\te innnediRto chango. He is too much iii the world- .

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r'

right-now to. al.l.ow himsolf the ~-uxury of ~ymbolic suicide. H!} realizes that

r-adi cak Goals have to bo aoht.cved often bY' 'non-r;tdicnl, oven " Mt1-rndloal ,t

. F" '" ,

mettns., or "lL~n5t::Y",

tho non-radical menns invol ve tho tram tionnl qilcst

for pOlmr to chan ~o orlsting si tu.C).tions. To further under-st.and Alinsky's

rudicalism one mus t oxand.nc his attitude t.oward the use of povcz,

,_" . ' ... The l:ey 'tolo.rd, for an Alinslcy- type org.mizinS offort is "pO'f1er." A~ he says:"Ho individual or organization o an negotia.te without pOl-~er i)

to compel nOf.Otiat.ions~ n The que std.on is how one acqud r-ss povre r-, and

Alinsky' 5 nn~t·le~ is throur,h orennizatiori: "To attempt to operata on good

'\11.11 ra"t.::er tha.n on a powo r' basa s woul d be to attempt something which the Ho'!"ld ·lp.~ nevsr- yob exp8rlcncod--rEll11omber-to mnk~ even 'good w1l1

, . I. ." 11

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nffoctiv(l it r:1ust he mobilizod ihto a power- unit. If

On» of the p rob Lems Hi th lldvocnting mobili:.n.tion for-power is tho

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popul.:\r di;.tr'll ~:.. of aIllns:::inc; powo r-, J\-r.oric.':'.ns, c.!J lY ohnKennct.h Gnlbra1:th,

.. '_---.------------------- ._. .. _~ __ l

!I:)i~it::; 'J'jt'1n k'~riC~tl CRnit.".lism, ~ro caught; in a par-adox fegnrding their : __ .... ~mJ to·.1ard, '10lmr because i ~ "obviously pro sont;s awlcWArd problems for a

, . : cO:1.'r.uJli ty H;uch abhors i·ts .cxist.l)nce, -QisavoHs its possossio~, but~·Values ,

" ",' ' 15 . ' . 1.' , ' :."', . . , . . : _ '." •

its oxi.st.enc-v, tf • Alinskyr,'?cognizos this paradox and dautions 'l\~ainst

.

'n11owin:; 'our ton["'J.~::: to trap our minds:

We have become inv~1_ved in bypaths of. c~nru.oionorseml.lftti.c$ •• :~. th~'t"t:"I,..d . t~,\f)w)r" h.:."! thmuRh time ncquired -overtonen or sinister' •. ,

., -'--

'corrupt Avil ,~enlthy imrlloral' Mllchillvelli3.nism, and.3. genernl

,phantaSl'!lll:!Oria. of the nethor rcljions.16 . -J

.- ---·For Alinski, power is the ''vory essenco of lifo, tho dyna.rde or life" and is round in 'It ••• nctive citizen, patpticip~tion pul~ine upward providing·a. unifiedstranet_h for II common purpose of orGnnization ••• ei thor changi.ng

, 17

ci.roumst.ances or opposing chango. tt

Alinsky arGUes that those who l-Tisli to change circumstances must develop amass-based organization and be propared for conflict. He is a nec-Hobbe sf.an '-Tho objects to the consensual mystique sur-roundtng' political proco s ses ; for h~, conflict is the route to power. Thos~ p'ossossine p~wer want tqlretRin it and often to extend the bounds of it. Those desiring' a

change in the power balance genernlly lack tho established criteria of. money, _

. . .

or status and so ,111ust-kobiliZO numbers. Hobilized groups representing op-'

..

posed interests will na.turally be in conflict which A.lin~ky considers a henlthful and nocessa~ aspect of a community organizing activity. He is supported in his pro gno sa s by conflict analysts such as Lewis Coser who

points out in The Functions of 'Social ,Conflict that:

Conflict with other'groups contributes to the ,establishment , reaffirmation of tho group and . maintains its boundaries against surrounding social 'world. 18

and the

In o rdo r to achieve a world without bounds it appears essential for many ,

1- ,

groups to solidify their ide'nti ti~s both irirell1t~n to their own, membership

and to their c:"-':tc.l·nal' onvironmont. This has been the rationale of nation-

..

is

. ' .. ' ".-

'-n1istgroup~ historieally_ and among Amorican bl.acks presently.

The ,oreanizor plays a significant rolo in procipitating ~ direoting

.- ...... 1<, ~.,

. ,

, .

a o~mmunityt s conflict pattern. As ,Alinskyvie"s this 'role,t~e ,orGa~zel"" ,;

, , ~ , . .' ",

, ••• dedioated . to changing' the character orifreof a ·p.a~tiouiar c~~ti ..,;i land) has an 1m tial,..runctlon of serving as an abrasive agentte.,:ub'. ~ p ·"';~:.,..~~,,,n~.the<~;r08entments of the people of the ~oDm1W'J1ty; .'~ .•. f'41'_\,la~1'l~3·~~~.;;~ " ,:.{7i

~, - ~'

e. ~.i, .

~ tl11tl~';to~).ma.nY· of" the pe~pieto the po~t ot overt expre~dons. •• .: :toproVidei lLohannel into whioh they can pour their :frustration ot the pltst;to orento n mechanism whioh C,M drnn off underlying guilttot-." ,h4vin~ accepbed the, ,previous s1 tuation for so long a time~ ..... ' =:

. ',When those who represent: the stAtus guo label you t 1.!.. tho oommunity Ol-gwzer}-Jts an 'a.gitator' they are"completoly correct, ~or that is, in one HOro, your i'unction--to llg:1tc1te to tho point or

confliot.19 '.; .

An approach advocata.ng conflict has produced strong'rea.ctions. Somo

of his c~t1cs compare Alin~ky's, tactics with thoso of various hate groups'

, 20

such as lynch mobs which also "rub raw the resentments of tho people." . "-

Alinsky answer-s such criticism by remindinG his critics tha.t the dif'terence

botwoon a' liiibern..1" and a "radical tI is that the liberal refuses to tight

for tho' go at.s he prof'o ssen, During his first orcani~in~ venture in Back of tho Yards he rtm, into oP?osi tion from many liborals who, although agreeing

IT,ith his go al.s , repudi at.ed his tacticn. They wore accordfng to A1.1nsky

. .

"like tho folks during the Amerd.can Revolution' nho said 'Amorica should be , -

, 21 .

free but not throuGh bloodshed.,f" .. Hhon the residents of Back of the Yards

. , .

battled the hugo meat-pac1d.ng ~oncerns, they were fighting for their Jobs 'ot\d r;or-

their l1ve~. Unfortunately, the war-like rhetoric can obscure the constructi"/ene~~ of the coni'lict Alinslcy·orchostrnt()s.

In ~dditiont~ ~iding in formation of identity, conflict between I

Gr0UpS plays n creative social rolo by pxx>viding n. procoss through Hhich

diverse intc .. rosts are a~justed. To inducQ conf~1ct :is n: risk because thero .. l

is nOf:'lnr.'1ntno thllt it' will remm n cont.ro l.Lcbl,o , Alinslcy rocogru ee s the

"

risk he tekr.~ bttt bo l i eve s it is l-10rth th? en!nblo if the conflict procoss

rosut.t,s in~ho. rC'fltllcturing of rolationships 50 as to pe,rmit .~heOnj,~~ont

of gren.tor frocd('!~ Olllong ~en meot1nc 'as oqual.s , ,Only ~hrou(~ social .cqu~~ty

., ".',

:, "

can men dotennine, the ~tructurc,) of tho1ro~m ~ocial arrangements.

.-t~t nssumes al.L :tndividu3.1s and 'nations aot "first, to p.ie~~rve

.:

.' ..

_ ,intorosts and t.'1P.rL rn.tional1.ze any actacn ns __ :1dea,l'istic. H9~"·thinks - it -, _.

" ~,.: .. , ~_.r.

iso~through acceptdrig ourselves as we "ro:uly" ar-e that loo'"9 can b~gin-::~",

.....

Thor6 nrc two roads to (\very"thing--,a 1014 road end a high one. The high road is t.Jle oll::;iest. You just talk principles and bo nngolic rEI .. g~rd1nG thinG~ .you don't pr~,ctice. The lOHTo.ld i!3 the harder-, It ~s.

tho task of ml'41d.ng- one's solf-interest behavior moral beh~v1or. \·fe '

have behaved morally Ln the' ;rorld in the past fOlT Yoc1rs because ~le want' the poop1e of tho Horld on our side. Hhen you get 11 e~od morn.t" position,

Lock behind it to see what ic solf-intorost.22 . .

que s td.on of rr:oroli ty '\oIi th Alinsl(J~ who conceded thil.t idealism CM parallcl solf-intorezt. But he bE!licvo~ tl:.".t tho man .... rho intends to net in the l7orld- ;

as-i ~is mnst not be rr.islod by illusions of tho Horld-as-vre-'t·lould-like-i~to~. 2)

boo . Alingl<;y 'ei: .. ...ims a po~ition of moral relrttivi~, but his moral contG..~t·

is st~bilizcd by 'R belief in the event.ual, mnnifestation of the goodnes s of

mM.He bel.Loves that if men were. al.l. owed to livo freo from fenr and \uUlt"th~

/

- ': .. .

't.J'ould live in pe ace , Ho 11'1.50 bel.Lovo s that only man with a sense of their 'oVm"

worth and a. rflsre~t for the, commonal.Lty of humanity will.,be able to create

this now \-7orid.

Tho !"cfo ro , the main drivi'nc force behi.nd his push for organization 15 the-erf~ct that belonging to ~ croup ~orkine for s common purposebns

!

,.'-". ".". . . .

had on4:.ho T'1en. he h.,.s orGnnized. Frustration is transformed into. confidence '

.. vhen ncn r-cco -:ni?f) their capnbi 11. ty for cont:-ibution. The sense of dignity is pai-td cul.rrrLy crucinl. in orljanizational Acti'\'ity run~.ng~~~.~ l'~?r nhom ~Uinsky ~':-llrn5 to bpl ... ar-o of prorr.rruus Hhich attack only their'eoonomic poverty.

Wolfnl'"' proc:rnm~ sinco. the 11(3\01 Deal, have ned, th':lr redevel.oped . poverty'

. .

. ..~

are as nor even o:-..tr:J y.,.odtho p'~or anto hOlp'inc-thcmselves·. ~ •• cYCle "~.r.·de~

~- ". ,'~' .

.. ~ .. '" '''._ ;"_IW,~_, .. .;_:~

pondoney has boon e re at.od which; ensnare s its victims into' rcsi'eriationnnd

_ ' .. _,...... • .~ ~J ,._,........-. ; .• ...•....... _'._.,:

'. " ..' __ . '. ._ L_i:,<;

apathy., To· drruM.ti:·,o his warnine to th,tl poortAl1nskYprop~sedfJondi~g·J!~~~~,;.:

" .. . . . .' .. ,h, . .... ... . ....• <"""':. " " •

. drossod.in.,-Af.dclin'~~~l~co~t~es-to--groet .. VI&PAY~~~i~~t·" .

,,' ,_,.:_"" .... cw.,· .. "'.,~~~-"'~·:·,,·,_"'.,.".iI~" "i".".$Ir~ .....

......... , .. ,

..... "":". __ .:.-... , .

. '._-'

.- "v- .~~".'-J

-11-

<.

ChicaEo.' This nction would have dramatd.z ed v:h:lt he refers to as the- "001 ...

~I - • - .. - ~ -24 -

onialisni" and the tt~eR.co Corils·mentn.1ity" of tho poverty proGram. -

- -

Alinsky is 1.nterostod in people helping th~zel ve s mthou~ the

,

inoffootive interf'~ f"enCO from ~elfar~philes. Chn~les Silbennnn in his

. ' -

book, Crl.s1.s jrr Blltck :md \fuite de scrabos Alinsky.' s motivtl.tion in termsor his faith in peoplo: .

r.- Tho ossential differenco. between Alihsky and his enemies is.tha.t. hl'inskY really believes in democracy; ':he really Believes-- that the help--";;·~-.7> less, tho poor, the1Jadly':'educatcd can solve their ovm problems'it

r;ivonthe chance and the means; he reilly believes that the poor and . uneducated, no Le ss th~he rich sideducat.ed , have the right to ~decide how their li".,es should 1Se run and what services shoulqbe offored to .

: them instead of, bcang ministerod to like children. 25

,This faith in democr-acy and in the people' s nbili ty· to. "make it" is pe_cul-

. .. • f .' . .. " '. .'

inrly American one}:llP..ny might doubt its radicalnoss·. Yet , Alinsky' s beliet and

devotion is radic:U.; ~cm6cr~cy is still. tI. rD.dic~ idea in 8. worldwhe~

"

wo of ton confuse im.2CCS wi. tIl realities, words td th :'.ctions. Alinsky' s boli~r

. ._;.

. .. ..__./".,

in self-int.erested democr-acy unifies' his Vieyrs on the use .of ,the.:power/confl1ci

. .

model 1n organizin~ and tho position of morality and welfare '1n·the,phil-

osophy underlyin'~ his methodology.

r

. '.... .. -

...,

" .

. ... ~ hI,

-. :_:~ .. 1:.;,.._.. . ...... _-...... ..... . --_ -.-._ .. _-_ .. - ... --~ .. -~- '=:=;:===-':=::::=:=::==::;:'~4SiL~~r~(/"a

"

,_

• • "-E- ~

CH;IPT"1!.::t lFOOTUCT~:

. 1"~.:lt\) on tho B~rrlCCld~s, It Thp. Eco:'lomict, M:ly 1'3-19, 1967~ p~ 14.

2 . 'c ••

"The rrofes:donnl R:ldicnl," 'Rfllj',{'r'r;. Jun0"t '1965, p. 33.

-

3rhi-d.

-

." ,--

'"

6!:aul D. Al,insky;n~vr'ill0 for R' ~:\.c,"..l~ (ChicnrP : University of Chieac;o

Pross , 191~6), p , 4.

7 ' Ibid. ,

-

an,i·d. ,

-

p , 14.

..

p. 22.

'.

,

. .

• , c

,,-10Sa.u.1. n; Alinsky; private intcrvie-~T in Boston, Hassachusetts, October-, 1968 •

. ; ,11A.linsi<y",'i~·v''''~11e for R~di'Cal'S', n- 23. ---J

, ~' 12 ':~" '.::,:

,-John W. Derry, Tho R:ldicA-l Tradition (London: HacHillan, 1967), p. :vii.

- " .

13Dan DOd~~~, ,"Th0 Church, POi-l1!.""R, and Saul Alinsky'," Roligion in Life,

, . (Sprine;, 1967), p. 11. .

11~Ibi'd.'

-

15John ,Kon."l~,th Galbr.rl.th, ',': ,,~rnpuny, 1962), p.

16· "

Dodson, p.c 12.

'17Ibid•

~

A.':'.ericrl.'l Cll.l)itl..li~Jl (Boston: Houghton Mifnin

26.

• -.".. 1

1~ , .

, 'Le-vd:-; CoU0r,' T!1o Fnr.ctioh~ of -$oc1.'3.1. Conflict (Now York: The Free Press,

': ,_ ~19.5?), p. 8._ _

,19· .

Dcdson,

, .

,:~OCharles E.~berman,' Crisis in Bl'ack 'll~d 'Whito (Now Yorin

.: .... ".; " ,1264), p. 331.,

, ,,:...j)1 .' ',I. , .. , '- .'

.... ~,A11ns1<y,int&rvie~1, Boston.

•. * ..

....

----, .. ---- ---~--.~.-

,

.

,.,~i ,~,.tA,\ intervioW' in

c -13-

.

,", .

...

"4· . .

'. pntr.ick Anderson, "l{nJdnr, Trouble is Alinsk;,·t 5 Business," Tho N""-ll York

Times H,'l.r.'·'\:::1.na (October- 9, 1966), p. 29.

25 ~ .

Silboman, p , JJJ •.

., "

,

..

. ,

i

~ .. !

.. . '

..

CHAPTER rr

THE ALIUSKY HETil0D OF ORG,AHIZING; THREE CASE -STUDIES

'''-~ ..... < •.• ,..,- •••

The Alinsky, method of community orgrurl.'l.inc h:ls,,",two di,%ttinct

el.omontis , One, tho "AJ_'insky-typo protest" i,s "an, explosiva D'.i.~uroor

(

t:'igid discipline, brilliant showmanshap , and n strt~rit fightor's instinct 1

for r...tthlossly cxpl.oa, t'1ng his onomy's wonkno s s s " Tho sccond , modelled "

·nftcr trnde.urrlon orga.nization methods, involyos the hard 'Work of' rcc~

,ocniziht into1"est!;., sookine out indiGenous lenders, ~d bUilding an

~- •. -.-~-- •• '-<~

orGanizat.ion who se pove r is viet-rod as 1egit1m3.tc by the larger co~

muni ty'. It is difficult to discuss these tHO component-s sopnrato.ty be.

'cause thay are "roven into the organizational. .pabt ern according to sit-

uationnl ncccssf ty'.SOnlO orC:uUzational si tuitionS"vneed tho polarizing effoct of "rubbf.ng rnvT tho sores of da scont.cnt " ,\-1hi10 others',dth well-

defined resontments noed l~adcrt;.

, ,

~~othcr distinctivD fe~turo of the AlinskY mothod as mentioned,

,

in tho pr-evf.ous chsp t or- is the usc of militn~J Langua go , As Sllbarm,'-11

podrrt.s out ,silch l.:mguab~ is appropriata..rfor groups engaged in "wnr_likort

' ..

struge,lcs for,

• ' •• the only '"ray to build an army is by winnin~ D. i'ei-1 victories. But hov do you G:dn ll. Viotory bef'o re you have an .:l.rmy1 The only;" method (ItVC]7' dcvi sed is GUorr:Llla warfaro:to Avoid afixed battlo

Hherc 'CilO forcos .aro_ ll~~ayed:md ,where_tho, neli_army!s_H~b.kness._._, __ "_,'_: __ :_",._~ would bocomo visiblo, and to, concont.r-at.o instoad'on hi t-nnci:"run

t:tctiC5 ciesif;:ned to gain small but moasur-abl,e victories. HE>nceth~~, emph.ll.sis' on cuch dramatic nctionslls parades ,nnd ·rent. strIkos ~1hoso

.~" obj~ctivo iti to create. a sense of solidarity and c()mm~tY'.2;"

1

.. ";, __ ~~ _. ',' _.- ,~" >6,., .,. _._, _. ~,.;. '_'. . ',"', __ ;,;"~ _._', '___'<:",; "_': ~-:u~",:--.-._-._:.~-'- :-~!_.,.-,'_.:.:::~:-; .

. 'Althoueh Alindky' Q, eon.'Lo£_,.._co:nmuni tY',solidarity ll1ld b1~~~<,?~~:;:poJ!~~~~:~:.:~,Z'"_".,s~"

'. los$no;;"~3.~;~en cO~Clptod 1nto~he ~brl~of thefcaOrt9."reltare,pro":~i') ".'.'

~ '. '"

~ra.~3, there is II ,c'on.l';'inUing mist:rust,," of his tact19s. Asho.s~.been>8\le"";\!t

~';'> __ ,., ~"c'~~':_{ .. ,;'",; ',._::; _ - <.--' - ,ifF:;:{.;,:;it ~-;~': ./'; l

':. _,

.... '

ga"stBd, there ~s no' set pAt.tern for' oacb of his orcnni1.-~tional e!'tort~.· . Thoro ·lJ.rc,~ hQtoTeVe~ ts.ctic.:t.1 guidcli~OS lolhich carfbo-np~icd,.ino:-dcr· to'

\

. ,.; ~

fulfill tho follo;1'inl; criteria cif',g.n Alinsky ore:lni~Ation:

. (f!') It 1s roobod ihtho local trildi tion, the 10c:11' indi'r;onous loader ... "'"'-"'~"--8hip, theloc~\ orGmuzations and ogenci es , nnd,in short, thaLocal. peopl e ,

(b) Its en~rbY' o~ driving force is Gcneratod hy tho solf-inte~'st of the local ro sf.dorrt s for the wolfaro of their children and

thernsul VO:1.

(0) Its' Pro3r6n for nction devol.cps hand in hand 't-rith tho orC;iU1- ization of the community council. Tho pror,r:-.m is in aobual, fAot that series of common atr . .cmont s uhich results in tho d9Volop- .

ment of the local organi~ation. ..

(d) It is a pz-o gr-am ari~nG out of tho Local. poopl,e carrying, with it tho 'diroct 'pn.rticipation of pr.lct."icilly al.L the drganizntions

in ll~p:.!'tiC"llar area, It i7)Vvl YO!:) a sub st.antd nl, degree of individuru. citizon participation; a con~tnnt day.to day nou.of volurrboez- ncti vi ties and tho daily functioning 6fjnumerous local com-

mittees char-god 1nth s!"ocific short-term function~. '.

(0) It ccnst.antd.y omphasaz es the functional .rel~tionship between prob..

Lems and therefore its program is as broad as the social ho'rlzon o~ the commum ty. It avoids, at all costs, circumscribed and segmental programs 1-Thieh in turn attract tho support of on1.y n seg-

ment of tho loca.l popul.atd.on, . , , ....

..

(f) It recognizos that a democratic socioty is one whioh responds ~

popular pressures, and therefore realistically operates on the

, basis of. rreD~mre.For the same »eason it' does. not shy away from

, Lnvo'Lvomont. in"matters of controversy. -

.

, I '

(g)' It concent.r-at.ee: on the uti.1-izlltion of .. indigenous individuals,

't-:ho, if not loaders at the beginning,cM bo developed into leaders.

(h)

It [~i\'es priority to the sienificanco of self-interast.' The organ- . iZlltion itself _proceeds cn:theideo:.or,.~cha:nneling'thenta.nY. diverse: .. forces of self-intere'st w1thin·:the"commun1ty into' a COIIDl1On directd.on rOl' tho common good arid at thesamo time'respeots the autonomy of individuals and org~zo.tions., .:

(i)

It becomes oompletolY.sel:r-tinarrced at'the end ot.-app1"()Xur4t~1"";:-:"-~three . years. This not only testifios to its representative· character inth:tt'the looal re'sidents support the1r-ownorgariiza.tion.!i.n~ c1nily, but insures to the .Local, councU the acid :tetJ~ o!_~nde-, pendon,co: ":the ability to pay ·6.nets way.' 3_ • . '.' ~J

'_ .. ... ... • > c .•

,Curre!1tth,eories of international roJ.ations ld. thout Il1Em:tiord1tgVletnam.

•. __ • I(.~c

We Wul',considor three of the organizations 'Which Al~sky helped bulld."

".. "'"

.:» ; ::'. The.f1rst of: the three is the Back of tho Yards Neigbbo~od c.~uncU

n '

, .. ,,_ .. "~ch is ,the prototyPe colnmunity organization dating ba6k to the late 1930's.

. , > ~"" __ . _1-,,"

. Alinslcy's 1nvol vamont with 'the Couneil' iedto thk estab11slanent .or' the

Industrial Areas Foundation ~ch subsequently coordirtated other organ1~1ng

, '

activities. One ~f the most important of these vras The \-loodlawn Org4fliza.t1ont.

n black community gron; il1Chicago. Alinsky frequently on'countors blacks who

~ '. II'

view Minsky' 5 efforts as just one more examnLe of white man's power pol1tics gamo , He tolls such' crd, tics that, "Sunglasses, Swahil1, and soul food Won't· .

l} '. . ..

win power for bl.acks ;" ThircllY,we will look at tho organizationaJ>prob,.;'_-·''':''

, '

, .

lams involved in the Rochester blackcommunit~~s cor£rontation with the Kodak ~,ompa.ny.

THE BACK OF THE YAJIDS NEIGHIDRHOOD COUNCn,

Upton Sinclnir's novel, The Jungle, focused attention onrthe

stockyards in Chicago and" the deplorable conditions of life in- the. area

. -,.".

surrounding t.he Yards. This area, Back of the Yards, was bigtUnOUsly vredded

to the moat-packing industry and the Roman Catholic Church. The meat f'aotonos ,provided jobs and tho .Cbllrch _min:r'storcd to the spiri tu~ and social needs of its p<" .. rlshoners. The wavos of Polish, Slovnk, and Irish immigrants

. r . ,

.' bef'oz-o \-10:-1u H.'!.r I I nnd Horlcnn immigrntion nftor,supplicd both workero and

pnrd shone r s ; Tho ir.J,lliGl':mts also suceessiv'ely).owered_the wa'gf3_scal~~a!l~l___. .. ,

.'

, '

frnr!;m.entoa tho' Church into bickering nationalistic divisions. The. area's

, .

. ,-

depressed economy :;ll.B accompard.ed by acute e·nvironment'al.' problems ~oh as

" " . ." ,. _.' . - . \. '. -; -',

overc~wd6d :ilc.\ts1ng, insufficient ssni ttltion, unP~v~4~@~~B;'·tew.'l"!C:"" ~ •.

roational .r ael1i ti(,u._ . hi!;h dOl.inq;~onoy and 51",l.me rato'4.p.n&d$qu.i.~~;,,;;·'·

, ' 5' . " .. s , ..•••.••. . . .':>

sohool.s, Al,insky remetubers tha.JJackj ot.-the--Y4rds.,as:-~ttb&-n4d1~,"~AlJ.r1~;"'-:

5\1"'$,- \;JorS~-\1"!\,,, H-O(\~M.'1 W /, - -, /.f,<,i -

_~O" .. ".-.-"''''~_.~~'''~' __ .. _'''''· "' ~ ... 4~.,.~·:;"_"·-" __ "_"'''~l:'Iff''''~~.":I .. ~. ", .. " < O'__'~"'~-

Al1nskY's experd ence s 11: the Back oftbe Yard,!! fomed the baSis

--i#'

!o'r his:,appronoh to organizin~,. but they_,.Jlre difficuit to trace. }tost of

the _'iryformation retatod to Alinsky' 5 role in thofomulntion of, the .N&1gh-

, . _. _ /')

borhood Council comes fro~ Minsky. He c1ves a third person nccount in =,

\.. ., ~

Roveille for Ra.d1c:tl~, and he is a1w~s roady to rornin1~co about, th'a.t cx-.~

parlance. Evelyn ZYQl1unto"dcz's account of the -f'o rmntd on of the 9ouno1.l, ·.r-rhich ,is corrsd de r-ed "1l.uthorltat1ve" by tho presont members. Clf' the Co~ncil,

.;#

docs not r:lonti'Jn Alinsky once by ~£l.mo except; in the' biblior,raphy. ~1h~m

quostioned about tho omission in tho Z:,"!_%Unto1-d,cz thesis, AlinskJ." nttributed it to hi; crent success in build.i.nG M or,-;anhation which did ~

7 . .

--~--neod him. Th:lt AlinsbJ participated in the ors:.mi7Ang, and thnt his par-

ticipation led to the development of his org:ifliza.tionnl 'strc:.tegy is unde-

...

-bat ebl.e , It is {;enel"~ .. lJ.y acc_eptf3d"'~onG organizer!:>, report~rs,-: Md .a.ca-· _ .

deMcs th~t Minsky Has tho movi.ng f'o rce behind the struggle. An exruniv~t1ori

of tho llvaile.blo ma.torial about the Council 1 s f'ormat.Lon affirms thnt

s ssumptd.on •.

. '

The or~nniz!l.tion of the Back of tho Yards began at a meoting in the

~ ,

Locnl, Y" .. :CA t.o !Jle.n n commurri, ty rccroatd onal. pro V'''-'11e' Before the mooting

in the Si-"lri11t: of 1939 the Back of the ~rds h-ad been tho scene ~f various

, .

cormnum, ty [Jroj'?c t.!J ini tin.ted by ae t tLemonf house s , tho Church, and unions/

Tho rll.ol:1nC~1(I\1~(.' 'tToi'1:crs Or~Mi7.ine COl!1l1Utt00, an nffilil'l.to of tho CIO,

\

bngan orccni~i!1~ tilO 'ernpl.oyee s of Swift, Annour, Hilson, and the other.

, .

mont houdos,d th r(·lati voly 11 ttlo o!"p-osi tion. ThE' In01: orm.ml\geihentop~'--'

For fi!ty yaar¥' we have waited for so;eonn to offer a ·solution.....:.··' but ndth.1ng-h3s happened. Toda.y we k.no~-1 that He oursolves must fa.ce-and solve those 'problem~. Wo kno .... 'tVhat poor hou!;int; unetriploYl1len~, ' t.O• and .juvenilo ,delinquency menns; and we. are sora that if a. way is to,

be' founa. lro cnn and ,must find it. ,: .. . .

. \{o havostopped 1~aitiriG. We churchmen, _budnessmen, and union men have fomod tho Back of tho Yards Nei&hborhood CoUncil. This CounoU;

.. is: inviting ropresontatives of all the or~<mizntions __ church',bus1neS3t soci.nl., fraternal " and ,labor to particinpte in n conference ••• to thoroughly discuss the problems of, joint nction vThich can effectiveLy

attack tho ~vils of diseaso, b~d ~ousine,crim0,and.punishment.8

Alinsky vlho heLpcd draft the Call continuod using his strrlehtforward, solf-interest approach to convince the community that . Working to-

gather wa.s the only hope for them. For' exsmpl.ej ho never- approached a Catlxolic

..

priest iqterms of Christinn ethics but on the basis of solf-interest such 9

as the l1elfara ofth iiS~' Church, even its physical p'roperty. MinskY'srec-

t • • • •

ognition of the Ca.tholic Church as an "integral and dynamic factor in the experd.enco and lives of the . peopl.o" won him tho support' of the Senior Aux.. 10

iliary Bishop of' Chicago, the }lost Reverend Bernard J. Shiel, D.D.

His

. support helped bring to~ether t~e conflicting nationalistic Catholic: ~urches~ Then h~~tility between th~ Church and the Unions lessened as both recoQli~(ld the necessity of cooperation. Tho primary question 'toias,

. r ,

however, '''cooperation" for tmat? The By-Laws of the Council (adopted lillY,

. ..,

..

"

~'-.. .

.. 1939) ide&.1.isticcJ.ly stated that "'

• J -

•• ~this orgzr~zntion is founded for the purpose 0 f uniting,all.or~an- 1zntions wi thin the community knovrn as • Back of the Yards' in order

'" ' .

to prorl.Ote the l-:e1.fnre of n.1l re!rl.donts of thC\t community ref:4rd.l,6SS

of their raco, color, or creed, so thnt they m~.nll have the .oppor/" tuni ty to' find heal, th, happiness and securi ty through_:tl;l~,;domocratic,

\-rllY oflifo.l1 oJ" .... '.. ... _.: •..• : .• ,

.... ~ ..

. _. '~.

Alinsky re:ne~ers tho ~'1.tmo5phare in' the neighb,orhood :as.-

~ • ,. l ' , _

.. ~ I ,It :f'~!.'~:'

'J ••• a holl ho la' of hate.:~··· ,;' . , '. . '.' . .' .. .

Hh,;n ponplo tnlk >nbout Back' of tho Yards todss·,s:dmo of them Ut;CJ .'

~ lint;)s liko • r.'lb resentmonts rA.w' to' describo my orl!3.n1zing .thode.Now' I

~. . .do you, think when I went in t,hera or when 19o into tl Negro comilUriity

todAY I have to tall thea that th'ey'ro' discrlm1natod .ng3instl1;k(10u .' ~ think .I-·.go in there and ~et them.., angry? Don't you ·;.t:h1hK .• t1i~yhave ·;'·"'"'!H.mtmentntobAr,ih-,',nth ,'arid how .mt;_~h rnwer can I rubthomt.

, •• -- •.. - ...• , ... --~~.-- __ ......... _,;". .................. ...;..",o~~

What happons ,~hen We Come in7 'We sa.y~ 'LOok, ynu don't bave'tO tako this; thora-i's someth1n~ you can do about it. You can 'get jobs; you ean broak' the Segrega.tion patterns. But you have tO~ have poWer :to do it, and you'll only get it throueh.orgruU.,za.tion. Because pouer

just goes to tvo poles--to'thoso who've cot roonoy,and those wh~'ve .

r~rmtl~u=[~~~j~: .. ;:~~::r:~~~=g~~~~t.·;·· ,,'",., ,

. Tho.t' S l:hn.t happened in Back Of the Yaros .12

"'i ,

The process of "standinG up}" hOi-reve~ took' time.

Tho Neir;hborhood r CoUncil's two i.'renedinte "go al.s, to acha evo economic "

<:

stru~gle l-ri th the meat compnai.os , Vigorous ncti vi ty stalled during ([orld \-TAr' .

. .

Il,. bec~sue thero nero fow groups r-eady to fo110n John 1. Le1rl.s's lead and

interefere in MY ,~ay loTi th tho "Tar effort. Durd ng the' war the ~ouncil did

. .- . . .... -'

E;oli.d1.:fy its ~upport, nmong aU. groups :it const.i. tu tional.1.y represented. Organ:.

, .

ized businoss,for cxamr,lo, had been cat al.o gued among the members of, the

Council but did not officially form The Back of the Yards Businessmen's

Associa.tion until 1945. Local residents, were kept informed of'each othor's resentments through a community ne~spapp,r, the BRCk of the Yards Journal.

... . .

.

. Tho Journal s~ill opez-at es on a cooperative basis Hith th~. ovnez- and D.

.

spociD...l bc ard of C;':-Ivernors, representativo of tho Council, cont:ro~ling the )

'weokly paper's policy.

i

The org'A!li~c:..tio:1 of the Council- and its early achievCIl".ents in con-

_. solidlltini ro~.~or :-,:,.rtict4.:lr1y impressed Bi~h0'P Sholl. After the f.i~t annual, ContmWfi ty Con7'~s, ~ in 1940 he do scribed' it as "ono of the most vivid demon- .

. ,. 13 0

strations . of tho dcmo cr-ato,c procoss_.that I have evor ,witnessed." .Bishop-,·-;-···~,

,~,

s~'~n 'enthu;instic,,-Uy in~rodu,ced Aiins~ tq\'lnr~hall ,Field' ~h~ SUgg~t~d tc?_.,:::hP•

' .. - Aliriskithat, ho CArrY hismodolruid 'ideas of ~';g~~~g~~Q~he'r' 4~~S'Ot

_ " : . ;, ,; :'; . , - t - ~ __ ... _ _ .

tho country' by' mea .. as 'of a tro:..exeropt roundntion~' When Atinbki .vas'conVinced

. ~hat Field ~ did noJ,_-::~t~ llinI, out o£. C!)ic:r.o. ho .AOc';ted the pold.t;1on . :,.::: 0'" ~~eut1 v~Pl ~t~~ '()f rt.h~ Tmi~J~tdn.lk"Are!;l~,.ICL\Y1dt\~1orl !tAF)',.worktisWith11t/ ~*~

.f ' 14

"abog1nnin€! cnpital of $15,000.

"":-';-'-'-_" .. -- _" .. - '

.~

: The C?unoll' moved into actd on after the i'la'r by fully, 'supporting

;, . . .. . ,.

tho P,,-cldnghouso 'Strike of 1946iProviding the com.'1lUnity with ¥1 opportunity'

.. •• '\ ,t

to mobilizo:finnncial, medical, and moral. help ~or the strikers. Coordinated

, '.

through the Council, the Churches opened 'soup lines and child care centersr ..

".. ..

busane ssmen suppliod food; iancUords ignorod uppaid rents;. phys1.cians or-

. - 15. ' , , '.

,_fe~rod£reeservices.." The community backi.ng of the strike resulted both .......

in a good sottlement for the wo rker-s and in rolL more powerf'ul voice for the' ;

COWlcil.

. .

, The lllinois Lngi s ] aturo heard that loud voice when the Counoil

,

•• ?

, ". '-. ' ,

voted in 1948, to lend a' city-wide sales tax strike against the state ad-

, ' 16 ,,' r-'

ministration's proposed 'cut ,in AD: funds •. ' The state House ~r Representative's,

admitt~,L~ to haVing been 5rrayed. by public pressure direoted by the CoUncil' ",

"" ~.'

..

and restored the funds.

As the Council's political sophistication ~lcreased, it,moved beyond

. ., .

the tt\ctiottl. Level, of demonstrating community solidarity, m·ad.~.~ating publio

pressure, and th~ateningufu::ooparati ve ·-residents with ostracism. In a 1949

.! '

oonfrontation with the city's He~th ans Building Commissioners over its

enforcemont of the housing codos, the Council!s Housing'Committeecompilod

" I '

enough statistics to embar-ras s the housing znrthord, ties and prepared to

rolea:so thom to tho- newspapez-s , As n thren.t is often a.s effeotivo as aotion, bouses W9r.e ~paired. '.

Tho Council also, took legal action against the Pennsyivania Railro~ o'n .behal~'. of, the residents who'se 'health 'and ..p~perty,,~~· d~~gedf"~m"en..;. '

. . .' , . .' t..· . .' . .. "

:~'-gin-e ~kei and again;t th~- ~-~~t faC~r1es 'whose 5ten~~ f'~ti.t:ed the' ~d:~,. f~e'

. , :- -

Rdlroad was~¥:t1ned by the, Hunicipal: Cou.rt of Chica~/and . the packers

. ", I . • ' " 17; .....

roreed . to construot buildings, to h,ouse their gnrl.?s:a~. ' .,-'

... ~" .

. . In addition to each of its varied activities, the Council. assuaed

, an educa:tio~a1 ..rt1!l~tion ,by' ;'ca~fullY explainine every: project .to the residents. Oocasionnlly.the educative prooess was, an and, in itself as in the'

I

case of the Council's .eUortsto41ntroduce basic 'facts of niitrition to "

the community. During the Spring of, 1945 nutrition 'Was discussed at union

meetings,.in Sunday sermpns, and at school assemblies. No,residont could

move throurr.h his neighborhood without be1nf; remiruied to drink h1.s orange juice.

,'.''' ...... ~'~~t~~.·I; : .... ; .. ~ .. _~~,,_:.:.t:.: :: .. ;~ ',::.'~ .. r > ";:(; ,!:: .!;.-::,'" ~·.'I·:''''·· ". (".~ .... ~.~_:~ ·,r.:

More of ton the educationnl pr-ogr-am was directed toward specific action!)-suah . ~:'

as the crea.tion of a local credit union. Ai thouGh financial exports ex:.:

pltdned the credit operation, the union was managed by Council members who

" 19 .

'gained their' expertise t.hr-ough action.

. "

. The importance - of popular. pa:rticipati6n in' the 'Cotlricift s""'~act1Vit1es,: .. ; essential in any community action project, was summed up in the 1948

Annual Report of the Executd. ve Sec~tary.

_ ..

Hhile tho achicvem.CitJ)ts of the Council are great in themserves~' -'<r underlyingcllch individual achiev~net is tho thread of the most.1m- ~ portant objectiv~ that weare worldng toward ••• the most importnnt e1-

_ 'ament in democracy. By that I mean narlicination. Imam thorecognition on tho part of the poople that democracy-is a. way of life which'

! - ,

can only be sustained through the pdtt of the people. Only when the

people reco¢ze that theirs is the_decision, the right, and the duty

to shape their own, life, only 'then will .democracy axpandand grow.

That is ,*hy the cardinal keynote of the Back 'of theY~rds Noighborhood Council is: 'vie" the peopLe '\dll '1-Tork out our own destiny.' It ,1s for '. :. this reason'; that I am Asldng you to keep in mind olonrly that OVOlY

sinr;le r'..::hie\,~.,t which I can report tonight has behand it a history' .

of participntion, of fightine and of awakoning'of a burning passion

,£or justice and brOtherhoodo~ man by thousands .of_ ourpeople.20

FO.r the last thirty years the hope express~bythe CouncU"s~otto has often ,be(m'~n..lized as the carQfulJ.y __ nur-tur-ed connnuirl.ty·pq~erin Back., ,

of the'Yards 8.rroct.~d .th,e city, the state,and. even tho- nAtion. HOwev,er, of tho commu:n.\·ty· r. inrl.uon~e is. traceable not :to --its .'~urn1ne pnssi'oh"btit'

. , I - •

to 1tsltlostiltU5trlotlS' resident, Mayor Richard J. paleY.

, ",

, ,

, .

1-' -;

. ........

-,

••• If we had in overy neighborhood, iOn overy community, an -organization such as yours we 'i~ould have a much better city ••• Tno efforts to solve. t our+p robl.cms mus t come from the Le ado r-shd.p of the communi, ty "'h1oh is

,so oxccllontly displ~od in your ~ront orGanization. The lell.dership and the solution must COr.1e from 'a. ldllingness of the peopl.o to pnrtici?~te in 501 vin~ their problems. No ~6VCrrtr.1onta1 .body ••• will re,solvo th~~o probl0ITls "lone.

••• ~Jhat A cront picture of t~e final essence of A.'1lericnn govo~ent this present s , The busd.nossmon, the religious'leaders, the tedchers, ill sitting down together, al.L tryinG to, find, tho answers, trying to

do somethine to help bettor their ,c~~~unity.21

> .. ' .,' ~ ",'':":.; .:",_._!_V ',' "(' .. ,""c, ~"j;,.

;_, .. , ... ···_i;;

" .... ';'~rlous1Y 'pttrallols t~e CouncU' s ~wth in power. l!a.ny or the Hayor's

staff are also residents and share tho Hayor's loyru. ty to <the neighbor-

, '. . ~ ~

. -

'hood~\Vhat?v'er-erGoonemay SB.y - about ,Da.loy, he has a eenuine concern

~,

for th~, "forgottenrt (wQ1te7) man, and almost echoes .U1nsky rhetoric-whon

spenking about, tho Council. 'As he said' in 1966,

Such wo'rds from the Chi.cago political establislj..."Tlent a.re anathema to

, ' " , ,

"

.'

',.

Alinsky not only because' of his habi;tual anti-establishment stanco J. but' also.

. '~

because of'?res~nt' conditions in Back of the Ynrds. The lower'~lass white wo!'kcrs in tho aro a fe~l thretlton~d by the a.ccelor~r~ng pace ~f social change': Thf3y,f~ar the loss of their' factory or' clerical jobs' to automation

/'

and their ho~e5tQ,:!()groes. The Council's nbility_ to fulfill most of tho

re5id~;nti".l.needs h:u:l locked the n8ighborhood so that fow residents ever

, , '

leave. One cr:i.t:5.ci~ .. n of the Alinsky method is that such strong connnunity

orSMiz{ltion$ tt:~rl'~ to "nail down" a nei6hborhoocl, retnrding socinl and

politicnldoV01opm~nt.

,The' coll active nanifofitation of such retardatIon is ren<:;.t1onnry,

',,' sar.rogationist poli tie~f. Alinsky recozn!zod :mch' tendonC!-es '1rft.h-E.L~Ut~,.· .. ,. " 0'1 196'8 w~en' ha~ie.lked t.hrough tho _nei'ehborhood, serln~ W~ltlce pos~~r~' and

, , ),

. " 2) ,

_ . "rlbi to POl-lOr" 'sloe~~ns on fences a;dcnr bumper-a, The Counill' s.,~()Ci8.t

• "'. lifO t,

"~rker, Phyllis Rytl.n, attributes mll:ch of the r,rustration in' the areA .. ,to'__--<-c--

~~.

, ... ',''''' __ :. "';~h, ,;0 .;. • .... ;;..-

, __ .the y~~gorrt"ls1donts who often do 'not- even kn~w, about t~6

" ..". 24 ,'" -

Univ9.rsalist crOda. ~ A~insky 'reltBmbers th~t many ~ung people £fum. the -<

y.1~S' ·:ai-Oa,~-ronned a 'crypto~ra5cist cadre i~ the l~te 1930' s,--He':f'oueht

. o.gRirtst and for them onee jmd may' do 50 D.gnin.

, .' !.-

# ... e-

. r---'

THE ,WOOIYuAilN ORGANIZATION

The obstac~ confronting AlinskJr in orLanizing the, Back of the

, .

"'

Yardswre miti~atod by several factors. The Roman Catholic Church as wetl . '

as tho meat industr,y providod a cohesiveness to the community ~hich £ao11- ,

t\_

" ,~

itated nttenpts at mobilization. Various :' social pressures' accompAl'l_.Ying " i

. the Depre ssaon opened pos~ibili ties for ont.r-anco into the political struo- '.,' ture to groups such as labor. The Depronsfon itself produced widesp,read ',{;.."

qttest~n1ng of the as sumptd.ons underlying e:d.sting social conditions which le~tim1zed' popular efforts to change ~ them. And the \{ar ycarswere good

..

, .

. --- .. ~.--~~ ~~

'ones tor organizing s irnul, t.anoouaLy against fascism at home as well as

'engendcrln~. community spirit. All in all, many of the probl.ems associated

l-rith c:ommunityorganizing in tho 1.960'8 wore not cause for anxiety in

, ,.

Back o£ the Yard~. There was, for example, little questioning of the tra-

~ "

d1 tionally accepted meaning of "community" as "a group whose members occupy

. ~ 25 .

a t;1. van terri tor-.r within which tho' totn! round of\ l~e can be pursued."

Tho rap~di ty of socf.al, chan~ in mode rn knorloa has not merely altered the

" ,

_, ~rev1ous doscription __ hut hn s rondo red it inappliotl~1.o. .

Its inapplicability, howGver~ was not fully apparent ns Alinsk,y oontinuod his or!:;anizin(; efforts throuch tho 1950' s. Operating with:-terri-

,

toriariY defined hS$umpt1on,s;: he applied his model to p<?_Qr ',arenf;l 'ali 'over

-,' " ., - ' f . ..' •

- .. - the wor1d.Tbo~ 'is 11 ttl 0 '~rirdnnat1on re~ardi,ng':.ehe ~ott!.itt·oreazlie:the,:·~t1

.' .. ~,:.,.. - . ":~

',uat1cjns )_)et",?cn 1?'~-~md 196~, and )J.1nsky is va guo about them. , , mo~t, fdgn1.tioant of I~!s er~o:r.ts. during theso ;retlr~ is,.the COJTltr1UJ~

. cfreazUznt1on, ' A. Co ali ton of approXimat~li thirty He:d..c~~erlc:m;; oo!rttTlUnities ~ C~ii1"~rcl:';·.26 Alinn~ often ~oTorkcd.through the 'CAtho~~;- :.

Churc~, 'm:d At t_?o urging of .~s ~friend Jncque~s H:lri.tain o~7n- ~nsu;tted ~th'.

tht1'Viit1c<an'~bcut devolopmcrit· problems in southern Italy. A sm~gioot1P

of or£',rurl.zers including'.Caesar Chavez ; of Californto. ~npe .. strlkofame;-··: and Nicholas von Hoffr:lan, now" an editor of tho ~·lnshin!"t.,n Post, . torero trnined during tho 19.50' s , Alinsky's base of' opo~·.:".tions, tho IAF., remained in Chi-"

.,.

oaGO, and 'his involvGr.lcnts thero led eventually to or~ruU'zin'g the Hoodlmm

..

sootion .of Chtollt;'O. The orgnnizntion of ~ .. ToocUa"mtyPifies many of the prob- ".

. .

lerns' of the 1960' s just. as Back. of the Ym·js did in'; t~e 1930' s. It also,' :

'illustrates ch~ces in Alinsky' s theO~J and tochniquo ",hlch are c:Mlcial

to 'an uncicrstnncii:lg of his evolving so~io!politic3..l philosophy.,

... ~ #

Over?rO~1ded, de'Lapd.dat.ed ho~using, an Lncr-eas'i.ng crime rate, high : :'

'unemplo:rment, characterized ',loodla.v..'n in 1960 as "the sort of obsolescent, deCaying, orowdod neighborhood which soc'i.al, workerS and ei ty plrumers .

~ -'

assume can' n~ver' halp itself." Hi th its predominantly bla.ck populatl~n,

Woodla~m oXeTIlplificd the disorgariized anomie areas resulting from m~ss1v~~

. ..

N~gro l'lir,ration to northern ci tics. The demrioration of tho community,

Located in an a.b). ong- ar-ea south of tho Uni versi ty of Chicago, began during .-. the Depression and accelerated nfter ~lo~ld ';lnrII, so that by 1960 the only

,,;

peopl,e bcnefittinc from tho area were absentee s~um landlords. Many ·~ups;·-

ospecio.l1y minister!; ,triad' to "ste=i1 the tido of 51um'cultu~'" b.xt with

29 .

very-limited success.

:'. The nele;hborhood' s~problem$:\wo:re 'ccmpoundcd ~J :rtmOwal;~ Th¢~ Chicaao Defend-or, ~'Uegro n'owspC:por, ih it~

''The .. B(tttleot i/oodlm-m" ch~raeterizedthE>. threat as

"

"

',',- ";-' ,

::'1:',:'-",<"",:, ,', ~. ,.... ',_ ... - ,-,_.,-... ......,' '_,P .. " ._

, •.. In··tho· centur-,; since tho Ne(?:'O won :freedom from ~slnveryin Ainerica,

the bnttlo for :freodom hns never ceased nnd av~riety or racial organ-

, .

" . ,izations has run tho gau."tlet o:f devious bans .... t.o keop the Nogro less

th~n II tree .and Pquru. A"lericnn.... ' " '

, But nothing has been moro difficult to contend with than the' .newest strnte~ of r.1eicl. discrilTtina.tion' intrOduc~d in'tho past decadc , , .,~ ..-'

ida ejf~l!,-,a ht~blth Hn"wit);' $tidl'Hf!l 'hn-t!tt' dtf'f:t~""~ ffl' f+~ ~NAi:4tliW.ae ~~,' a. 1 .. OaSl.C:lllY GOoCl-taar own the SlUMS nnd build now hennes •••

. But thaexperience of n decade has demonstr~ted boyond doubt that

in many, casas urban reneH~' has. 1'I19ru\t No~ro retn.ovnl ••• ' ,

And inC?raasin~y as urban renewal spre ad , the question in tho ,Oom.- ,munity has been: hoW'.,?-o you fight II bulldozer and crane130

, ,-

How, indeed, are bulldozers ll..'1dcranes halted when they~move·With. thQ..· onC

couragement 'of such powe rf'ul, forces as II ci ty adminis~ration and a univer_ si ty behind them?

....

'In 'the Spring of 19.59 this, question brought together a group,of :three ~rotestarit ministers and one Catholic priest doter.nin~d to, do whatever th~y: ,~ co\tt.d to 'preserve the community. The action of these reli~ous ie~d~,r~ ~~s .,'

, ,

Md.itJat.1.'\I'e o£ tlud .. :r t.:tmco. As A1.:1nnky obsQrvecl :Ln 1965.

:--. ,.' ' ..

~. e-

, ,

The bi-ggest change I've seen in the twenty years or so ,that I've

been involved in socin.l action is the role tho churches are playing.' I " Back in tho 1930' 5 and 40' 5 an orl?;ruU.zer might expect to get some '

help from tho' eIO or from a. few progressive AFL,unions. There wasn't

a church in night. But today they have rea.tly moved into the socd.al,

arona, the political arena. They have taken over the positionorgart-

ized .labor had a generation ago. They are the big dominant force in

oivil rightn.31 i '

Tbhus;'Alinsky was hardly surprised Hhen the 'clergymen approached him for hJlp• Ho tUl~ed Il'tvny th~ priginal smal.L group, tolling them to return when

,they had 'a more ropresentativo cotTlJT\i tto And sufficient finanoiaL resources to 5u~~ort organizing llctivity.

The emphasa s on fino.nci!lg' i.5 Alinsky's version' ot the "sink or" sWim""

, ;

doctnno. A,connnunity' whioh can first organiz~ to' aohieve.f'inancialinde-'

, , " , '. '. ,.,' ,'. " . '," . :,c <I' , ',' ,,','

.pendence 'has al.rendybegun to fight. Th~' clergymen returnedCas members of,

. , .. ' •. ',.,.'" r .: ';~, '. ' .: ."... .~ .• ' . ••••...•• I'

,the GreA.ter.WoocUllwn Pnstors Alliance 'With support from'manY'secUJ.ar groups

- '. C·'

I., . . _,_', ,.. .. .. ':'" .. '_ """ ,,:'._ .. , .. _ _,- : ..•

and with grants 1'rom thecath611c Arohdlocase of Chioago,,~t.h~ United Pres...

f, -. ,.,' .~_' "1r'J~ _ ... < '.. -' < •• "_ ':->_,<.'~'-, _,:;" ': ..~.,',,:.-',:;<-

bvterlnnBcia!-d:6f MitrSi6ns and the 'Eln1l. ' In

~-"'/'-;''''-'''''' -" .. , ........ __ .:_ ..•. -".,-. ~ •...• :, .• , .. "'.J' ,',,__ .. ,_·'~.'>·i·'··" .. ~._,.,~'-_ - - _',_ ;"-"',,_ __'" ','_'

·i·;~it~~~~~;.~liif!tf.ht; eo~Uhl~y lts~il had r~~ed '$~,dOb.Atlii~1&-,! l~S>pb~~";3~¥i;:

"'_' __ ~;~'-r,~',;i __ :':--'Y-:_;_:-~'-'-';Al;':,,_'~'<'--_ ,"-"'..-";' . .,.,-_ _ _ '., .__ ".-_;_~ _CO"_ _ ',',- -'-,. i-·c,'·

~~~.aaDd'""-tQ __ rnoye_,intO_the.Jdasma_o:f_,blackinequru..i ty , .. whi teracism,.city·~,·,-,--,,--,-,,·, e-

'" ~.' '. ~ 'c· ..._. - • -.. _ .. ....,'

then br1ngine the leaders' together to. plan action.in~?lving the community' in a demonstra.tion of power. Nichol~s von Hoffmnn, tho oMg1nlll·.field rep- ,'f"

. ..' .' '-~ :

resentat1ve, answnrs th~ question about beginning offhandodly: 'tt]:' :found mys~

. ..: 32 ... ,' .'

at the corner of Sixty-third and Kimbark and I looked around; ":; ~ ..

• s, ,~

politics., university selfishness, ~d fedoral indifference •

. .

. But, just how does one . organize a miasma? ,The ,organizin._~.followed

---"-~-'-.'--""

_-"~he-;-~~~l>~-e..:patte~ ~.or 'i"irst _sending IAF fi'eldr ~nto~he-.ne~ghbo~ood

~ . . . ~ . ~ .,~ .

.. _" ~ ... -- .... -.- "'~"'-"" ... -.~ "-~.;-,~ ..... --.-,,. ,-~ . ..

to discover grievances, and to spot t.he elusive 'llindigenous~ leaders, and

" ?:~.f.:;.~ ;';Voh Hoffman elabOrated.'·on his' vif)~s . during 3 conversation.w;\. th the·

author, bUt he found it' d1ffi~ul t to vorpaJ.izJ tho precess ,whoreby II "

. 33' ..

~~. "'. . .

.... ' , ' ' ..

'."loader" is recognized. He stressed the importanco of listening to peopko .

, ';'''~

,'. .

". " . . ..

as one attempts'to get .the "fee1:", of an area, but, as with most succeasful, -

. .. ~. ~ , . ';''''.

:orgB.n1zers, ho finalty reliodon his impressions' and intuitions, Von H~r~

. . . .

: frnan rem~bers ,tho primary problem in organizing Woodlawn·wa.s the iaok' of

. commtmi ty leadership amone the blcck residents. ThatDlacks themsel Yes rec-

. ~

ognized--the void was pointed out by a. staff 'member of the original Temp-

orary Wood1a~ Orgru1ization (Tn\)) in' ex"lllining tho pri~a~ aim ot ThO: .

·i <

<:

We're try1ne to say to 'l~egro(3's acro ss the City, once you wake 'up and start fighting back for true represent.ataon and begin to criticize and go :aftor the next politicians Who do not at and for what you want, ;.. then oth(Jl' N':l!;roes who have be on intimidated .and frightened will over-

come their fears. '. '

. ' . Once a smnll GrOup of N ogroes :really are emancipated--psychologically .. , and ftindar:1cntn.lly ·emancipa.ted-and ber;in _~o fight without £ear £ortheir

. full· constitutional .rights you'll havo more than the'see~s of a gen-

oral social revolution. You'll havo tho boginriing ofone.34 .:.

. ~. ,',.

,# • ":'-"~".'."".

riedieatedto . f!f1ghtln&, back" the tecrui tea Leader-s :h~d t6.;deV3:s9la.."st~A~~·~i::;', ~

,'. ,t' ..... .... . .: ":.' _,.- :..~ '. ;. ....:... . .' ::t"j' )

during tho, Spring of 1960 £or Ti~ 's membo"rship,-lMch by-: then .in~lud':'~l1ppl7'C)?£~ ,"

. ' . .", L, ., • .... . :.' .. ..' , .. .•.. . ·<.-t['.)i;:;~'i,.i'}'.i~;'~

,imntely si.xtY.local bUzinesso-s, fifty block clubs and tht'rty .churchf3sro~.2.":;:' .'1

....... ~ ~'" _ -, . ..... - -...,.,. ..' ..... ,,'<i:.., .. ·i<;,~·}~j;·;·iA;;i{~,.;~ .. r·'i~"··~~

.. "'resent9~ ~t;, -6lt'Sf "rcr~rt~(m,amd of t':oodlnwn~ s on~':hUndred.:;'thous&¥-~~~#4~.h~~~~::.

:6cn~.; :1,;. ;,;~~.§.rll!tlH·8ject,'Uas,ii *'S4u~ .neal: "chfi1pdgrl to itiiplbiiibHt".ctt·

"~;,

~ J .~

'7:now··C6do',or.Bt1S1nlH:·S· Ethics coveri~g credit. prncti.ccs ,pricing, tU)d," ,

r- •

advertising. During the -early canvassarig of the 'neighborhood to dis- .

. . _- t

_. "-.,_' -. ~

.-:.:.cov&r:-,,~evMloo~J v()n-H~ff:~and~-o-~-:had. hoa'rd:;any ·eompltdnts:""re-··;=~"'::'·';;"":

. garding tho Local.-me'rcherrt.s who oV6rchar~d-~~7~h~rt '~Oightea. th;i;~'

customers" purchases. Thi'n typo of compl.n.nt ',1O,S one of tho more "visible"

. ~ .

. _- " ~ .

rosorrtment s and could servo as a foeu's for an ini tiru. orbruUzing nttempt •.

l:fost of the merch:ints p~troni~cd by tho oo~u!'lity wc~ in the ,n.ren nnd

I '

could bo diraetlynf·fcctod tl~rough economic prOssuro~J' The Squa.re Deal. .

'\,.

.... '

campad gn was publ.Lcd.z.od by a big _paritdc throuGh tho t-loodla'tom shopping

district/and by public 'troighinbs of packages suspected C?f ,b~ing frilsoly'.

:35 . ~' .

markl3d. C~ep,ting merchants agreed to oomply with the Code,' And thoir

c:ip1 tUlation impressed the, re sadont s td th T'(ltl' s effcot1vonoos •.

. ,

rlhat TiVJ :ranlly ncodod , aocording to the Alinsky proscription,

'nas em enemy in order to 'translate eommunity interost in~ commW11t1-~~c'tion.

, '

Tho Univorsity'or Chicago umdttingly rulfill~d that rt31e v~th'1ts M-

-; ' ... :.---:.. ... ~,--... ... .r=:

nounccment on July 19, 1960, that it intonded to extend 'its CmM?US south

. ~ . ~ .

. , .

into Wo~dlt~m. Thor-o had boen a history of hostitity be'tsrcen the Univer ..

.'

"

. . ~ _ .

, 51 ty and tho ,'eoDl."!!tmi t:,.- over the Um, ver-sa ty' s Negro removal, t.actd.cs i.n othor.,

,. . . ~'.

. south" sicln :.tre,~s r1.nd ovor i t.s p.:oncfru. disd:rln-i'or t~.e- pz:'biems of th~ bll!ck

· __ .'s~U!I1~.,_ThetT.r:'4-ycTzity, .i'or'its part, sn't-l itself ,as ono.6fth~~,r!~"ri-rst-: r.ato att:--ibuten of the. entire 01 ty necosaard.l.y posses'sing n longer-range

a .'. -"

,vision than',thnt l,eld by a pro'sent-~rlented popul.ace, The University, ldth

. -.. . "

.... ,_.

the'supp~::-t of the j,lnyor,an:d' bttsinos~":grOups, 101nS ~c6ustomEJd to hnVirig.it~-

.'" ': + :.." ~~,' • - __ ... , ~-' - " ' •• "'-:.- ~ ".~-'<' __ ;,,,->

't~ay.andexPoeted .no mora thrin a few ,p~tc'sts in' ~sponsc'~1ts.ann()im~~~~~·~

. '_ -. ,'\ ',' ~- ~ - . ,_ ""., ,-"':~,.,,-:,-<-.;-:_,-"',.,/-' :,;_,),; "

BsfQro the 'cTO:ltion' ofr;'I0· there' had boon fSl-1pro'tosts,;-Ono

. '. ,,' . --:-:~- - ,: _'. '-- ,_ ',,_~"

totoso,frombucldrtg .the sy~tem th~ their middle~l:ls~ counte~arts.,

,.. ... ~ .. . .. ~~ _. __ .: .-,;_..~. : .• _..,....... ,- ~ ~ .. '." -~ ~.. .- ....... ; ". _ .... :- ~ ...

personal: cX!l~r1onc'e ld th .,city pbli tics in Chicngc,' during the ~!\rs_..19.6Q. _:1~>~A"

.---------~------- .. .. --:-.-_._- ... -------- --. _._ ....... - " , .. "_ --J.

. ' .

19611--demonst'rat~ to .me the ;rbi tra17 power 'to1#h many po~iticillll~ hold __ :f:-"

.. ~.. - I_ . __ . '" ~ .. __ .. _ '_ "'_, __

over. their, eonsti tuents. ·_.lelf are checks can be withheld because of tr\)n~ooept...,

• .. •• ~ -0("','"'

able behavior. t1 The precinct cnptain, caref~lY tours his neighborhood betorJ'"

, .. J-;

each election rernindi;g. evoryono how to, ~ote .Ho~ coul.d ".~" indi:rldUnl~,=e\fen':~'~~,

if supported by friends, risk the loss of a patronage -job for some abstract

" > ..~" .. ...-.

principle when the' tnngiblo fnet of a family's needsfncod him?

,.,

..

SUborman sllmmtn1.zes the conditions, aff1;icting \oloodlawn and: stUl affecting 0ur nation's ~tvMS:

. ....\.\ ~ .' .

, ...r..-

Quite freqt1ontly, therefore', the apat.hy that charncterizes t"i~ the slUL1 represent-s what in~a.ny \-Ta.yS is a. rouistio respon'so to ti.

- ~

hostile environment. But 'realistic or not, the,adjustm~mt tha.t is ,

roached is one of surrender to the erlstinr; conditions ~d nbdioation of .any hope~fchange. The 'result is a community seething with 1nartic. ulato . resentments and dormant hostilities repressed tor safety's sake, but 1.ffiich ,break, out overy now nnd . then in some explosion of deviant " or irration:li. behavior. The sl1.lr.1 dwollerS aro jJ1capable of a.cting', or ,

. even, joinin~, uhtil these supnressod resentments, and hostilities are' h~,Ubht to the surfaco"where thoy can be seen as' problems--i.!:!_. as a.' '" condition you can do something about.J7

f. f

"

_-' ~ .

,.' T;'1O's ,initial -3rticul~tion of·reg"entr.tents C!gninst tho University

-was not an Lnst.ance ,of "robbing raW' the sores ,of di5content'~,. Representing

I .

. " '."

" the community, it merely' asked the University ~or more detailed plans.of' .. ,its . '

. ' ,.

Land needs because mO,r;) ~?an fifteen-thousand peopl,e l-Tere. involvod in any .

: ~OX!l~sion .-- ~~ U~ ~~c r~ ty insensi ti veiy ~efc s~dthe r~~e~~t'. rr,.i,' then de-

"

.' ~ ~ '.~ • I

~anrlod th~t the usually acquie~e,ent :ci~y defer it,. ~pprova1o:r ·the Univer-.' ,

~.' .. " , ... ,. "''', , "",, '" , ",~-;,,-.--.-~,,': -~."" ~

sity plnns .untif' city planrieri·~oI;ked~,out .0. comprehcrisive:p~s'pectuS:lon' .-,,_.

#_" ~ ,... '<,. . . / . .-- ..': . ~. -: '·,f,<'J-:~._-;_;:'~·; ":-~':_',~i~-:'-',:-~>~;;'

'~ . Woodlawn' s 'rutu~, TI'O ac~6:nI'an'iod;its' demand'Wi~h ,th~t}l1~:it()fa':,e": mOJrlSll;or'::!.l;oO~r~

, . ' " • ' t, ' " ' ; " . ;~"""-"'>'<-"'<'" ,

l.yi~c in <,iro~t,6f . bulldozers and hundreds or demons~rat6r~i~t.;:a.d

. , .,D

",<' , I ~ .--, , .

"CollUnU;sion h"~itring.. The d~Mds~ ·threats,

. ,,' .r~·" .. _ .. t " .' . • .. .. \ '. "

et?unt~rvai1ing~poll~cal-..pre3su.re-resul-t.ing:.in-the---<lerement."'or

."- . ". ~ _.-.

. ...

".

\' ,approval..

~he Univorsity, probablyldth p~va.te nsciirahces from tho

. , '

" officials, 'still ~d .. no~ t~ke. '?~ s~riousl~ ~fc:ont~_~~d aliennt~ng t.,~~ .. ,e",.~, ..... ,+ .. ,

.- ~ .. .

'Woodlatm ra~1dents. One' ex~le of :th.eir. poli ti~al 1nepti tude'occurred 'iil

'. . . , . . .." .' ,

the ·trentment accorded local busf.no ssmen, Busdrres rmon are not usually, '

.' . .

. . .

'..,. "". '

the nrdant backez-s of commurrt ty action tince it is rdmed at tho' status

_' .

· gt~o thnt supports them, but ofter being insul tt;)d by ~okesrrten from the ...

. .

uriiver.si ty at ~ inronnational co.therin£j cal.l.ed to axpl~in the'pro.~sod-"

- . ,

· expansion, the Hoodlmm Buai.noasman " 5 As~ociation voted unanimousl,.y to' join::

39 '" .,,' ., .

, .

TrVO's fight. 'lli. th tho~r plans blocked and the forcos of the community"

.' ,

. • ! ~.

arrayod against thcm,the Univ~rsity of Chicago Launched A smear cnmpa1~_:

.~ l .

ngainst Minsky and tho Ij\F. .

The ~ttack, outlinod1n Silbennan and other nrticles;'_:'W'as-A-st~angG

~. 7*.,!~

onorto l~Ut1:ch ~r--..ChicD.rrol as its primary thrust concerned the !AF' s 1nvolve~ : ".'

I • • ~. • • \

ment ~th -the' Cath(')lic Church. In a. city whose l~a:ciersh1p is publicly .

. " . I·

, Roman 'Catholic, it makes llttlo sense to fault a. man for being "involved"

'. with .tho Church. It is true, as Univer~ty publicity men pointed out to

." '

the city nerTSpa.pors,' that Catholic Gl"OU?S' had aidod Alinsl:y's work sinco./

J • 1940 ,. but ncvcz- under tho delusion that t.h0y 'were niding. R. "hate" .. d1:strl:b-:

'.. " ',.- ..-,' 40- ; ...

ut.¢~ no);" :U.(~n-:: c. C:l.tholic conspiracy to foil intecration. Both ofr' thc'}se .

. ~- .... ' -. ..... ',

· char-ges v1ero echo e s of 'ones that .Minsky htld hoard before 'and anS"..rered before •.

..' . . ......

· Ho once 0enin ,ointod to the rocord of the Arch~ocese':in . the .advooacy ,

, ~t int~griti~n.: M~nsit;no'r John J. EGan, ,di~Cto~' ~r the,.;££ice~·oi.tJrb~. ~

•. ~~s: or thiCataoli~ .Bishop· 0;' chica[!O..~tidChalle~G{a·h .',;: •

:"",t·"'ii;S:-"l;;.':'''·~-::-::··'·

.,·sit~' sr~~nr.,urban :renewaL.pl~n·sthu~ incurring

. 41·:'· .

_ .• ~_.~~~~~~_~.~~._.: .• '~_" , ..... _ .... __ .~_.~_.~_ ... _,_:.. __ ..c.- __ ,,:__~_.........;..--r:-~~~-;:' •. ~

..

:~':< .. <. . .. -', ,.: ' ' . -, . _. . " ,_:, '*}.';" •. '>,f"

MonSi'gni,r.Egan vigorously dcf'onded Alinsky from tho·University

"

;-«'''- - . .,..

, attack'~~~Od:Up the attitudes of m2.l1y religious leAders who h~ve

__ ;~Port~_d' .llir.s.'<y~l1thef ol~Owin~respon'se to a quostional:i~~~ _wh.1;1e~._j .

had 'Worked with tho IAE:

/' ..

".~" , We :f."clt the ~hurch had ~ ,involve hor-sel.f in nelping peopl& develop

the tools which 10muld enable th(\m to come to grips With the serious.'·:

, economic, social,and morAl problems ~o1hich were Affecting their lives,; .•

families, and communities. ....' "

. We also knew'" that there was needed a tool ~.zhich"rould enable .tnam to participate 'in n dignified w~ in the democratic prOcess and which ~~uld 'gi.ve them the training necessary for ach1evin~ inaotion the me'anine; of· the democratic' way of li.fe and of realizing their human and' divin~'" dig-

hity.. , ' . . .'.. •

,The Indu~trlal Areas Foundatd.on appollredto us' 'to .. be' t.he only organ-' ized f'or-ce with: the skill, experience, and integrity to supply tnese '. tools nnd, -organize in nodghbo rhocds Which had such a dospera.to, need,f'or

them.42 ...

.. . ";'-_";;'

. Most reports. about the devel.opment, of Tht> stross the ecumenioal nature ot

the undertaking., And Iu.in~ky 'crecll ts himsoLf _'With being 'tho ,s~o'ond most 1n1-

, '43 '.

po rt ant Jew in the·_history .. of. Christio.n1ty.

. - -v

rr:'I.:)' s ~ieht , with the University· had implications 'for subsequent

community a.ction' pro grams because it directly que~~one4he concept of· bu'r-

. - . -,....

. " - ".

·,eaucraticnJ.1.y-contl"Ollcd social planning. Hhen the City Plan Cami:1ssion came"

~. - .. ~- . '

up with its comprohensd.ve pro~ram for ~he Woodl~wn are'a in Harch ot 1962

WJ::Thouthnving constD. tod, the community, ._ TV~ independently hired a rim of

• • It ..

, ,

• city, pl.anner-s to examine the C0lIJl!lission's pl.an, JanaJacobs, nationally

J • ~ • , __ ",< __ , .. ~, ...... . ••. , __ '__:.._, ~_~_,_. ~~,_

racoenizad pln~~ng ox?ert, was 80 impronsod with TWO's o!forts ~hat, she

, ,,44 " , .

aereedto bacome, a special con5ul~arit.Mrs~· Jacobs seCured the help of

. _'." .

. opinions to·, the 'Socioioeist~'~dplai1ners, supPosecUt c6ri~em;~

.... ::: .'7' '_ -.' . . '" .> . ',~', ~ .. .:.. ~.,:'"': ..'" : <:

, .. -,.---~ ~ .. . . - . ',- .

. " welfare. s'till., hOlo.~ver·~c.·their exist~rice ,was:'iigi1Ored~

--..:,_,_~;:', ' .•. ~<' .. , . ~~ .. ".2~ ... '~. ,:.~?¢;. ~~~~

::/;;,~~·;.:i.);' .. ,< .• ., ... , .-~. ;~-i:~".,,- lit ;~ ~,_~,e ··~-~:t:\<-;;~--·:,-~

:-;~~;:tb6!fe"-~~nm~ist--sensiti va' "to shtlts iri '. pub11 e ~articIp~ali"on:t- -ti1e"ponii::i-"'·~ Y.,

..... " ... 'c' .,' "-.. :'-_.,.,,~'

,":.:.-:_.: ;'.: .. :. <- .;

_~·~·d~s,;.:decid~d to~ act" - _ ':

.'. . . . "i . ' '.: _ .. '. ,."'. .,." .'.....~

Mayor Daley's personal.~ .! tGte . Jtlethod of deating·withpol1t1c~ ...

,_ ~_ ... ,.o-~-_:"._, .. ,,,,,.,,~~, ., .~~ .•. -.~ - ' -. --~,:,"..,.;_- .. - • ..:...::-."_-..,.",."

. cr.tses~deserve~. caref~ study. G~~~S- ~3:r ~11to/0ne 's.riother·_-£or~¥~;K~~-:untli::~~~

"

brought"together in his -auspicious presence in some back ; room in the city .

. .'

hall. After a few.hours of undisclosed activity everyone emerges smUin'g. "

. ' . .".' ..,.' . ... .. . ". ' ,

In the Summer of .1963 Daley forced the Chancellor of the University to

" ~ ---'

. '

meet with represen~atives from Tt~ and to agree on 11 pomp romise, which.woUld

- "_", " .. " ...

create homes a.s others were demolished and afford TMJ major! ty repros&!\-

._ 45

tationon the citizens planning committee. With'the Hay-or's help,M

.,

. had won an important battle, al, thotlfYl in mo st, of its o then stru~g1.es TW:) .t

. .,

arid the l·hzyor ~ squar-ed off against each other,

ride to register voters .at the' city hall. On August 26~ 1961', more-'than-·

• h •

two~thousand ~loodla .... "n resident boarded buses for the ride dolmtown. They ... "

. .

, had been war.n~d 'by the' l;cnl machine p~ii ticians--not -l(, arrIVe ~ mas'se, .

~

. but in the psycholo f!Y of Chicago poli tfcs, , a warning has the' connotation 1--

,of meaning tha.t somebody is worried. ?6r the, re sf.denbs of Woodlawn the

. . ~ .. -

realization that they could affect the city administration was "a' revelation~, .. _ .

• '. , • " ~ \,' ~"v=-_'-. "'~ ._ •. ,.... •

'in line . with what Alinsky re r;a.rds the primo achi.evoraent; of a c'ongerted "

..... -.. . .,._ ~ ~'~'- ~ ~ '. '

popular offort. For, Alins}\y, as '~o,r many of tho pnrticipants', tho :f'orty-,,'

,." , .

. six buses v~re a. mnnifostation o~ newly round dienity. Hen with die;nitY"-

" '

Ift;Jgi'~iHI'glif-13!ig3iH fr8Ht.of tHE! snmt.at.idn eo_ss!oHt s:HHaaqH4HiU~j;'~2:, :'i.;'~(.

U<fZ:~'i'.'i;tkYT·:),~t:g</;(·\li··';; <;-:;,?';" .: "."';'~';. . .' . .... .... . '. .' .. ; .... .;:.... . . '....:.\ C(~·'\r\<'+-= .. "

:·;··;;·sf~tiDe.:.1li17a:tibanlCs - whi cn.:Jiartdl od"·'siWiil:mC1.fC)rdStbusines s. In many,.' CllSO s': .. ,

~'i' '.'~ - .~ i : ..... , '- .... ' ""., --~-

. ··>:·~the·'~:ra:sf~~··ta.et1~si'aid.· off :~ t~ the J cancellati~n of doub~eslrli'ts .••••.

!-' .... \>; --.' ~ ~ ':.' ~ ., , .. . ~...' ",'; ~

·.:in}th~7sch~fsJ the··increased hiring of :N~gioE)sby' city.busin~ssosJ groi1.n~·' '.rasponsi vcn~s~ .'from ·t~~ '~achine ~oli tiClMS~' ~d' evo~ . so~e p~pcrtY" .repd);' •. '·

\ . . ,

·T..1o 'by 1964 ~Tas 3. p~~su;.e gl~UP ~rl.thin the city.·.It 't1Ue-'f~s

ch'anzed from tho .... Te:nporary \"ood1:-1~m Organization to The UoodlavT Oreaniza-

. . , ~.. . . '. ,..

"" -<'

tion. Its dcyolopmont had parnl.Lel.od that so~cm£')nt of the ciVil·.rights

stl"llggle. Hhich re:lch~d its climax: in tho 196!t Civil. RiGhts Ac~. T'/~'~to6d

llsa romarlcnblo ~~complishrnent" and tho Reverend 'Arthur Br7.nier, thon .. head', of T'~~, summr:.rlzodJUinsky' s contribution:, "Sat4. has dono moro to' alert .'.

. ;_ . .

biRCk paoplA on hov to develop r-eal, Blnck PO~7or then any man in. the United

, 4(5 . '" .,.-~" ..

I.

" States. ~._. __ The. Silbcrrnr.rLbook, C ri 51s- in m.nck-~nd Hh:\.ttr, .. --ndm.ttWcl.l:-y~~p;;c...ro---~· .. "-

. . .

~- -Alinsky,is the ·definitivcsoul"cc: both for under-st.andang thA development 'Of ..

~. ~____ _ _ __ _ _ .l_. ~--- ..

~y.~ and for'sotting it within the early 1960' s context~~ otJ._; con~inuine'-

racial cri3is.· Silberman cor.siders r.~' s groatcst contribution to be "its .r=

most subtle: it,o.VDS ~';ooclla. ... ,m residents the sense of dignitythat'makes '

. 'C • 47 . " . ,

. 'it possible for theM to accept help." UnfortUnately, that help l-Tn,S soon

. ~ ~ --. ,

. ., ~ , .

cond.ng into t-loodlnwn undor the auspices of tho' 'tl:lr on' Poverty in a project ..

. '., i .'0 • •• • ; •

that both P!9vcrtod Alin~ky' ~ phd.Lo sophy and misused hisJ11ethodoloe:v. "._~

. . ',: :

In 196.5 the Offico of Economic Opportunity (om) made II {;rant of .

.' .

$927 ,341 to T .. ~ to trb.iri several hundr-ed unorapl.oyod schoo'L droputs, many

~ . '~ .. ~ - '. ~~ . ., .

;,.. ' '"__... r"> .' _ . d. • •.•• - ... . • _. ," ~

, .. of whom were member-s' of' t~,~o area Gangs, the Blackstono Rangers and the .

. . " ,. _.r.:l .' "

Disciples. The~ ~an~ ",yere 1nvol VC9, 1n' the plannitlg m1d 11dm1nistr.at1on· .. of.

• • • . . , _" -" .. '0'

.... _. . " .:. • .' - __ _ "-'. _. . ~. " __ , _ • _ . .,--'~ ,~ _0' ,-_::-\,_:, :,,:;_. _c __ : .: "':'~'_ ,',<;j-- ~i "-:'::,-~

th~p.ro gram '~tli somamembez-s. dr~drig'salllries as' recruiters' or' instlrUc~oti~.". ..

'.; .: '. . ,1. ' : . i .' . ,:_ . : .' :- . .- :;:. :' ", .'-:_ :: .. :::;;;[; ;[jt~~ f...2. ,\:;

. - The doclsiC?n' to: incl.ude tho "e;~.nGs. rather . than ~erelY dea:l1~g"w.ttn:·:.;:n" v!d~:~:,'

• '. .'.. '. • 0 • • • _ , :; • r: '-:"'x' .. ,", "'d' . . '~ .. ' .;:

uru.~' 'Wa~'_~ctated byoondition~ within.'tlo·o·chawn. Thetvro' ·eangs,.aniori~;~ .

·.·..i:..i< ,'}i1j. . ..... : ... :-, .. ,. . . :'.~. ,.....?.~.,..:.; .. :;,- .. :7:.~-.- .":....:"~; "

<lUost. riot6rl.6us 1n.Ch1e~fgO ,'~ iiro- 'bi tter enonu.es14h rie'~"T:-ir+:' .... "',,",..,.,

-------_._.,- ..... ,..... -" .. _-_._

T.~'s· efforts ·to roach .the (!anes,wrffC'xi'rdihatecf by the Roverend ,John R.~ Fry, pastor of the- First p~sbyter1"an. Church in Woodl~thottsh ~,:hi te; tho RE)ve~ncl Hr. ,Fry managed .to· -gain thecon.;··

ricle~ce' of the mll.ck~tOll~ Rangers and offered tle~ the' use of churc~ .

, ' ". ' ' .. '

fa.cUi ties. His concrer;ation n.~cd ,uith his work and when .tho federnl

"

, '. "II

Gr~.,t was at-Taroed, tho ..church becane the center for tho training programs. '. .. ~ ,

The political ri!iks of such. a pr-o gr-am , bypl\ssin~ Ci tycI1a11 and 'employing

. .

young If.criminru..s",. 1O;Oro obvious.

The first sir;n of trouble oamo. in November , 1967, whon om fired

, .'48'

Jorome Bernstein Hho hnd served ns'agency liaison to '1'\'10.

. .

Ris removal .

. .

. '

WA~I'~C)Qt"..ttA~.d. b)r p"A' •• n~ APpl1.oa f'X'IOnt tllO ·Hn.J.~ol"· 0 ot.r1:cEt and the Po11()e

- -. . .

Department through Congressional ~presenta.tives such as Rcp , Roman

49 ' :.' .... , .. ., .

Puc:insld. With coincidental ti~~g the ChiCllr'O Tribune" II C:0!lserv~tivo ..... _,' _

,. •. 4, ... ~ .... __ ~~ .. _...~ .. __ ._..:;_ ..• :- • ..:.- _ _;. __ ~._

,Republican defender of the' Democratic city admini:;tration,. ran aso.nes' ,

i. __ " '

of articles on gan~s in the city ~phasizing tho Blackstone :Ran~ers' role

. . . ./""'.

-.-- ._

. ,

, .

in T' .. 1J's anti-pov~rty projoet. Then C2r.lC the announcement, oarly, in June,

.. . .

. 1963, that tho Po~nn()nt Investications' Subcomr.rl.ttco of the Senate ,Govern-' .

I ~. ,

, '

Ment' Oporatic,'ns Co:nmi tteo would hold hOll.rln~s to detorinino 'whether OED

,

.... ~, ~. 6' __

. .'

bc.~ also because of anta~ni~ 'from.,the official. co~ty:: ~¢tion ;8.GezlCy~

......... _. ." .~ '. _'.' .. • . r ..

_ .. ! .,.. .J",~> : '_';' ~::~ .. ;:.;

!:c':lellan's inve'sti~ators 'spent .mcnbhs "scroungi.ng around the SOuth Side _:<~ :~ ~

C::1 • .. '-.' .• -;J

'. . J, "_ .. u :':» _- _.. ~ ~ ~ ~

of Chica~o ,(or !dirt to. dincre<:lit the' om job. project. It '" " I~ ~sJ:1O~d not -- .~~ ~;t·

. , , i· ~ ~ - , . - .

f'.l.'1ds wore bqinrz used to buy paace on Chicar(.o's south side· bybrihine the

~,50 . !

tI..~o Cangs. Tho Subconnni tteet s chairman, SenritOr John L. HcCle.~lll!l ·(D. Ark~" ,

~G.c. bee..~ "out to ;:ettt the om,. par-td.cul.ar-Iy tho COf.'.r.lunity Action ProbTBlliS,

~,d :-!! d cno sen the Woodlalm grant as his tarGot. "It, was a. p~dicta~le choice

.; .. " 1'"

~:. c:-.ly because of the e:d.s~ing hQstlli ty. be~~.,e'cn·d_ ty hall and ~

"_""_'_'--

-~d -t:-to .1n;os~i~ato~s found them~ Thera lTiUals~ b~ 'cginmuirl...tY',

. -' ',", ' ',"

)::.Cnt~ber~.di~sa~isried ~n.th either the Goru.s or the' parromM~o or thoPXoo;'·-i, ,:j~';<~ ~am~6~th~r own·,p~rsonat reASO~S; and th~ ;invest1;~tors·round:=~~;.ir~i~lCl~~~,

• • ~ '" "",~'-,------,' -' ,t'·_- "'-_'-- ~ -" ,-

ot!).or. ~J1ps in tho' city are going to resent the opportunity . offered to ,the

. "~ ~

'.

l' ~

gangs through T,'1J; and they \OTere certninly vocal, nbout their damaged in-

~, .

tcrosts. And, or course, thore is the I?oliticnl' systom which u~unlly :f."ools

thro'iltoned by inno:vation; and lfcClellm rallied them.

, The heard.ngs opened on June '20, runid hoadline-c;rnbbinfj chtlrges that tho Reverend l1~~. Fry .ai.dcd the RanCers' illoc;al activities. Th() centroJ. "

aocusn.~ion, m~dg' by an' ex~~~nGer chief, ~ClS tha.t Fry ht,d~10,"1Gd ~he. church

' .... 0 "'11;:1 ,""CH.d, .... on ,\1.:.:'(lOrHl,1.. Thopolioo had rtd .. ded, tho ehuroh' nnd disoovered

, ','

, . , . '-' ' -,

a. cache in its basemerrt , although Fry and other church riuthor1tie~ olninled .

. 7_ the poii"co_'knew the ,~~pons wore the~-'bacnli-s-(fdthoy-hO:d-neipecrsupe-rvIse'~'

their ,stora.ga. Arnidcharees and count.crchar-gos ,tho ,Reverend Arthur Brnzl.'er

cal.l~d the HcClelltln. hao.ring a

~ . .

"political conspiracy to discrodit ':1, pro~am

" . - 53 ' .

arid cont ral.Lod by black people." . Meyor

. .

. conducted by a black community

Dal.ey ansver-ad Br~zier in his bluntly~revl)a1ing manner- by calling tho

. ' .

char-go !'tot:U.1y--.O..p:mrd" and "strossing that-Ifwc l10uld have no thing to do

'" " " 54 .

wit.h e~ :;t!".lC~1.!N 0t financing them." . ,

'O~Dil'(~ctor Bertrand H. 'Harc1ine Lssued n stat,ement on June 24, ans,\;prinl! some 0; tho at le~:'ltions mnd~,~ durd.ng tho hO.lrfng; and sBid ~ha.t __ ", '.' . ~r:.i]o.~; 'om ,'b'olievo it'imperntiV:o that som-a r.if:1Ms'be'd~velC)p'ed'~,r.~cftdm ~

~ ~~'.'; "~ ~-.".~~.,. >.~ •. ~'.,~ ".' . . "~ - _ . . ~ . -.. ,.: "-,' ~:',," .:». .. ';. "~J ,;,~.,,:.-:,>,::;,.'/~'~,::,;':,;::.,;~::>

.,.,~ thes~. poor, liard ... cora routh ••• to - test l-mother,the mechaniSrits', or:,t~f:t·'~nne:>, ... ,

. ',~ structure~·· eO~ldnot 'ltS~st in sJli£t~rig, at~ftudcsU;~va~:p~ducti~Q)hallil.t::{,·5

, ... - _'. 55 .' . . .' '-,i~' ,</',>10. " ',: ' .. :

.citl~·cn'5hip'.,tt .', .. , :/( . ,,'

.• •••• ' .' •• " " • " •.. , '. -. " , ~ ., • ., ~ '.. ", : _j -', ·~<·':··;.}.;_-· 4~~:.·i·l:i . .: .. ·.· , '/; .

. '7:::~:';"-'-:'The~'j_,s"ab6ltt"Tr'~ ':s-':ri:l-sco.;~frof1i;:thQ;ROV:~f.Mr.;'~1!:~t-s)',;e'~~~"'F< '~~'1;{j;'

• • ' "'- ~>~~,~ •• ~_,.,~~_~;~_-" ";",,"~;;,~ __ ~;~~'-;H<- .• '·~" ~. __

:_~ ,-;t':-;;'-:-··

'r'-<:-·,- ,,' , ' _''' ,~', _- ,''', ,--,:,,',," " '_ ,,~, ':',--;;' ' < .'_-1"

ctts "SouthSide.'" eler:lents_~ inefoodibl<f"

~~~_""";':~~~~:;,.:..:L~.,_ .. .. _;c.. _ -a ----.-~ +w.~"" ~-. ---' "--' ++::'. "':", ....•..

,.h~soxpiai~ed~1t asti".-ri'someone -had been 'cknVinoed

. ~ ~

'-:_:-'-/. ,-,}.~:-~- -. -"-::- " ,,' ~'- - ,'" - - . ", ,'-~,-'

Lso~?i6~~;t . ,that chr~~ ~d' .reform ~ .~urred by connict~:~d

-Lt~t.,-since- ill· eo~d things can co~e from the- A'1laric~ Goyorn~~,'.it

- .:.. . _. ~ .' ". _ . .' -:' .: 56 .... .. " ! ..... ~.~:~~:. __ . __ ,- ', -.~....;......,_;_~, ... w--.-. .. ·• -s- · ..... -t"",,· -':

ouzht to proVide conflict, too." Alinsky's lossons in organizing'

. '.,a.. •

mobili7.ing comr.mni ty tlction '1nd~pendont of extra-co~Wrl. ty' strlrigs nFpe~r.

to havo bf:lOn lost in the faco of the lure of oro money. 1" ... '0' s control over a local progr~-i1' de sd gned for . obtaining jobs had shoWn somti, probl'9SS

. ". ur.tri".the·~..fllshingtori manna arrlved. Operatin~ ~~h Many .of Minsky' ~

. .

as'SUM':)tions, om's· offort s tumb'l.ed under a proliferation of pressures.

. . .... .

f'WJ, howevor, ~till exists despite the· rava~es,or .bureacracies, mack' \ Power demago gues , nnd internal conflicts. That it survivos At n11.is,~a·;

, '. . ..

~est-ament to its·: adrq~tabi11 ty bui~ t in by its democratic! represontat1 ve . features. T'v-1J's presoncein the com.~ty and its a~tono~us .c~oPo:ra.tion

. ~ . .

with the neiGhborhood gangs is frequently creditodJor ~he the lack of

racial -Violenco in· Woodlawn.

.' .

. ':'

ROcHEsTER'S . FIGHT

"

Altho\lgh .Tr'tO, 'created in tho eal'!y 1960's, is ~red1ted with channelling rru'st:."~tion, away from rioting, nfter tho burning stimmer ot 1964,

J .• ;' community nction anteroda nm1 phase ma.rk~d by increasing bl.a.~QJc mili.tanci<' . '-and unrenli::.tio -foc.1arnl ·promises.' The ~conOmic' o'pportUi1.itY' Act or 1964' .

" .-~. '..... " ,....

. , ~

launche:ct the ·tlar on Poverty with manY of .the premises of .the AlinskY.'

~.~

.. .~

~~ ~ ... - 'e-."<

, .

I.' ,'._,

- ,.----~- ,"'~\.

. ..

.' ,

~. t__ • ~

.'

,"

.'< , ,

'.. • . .,,,': , "" "",,>"','

'me:thod~' B~oro-~anrl.rdilg Alihsky's effect on' the'feder;u:;:~r£'~g'on~-:'oth~r ,"

,."l:."': '~'.",. ;:. :'. '. . . '.... ~.' r , • • ~ , ; ":,;::';,:;!.-/.,,:,<,,;:," ::".';~':"j!~

lixQmpl-eo:r~independent organiz'ing :will-be dasC?ribed becaus.E(:>:ttac1dsto ,;.~ ".>'C;

'. <: anc~~:..~~~~~~ ofAU~kY's st~~hS an~~~eS~9~~' ". ~I':; ....: -:. '~<;r

, _' ~.-. •••• • ':. .. '. • < '.' :it<-~.,,-.< •. -.··. ./" .<· ... if··

FIGHT in' RO~hestor,New- York" 'Was, a direct responsetcVthe.r1ots<A>::Y·

. . ..... "-'~: ....< .... .. .. ,<. .' .J. ..' ..' ,~'. • ..i " <i:f .·D:·T,',,:\r;F'2€;«~,,>;~··:':;:l'

;z::(5:':1li';rtbat'c1ty1ri (Tu7 y . '19tJ!-" '-Tho nots" .resu1~irtgin·.!1?1l~c;t:~,),~~i~~~(.~~" ;;~~~~'}~,

.. Gorald . As£or' :t·d~scrlption .()f',')::·L'~'

, • .. ~~;. • p ,1o~~. ~ ~:~~-~~_:,~_i:.;~-;~;i':';\f-;;{~

.,!lo~~~S~l'i~~ort.~·~~.ea~in~:. " ••• an upstate cansorvat1 ve 01 ti, .. 0. . 'cut:: .: v; \,ltUritrdb'dietb'n,;iamtct' 'the';~ppl_e: kno_ckers ••• 1'OUf1de<l_:_"pHlDl_S1~~tcI!U."UL __ !I1Jifi

~:;.b,a~~~-~-anOligareliy and ~9C~~ with a '~V9re'~se of~ghettoiaji~,,·~

" Once agcdn,- clergyme~ led, the move toward organization~ Their·'rirst,"·~h6ic~~,. ;~

, • '='"",,,~:

. . . .' ..

. was not Minsky, b~t the Southem Ch'ristian LeadorshiI?_ Conference (Sate) ,

~ ,

which they. invited into the city under the auspices of'·the Rochester Areo.

, .

. ,' _:,' 59'

'Council of' Churches., When the SCLC non-vi.c'l.enco doctrine oroved ineffeotive .

~ .. ,

, ,

" \

. . ,; \. ~ , _. ..

." in the riot-torn ghetto, Alisnlcy WllS .asked for his help.·

..

'.

'The Council's invitntion to Min'sky coupl.od 'with a. two-year pledge

. .

.

of. $50,000 pol.srd.zed tho oity.' S~ch polnrization b9twee,n thos~ 'Who be.'

11eV9d in him nndthoso 'Who denounced him as a' hate-monger. delighted Minsky:

. ,"-

"In order to· organize, you must first polarizo. People ~hink or .controversy

--.-~,:-~--------.--.~-~---,-.-----.----- .. ,,,,.---~ -.

as negativo;' they think consensus is better. But to -C;rgrurl.ze, you need a. 60

Bull Co nno 1'" 01'" -a Jim Clnrk." Hith memories of' firo houses dancing in

../'" . .

thoirneads, the residents of Rochester settled down for a long, bitter

conf11ct-;--For a vl!.riuty pf reasons 'they \JOr~- 'j_;Utiilly surprised. First

, '. - ''_...' .

of .~l, thero was no Bull Connor in Roc~ester and the _ 01 ty administration

I' • . .

. ' was not 50. stupid cs Jim Cla.rk. When the 111cipient FIGHT· organization .

;t I .' . ~

_, compl.ed.nad abdut housing or garbago pick-up·, the ci ty adbd.nistration-:a~~.d:t ...

-r.!lJlged a settlelnent •. ltwas al~o 'six years a.fterT .. IO' s·be ginning ~d~ ·'as ';..'

. . . " '.' ; .61

Ed Chambers,'- the IAF' field man, said, ft. ;~'the enomy is more sophisticated."

. . . . ," .

'FIGHT; (tt~e acronym' stood for:' Freedom,l:nte~a.t:f~n, God, Ho~r·,.··~· : .... ))

:".~:::-"" ;,.~' - '." . ---~., , . . 'y'::::!'''{(~'';

,,' .. Today until· Inde'pehdenco repl?-ced} lrite&i'At.ionr became· ari-'o!'ff-biaL,Alinsky;;·':::··,:.:'.

. .._ " ~.';... ". .' ' .. ", ". .' ~ ,'.- (::":' .. '~{ .:'i;·.'.

" ·...:~modol· People~s Ort:ronz~tionln'Jui:ie,1965, whon'ft·n:dopted:'itS.,Con.s~ituti"ri··,,}".,

. : .. - '.. :. .'. .' . . . . ..... " " .' ..'.... -.' . ..;;,' ... '::.;.. ... /':.,~

and electGdits first president. The president.· the Reverend Mr." Frankl1n·;."';':'~!:

;<,.--:-"7. 7' ...•••..•• ·11601":<:::, .: 'f. .' .;r-'',.:- .. . " 'r\'\ :,. ',",'i" <,.;A'.<g·;'·t)~·)2,~:·; .. ,~):

~. FJ"~n~~L.·' "'~ -rn-rJr""~ ~'" ","~ ... :-r"n()f:3>_y(n~.~pn~=tlUdred-.orgA:nizat1ons;s.s,;t1ie;st.:li'V~~;_;i1';\

;.~,~,~l.lbjE{~~fRtY.;aH ~ b6Ht.fu1 driiH ~fbii.H renei'fAi" Hi iizens ,comm:tt.t81i.:iHa:.:·~r1(~f?'f,tJ

·;~~i0~L:;?·>:~,Ui. ~.~S~:~~,~"_.""::"~_~_, ' .. '~',~, " -:.:-:.~, .. .. L_',"_~ •• :~'~':.)i~~",,62,"p:~~~z:;1-'.

-lfipL:ed,th~" directo,s on the, board of the local' ru\t1-pov~rty. pro ~am:; ,·j.e:

eHsmbers 'recounted 'tho. strategy of, escal.at.ed. demands used, by FIGfIt';:''in '·1is.~_~=~.;i;:

~.. . ...... •..... • , _ ~~ .. .,," ... _~_ ",,_ , _._.____ •• _"'~ __ .~~ .• _ .• ', ._,.: ; .... ~. _,,_,_h_. "_ . - .. _,' :~.,,_\ »

-~. striiggiemththe city-controlled ~gency:' . "'.L"C;:"~" .. ':;~:

\~e ~bj~C~ed' t~~ 'to :con~t~t' ~ara;sr.1~t. Ou~ first issuo 'W'as .

, that' the publ,1'c business can't be conducted in private, If ,th()ir .. board wont into private session, 'we "_'ould force our way'in. They fin illY' realized FIGHT .Ls hero to stay. Th~y sud to 'themsolves,,' 'He'd hetter rrive those peopl,e something to shut them up.' So they' ellVe ·usthroo people on their boar-d and $65,000.,63 "

Tho $65,000 -Foder-al, ,anti-poverty Grrult :n~nrdcd in 1966 to FIGHT' to·::,train

, "

one-h\lJl1dred Nec:;roos .to' paas the civil ,sorvice oxcnunatd.ons ,

.~ . 64

,necotiatinc steneth.

. .

FIGHT used its nov respcctabili ty to' pcti tion tho New ~Yot'k Stnte, ' .

. .

. Education Cor.tniBs1~ner to use crontor speed ~n cnd"i.n~ .92. facto school;' _~., ,

sogregation.tFIGHT nls~ arrnngodfur on-the-job trtuning a.t Xerox :for 1'1f..:. .. '

- , ,

toen blacks. A1l of those activi tos tre re propar-ataon fo-r 'FIGHT's .ohnllence,':

'.. • , III ... ,.- •

. , ,

to the Rochestor-bl\sod East.'11an Kodak Company, Tho company''With 40,OOO·non-.~

tmionizod' ~1Or~cor5 is tho lareest employer in fho area. FIGHT' charged Kodak ," ,d th ignorinG the needs of blacks"lL'1d asked .the company to tro.in .500 N~gr9

youths for:;crd.':':iyJ.lled positions. "If '~d:tk can take 'pictures of. the:' mOon,: .

, ' . 65 _-, "

'it 'can, crcat e job5 for our peopl.e ;" said Florence. His' 1-lorcis ~ore ampli- .

. ,

. . "' ..

:. fied by: thre:lt.s of direct· nction such as piCKeting the plants and oven

._ • • • • • 6 c

" .

Ii "

the homes or Kodak executavo s ,

-_

~····T

Tho'Presit:!r:nt of. Kodak 'in 196.6, 'Jilliam S. Vaughn, agreed to talk

with' FIGHT and desitnnte_d ass~staJlt vice-pr.esident John G;,Myldo.x- to", ,~:,";

-: 4: " .' " . - ""'. ',' . ' . ,.... ':""'i'/':"

handl.e ·the neeotiatiohs. On' Decembor 30, 1966, I{ulder and rioxY'nd$~",~g.,~d::· .-[" :

'.. • ' .' } _. ' '~:"~O,';;; __ >.",--. ~ .. "~"~:~ .. '.~' __ :, - _:,:;~~ ""j:,-' :.-";

..: th.is joint,:s'tat~ment: 'tTho FIGHT:o,rzanizati6n·;andK6dak.·;~~~~ ."'~'-"'" ,. "

. 'j()~t1vc o~'th~ ·r:~rt1i~m~nt·-'~~ 're~~~a1 (~o'{~6iu~o"sd~i~~f"

,._ " "''''', '. . "," 'c'i,·H"p,:_·,·.···~·,·.

: ,,~ '~'>of ,600 ·.u.ne:1lpio~d p~ople' over .a' 24-m~nth p~rlo~, . .· .: ·,.·.,'.&N cr. ·.'.

. . e\.t~?I~~ ltY~~\lft~ , ~~~ Ri:d\t\S·~r. to""W\~",~." ~(.,":::. -_

'i~{.;"l'n.ere,.:worel.lttn1CQl.n:t.e .uru cr-asecn cnanges- OU\. l.ueywtJrtJ .(lQJ.J."'.L~tU. ··..i·e

"<}::<';"'L:'(~:-:'-{ "':.' ".. .. ' ," - -, ~ ,: ,.',' - '> - - • -~;

,,/'> •...•. :._.;.·.,""' L: __ ~~.-,-":,.".-.~ .. -:~· -'-'~ ." __ . . --:.. :.' .. -.", ", ~~-....... . . ".~----~ __ .. :._ -:---:-::...r·~-· f·~· ..

'.,·ratner.,thaneeonomfc ~'oljes~'ShortlY before, the joint st3.tem.ent,:~Vaughn had ,~, .. i;\ .. ~i-;t;'''3'''::' '.: ~ ',' ".' ." _::'". • •........•• ·'~t;i0.2~·'.'~·!t; ',been mado' clioimari of' th~ bonrd and Kodak· s nell presid~nt, -Louis K.EUers,.·.TI!:':

_'pu1)fioiY~"ranegod on the-~propos8J.. - Ellers'1n-stead asked 'Fi~HT ,to 'eo~'~;;~~;";Ii~'T-

"' . ~. . ,~ - . ~', '... . .' ->-:', ~':~:

in'·~ company p~je~t uhich he described as "the kte hope r~;the pO~~'F'::"':':;'

. .' 67 .' ..... ,.

of Rochestor." The black p~or were ,not ipterested in My'white hope. 'James',

-,. , .' . ~" " .,' " '.:ll·-::

Ridgeway skilfully' counterposed Fl.orenee t s reaction to Eilers with Eiler's' ~:';;.

. .._ ",. .

~ .

attitudes:

'They t31k about Amorica being a melting pot,' said Florence,fbut~c:;'" the quostion right now is not whether black CM melt, but 'W'hether':they can oven get into the pot. Tha.t"s Hhnt FIGHT' has' been trying to do--

-get some of th'em into the pot at Kodak... . ,_, . " . .

'From. whnt I have been able to Learn of other Alinsl<y or.rorts . this one seoms to be developing acco rdkng to his po:ttern;" Eilers.'::s'tdd." 'lin iSSUe) is pio:<ed. Community conflict is created by muoh talk,;.~()1stt~ ... ,: and pressure and the creation of confusion., .: . . .\: '</"'~1~'4 :

'In'our case , the issue the Alinsky forcC3s chose '. to be relateatO'~· the' employment of Ne~es .• Ie-- is more and moraclenr, however, that all ' the talk about unemployment is only an issue or device b~1ng. used to " ., screen wha.t FIGHT is rea.lly: doing-and that isiMJl.ng a drive,£or.poloier,: .

in tho 'community. '68, . r', -, ,:": <.

. . .. ~

. Eiler's tlOrdS were particularly ironic as Alinsky had' tried to stay: out or,

. .r=

Rochester. In 'every organizing effort his goal is to become dispensable

~ - , .

. !

, '

as' quickly as possible, and with FIGHT's st.rongbl.ack awa~rieBS, he left

~ _ ,

even more of the decisions to. the FIGHT Leadcr-shi.p , He ,helped develop s' -; "

._-- .,- .

~. parillel group of "..rhi tes, the. Friends, of 'FIGHT ~ because he bel1ev~s that '

_, ~egroGs need whito Allies. The relationship bet~eon FIGHT and their Friends,

was an uneasy one until thoy joined forces agains't Kodak.

~ ,

~ ; ," .

The .need for a new strategy uj. use against Kodak brought A1.ins~

. • . _.,_, __ ,~_~_~, _ '_." __ " ... ~~~._ ... ~_ .. _~~;}.~\_~" .. _~~,..l,,>~"-._.; __ ,:+-;,,_:~ ... ~~" .

. btiokirito 'the fight •. Ir\rluenoed by tho whi~e 'liberal 'Support'otf"ered~t6~r"": .,

. '. ..,. . ~ , :.' . .' .'_ .. ,.". ,-, _. _._ . " ,,- ':.:>'.'-'·/-':T:""';~·. :.:); ,;"; '::

·'hGHT, he de.cided to "Fight K6dakJ~, thr6~gh stock-·proxies:; .. ~~~·~ais~',~~·';:i·: .. ::~·;;;;t~';: . .)

. ,; .; ~~. ~ .; .'. " ' ' <. _ '. . '">. '.~" - ~ :<J,·"·~9;'::~.L-: ·,·t·,'~*1jf,3·?~3>J~'·f~~':t·i

.i. go ~~coe~~~part1~s~~~: ., 1~t.~~heir P~rl~s~the:-worl(~,rf.i.~~s15~'\me~cl.:.{.~~1;d:~f

around th~ country-'presentirig the' FIGHT side ort~e' ,~~ti4,+br*,' c~~:~~ - . t!t-

," • i..... .--; .•••. ; (;-' •. ;' '-.: - .. - .' ,'" . _', ._.... ·':,;·~;,·"i;P.;·2<'-~.2'>·.'-:',:;·1··~i·.·· :fi£

~~t.r.~!~~.n,I!',_QrLQJl~~h~~P:rCiUns.,«~~.~~_okeito ·:theN~tionru.. CounCi]j.~;():t~t.Chtt~J;ie·: til

.. " .. ";'_' ,.; ... - "'. -'!, •• _-

.... . ~

' ...... _""-- __ " ... _

.... ' . ,

, • <",-'C'~""O"

- "",' > '~',,--':r. ""3·,.,,~~·\_ .. ':t·~";:::~~:;.:i

.., .. ...,.. ~

. '

.'

, .

. , ,

the Nationai Convention of, Uni ta.rians. When the la.tt~l"group.v6ted~1ts_ .. ",.,.'_,_.

stock proxies behind ,FIGHT and against rnct sm , ·.,senllto~s···a:nd congressmen .

" 70 _ ' _.,

affected by church pr-o ssure became intero,sted. Alinsky also" attempted

. to coordinate a nationwide boycott of Kodak goOd; uhich was a fallUl'9'

within the tradition of 'unsuccessful nationol boycotts. :.J.

'.

_'

Evcntuolly, recoenizing FIGHT~ s,legitimnte demands and respondin'g '.

•• • '.~ ...... ,.w..."+ ... ~' .• _

to political pressure, Kodak wired FIGHT: ''KOdllk reco~zes that F~GHT.

as ~ broudbased co:mmmity oreanization, 'sp'enks i~ belinlf of the btl~c'n~~ds.

71 '

of the'Negro poor in the ROchestor area." Koda~ a~eod to work with FIGHT:,

but made it very cle·arthll.t, "CwJofre not in the "\.1elfllre-business, that's '

. , 72 " " '

• '" I

tho government's job." Although FIGHT in 1967 considered tho tefegram a ,

,.

victory, in 1969, three years after the abor-tavo F1orence/~ulder agreement,

, .

Kodak has renewed its delaying ~a~Mcs. The company is supposedly' waiting'

'to see wha.t happens with the Community Development Corporation.Bill (S-30);· .. ··:,

.. I • ...

but at the rata that the ninety-first Congress is'moving it could be va

long "nii t.

.... - .. ,~. -.

.,. ... ~ ,I'

o '

" -

$0 there will not be a. n9'W' pl,ant builtin thG ghetto during 'the ~.

next. few years; -where does FIGHT turn next? This 1~ 'still an unan~ered'

, , '. . '~ '. ' ,'" ". ~

'question and, for L1any black and whi to Rochester resido~t~' M:longer.,m., "

4-.' ]II '. . ••..... , .. ;1 .: .. ~/:.

I· urGe.nt one. rrcnr .;Le~ders cOnsider the org~zatfon"s ,,,~'at~st accoirtpi:t~b.Et,

,,' .' .. " ." .. '. .••.••.• ....7J (?"""['1r"""

!!lent to be the ~ew .suirlt 1-lith which1t Wus~d 'the black'c~~tY~.' .:;:.:An~;·.:i:"~~"

, " '. . . '-,.~. " " .... . - " , , ,: '.,.: .. -/_ , ... :1,: " .. ' ~.. ·ii>;;·~~};;~· itonicnll:r, 'many 'ubites ·,t-hank FIG~ fOT stabUizing.the pos~not.comm\ini~t.;~;~i

\Ii; ,. • ", • ~ ',~ '':_ • :·'r· .• ~,;c~~··'.-~·t· ';::>E.:;, __ ., '-.~i,,·->:-:,_·o,,:;_'>··:_····:>~}.)::~~J:(A::{}:::·J~::'r.?if '

lZ:rr!:j· .' .. " ,,:,_, .' i ,- .• , : "

, AnderSon;d>~ 2B~_--:--' ..

"', " .

2§ube~an~' p.,JJ5. ', '

-,

-

. .

~ '\

3~uiD. AlihsKi, '"Citi~~n Participation and COn}mtlnity,

.: ~Planning and Ul"ban Rene-wnl," Speech, presonted ,before The. "".&oI .. W~

. Ch:lpter oIt the }r~ti9n31 Ass?ciation of Housing 'and O.fficill~sf Janua.ry" 49, 196~ (The Industrin.tAreas _

Chica,go, Illinois), p.7-S.., ,",

,'_

4- . , ' " .

"A~tlltor Zerves in on the Suburbnnite~," Businoss Weflk, 'February 8, '.

.' 1969, p~ ~~ " ~ " ' , ,,':"',

5Evo1yn. ZY'&;nu.~toldcz,., "Tho· Back ... of. the Ynrdslleighborhood Counoil nhd 'It,s~ Hoal, th and ',velfaro Service~" (unpublis~t)d, Hnstor of Social

Work thesis, Loyal.a Univer1'lity, 1959), p , 9.' -,

~.'. - ~ , - ." .

. 6"Agitlltor.'Ze~o~ .in on tho Suburban1te·5~·1t p. 46.

, ?Alinsl<Y int~~O't-r, \vellosley. (:

8 . ' . '

. Zygmuntowlcr;, p.23. -

"

.~t'The Profo3~onal RAdical," p,. 4.5.

10 . . '. . . .

, ZYg'luntomcz, p. 42.

"

...

'. ;11Tho B~~k' or the Ynrds NOi-&lborhood Council, . th A.~~~'1l1.' Re~'oi:-t .(Chica.go,

, . Illil1ois: Back-of the Yards NeiGhborhood Coum:n.l, 19 , p. 1. '

12" '.

~ttThe rrofession:l.l._Rndic:U, 'h p , 46 ..

13 ._._~ -

. Zy~untoldcz, p. ~9.

14 '. . .',

"The ·Profcssion<:!.l R:ldical"j p , 1~6.

~ ~ ~

" 1.5 .

> \ Zyem~ntoYric~, p • .5J.

1r...__ ,

~., p. ;h-._

17Ibia., p. 60.

, 18Ib1d~-, p. 6:5.

191 ",,'. . .

. Ibid.., '. .

'Ii ~- ~

\

. .

~" ....

. : 29Tho ·B~ck'~r'~.th~yariis Neigh~rh()6.d.

" ~ .• · .. ·.·~~~:c~;,·~f.~~~~~agc; '.

~, '-. .

21",;',<,'\·,,1', ~:'" .

z1t~:A~~~t~' '~P''';y''t r' 2'1 ..... 2}>"

, .

';-'ji""

i-~f",:-:"- _' . :'~c,,_,

j:c'~~: .; :.-., (".' I

:>·t.2~~J.ii:;~~i~kner,·, "MinsKy.' ~o~~s' the' Idea .~i C~~u.nit;'j~ . __ ,;;;;,;.;;:;;;.;.o .......... ,>

• 'o',~ • • ~;~Feb_rucu:Y' ,?O, 1_969, p. G1:.· -,... _ .' , : .

~J~~sk;1intervi~~;"l-Tellesle;: . , .... C •• .:;

. -

. 2h-phy~s ~nn, Back of the Yards N~gh~rhood -connell 'SoCial- Worker,'

_ 2'~. ..Priv a tc"intervlO"inChica~, Illlnois, 'r: '1969~, .

· SEty Chinoy, Sociolor1.cal PersQ€lctive (Nrn'7 York: Random House, 19.54), ;

26 .

· S1lbennnn, p., J22.

p. 30~ .

'Zl Alinsky -intorrlew, Baa'ton , . ?8s11berm1.lll,· p. )20.

. ..

...

.. ,

29Stephen C. "Rose, "Snul Alins1cy and His Critics.," Chrlstinni ty nnd CrlsitJ,': - , ' ~jJu1.y20, 1964), p. 149.

,," .. '

'30ErnostL~a Cofield, ."Hinisters vs.' Erlrs of Urban Ronewal, It Chlc':lf1.O .

Defender M,l"'l\zine, Novembor 19, 1962, p. 9. .' '. \

. :3.1t;A Pro!ossi:onnl,Rndical Movos In On Rochosi~'r,,~ H:\rr,or's, ,July, 1965, p~53.,

J2Si1bcr:nan, p. J2B.

'. ' .... ,

'-

3JNicholns von Hoffm~, 'intervit;." by t.sl.opbono in 1-!tlshinGton,_. p.C~, October., .1968. .

'~4 ,"

.... Cofield;'?-11n1sters v s; Dr~s of Urban Rcmcmal.," p. 9.

35 . 4

Silbeman, p , J~ •

Jk ..

· "1~., p , 3J4.·

. 37Ib1d•

0..'

: :JI..:;r~., p -. :3J6. :.

,~ ?9IMd., p. JJ7.

. r

J~'O-bi' . 1 ~J'

-.-..., i_tl .... , p. _1 9-}~1 •.

41Ibid •.

. .

'~2v~ry'. '~~~'}is~~ Johii~.J ~ 'E,~tm, "TIle h~iilioc?~e Responds>' Chu'~ch l-ia'i~p:':','

"" ...'~; (SU=er, 1965), p , 16, . . '. . :.' ..... ;j.<;i,g;t'~,

" ~. ':4 J llin~l~ iri~efvi~; . , 130 s~on·.' . . -, ::.': ~- .. , . .- :: ..... J'p: ':"~'~'

" '144:. : .. '. "~: '.. _ : ,... . ',' '. ;: .... '. ': .. ~-;.;;. '.'~'.,;; .:,.·.·i:: •.. ':~;·{ ~;;t;~; - . Ernestina Cofiold; "How, University of-Chicato·;Wa.s,stoPIfed:_BY<A-·~tht,j_:~~2t-';~;;·~·

Communi ty,n 'ChionP'O Defender Mat!~zine-,~Nov'embor 21 ,,1962,-:-.p~::;9~/:~~x:·:;~?:

. , .' . - ,:f;;~),~·i;"~f·;·i'·.+:;-~f~~~~~~;;::j .. ,.

.., ,,,.,' .. ,

~;:::0:::"': r<_',~'~·.«+'_~_.::;.;: ,L . ' ;,_',_

:';".;:\i' 1,:,..';~f,L",~,'§+fei;';4L './'<; '. < .' -. .... . ...~ ., ... ' ','

')L,,,,~ePb.i~' ¢_i[ROs~;' ffPo~r·Pl~'in~the ~ty, ~ Crossro~ds",(J

"f';'{:"'C":' •. ·'·'._1967.:)~p • .:12._,___._, :. --,--"_ -.- 7.- T-'--___;;'-'-"--'---':__~_'__';'~~~

~~~l.iJ-~r~"-"Th~·' ,~Sti~,: ..in~e 'Fool i > Ie2k, (J~;~5; 1

:471'·, i '. "

~.,.LS1lbeman, p.' 348.

• ~~l1~d Sa.nfo~, '"South Side story," The }law Ren~lic, '(JUly 6, 1968)",p •

• • - • ,>- r ... =. '. ,"'-,". ' ,:- •• _-,-,'.--.,~"':;'<~"

49 .. "· '. . ,

Ibid ..

SOnSUp'pOrt of Ch:.1:cagO Go.ncs," ConlT9ssional Qu:trterll, June 28, 1968·,'.p.,;-S9

51Sanf~rd, ~ ,

,.

. .

'~~~11rum Jones, "~MJ Chicf Assails T~stimony,"

,-:--+' 1968, p. ,4. . " ,

.54vlilliruil Jones •

.

Chicnro Tribune,

- .- ......... ~*

55"Su~port or Chica.go Gangs." ..

56Nathan::=Gl.n.zer,. "The. G;and 'De~ign 'or the Poverty Progr~," Po~~;tt·{·p~l.,e~ and Po11tic!1, ad. Chaim I. Waxma.n, (New York: 'Grosset & Dunl-ap,'''-; ,

. 1968),. p , 290. .

57"- '.

::. Anderson., p. ~O.

.58Astor, p" J4~

"

-

59Anderson

, ,

6oAsto'r, p , 34.

p. JO.

__ . ",

61' .. ' " ~ .

. Anderson,po 31-.

~ 62Jam~s -'Rid~Jay,1 "Attack on Kodak,"

63 ;- " -

.Andarson, p .• 87 •

Tho Neu Reoublie, January 21, 1967" p.;)O.

f I ' •

• l' . __ .: ..... '. ~

... _.

. _ ,

64-:nndH

_'

. ., 67Ibid •

. 9BTh1d.~ p.;·30.

, 6Q~' '~;;'~O~I~"~~~

.'

/
.',..
"\
1)
7Orbid.
-
., ,·7~Ib1d •
7~hid.
-
73 Anderson, p. 92.,
) "

, .

_43-'

.,

..

...

.... "

C~TER III

, .

' .. :-; .... ~ , ~ .. .,.. . -_. .. ~ ~......... .. _, -. _ ... ~ ~ .... ~ .

"A PRIZE PIECE OFPOLITICr\L PO&~OGR.\PHY" .

, ....

"

OnA of the more .intri t;Uing. puzzles to . s1 ve - concerns Alins~t s

reltionsh~!l -to the ":-ia'r 'on Poverty. That he ereatly influenced tho logis.;..

~.. '.

laotion seeas evidont. T~at fie 'de srd.se s the erracts of that log1slation .

'. . .

~ ... ' ..

·~"":r'·'f:-

_. .:.'",-'-.:-.;,~--.~'-- \'

.. ,' is un,deniAblo. The key to the puzzle in"folvos both Alinskyt s offect ~n' '

... , .

" ,the poverty ·No.rr~rs n";d his resPonse ~,them.

"

' .

" . DMiol P .. }~oynihnn 't-mo helped drnft the.orie1n"al poverty ler;lslati6t;

- .. _ -- ......... "!. '-L~~:

. . . - .. .. ..'_ '.-.",

has dcscrfbcd his ·underst.lnding 'of tho. ori~ns and failures 'of th(fcorilm~ity

.. , .\

action pr6erams in his book M-"_;im'tL~ Fp'.'ls'ible liit.unr3,l3ri;t~n·din:p'., ~ioyrii'hAn

1m tes in' a spiri t~d ctylc but ovon his behind""! thc-!3cones :~S~MCO' d?as' not·.' -:

..

mako his ar-gument, less confUsing). He dt sscct.s the so-called "opportunity , '

- .

theor,y" 'a;ticQlntcd bjr Lloyd E. Ohlin nnd Richard A. ~ow~rd,both of the

"

Columbia School of Social \vork. He points to tho theor-J' -as the' ba.sis for

; 1 .

many of the premises underlying the Economic 'Oppoytunity Aot. l-foynihan'

.

sets up a sequence londin~ from the Cloward/Ohlin thesis to, the Moblliz-

ation for. youth (HIT) project in New York City to the federnl lec;1~ll!tion

• 4J1,_

:. 'lrl1ich is "perh~ns .chronolocically' correct but seems to rrii~s the point. If,"

- ,

. - - -. .

, , . I

~:i MoynihM s.t:ttos,· "tho central concept of

, ~ 2 .

is 'that - of' o??ortuni~:,ytf. then ~hat did the, "maXimum feo.s1bl~p~rticipationtf

;,.;.- ~

, ..... '

cl.suse mc~n7 Hoynihan' ,iridirectly d?fincs it_in the folloldng way:

., .... __.-----..:,..

J • .\

..

a "e~'< .

sp" '

, 4

1allyin-'the South, .who',~re n~nnaliy exaludcd):ro1n-~th~;;poiiti~a1 pl·ocess.~,-,-"

.:..'" ." -<,.."..-.,_ .• ,~ •• _,.. --.-~--.-., •• -- .. -" ., --,-,," _--. • .- ~... ..

• ~ • ~ of ~'~. - ~::--, ',,',;'_, _ ,'-' • .'.' "jo.

13ut, ln such-ere as ren.l p'artie1pation in ~OCiS17r."1king .1louJ.d prec1pit'.t~ •.

~1al change ~n a S~tU:-~ fa.r wider th~ extensio~ of opp~r~Uni~y 'to' partake ,·in 3..l,ro~dy·1"unotionine· results of, dacision-mnldn~ SUr;r;8stS.-

,I

,ot the.,clp.u~o was"tO ensure.rtho p~l"ticipation.of.<.persons,

,!,,-. ':

Part of the trouble 'With Hoynihanf s analysis is. that he, def;i.nosneith.er .. "participa.tion" nor "social chango" as op~rD.tive terms. Thera £ire,: of cours9'~ ,

: .

rhetorioal 'illusions to the need for men to plzy, f:ronter ro'l.o s in shnp1ng"

• ' ._ ~ __ ,', ;' .•.• -- ~--\l:'" ,1,:' ...

~hair 'otom 11~e1.nnd 'to tho dire st:'lte' of bTentieth·c.~ntury A!l1oric~. ,Ho, -, echoes Gunnar HyrdRl. f s \-Tllrnings th.'lt tho countrt hAS far 't:in i~~~ng

de:notrrlltin pllrtic~ptltion on all Levr-Ls of tho politicnt :::rstcln, but he '~on~' cludes_th-ilt ,'the cO!""..llunity :lc'tion pro Grams "loTi th their ninguld.r cmph~sis

, . . . .

on 'mll.:dmur.1 foasible pnrticipa.tion' of the poor thoP1sQJ.v~~_.oompriBe the

, <

most notable effort to date to mount, a s;"stematic sccd al, response to the

,.:.,,, . ". 5

probl?!'!l H~al 'outlinAd. .r= .

Yet, t:1cre is littlo sense of, what Hoynihan r-ef'or-s to ~rhen he uses that W?rd' "participll.tion~ especial ty as 'the keystone to _ a. tlS1stem.~:t~c

, .' eyen' ."

.·S\)el~t response." H~/questioris the entire thcory~ of participation using

~ a quote f::-ori tho ~ork· Bomarci J. Frioden and Robt"!rt Horris did on alion~t1on:

'::'~t._, __ ,:,__. ~'. _.~ . .!', . ,... ", . .' '

·'Loact c~mrir.cine have boon those anal.yses t-Thicn have asserted

. that the:' fact. of .~D.rticipatio·n hy the poor, in i tsolf, ~·dll· sig- ,

-nific'l.ntly nl ~~r the' condi tions .dcplorod, as for exriJ!lplA,. the beliof that ci~c ~articiuation in itself leausto ~reduct1on in deviant

·bohav1ot".6" v ' • " ;.':',.-

-..,~', ... " -' ,." .. , .. '.,.,~---/. -~";'.,,-.~j~./,:: •.. ,; • .-'~~ .... '.""-.

>SoT.tehow:~Alinsky' s use of particfrrtti6ri. as a proc~~s .·.·~dctt'rmii;e ·,thn" .. action":~ b~t:I~cn b:r.~ 2.:.::'co~nit~"~~ia~z~tf6#:;':; .. ·-' ... ' .: , ':-..;" .... :w.,"

~ '", '. ,.' .. ; . . . .~ - _. .... , . -~. '"

' .. ~,:"--.-.~_::,':.,'-'~::., •• ,_-,!:";./ .' __ '~-,; ...t -. . . "",:J_.","_ .

:j_n,~hfJ·-~ca.d~dc~lbureD.cr:tt1c'-cr.ossfiro. vlhat:OID.,nnd.,

.. -. ."; .. ':.... -. ' .

I

.th~~a6qtii~SCGn~ participation. '

.

In-his l'.ppropriately·tltlcd articlo, , "By or'For- the' Poor?", _Artdroll

~ . ~

J.. . - . .. ~ . . .. _ ~ .. ~ _ ~ _., _#

Xop'kAon<1 c.U.80\UUilCa. t.~. ~nt'rAd~ot.ionG 1!,hcront~n the. partioipati:en e~l!»se~.

. ...that. "H.9.S nel" arid expi ting about the ~/Tar on PovertY was' that it

.eave hope of, putting some poli ticrll and economic pO'oIer into the, hands

·of the 'under-cla.ss' of tho poor, as labor loctnlation had st~ngth ....

ened 'th9' barr,aining no·..ror of 'Worlters three decades earlior. Through .

the 'tlagner Act, ...the ~'1orkers t;Ot 'NIcor;ni tion; they used their noW' power " to win economic- bonofits. In tho Sa."I10 way, tho maximum ren~ible pnr- " " ticipntion c l.cu se in tho om lov-station promisod recognition and tl~us

power to tho poor.7 .

Recogrrl.t1on of the problem of pcver-ty among loe1,slo.tors perhaps , bUt'there

. '

was 11 ttlerelll1zs.tion among them that their le,r;ts1.nti~g part401pation might

. ~

re'sul t in tmy al, toration of power.

Moynihan occa sa.orial.Ly acknovl.odges the incompatibility of log1s1Ilting-

. , "-

... ~

,

'participatory pla..nnj_n~ (1.,2. "tl"UO" partioipo.tion) and expectang a. conaervatd, v

. , -

" ..

• • I

Congress to continue fundine it once they p~~ceivcd wha~_ they had. writ.

~. One of these instances occurs in along pas sago about, Alinsky:

.r=

Tho blunt reality is that sponsors of communi, ty nction who eXpect ed to adopt the cOnflict .strategy ·of Saul D. AlinSlky - and at the.

.'. __ the satce time oxpecbsd to. be reci'p.ients of ,larGe sums,:of -money" looked for, to par-aphr-ase Jeffer~n, 'what novor- was, and never .. will be. t. Alinsky ~l!'lGrr.os from the 1960' s a man of enhanced stature. His influenoe on t~e fonntilation of tho antipoverty program was 'not ,great. Indeed it l>las· nogligible, in that a prilTlary motive of these efforts W.'lS to ~ things .to the poor that they did not have. A:\insky' 8. law,

'laid dovm in Rovaille for Radicals, which _appoared in 1946, 'H~S itnat " in tho proccs s of social chan ge there is no Stich thing as give'; only take. Truo or' not, by the time-the community B.cti~n programs began to

'be founded, he had behind him .some three decades of. orgl1l1izing 'poor

or me.rg1.nal neiGhborhoods (white as well as bl.ack) and in. every instance thi's process had taken tho fonuofinducingconflict-~'and--:='-::- . fighting for power~ Was there llC?t -something to .. · be learned here7Co'uld it be that this is somehow the nO,rmal evolution once such an <ef"fok ' .is begun? •• Alinsky' s vieH ;~:Tas'nothing;1f riotexplic1tandpubl~c:.· . 800181;· stabili i:.y --:is,A oondi tion r-eached- through l1egotidedcompromis.i..

. " . betwoen power orgru'lizations •. (His one1ns, o£ cour,se, are··,in;·the./,

.. trs:de' union movemont-, specifically" tb:-e United_!-l1ne_Work~rs).2rhepz;?b.lom of. the pdor is. no tonly ,that they hCK money ,~but ~h..a.::t._!~~):l!_C.~jf.- ,. . pover. ,This means 'th~t they: hav~ 'ne way 'of -threateiiing'the .~~t~s.:qu<:} .:

.• and therefore that there can be no social: chance ,until' tlx1:B or('1'ontgci!' '.

-

. ~.

}kc~./',~'J~PIIDI~!I[~J i'IRf~~Ulmpni ~.U~~lti!£~ltlgli ~~!'l,tIQl~!DB'IPij:~til~!~}p,;'t

C~;/"·.t.sfjS§nd.:,J~iY.in: ite ilie. or the orrice of Eeo~omic Oppofotun1tyi' .. ··.: .•.•. ~. : j,·~.!)A1:1hsky>iwaS}f~.lUng tocont~m?late that F.edertil :f:~ds, .bypassing ..... )~ . .-, .

.. City Hall. and c;hannelled directly to indigenous organi~at1ons,. might;,·~ ··be u'sed.to ·brlnp, such orga,¢zations into Peintr~ But'hisow experience 'and practice belied'.any suchpossibUity._ Throughout his·-,career-he '.. . had be:€,Un his-orgam.zing C8!npaigns with cash in .hand , 'cOmpletely irida-

I pendontot tho power stnlcture'ldth which he.nnshed te e&1"G.C&"' .. m: .. ·

. ent11"l" analysiso:f":the process '0.'£ sooial chb:r,,::e argued that. of'£:1.ciaJ. .

Qc;\rim.u.nit.y'aot!.on programs would 'soon fal.l. under the direct:ion of" .

,City Uall.S I. '. - .d.

It, indeed, the purpose of the War on Poverty was to ttiiVEl') then 'most or

~ ",. ...-....-;,.,.,~,::- ..... .,,-.~ .. , .• ;...."'>..:.

its':Alinsky; like rhetoric about "helping tho poor hol.p tllo1l1selvos", nnd

. , . -- ~ ... ,---.-..

openi.ng "oppoz-tuni. ty'tt ,~d brinv.ng "hope to all who 'contemplnte tneir '

..

-future in to~s of' thoir discouraGing present" '-Tcnt no doepez- than the

, 9 -

public rel~tions division.

,

. _'

Alins1{J'" s periodic outbursts about, tho hypocr-Lsy of 'tho war on Pov-

"

erty havo provi.dod unforgettable copy-ospccinlly his labelling the enti,re '

. .....

effort a.' "prizo pioee of political pornogr-aphy ••• a hu~e political. pork "

-' .

barrel, and a.-feeding trough for t.he l-r"elfare industry, surrounded by aruic-

, 10 ' ", "

timonioua, ·hyPocri tical, phony, moralistiC-----~.". Sargent Shriver can-

. . ~

didly chal.Lengod Alins!:y by declhring that 'the 'i'Tar on Poverty. had dono"rnore

~ 11 '

for tho Negro in 25 months th311 Minsky has in 25 yoars." ~fuich is 'preI

cisely JUir.~ky' s point,' for a~ he replied~ 'tr.·le (tho Indu-stri~ Arc;s Founcl-

.. o.tion) spend $100,000, a y'car, and Shrivor compares us -.nth tho U.S. Goverr ....

• I

,

,~ent. Shi .. i v cr ~~::'S ~~o·~.dono tl1~rc for tho NeGro th.rill ~oha.vo.'Ho's tolling':

4 .~: : __ ~

t!10 truth. :'lc'''e n~-"~r. dona nn:rth1n~ .!':e..!: the Nf)~rooc; .we~ve wo·rked' ~rith· 12

tht3M. ''

-, .

_ ' '. The -on~ rOV€:Tty ";l:lr c3Inpaign for which Alfns1(Jr 'served a's·ConsU:1:tant;. ~',., lias' 't~o' short-lived Fc-.:!cr:ll pilot iraining' proef;~'fo~, orbanizor~llt·S,y;~_··: ~.

". _--.'. :. .'

'~U::ie Unlversity. :'lh~Il t:1o.~trai~ee~ ~r£:ani::ed sltL"!l"cllmllorS-agairistriity."

.' " .: - • . " ..' . ' '. .".... ,'; 1·:'\'

'at;encicst tho city -£;ovol'n!I1ont complid.ned. lottdly ,to '~·;~shi~et()nlmdt.l1~.·,r~~~~·'

we.....;;.··~ .... ·t··· ·h...2r· _.~1:3:;·ThiS'in;d~ent>~oreshact6wed t!;e'eve!ltti:~I~~~~-e~~1t~~' .

*" loJ, '.;.;.W..L. ~ ~ . a.J'W" I. •. ~.:;: . ;-, . ; . -~ .. -,_" .. " .. ,:-:;,.:-,«_,:--, _'; 'or- ~ L.~t:;'''''.,-:;:);\>~;;~:::'~ii~:,; ...... r:F'~;-?;;''''i~''·''''~';"!,(,'_

.,

..,'" .. "

', ',' ., : . . , . . . '

. that Local, 'govornments 'wouldhavc the option o~ brinf:ing thefr~

'_"-'''''_'=_~''':'_' __ . . .~ , ..... _ ... , . __ ._;_ __ :_ ... ----,~~---.--- - =r+:':: -····-14 _ __ .... ,!> .,

" community o.et'_on nl;Oncy_ under- ~h~ir 'official control.. .Evon with the un-.

l ':,,',-'" --' -, _. ., , • '}I - - • • , " .....

' .. enf'oroeab~~ 9.SSUr:l.."lC9_ that one_third of the reptsentativo~ ,on thO. l.oca.{

· bon.rd mu~t boo ,~poor" 't·r.tth bypass povez-s gi v.en to' the director, Ro~resen-' • " tntive '!:d1 th Gr~en,' s (D. or~.; amonct!nent strengthenfld the ,~o8it.!.ol'l~·'·Of'··'" . '.

• ,',w " ... , •

, . , ,

Mayol:S such as D.'llfzy, who nlrendy controlled their Local, :lgency, and:cf' ..

fectivoly moved oVf1ry other agency under the unrbtella of City Hall. The,

',-'I ., ...

. '

amendr,lent al.so opened the Hay for co ncer-t ed nttric!cs on the hieh-risk Pl"O-',,:

,~ams such AS T;.}Ot n.

;. ' ..

l-ioyn1bl'.n roprints Alinskyt s .1965 pro gnoet s for tho Wnr, on povarty: ''Unloss thore are dr~(jtic -change s in di rcctaon, r[l.tion.llo: and 'adminis-

....

tration, _the nnti-::>overty procrruil may well become th,e worst political

• 15 '

bl.undo r' and ;,oomernnf!, of the pr-esorrt ndmini::;trlltion~" Moyn1h.1n lays the.

. . ~ .

. '

: bla:lle £o'r .nct, ~cogni7.inr: tho'vlllidity of Alin::;l,,rt s per spectd.ve, on tho.

admini~t~ators' of tho prof.Ttl:u ;'d tho socia.l scientists who devised tho,

" . .

thoor;)" of pa.rticipation nithout re.alizing the J11en.ning their 'Word~ woUld' .

· assu-ie 1n r-'r.lctic·o. One of th~ arstunenty in Hoynih::-..n t s_-'book is that ',"social science i3 !It it!': loronl-:est, at i t~ worst, .~r:hcn it offers theories.cif indi-

I

.~ vidU~ or coll c:;ct~vo 'bp.havior vThiC,}' r-ai sos the poss1bil~ ty i6 byc6nt~11iJig

c'art-nin :!-n~_~ts,. of br_inging about maas behnVioral chi'..ngc·." 'f. good point,

, --, " .

_l:mt one th~t A11'm:~cy t~w.do eleven years earlier. in, n spee~ before' the Assoc ...

".~ ..",..'"_

,. -

'iation-O~~Cotln'lun1 t.y Councils in: Chieaf,'o: . ,

.. .: ··:.wci ,fa~I_"8. d~r.or ~:.U.~dU~. emP~asfs.~ of :atto~~ion/o~;·;p~c~s~".ijso·,H~~~t.··i·-·)'··\J

wO-~,~cll.·lo~e sight of: tho purpo se , : To,? milch con~ce'rn'-with ,P~c~s~. ," '~'.

roaches 2. point, :IS is obvious,- in a. number of parts of'this-r!f3l.~,·.~ .:-

.. 't~hereby~ne devotion ~to·proce·ss has 'not-:only reslli~ed':Lit':t~e.~rc)'s!f;of;t. 'r:;; purpose., ,Put . it becomes -:th aca.demic- ·o:oonhouse f'o17f::tb.e.nurbl.~!i{t;~ft)li~,;.·';.·{{

.' . -.-- !~;:t~=~;;~- secdl1ngs-~ch could never gro~'~. ;~~;:~.~~'.· .. ~;~,;~~~.--}}t

'0-:- ', :,:, _'_~'::::(-,-,- _-, -

, . v - .. .... '.',' ':' " - '

sp~ech about .the· Wa.r on Po~ort.y W'ent: beye,nd-'por- " .... _~:~ >

. • t. . t

'0" - ' .. ". ~ ,-,-_- .'----~~, '. - ~ _. -'--- .• ~ ---~--.-- •• -~--·-""-"~:~~··:"~+~>~~:-:f- ·,--,,--.,,~-:.-:~;';;~~~2~Z:t~-~>~':4t--'-':~-~~J:-~'~<

prOcess.into areas where Moynihan trea.i~ sor.tl~tci..:tyh9.tl.< .'

.. . ~ . .;,......;.. ..

'f

:;:p·atro~a~a.nd "welfl'!:re :i~~'stlj1' -contrism. Before tho .. ,GreGn' ·An1e.rtdment '.

, ... ".,"_ ""'__ ~ . .,:*'.... .._ 0-' .'. • 0-

.. .: ..•.. ,' ... ~ ~ " . ~ . ~ .. '

,t:Aw'".W,'j\;J .•• ~e~' 1;.~A~ ,moat. oi,i;y halls) Aoting th7eh ooraxn1;tte!g'~O't!7'tt".~e(!\.·

. of tbe party fa1thru1 ctmt~lledrthe local nntipovorty :Cund.§. Poverty

'" .'" . . . "

funds were :frequentlY used to stifle independent action in ,tho name of ,;

• , .... '. ,j

"oo~v oon .. .,n4lltUQ" fU' ::L:L'" prosroma cl1.d 'bY-PllSS cit.y· hal.l t.ho oi"f':1.~nls

. . ' . 19'

'W;uid disolo1n them in ordGrto t.ako the:nsoi. vcs 'Off thD'·hook.". 'An~tho~

aspect of tho poverty "Tar which Alinsky criticized was its f!v.ast net'-tOrk ' ..:

. .' -'. 20' .. --, . .",

of sergeants drnl-rinft General' 5 paJ1-." . Ho ii.lu~tra.tod the. "start~~nr. e0!l- '

"

~ "

-", '.

"

trl1st" bot~oGn many aal.nrd.os bof'or-o and ltfter cssummg positions with om •.

It seems 11.S thour:h, "noxhe re in thic creat' land of: ours is the opportunity 21

more promisinG than in the Offico Gi Economic Opportunity."

Even more disturbing to Alinsky than J:.he city hnll pat,r;mnge,

.which is, predictable, is the attitude of professional social Workers: ':'The" Anti-poverty pro:rrun may Hell be ro garded as h~tory"s gretlte's~ ro-

- " - - , 22" . . ..

liaf' program for, the benef'd t> of th'e ,welfare . industry. " dhe requirenant

of tlaximtl..'1l !'Gasiblc participation raised questions for those institu-

'. . _. f4i . .'

tionally invol vod i.n tl'lding the poor. For example, lomO \TaS 't.o select the

" .

one-thiro?

Tho \';C-.'Lr~M industry' 5 vested 'int~rests ririturnlly made it

. .. ~ .

nnxi.ous to cot .. "l. piooO"-l of the now notion. Froqueritly,tho desiro for in~

i~t') subvor-Hrig those pro grams in

. ,

volvC{nent lod 'Hc1i":lre p~fession:U.s

, 2:3 ..

'trnich they' had no part.

, . ('

. "

A11nsk1' cQPolcidcs his CritiqU9 qy con~en~in~ on the'~rUc1ril que~ti~n=.

"> . ' .. ~./"/' ,..... '.,' ~ " .' ~--, ,', . ..... '-:. : :,. •. . ' .~\;?>{

Hhnt CM be "don~ to mske :i, poverty '1>1'6 ~3J'Il.-rul1cti6na1 7:.,.,;\ :. . ~, :,,:,.{.::. .c:,

.. . ·first;. I ,.."n l.d ~,,~ serlO~,; .doUbj;~· .,,~dt;;O~~~l:,,-~v,:f~~t€i~~(]

~~m to help' and 't~ork .w,tt~ the poor until,' such,a:t1:~~I~s.,,~e_i:.~~B~?\·~;'·,.;:.'" ;",,[! 'f~' tlu:"Oueh' tl10ir own'·orga~z,ed powor·would. Qo,able,to:J~p_~o~~'~;t*';t~ ,f)" _:1:t:

, '=-:_l:ttitimato·ropr()senta:tivcs~ o~,.t~eiF:;ntcrests"':-I¥~~~~;~B~f~)'~i;~~~i~~·; ,If'~f~;~:;

._ .;~-

,-_~-......:.....__ _ ... _

,

_ ... ....._ ..... -.'+"r~~,~:_..,_ .. >,e~ __ • .-',_"'.-

"

to·

.. pro'~31r.min~ ti.blo :m41~VfJ a' strong voi~ 'in ~:th tho, i'oiT.luln~iori': and the c.:lrryin~ on of the proert.i..'ll. This means rulorgnnizedpoor . possossed of suf'ficient pOlTer to thrc~ten the st:ltus quo withdi~ turbinp; .1.~tnr..:ltion!i 50 that it l-lould induce th,o stntus quo.to ....

. cof.lethrcu~h Hi th :l1''Cenuine, docent, monninr;rUi poverty. pro gram. 24 ,

~ o· > ·t ...

This is usual, Alinsl:y talk but, Hoynih~ nobrl.thst'a.nd1ng, there.f~

• •• • 'r"~

ovidenco that frorn1965' at Lo aat, 1ll.insky's vic!::; \10~' VAry il).fluc,ntit\l

. .

/

,,1ithin certairr circles' of ;"o"lcrty warriors.' (Thoro is sH.li' a. good: tir-

" ...

cumentth'nt idec.s first pr-actd.ccd by Allnsky i!'1flucncod thenctu~· '(mting-'

'ot t!'lo lc[;:1s1atioh. oven t~uuch ·the aut.hor s miGht not have ncknowledced

.. ,

nttetllptin~ to dofi_nn t~e n:nbir,uo~s p'n~ticip3otion' cl.auae 'by: stro!1v.y ur;ing

'. ,25 '

'the involve:nent of P?or people in political actd.on, T~o-'re:kthonship-.::." .

b!)ti-tGon the llcuarkriots il1 tho SUruner of 1967; and the local. 'poverty ~z<?ncy l.fuil:h i-1C.S· one of the fmv in tho count ry to opoz-at-e autonomously

, "26 . - '. ~

, ...'"

is still a metter ~r inve.5tig~tion. A:,c:lrtoon in 'a 1966 VISTA pub11-

,cation depicts .. El.!} ovar-zoalous VISTA volunteer ntrildne .outat nll' llva.11-

ablo tarf:otR of ton hi ttin~ tho so , such as Alinsky, '\-rho are suppOsedly

on his si~o. (Appendix I)

.,' .-

There is Il cra::tt lesson iri that VISTA cartoon. All' too otten the

.---.-~~ __'''''

- , .

,'.. c; .. _., '.

~"ar on Poverty 1~i t~ confused intentions and armed ,,11th misinterproted

• • • ... ;l'" A_ ~:;,;,.' .• i

~. . ,.' . _ '_ <_'.' __. . :"~""'_ ,_.','~_" ,~_o,:",:",J,'_ ,::~_',}:.:,_,:",_::,;(.,,:.

soclru. theory. fu U'ill cd Moynihan I sconcltiding description,,!" th~ i¢OhriitUh1tty',

{.--, • ." r ~ .._' • - ._; _ •. ' ..~. ·.'~·.·:>,· ... i .EfXL.:'.:ff~·l('f;

J - actio~ pror;ra!!ls: " ••• t:le s?arine;'rhetoric, th9~nimUI1 .. p.srr.oiinaz:t~~;(~::t1i~:t);. -' . '. ' . :...."~:~;.:: .. ~: .. ; ... ~ .;I:?·i~·.f.~'·Zl:{;:~;·t~c . :r(~i~"p,d con,s,tr~ncYt ·th~ ?ri~a.te betrayal; in the' end •• ,'-th~~sel1~ou~.f~" 'ii';'il{i:,r1>-.f >lt~0.fr·'·'·::;~0~':,.

.'

. -

.In,id~; p, s7~

"-'-4~~'-r"'-~="'~~-'-"~_'_--'-"- c ••

~., p. 87.

. .'

~ .. , ,p.161.

6rbid., p. 188.

- I

. ,",',!

.,

. ,

'., " ,

, .

...

~AndrGw K~pldncl, "B1' or For the Poor?" p.o've;t:y: .P~uor and Politio's~ 00. '," _. .

Chnim llD.>:ll1811, (NeW' York: Grosset &'DJ.nlap, 1968),1'.-226.227 '

.. _ . ~

'8

' Hoynihan, p. 185-6.

, ,~,

~ ?N~tional "AdvisorY Council' .on Economic ',Opportunity, Ropo~ ·'Of the: Co~no1;l:,

... " Focus on Commuro.ty Action' ('tlnshington, D.C.: Tho Nat.ional. Adviso;r:( ,.'

, CounCil on Economi,c Opportunity, 1968), p. x. . .

"

10

Anderson, p. 94 •

11 ,.

Astor, p. 3~.

12-···· .

- . Ibid. ' .

...

13JoM Kirner, "A Profo~siona1 Radical Rallies the Poor,"

Times, January 15, 1967, p. -10E. '

t4Hoynihan, p. 158.

15rbid., p" 187.

ll>rbid., 1'. 1~1.,

';.

The New York

17SauJ.--D. Ali1'\dcy, "From Citizen Apathy to participation," spoech presented nt tho SL"'ct.l; Annual Fill COnference Association of Community Counc1ls of Chic'~ro, octobe'r 19, 1957 (The Industrial Areas roundationr

. Chicago, lllinois),. p. 10.' " .

. .

l~~D.ui~D. "A1.i~S1~ ,"The' War.~·on, Povorly-~Poli tic~,. ._ " ':Powr"ti11d 'Politics,' ed,.~ Ch~mI. Wro:mnn,'(Nsw

, ' Dll~np, 1963); p •. 173.·: ,.': .: -;

,·'19f~id •.. ·,' p •. ,t?'~. "

_ .." _c ..... .::.. __ i

2OJbld •. , • -

_.;

" ?1ib~r,g"

.'

\t

22ibid., p. 176.

r : 23Ib1d•·

'_

..

"

~bid., p. 177.,

2.5S~rbA~~·CQ .. r1::or. "SarSQnt. Sprivor and the RoW power- Rf'ld. Po:u. t.!.cs, Od. Chn:1.m -x. WtU!:'trl~,

Dunlap, 1968); p. 203.

-26 I

~ ~., p. 299 -.

0.' •

Qr tho' Poor, 'f Povert..l:,S· (HQlw YO:l'"lU Oro ... ~~, ..

"

27 HoynihtUl, P. • 203. ~

• 1

\

'-.~

-.

'·,1

..

, .

cruf,T~:rV ", -

- '

. ,

~ ---

____ ,_. ="-~PERSP:x:TIVES oN ALINSKY 'AND HIS HODEL

.J

.

,.

, v"'.

Around the edges 'of Alinsky' 5 Critique!f th~ w~r .on P6vertt_' .

- are,·vestiginl reminder.s' that' he- himself is not blarneless. As a. model-

bUilder he i~ ~ome~mat acceunt.abj.e for avon the misguided a~plioation ,

"

of that modnl, , Thore.,. are also ar-eas of action for "lhich ·he is more dir-' .,. ... :., ~ctly responsible, so' that any eValuation of Ali~sky must' 1noltide both

. ' '

hisacconiplish!n(mt~ and his m~thodoloeY. Beforo discUssing either, however,

<(

" ':it is nec6ssO,lj" to ~':LY, Bomethin-~ about, the man himsel!.·

,'-'

••

) "

, Ono of tho;_.., '.1rimary probl.oms with the Minsky model is that

. -~." , ;

tne removal of Minsk.! drast1callraltors it~' .compo~t1on.· Minsky is

a born orga.n1z~r who' '.!;:;not e,asil-y d!lplicated, .'but,' in ~ddi tion' td his .skill, .heis a 111a.n of exceptional cham. Tho Economist arti~l~, oalling

. .

"

~ " . -" .

him tho "Plato on the Barrd cade s , It' described it in this"way:

..

, .

His chara lies inh1s ability to conmd~'him~lf ,cofft~letelY to 'the ,

:people in thG room with him. ,Ina shrewd though subtle WB3 he of ton ' manipulates thoro 'Hhile speaki.(lg directly to their eXperience. still C 'he is II .man totally at ease With hizrtselt ,mainly because he loves

..- ' his work which always, seems !-O b2,.chlirigini-ncw_commu.nitieSt new

con:t6sts, ne~7 fights.1 :', ,/~ '. . , .

, Thus, keepinr; in mind the d1fficul ti'es thnt .. tho loss-thari~oh~nTd.ng en-

• , J.' . .

" ~ counter in th~1r organtzingattempts, 'lot''tlS': eyaJ.uat~ method and _method~ ..

-;»:

, Although the l~ng-term erfo'ctivon~ss\;i' Ai~~U;~sO:orga.n1Zing';ef-

c ,':f'ons c~otyet b,,:;"sseise<t; t~e Back of ~~~-td~SN~f~"l;i'h*J~Cic~~~;' ~

, '.:. . .' ~. ,,' " , ,'r~~-';: ' •. -. .. '.', -: ::·;':'_;t~·,.x~·'·,>-t,~;;'::)'Ien'~il;·J,·,·".,·,;:: .

. j_s',.~,.well-e5tablished commUni ty"organi~a.tion •. : As previou:s~y.'noted,.~;tfJ.e:;;l:·'

". « > ,. ,;' _ ,._ . . . , - ~ - =:- '. ~:.' '. /":.;~>t;---:::;";,_ " . ,''; ': ':"\".;~t";

Couneil~ {demooratic, enthuSia.sm .:has y1eiaed.:;~·.·'c~8.uf.t~f(t,:d~~p~ s,f,;-;(

, .', . . _ _:_, -_-:-··"-:·~::~-:Jt)~1.~s·t;,~,":0~·~~,.'~~,/;~~~~di~~ '.,' ,S

,L'~&:J'2,if;.' '. '. ...' ........ .' ". ' '

(l~,;~.~ ... seleoted :issUes or the BAck or the YArds-Journal, illustrate

'\,,"t):e,1~" -, , _'''_0'

.. :(f;),tli~~~lf'_c·~ntered'smugness ora neighborhoodwitb political innuence'~

~\ "": }.-';.,. ..._ ~, ,,- - - ~ \ -_, -,

; ~~""-- -;-.~~-.;. -.,. ... ', i . ," 0 • ,' •• _ ", t-

·,',t'.TheJoUrnalts pa:ges;are' :filled with progress,_reports ,a~~t: .

'i{i~<:;i;(:}~-'""-,~~i=- __ , _,, __ , _,:<:~,--,- ',' IH' ~ I -i' • " .' ~~. .. J:

.. P1'O~8M8nts sponso1'6<l:jointly ~y the Counoil .anj ty Hall .• : Th~ cOun~' " .. r; >:: .

Executive Secretary, ehce Alinsky's :fellow-radical, has hela'~s_, pOsiti~n>f>':I

. 0.... .' . .: \,', :, ,';.\ '.:" .'r: ','

for over t~nty-five years . and, -if the neighborhood aoes:not,:"chinge".··'··.·~.:~ '.

. , . •. '. l ,'.... ~,_:' -'; _, :j.)

(!.~. integrate) he cenl.d hold.1 t fo'r o.noth~r t~nty..rive. ,'Channe i8.,the:,·,~~·;i,.; ,

'. .", ~ > _ " ..:' ":, .' >_', __ ,,' , __ ._','~~:~-11 / .

• key to the ~i:tuation_in' Back ~f t~leYard~ todlty ju~t 'as it ~~s'in'.:1939,:·:,:/}'·i. ,

• • ", _ -.;._ • ,_ ;~_,~,'_ ,': c

only rioW' the residents ar-e tho stlltUS QUO. tVhen. II ooMnnurl.ty is ~rgAn.,,'" l::·,:~,t:.

. ..' - . . "'. .. ' ,,< .... ,. .,<:.()~,'; .

, 1zed tU"<>W'ld 't.htJ coneopt. o£ 8el.£-:tnt.Di"e.t. aft 9Q.ok o~ t.h .. : YANG' Md ·ot.b~i'··~;,,!:i":;~ ,

• . ',' .' , ". , . ' .' ~ , ,J ",,<:'.;;.-',.t; .. ,

. Alinsky-organizod areas have been, it is natural, ,that self-intor~st' re-· .. '.,·:,:~' .

. , ,~ . '.-~. .

niains'the theme of that' eommum ty' s cchosxon;' The Council: 'hns ihr.oughtthb,.·, '.

_ • ,t •

- , "" ' '. (. '-~- ~.7

; .' ~ . • ~! , -: ••

years hel.ped to"5UperL~p'ose an id~mtity. upon the' area. 'Jo~',Hn:r£ne~, 'who', .>:

. - ~'. : .

. . has worked tor tho Journnl'sinco it bagsn , ro~l"'\bers' the'oid .~juri(;t·e·"· and" '.

. .' . . ,_ .... ", 2 ' .. ' ., .

. ···:·-·ls-p-rouCl--t}fat-~:rew ras1dents·lllOVe·from- Back'-of-the-'Yllrdg-~1'he~lack~6:C~":~' ~~

. - .. .

mobility·.OJ1lOn·g the residents' is often

". " , ". • ~ .' 3

for 'tnillin~ down"' the. nei~borhood.

cited as a'· epi tiei"sin of, Ai1ri·~ky'.

.-.~-,- - ... -.--.: ..... '-'--.;.___.c--,~._ .. >

:,lo ~ -: :

-v

~ ... -.J ,_,' ,,~" _ ... _,,",_

,This ,criticism has been appliedJ-n a slichtlyUter:ed: fo'rm.to

• , _ -- --', • ' ". . _.J 0-.- '. <

._ \-Toocllmm. Philip H. Hnuser,' head of the Department of SOci910&a~ the', '.

,

f . "

,,', . University of Chicaeo, ibel1eves tha.t "ttpe met hods by whi'ch, Alinsky organ-

.. ,-' '. " '," .. ," '. ":',,'

", 1zed ,'l.'Vtt) may llctUally have impeded the achiovOOIonto£ consensus, and ·,.thus' , ".',

" " 4" . ""!"

'~dOlayod the att~r.'of Wood.ta'Wtl'S(true'objective~." 'Even questiomnc'"

. '. -. \. " '" .',

~ . ~ ~ ... ' .,":: ",j'"" t

whethe'r Proi'essol' Hauser knovs what~·those "true 'Objoct4ves"are.,~ ~8'.~9~,);,~:.":~r

.,.~ ,,'. =, .,'. . ;,.. " . " "'.. : ..... ,(.:;,::5'·<··-::·;;~'!'::,';.it,('~~':'Z~~:·

'ment.is suggestive, of otner .academi.c:crl tic1s:ri:o£tba:2illlisk3:"m6c!e~~~sl:',~;;~/:.;H';·V

.; restQ ts.; ". '. . .' ". .·i' < .:: '. . ... ' ..<' ... :' i:-'-'~~~.i;~Lit~l~j~;~~*~;i~i

,'. Dl"':.·:Hn~lE-/F~Y',editor· of. -Chrlst1anConturs:;"'Jan~d)r':'~F'ran~?l!'~s'~, 9"t2(

7~:_~'--;~:'-'-_- __ " -.' -~~_;. __ ~ __ . __ ~.... _"c __ :-.,- •.. L,. __ .~. .' . _. . ..... '. . .::_ . -' ....•. e: :'-': ·':·'_'!··~!~)::{E}~I:{/,:,:;::J';:~",~;~!:~}~';;#.i;~,!.~~ij!!~;2;"~:; ,.. ,..f:t,h~ NM:rYn""k In~t1 .. tl"te for Dovelop'm'ontal;' studies~;tw();o~!i~~~()u,,~~ok~I?!g.;

,,-.,;

F8y'~{ obje~~6~s~tor ~n' A.til\~l<y'· s n.bra.sive t!liUmer to.41t,er the -eXisting. bal ance of, socitil po1rer. He'haa.,

. -. . .' ~ ,

, ..

. _:chnrgod' ~~~mth' ~courag1ng:, "D.·political moveme~t whose. obje~~".i~·~··

-i":'< ',<,~r;; '::\" _ ',"_'j , ." ~ , -; " .. .. ", _ ':,:_,:~:,_'.,;,_.u

. ~ e!ltnbli!:h ~n:~~:_ ov~r Urb~ so eiety by r~;t~ UP'~l'<>~' its x.dns :'n,' :

'power stru~tttra' ~ctnto~s~p ,b~sed on slum dwellers." Such,runorphous'

.,' "

hysteria 1~' ch'lrD.ct..::ristic of Dr: Foy. Dr. Rois~an; howeve;~ p~sent~

, , , ," , ' 6

D. .i'ormid.lble critiquo...in his Ilrticle "The Hyth of Saul, Al:1nsky,',i He'

~ ~ >

~- ':

1> ',.

i

. ... " .

incorporatos 0. cpccttu."!l of objections tho' most important of whioh' con..", '

" ,,' ,~_~:~ ... , ..

coms.Aliilsky"!j ~p?~rcnt innbili ty to movo tOHo.ro anything in':the ,:way • ,',

, ".' '. . ~,' . 7'

of dElyelopin,rr n mov~:lIont or. n nntiono.l pro c:rrun ,ornntionru. ore;:tn:1Zat1on., e

* •• • • ,',:' ,'"

1\ ~ ~

R~iss:n.m conc t.ruct.s his cri tiquo around Al~n31<y' 'S ornphasfs-on, 16- ',':. .

.: ': ~. ~

..

.' .~

clllism and tho res .. ,l ~~ of tha.tloca.li5m which R~ssm.a.n considers ineftoc..:.

t ,l i

tiv:o. He uses .on e5~im:l.to made ~ N:i.~holas von Hoffm~, th'at oiu:Y'.~ or 8. •

- ' .' ' - ,:- - / .

'. . ,- . " .

. communi ty .ar-e ,evor nc~i vat.cd. in, any 11$ orga.nizinr; drive, to .,demonstrate

. , '

, ' the non-reProsento.tive' nature of the 'mobilization. Tho point is vnlid'but--

. . . ~

.

of little siOu~ic'~~1ce since' in any, orgon1~.9.tion ~ loaders n~e among tho m6'st'nc~ive ,tne'!'r.bcrs~ nnd- do~is1~n-raa1d.ng necessarily eXCludes som'e .

. . , . ~

olauents ~t timos. A. nor-e critical. question, 'Hhich Rc1ssman oriy impiies

,', , , f41.' , .

involves' the Ivng-rA.nc:e affectivencss of recruitod lo.adEtrs,. The only::

" :nsil?le natio~t ~i~ to e:nerge from- an IAF endeavor- is Ca.esa~ Chavez

J .' _ ,

:~tlo bp.i~~s :'~1' nr~izer • . Reissman has a bettor arLUmont when he moves,

from thu intern',-u. strt\~ture of the local· orgrunzations 'to .~heir

.. ...."....' . ~ ~,.

, " ':'" ,: Tli~ ·quo~ion, tt~~ReiGSme.n phrases it, '1s' wheth~r Al1~sky

• • ~.:' ~ t'

, ..... _' ~." ,....... ...., w ~ ~~ < ", .. ,. " • .~

.', 'cizos":an .a~':or . simnly, 'directs ,"poopl13 futon

. ",'" 8·, "~ ,,' '. '.... ,',"',' - " ~':

" ' .~." . acti v!sm? It _ .. Rei ~'SU1~ ~mswers', hi s.ewn questldn. by

.. ,.' ~ . . ' .

,.' __ .

-,

. where the'lnOst publici'zed of ~~~skY' s ,ef,fo!ts. ?a~e

_;_. -

.. '- - ~ .

..

•• • , -, " • > ' ,,?~;l9 ~/: >';','=i'

ill 'their no1so shaken'the hold,'of' tho Daley l'Ilachino~.",:p'ex'~,.",

.- I' • , ,," .' '. "', '~{ ,;:1:'~.: .. ":;.~'."'

AlinsleY tlOdel's, emphasis on local1ssucs -Md"'.-SOo.l's deteltd~ed';\S·.

. .' ,_:'.. :- . . . .' . '_-:.:.d '~~"~.~;i/~i\ ..• ':c'.., ...

·fi'~':'i~.~c¥:~."",*'lT «tJoV •• ,'. .n .. l'~." .£2."Om. mc\"," ,or co n:1::':tti:'(1rt 'O'r~dr~ .,.+~t!b, ~~~: .. :~.,

. " 'postul6.te~·th~t Atins1<Y~ s opposi. tion' to - ~~r~aip~~Oms, "rOa~go·~i'; .. ;~~'~:'~;,

~,-.,;. ~J ~. ~ .. . ~ .. ~.- .• i._: -::-: "':.;'~~~. ".;-;t;~'~

ide;lol'Y 'oo~uses evon those who "partic1pat~ in the loonJ. organiza~~'ris~"

<. ~. ..

J.~ .:';::~':')~',~\

'-:"'-!" '., ,:~::} », ,:'_:~,,-;;r::;

" because' they find no context ,for their c.~tions.

.~ .... , ...

, '''?''

..,.. " . , .<. ~ ~, .' '0 .

.., Yot, Reiss:nan' 5 prooosed solution depends on the "or'ganiz$r:'strat-.·

. . . '. ;".- .. _-, . " '

. . . . .- -. . \. ; "",.:~ \ ~ :;~ ;

egist-intol1:ecturiJ." to f1p~vide the connection~, the larg~r ,it~·(:tnQ.~,w1i.·'~,i

o' 10'

load to .the develop:nent of .n movement. tt Almost as ~:tfr~erlh~u~t 'h~o, ·

.. .' .' . ~ , ..... •. 1, ~

", • .. ,..., . ~ •. ~ .. : • .' .';.1 ,',

adds s "This'is not. to suegost. th.,t the la.rf;Gr viow should. be '1n,lPosod,upon

" ~ ~\. I \

· the Local, group; yot , it '~hoU1d be dovol.oped , in part', by. ritit1onell.Y'- : ' .::

. " 110 • ,', 0 ", • ", " .' '. "0,

~rlented leadership." This poaition is acoapbed by so~e,.NewLeit;'str~t~gr~·

. ..... • - '. \" ,~~,~,>"

• . " " _.. :.r<'

· who, althou.gh. dicenchnnted With. Alinsky-liko faith in ihdividuhl.s,·, ,apply ':.,; ,

. , 0, ;'~\

many of his tactics in ~onfrontat~?n poll tics. Th~ problem~ ·inhe~rit:.in I

• 1.0- • .: ~_~!

such nn. ~ppro.ach/including elitist arrogance ruld repressive irito~erll?c9:

• ~ ,0

· have. become eVidant during recent university crises. The ,eng1.neers of ..

- _ .. -._ .. _--.- r:-- •

, disruption, lacldng Alinsky's neXlbUity '1~ doaling with their -~'o~oioyM

.... - , . . ~

(i.e. acb-.inistr~tors, trustoes, etc.)~ become hardened into non-negOti~bie,

..... - ~ .

si tuntions. Conflicts then run the po ssibili ty of osoru.at1.-ng into' zero- '\

I ' 0

, . , ~ .

~ .' sum' garnoB ,,.mora nobody W'in9. Although Alinsky publicly dismi830d the,~', 0

... ' \. . '. 0" .. ~ : ":0 ",0

ReisS!!1n.n critique ~n' 1967; he be gan davelopint! a coherent radical., strateuY

. , ~ .

. to . dO~l old th ~h~ trends, of) tne 1970"5.,' '" ~ , " .' ,,:', .. ',.i:

. .' " -..,. .'.:- ...•. '>,,, .." , ....

"::.... . . Underlying criticism such as Hauser' 5 and Reissmahfs·;'1stlif3d~b;.~~oyE

" ,',' ~ • 0 .' '. 0 - .; ,:. .' .' ,,_: •• _ '-"-3;:"'IJ."~~;;r:·, ';"'~;J'z:\·,><,';CXf,~:·>?,··

tho - me'rl: ts of. ~n~n;Us'- and ~onfi1ct both -as ~~::me~;·,:fdi-:$id~r.~~dibi:;,:-.<i:·

< ; ..' .,. • -:' .-:' '.~ ;", "c~~:~:',-~··;;?:·· ,';', ;~rY;,~;_; ;;:;~>~.-~~'~~o:,., :.'

, . social processes and for achieving social 'goals. A.1,insl<y:, .. ;tbe .exeinpla~'·i'- -,7,' .

. "eo~ .n~ocate ,dioo~sesth~ cons~nius~thOiii-i~s\f~,~'; ;:~j~,.~fIJI;'00~i'i~~j

'. . .

As inth m05t of At1nskyf 5 poll ti.c!\l anal.y se s t.ho ro is a. c.onv1no1n~

.. ,

ring' to this one; hovover-, "ro·:l.li tyfl, Hhich /J.lnsky cha.rnpio·ns,' '1~

hot so facilely .analY-z.ed.

. . ~ .

~ ~ .The·"jtixtllpo~ttion·or. 'consonmlS and conflict. hllu:been '8,. DWtt$r

. . .

,'. -wo can join the (il1b.'lto d~ring ·th~t9.50"s, pt'Csup~sin~ ll.1.t thn.tk~ \.

. • ."" ... I •

. '

':l'rent bef'or-e •

, .

lliring tho 1950' 5 the conflict' theorists' such as_:.· .. ·

. . ->

,.," =, ~ 'S i;

... . . \-

, .

!,mds Cosar rol1.o~·:ed up'; t.'1o ...... ork of nen such as Georg Simmol in,

-1 ,_" _,. : ... ,_,~ ... _ .. _. '-,'"

-order ~oc~D.ll')n~ the provaa 1 inG .conse~sus orientation.' Ex em':' ,

. ptifying this consensus orlent!lti"·n~l.',\s Seymo'.lr.l1artin Lipse't "rho'

. .

writes .Ln PoU,tic~l M:Jn:

_.

Inherent in nll democratic systnMs is thffconst~nt threat ·:.thot .. the ,grouo ,conflicts '~hich norA democracy's lifo-blood ·may " solidify to' the ?o1ht· ... ',yhore~thcy~ threaten ~to disintecrate~,the soci..,ty. Honco. coridi tlons'Hhich serve :·.lorr.odernto .the~,1iltcn-

. bity of n:\rtiscm .bottle nrc lU'T1ong .tho key' ~qU1Di tea' of.:deinb-

cr.rt~i·c. £,ovarr:..,ont.:1J : . _. ,'. '.

:'" . ~

Li.9set' s .i;t~tpmC>ntt ~oro functiona.LtY-In's~crl'Qtive th.ui soclet.'l1.1Y

. . ,I· .

. .

".~ - " ,"" ,

d~:;criptive,is ir,dic!ltive of oth~r consensus thinkors such a~ .

, ., ' .... ; . -' . ' ... ' ~ . - ;.; ...' •••.. -"C"

-£.,:.!eY. orp;~'r·s .. ,!~~. "Fo; th~m,:·. ·aor.flictis inccr.ipatibl~~!ith.st~~2;

'*', ';. '. ......,. " ..' . -. ~, r • • _. ,·]i,:.;}ji r:"Y}.

;_':""""~ .', .tu~/.and '·orgn~i7.~tion :~:: r1~pendent on a consensus 9ssant1u'

'.:~' ·~7/~bcitai.:~ .1'-1 ~i }j_~'dui~ .. : irvin~, Lou! 5 'Horold tz

:·},~i;1~2J,r,:·:T'2:~::~:~<~·J,?- ;,'":::<~:~'. : .: ':;::,J,. .; . - '. ,~/~:",,,~: ·~:,':'};,tCor.n1ct·~·'-~uld'·.CO,:o;)cr:it:l.ori". SUgg~5tS :thht

.'.

, .

",

. ,

. idnll~'so~1otY "that preci~i tated thei'r se:lrc~ for a . ,

';' ... , .: ,: ....•. , . " ..... '. ' .. 14, . . .' - ••.. :""i'

.J,(! ........ 'Ui ~ •. ""'tt#.~ l'f«u,t;nttr i/ ,: e~rt!\''''t't''1\'t~ ~ .... ~ ~....,~~~. «~~!oot'.

:~~~t;ri~~~ :n~~~~i :t;f~~ 14~~~<~~;: ::~:U~91~~dIs&M~::~~~,',

Affectivo 'than m:t~s terror. , ! ': ',_ "..

. . . , ' ~ .

,',Coser' s chal.Lengo to the consensual judcrnont :thnt co'nflibt :is

", ~.

. ... ., . .

. dysfunctional is paxticul:tr_ly effectiv~ because of distinctions'

he nake s anong. conflicts. Tho most obvious distin~li OndS internAl and externAi ·conflict. Because Alinsky's concern centers ,on irtter-

' .

. ','"

, .

., :.

. - ..

group conflicts rnther bhan intrll-t:roup ono s, . these remarks Wilt be

limited to. tho former typos.

"'''-, ~

'.

.... _........... ,..' • ,._,.,.'_"e .. _" \... .'.C. _._.', .

,. Th"" d..1.d~~".AnA:I::,i"g mO;r\nor in uhioh ,Oosor hnndtos 1htar.,:,grou.p .

"

'conflicts can be seen in the follmnnr;"excerpts from the conclusion "-

of The Functions ofSoci:11.· Conflict:

. .In looselY structured. r,roups' and O!)An soci~ties;' conf11ct,o- .. '-_. __ .. -: which aims .at ,a '~solution of tension bo tveon a.ntagonists,--:--'· ' ... '

·.l.s lik'i'ly to have' stabilizine and integrative funotions for t.ht,' rel ntionshio. By oemittinp; immAointe ::llHdir~ct ex., pression .of -'rival ~ claims,'. such' ;50c1il1: systems:' are: able·' to: readjust their strupturos by eliminnt1ng tho sources of

dissatfsfllct1on. •• ' .

A floxiblo society Donefi ts from, conflict because' such' behavior, by holping to create ~rid modify no rms , assures

. -,'

its contd.nu-mce under changed conditions... . . <.

$incc the ou tb reak of the confliot indioatos a 'rejBd_,' .

. tion of ll. o'rov'ious accommoda td.on b(?t'l-leen parties, once the ... 'respectiv~' power of the c':>ntendprs has be~n asoertnined

__r"through conflict,. a new equilibrium can ·be esta.bll;she~6 '. and the rel:- .. tionship can proceed on thin new .basd s •••

o • • -, • . ~

"'\ ,- ... _,

o. I

.. ·0.

,. . Assti111ing that r\:ncric'an society is . "open" analy~is: ap;l.ied' to :conflict iti"=this . COfuttry is

is st:tbiiizi.n~<. Thcrci~, hom.;Yb'r; .a.necns5ary~

, .. '1,';' ~:. J

. ,;":'.}: rliddereeilrdine "reaiistic" and' "nonre_alist::1c".

-".,:"

-1;: , ~ •

" ' • ..IIt - • .~.. .

. . . J;,hat arise' from i'rustrationsoi'. sp'e-

:de~arias: wit~'ll':relationshir and from estimates or. ,

: .... _gainsr:orthe,.participan~s, and- that nre directed" at' t.hep~~_:. "' . ·=sumeo frustrntinr,,"objoct, can bo called reali~tic confliot.s.. .

• ' • ( • ~ 4 ......... - • ~

. ',Insofar. as. .. they_ are means _ tol07flro specific 1"'9 sul, ts, . they.. can .,

, .be replllcod.:bY a.lt~rnative modes- of1nteractlon· With the;:"_-·-

. . oontondinn par'ty;i,f'suchhl tem~t1v(is ":;eenL to, be "more ade.,

";·::.~,qunt.(J~:f~r.rOa\.1'z.ing,.theend ·in V161-t •.. ,._, !_ . "-.~_~ _ .... ~"~.,~ -:-~_.""

.~ ~" -Nonre:1tist1c.; cbnf'Ld.c t s , on the other hand, ar-o not, "

. :,. ··".occnsionAd by· the rivA.l ends of, the antR.gonists, but by

, "::'~ "the -need <for tefisl:On 'roloa:se of one or both of them. In ,: _",·t.his'c~r:p.th~ ~onftict is 'not oriented'to-;':''''.rd· tho lit.tain_ .

. ' iru~'nt .:of ·spc?1fic ... re sul, t s , InsofAr as .unre:tli~tio, conflict, .

.' ',';. is an, end in i tsolf, i'nsofar as i t.a£foros onl.y tension

. "rel'Aaso; the· chosen antagonist can 'b~ substi tutocrfor- by

~. o~ner'suitable target.1? '

. .... .' .. .'

..

-:. ',\The~'is'- then, no dirGct ~lation betw9r'n '5ta~iliznt1o~ and contli~t·

. :. :~ .' ~ .': ' .~" - , ..

. . n9;~.!!! 'but 'b~t"lep.n stnbilization' and certnin types of oonflict..:~.T~s·

• '. " .-0".

". -

:,,~Conol'u.siorif i·:L9suentiRl for our Understanding of Atinsky's use ot

. '"' .

'-: ...

"

. .. - .

·confliot. "'.

_'" ,~ ,., ,

.... "~' At thou,gh :the People,' is 'O~gani?n.ti,onst onco e'stablis?e~ en ga. ge' " , .

" " , '. . 18 " . .. .. -. ,_,,''--

".'. more often In rentisti<l thnn nonreAlistic conflicts" thoir' forma-

• '. I !,. • '. •

. . ~ . ~

t :' tlo~, is J_a.rr;ely a procoas of oxp~01 tirir; nonrelliistic c~nflict. It ..

• ..' '-,... • { • : I ~ • •

':-- 1:5 .~.durlng~',thl..s: procesn :that .Alinsky's crd, ties accUSe him 'of "rubbing

> •• 4_'" ~~;::' • '. . • ,i •

~ ."'~ 1\ Or·'"

, ,rA~': 'th~{ sores 'of discontent."· without Any specific goal, in id~d. '

/" -r • ~ .. .... ~ • 4 •

" .. ~::- ~ -*' .• '.' ...

'. ~y 'Atill~kY' vlows' ·th'" P~O"S5 as having so~~rD.t' ends"llMon~ wh1oh;'is' th~

.'-'--- ""'~~ -... - ., ~. ~ ~" .

':,~:·~~bl.i~,':'~;dhG·· ~i' '~:rl.evsn~e~~ ::' '. . . ' '. ~

,;_; .. -,", . ' . .rhe '~~ry; ·~cti.~n C:i!~l';va~ini: the sa donna';t hidd~rl h6 stili tie.s ....;

... ;; .. : (Ito, th'e'~rr.aet), for confrontatlon and ventil.atlon.llndconve~:" "~:. .»

.' J.,~si~n'rinto: ·fJMblmnsis.in Itself 'a' construqt1ve and,nio~t,·impor-:":';!i '.

":~::-:-, " ~ ... ': .:::i:,t.8.n!-,;f?:i:~l.. ,:c~th,!ir~is.. The,. al;~.err)aJ,.i =. :t.rouldbeh;tll~~;,p,e·rmt;~~~ng;;i~;~~~{·"'$~;, ~B' .' .; ~r',· . of. ~ inca sBant~ccu:a,uation~and'comobundin£(of subriierg~d:fru5'C )?;~_;Y'<~:i,.fI;'<.,.,. ··::~,:.,/;,:h'~J:,·.(·trnt:~ofts';',·; ~ s'eZ).tments. ·and . 110 s~ili ties:iri;{arge~ ~;e~n~~s~ o:t;;~,;;i, >:'f.Y·>-" '<,:,~,."j~

•. ~'",;rJ2i,I '·:·\~:§u-.~,:]Op~ta~ion ~ ~;,tf~th~.:t.f1Ei· elo f~g" -, ~:t ·hlF;:c~a~~l:s;~f:~!::~tte~~.Bf,,~r"·· " 'a:~~11j: ·.c~f·;t·.:·~r;-:,+,~=:.e.yot!1-ng;,~>ni'~li~i1f4.;tsh:.:.Se~ting,~f~,~ •. a·pr.op~ble~ •. ,ba.~.l<r;~g.oAV;,.:,~;I·:':i~J0~':,~~.}'t~;:· '·~·;,;'i;:i:~'~~'\i';;'1;~*11ictions:-gahe~:it~(Lbt;'ir.ratroria.I;,~:vindictitc,·hara~wfthi:atiaii:';:;.f~~;;;j:i~7;<f·:',i,:~j~

.; .

. _ _..,-- .. ".

., ~- -,---;-

~veritilation" 'cSf no ~" ••• ,in .• cp.rta1n';SittiB.tions 'is ~alid', but, across-the~bo,'\rd ".f· ct,\nnot be 'prescri.bcd~ . ~n£hSlrsls"'has a. way of pcrp(.,~uating ·itself~ ... ~.L~.~~~_.".::,

<:~\,~,',,~:"" -." -'"" ',:,'" jI,,-',"'i-~,~ ,<),',,-,:":~'"

./ 'soth!lt '1 t.beCOtl1CS an ~nd iri," it"self • Alinskyt ~ psY~hod;~~ti~s· ha.V'e-"'~.~ .. -?

~br6Uzh~~~.-,Attenti6n .• ~d~CJlt4tYZeO ~rg~niZl\t.iln~t· ~~ti~tY;'obut:~.~"'~c~~": .. ~~~:"".~,~.~.,

, .

many s~clo1ocists, such a s rrofAs~or'Annem~rle .Shimony of '.~olt~sley

'" ' ' ..,,' ,20

COllA£t), l"Og~rd JUinsky' .!lS n showman rll.thA~than an acti~st.

oJ"

>:l'ofnr;sor S'limony' considers both Back of. tho Yards, and fl~~~l:l~m

." "

, ra.ttu~~s; .. :the fomar bp.causp. of it5 segro~ationist t~ndencios~~hioli

. ,

arb !.1.r'tiC1113.r host11.i tics pubtiQly ?xpross~~ and tho ,l.'\t.ter beo.luse

. .'.

of it..; takoovnrby' 'gD.nbs"who op1tOtTdz'o n bl.ntp.t'lt hootil~ty o.ppronO'h.

. "~'

~oti.,·:z:- cr1tici~ of Atinsky' 5 cntharr.is appro'ach is'the difficulty

in .'1(.:' -,ty1ngit. Atin:.;ky, the :-r1l\ster sho~7m:ln,is nbloto orchcstr.'lte

. " ~ .' " ." ., '''-, ".

, ._.. .. '.... "_ .

. it, ry..lt other loss:':skilled orZ:lr.izors, such as tho Raverend Hr. Fry,

• • • . ,.' <

. canno'b l'l:1int:rl.tL control. ' 'H~y of thq Alinsky":inspired poverty Harriors

• lo··_

·,-·cou.ld-not-(discounting politicAl rensons) move .beyond. the cathartic

" . ; .

.../"'"

-'first 'step of .orc;n.."1izinp; ~MUpS "to oppo se , compl.ai,n , dononst.rnt.e ,

. -' ,':'. 21 .' .

and bo.>"cotttt to dovolopinG ~..nd runnine':\ proc;rn."11,.. Cou~led: to the

. ~ .

,p.:-ohl:"!!i of cO!'1!lict is t.he question :>f ~.ihrlt arc the results of roa.l-

..

"1 Fltic conftict,7- ·rho :\nsw~r in Cos~r' s ~-lord!' i~ "the 1'!J1.lintennnce '22

J

or c~n.tinu:;l ~~"dju5t:n~nt of, the bal.ance of ""O"T~~. "

"

"

'. .~.

'.

..

"" ". i,'

I.'

~...,.. '-~".'" .:.:/,K~' "'t~' ._

~cently . ., tho Language of pouer has become '1110 re~£n~d;l1.'l~.am~ngf;'''/'·'~('';:''···{

"' -, ., , . ,. "",'... ' ... '. " . ' " .', " . '.' . ' .• '." " ,;:: " .,:£;tfN,[·;'i:':,~/,·. 'fi'{;;;t' .. :;l,:;f:~t';;A;,/,:J~ .

"'so~i;i M:tly:>ts'Hho h-ive -firi:lllyarr'ived at ·~U5.:n5ZY' s!:t9J9.Ecoric1.u:si6ri;~. 2;_~t.";

., ,.,>,~~ ~'.<' ,~' ~';~:'J; . . C : " .~. '" ,_._~':':,_' ' • "',,, ~::. --: /' .•.•• < .:·:?;'J§I~'):::.S:;. .··;;:'·:~!~:'·:·;~@~r:'r,~o:·i;::~~'

'[;,'::.that';the,problems of~·the,noor nremore ,dircctlyrc;wlatcd;(to;':-ithe1r(i-a:c .,'

·:·,~!\':~'·Ll.:l~·:'F',~\::·i.,·':·I,.·,.' ':;.;. . " " '... :. •... ;. =:': ,·;.);;:)r,.~;~~~,0S.~:·~~~~;.,':;:';){~d:~~~:,% ·,· .. ."·{;Or;·h~o".ror)t.~jlf~ to,iheit':iick,or' money. 111e bpok, PovertYf;~Po~r~;2nnafPo •. ..;,_

• . ..• (--~- "--. - • "10. .... ~- • - .-. :*'- • - ---~,,~,,~ .... _..... .

~. - ~

.. - ,

.. - .; ~

the "new", po,~~r app~ach to .tho ,pr6bleI!i>~r '·'~eir .. ,

" ....

. l;1~lp. .I-fore 'Accurately the problem-is not onoof "po;le~" but.of '

;

:_ .,,~_'. 'II

.. ,

_ .. ~.,.~ ... ~~~:ronc .. Hnc;es~romin his essl\y on "thi'PO\OTO~ o~, the :~~~":::"",~" ~

. sur.:m~rizes thn a!,pro,qth to thf'! probl.om of pove'rty based on the p~y~ho-

logy of (>0~1('!rlp'5 .. nn ss ;

If tho '!"rJblPm were only one of a lack of monoy , it coul.d be sol vod-th!')'.lCh prov1:sion of ·~o~ and hett~r 'p'l:,ring jobs. for tht) poor,incroo'l.sod Minimum l·mgo l.ovol.s , hiGher levels 'of ·,rolfaro pcymcnt s , and soon. Thore uoul d be, in thn.t Case" no rO'llnc:-d for t~{' poor to undnrtl1kn ,~1l1Y' socanl, action: on thf-!1r ovn ·b~l:,'?lf. 'l'hi!J vim·r is' consistnnt ·'t-Tith the idea thnt

tho poor arc' un-ibl,» to pa rticipl t"'in and in1 tio.te. the sOjtution

of their o·.m nr-obl.ems , . ~ ..,' ' " ....

Hovevcr-, ~;inco it is mora likelyth:,lt t~c' problem is one . of po· .. TP.:'l'p.ssrl~~s, joint 'ini ti.q,ti ve by tho .·po<?r on their ovn behalf shoul.d ~rccodn and sccompnny ro spcnse s from ,the I'Cmainder of 300i,:;:':-;. In._practice th1~ initiat1v,=, 1s1ikely to be mo~t ~ff~cti vr:ly exercised tly po~ro!1ul conflict organizatio'ns

.bas.~_d in noiG~borhoods of povcrty.~J .',

Th~s9. paragraphs, _ot:1,Gin~lly written_in 196L1-, arc includod '1n 0. 1968'. eo'l l octdon .rd.th ot.~1'~r '!'rescn9tive tre<'lti~os.ur{;in!,,: simil{tr solutions _I

.

';'

10..; .•

. -,.

. .

to ·so.c.i III nro~ler.1s--which are nO~:1 out-of -da.to.

Ono of the !1eople "rho no'/! rec.oc;nfzes_ the. nnachrord.ste,c nature .' of smal.L nutr"r.o:\ous conflict or~:)niz~ ~ons ~s, Alins~ himsel f. A en t11ue ~f' ~~h~ po~ei·leortrl1ot zxPdol for cOTl1.~uni ty orF,;sn11.4tion .".

~ ..

,.. . .. ".

-

t1v\t.' mot!',oa, ha s undor-gone '.'l. si~icantevolution.since ,it.s ·co.a.los-

" '~", " .

. c·tJlce· i~' i939 .. Th')!I)e '~';~1~ build mcdel.s 'frequentlY' 'leave 'theirobsoles-, .

- ~.: >, " ' :.'. . ,.,.,1 ,": '. '. .' '--:-, ...J> .... "'(':'-,, .. ;.·:r .... ~\· .. ;.;·.<I.

: 'cent: ruins behrnd ~her.1.f_or .o the r-sito play ~1ith ·'t-rhile: -: ~heY'beGin.;.:t<·i';·:'(7}'.:(.;~,'

.. ~. ,- '--'~'..-"~-.-,,-, " .'. '.~~~.~.....- ' ... :.:. . .. ,- .'. . ... '. ..... .' '..;:'~ .• ':~' ~;{V,:··;..i·'".F;;· /:/~;\,: 5:·;C,.· .: ·f

':bufirl.inr.·~dnow. ··~.A1:in5~{Y' ~. p.volutiori,::rrl.tfiln>th:(f:~coht.e~t}ofitne;:ia.st,:",!;::;: ·f~;:;0;J::."

.,~': .U·,~"·, ':;" '~'. .' .~: . '.. . ,.~>.~:;,'~'" <- " •. ;,.(~;;.;·,;·:·'0;:i~::2tc';t~~t~·.~:.;:':·

:.',:tbirtY;Y'~.aT's,: pl.ic·es in;reliei ·.America fs.·gl~;lt,· .. challenge::>tJie,s~arch;;

~; ';- r~?:,; .. _::,ir" . .. .: ~'" '., ', .• 'f~':~.'.' .: , "c:::(:"ti':}::.~J*~::"'':;

"

........

- .

. '. • ..•.. _"'- ..• '. '.. . ty'.:;~ ~fo,re.:di~cussil\g·this:search;and -, ,uiris~~;,t.~'~>,~}i~ ..

'~ .'·::r:,~·;~·r,:·~~:t:r~~;:~~~' .", .'.'~-~~~' . __ : ',>,,',<' . ~~: .: . -~.~. . .-~ - ~~ •. '. '. -' ..'~ _. ." .. ',. ,'" .: .""\,' '> .:. .'::~~,: :~~,.~.,~:~~~\!.~~~::'::if'·;:,:,:·t:~;:'.

l-oli ir,3·it~' tne obsoles~ence :0"£· tho ~cnror/cOnhiet· ~del·Witt,'l)e··r:i •. :'/\··":,..;:.

" .a .. .: . "'.:;_,_-: '.

explorod.

. .

" -.---* ..

,;

A primary reason for the obsol e scenee of· the powe~/eonr11ot~,.

( . - .' " ,";-::

, , ,

model .1s that t~~o.u_rlt to lVhic~ it .. applies,!.he, te'r!1:~orlnllY-~~~o,-~~:~,

.-.... +.

, . .'

/ dofinerlco~~unity, 15 no tongP,r n ~orknble ~ociotat unit. The

~,6tine .of tho nniehborhood he s bfH"ri occunrdrig since' the turn of

-tho -cerrtury , s~owing somewhat during tho ~prosnioI1 then nccol ~rating

,

nfter the' w~r. Accompn'nyin~ t.he ooc1ino of the tr,'lditionAt n~ighbor':'

I .-

, hood as n 11 vine unit Here the massive contraliz.:\t1.on ofr>o',''''r on the fodornl Lnve l and the .gro~h 'of .tho suburbs , Fedar~.l ccnt~nt-

• '--,. .... ~..t

17.:ttion reduced local ,Mid st.at.o !'Ower, vlh1 l e musht):?om1ng sUbur~s , .... :. .

.re sult.ed 1n n fom of pO,lror schizophrenia in 'whlc~ . tho' urbsn .'l.reas

. .

, . .

. ., " . ,

rotnll1n"'d the cent.e r s of bus i.no ss and cul, turo only At the morcy of

.......

cormnuter~. Thu5, .lio :fincl our-set v« s in the tn1ci(11e of an urban cr1si:s ,·,hich is. roal.Ly n CrlS13 of conmuni, ty po-.-lpt. Kennot.h 'Boul.dkng Views

.. .

" .

'£he' cruY.: of th'o' orobl.on is th~t ''_:,e c-mnc t have community

un l:csi' ".m h'lva an ll~rre~nte of people Hi th some ·docisio~· . 1':1::11:1n.r:, :,o"':~r. The ,i1upotcnce of",thf) c1 ty, perhans its very 1nD.jjf)l'O!)rin.t~nnss :llS a unit is le~'q.1ng to i t~· decay, , Its ' ... ' 1,1"l;J(\t'mcn' '~ri!.i~5, t\s~I- hnV~'mfG~tM:i. nu.~l.1or, baolIuse:'i't-

il'> blJco:-';,!:1,:' C'. Totaro p,"wn in cconorm c , notit1clll, (And mi1.itnry

decition-::l'l!d!1;; •. The outlying suburb-Ls llctu2.11j'in:, ...

bett':-r ~h'~~1~. It is eflsior for .'1 ~l n..tiv<'1.y smal t 'uri t to "

. hnvc 56r1~ :;<:':1.<;0 ,of comnurd, ty, and the suburb 'a.t· '1:0.1st ha.s tl.. ) ;.'!: tlo nl)l~~ C:;4'ltl'O 1.' 'OVAr its ovn destini •• ~It:9 1.0cAl •. ~6varnt:lt~nt, it~ ~;ci-t:,;)l' boc rd , and .o thcr- com"Junit~':. :i!:cncies often

n:c "blr: to ~nthcr.a consd de.rabl,e :Ull~pnt or support nnd.

, 1n~~rcst .fro:!l the peopre they sorve;...... . " .'

. 'Bouldin~':;: ob'se'rvatiohs l1li'ght 'be

.. " .. ;'" . -. . ".' _.,., ... ,:

'th~~rl.~t-,nr~.unb in fn.vo·~ of'Haggst~m'

- •.. 1" ., :.. ..... -:-~<. "w .• _-. < }

~;' .. >

~ ".~ ~', ~

. .

._, .• ' .. ,.jo _ .... .,' . ._~ ,.._,~"">:",<".",,,,~t:~'.-,-. __

"'.rn7 _~~ld_ t.h9_.C~.lrUCtbC<lireCted7 Tr,,~tiOna11th~p~~~~~::~C-:'·' ,',., ,",~,=",,, ',l'llOd~l lias 8.?~i&d in urb~ con:rnun1~ies in ordor too!'gn:nize ag~~. s0111e~,

- '.. ' «... ,. ,.

thing: meat packers, the Univers1!-y of Chicago, Kodt'.k.· The' contplicnted .

"

overlapping -layers COtlpl"i sing our interdependent urban. areaa todny, make~~ :':. .. .:

- •• .• ~ ... r • ' ,........ ~'::..... • • r-: - ~-.JJ.. "',-' •

1tdif"ficul t to sii'lg-lc out an "enemy. It One' of t:he f~ctors' contribtlting· to

. . ' ...

. j

the OOOM Rill-DroHnsville school controversY in UOH York during the Fall

- \

t,.,·,

of -1968 wns tho marki)d absence of an i~ontifi:tblo enemy. Tho tArca~

..

. . ...

shifted .from the· taac!lOr' 5 union to 'the School Bo ard to the stn.to to '

.~ ,

~, !. • ......, • ,.

the For-d Foundation and around a~oin. The lack of .a cl')~r-out enemy o.crln!lt :

".,.110:11 to mobllize underscored' tho Laek of a. conmurd ty' o~pllblg of mobil-

• ~. j

,,; "~

i7.ation •

. Yet, parhnp s , the conflict t!1cOriSt might continue his,o.rgumont by sugeestin~1D.t t~o probl ein is not in tho ~modol bub-d.n those applying

. '

, .

. .

it. '~llth th~ "ri~~t't org.:mizers, such as Alinsky, 'W'ouldi~ not bo po ssabl,e

, . • f~

to org.l11i~.'3 n commurri ty ,u.j(ilizing conf.llcJ nnd particip3_tion? A posr.ible . - -

... " ,

reply 'recills the FIGIlr effort in Rochos+er-, Hnny critics of .Aiinsky's '

. . '; . ,'. .") .2.5

, I . _./

\lork, there believe thct /tho end result 15 merely a. "b'~ttcr Ghetto."

, -

" ...

, , ,,, ..

.. Al.1nsky hiJnsot"r 13 unhappy about tho mostly symbolic funotion whioh 'FIGHT

. .', . J '26. .,: " ". .

has nasumod in t!1C cotTtr.uriity~Given .the. components of FlGHT, however, .

. is there anjrtlrl.ng 'nlO~~, to. be oXpected?~ Tho ~ndit1onB.Or7~i;;~bo~d l?la~k~,"/'

", ,.:-.,. •• ••• ~_".: •••• _.,-.' • • " ~-...~ ,'- -". -.-~ • '. • :,'., « . • -:' .. ...... ., ;':<

in our Horthern- cities is onmenshed ,in :wha,t the Kerner Coimniss1o~ re.;i,

_. ~. ~ : " i ' .. ' • '1. ~'.

" ".. .,-. " . ,'~ " .' ~~, _ '~. . ' ,,".. _ _ .... " ~::,";~"~:',l,<~-;:~ ;~~ . "":,~,,.~,~ .. .:

··:ferrcd ••. to ~s '"inst~t~ti~~al ra_~~.~ ~e d~es_.n~~·~p~a.~1:.~.·~~~,;·f~~~}~~;j:,>:',Zf

.. ,<_'.\ .• .: _, 'J. -I ... ' • ..,,' .• ~. ,'_'~>,~J'i'_;:_':"'~"·i-<:_· '::·"-",~>L:,~"'~,;·:,."---:,,,.·.~_-:>;(,·

of: gadf.ly ccirlr!1ct against 'the overt~heim1ng odds suggested,bilthe

.' ." '..... '. .. .. 4. ' '"i .c' .- _: .. ,. /: ~ ,,.; ' .. :.' .-.;

• ,r,:" ..... ' 6>: -_ .. ,!.;';:, ."',,-,

: and·~&-<§.ng., r . . . . +,;;~~i '

t,;:,>); .;';:0j.'::,; ,-,-;' _' "',',-:'-':';L'~~;_\,t:s?~ ,~~~~;-_!

'i >:r .*"!:s~<~~i" "0 ,/' • ; , •• . ~ ~. '" • ",.">~:,~r,·.,,:':,~.:>:>."L~;~:)t;~{··~i(7 Iriterestlngly,this. ,society seems to be ,in2Ca..tr~si tionperiod.t,,·,:c,,<

,;.. . .- • ' ... ,,;::.-._ ,,:- ... ':,-_:-.-. ',"':;;<".-~- .:," ~ '",

b~tween e6ni'lict. ~d consensus.' The closest para.?--1~l..'_II1ight· be";¥b.~;;·;'

, ' "~' , '",- ". ".:'" • l' ~-:-,~'''' .~_:: u_ •• ·.'-.-~~- --'""~- .. '-> •• ;.~~~-~ ,

. ,~~:~=3930!s.lmen a -~hang1ng,.but . still coherent. consensus, ,witlistoo~--th~e7as-,:

".'o.Ut~.,"t" ,outcast. ~ups·. ihe'poStti.o~ ~i i~is' the 'annlogyt~~t1;:"

'_" ''_----. " __ ._' _,' •.• " .' _ .. ~_ _ .. __ ~,~, "' __ ~~~ -_~:;..:.:_-. =:' ' -_,...,..:...-_..,~:_~=-_~.:..~~-."--=~.,----j-~::"--"""'.~~~~' .. ~:-'ki-~~~±.

cited to justify the ,power/conflict modcl., Althour)llabor'fomonted -con.:

- .,

fiict, its goal lola,S always a share of tho American Dream. Th~ iaok or I

, .

radioalism in t~e Am-erican labor movement should not surprise nnyone

.' . -. ,/ -, - .. ' .. ' ,. . ..... - " :' . ','

who stu~es the effect that .. this country's phenomenal, growth ha'd on '

fdrming the ethos and expectations ,of the peopl~.

, .

v. ••

. .

. In .Coser'; terms/the lab~r conflicts were .real1stia and eye~tu8.1.1Y

\ '

'aooommodated be~~uo in~t1 tut1on~ were n~x:ible. During the, yeo.rs sinco

. I .

vtorld War II,. our institutions have' bocoranLe sn flexible ~der their.

_"---, . . .' i."

nlllnageri~ Weight, a:z;d_ the confllcts less realistic. Men still' w~t jobs, .

but they now demand "meaning" in tho jobs they receivo. Ju~t because 'such,'

• " t • "

. '. .. . . . ~.' .

a dOl'l1al"\d voul.d havo been 1udio1"'OUS in the job1.ess th4·I".ttos the. ariaJ.ogy "

f'. . ..' ... ,- --

. .

ldth that era cannot bo drawn too closely.

..

, ~

, Bein~ in the middlo of a trans1tionobscures one's ability' to

--;__-_-'" -----....:.._,.' ,.,..,__._~"., .,.-~,

. assess it. ELements .te.k~n for granted.;!.n the" poWe~/ conflict P1O~el '~r the.,

, 1

.' '

lnte '19.50' s land enrly 1960' s must be newly considered. One ,such element

I" - -, , -'

is tho role of participation. The power/conflict model assumed that, p~- .

" • " , • ,<

ticipation, as the root, of the -democrat1c~proc~ss9 was a riecoBsa~ and

, _. .'_ • ,'. . . c.' •

, good·'th1nb·~ 'Today, n~thi~g is so certain as we wonder.,:just what it '1s lIe,

", '.. ~ •• • • -:_" ~ - ~" ' .. #' ." •

.. .: are pnrUcipnt1ng·.1n. With eonvincin g, el.oquenca- J~' Gardner has ' argUed·: . : .

... th"tt~e Un1~d stat~s has ~O\~ed.i1lto a society ~per~~lrig,}?ri::tIi9:;~e~;~;J

. "'.. . ", - " : - - ',' .r> .. '_ " .,~·<~!·':'Lt:: .~;.~" ,,',;,:",~}:e~i ~;-

hive model," that locks~individuaJ.s into 'tasks that seem;lsolated;and,mean.,·;¥).

, ' '. '27 -, -,.- ", " , . ,.","::;'.' ';";""(."'>,/:,;-.~; .. 'j,'

. '. i~gle8ft~;~,~e ~~n~ ~r I thi~, ,q~~;.~~~~ i~th~t;i~~~~:t·an~,~:~~~~'jia.~·~tl

, .. , ,/. ...... , /.':,..., '. .'. '. "~,,,.;,: ,-' ,),:':;t,~g:}i.;';,j~:~(;?~,~'·~!0F·}f:'~ //··i:~;

:.'to ch-erish'; a. set or· vaiu:es and' f.lm·;t·rapped1n a'sy:s~::~P.s..~~tl~'g~~!3st~l§.~!l;;'i~·~f

~ • i:: '. ..:., ',,' <.:-\~"", ''; ",.,' -'-' " _::.>;-," -:,',.- :;~'\~'-!.:~~'Y~~(':}'-~\}f~?i·,~?~~'ffi''-:::t~)"w':f0!:''itt;:t':>: ' -,:-::':':T:~:(.:i:·"~.f'?+~:' <;' '~'?':',~t: ~

~t,~,~~~~~~~rr~t~~~~f4-;~n;~ienca:~~i~~~[I"l~};

.... >;2~i'5~etiried cry Eor p~~?ation Offers' a sol~~n.-JoZf,as""!m~rdner .~~S·'.).'>

,":':,::/",L',ci",,; _.,,' ," ,'.:.-~ ;, .. -.' , •. - ,~ • , ". __ ,,,,, ._-. "_._-_, ,-~' -.--.,·~:.-.,--~"_,_,,:~~,,~=~~-~,~-,,'-:-':~:"~_~~7~:"~

:~~~;'(:/'i t--is-bot~so obvions·that"the urge top~Cipate act; vel.y :Lin~!O!'!.!l,.!~~ng

. : .. :.'""': ." ..... ' '-. ----- -'--~--. ';--',,------"- .. " "_", . \··~'29' - ... ;~ .. ,.~'/r..\

~~~'~:."- c:~_~i~~·,~~~Ocl.a~Esti ~~!o-!'l~"i's--a- powerrpJ.~_h~B:Jl_ m~.~~v~.~ . '_ . :-:"~;~,"- ~<~"::,.~~,,:f~iEf1i~

. .' ~ . __ ' ., ',' ".," __ .:,'- -:.

. .. . "' '. ", .. :.- ,-:.:,,;.,

. . :In addition to - the uncertairrty of its two fundnmental aSsl1mptioT\$).

.. .. - ,;

• ~~~ty" and participation~ the: powe~/«?onrli~t tuodel·i~rende~d·,1.happii.o-

~ .: ~.J#'. -'" - ." •..• • '_ ""'~:'.' '",

'nble by e::d..sting societal conflicts.· The primary visible confliot today-

. . . ,

is racUal with most of' our urban probl.ems havineraoial .aspect~, A.ny at-

" ~ .. .....

... . +emPt. ~ 'SP~ci1'y a. QOn!'lict cannot- help but 'to~c~ on tho Inrger iss~~s

"

.?~ rnCi.sm and segrega.tion. - Once those issues' are raisedsettlementbo.

, ,

. .

~mes :increasingly cll.rfiCult, as illustrated in, Roger Fisher' s wot-k~~~n.,·

. ' 30 ' " -, , . ., <,if":','

"fractionllting conflict." Fisher's sn1:md-sli.Cing taotics for dea.t:41g·' '. ' .'- .

wi th conflict alone with .Ami td Etzioni' s sUbgest~on that appropria.te '

! .. ~. - ". -~.... - ~.- ~.' '" '" •

bribes be .offered are tHO thooraticni l11od1ficntioris or thEi!;pows¥Jconf"lict,

.. . . . . . . - " '.' ~.'

: : .modal, . tJta.t wi,trrant practical te~ting. Yet,' as our' "two .: ~ociet~e's'tt ~~~e ,'"

" furth6r. a.part co nt 11. vcd conflict serves to e~acerbat(3 the polarizati.o~.

. . .

~ . ~ ~. -

"Hororiitz labels. the clement needed during'this transition "oooperation" -:'~~

. - ' , . 31 .. - .

'and Al:1.nsky' 'Would. nfjroe ~ " .,

The senrCh, tor community and tho fe~lingorpoW9rl,essness charnc-',

. .

terlze the ~~tiro 'society, not just tho p001~ nt whom ~he powo-r/co!lf'11Ct ..

Model' vas or1cia~'J_y 'nimed, . Alinsky' 5 ·rea.lization~ tha~ th~' fight

.' . .' t

. '. ~

- " _~ont'L\t.1,.onbackri~.:l; and thA.t FIGh"T nee~!=,d"1.ts

':';, ~ ·~.l:~. _' ' . ....::.. .:'. __ , ...... ..: ". .,-~:.".. '-OM~~;"-'~ .'',..-,-.r r ••

.• " Sicnallod-his reth1nld.!'Jg the iaOD:' of -cOmmunity. and.

. ~ ... '._. ,

. .

. to Ach!.evo' demccr-atd,e equa.li ty.· ,

.. -;

t'..",c':

• • <

" .

-.

< ontne B~bades'i" p. 14.

F. _ _. \ ,""~. __..., •

",_"~.~·~Joh~ Haf~~~;,. ~~o:rt~i~-ori~t:he .B;ck 'o'r th'~' -i;;ds"J'~ur~~" pr.1Vnte'

,,<. ~_ •• U:,=~~~~., Illinois, January, 1969 .... ! .

'Bruckner, p. 01 .• , ~AJ:ldo];4son, p. 102. . .5rb1d.

.' .

"

. ,~ranl~ Rc1·sSDlc.n,

7 ... , ,

~~", p , 474.

. BrMd.'~· p. 475.

I .••.

9Ib1d., p , 473:

10Ihid., p. 4i4. 1~Ib1d .. · .

~2Ando~~n, p. 102.

, , ,

"TheHyth of Saul ,\linsky," m.-ssent -(Ju.lY'-Au~st, 1?67)~'.461

'. . ..........., ..

-,

..

.,

~Jseymou~o ~:'i;~., :i195~ i. p; ~i i~~~: M.n (Gardon City, II ew York: Do~b~e<i~_and ~~

.r=

14'· ..•.. L .'

r I.rvin~ Louis Horo-;.1itz, "Co(1:Jensus, Conflict, and Co_operation," System,.

Ch!Ih!!O, nnd Conf'~.ict~ od , N.J. Dtmernth III and Richard ·A. Peterson. ";(.Ne-t,, Yor!c:.T~e Fz-ee Pross, 1967), p , 265. ~

.,

.. . .

. _/-,

n conf1icti!1 r: opiru~n' set): Thomas p. Sherral:-d DJ",d Richnrd C., Hurray', "T~9 Church and !~eibhborhood COr.tnunity Orzan1.zation,-" Soc1nl vfork ,

: (Ju.1!, 19~5) ~ p. 3-14. . .

, 19 Ali~~ky, . "C:4_'ti=cn . P artiC1p~tion ' and·comm~ ty ·orCArrl:~~~:tb·~.in . Pl~~~.:y ~.,

. and'U'b' "\')~. ''''f 1" . 13'" .,.. . ..... ' .. "<: .. , ..•• ; •. ,.c.;' ;; •.•... ;.' .r> ~'

. " ' r an, .;\. .. n_. a_, p.. .,. _',' ." :'.. . .'. " '. / < :' . ".",';

~ ... . ~ . . . ,', -' ,'" . , . ,'",,' " . . .

" .

..

'~°ArtnGnl~e. ~.ony" Professor o!~cioiorY d{~~.[oiles{~i}col1~~ci',.~· . . " intemcH'in :'.'c11 t3sloy, Hassaohusetts,.J1nr~h {1969'~'«';:

-',;;:"';;;.'::"-'4",~~~",,,,_,,~'1t:

"":..:': .'.

~,-:';' .. '

'.

. ,

! .

..

,', "21~at1on~ 'Adviso17 ~~ssion on. Civll··Di·sordern, Reporl'ofthe

.' . R~rt of the NntionRl Adviso .Commi.ssion on 'CiVU.Disorders

. "(UC;I York:.- Bant aa Books, 19 297.

22 .' .

Cosar, p.,lS6.

. .

... -"- --;So'" .'

. ..-'"

.. 2Jw.:trran ·C. HAGrrstro~! "Tho Power of the' poor,~povc;ti_i_PO-;~~·rihdPoi:itiO~s, .. ode Chnirrl I ... lcoon.m (NelT York: Grosset & Dunlnp, 1968), p'. ·154.., 0

• . -to;! - ',_, II.~", .:

24KonnBth Bou.tclir1~, "Tho City, as an ~mnent 1"n tho Intomo.tiont1.l ~rstetn;U'

o 0, D~cdul.us, (Fall, 1968),. pO. 1118. . 0 0 : 0 '.;

2.5'· '

Anderson, p. 102. ~

, .

26Al1nskyintervimr, h'oilasley.

. .

J

,." '"

2'lRich;';U E. Ed.~nds, "Gardner Urbas .U. S. :Revivo Participation, "Tho Hnrvttrd o CriIr-;on, March Zl, 1969, .p , 1. "

.. 2Brud •. ;.; , 29 .

, 0 Ibid., p. ,.

3<1u,gor Fisher, ."Fract1onatinog Conflict," I~'t~~ritio'~"l c~;ni'~t 'and BAh'a:';":'

.' 0 1orl'.L ~cionce, 00.. RoGer tisher (lleyr York: Basic Books, Inc., 19~),

p. 91-110. "

31Horowi tz.

,0

.;;

.'

.

,.. .

.. '

.. ' ~

"

.- ..

---. .'

.. Tho pl'C'11olls c"~~ter_~as :i;"per~pecti ve" ~jth~r than~. •

,

bec~usb both' .u:L"l~1<y' and 'his model are con~rnuing to ovolva'. Although

, ,

:.

, .

his basd,c P~S!\sJ such tlS the prdmacy of powot" nnd the ,tma_voido.bili ty'

..

ar a reltitive'L1ornl:tt~ o.Te unchanged; his cppro ach to t}lO probiem or

• • ~ < • .•

, "redistributing po".ror hA"S; shifted sincG his dnys as ,'1 labor orgonizar.

These shifts aro n:>t o'as11y cntegot:1-zod, but they fruJ. into two broad "

.,__ .~~ :.

~rc8.S; his 'rothinld.ne the meaning of com~nuni ty and tho rolo of, ocntrnl-:- ..

ized' natd.orial, pl~nninl: in -s'ocinl' chango •

. .

Central to Minsky' 5 ovolving socio!politicol philo,sophy is hi~~:

. ...... ;..

:rethinldng tho idoll. of' community:

.. I de .no t think theidon of :!9O~llphicru. arc aa, ~specia.llyo£

np.ighbor~ood~) is nny longer applioablo. A 10!1C time ago, probably

. -----tn th the ~d·:ent of ,tho cnr-, HO' came to tho -'Ond of the definable, area, "Peoplo no lonGCr really livo their livos 1-n ned ghborbocds ,

Wo -nsve poli tictJ. subdivisions l-Thich nre things out of the--past, linGs on thft mnps; 'Wo arc stUl.invol ved. uith thisidon.But the lifo or the peopl.od s something ol.so , ~{e aro t?oinCto have to find"

. out 'tolherc;: ft roaUy is and how to orJrruUze i t."1 '"~"

, I ;~ .

. ~.nl0n· Alinsky t.:tlks about, finding "it," he is tru.ld.n~ about, 'the 'content

of' life in'~ nc ss civilization. "Tho· inqU1.rJ' i's really.n tuo-pr.rt onol

_" • _,do' • ., ; •

l"lh~", 5:tr.C~ 1ncur.:tA:1.:1l1 man fo'und tho "geed lila" doe s 'he,,~8eom to. have iot;t,'

. .

..

, ,

h1nsGlf, and \\!~~~:_. do. 't·re' ,~ from here? .For Alin~ky, the two a.re connected

f " - ...... •

. ->""-.,, ... 't'-"':--~

..: .... 6

, ,~

,.," .

.

, ,~ ,

1'\' . ,

' . . .

..

·t-71th tho modo rn ~;)arcr. for co:nmunity. -'~'-, . ".: .,:

, ". , j--' ." ~"".'

" ". __ )., e ';f" ... ,.. ..'. "

. In his :'r-j~;cch, "Is Thoro Lifo' 'J~tor Bi·rth?", presenteclibcfore.

... . . , t ,: ~ ; '-'~,-';', . ", ,_ ", ' ..... .. ,', .:. . .... '.

.. the .Episcopnl. 'Thc~lo'dCa1 Seminary ~n 1967, Ar:tn~ky dohl.";>-: .

',_:.. . '. .... _- 2.;., ' " -t . • ~. "<~".' .... ,i·';:·-~~·?'~·i';.'·,,;ri"

r>nrts of tho ~uc:;t~ on .. Echoing tho dire. predictions of' "'..;.· ... ' ... t·~ .; ~\,,'.·

; ,,-'" -, :. . ~ .,

:lbout<tho"st1fi1ng Cf!9cts·~re.sUl-ti~~-'f't:O~-·ri·-"";~."""'IJ~n..

," ;.,'.:."',' " - -~" • ..;.:,;_ •• ¥

.

~ '.' ,I.

... '_

cori61ud~s thatwhat':1s' itstlike is oUr'

'"'1 ' -:.~. . ,

".:::- J .". ,-'.. . ., __ .,'--','__,.. _,_... ,_ '\" ,-'- '-",-';"

• _,' U~1~!! ,the pbiloscipher .~r artist,j-he

..... ~ - -'." ~ ..... '

?:r"~"2 " "Tii9"~eeni-raI~l'robl~,il\ the l .. t.;'_~";'n_ti~t~·

" Al~sky is the ' , . I. . _. " •

I ' , ",' "

, mtdntenance and development'of, that, politeal t1.ochanism whioh

carrios the best. promise for s. W8y of life thnt 'WO'u1d enable individuals to seeure thoir identity, have the opportunity to rrt'O'" a.n=' tlohiav6 being as ;free men in faot, mon- 'Willing to.· make

'decisions and, bear- 'thoir consequencos.4 . .',..

, .

Haro, in a.vory""TOrl~-orlented wny, is the modern, man' attempting to ' ,live in th~ ~10rld-tl's-it-i:l~ Alinsky continues:

Most ,people h.?y~been and am fearful to' pay this priee for free..

" dom, and so freedom has largely boon freedom to ,avoid these- re,sponsibilities. The free man is one 'Who woUld break.Leese from .. the tarrestial; ohronolo g1.,cnl existence of seourl ty and status and tako or! into the adventur'e which is life with its passions, drama, risks, danCers, creative joys, nnd.the ability to ehnnge wi th change , 5

, ,

In response to :l question. about' his per-sonal, philosophy; .Alinsky, cringing at the usoof 'l'abels, ruefully admi ttcdth4t he might be

, 6

c ill ed an "en stflnti alis't." ~

. Yot, as ·JJ.lnsky has warned befo~words can get::ill:~the uay,

I •.

. -'esp~cin1lY· whon discussing tho route to 'Such t1 political 'mechanism as

, . I' . , . -:_ -

he 'ou~lines. A.linsY.y.' cin1pUfies tho matter by concentrating on the

/ ..' !'~ _, # •

. '~ctun\i~at1on of t:.'nditional democratio ideals'. ItE) advocates :hol;1.e£

in man's ability to govorn himself' and thA importance of voluntarism

• II> - ,. ••

.,:

" .

.'

.., -,' .' .

,'_

:1n' a free :so~iot:r. These are. cl.d ideas, old ro'r .t-les'tern',111M·

·',,: __ ~_.~.c,'·. " ,.1 ,':- '-"K._, . "':_: -, "

~or,~.A1 j;nskY,,, but'ho inJects. them 'intO,' a.revised :mcide~ ~".I..U-40'

" ~. ..- ~ - -'" .. .~ _-., _"..,. '.~ '. ,. . ..

, • < .-.... .. '''. •. ~

. -:, mlddle..cl ass-or.::~i~inr; 'and ~aiiti~n~.building~

,: . :",', _',':'/ :. ',:'_J,'

. , Minsky's proscription· for ·the poor. belpirig

, . ,.. - :~ ~ ,

. ~ ,.. --

...• · .• 'ha~~s, proV'~ true.' .In oth~rs; the transl!.tion ·ha.s~been. dysf'urictio ·&· ... ' ....... c_,,~_ .. ; ..• + •• ..0' ••.•••• __ •• .,

~_......._.__--;---_.,.., ., .. ;.:;:. _,_.".;,_.. _ .. _~. ""'_." '._ _. ~ __ • __ .. _" "~. "~ .,_ . ".' __ "»._.~_--.-'C'~~--:'-"'. .. .• ';--:,

·"2~t.;"~f'or3he:eo11l:'l1lni ty:or f'orihe ca;"sD of ~at cal,'. eh~ge .-oite~;

the'oapplic-at10n or the',Minsky model in geo(;raphiCallY-bo.UJ?d lOl~er.: cl.ass ·a.rea::; assumes an almost bootstrap fO~'I1u.lll. which is too. conserV-a..\ .. ,

. ~ . , .

tive for our pros~r.t s1.tuntion.

.

.'_ i.,

A Pe~plo's Organization of local oreanizations can at best

creato' nml1cvels of harmony among i~s member-s and secure It faw materJ.al

..

;i.'

.: iains. It is not o~ientcd tot-rard -harmonizinc' ccmpot.Lng metropolitnn in.. ,. "

. " ',. . '"

..

torests'in II concert of eovGrnrnentnl r{Jstructurlnr.. Part of the reason"', !

. " ....

'Ni,y. it is 'so ill~cr~uip::-Jod is tho lack of vision ·Reiss:nantnontionod.

. . . "- '.. . '.

Attc:npts at nrticuls.t1n~ vision lod Alinsky awC'~ from t~9 junglos and

," f!h~t~os to _the suburbs; bocauso it' is futilo t.o cliscus~ "v1:sion" loTi th~

r ....

a nan not yet materially sat.od or 'fribA'1toned of losing tHo proporty he .,

~ , . . .

- ._,_ .. _--"---.- ----_.-_ .. - .. -".--_._._---------"._--

possesses·~··-As' A'_ins~'Y Learned during the FIGIIT-Kod~ controversy there

.~ • . _ _.~ _ l<~-:

'" '--. ",

are great nwubor~ of ciddlo:"clnss A.'lloricans· sufrorin~ from feel1ngsof .

.. .. .....

poverl.essness , Thc.y, vrho control the cO!lilSUlTler·.mnrkot and the voting box,

. .

aro bmrl.ldorcd b:,· their children and by wars fOUGht on~telaVision screens ..

The ud.ddle cl.ccs :t3 'fertile cround for organizing anc, Minsky thinks,":

ro.d1-co.1izin ~.

. ."i:l..... __

- . ,·Tho. fr..:.~ L::-:,tiorl"i~ the suburban ehetto~s, _ f~eq\lently direoted oat

t~oso overr Less 'poHerful, _ coukd boo cnrumelled"1nt~' achieving r~dicnl/'"

. . ...

.... .. -. ~ ~

~als •. Tho· secrot , as in M1Y' organizing, .Ls that 'such 'go'ds'must

_.' • • ", • • • : 0 '-. 0 - ' •• ;; •• : :':"_ •• :.,.:.:..~;:.:;:.,',. -".,;.,~,;,;~c~-.:"-'~+:;"'':';'~

cei ved a.suar.all el:'ng sclf-1ntorest·.A gooddrr:ruuze~"C<)Utd.-'

. -4. . . ..,-.' .'~ - :-;:-:,~~:l~'?'_,-:"--~:~~','·_;,: '.

p~,coss of' ~e~c·;;:::tion': as Alinsk"f '~d in .co~~n:cl.n[: std'~1~1l61do;'s0

. th6.irprorles. to influcrtce ',corporato pol1.-cy • dr.' lie" •

-,

"

is .no tack'of 1sstles;: wh:Lt .1,5 missing nrc

• ~ ,~> -- . ';"~-. '-..._ ~

.sop~sti~atod ~rg~zers. Alinsky pl.ans on

• yo , •

org~zors trdnod in his ne1-T schcol., The Industrial Areas

.,.' .

"

, .

TraiiUng Institute is based in' Chic:Lgo wh'ere the IAF has'

.....,_} }-

ciat suppo~t frort_ the l·adas Corporrition. (Appondix' :0:): 'The Institute's

.. .. . ,' '",

"purpose is doscribecl on tho fact sheet as evontun.llY cl~veioPing' mass

. . .

power based crza.nization~ 't-rhich sounds much the. same ~s what Aiin.sky

, "'.. -- , .

. ..

has been doing. HoHt:vor, during discussions 'With Allns'ky, ho oxolairied '

,. ,.

7' .'

tho Inst1tutc·s oriontation difforontLY •

. He hypothesized that his trllineos might, bo "tranatd tterst'di. '-"',

.' '. 8

., . . .

&esting, cotn:',unicating, and ·o.ct.ing on infonntion they ,.reoeive •. LogLst ..

. ,

ically, th~ro might be 0. cadr-e of orgo.rdzers .Ln a eiven area worldng. on a cluster of issues maintaining close touch '\dth moth~r oadre whostJ

" • • . i,

" ch~tar,~·~'bed:not be similar. Uhat is similar throtrghout the nett.mrk,

.. ' .

. ," . . .

" is tho goal of radicalization. A netwo~ setup would be 'particularly

~ ..... ' -

"suitod for tho political ore;aro.zing o&ian entiN city~

f ..

, ,- -

On the city Level, ~he obvious first"step is coopora.t~on, betvT~en

already existing ~;rn:nudty organi~atio~s in ~ to pursue certain short-, ,

.. '..

. r<lllgG eoa1s. Gene:-.ill; the structure and vi~~n ot tho org~~a~ions will

, . ,

'have ~. be radicaJJ.y' ~i tered to pArmi t 5Uc~ joint er.r~rts. One

, I . ,/ , .'\

. "

sky' 8 plans. for tho Institute is to send trnineos back. into '

:1 . .... :,' .. '. ._'" >,' _ .,:.' " ':

'" ',Yards, to,or~? 0 agninst· the' organ1:zation . he' 'set

,~,.. ... .... ~ .~ . '_ ~ .. l ' ;.

:1z~t3.·on prt,v~ci' Su·6COSsr~ .. and1r. '0 rgw'zez!s:eo1lid!

, .. -.. ,"" .. " . -(-.~> .>' -r " ::C'_

~penness·.;to th~ :Whiteco~ity~ the groupslitfght;~':1

,"- -,'." .-_ - .-..:-;.

,>.J"':: ............. ''''';., ~~-.,:.-::;;-_>.:-.- ': .__:. • __ ,,' '_ .. .,.. , .. ,'-.. " . _:-:,~~_.~,

··tf-tuilly:· q,en-e:f:i ci'al) venture ~ 'p~e posSib1:ffty.~_.' ,~ ... ~''''~.''''

• . t -~ • _"., •• ",,/ ..

~ :,_\<~-f.: ,c-_~: ;', ' .:' ," '," $)

improved,r-ecreational' t'ac11ities.

~ ".. ,',

gather. is not .urireali~c,-althori·'f;h,

. .

~ ,

• • .. - ~ . -,. • ~ ... _ :>,:'" "

: , Hhen, on.o_.~o~~s beyor.d .th~ city and loc?issueS, ~h~ idea.or

. ... ~ .. -, .... -._.. .. ... ~

~ dependent national organiZing seems ~ss1ble. The Dep~ssion qemonstrated

. ,

the reasibi~1 ty of faderally c6ntro'Ued planning) and a mn.s~ve war ef_ '",c

.-' ,

. .~

r~~ eonv.1J1ced U$ of '1 ts necessity. Now we 'Are no longer:' so convinoed.. "

Crles for "d~centralization" arc attacking the roots ot' the managerial.

"

g~rrl:son state. They. are not easily, ignored ~or easily interpreted. Is

"', i t ndocent~a1ization't in 0 conn Hul-Brolomsvlllo but "unconsti tut16nol1sm" ·

in Little Rock? Docontrnlizntion and democra~ .are not' s,ynonymous as

p .' ."

those who uso tho words interchangeably would have us believo. There are

, .... '- .' . ,

still too m8l1Y' ineqUalities in our system for political scientists or

, ,

dcmonstrat4ng students to adopt, the "doing one's own thing" ·theory or part'- cip,ayon .•

,

Alinsky, evor consistent in his inconsisteffcy, recently expanded

" .

,his radi.cal commi tmant to' the eradication of povozl.eas poverty and the

, .

injootion of meanill~ into arnuenco. His new aspect, _ national planning,. de-

rives' from tho neco ssd ty of entrusting social change to-institu'tions, '. spec.1r1.eilly the United states Government,; Alinsky's trust in 'tho "p'oople"':

must be distinguished i'rom. his distrust of tht! stlttus guo and the people

. .

Who" mnke uo that n~:rsterlous condition. There are oertain' structures, .

_ .. ~ ..... - ...

- '" ' ..

, insti t~ti.ons, the' P,os.t 'Offico for one, that must be used, A1.ins1o/r!~g:-, '.

. . -

n1~e~ 'the'1lUp~ssibility of .,achievirig 'social Chan~e· .: at>thi~r~1in~"th~~gli .:

. .' .:.. '. : -: .~) ." . .' ._:'-: ~:'_\,~;~.,,',.;'-:', 'J';?~'.,::.',. ,

the incremental. I'le211S of pOller! conflict organizing.-·His 2suppl·ement'a~·,'_;' •.

_. . '. " -- _'. .' . ,... . --- .: ;'" ,-' ?:.('~\t"{;;··, ';J?:f'(;:;;'t:',C;t:r

'plqns call' for _foderally-finanoed work projects on th'O.~o~er o.f<-tho.§~'lY~ •.

~ • __ ._-",-----+" -- ... -"--:'-::;,--'. '~.- --. .. •.. #-:-- ..', .. _- - _." ~ ',< ~- ..... \. _.. . ,/i- , .. ·:"-;·,,··:<t··~,,,:,.-,,:;·v·

)~ ~. '- -';.'-;'";,;j, ::~'-ti' ._- ~:,~~~,~~" .

, ,. . . }~~~'l~},,:;~~cff;i;::/?t~~:':,·

~~~. ,. ... ~ ... : ~ !:'.;:·;'li

u,...I.jl~I'''',. .:Wh~n :~~c3.by' Dimiel P •. MoYnihan to work·,d t~·theT~~i~.

'~'" '...."... ",~" . . ..... '._.: ·~·;Etq;;·:·. '" ",.,{<. ,

,6 __ I\,"'U,.,CM.oI~.AooAog-~~·"~ grandiosely off'ered Moynihan his plansl:ror.·solvi!i'g·;~it.i~

i,,"" • • "" • -'~_~ _, . ., . .-~~_:_' .~J;..;.·.:;,tJ'~,;.~"s~~h

urban-=er.tsis j the'destruction'o! --"-the environment:" .and "the.dissa.tis.:.,.:t:~;.;,.~ .' .

. • ', -~ .' , '. --:---,' =r'_-' __ ._. ..•• "·--·'-.----· .. ····~t'>;·--"i:;· ' •. ',. 'i'.: v.;

fa~tion:.or~~:the citi~en~~~·:~ged, t..he. esttlblis~ent ot··lmrk'.prP·!e~ts'.i·.·"

_ ~.' ~ .. ~ :; J.... .. -'--' - . ." ;" _l"j,

. in the SOuthwest to bring water to thAt' area, in the· Hiddle ''lest to' save

....... . .'

. ... ! . .

,_ tho~GreatLakes,.in the Hississippi VDlloy to prevent flooding' and in.,'

. ,

.~ .

any' othor part of tho col:ll1try where men D.l)d money nl~.'heeded to" coUnt.er-,·" · ·act modernity's assault on the land. He never heard from tho \'1hite House

'10 . ,

; ..

· agnin •

. A11nsky' sproposals . carry obvious npin-orr offoct~. Tho need {QX'."

.",'" .. _--- . '\

'WOrk~rs could .be fillod from runon('. the un-··nnd under-omployod in the

. . . ~

oi ties. The model, intocrntod communities construotod toho'uso :tho wor~+/r~ ... -:

. , .

kers would be solf-covornin~. Tho projec~5, administcred'qy bu~orats

and stdfed by or-cdontd.al.od exper t s , would provide attractlv~"rocompenGe

... . . . . ,

. .,.'

· and job satisf!l.ction to luro peopl,e mmy from· ~he n;~r:alopoli •.

'.

. ,.:0--'"

. ~

. 'The TVA-like propo sal.s , remin:!.sccnt of Seh~tor Eu~ene'11cC:lrthy' s

':'

" .

1968 Frosidcht!.r~ Clli11p.rl.~t stand about movinc people out of. tho ghetto os" .;' .. _ .

. have .littlo chance or ovor b~ng legtslnted. Althour_r)1 th~y uould not.

".bo con~id"rod' too _ .... t!.dicru. 'in many r.lOI'Occntrcl..ized ;relfal"o Gtntos,··.they

• ." ~ . • ._.c.'

'\, .. .. ...

_, , are "~s.dic."!!.l" 'tli t~Ltn. the current AmericD.r. politi~al systC'fYlo Societ~J.. com-,

. ,.

. , ~ ,._,

pansoJ?,'s. raise agdn ..:;.~estions about tho :n~lL'1ine of· "radical" and oven

. "ro~olution:\ry!t Hi "'.h1n a mass 'product1on/con~wnption state,'

.. " .".. '~... • '- • + > , -~,," ~ ." • • '" • ".: .~ .","- .. ~ ,"

- , the uritt~d··-stut?:;~ Hust-ddfinitions' perhaps bo as ·'.f.1Uid;.a.s

.··.'·.tb~~:p~~~~·to':'dCSCtib~·?-··· ...... , .- ." ~;.) .. ~.

~..' . - ' 'i'''' .' .. :: - -... .. ,.,

~ ~~

.- Al~sky·\oTOu.1.1 :mS"..rerar~irJiativelY·. 'InSpite

<1n,,·the '~~"NC\-T Y1rk T1.~es hnd living ·A. cornfortablt=!

.·'.:.··r-i'·i'i,. ;j·.i·:.~ ~.I;X· . .....•.... ..•. ..•.. .'- -,,~' . .

j£,beiCon'Sider~ . ·ro.~· on~ry.· Ina:

:;:::'}P:::j".':,'::' ':;\~~i.L-i'_' ,/,::;tF:'::;~i,?'i,:·:,,::;,'<:;';:'_:,;~';::1: ._ • ; '-'"

.,.,:,."~,.;.,,. '.'_""',""""'''-- , .. " '>i·".'.",,,.··,..,_,. .... ·_..·c":_,._·-,:."'>'w·~.,·'. ,.;' v·~ '-'.

_?4_

......

, ,

-:ff7tllc-~id-~:.:a:s 'A1.inskY-~spous-es- were" Ilc~~l\li7;od;-lhe rfisult would .: .

be so.alaI. rovolu·tlon. Ironlcally, this, is not II di5junctlve

, '

proj9c~ion if considered in the trt\di tion of ':.Jes,tern-d()mocrn.tlc

" 0

theory. 'In tho firGt ohapt.e r it Has pointed out. th"t ~1.in~ky. .

is' re~arded tV'm~~Y:lsthQ proponent or a dangerou( 5o~lo/~ilif~'~=:::,~:- _;O~'~'_'.'C"C

.

philosophy. "'As such, ho hs s.been ~ro~J;"Gd:'":," just as Eugene

Debs or Waft Hhi trolln or Mi!rtin Luther Kinr, has been feared,

-.

because each embraced tho no sb r:\d1cal of po"litic~ ftdths

, .

demoor";ley •

.r:

~ .. ,

. \'

'-- .. -

. "

'-."~.">.--1-_-'

t ._ 0

.',

-,

. -- ,

. ~.' ,. _, ..

"

, .'

..

~. -_ ~

..

CH,\PTER V F00roN.:>TSS:

. , -.......:__ , " ....

" .1Bruckner, p.Gl.' ~,~-.- - . '. __ ._~,~.",. __ ~~~,,~_._ .. I"._ •. ~

2Saui.D.At1n~ky,. '~s 'Tho4re Lilo ,\rter Birth?' Speech prc~onto.~o. 'erD~' the Cento~nl Heet1n~or the E,iscopal Thcolor,1.onl'Scliool", , .

, (;ambrid:;Ol, }l:lS:Jllchu~etts, J':1l19: 7, 1967, ( J\nulioM ThoolSHGoeJ.

'Rovimr, (rn.nunrJ. 1968). " .• ' "

-,. ..'_-

-: 4" ' -

, ~., p. 4.

Srbid., p , 5:

6 Al1nsqintorvio'W, Boston. 7" .

. Ibid.

Brbid.

9Rynn. interviow ~ -ChlcaSO .',

,

"

10A11nsky inte~~ew, 'Wellesley.

"

.,:,

, ~ .

.'

, '

I

,

c,;;.. ... ~_-'~ • ..:.,-'-'._.__

..

!

;

"

Appendices:

I. VISTA car-toon

II. IAFTraining Insti*uto fact

sheet and ,application •.

,-

"

cJUMPING BEHIND A NEARBY SOCIAL OBSTACLE '" lj~~

ANTIWA'R

~RALLY

., /,'3' c:3

... ~ ~ 'A10NDAY,~~

fiE. EMERGES

SUDDE~LV HIS' SENSE'S WARti-HIM:

HE IS APPROACHING A TARGETAREA!

WAY TO GO" KID, -

YUH ,",UST DECK/D ALINSKY!

'.

.'

Miss Hillary Rodham

" gIO Davis Hall '

Wellesley College

Wellesley, Massachusetts' 02181

!

"

't"""<' "

',\" .

....

Dear Miss Rodham:

". The Industrial Areas Foundarion has announced the establishment of the Tr:aining Institute to' be based in' Chicago, IlUnois. - ... ;-_ ....

,. • .' ." .• '. , ':~"-' .•. ~- ..... iI

The reason 'for the Institute Is the appalttng dearth Of pet$one '. who know how to organize in .and for a free and open society •

. Lacking these trained competent political literates the entire field, of citizen organization, is one-tenth fact and nine-tenths' wishful

ili~~. ,.

, Todaythere is no lack of money for organization butwhat is undeniably clear is the major obstacle of the absence of trained

, sophisticated personnel who have highly developed organizational skills and talents for the purpose of building mass-based organiza-

tions., .

. .

, , .

Keeping in mind that three-fourths of America is middle class,

a new and long overdue emphasis of the Institute will be placed on .the development of organizers for middle class society. Organ:' " izers will be trained for black and Mexican American ghetto work as well.as for poor white sections.

.. ' ',',",--,.... -,'~ '-,,:, "~<-, ,:",'~

. .--- . ': ;. ...,,' - . ., __:_",_ . ' . " ... : '.<' ,').' .•. .

..• ·.The I. A .. F •. Training Institute is establishedfor;the·a~et;.~ .. =.~' ....

;~j·"'VHNYk~~'1)fWlfl!z\'ttb"ft_.i~m,amtMY.·~¥i~'i:~);!"j~'~ . ,Citizens .whtch is the fundamental essential dynamic for a· . .

'. . . free and open society ~ This willbe done prtricipally '.

~;~~~~' ~~ ~~ fn~~~!t~~~i ,1~:~i,}':1n~~~g~~~:P:ea;a~~t-~-_:-~~- .

rweiiry-Iive years which have 'proven so effective in actual .

operation. - -v •

2. WHERE AND WHEN: _,. The Institute's home base will be in Chicago, Illinoisand win receive trainees in February, 1969.

3. HOW 'bONG: . The training period will cover fifteen months.

'. and will be full time for all trainees.' .

..

4. 'WHO:

, .

. Trainees will cover the spectrum of American life. Organ-.

Izers will be trained for work with all minority groups:' blacks, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricansv Indlans and low income whites. Organizers will also be trained for

similar work in ~middle class communities. .

'-

5 .. 'WHAT is TIlE COST? Tuition for the fifteen-month period is $15,000 •.

This tuition cost will be mainly assumed by sponsoring organizations of different interested groups. There will be "some ,

. selected fellowships and special assistance incertain cases •.

Llving expenses will run between $5, OOJl-to $6, 500 a year and will be borne by the sponsor or trainee.

, ':'

S. 'REQUIREMENTS: (a) A commitment to a free and open society;

. (b) Prior experience in the ueld of organiztngt . (c) Approval

, after screening by Institute representatives in terms of per-_ ,. sonalitycrtterta essential to thedevelopment of an organizer. This approval will be for admission for the first ninety days

after Which students will be advised whether or not they can . become professional organlzer s, Our experience.has indicated'

, that the odds may be as high as 50% washout, . .. ;'

7. HOW MANY: . Each fifteen-month. period will be restricted "

_ . '.. to forty trainees-with .replacemerit provisions. . ..... ',,' : .

3. . WHAT'IS lHE,TRAINI'NG? The tr~ining ~iil etnPha~iz~;;!~¥i~a~i{f,;,tB~;;';;' .... '. : under standing by' students . of vartous universalftiesano;i';,/·:L-',·;:::·- ,

--- -.'-" =': .. common denominator sof organizational pri~ciple·sJ(i·insur'e~.:,,;._·

their. no~becomin.g ·m.e~e ly, special.ists.· of cet;F~il1,;o/P~S;i.B!';"·Ui,}~,';T·1;ft cl\)mrn'lH~'lty Qrg~m'Z2t16ns c,thel" C?t.nme. TaC'la ~ or er.:Ol'lt6mlC·

- ~ -

..

. -

-"., ....

- .

n_I'rft u. ....... , ...... coming out of the Insntute will' "';,," ...

; 'bFcompetenf prepared to engage in' effective or-';~-,

ganization in almost any sector .of society. This will ,:., '~.; dernandfluidity ~li. magtnation, flexibility in the jneettng.

Of .enangmg COnUl.tl0n~ and circumstances where the. .

. latter will-be dealt wfrh as a matter of course. A central'

fault of conventional train!ng is thrstiflingof"'these"~ " .

"~ qualities by the strait jacket of "rtgid formulas" and "stattc patterns .. "

. .

, They will be so trained as to develop a passtoriate curiosity which is the driving dynamism in continuing to learn. If '

,there will be anyone symbol of the basic theme of the

Training Institute it will be the question mark." The good organizerIs ever-growing, ever-learning, ever-questtonrng , .. -and ever-curious so that even in a moment of success his

feeling of triumph is' almost equaled by his, feeling of ,curiosity as to why he succeeded, and conversely - with defeat'his-;:, feeling of dejection is almost eqlHlled by hf s currostty-asto

why it failed. TI1e development of this passionate questioning, which in the last analysis should' be' the base 'for all true, education, is a majox objective of the Training Institute.

9. WHO. WILL TEACH? Saul D. Alinsky and staff of professional

-organizers will teach and supervise. Guest faculty ranging from philosophers to economists to activlstsIn the fields of - ~ labor, civil rights, polltics, business, religion and educa-

tion' will be connected with the Institute. . , "

':'

10.: WHAT WILL ,BE THE TEACHING METHOD? The teaching methods

will include among others ~ basic socratic approach; a combination of seminars, personal conferences,' working in .vartous communities and actual organizing situations, .ranging from, the intttal organizational action through-all of the vartous+ .. ,~ stages including the problems accompanying successfulorgan- ,

izations. The laws of change and 'universalities will be .

studied Dot only in terms of immediate. pragmatism buralsc.. philosophically, historically, and through present events •.

. The mechanics of mass' organizatlon, organizing theory, the

. art 'of politic's, tactic and strategy, means.andehds,conflii~t· .

:. andleader'ship will be part of the curriculutn •. <·The: organi~Jng . , ." situation' Will-provide the. grfst for: reflection~··_.r~V.1ew.and~~self~ . .', .. know ledge.', . Tratneeswtl lIearn.from their:'¢xperienc~ btl~:.~><: ~.)i· -"experience',' Isthedigesting ofactton 'ahd~vents;'othei\.Vi.~·~ __:'Y .

, i~, is undigested waste. ':' '- ,c':".',; I

";",.,/,~{;,/"

';':p;:',;~~:';" > .• ?q.

T _' •.•. _.

J

. '

- 3 .:.

I ~ .. •

..... ,..., .

...

12.

'(a) Fill out the enclosed preliminary application; ,

(b) 1. A. F. will notify you for an interview or, rejection;'

(c) A' screening and selection process:. '

'. '-, (d) Tuttion arrangements;

J.--r:' (e) Admission to Training Institute; -'.' , (f)' Begin training in early 1969 •.

. ' . , " . .! '

WHERE WILL YOU'LIVE? 'That is your business. "

Guidance assistance' in houslngwill be provided' by the

. Institute staff. ," --" ", '. .'

, ,

..".. • . ,i- "_,

13.'. WILL YOU HAVE FREE TIME? Yes, about one day a week,

~.There will- be oneor mo rebr'eak periods during training lasting .up to a week or ten days. These periods are un- ".-

specifted as of now. _ "

14~'

. . .

WHAT ABOUT YOUR FAMILY? That is 'yourbustness just

as it will be when you are organizing. You may as well' learn now the lesson that you will experience after you 'are a trained organizer" namely, what we, the community and the general public are concerned with is .your contri-

. button in organlzation. Your family life Is your own per- " r : sonal business.

15. ,WILL YOU GET A FORMAL'DEGREE?No. _ You ill be

. . . --_- .~.-,-.,.,

certttied as having. completed the special traini_,_. ~

... ----~ ...

_, .

, . ',y-<- •

16. WHO ARE LIKELY SPONSORS? Church groups, community

'and citizen groups, ctvtl rights, groups, . Indivtduals of . means, labor unions, foundations and other institutions.' ..':

.. :-."'-"~--.

17 •. WHAT· DO I DO I:F I HAVE ONLY PARTIAL TUlTI.ON OR NONE.

. AT ALL? If you are the right, person there are, some '.

free scholarships or partial scholarships. Fillout,' the application and you will get-special"'C()ffSideratio~""':~ for a scholarship if youqualtfy;' , 'J.

.'

;...._........._,.__.....;;-- .. _ ... -. ~

. .

~ ..

_ ,: _. ' , < '_ -'_': _. .r' Preliminary Appllcation > . -, T .,_ ...~L_

lJl;":* ii' ,- .." ~,-;. .' . , .' '. ,.,' . - ". ..' .

,.l~rv~ _ '" ~~,._ .. ~ ~ .... ~ . ,. d > ~!,,<~,,-,-,_<--!_,c:_;,<_,

""",~,", ..• _;.-- -_.,- INDUSTRIAL AREAS FOUNDATION TRAI-NING INSTIWTE,

", -. ' . --------~---------;,:,.:_~.:_:..;:..;..,;;:....:.;;..,;.;:...;:.;::.,::.::..;::..::..

." .

'.

Name

Address

-------------------------

, .

• r- .. ~.-- •

Sex

----

. , .,.!

City. Stilte

/ ....

Dependents . Phone - Area Code '.,

---

..

Marital Status

"., ---

#

- ~ - - - - - ~ ~ - -

____ ' - - __ ~ .M __ M _

. ,

(please prjnt 'or type ~ use as many pages as you need) .

l~ ,Wha.t have you attempted to org~niie? Where? When? With what success' 2. , 'what-kind of people are you interested in crgantzlngj Why?

. 3.' . Exactly what do you do now? For whom? How long? .Why? 4 •. What is your formal educational background?

- - ~.----

S. What do you think are your greatest weaknesses? Your: greatest strengths?

"-

6. List three. recommendations' who will be most familiar with .you,

. '. Give their full names, addresses and phone numbers.. . ....

7'. Do you pave anyone or anyInstitution willing to sponsor' your training?

If so, who?

. .

8. Why do you desire to become a professtonalozganlzer?

: 9. ·.Assu~i~g you a;e accepted and train~, what do 'yoti plan to do irn~ediately

":. .'.. upon completion of rraining? ,_ ~ - '.', .', . .

J .'> .. ,~ _

_ : ....

11. ,,_,."W_e .. would be interested iri any general comments

. . ... anythingIncluding the above questions.

- .

--10.-What do 'you want 'out of life? ~

"

..

,. "

~:.c _

, . : PRIMARY s:)URCES'

'.

. .

Alin!iJ<Y, Saul' -n... ·Mr. 'Minsky and' I' met twice. ~g Octobo%,'. ,in Boston" and .

" during January'oat Wellosley. Both times he was generous with1doa.s

. and int~rest. His offer of' l\ pk ace in the nrr..r Insti:tute uas tempting . but after' spending' A: year trying to 'make sense out ·'Of his 1ncon..·

sisttlllCY', I neodthree years of legal rigor. .

.: . ""'. ,

Hllfi'n'er, John. Reporter on tho Back of tho Yards JOllrnn.t who ropresents

'the v10~lS of hi s nei ghbors re gardinF; tho comrr.u."l1. ty' s future 'in ~nsorvntiva1y chauvinistic tcnns. ,Jnilu':l~J', 1969, in Chicago.

.

"J :

, Horrrna."'l, Nicholas VOlle One of t.ho best of Alinsl'Y's organizors and. not.: 'n superb wri tor for' tho H~shlnrrt,on Post. T:uk~d ,dth him ~ teleph?he

in lofAshintt\'()n in Octobor. Ho wns both ~elpfUl and provooative'. \.;

Ryan,

Phy11ia. Socinl \-1orker on tho stnft of :.the Back of tho. Yards NeiCh-. bo rhood Council uho.1 eft' soon ~tor l intorvic,;·rod .her in YanUAl"Y·. 1969. Her-.honerrty about, conditions in the area as well as her"ob .. v10us distress ovor·thom CQntributod gre~tly to my understandina' or the situ~tion.

Shicony, Anne-marle. Profe!lsor in the Denar-tnent; of 5ocio10 rY: 'at 'Wellesley COllciZ~. th"s. Shimony criticized" Minsky' 5 met.hodvdurd.ng our' convorsation in 1-!o.rch, 1969, -:-hclping mo to focusTOY' own opinions.

Books nnrl S,..eechos r;.

- .. --~- ... ~ nei ti :em F:.rticipnt10n and Communi:;y OrGrlni?c1t1on in Plarininr:;. and' Urb:.n lt~!'lo";;,".l"t !-"lXlDontod be-fore tho ChioClr,O Ch:lpter. of tho NatiO)'1al As~oci ... :~!O!'l of Ht>uro.ng and Rodcvel.opnerrt Officinls. Chicago, Illinoit;:

In1\\!)t~:~.~l A.r.::':"-:;· Foundation, january, 1962. '

~~----, .":From Cit.i:J.o,~ 'Apathy to p:lrt1c1pation," ·prescnt.od .nt the Sixth Annual FAll' C()n~oronce, Associ.:lt1on of ·Com:r.unitY· CounoiJ.so:t:, Chicago. ChicD.BO, Illinois: Indu5trinl- Areas Foundat~on; October, 195( •

. ; ~---, nOt lle:>.ns and Snds, "tJn:l'onSetdn~r:r 9t!;,~eri.i·~ev1·~~.' (~",,~rsf'''';; ,

. - _ -- 1967), .[.'p •. 107-138. .' ";.. . .,';;',= ",' L-":;"/,'· .~.

--- .. -- ... ~ ";You C:m't Sec; ·th~~star~~Throu~h t~~ stri~cs.,~·:·~~·s6n~~~:.1,e£~;~··~, ::' t,hf'l;Ch6;1ber of Commerco of tho United,:Statos. Cluca.go~ nlihoi's::' ..

'Indu.strial ~3.s: Foundatd on; 1111rch, 196~. " ~c~·iL:';i0:~"u,;'i,~F:';'f, . ;,; <:;z'l;'~" i.

--~~--~~~~~~.~,~.~,~.~.~,,~"7P~~

• r .. -, ~

.. _-_:'_;. ·"Tho ~·T":.r 0:1 P?1J'erty~Poli tic;~l Porno graphy,". POVOl'tv:Po"TCr~nd' - .l'otiti~s, .ed, Ch:-.itc I. ~·1a..'Qnan, ppe 171-179. Neil Yo-:'k:.4Grossot &:

\ ,--:&iiiia?, 1969. . "

• ~ -"' , •• _~'" _c,'-_'-' __ ~""'"_""'"_C~ _~, . _. .. ..-. "-;. •

"~ pro!"n~~lon:u Ra.dical "H"ves In On Rochester, 'yH!n_'~r.or' s, .J~Y,'~96.5,' PP~-~2-.5

" .. ' . ~

"1'hu Frvf6ssio:t:il R:;.dical." H~l'"r)cr' s, . June, i96,5, pp. 37.)1-).

·Cnrtor., Barbar-a , I, _.S3.r;;Gnt SlIri voz- and thn Role of t~e Poor," ,Pov~rtZ:. ro't-l~r 'lnd Politics, ed , Chllil,l·I. ':l.n..""1t1.n, pp. 207:'.217. No\.;-Yorl::

Grosset & Dnnl:~p, 1969.

• I

COGar, Lewis. Thf.\ Fun~tiong of $ocip.l Conflict. Ney.1 York: ThGFroa Press, '195!

. . ~ .--:-:- - ~- ..

Fisher, Roger. "Frllotiont'.tinz Conflict," Intp.rnr.tionll.t Conflict. nnd Be- "

. hn.v:tor31 S~iC!'H~Q, od, ito Gor Fi:Jher, pp. 91.:.110. NOli York: Basic.

Books, Inc., 1904.,

Glazor,. Unthnn. "The

. .rind Politics, Dunlap, 196H.

Grand Doni, r;n of the PoveI"tY Pro c;r'am"." PovortYI' Pnwer

ed , Chadm I." ylaxJ"llm, pp , 281-293. New York: Grosset & ..

Ham;strom; Harren C. "The FOlfor of tho Poor," POvArtv: Power e,nd P·olitios,_<. ed, Chai..~ I. ;·T:t::r.tari, pp , 113-136. ne~ York: Grossot & D'J.nlo.p,. 19t;g.

H01~'trl.t':~:,. Ir.v1ni~ Louis. "Consensus, Cotff'lict,- and CO",,:opcrntion," §tsto!:\,

.. Cnan .... e. :m(~ Cor..flict, ad. N.J. Dcme r'at.h III and Richard A~ Peterson,' pp_e __ .2b5-2bl ~ i{l::1 Yorlc: The Free Press, 1967.

Kopkind, Andrcn~. "aY 01.- For the Poor?" p'o~~'rl,';'( Pouer And Politi'o~~' ad.

Ch:rl.m I. ~'lx·T.l'tl, pr'. 225-229. Now York; Grosset &: Dunl.rtp, 1968. -'

• • F •

Lipset, SO;y!!1our l·l:lrtin •. Political Han. Garden City, Na:·l Yo-rk: Doubledny' r-nd Comp~nY, I~c. 1959 •

.lRtter, .S.H~'Povcrty, Rncc, and Politics," Povcrt;y:: POl'10r:mp Po:titic~, " ,'. ad. Ch.lim I. vT~:-:man, pp. 137-1.59. N~...l Y?rk: Gl"()sset & Dunlnp,·.1968.

;;-

!IoYnih:m, 'riB.niet p. Maxi~u',~ F·e.'\~ibl~~· l;ft~~d';;;t·nnai·n·(d ·Ne,,{rdr.k:.TheFre-;'

·0" ' •. Press; 1969. " 'i ....

. ,. ' . - . .. '. . - . .. .' '.' '··i,l}':-'.~. :.,. ....~;(:;> .

Riao'·fEnrl~ ~'Hh~t \'lnr ~·nd 1fuich pove~tY'1't, povortfLpowr·nridPo~i£iC·S!.;~. '.: . Ch~ I. Waxman,. pp~.~29-24;h :New·Yor~:~,Gross~~::& .•. :Q:~ap,:;.~96g~'i:;£;: ..

. -- ,- ,.;_:' '1 ~._,_~. __ . .__~~ ~.·"',~::'-:~?';~~HB,jr(,~i: ~~.,;~, .. ;t:.'~.~r·rl.!r}~,p,;,,~:':·'.,"&[:~;;gi~t, "; :,::",.;

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. '

. '

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. "

"Acitator'Zeroes in ~'n th~ SUburban1t~s~II:'BuSi~~SS '~enk" F~brunry (3.1969, , pp. 44-46 •

.

Amerson,- P:1tr1c1\. "Hl1k1ng Tr.uble is Alinsky' s Dusin~ss ," Tho No," Yerk

TinosJ.~I1p:Az.1ne, tlctober 9, 19$6~.,pp. 28-31,'82-10'~;

.

Aster, Gern.ld .. "The 'Apostle' And the 'Fo.l'," LOok, (J·uno 25, 1968~ ,pp.~31,-:34 •.

" .

B.uldlng, Kenneth E. "Tho City As an Element in the Intern~ti.nal SysteM."

. . DaeduluR, (Fall, 19(8), pp , 1111-1124. ' •.

D.ds.n,'~I;>an •. ·'.'The'·Church, ~1:R,' and 'Saul 'Al1nslcy~" Religion in Life;t

(Spring, 1967), pp. 9c15.' '- - ,-

EagAn, J.hn J. Very Rev. Hsgr, "The Archdiocese Resporrls ,If Church in' MBtr.polis, (Swnmor, 1965), pp. 16 •

.. .

"McClellan' ant tJ)O Inforners I Bigotry's Bedfollolvs," Tho Christinn Centurv, (J~ 10, 19~8), pp, 887-888.

• ..' • ':' .1 • ' ,',,,,,. .

l-ierru,ez, D. Barry. I1Stnbllizing Neighb.-rhoeds in RAcial Tension ," : Churoh in

. , Hetro pt! lis , (Surmn~r , 1965),. pp. 29~31.

I elf

"Plat. ,on thB' Barriclldos,'" The .Economist, (H4Y,13-19",1967)'~ 'pp •. 1lJ..

"

Reissnan, Frn.nk. "Tho fiyth' of SAul Alinsky," .Dis's~nt. (July-August, 1967),

_, pp. 1l69..J}?9. ':

. . .,

Ridget'Tay, In.'':!('lS~, II.Attnck .en K.aal~,11 The New Republic, (J~nua.ry21, '1967), pp. 11-13.

"'- -, .;

~' Rose, Stephen C. "SAul Alinsky and His Critics, ":c~is'fi~~'t:Y4n:l Ci.'iSiS· ' •.

(July 20,.~}61~), ,pp. 143-152. ""'. '" ..

I :~% ~'

. ", .... ' " .,f ' •. 'C,'

---I ,iPower Play in the citi,"·Cros5re~S'e (Janu~-HArcJi,'1~7J,pp.

• • • • .' • • • ,_,_,.-. 0,' "-, . , __ .f. :-:'~;t-:'<-'~- "~_ _-,;-':.

Sanr.rd ,David~ "uS.uth Sid~<Stefy.,,,· The11t'M~~l.ic,·

;i",t:i,{>;;,' '. ". ... J. ": 1;- _,' i'> ".' .,' ..

. Sherr:lrdi-<~Th~iuLsD~··,Am. Ric~.~rcf: c, YJUrray, "The ,'.' .LL..I..I. .... I ...... C

TiH,CinDr.ru.nity,·Org~riizAti~n·~II(Secial~vterk,\-( .'

. . ,... 1 . ' .

J~"~;rl,"'l!§tiiiil't~lf~ffii!Hasi HlHgI j t~;cIHmiUii8Hil. QUiH.8fol;f: i laWi8>~~,I~fJ.~fjU }r~pP,J(~~.;

"l~J;lf~;!l']i:~~~:91. _, "... '~'! ' : .• ' =. ,";;(i,ffc;;;';:('":'6~~ij;,~I]"

'Wbite,'He~rt D., D.nalxLR." Sternle, Ronald Stene. ItDiscu~sionI9miI"~l r .7 :-1' .. ~the Etliics of ~ .. ~ial -.Change .I~ Union Sendnar,v' Qu:lrt:erq:Ren&W,';,'.

(cJa~,.,19t§'1.r, pp~ .. 12S-138. -', ' .' -',' ., .. - <:"'~ ,"

" .

. . .. ~" ,.,.

. ... :

Bilck ef the 'Yards Journa.l. Rarrloru.y se'Lect.cd "is~ . from 1959 through 1968 •

....

Beckman, Aldo. "I 'Didn't C.ach ·GA.n~ Crime, Rev, Fry Says,i. ChiCAgO Tribune,

June 2.5,' 1968, p, 1. ..'., .

, ,"

. . .

.

. ',._':"--2:... "Rov. Flj" Gave Gang Status, Probers T~ld," Chicago Tribune, July.

2, 1968, p. _ 1'. '

Bruckner, D.J .R. IIAlinsky Rethinks Idea of Community," 1vash1ngt&n Post', February 20, 1969, pp. Gl, 11.

, .

Cofield" Ernestino. "A Blueprint t. Secure C.~nityt:~f ~~ .'.'.,qhie4ge,' Defender, D~ce~bar,J, 1962, p. 9 •

. ,

-----. itA Corm-cum ty Indiotnamt ef Our Segrogated, Soh.ols, II ChioAg. Deferrle:r N.ve_tilier 28,' 1962, p. 9.

" ..

--:---_.;.. "A CortmUni ty r-:obilizos Versus Absentee La.ndlorqs," ,Chio:lPi(t Defender t

no~ember 26, 1962, p. 9. , . _ _.

, -._' _ ....,.,' . . ' ../":.

----.:--. "Commlnity Insists on Right t. DeterIrlno Own Destif'l.y," Chicagft De. fender,- Ilevembcr- 2;, 1962" p, 28.

"

----. "'Death \iatch' Against School Segregation," Chicnge Defender,

'. . . Nbverll.ber- 27,- 1962, .p. 9.." _

-----. "Found s A Gener-a'l, to Lead a SlUM Army," Chica.r;e Defender, November

J • 20, 1962, p~ 9;

.,'~ -._ - *" __ "_ • •

~--. "politic:U. PO\TGr Sh.wn By HD.SS Bus Ride t •. 91ty Hall," ChiOAg$.

, ' ~e~~._30' 1,.962' p. :~",~, .. _ _. •. ,':.' , .•. ,. .

----- •. "Square Deal Campaign ,Cracks. 'Downeh Cheating J.fercbants ,If .-,;;.;;;;:;..;;.;;~

. : Defender,. Novembor 29, 122E.',~ p. 11. ,;_;:._,,;:4··. . _.'

!-..:....,._. a-", ...--~-=: ..... -

-'--

-----. "Unw University of Chicago was St.pPed Dy A Ii"ighting CsmIJri:mity,"

. 'Ch1oAP;('I Dofengt"Jr ,November 21, 1962, p. 9.

. . -

-~"----'. "J.1inistors vs , Evils ~f Urb~n Renew.u,-" Chioago' Deren:ler,' Nevembet-

. 19,.-1962,·-p. ·9.--.-____._ . . , '

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. ~.

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. ~~~' .. '~ -.., , .... .

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_'

.

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""" E:Im.~, Richard R. ~'Gardner Urges U.S. ,. R~ve -ParticipaU.n,"·"The HIl~1Ird

Crintstni (C:unbr1dge, Ha5sac~setts), ·HArch 27, 1968.,·pp. 1,8. ,.'

, .

~ .

, ,

, '. ,

Janseh, Denud. "Alinsky To Train White l·Iilitants," NeloT York Times, August

. J.-Z..r1968, p. 27. , . ~ , ...,

_.,

• J.nes, Hillinn. "T.H.O., Chief Assails D.C. ~estAro"ny •. " Chioag.,Tribune:.~

June 22, 1968'" p. 4. /

K~ziol, Rena'ld , "Gn.hg'SattJ.es Laid t$ Qu~st f.r U.S. FundS'''Chic'ag~i.~Aoon:!1

. July 2, 1968, p. 5. . " ,

"OEO Rejocts G,U'~g Chn.rges·." ChiCAgo Tribune, June 24, 1968, p. a. r'S.ciolegist Calls Allnsky FAilure," New Y.rk Tinos. June 4, 1967, p.G!'.'

.

. .

'_

"Unt1red Ra.dicQ.l," N~\I York Times, December' 22', ,1965; p. 15.

Others

.- -.~ _, -, --.;~,.

' .. ' _. , ~ .,

Naticnu Advisory Cor.tnIission on Civil Disbroers, Roport ef the C.DmdssiGn,

. ,-- Ro rt of tho l1Ational-Adviso CommiJ5im on Civil Disorders,

New York: BantAlll Books, ~~

Na.ti,nal Advisory Council on Ecertezd.c Oppertuni ty, . Report or tho Council ..

, . Focus en COMr.lUnitV Action, narch , 1968. . ' ...

orrico o,r Ec"~om1c Opportunity, VISTA pub~ic~tion, Cut Out P.vorty~ 1968.~ > ZYgtmlntold.cz ',Evelyn, "The Back or the Yards" Ne1~l1b.rh~od C.unoil and Its

. ' " Ho:1lth and ~·lelfa.re "Servioes." Unpublished ~!:tsterf 5 thosis, S •. oi&l Werk Sch •• l, Loyel:i University, 1959~

~ , ,

-",

.----7"

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