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Army Field Artillery

Army Field Artillery

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Field Artillery Course
FOR

PROVISIONAL SECOND LIEUTENANTS

THE ARMY SERVICE SCHOOLS

Preparedin Department Field Artillery Army Service Schools

Fort Leavenworth

Kansas:

ARMY SERVICE SCHOOLS PRESS

1917

The Course for Field Artillery Officers and Cavalry Officers taking Field Artillery Course is divided into three departments: (a) Practical course out of doors in materiel, fire control instruments and smoke bomb range work under Captain Sharp. (b) Course in Equitation in riding hall, with lectures on bitting, saddling, draft, shoeing, common ailments, transportation of animals, etc., under Captain Seaman. (c) Theoretical and practical Course in Field Artillery Drill Regulations, with blackboard and sand box firing in section room under Captain Miller. The schedule is arranged so that what is taken up in theory in the section room one day will be taken in a practical way at a later period the same day or on the following day. In order that there may be uniformity in giving the instruction all of the lectures in each course have been placed in printed form and each course is given under headings of Course a, b and c in the following pages.

SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION Capt. Sharp.
COURSE "A" 1st 2d 3d 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22d 23d 24th 25th 26th Lecture No. 1 Lecture No. 2 Lecture No. 3 Lecture No 4 Lecture No. 5 Lecture No. 6 Lecture No. 7 Lecture No. 8 Lecture No. 9 Lecture No. 10 Lecture No. 11 Lecture No. Lecture No. Lecture No. Lecture No. Smoke bomb Lecture 16 Smoke bomb Smoke bomb Smoke bomb Smoke Smoke Smoke Smoke Smoke bomb bomb bomb bomb bomb 12 13 14 15 range

I

Capt. Seaman
COURSE "B"

Capt. Miller
COURSE "C" F.A.D.R. Pars. 1-56; 115-130. F.A.D.R. Pars. 131-204. F.A.D.R. Pars. 205-280. F.A.D.R. Pars. 225-237; 281-354. F.A.D.R. Pars. 355-441. F.A.D.R. Pars. 442-507.1 F.A.D.R. Pars. 508-610.t F.A.D.R. Pars. 611-652.1 F.A.D.R. Pars. 653-696.$ F.A.D.R. Pars. 833-1008.$ F.A.D.R. Pars. 1009-1094. Lecture No. 1 F.A.B:R Pars. 1095-1154. F.A.D.R. Pars. 1155-1226. F.A.D.R. Pars. 1227-1297. F.A.D.R. Pars. 611-613; 1298-1393.; F.A.D.R. Pars. 1394-1463.$ F.A.D.R. Pars. 355-441.t F.A.D.R. Pars. 1464-1534.$ F.A.D.R. Pars. 1535-1592.$ Ord. Pamphlet 1965, pars. 7-39. F.A.D.R. Pars. 1593-1646.t F.A.D.R. Pars. 450-463; 1646-1718.1 F.A.D.R. Pars. 1719-1727 ; 1809-1864. F.A.D.R. Pars. 591-632.1 F.A.D.R. Pars. 1728-1808 ;1831-1864.$

Equitation Equitation Equitation Lecture No. 1 Equitation Equitation Lecture No. Equitation Equitation Lecture No. Equitation Equitation Lecture No. 4 Equitation Lecture No. £ Equitation

range Lecture No. 6* range Equitation range Lecture No. 7 range ran,;e range range range Equitation Lecture No. Equitation Lecture No. Lecture No. TACTICAL WALK TACTICAL WALK

*No equitation artillery section hitched in riding hall. iThirty minutes drill with staves (battery mounted). $Thirty minutes standing gun drill-sight setting, etc.

FOREWORD these notes, an attempt is made to give you as much condensed information in general on the practical work, which you will be required to know in the field artillery as possible. No attempt is made at originality. It is simply a collection of data taken from different publications' on artillery subjects. It is hoped that the officers will take advantage of their opportunities from time to time to enlarge upon the information here set forth, so as to make of themselves good practical field artillerymen. An officer cannot be a thoroughly practical field artilleryman unless he has a working knowledge of the tools of his profession.

IN

Course
CAPTAIN SHARP

Lecture I
NOMENCLATURE are in use in of guns following THEthe United caliber Army atand howitzersThe 2.95-inch States this time: mountain howitzer (pack), the 3-inch mountain howitzer (pack), the 3-inch field piece, 3.8-inch howitzer, the 4,7-inch howitzer, the 4.7-inch gun, and the 6-inch howitzer. These guns and howitzers are designed so that each gun will have a sister howitzer. The 3-inch gun and the 4.7-inch howitzer are sister pieces, and 4.7-inch gun and 6-inch howitzer are sister pieces. The characteristics of the gun are, long barrel, flat trajectory, high velocity, small angle of departure and small angle of fall. The characteristics of the howitzer are a short barrel, curved trajectory, low velocity, high angle of departure and steep angle of fall. Some of the advantages of the howitzer are that it may be placed close behind a covering crest and thus secure protection from the fire of opposing guns. It is more valuable in a rough rolling country than a gun, on account of its large angle of departure for ordinary ranges, and consequently can be more easily placed in a position. The howitzer will clear a crest where a gun cannot do so. It also has the advantage of a steep angle of fall, making it a valuable weapon to be used against trenches and over-head cover. The gun, on the other hand, has a greater velocity and a greater range, and its shrapnel pattern covers a greater area. The 3-inch field gun of our service compares very favorably with the French 75-millimeter field piece, and as most of the other guns of our service are constructed on the same general principle, the knowledge of the 3-inch field piece will be of material assistance in understanding the handling of larger and smaller calibered guns. A cut is shown with this pamphlet giving the names of all the parts of the 3-inch field gun.

12

FIELD ARTILLERY

The gun is built up of nickel steel, consisting of a tube, jacket, locking hoop and clip. A lug, known as the recoil lug, projects from the undersurface of the jacket and is the point of attachment for the recoil cylinder of the carriage to the gun. The breechblock is of the interrupted screw type. There are three models of breechblock used in the 3-inch gun. These are the 1902, 1904, and 1905 models. The 1902 model has two threaded and two flatted sectors, in rear of which is a cylindrical section, smaller in diameter, on which is a square screw thread for securing the block to the block carrier. The trigger works in a slot in the block carrier and is urged upward by the trigger spring. When the block is unlocked the trigger is disengaged from the sear and the gun can not be fired. The breech mechanisms of the guns, model 1904 and 1905, are similar in every respect and are interchangeable. The block is provided with four threaded and four slotted sectors. The breech recess of the gun is threaded and slotted to correspond with the threads on the block. The firing pin is eccentrically located in the block. In the firing position, it is in alignment with the axis of the gun and in line with the percussion primer of the cartridge. As the block is rotated to open the breech, the firing pin is moved to one side clear of the primer and remains in that position until the block is again rotated in closing the breech. It is thus seen that it is impossible to fire the gun until the breechblock is entirely closed. The following weights and dimensions are given for the gun, model of 1905: weight, 788 pounds; total length, 87.8 inches; number of grooves 24; lands 24. Twist right hand from zero turns at the origin to one turn in 25 calibers at 9.72 inches from the muzzle, thence uniform. Muzzle velocity 1,700 feet per second; range at 15 degrees elevation, 6,000 yards; maximum range when trail is buried about Weight of gun carriage and limber com8,500 yards. pletely equipped with ammunition, 4,260 pounds; weight ,of caisson, completely equipped with ammunition, 4,560

COURSE "A," LECTURE I

13

pounds. Diameter of Wheels, 56 inches, width of track 60 inches, length of recoil of gun on carriage, 45 inches. Maximum angle of elevation 15 degrees. Maximum angle of depression, 5 degrees. Amount of traverse of gun on carriage, 140 mils. The action of the carriage when the gun is fired is as follows: the gun moves to the rear 45 inches on the cradle, carrying with it the cylinder and compressing counter recoil springs. The piston rod is attached to a non-recoiling part of the carriage, so that as the cylinder moves to the rear, the oil in it must pass from one side of the piston to the other. The energy of the recoil of the gun is absorbed by the resistance which the oil offers to being forced through small openings past the piston and by the resistance of the counter recoil spring. The energy stored up by the spring, returns the gun to its firing position. This return movement is eased and regulated by the counter recoil buffer. The piston rod pull and spring resistance are transmitted to the carriage, but owing to its weight and the resistance opposed to the trail spade by the earth, the carriage remains stationary. With the 4.7-inch gun, the piston rod moves to the rear with the gun in recoil. Two spring columns are provided instead of one, as with the 3-inch gun. With the howitzer, the barrel is under-slung, the recoil mechanism being uppermost, whereas with the gun the barrel is mounted on top of the recoil mechanism. In firing, then the angle of "jump" with the gun will be positive and with the howitzer it will be negative. The weight of the 2.95-inch mountain howitzer and carriage is 830 pounds; velocity 920 feet per second for the 12z pound projectile and 750 feet per second for the 18pound projectile. Maximum angle of elevation 27 degrees; maximum angle of depression 10 degrees; range about 4,000 yards. The 3-inch mountain howitzer is an experimental weapon and has not been formally adopted for use in the service. The 3.8-inch howitzer with its limber loaded and equipped weighs 3,970 pounds; caisson 4,027 pounds loaded and equipped. It has three zones, its inner zone extends from 100 yards to 1,800 yards and its muzzle velocity is 454 feet

14

FIELD ARTILLERY

per second. Its middle or second zone extends from 100 yards to 3,000 yards with a muzzle velocity of 620 feet per second. Its outer or third zone is from 100 to 6,000 yards with a muzzle velocity of 900 feet per second. Its greatest angle of elevation is 45 degrees. Projectiles fired are shell and shrapnel, weight 30 pounds. The number of rounds carried in limber of the 3.8-inch howitzer is 24; number of rounds carried in caisson, 24. This howitzer was constructed with a view to its use as a sister piece to the 2.38inch horse artillery gun, which though designed, was never issued to the service. The 4.7-inch howitzer fires a projectile weighing 60 pounds. It has three zones. The inner or first zone extends from 100 yards to 980 yards with a muzzle velocity of 454 feet per second. The middle or second zone extends from 100 yards to 3,500 yards with a muzzle velocity of 620 feet per second. The third zone extends from 100 yards to 6,600 yards with a muzzle velocity of 900 feet per second. Maximum range at 40 degrees is 6,600 yards. Weight of howitzer, carriage and limber loaded and equipped, 5,252 pounds. Weight of caisson, 4,726 pounds. Rounds of ammunition carried in limber, 12; rounds carried in caisson, 18. The 4.7-inch gun fires a projectile weighing 60 pounds. The muzzle velocity 1,700 feet per second. The maximum range is approximately 11,000 yards, the sight being graduated to 9,000 yards. The weight of the 4.7-inch gun, carriage and limber, fully equipped is 8,756 pounds. Diameter of wheels 60 inches and width of track 60 inches. Weight of caisson, completely equipped and loaded, 8,221 pounds. Rounds of ammunition carried in caisson limber, 28; rounds carried in caisson, 28. The 6-inch howitzer fires a projectile weighing 120 pounds. Its maximum range is 6,700 yards. It has three zones. The inner or first zone extends from 100 yards to 2,000 yards. It has a muzzle velocity of 464 feet per second; the second or middle zone extends from 100 yards to 3,600 yards; muzzle velocity of 629 feet per second. The outer or 3d zone extends from 100 yards to 6,700 yards; muzzle velocity 900 feet per second. The weight of the 6-inch how-

COURSE "A," LECTURE I

15

itzer carriage and limber is 8,611 pounds; weight of caisson, completely equipped and loaded, 7,997 pounds. Diameter of wheels 60 inches, width of track, 60 inches. Rounds of ammunition carried in caisson limber, 14, rounds carried in caisson, 14. The howitzers have a greater error in direction than guns. Guns have a greater error in range than howitzers. The 3-inch gun limber carries 36 rounds of ammunition and the caisson 70 rounds. Gun ammunition tubes carry 4. All batteries on war footing have 4 guns or howitzers and 12 caissons (ammunition wagons). There is a battery wagon which carries carpenter and saddler's tool chests and a forge limber, which carries the blacksmith's tools and portable forge. Also there is a store wagon in which is carried spare parts of guns and harness. The store limber carries the fire control equipment. In firing first or inner zone with all howitzers, the corrector 30 and range zero setting will not be used, as it is likely to endanger the members of the gun squad in the firing. The names of the different parts of gun and caisson are shown in attached cuts. It is incumbent upon every artilleryman to be familiar with the names of the parts of his guns.

Lecture II
TOOLS-DISMOUNTING BREECHBLOCK, ETC. gun is provided with the following tool kit which is carried in the trail box. One spanner wrench for 56inch wheels, one spanner wrench for carriage, one wrench .75 and one inch, one filling and draining plug wrench for use in emptying and filling recoil cylinders, one cold chisel 1-inch by 8 inches. One hand smooth file 8 inches flat, one 3 square file, six inches dead smooth, one hand hammer cross peen, 121-inch handle, one small steel punch, one small copper drift, one large copper drift, one pliers, 10.75 inches. One range quadrant wrench, one screw slot wrench, one screw driver 10 inches. One wrench for fitting counter recoil springs guide, and grind stone. On left of caisson one spanner wrench .625-inch and .75 inches. In addition to these tools there are carried in the battery wagon and forge limber a set of blacksmith's tools with portable forge, a set of carpenter's tools, and a set of saddler's tools. On each gun limber and caisson limber there is carried one axe, one pick axe, one short handled shovel, one hatchet. On each caisson there is carried one axe, one pick mattock, one long handled shovel. These are provided for entrenching purposes and other camp use. It is thus seen that a battery has practically its own work shop for the purposes of making all necessary repairs. In the use of the tools assigned to a battery by the members thereof, the officers in charge should be particularly careful to see that the tools are used in the same manner that a. skilled workman uses his tools. When it is necessary to tap a piece of the metal, a block of wood should be interposed between the metal and the hammer. In assembling or disassembling the mechanism of the guns, care should be taken not to make use of the tools to pry or drive or force the parts to position or from position, as they have been all carefully machined and will fit into position without difficulty if a little patience is used, and the proper place is found into which the different parts have been machined to fit.

EACH

16

COURSE "A," LECTURE II

17

In instructing new men in the dis-assembling or assembling of the mechanisms, care should be taken to impress thoroughly upon them the necessity of observing the above mentioned points so that the repairs to the battery materiel will be reduced to the minimum. All the tools necessary to the care of the guns are carried in the trail box tool kit with the exception of a spring compressor, the block and tackle, and hub liner driving tool. These are carried in the battery wagon and forge limber. Gunners should be required to present their tool kits for frequent inspection of the platoon commanders to see that none of the tools are missing and that they are in proper condition. To dismantle breech mechanism and firing mechanism, remove firing lock case, grasp operating lever and open the mechanism; when the mechanism is open, force the block latch out of its seat in the block by gently pressing it into the seat in the carrier. Take hold of the block and revolve it to the right until it stops; then pull it to the rear, taking care not to drop it. The block latch can now be readily removed. After the firing-lock case has been removed the operating lever can be removed by forcing the pivot from beneath by a gentle pressure from the palm of the hand. The lever latch can be removed by pressing in on the latch at a point near its lower end and opposite its pivot; a hole in the latch is cut eccentric with reference to the pivot and a shoulder on the pivot prevents their displacement until the latch is forced in and the hole is concentric with the pivot. When this occurs the pivot can be readily pulled out and the latch removed. To remove the block carrier, force the hinge pin up by the end until it can be caught by the head, and by swinging the carrier back and forth, if the pin sticks, it can readily be removed. Take care not to drop extractor lever. The extractor can now be removed from the gun. No tools other than hands are required for dismantling the breech mech-.. anism. To assemble the mechanism reverse these operations.

18

FIELD ARTILLERY

Firing Mechanism To dismount the firing mechanism: Take hold of the milled head locking bolt situated at the lower end of the firing lock case, pull it to the rear; at the same time revolve the firing lock case upwards about 45 degrees and pull it gently to the rear. This will remove the case with the firing mechanism complete, from the gun. Press the trigger shaft detent until it disengages from the notch in the firing lock case; this will allow the trigger with its detent to be withdrawn, then gently press on the front end of the firing pin forcing it back into the casing; this will allow the trigger fork to fall out. Then, with one finger press on the front end of the sear, force it outward, at the same time grasp front end of the firing pin which is roughened for the purpose; give it a sharp pull. This will remove the firing pin spring and sleeve from the casing, then place the front end of firing pin against a block of wood, bear down on the firing spring sleeve until the spring is compressed sufficiently to disengage the slot in the rear end of the sleeve from the small lug on the rear end of the firing pin, slightly turn the sleeve, and the sleeve can be separated from the spring and pin. By an unscrewing motion the spring can be removed from the pin; the sear can be removed by gently pressing it in toward the center of the casing. To assemble, reverse these operations, taking care that before pushing too hard on the end of the trigger shaft that the square hole in the trigger fork is in position to receive the tapered end of the trigger shaft. No tools are required to assemble or dismantle this mechanism. Dismounting Gun To dismount the gun from the cradle, remove the recoil indicator throw, unscrew the cylinder-end, stud nut and shove gun to the rear until the clips are free from the guides, taking care that the gun is in a horizontal position before starting the operation. Care should be taken to have at least eight men, and two pieces of new 2-inch by 4-inch lumber about 6 feet long to place under the breech when the gun is pushed to the rear on the cradle. Great care should be taken not to allow the gun to be pushed off the slides or

COURSE "A," LECTURE II

19

to remain with insufficient support at the breech end when partially off the carriage, as a strain would then be put on the guide rails. Two wooden horses or two logs of at least three inches in diameter should be provided on which to set the gun. See that no sand or grit gets on the guide rails or guide clips. Unless care is taken the firing shaft is also quite liable to injury during this maneuver, and care should be taken to prevent its being struck by the muzzle of the gun or by implements in the hands of the cannoneers. The gun should be taken off of the cradle before firing, and at other frequent intervals, and a thorough examination made of the guide rails to see that they are clean and not being burred or scarred by foreign substances which may This opportunity accumulate there from time to time. is also taken advantage of to examine the rivets of the cradle to see that the heads ar not worn down or that they are loose in the holes provided for them. If an insrection shows this to be so, report of the facts should be made immediately and the gun kept out of commission until put in good order. Mounting Gun To mount the gun, have the cannoneers lay hold of the 2 x 4 on each end and raise the gun to the level of t 1 gu'de rails, shove the piece from the rear over the cradle guide rails, keeping the gun in the same horizontal plane with the guide rails until the clips are thoroughly engaged with them. Screw on cylinder end stud nut, taking care that the locking stud on the recoil lug enters one of the recesses provided for it in the cylinder end; assemble the recoil indicator throw. The dust guard must be assembled at the time the front clip is engaged at the end of the guide rails.

-e

Dismounting Wheels To remove a wheel with outside fastening, first remove the hub cap by means of the spanner wrench, unscrew by turning the hub cap to the left. The fastening on the axle can then be removed by sliding it out of its slot; the wheel can readily be lifted off. Either a block of wood which is longer than the distance from the ground to the axle should

20

FIELD ARTILLERY

be set under the axle to remove the wheel from the ground before attempting to take it off, or a screw jack, which is usually provided in each battery, should be used in jacking the carriage up from the ground.. To assemble the wheel reverse the above operations. To remove a wheel with inside fastening, remove the split pin from hasp, lift the hasp to a vertical position and turn forty-five degrees; lift the wheel from the axle. To assemble the wheel reverse these operations.

Lecture III
filling of recoil cylinders require the greatest of care T HEand a commissioned officer will verify that the cylinder is properly filled. An improperly filled cylinder will disable the gun when fired. In filling the recoil cylinder of a three-inch gun two methods may be used. Both are here given in detail. The easiest way to fill a cylinder is when it is dis-assembled from the carriage. If assembled to the carriage bring the gun to a maximum elevation and remove both filling and draining plug. It is necessary that draining plug hole should be located on top of the cylinder. Fill through the hole in the piston rod, allow a few minutes for air to escape and oil to settle, re-fill and repeat two or three times. When satisfied that the cylinder is entirely full of oil insert both plugs and depress the gun to a maximum depression. After a few minutes elevate again to maximum elevation and unscrew both plugs. Now re-fill as described above. When entirely full allow not more than one-fourth gill of oil to escape; insert both plugs and lash them with copper wire. Before the cylinder can be filled, while assembled to the carriage, it will be necessary to remove the cradle head by first removing the piston rod nut, split pin and hasp, and then turning the cradle head about fifteen degrees until it disengages and can the be slipped off to the front. Then proceed with the operation described above. When the cylinder is removed from its position in the cradle it may be filled by standing it on end, taking care not to burr the cylinder-end stud, and pouring in the required amount of oil, about nine pints of hydrolene. Allow the oil to settle, then re-fill. Take out one-fourth of a gill of the oil. After this has been done the cylinder can be returned to its position in the cradle. The filling and drain plugs should be securely wired with copper wire before the cylinder is placed in the cradle. It may happen that after firing a few
21

FILLING CYLINDERS, ETC.

22

FIELD ARTILLERY

rounds the gun will not return to battery. This may be due to, first, weakness of springs; second, to stuffing box gland being screwed up too tightly, or, third, the oil having been expanded, due to heat. In any case, the cause must be ascertained and remedied; if due to. expansion of oil, it is proven by the fact that the gun cannot be pushed into battery by force exerted on the breech of the gun. In this case, elevate the gun to maximum elevation and remove filling plug. The oil will escape, permitting the gun to return to battery. Hydrolene oil furnished for the cylinder has a specific gravity of .85. It is characterized by its low freezing point and non-corrosive action on metal; the oil used in the cylinder should be clean and free from grit and dirt. To insure this it should be strained through a clean piece of linen or muslin before using. In emergency, water may be used in the cylinder. This should be done only when absolutely necessary, and never in freezing weather, and as soon as practicable the cylinder should be emptied, cleaned, and thoroughly dried, and filled with hydrolene oil. To test the recoil mechanism: Before firing, the recoil mechanism of every gun of the battery should be thoroughly gone over by an officer of the battery and an inspection made to see that the recoil apparatus is in shape to stand the heavy strain incident to the firing of the piece. After the recoil springs have been looked over, the cradle rivets examined, the guide rails inspected, the cylinder filled, and gland adjusted, the gun should be retracted from battery to its position of extreme recoil, then releasing it and allowing it to slide into position in battery. The latter Take a pick handle maneuver is accomplished as follows: from the carriage, secure it in the middle by means of halter shank, attach the spring compressor to the cylinder, and by means of block and tackle pull the gun to the rear until the pick handle can be inserted between the end of the cradle and the recoil lug of the gun. When this has been done, ease off on the tackle and allow the strain to be borne by the pick handle, release the spring compressor from.the cylinder, have the cannoneers stand clear of the piece, require the gunner or other competent

COURSE "A," LECTURE III

23

man to lay hold of the halter shank, wrapping it around the hand, and with a good stiff jerk remove the pick handle from its position. Note the manner in which the gun slides "into battery" to see whether the springs have sufficient elasticity to return the gun to battery. Note whether the gun slides back into place nicely, and without a jar, or whether it goes back with considerable jar. If there is considerable jar it will indicate that the counter recoil buffer is not performing its function, which is to ease the gun into position. While the gun is in position at full recoil the guide rails should be thoroughly oiled. Cannoneers should take care to stand clear of the cradle in performing this operation, so that in the event of the pick handle slipping out of its position there will be no injury to them by the return of the gun to battery. The gun should not recoil more than 45 inches. This is the normal recoil. If the gun recoils more than 45 inches it is clearly indicated that the springs are weak or insufficient oil in the cylinder, either of which would cause danger to mechanism and gun squad in firing. Battery officers should not hesitate to hold guns that are incapacitated, out of action, or out of target practice. It is by far better to do this than to endanger the lives of the gun crews unnecessarily. Field artillerymen are judged by the condition of their material, and all officers of the battery should strive to keep the material of their batteries in the pink of condition at all times. This is accomplished by constant inspection, careful notation, and immediate correction of all irregularities in the material.

Lecture IV
DISMOUNTING RECOIL SPRINGS dismount* counter recoil springs and cylinder, bring TOthe gun to approximately zero degrees elevation, that is, horizontal. Unscrew the cylinder-end stud nut, the piston rod nut, and cradle head. Shove the gun about one inch from battery, attach the spring compressor to the cylinderend stud and put sufficient strain on the compressor to relieve the retaining ring from spring pressure, then remove the retaining ring by loosening and swinging aside the Ease off on spring compressor unretaining ring bolts. til springs are free. In using the block and tackle provided for retracting the springs, two guns may be placed pointing in opposite directions with the trail spades touching and in the same line with each other. Take a piece of one-inch rope about four feet long and make a sling out of it. Pass the loop of the sling between the flasks in front of the tool box and slip a piece of 2x4 lumber through the loop, allowing it to bear on the bottom of the flasks of the gun which is being used as an anchor, set the brakes on both guns, attach the hook of the block to the sling, then assemble several cannoneers on the fall of the tackle and tighten up the rope, being careful to exert the pull in a straight line with the cylinder. The gunner or other competent man should stand by the elevating and traversing gear to make small changes of elevation, etc.; during this maneuver all other cannoneers should stand clear of the piece. The chief of section or a capable cannoneer should remain at the side of the muzzle end of the cradle to perform the necessary duties of removing the retaining ring bolts and the retaining ring. Note that the springs, which are assembled under a pressure of about five hundred pounds are held in place entirely by the retaining ring bolts. Do not allow an inexperienced man or one who does not thoroughly understand the dis-assembling of gun mechanism to meddle with the retaining ring bolts.
24

COURSE "A," LECTURE IV

25

After the pressure has been released on the springs they will be taken out and placed on a paulin, being careful that no dirt or other foreign substance is allowed to get on them. The first section of the spring is removed with the cylinder. This should be very carefully handled, as the walls of the cylinder are extremely thin and liable to damage by dropping or coming in contact with other implements. To disassemble the cylinder proceed as follows: Unscrew gland sufficient to release the pressure of the packing upon the piston rod; unscrew and remove the cylinder head. The rod may then be withdrawn from the cylinder. In dismounting and assembling the cylinder head and also the gland, the cylinder should be held from turning by the spanner applied to the flange on the front end of the cylinder; it should never be clamped with a vise, as its walls are thin and are not intended to withstand such usage. To remove the counter recoil buffer take out the cylinderend-stud set screw and unscrew cylinder-end-stud. Care must be taken to always remove this screw, before unscrewing cylinder-end-stud. The counter recoil buffer is attached to the cylinder-end-stud. The necessity for dismounting parts of the cylinder will seldom arise, except when cylinder has been carelessly filled with dirty oil. It should be done only in the presence of a commissioned officer, who should see that the parts are handled with the greatest care. In removing the cylinder head, two spanner wrenches should be used, requiring the services of two men working in opposite directions. The cylinder should be placed on two blocks of wood or two wooden horses and held in place by a third man. The oil is always removed before dismounting the parts of the cylinder. After the cylinder has been taken apart careful examination should be made of its interior to see whether any foreign substances are contained therein, and if so, what damage, if any, has been suffered by the cylinder due to presence of same. Should any damage be discovered in the cylinder, repairs should be made by skilled mechanics only. Gen-

26

FIELD ARTILLERY

erally, tools for the purpose of repairing damage within the cylinder are not available in the battery, and repairs will be .made by mechanics from the Ordnance Department.

Lecture V
ASSEMBLING SPRINGS AND CYLINDER assembling springs and cylinder the interior of the cradle should be thoroughly cleaned and rivets examined, the springs carefully cleaned and all old oil and dirt wiped off, and the cylinder thoroughly gone over and cleaned. Several cannoneers should be set to work covering the springs with slushing oil. The cylinder can then be assembled. In assembling, the parts should be thoroughly cleaned, as the clearances in the cylinder are very small and the presence of small foreign particles may interfere with the proper working of the assembled parts. The cylinder head should be set up hard with a wrench and then lashed with copper wire to prevent unscrewing. The stuffing box is .packed with five rings, Garlock's hydraulic waterproof packing. The packing is issued cut into rings of such size that the ends meet around the piston rod. In assembling the packing, each ring is placed so as to break joints with the preceding one, and is forced into its seat by a packing tool of copper or hard wood, one end of which should be shaped like a carpenter's gouge and the other end forming a handle strong enough to stand light taps from a hammer. This tool may be readily improvised by a battery mechanic. After five rings are firmly fitted in position the gland can be screwed down on the packing. In assembling the gland, be sure that at least four of its threads are engaged with the threads of the cylinder head. Remember, in the adjustment of the gland, it will call for the exercise of some judgment. If screwed up too tightly the frictional resistance of the packing on the piston rod will be so much increased that the counter recoil springs may fail to return the gun to battery, espe,cially at high angles of elevation. It should be screwed up just tight enough to prevent leakage of oil through stuffing box. Ordinarily this can be done by hand, but in cases

BEFORE

27

28

FIELD ARTILLERY

where hand power is not sufficient, a wrench provided for the purpose should be used. When its proper adjustment is determined, the gland should be lashed with copper wire to prevent it from screwing up or unscrewing. After the cylinder-end-stud has been placed in position, the cylinder-end-stud set-screw should be placed in position. The cylinder can then be filled conveniently with hydrolene oil. Care should be taken to strain this oil through a linen or muslin cloth to prevent particles of dirt getting into the cylinder. Be sure to allow the oil to stand long enough for all the air to escape, then re-fill; now remove a quarter of a gill of oil from the cylinder, assemble the filling and draining plugs, wire securely. Place two of the springs in the cradle, slip the spring support on the cylinder, then place the third spring on the cylinder, attach the spring compressor to the end of the cylinder and pass the free end of compressor from the muzzle end to breech end through the two springs in the cradle. Place the rear end of the cylinder in the front end of the cradle. Attach the tackle to the spring compressor, being careful to align the cannoneers on the fall of rope in prolongation of rear end of cylinder. The chief of section or gunner should be at one side of the muzzle end of cradle. Require the men on end of the spring compressor to tighten up gradually, drawing the counter recoil springs to their assembled position. The man working at the muzzle end of the cradle should be careful to assemble the spring support in the grooves provided for it. The grindstone wrench should be on hand at this time for turning spring support slightly to the right or left as the springs reach the assembled position. The man at the muzzle end of the cradle should place the retaining ring in position, placing the retaining ring bolts in their sockets and tightening up until they just come in contact with the retaining ring and no more; as soon as this has been done the cannoneers working on the tackle can ease off their pressure and disengage the spring compressor. The cradle head is then assembled. The gun can then be pushed into battery, but care must be taken that the small stud on the interior face of recoil lug engages A spanner in the hole provided for it in the cylinder.

COURSE "A," LECTURE V

29

wrench should be used at muzzle end of cylinder to turn the cylinder so that the hole is opposite the stud, if it does not happen to be in alignment. The cylinder-end stud-nut is then screwed on and split pin inserted and opened to prevent falling out.

Lecture VI
SIGHTS-QUADRANTS-FUZE SETTERS

THE

appliances used for laying the three-inch field piece and other calibers in the United States service of the wheeled materiel include line sights, front and rear sights, the panoramic sight and the range quadrant. The line sights are fixed to the gun, one on the muzzle end and one on the breech end, and are simply used for getting the general alignment, The front sight supported in a bracket on the cradle is a short tube whose axis is marked by the intersection of two cross wires set in the tube at an angle of 45 degrees with the horizontal. The rear sight bracket is seated in a socket attached to the cradle of carriage on the left side. At the upper end of the bracket two seats are formed for the attachment of the socket for the sight. The shank socket which holds the rear sight is mounted on a bracket and has a circular motion on the guides under action of the transverse leveling screw. This arrangement permits the correction for inclination of sight by revolution of rear sight in a plane perpendicular to axis of gun until the sight is vertical as indicated by the transverse level fixed to socket. The sight shank is an arm curved to an arc of a circle whose center is the front sight. The shank slides up and down in guides in the socket, its movement being effected through a scrowl gear wheel which acts on the teeth of the rack cut on the right face of the shank. The scrowl gear is held in mesh by a spring; by pulling out the scrowl gear handle it is disengaged from the rack. Change in elevation may then be made by sliding the shank through the socket by hand. The range scale is marked on the rear face of the shank and read at index at upper end of socket. The small division of scale corresponds to 50 yards of range, but this may be readily divided by the eye. On the upper end of the shank is a frame, on which is mounted the peep of the rear sight. The peep is moved to the right or left by means of the de30

COURSE "A," LECTURE VI

31

flection screw; the peep hole is Vo inch in diameter; each division of the deflection scale corresponds to 1 mil. (iooo) of the range. The scale is marked from left to right as follows:40__30__20__10-_0__90__80__70__6360 The deflection readings are uniform with those of the panoramic sight and battery commander's telescope. The readings 90 80 70 60 should have prefixed before them 63, there being 40 mils on each side of the zero line. The graduation on the rear sight corresponds exactly with that on the drum of the panoramic sight for 40 mils on each side of the zero line. In construction, the sight is continued upward above the seat for the peep sight, to form The elevation level is a seat for the panoramic sight. circular to line of sight and thus permits the use of sight as a quadrant in giving elevation to the piece when the target is not in view, or in case the range quadrant is damaged and not available for use. In the sight for the 6-inch howitzer, the front sight is mounted on the same bar as the rear sight, and the bar revolves in elevation about a point between the two sights. The rear sight has a slight movement of deflection on the end of the bar; the adjustable sight is often called a tangent sight from its similarity to sights with straight shanks, formerly much used with cannon. The peep of rear sight moves on the tangent to an arc instead of on the arc itself. Panoramic Sight The sights furnished to all batteries are practically the same. Fire from modern field guns is so accurate and destructive that it has been found necessary to establish field batteries always in position where they are not visible to the enemy in order to protect the, batteries from fire of the enemy's guns. Indirect sighting becomes, then, of necessity the usual method of sighting guns in battle. The panoramic sight affords the means of aiming the gun by directing the line of sight on any object in view from the gun; at the same time it offers the advantages of a telescopic sight in direct or indirect aiming. The panoramic sight is a telescope so fitted with reflector and prism that

32

FIELD ARTILLERY

a magnified image of an object anywhere in view may be brought to the eye without change in direction of gun. The panoramic sight is shown in a cut attached hereto. The rays of light from the object viewed enters the sight through the plain glass window in the head piece, and are bent downward by the prism of total reflection A, rectified vertically by prism B, focused by object lens C, and rectified laterally by gabled prism D, so that there is presented to the eye piece E a rectified image of object, which image is magnified by the two lenses of the eye piece. The magnifying power of the instrument is four, and the field of view is ten degrees, or about 180 mils. The head piece containing prism A is mounted to rotate on body of telescope and in order to counteract the doubled angular movement of the image by prism B, the head piece is made to rotate twice as fast as the prism. The image of any object then rotates through the same angular distance as head piece and relative positions of the object in the field of view are not changed. The different movements of A and B are accomplished by means of one tangent screw through gearing contained in cylindical casing seen in junction of rotating point. The angular movement of head piece is indicated by a graduated scale on its perimeter visible through a window in the rear of casing. When the index of casing is on zero of scale, the line of sight of panoramic sight is in vertical plane parallel to axis of piece. If at the same time the rear sight, on which the panoramic sight is mounted, is at the zero of elevation scale, the line of sight of the panoramic sight is parallel to axis of the piece. In the scale on the head piece the circle is divided in 64 equal parts, numbered clockwise. One complete turn of micrometer screw moves the head piece through one of these graduations. The micrometer scale mounted on the micrometer screw has 100 equal divisions. A movement of micrometer scale through one of the divisions of the micrometer
scale therefore moves the head piece through 40oo part of a

circle which corresponds very closely to iooo of the range. The reading of the main scale is in 64ths of the circle. The hundreds are read from scale on head piece, and the

COURSE "A," LECTURE VI

33

tens and units from the scale on micrometer screw. Thus when index has passed the mark 27 on head scale and index of micrometer scale stands at 18, the reading is 2718. The Panaromic Sight May be Used as a Range Finder By employing the two flank guns of a battery, by means of sights, the azimuth reading zero, lay the guns on the target, then by turning the worm knob the panoramic sights are sighted upon each other and the angles at each gun are read in units of the deflection scale. The angle at target is equal to 3,200 (180 degrees) minus the sum of the angles measured at the two guns. Measure the distance between the guns at right angles to the line of fire; the range in yards then is equal to 1,000 X base in yards divided by the angle (parallax) at the target. This may also be done using two battery commander's telescopes instead of the flank guns of the battery and any convenient base in yards. Preferably as long as possible. The cross wires in the panoramic sight may be illuminated for night firing by means of a shutter which is provided on the eye piece elbow. Electric flash lamps provided for each battery are used for illuminating these wires. Whenever possible, and especially when not in use in garrisons, the panoramic sight should be kept in a dry place in order that the lenses may be kept free from dampness and thus avoid clouding. Ordanace Pamphlet No. 1795 explains in detail the care, preservation, repair and adjustment of instruments for fire control systems for coast and field artillery. Dust should not be allowed to accumulate on the lenses, but if however it does accumulate it should be removed with a camel's hair brush or a very soft cloth to prevent scratching. The Range Quadrant In rapid firing the duties of setting the sight for range and deflection, in laying the piece, and manipulating the elevating and traversing mechanism, if attempted by a single cannoneer, delays the firing much beyond the time allowed to load the piece. Since in the carriage for mobile artillery, the elevating and traversing mechanisms are enART.-2

34

FIELD ARTILLERY

tirely independent of each other, the pointing of the piece may be much simplified and time required thus lessened by assigning to one cannoneer the pointing of the piece for direction, and to a second cannoneer the elevation of piece for range. Such a division of duties is provided for by the elevating crank at right of trail and the range quadrant attached to right of cradle; by this arrangement the gunner on the left of piece usually sets off the deflection on panoramic sight, laying for direction only while the cannoneer on right of piece gives quadrant elevation. The range quadrant is supported in a bracket on the right side of the cradle of carriage with its axis circular to the vertical plane containing the axis of piece therein; provision is made for rotation of the quadrant about its axis in order that the curved rocker arm of the quadrant may be made. vertical when the wheels of the carriage are on different levels. The vertical position of the quadrant is indicated by the transverse level. The quadrant consists of a fixed arm, of which the rocker arm is a part, and a movable arm in front of the fixed arm carrying a range disk, a clinometer level and mechanism for elevating the movable arm. The fixed arm has at the rear an upwardly extended arc called the rocker arm with toothed racks on front and rear edges. The movable arm pivoted at the front of the fixed arm, the arm moves about its pivot by a gear actuated by an elevating hand wheel and meshing in the rear tooth rack, the pinion on the shaft of the range disk meshes in the forward rack and the movement of the arm in elevation is indicated by the scale on the range disk in terms of corresponding range. The Clinometer or Angle of Site Scale on the Range Quadrant The range level is pivoted on the axis of the movable arm and may be moved relatively to the arm by the micrometer screw, the upper end of which carries a micrometer scale. A short circular scale is marked on the left edge of the piece carrying the level; the level scale is in 64ths of a circle and the micrometer scale 6,400ths, similar to scales of panoramic sight. The purpose of the clinometer

COURSE "A," LECTURE IX

3

is to make correction for difference in level of the gun and target. The angle subtended at the target by the difference in level is called the angle of site, as may be seen by the words on the range level. This angle is sometimes spoken of as the angle of position, which is a better. term, first, in better expressing what is meant, and, second, in not leading to confusion through a similarity to the word sight, and to term angle of sight frequently used. The readings on the clinometer scale are. 2 3 45, read 200; 300 400 and 500, to which are added the readings of the micrometer scale; 300 corresponds to the horizontal. Targets above the level of the gun have an angle of si+ greater than 300, targets below the level of the gun have an angle of site less than 300. This angle usually is measured by means of a battery commander's telescope and is computed in mils. Use of the Quadrant The quadrant is used as follows:The quadrant is leveled transversely to correct for the difference in level of wheels. The clinometer is set to read the number of hundreds on the main scale and the number of units and tens on the micrometer scale; the range is then set off on range disk by means of the screw on the rocker arm. The elevating gear is then moved until the range level bubble is brought to the center. The piece has now the proper elevation for the range corrected by the angle of position. If the angle of position were measured as 315 this angle of 15 mils in elevation between gun and target' would be added to quadrant elevation, if 285 it would be subtracted from the quadrant elevation by means of the clinometer scale, as it would then be an angle of depression, which would subtract from the range. It will be noted then that in the use of the clinometer scale in correcting the elevation, by adding or subtracting the angle of position, that we apply the principle of the rigidity of the trajectory. A failure to center bubble of transverse level will cause the gun to shoot in direction toward side of the lower wheel.

36

FIELD ARTILLERY

The Bracket Fuze Setter The fuze setter is a device for the rapid and accurate setting of time fuzes in field gun projectiles. It is attached to a bracket on the caisson for field guns in a position convenient for the cannoneer who serves the ammunition; the base of the fuze setter is fixed to the bracket on the caisson; mounted on the base are two movable rings for setting corrector and range. The range ring carries the range scale graduated in yards and the corrector ring carries index with pointer that moves along the corrector scale that is fastened to a fixed cover. The base of the two rings are bored out conically to fit over combination time and percussion fuze used in the three-inch projectile. The corrector ring is notched to receive the rotating stud which projects from the time train ring of the fuze, the stud projects from the range ring of fuze setter. A guide fixed to the base of the fuze setter serves to direct the point of projectile into the socket of the fuze setter and to keep the cartridge in proper position during the operation of fuze setting. To set the fuze for time of burning corresponding to any range, as say, 1,000 yards, and corrector 30, the range ring is turned by means of the range-worm handle until the 1,000 mark on the range scale is opposite the datum line marked on the corrector scale, the corrector ring is turned by means of corrector worm until datum point is opposite 30 on corrector scale; the weather proof cover of time fuze is stripped off and the point of projectile is then placed in fuze setter. The rotating stud on fuze engages with notch in the corrector ring, the cartridge is then turned slowly in a clockwise direction until the stud on the time ring comes in contact with the stop on the fuze. The stud prevents further rotation of the cartridge; the time fuze has now been set to proper time of burning for 1,000 yards with a corrector of 30. The rate of burning of the different fuzes of the same lot will be uniform, but may vary slightly from the rate of burning used in graduation of scale of fuze setter. This must be determined by the actual firing, and if after a few shots it is found the projectiles fired are all beyond range for which time fuze is set, or if the height of burst is not exactly as desired, the correction is made in setting of fuze by means of corrector ring in

COURSE "A,"

LECTURE VI

37

fuze setter. The height of burst may be increased or diminished by turning the corrector ring by means of the corrector worm thumb screw to increase or decrease corrector scale reading. One point on the corrector scale corresponds to a difference of 1 mil. in the height of burst, and it is increased or decreased about 25 yards in range at the mid-ranges, in range of burst. Hand Fuze Setter In addition to the bracket fuze setter a hand fuze setter is provided for emergency use in the three-inch gun. One is carried in each trail box. To use a hand fuze setter loosen clamp screw. Set range scale with range opposite corrector -desired; tighten clamp. Direct a cannoneer to hold the projectile .in a vertical position, place fuze setter over the fuze so that the stud on time train engages with fuze setter. Turn fuze setter in clockwise direction until stop on fuze stock brings up against stud of fuze setter. The desired amount of time train has then been set off, and the projectile is ready to load into gun. The hand fuze setter is used with the 4.7-inch gun and with all howitzers. The bracket fuze setter is provided for the 3-inch field gun only.

Lecture VII
FIELD ADJUSTMENT OF SIGHTS AND FUZE SETTERS

offiadjusted by of a A LL the sightsaction battery should be practice and an any cer before or before target if of them are out of adjustment, they should be placed in adjustment before firing takes place. There is provided in each battery for the purpose, a level, bore sight, and strap for tying cross hairs to the muzzle. .As most of the adjustments will have to be made when in the field a level platform generally cannot be provided on which to place the gun; however, ground as level as possible should be selected and distant sighting point should be selected at least 5,000 yards away, farther if possible. Place in the grooves provided on the muzzle two horse hairs at right angles to each other or two pieces of thread, secure in place by means of rubber band or the belt provided for the purpose, place the bore sight which is a brass disk with pin hole in center, in the bore of gun, place the sight shank and panoramic sight in position in their sockets, sit astride of trail and with assistance of the gunner seated on the left of the piece traverse the piece and elevate it until the intersection of the cross hairs on the muzzle are in line with the sighting point and the pin hole in the bore sight. The vertical wire is the one that must be in line with the sighting point, then when this is complete sit astride of gunner's seat, provide yourself with small teat wrench from the tool kit in the trail box. Set the main scale of panoramic sight at zero and micrometer scale at zero, look through sight and see whether the vertical cross hair is in line with the sighting point previously selected on which you have laid the gun by means of bore sight; if the vertical wire is not in alignment with the sighting point turn the micrometer until the vertical wire is in alignment with the sighting point. Note the number of mils on the micrometer setting that the sight is off in direction, place teat wrench in small holes provided on face of micrometer screw 38

COURSE "A," LECTURE VII

39

and loosen up the screw, then turn the graduated scale of micrometer until the zero is opposite the datum point, being careful not to turn the head piece of the sight; when this is accomplished tighten up the screw, sight through the panoramic sight on the sighting point and same should be properly aligned. Rear Sight Place the front sight in the firing position, set the rear sight at zero, sight through these sights on the sighting point, if not in alignment turn the rear sight deflection screw until zero on the sight is in alignment with the front sight and sighting point. Note the reading on the scale; unscrew by means of a screw driver the sliding deflection scale. Place zero of deflection scale opposite the datum line on eye piece of rear sight, then tighten up the screws and recheck to see that no displacement has taken place during the operation. The sight shank has a range scale on its rear face held in place by a screw and nut at bottom; this may slip either up or down; level the gun, shove the sight shank well down in its socket and the reading of zero range should be had. If this is not the case loosen the screw and slip the sight strip up or down until the zero on the strip is even with the datum line. Tighten the screw, The Range Quadrant Bring the gun to a horizontal position by means of elevating gear using the level provided and applying same to the face of the breech; this should be at right angles to the axis of bore. Place the quadrant in position with the angle of sight scale reading 300, micrometer zero, and the range disk reading at its lowest graduation zero, on some quadrants 100 yards. If the rocker arm has been pushed down as low as it will go and the range disk reads more than 100 yards, say 3,000 yards, then it will be necessary to use a quadrant wrench provided in tool kit in trail box. Loosen the friction nut and turn the range disk until it reads zero at the datum on the rocker arm, then tighten friction nut, being careful to see that range disk does not

40

FIELD ARTILLERY

slip during this operation. If the bubble of the quadrant is not in the center turn the clinometer level screw until it does come to the center, then note the reading on the micrometer scale. By means of a screw driver unloosen screw on the micrometer head of the clinometer and turn the scale until zero is opposite the datum line, tighten up the screw, being careful to see that no displacement occurs in this operation. Before attempting to perform these operations, the traverse level which corrects difference of level wheels should be centered. The Fuze Setter All fuze setters of the battery should be tested before firing takes place. To test the fuze setter, set the range ring and corrector scale to readings given, in columns 1 and 2, set the fuze for that setting of fuze setter and compare settings of fuze with the calculation setting given in column 3. Use a shrapnel and not a drill cartridge in making the test. Record fuze settings obtained with each fuze setter in column 4 with error, if any in column 5, and the number of the fuze setter in column 6.
1 2 3 4 5 6

0
2,000 3,750 5,500

30.0 4.0 450
30.0

0 5.99 9.22
16.95 ---

. ---

.

.
-

.

.

.

If errors exist in fuze setters they should be disassembled and corrections made to set them right before they are used in target practice or action. In order to keep them in good order, fuze setters should be frequently oiled with clock oil. The hand fuze setter will be tested in the same manner as the bracket fuze setter.

Lecture VIII
AMMUNITION

THE ammunition for the three-inch and four point seven
gun is fixed, that is the propelling charge and projectile are in one piece, to facilitate rapidity of fire. The ammunition for the howitzers is contained in two parts. The projectile with its fuze is loaded separately into the howitzer and is inserted from a loading tray at the breech with a rammer. The propelling charge is contained in three bags in the brass cartridge case with its primer. The cartridge case of the howitzer is sealed on the end to prevent the entry of moisture. Just before loading, and after it has been determined which zone is to be used in firing, the seal in broken and if the second zone is to be used one of the bags, the uppermost, is removed; if the first zone is to be used two bags are removed, the cartridge case is then inserted in the breech and is ready to fire upon the closing of the breechblock. The action that takes place in the gun when it is fired is as follows:-When a percussion primer in the base of the cartridge case is fired by means of firing pin striking the primer, a flame is shot into the propelling charge. This flame assisted by a small charge of black rifle powder placed in front of the propelling charge causes ignition of the powder grains. After the grains are ignited gas is evolved and the pressure rises until it becomes sufficient to move the projectile against the resistance of the rifling; the projectile begins to move and its motion is accelerated by the pressure of increasing and expanding powder gases until a maximum speed of 1,700 foot seconds is attained at or near the muzzle. The propeller is nitro-cellulose powder, it is smokeless powder and is made in small cylindrical grains for three-inch gun with seven perforations running through each grain. The size of each grain is about that of the little finger from the end to the first joint. The object in having holes in the powder grains is to facilitate the burning of the powder. The powder grains for the different calibers vary m size
41

42

FIELD ARTILLERY

according to the increase or decrease in size of the caliber. In the case of the propelling charges the combustion is gradual, gas being evolved by burning powder during or nearly all of the time of passage of projectile through bore of gun. In the three-inch field gun this amounts to 24o of a second. The constant generating gas develops power behind the projectile. Due to the increase of pressure and temperature the rate of burning is increased; the burning in turn increases the pressure, and the process of combustion is completed in a time almost inappreciably small. Nitro-cellulose powder is superior to nitro-glycerine powder as it causes less erosion of the bore of guns and is easier to handle. Great difficulty, however attends the making of the powder and much time is required in its making. The projectiles in use are high explosive shell, shrapnel, and high explosive shrapnel. The latter is a unit projectile and is much esteemed by the German artillerymen. The fuzes in use are the base detonating fuze and the combination fuze. It may be stated to advantage at this point, that the difference between an explosion and a detonation is as follows:The explosion starts with the explosion of a single particle and takes place progressively from particle to particle until the phenomenon is complete. Detonation is affected with greater rapidity than explosion apparently, and is not progressive from particle to particle but instantaneous conversion of all explosive compounds into gases takes place. The difference of rapidity of reaction of each gives rise to the division of explosives into two groups-high explosives and propellant explosives. The principal high explosives in general use are nitro-glycerine, the dynamites, gun cotton, picric acid, and its salts, tri-nitro-teluel and the fulminate of mercury. The various gun powders are progressive explosives. Gun powder is a term covering charcoal and smokeless powder used as propellants in service and sporting weapons. Twenty-four ounces of nitro-cellulose powder is used as a propelling charge for the 3-inch shell and shrapnel for field guns. It is contained in a brass cartridge case fitted

COURSE "A," LECTURE VIII

43

with a 110 grain percussion primer. The primer is so called because it contains 110 grains of compressed black rifle powder and resembles a .30 calibre rifle cartridge case except for radial holes drilled through its sides to permit the escape of the flames into the propelling charge, when fulminate cap is struck by firing pin. The Frankfort Arsenal 21-second combination fuze (see cut attached) is used with the shrapnel of the 3-inch gun. The body A of this fuze is machined from a bronze casting. The time train rings C and D are turned from hard rolled rods of Tobin bronze. An annular groove in the shape of a horse shoe is milled in the lower face of each of the time train rings. Mealed powder is compressed into each of these grooves under pressure of 66,000 lbs. per square inch, forming a time train the total length of which is 9 inches. The time element of this fuze is composed principally of the following parts i The time or concussion plunger .e, the concussion resistance ring e 1, the firing pin f, the vent g, leading to the upper time train, the compressed powder pellet h, the upper time train k, the compressed powder pellet m, in the vent o, leading to the powder magazine p. The plunger e, is cylindrical in shape and contains the percussion composition in a recess at its base. The weight of the plunger rests upon the concussion resistance ring e', which keeps the primer from contact with the firing pin. At discharge of the gun the resistance of the ring is overcome and the primer is exploded by contact with the firing pin. As stated before, the annular grooves into which the meal powder of the time train is pressed are in the shape of a horse shoe, a solid portion being left between the ends of the groove in each ring or disk. The upper time-train ring c, is prevented from rotation by pins which are halved into the fuze body and the inner circumference of the ring. The vent g, is drilled through the walls of the concussion-plunger chamber, and is exactly opposite a hole in the inner surface of the upper time train leading to the end of the train from which the direction of burning is anti-clockwise. The hole j is drilled through the upper face of the

44

FIELD ARTILLERY

lower time-train groove, from which the direction of buring is clockwise. The lower time-train ring is movable and is graduated on its outer edge in a clockwise direction from 0 to 21.2, each full division corresponding to one second time of burning in flight; these divisions are sub-divided into five equal parts corresponding to one-fifth second. A radial pin d2 is provided in the lower ring for engagement with a notch in the fuze setter for setting the fuze. A line in the lower flange of the fuze stock is the datum line for fuze settings. The vent o is drilled through the flange of the fuze stock to the powder magazine p, and leads to the same end of the lower time train as the vent j, that end from which the direction of burning is clockwise when the fuze is at its "zero" setting. The action of the fuze as a time fuze is as follows : Assume first the "zero" setting as shown on the figure. At discharge of the gun the time plunger arms and fires its primer. The flame from the primer passes out through the vent g, igniting the pellet h, the end of the upper time train i, down through the vent j to the end of the lower time train k, and thence through the vent o to the magazine p, the flame from which is transmitted to the base charge in the shrapnel. It will be seen that for the "zero" setting of the fuze the origin of both upper and lower time trains are in juxtaposition. Assume any other setting, say 12 seconds: The vent j has now changed its position with respect to the vent h leading to the beginning of the upper time train and the vent o, leading to the powder magazine p, both of which points are fixed by the angle subtended between the o and 12second settings. The flame now passes down to the beginning of the lower time train and burns back in a clockwise direction to the position of the vent o whence it is transmitted by the pellet of compressed powder m to the powder magazine p. For the 21.2-second setting the vent j, leading to the beginning of the lower time train, is opposite the end of the upper time train, and the end of the lower time train is opposite the vent leading to the powder magazine. It will now be seen that to reach the magazine p, and burst the

COURSE "A," LECTURE VIII

45

shrapnel the entire length of time train in both rings must be burned. The percussion element of the fuze is contained in the base of the fuze. The plunger q, is armed by the rotation of the projectile on its longest axis and held in place by the forward motion of the projectile. On coming in contact with the ground or target the projectile is stopped with great force and the plunger drives forward into the priming composition r, the flame rushes out of vent r into magazine p and thence down central tube of shrapnel into bursting charge at the base. If the time element of the fuze fails to work, the percussion element acts on impact of the shrapnel. As already stated, the annular grooves in the lower face of each ring for the powder trains do not form complete circles, a solid portion being left between the ends of the grooves in each. This solid portion is utilized to obtain a setting at which the fuze can not be exploded, known as the "safety point." This point is marked by a line on the outer edge of the movable time train, surmounted by "s," and is located about halfway between the zero mark and the 21.2-second graduation. When this point is brought opposite the line on the lower flange of the fuze body, the vent j is covered by the solid metal between the ends of the upper train, and the vent o, leading to the powder magazine p, is covered by the solid metal between the ends of the lower or movable time train. At the safety setting it will be seen that the upper train may burn entirely out in case of accidental firing of the time plunger, or in case it may be desired to burst the shrapnel by impact or percussion, without the flame being able to reach the magazine p. The cloth washers c 1 and d' are glued to the upper face of the graduated time train ring and to the upper face of the flange of the fuze stock. These surfaces are corrugated, as shown, to make the washers adhere more strongly. The function of the washers is to make a gas check and prevent premature action of the fuzes. The compressed pellet j, in the vent leading from the outside to the beginning of the lower time train is to re-

46

FIELD ARTILLERY

lease the pressure of the gases due to the burning train. The gases from both time trains escape into the outer air through the annular spaces shown in the illustration and the vents b 1 in the closing cap. The percussion element of this fuze, as shown in the plate, consists of a percussion plunger q and an ordinary percussion primer r. The system of vents through the walls of the fuze shown in Fig. 2 conduct the flame from the percussion primer to the magazine p. The bottom closing screw closes the percussion plunger recess and keeps the powder in the magazine. The muslin washer v is coated with shellac and held in place by the brass washer w, over the outer edge of which a projecting lip is crimped. These fuzes are issued assembled in shrapnel. For transportation in limbers and caisson the fuze should always be set at the safety point. The fuze is provided with a waterproof hood of thin brass, hermetically sealed. The hood should be stripped off before an attempt is made to set the fuze. The fuze used with the shell is a base detonating fuze. Its nomenclature is a secret and is not published to the service. The shrapnel is a drawn steel case fitted with steel head and Frankfort Arsenal combination 21-second fuze. It is used against troops in the open, to keep enemy troops down in their trenches and with a low height of burst against barbed wire entanglements, to destroy them. The base of the shrapnel carries 24 ounces of black powder as a bursting charge; holding the powder in place is a steel disk having a hole -of an inch in diameter, to which is connected a steel central tube from the bursting charge to the fuze. Around the tube are placed 252 steel jacketed lead balls about half an inch in diameter. Holding these balls in place is a smoke producing matrix of resin, naphthalene, or some other such substance. When the fuze is set for a time burst the action is as follows: The shock of discharge of the gun throws the concussion plunger to the rear, sets off priming composition by coming in contact with anvil, flame rushes out through

COURSE "A," LECTURE VIII

47

vent to upper time train, burns around in an anti-clockwise direction until it strikes vent leading to lower time train, then burns around lower time train in a clockwise direction until vent is reached leading to powder magazine in the base of fuze, then down from magazine through central tube to small piece of guncotton in end of tube, thence into bursting charge in base of shrapnel case. The explosion of this charge forces steel diaphragm against shrapnel bullets, strips off fuze and head of shrapnel case and throws the shrapnel bullets out in a cone shape to the front at an increased velocity of from 250 to 300 feet per second, covering an area in the form of an ellipse, at mid ranges, of 150 to 200 yards in depth and about 20 yards in width with an average of one ball per square yard. In the high explosive shrapnel the matrix around shrapnel balls is composed of high explosive. When the shrapnel functions in air the bullets are thrown out in the usual manner and the fuze with head detonates on striking the ground. When the shrapnel functions on impact or percussion the matrix is detonated by the percussion element, which causes a sympathetic detonation and a high explosive shell effect is produced, the case being ruptured and the fragments taking effect to the right and left of the line of fire at the point of burst. The common steel shell is a hollow steel casing bored out at the base to take the base detonating fuze. It has a capacity of 13.12 ounces of high explosive "D" (Dunnite). It acts on percussidn only, and is used against materiel, trenches, etc. On coming in contact with the ground or target it is detonated and the case is ruptured into many small fragments, the same being thrown to the right and left of the line of fire. Blank Ammunition Great care should be taken by officers in the preparation and firing of blank ammunition in order to avoid accidents. Smoking should be strictly prohibited in vicinity of the place where loading is being done. An officer must be present throughout the loading of the ammunition. This should never take place in barracks, magazines, or stables..

48

FIELD ARTILLERY

Blank metallic ammunition is for use in salute firing, morning and evening gun firing, maneuver firing, etc., and consists of the following components: A brass cartridge case, a percussion primer, a charge of black powder, and a tight-fitting felt wad. The Cartridge Case The cartridge case for blank ammunition is drawn from special brass, 'and for the 3-inch field gun is identical with. the service cartridge case. Cartridge cases are issued unprimed, and primers should not be inserted until the ammunition is to be prepared for use. Cartridge cases that have become deformed in service should be turned in to the posts or arsenals designated in. current orders for resizing and reforming. The Primer The 20-grain saluting primer (percussion) is used in the preparation of blank metallic ammunition for the 3-inch field gun. The primer should be a tight fit in the primer seat in the cartridge case, and must be pressed into place with the primer-inserting press provided for the purpose, and not hammered in. No primer should be used that is not a, tight fit in its seat in the case. Cartridge cases should be primed just before the insertion of the powder charge and under no circumstances will primers be inserted after the powder charge has been. inserted. Primers are issued in hermetically sealed tin boxes, which should not be broken open until the primers are to, be used, as they deteriorate when exposed to atmospheric. influences. The Charge The charge to be used in the preparation of blank metallic ammunition for the 3-inch field gun is 1 pounds. of saluting powder or 2 pounds of I. K. powder. Preparation of Blank Metallic Ammunition Blank metallic ammunition will be assembled at posts, or in the field under the personal supervision of a commissioned officer, who will be held responsible that it is pre-

COURSE "A," LECTURE VIII

49

pared in the manner prescribed. (General Orders No. 9, War Department, January 11, 1908.) For this purpose there are issued blank cartridge cases, black powder in bulk, tight fitting felt wads, rubberine, or other quick-drying paint, primers, etc. Before assembling the cartridge cases should be carefully inspected to see that they are in sound condition and thoroughly clean and dry. They should also be tested by trying them in the gun, to determine whether they have become deformed. Any cases that do not readily enter the chamber in the gun, or that are otherwise seriously deformed, should be laid aside for resizing. After inspecting the cartridge cases the blank ammunition should be prepared as follows: (a) Insert the primers with the primer-inserting press. (b) Pour into the cartridge case the proper weight of black powder and shake it down well. (c) Insert the felt wad and press it down hard until it rests squarely on the powder charge. (d) Give the upper surface of the felt wad and the inside of the cartridge case just above the wad a good coat of the rubberine or other quick-drying paint furnished for the purpose, using a brush, and allow the case to stand until this coat is dry. Then apply another coat of rubberine paint in a similar manner. The object of using rubberine paint, which is strongly adhesive, is to thoroughly seal the joint between the wad and the case to prevent any powder grains from leaking out, and at the same time to firmly hold the wad in place. Precautions to be Observed Firings with blank metallic ammunition will be greatly facilitated by a careful observance of the following: Before all firings a careful examination should be made of the assembled rounds to see that the felt wads have not become displaced or the cartridge cases dented or deformed' by careless handling. If the cartridge cases have been properly resized and are clean no difficulty should be experienced in inserting them in the gun, provided the cham-

50

FIELD ARTILLERY

ber of the latter is clean. The continued insertion of cartridge cases that are not clean causes an accumulation in the gun chamber which may make the insertion of subsequent rounds difficult or impossible. In firing blank ammunition the gun chamber will be sponged after each round with a damp sponge, to extinguish sparks and remove powder residue resulting from the previous round, before the insertion of another round. Care will be taken to see that the sponges are not worn, and that they thoroughly fit the chamber. The interval between rounds in firing blank ammunition should be sufficient to allow thorough sponging of the chamber and examination to ascertain that all sparks have been extinguished. Wads for the preparation of blank metallic ammunition are made to tightly fit in the cartridge case. No wads should be used that are not a tight fit in the case. Care of Cartridge Cases As soon after firing as practicable the exploded primers should be removed from the cartridge case by means of the decapping tool furnished with the reloading outfit. The case should then be thoroughly washed in strong solution of soft soap and soda to remove all powder residue. It should then be thoroughly dried. Before firing a salute with blank metallic ammunition all the cartridges to be used should be inserted in the gun to ascertain if they will fit. In preparing ammunition for salutes, a few rounds in addition to the required number should be prepared for use in case of misfires. Lightly oiling the outside of cartridge cases just before use will facilitate their insertion and extraction. If the cartridge cases are carefully cleaned and washed immediately after firing, not only will less labor be required, but the life of the cartridge will be greatly prolonged. A good solution for washing cartridge cases may be prepared by using ingredients in the following proportions: One gallon of water, 22 ounces soft soap, 5 ounces sal soda.

COURSE "A," LECTURE VIII

51

The mixture should be boiled and stirred until the ingredients are entirely dissolved. In washing cartridge cases this solution should be used hot and in sufficient quantity to completely immerse the cases. Neither acids nor solutions of acids will be used for cleaning cartridge cases. Drill Cartridge The "drill cartridge" is a dummy cartridge for use in drilling cannoneers in the service of the gun. It is a bronze casting of the shape of the service shrapnel ammunition, and is fitted at the point with a movable ring graduated the same as the ring upon the Frankford Arsenal 21-second combination fuze. This arrangement is for instruction of cannoneers in fuze setting. Number of rounds of ammunition supplied to the different calibers of guns in the service is given in the following table: Number and Distribution of Rounds Per Piece

.

.t3

I

Q+

I .I

On wheels and packs

2121

464

312

180

336

168

In

advance supply depots

2121

464

312

360

336

336

At base or in arsenals

425

928

624

540

672

504

Total available

850

1856*

1248

1080

1344

1008

*For cavalry divisions the number of rounds per piece is 1,254 for 3-inch field gun.

Lecture IX

T HE battery commander's telescopes, issued to the service, are of two kinds, the old model instrument with
single barrel, and the new model or scissors telescope. The old model is mounted on a tripod and in construction resembles very much an engineer's transit. It has leveling screws on the base plate, which are exceedingly difficult to manipulate and easily get out of working order. The azimuth scale is graduated contra-clockwise and is divided into 64 main parts, each one representing 100 mils. Mounted on top of this plate is the upper plate or limb, on which is contained the zero or datum line. A small micrometer scale with its perimeter divided into 100 parts is attached to the main scale by a scroll gear. One complete turn of the micrometer scale moves the upper limb over 100 mils or one division on the main scale. This is used for measuring horizontal angles. On the upper plate is mounted the telescope, which consists of one barrel, and is constructed on the same principle practically as the panoramic sight. Situated on the right of the barrel of the telescope is a main scale, marked 2, 3, 4 and 5. Attached to this main scale is a micrometer screw graduated into 100 parts, the smallest division being 1 mil. These two scales are used for measuring vertical angles. One complete turn of the micrometer screw moves the main scale over 1 division, or 100 mils. The instrument is graduated for horizontal angles in a contra-clockwise direction, so that angles measured with it can be readily adapted to the panoramic sight, which is graduated in a clockwise direction, the difference between the two instruments being that with the panoramic sight the scale itself is moved from the zero position in setting off a deflection, whereas with the B. C. telescope the graduated circular limb is stationary and the upper limb, which is attached to the barrel of the telescope, is moved in measuring an angle. With the scissors telescope, or new
52

FIRE CONTROL INSTRUMENTS

COURSE "A," LECTURE IX

53

model battery commander's telescope, as it is known, the leveling screws are done away with and the ball-and-socket .arrangement is substituted therefor; with a quick leveling bubble device, the horizontal angles are measured in the :same manner. The vertical scales, however, are not. There is attached to the barrels of the telescope a scale which works in a vertical plane, carrying a spirit level. This scale is so arranged that when it reads zero, the bubble is centered :and a line through the zero of the scale is parallel with a line through the lower horizontal line in the barrel of the telescope. If then it is desired to measure a vertical angle, and the elevating device of the instrument is maneuvered so that the horizontal wire in the barrel is at the base of the object to be measured, by centering the bubble of the spirit level, the vertical angle is set off on the scale. The main scale is marked in the same manner as the main scale of the old pattern instrument, and the micrometer scale is similarly marked. Range Finder The range finder furnished to the service is known as the Field Artillery Self-contained Base Range Finder. The base in some cases is divided into meters, in other cases into yards. Most of the instruments furnished are the oneyard base. This instrument consists of a barrel about three feet long, which is placed in a horizontal position on a head set on a tripod. This head contains a device for measuring horizontal angles, the same as the scissors instrument, and is similarly graduated. When the instrument is directed on the object whose range is sought, the object is brought into view before the eye-pieces through two object glasses, one situated at each end of the instrument. Two images of the object are seen through the eye-pieces. One in its natural position, and the reflected image in an inverted position, by means of a hand screw situated to the right of the eye-pieces, the object as seen direct and the inverted object are brought into coincidence. A screw situated in front of the eye-pieces, known as the halving screw, permits the inverted object to be raised and lowered along the

54

FIELD ARTILLERY

edges of the object seen direct, thus assisting in getting exact coincidence of the object. When exact coincidence is obtained after this manipulation, the range in yards to the object is read at a window situated to the left of the eye-pieces. Great care in handling fire control instruments is essential and must be thoroughly impressed upon all enlisted men and officers charged with their use. Focusing To focus the battery commander's telescope, old style: (a) After the instrument is properly set up, focus the eye-piece by screwing it in or out of the eye-piece top until the cross wires are in position for distinct vision. This can be done better by pointing the telescope skyward. (b) Focus the object by pointing the telescope at a distant object and turning the focus screw until the image of the object is in the same plane as the cross hair of the reticule. In this position, the cross hair will appear stationary as the eye is shifted across eye-lens. To focus battery commander's telescope, new style (scissors) : (a) Set up the instrument and level it. (b) Direct the telescope to a distant object. Place the leather cover over the object lens of one of the barrels. Focus the eye-piece of the other by screwing it in or out until the object appears the clearest. (d) Take off leather cover from first barrel and put on leather cover of second barrel, repeating the operation with the other eye-piece. (e) Adjust the interpupillary distance by turning the interpupillary adjusting screw one way or the other, until the distant object appears in one distinct image. This is done more quickly if the interpupillary distance scale is set at its maximum reading, then brought to the proper distance while looking through both eye-pieces. The reading of the interpupillary distance scale and of each eye-piece scale should then be noted and memorized, so that in using similar instruments in the future the interpupillary distance scale and the eyepieces may be set with this reading before making observations.

COURSE "A," LECTURE IX

55

Measuring Angles Horizontal angles: (a) Set up the instrument and level it. (b) Set the azimuth scale at zero. (c) Without altering this reading direct the vertical line of the telescope to the aiming point. (d) After clamping lower scale direct the vertical line on the target or other object at which the angle is to be measured. (e) Read the angle. Vertical angles (the site) : (1) With battery commander's telescope, old style, the instrument being set up and leveled, (a) turn the telescope in the direction of the target, (b) see that the bubble on the range level is centered, (c) sight at the target, the horizontal cross wire to be at the base of the target or at such other points to which the site is to be measured, (d) read the site. The target is below the level of the instrument, if the site is less than 300, and above if more than 300. (2) With instruments provided with independent angle of site level (scissors instrument, aiming circle, etc.), (a) the instrument being set up, sight on the target or other object as above, (b) center the bubble of the site level, read the site. Field Glasses The best field glass for a field artillery officer has been generally determined to be one of 6 power with a good field of view and having a vertical and horizontal scale of mils contained in one barrel of the glass. The following notes are of interest and should be borne in mind: (a) To determine the power of a field glass, divide the diameter of the object glass by the diameter of the pencil of light on the eye-piece. (b) The higher the power, the poorer the light. (c) If the eye-piece is very much smaller than the object glass, the illumination is bad, and the glass is practically worthless on a dark day. (d) To determine the field of view of a field glass or other observing instrument, divide the normal field for the naked eye, namely, 750 to 800 mils, by the power of the instrument. Example: The power of the glass is 6; 750 divided by 6 equals 125 mils, or the field of view. (e) To determine the stereo-

56

FIELD ARTILLERY

scopic effect of a glass, divide the distance between the object lenses by the interpupillary distance. (f) To determine the magnified stereoscopic effect, multiply this result by the power of the glass. The Battery Commander's Ruler This instrument is about 6 inches long and an inch wide. The cord, about two feet long, passes through a hole in the ruler. One end of the cord is held between the teeth by the observer, so that the ruler is held out until the cord is taut and the ruler 20 inches from the eye. Scales are on either edge to the extent of 300 mils and the ruler is graduated to read deflections in mils, smallest graduation being 2 mils. Rulers should be adjusted to the individual eye, so that readings will be accurate. To do this, set up a B. C. telescope and measure the distance between two objects from a certain point in mils, standing at the same point with the knotted end of the cord between the observer's teeth, holding the ruler at right angles to the cord and sliding it backward or forward, until the reading on the ruler is the same as that obtained with the instrument. Knot the cord at this point, and the ruler is adjusted to this particular observer's eye. The slide on the back of the rule is used for determining whether guns will clear a mask. The angle of site of the target, the site of the obstacle or mask in mils, and the angle of ranges of target and mask in yards are measured by means of the B. C. telescope and range finder or other means. The height of the trajectory in mils at the mask is then determined for the given range from the ruler. If the height of the trajectory is greater than the measured height of the obstacle, the trajectory will clear the latter and reach the target. If the height of the trajectory is less than measured height of the obstacle the latter will prevent the fire of the battery in the position selected from To illustrate, reaching the target. (See cut attached.) angle of site of target equals 285, or minus 15. Angle of site of obstacle 380, or plus 80. Range of target equals 2,800 yards. Range of obstacle or mask equals 200 yards. Setting minus 15 on the slide opposite 200 on the scale of

COURSE "A," LECTURE IX

57

ranges brings 64 ,on the slide opposite 2,800 on range scale; hence, the height of trajectory at 200 yards is 64 mils. If the height of the obstacle is 80 mils, projectile would not clear it. The principle involved in the use of the slide is simply that of subtracting the angle of departure for the range to the mask from that of the range to the target, in order to determine the height of the trajectory at the mask.

Lecture X
CARE AND CLEANING OF ARTILLERY MATERIEL

FIELD artillery materiel requires intelligent, systematic
and constant care. Correct instruction and frequent practice in the subject fit the personnel to keep the materiel in serviceable condition and to effect repairs promptly and satisfactorily. Materiel, all parts of which are clean, correctly surfaced, and .in good repair, functions properly with the least possible wear and permits the making of repairs without unnecessary delays. The noncommissioned officers of the higher grades and all officers should be thoroughly familiar with all the duties involved in caring for the materiel of the batteries. Frequent wiping or washing of all parts of the carriages is desirable, not only for the purpose of keeping them clean, but also to aid in the detection of missing bolts, nuts and split pins and of parts broken, cracked or out of adjustment. Buckets and sponges are habitually used for washing carriages. The use of a hose through which water is thrown forcibly against the carriage tends to wet parts which are not easily accessible for drying. After washing, the carriages are dried with sponges or cloths. Leather cases and straps are kept well oiled to prevent cracking and wear. Lubrication It is of great importance that the materiel be kept properly lubricated. By that is meant the constant maintenance of a thin film of the proper lubricant between all working and bearing surfaces and the surfaces on which they work or bear. This film of lubricant is required in order that the parts may function easily and without unnecessary wear. The frequency with which the various mechanisms and parts should be lubricated and the amount of lubricant that should be applied in each case cannot be definitely pre58

COURSE "A," LECTURE X

59,

scribed; these depend upon the conditions under which the materiel is being used. It should be borne in mind, how-. ever, that too little oil causes more waste and damage than too much. Oil holes are provided at various places where the surfaces to be lubricated are not directly accessible. These holes should be cleaned out frequently. Except during oiling, they should be fully closed by means provided. Before oiling at an oil hole, wipe off carefully any dirt or grit near the opening that might be carried down into it by the oil. Before applying fresh lubricant the old should, if practicable, be wiped from the surfaces and the surfaces should be clean and free from grit. While applying lubricating oil the mechanism is operated or the part is moved to insure the formation of a complete oil film between the surfaces, and care must be taken, especially when lubricating through an oil hole in cold weather, to see that sufficient oil actually reaches the proper surfaces. When oiling, cotton waste should be at hand, and any oil that spills or runs upon surfaces where it is not required should be wiped up at once in order to prevent the accumulation of dust and dirt. The men should be practiced in lubricating the various mechanisms and parts, and are thus taught the location of oil holes and other points where oil should be applied and the proper methods of handling the oiler and waste. Disassembling and Assembling In disassembling, if the parts cannot be readily removed, the tendency of uninstructed men is immediately to use too great force. By teaching them to exercise patience and ingenuity, this tendency will be checked and the frequent breaking of parts avoided. Metal parts should never be struck directly with a hammer; a buffer of wood or soft metal should always be interposed. The disassembled parts should be kept together while being cleaned and should be reassembled as soon as possible. In assembling, a thin coating of oil is applied to all unpainted metal parts, including especially the threads of bolts and nuts, in order

60

FIELD ARTILLERY

to prevent the formation of rust and to aid in the next disassembling. At points where friction may be developed when the materiel is in use, a lubricating oil is used; at other points a light slushing oil. All nuts are secured by split pins, which should be replaced and properly opened after the nuts are screwed home; threaded parts not secured by split pins are lashed with copper wire to prevent unscrewing. Before assembling, it is advisable to paint those parts requiring it that after assembling become more or less inaccessible. In so doing, however, care must be taken to see that no bearing surfaces are painted. Repairs and Adjustments All cannoneers are taught to effect minor repairs, such as the replacing of a wornout brake shoe or of a damaged pole, and to make simple adjustments, such as the adjustment of the brakes. The more difficult repairs are made by the mechanics and the noncommissioned officers. Cleaning After Firing As soon as possible after firing, the bores of the guns should be cleaned with a solution of ingredients in the following proportion: One-half pound of sal soda to one gallon of boiling water. They are then dried carefully and oiled. Also, the exploded primers should be removed from the cartridge cases and the cases washed by immersing them completely in a hot but somewhat weaker solution of sal soda; they are then dried carefully. Neither acids nor solutions of acids will be used for cleaning cartridge cases. Painting Artillery Materiel The object of painting the materiel is to preserve it and render it less visible when in the field. Surfaces that become marred should be.painted over without waiting for an opportunity to paint the entire carriage. The number of coats of paint that should be applied in any period depends upon the conditions under which the materiel is being used. The paint issued for this purpose is of olive drab color, put up in 5-pound cans ready for use, and is applied to

COURSE "A," LECTURE X

61

both wood and metal parts. If the paint is too thick, turpentine should be used as a thinner, but not to greater extent than 2 per cent by volume. All steel and iron nonbearing surfaces will be painted, including that portion of the under side of the gun between the clips. Wearing and bearing surfaces, teeth of gear wheels, elevating screws, piston rods, cylinders, counter-recoil springs, and interior of cradle will not be painted. All parts to be painted should be free from dirt or grease. They may be washed in a liquid made by dissolving one-half pound sal soda in 8 quarts of warm water; then rinsed in clean water, and wiped thoroughly dry. Where the materiel is in fair condition and only marred in spots, the marred places should be primed with olive drab paint, second coat, and permitted to dry. Then the whole surface should be sand papered with No. 12 sand paper and a coat of paint applied and allowed to dry thoroughly before use. Where the materiel is in bad condition all parts should be thoroughly sand papered with No. 24 sand paper, be given a coat of paint, and be permitted to dry for at least 24 hours; then sand paper with No. 00 sand paper, apply a finishing coat, and permit the parts to dry thoroughly before use. In general, two coats of paint per year will be sufficient to keep the materiel in good condition. After repeated painting the paint may become so thick as to scale off in places or give an unsightly appearance. It may then be removed for repainting, as follows: Dissolve 1 pound of concentrated lye, powdered form, in 6 pints of hot water, and slake in enough lime to give the solution the consistency of paint. Use the solution freshly mixed and apply to the parts where paint is to be removed with a brush or with waste tied to the end of a stick. When the solution begins to dry on the surface use a scraper to remove the old paint, and complete the cleaning of the surface with cloth and water. If one application is not sufficient to loosen the paint, apply a second coat. Before painting wash the surface with sal soda water, rinse

62.

FIELD ARTILLERY

with clean water, and then wipe thoroughly, as described above. Oils for Artillery Materiel For service, cleaning, and. preservation of materiel the Ordnance Department issues cylinder (or hydrolene) oil, lubricating oil (or engine oil No. 1), sperm oil, kerosene, neatsfoot oil, and light slushing oil. Each of these oils is suited for the particular purpose for which it is issued, as stated below, and care should be taken that it is not used for other purposes. The cylinder (or hydrolene) oil is for use in the recoil cylinders of the carriages and for no other purpose. The lubricating oil (or engine oil No. 1) will be used exclusively in all oil holes of the materiel, and in lubricating such parts as wheels and axles, gun and cradle slides, pintle socket, elevating and traversing mechanisms, exterior of cylinders, brake bearings, hinges, different surfaces of breechblocks, threads of breech recess, etc. The sperm oil is a lighter lubricant than the engine oil No. 1, and may be used on the gears of sights, fuze setters, range quadrants, parts of revolvers, etc.; engine oil No. 1 may also be used on such parts. Clock oil for instruments and sights. Kerosene is furnished by the Ordnance Department for cleaning purposes. In the field it may be used for lanterns. Kerosene for general illuminating purposes is furnished by the Quartermaster Corps. Neatsfoot oil is used for the care and preservation of all leather equipment. Light slushing oil is prescribed for use in the protection and preservation of all bright or unpainted surfaces of steel or iron on all parts of the equipment when the materiel is to remain unused for an appreciable length of time. Its use as a lubricant for mobile artillery is forbidden. Before applying the slushing oil to any surface, the part should be thoroughly cleaned, so as to be free from rust, water, kerosene, lubricating oil, etc., as their presence will cause rusting under the slushing oil. The slushing oil should then be applied in a thin, uniform coat, since this is all that is necessary to give good protection.

COURSE "A," LECTURE X

63

Except in very cold weather it can be applied by using a paint brush as when painting; in cold weather it should be applied by stippling-that is, lightly tapping the surface with the end of the sash tool held with bristles perpendicular to the surface to be covered. It can be applied to the bores of guns by the slush brush issued for the purpose. In cold weather it should be warmed before use for coating the bore of gun. It may be readily removed by the use of burlap or waste dipped in kerosene. The following suggestions for care and management of materiel are of value and should be carefully noted and remembered. Careful compliance with these suggestions will avoid delay and possible injury to personnel or materiel: The firing pin should habitually be carried uncocked in model 1902 breech blocks. Recock carefully with a lanyard after a hangfire or a misfire with 1902 breechblocks. The breechlock should not be opened for at least one minute after a misfire. All work upon recoil cylinders, sights and other optical equipment should be done in the presence of a commissioned officer. The recoil cylinder should never be clamped in a vise, but when necessary to hold it from turning a spanner applied to front end of cylinder should be used. Never remove the cylinder-end stud nut when the piece is at an elevation. See that proper kind of oil is used in cylinders and
for lubrication.

Strain the oil used in filling the cylinders through a fine clean cloth and be sure that the receptacles used in handling the oil are clean. Take every precaution to keep the interior of the cylinders clean and to prevent the entrance of foreign particles. In assembling the gland, be sure that at least four threads of the gland are engaged with the threads of the cylinder head. Lash parts with copper wire to prevent unscrewing. Before firing, inspect to insure that cylinders are prop-

64

FIELD ARTILLERY

erly closed and that the cylinder-end stud nut and the piston rod nut are in place. If time permits, oil slides before firing. Note length of recoil for first few shots to insure that the recoil mechanism is working properly. If the gun fails to return fully into battery, it is probably due (1) to dirt on slides and guides; (2) to cutting of sliding surfaces on account of dirt and lack of oil; (3) to gland being screwed up too tightly; (4) to dirt or foreign particle in the cylinder, and especially in the counter recoil buffer recess; (5) to weakness of springs. Ninety per cent of such cases will be found due to (1), (2) or (3). Lock the cradle to the trail at drill and in traveling to avoid unnecessary strain upon the pointing mechanism. After unlimbering, release elevating and traversing lock before attempting to elevate or traverse gun. After assembling a wheel, see that the wheel fastening hasp is secured by a split pin properly opened in the case of old pattern fastening. Keep hub bolts and hub caps properly tightened. Do not permit brake levers to be released by a kick or a blow. Remove cylinder-end stud set screw before trying to unscrew cylinder-end stud. Replace and properly open all split pins after replacing nuts. Close down the ends of the recoil indicator guide to avoid loss of the indicator. Prevent possible injury to cannoneers by causing them to stand clear of the counter recoil spring column in assembling or dismounting. In moving the gun on or off the cradle, provide ample support for the breech end, so that the gun clips are in prolongation of the cradle guides; if this is not done, the cradle guides may be ruined. If the gun will not remain at the elevation at which set, the crank shafts are probably not correctly assembled. If the elevating screws do not house in traveling, they are incorrectly assembled. Do not strike any metal part directly with a hammer;

COURSE "A," LECTURE X

65

interpose a buffer of wood or copper. Frequently verify the adjustment
<quadrant.

of

sights

and

Require special care in handling sights. Do not permit cannoneers to use front sight as a handle in mounting. Be sure that the range disk of the quadrant and range strip of the rear sight shank are graduated for the particular type of ammunition used by the battery. Do not unnecessarily expose ammunition to the sun or load it into a warm gun before time for firing; if this is done, erratic shooting may result. See that fuzes are set at safety for transport. Use the small primer-inserting press for inserting primers in cartridge cases and the decapping tools provided for removing old primers. The Wheeled Materiel In order to maintain the wheeled materiel in serviceable condition and to practice the men in its care, all parts are periodically disassembled, examined, cleaned and assembled. For this purpose a schedule of systematic cleaning will be followed, to train the personnel in the regulation way in each battery. The cleaning schedule should be simple in operation, and should set forth briefly the routine work to be done each day that the materiel is used, and the special work to be done from time to time; and the items of work included therein should be such that together they constitute a thorough overhauling of the carriages. There are a number of operations at which the presence of an officer is required. They are usually omitted from a schedule arranged for the use of enlisted men, such work being performed when especially ordered. Work on the carriages during cleaning periods is performed under the immediate supervision of the lieutenant assigned to Department A, which is described in paragraph 32, Field Artillery Drill Regulations. The chief mechanic is in direct charge of the work. He is respohsible that the requirements of the cleaning schedule are complied with; that the parts broken, cracked,
ART.-3

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worn, or out of adjustment are detected and promptly repaired; that the necessary materials and spare parts are obtained from the supply sergeant; that the tools and cleaning materiels are properly used, and that the carriages are left always in readiness for immediate use. On each day that the carriages are used, two periods will habitually be designated for their care; one before the carriages leave park while the drivers are harnessing, the other during the first stables held after the return of the carriages to park. At the first period, the gunners and the Nos. 4, assisted by other members of the gun squad, if present, look over their pieces and caissons, oil wheels, etc., and see that the carriages are in every way prepared for use. At the commencement of the period held during stables, the gunners, and Nos. 4, and such other cannoneers as may be needed for the work at hand, assemble at the park where the chief mechanic notifies them of any special work required for the day. They then proceed with the regular cleaning and with the special work ordered. Chief mechanic moves from carriage to carriage inspecting the work and assisting wherever needed. At the close of the period he accompanies the lieutenant in a careful inspection of the carriages, and when so directed, sees that the park is put in order and that the men are dismissed.

Lecture XI

The service buzzer has taken its place as one of the most important parts of the equipment of the battery since the outbreak of the European War. The necessity for every officer, especially junior officers, of knowing all about the service buzzer and of being able to send and receive the general service code on the buzzer is of the greatest importance. It therefore behooves each officer to set to work early in his service to learn about the buzzer. A short description is given herewith, with cuts illustrating different parts. 1. Given an induction coil, consisting of a primary winding of a few turns and a secondary winding of many turns on a soft iron core, some device rapidly to make and break or vary the primary circuit and a source of electromotive force, then an alternating current of high voltage can be obtained from the secondary coil. The ordinary telephone receiver is marvelously sensitive to alternating currents of frequencies of the order of 500 to 1,000 per second. By combining these two principles the present service buzzer has been evolved. 2. The buzzer requires no adjustment at the receiving end except as noted in paragraph 10. Leaks, bad connections and high resistances, any one of which would cause loss of some or all of the signals on Morse instruments, simply affect the loudness of the signals in the receiving telephone. The delicacy of the telephone receiver makes telegraphy possible over lines long after Morse operation has ceased. 3. From the general principles involved, it will be seen that a telephone transmitter may be substituted for the key and interrupter to vary the current in the primary and the resultant current in the secondary. The buzzer then constitutes a telephone station. This feature is of great importance, especially in the operation of tactical lines.

CARE and use.

TELEPHONE AND BUZZER

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4. This buzzer is 71 inches in length, 54 inches wide and 3- inches deep, all outside measurements. It weighs 5 pounds. The case is of aluminum, covered with fair leather and provided with carrying strap. Two Type A Tungsten dry batteries (3 volts each) provide the primary current. These batteries are inserted through a hinged door in the end of the case, and they fit against spring contacts at the other end of the case and contacts on the door. The electrical connections are automatically made through these contacts. A hard rubber base is mounted over the batteries, and on it are mounted the induction coil with interrupter, two sets of condensers, the sending key, the "Rec." key and the line jack, together with binding posts, to which are attached the cords of the telephone transmitter and the receiver. The two latter, with their cords and the line plug with its cord and connectors, are packed for transportation in the space between the base and the back of the case. A wrench and screwdriver handle and two screwdriver blades fit into sockets in the case. Instructions for use are permanently mounted on the inside of the cover, together with a diagram of circuits. That diagram is so simplified that it bears little resemblance at first glance to the real circuits of the instrument. 5. The plates show, in the center, the actual wiring in grooves on the under side of the base, and the various parts are shown above and below this diagram and connected at the proper points with the corresponding points on the base by dotted lines. The primary circuit for telegraphy is as follows: Battery 1+, a, lug P, primary of coil, lug PS, b, c, back under contact of key, front under contact of key, d, e, point of interrupter, vibrator of interrupter, f, g, battery 2-. The two batteries are in series. The primary condenser shunts the break of the interrupter. The primary circuit for telephony is as follows: Battery 1+, a, lug P, primary coil, lug PS, b, c, binding post Battery 1 RT, transmitter, binding post T, battery 1-. alone is used in telephoning. The button switch on the transmitter must be pressed while talking.

COURSE "A," LECTURE XI

69

The secondary circuit for telegraphy, sending, is as follows: Line jack ring, h, i, lug S, secondary of coil, lug PS, line condenser switch, k, 1, line jack tip. The line condenser may be interposed in the circuit by opening the switch, that is, pushing it in the direction indicated by the arrow. This is only done when it is desired to use the buzzer on a line already being utilized for Morse sending, i. e., a line carrying direct current; the condenser preventing flow of same through itself, yet allowing the alternating current of buzzer and telephone to pass freely. The normal position of the switch is pulled toward the interrupter screw, that is, short circuiting the line condenser. No noise is heard in the receiver on sending because the first effect of closing the sending key is to open the upper contact which is in the receiver circuit. The secondary circuit in telephoning, both sending and receiving, and in telegraphing, receiving, is as follows: Line jack ring, h, i, lug S, secondary of coil, lug PS, b, c, binding post RT, receiver, binding post R, m, upper contact of key, base of key, n, o, line condenser switch, k, 1, line jack tip. The key "Rec." in models 1912 and 1913, when pressed, short circuits the secondary of the coil arid removes its resistance from the circuit. It is used in receiving only, and then only in case of very weak signals. In the 1914 model this "Rec." key is replaced by a single pole double-throw switch whose poles are marked "B" and "T." By consulting the diagrams of this model the action of the switch is apparent; i, e., on buzzer side the secondary is out of circuit when sending key is in normal position, thus removing its impedence from line when receiving, and placing the receiver only, in series with line. It is also seen that the 'phone element cannot be used under these conditions. When sending key is depressed the receiver is removed from the line by virtue of upper contact of key opening, thus removing its impedence and rendering it silent when sending. With switch on "talk" side the telephone element is normal; the buzzer may also be employed, but with less efficiency than before because the receiver and secondary are both in series with line when sending key is normal, i.e., when receiving.

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To Use the Buzzer as a Telephone 7. The key is closed and opened several times to draw the attention of the operators at other stations. The operator at the calling station calls the letter or call letters of the station wanted, signing at intervals his own call; when answered, he informs the station called to use the telephone, which is done by sending the word "fone."' To use the telephone press in the button on the transmitter while talking and hold the transmitter vertically or substantially in the position in which the transmitter on a commercial telephone is mounted. If held horizontally the granulated carbon in the receptacle of the transmitter may not touch the front carbon disk and the transmitter will not operate. In the 1914 model, switch should be first placed on "T," or "talk" side. Care of Buzzers 8. A buzzer used at a station, such as at a tent in the camp, will cause but little trouble. Occasional battery renewal, whether the instrument is in use or not, is necessary. The battery must be renewed when, after all key, interrupter and other contacts have been cleaned and tightened, the interrupter works feebly on its best possible adjustment. The buzzer, however, carried by operators gets out of order at times, due to being jarred while carried on horseback, especially when traveling at the faster gaits. This can frequently be obviated by seeing .that all connections are tight, and that the buzzer does not rattle when shaken after being packed and closed. The line plug, with its cord and connectors, must always be packed with the receiver and transmitter and never carried separately. The operator who takes proper care of his buzzer will seldom have to turn it in for repair. Adjustments and Location of Faults 9. Sometimes, even with all precautions, the buzzer will not work. When such is the case, the first thing to do is to try and locate the trouble. The trouble may be in the buzzer, in the connector, or in the line.

COURSE "A," LECTURE XI

71

10. An operator, on being issued a buzzer, almost invariably feels called upon to adjust the play of the sending key and the tension of its spring to his individual liking. It is a vital point in the operation of this buzzer that the two lower contacts of the key remain open when the key is open, and that both close when the key is pressed. It is desirable that the back lower contact closes first when the key is pressed, and also that the spring be strong enough to insure proper pressure on the upper contact when the key is open. Smoothness of operation of the key can often be secured by proper adjustment of the two pivot screws, leaving the spring pressure fairly strong. Reference to the plate will show that the upper contact of the key is in the receiver circuit, and therefore a bad contact here will cut down the strength of the signals. If the back lower contact does not open when the key is open, the receiver will be short circuited and no signals will be received. If the back lower contact does not close when the key is pressed, the primary circuit will not be completed and the interrupter will not buzz. Each operator should have a buzzer permanently issued to him, and after he has adjusted the play of the key and the spring tension, the proper adjustment of the back under contact should be made by an expert and the operator warned not to change his key adjustment. The adjustment of the back under contact is made by bending up or down the L-shaped strip on which the flat spring rests when the key is up. 11. The two batteries should be inserted into the battery compartment bottom first, so that the zinc bottoms rest against the spring contacts under the sending key. The contacts on the door when it is closed will press against the brass terminals of the carbons. These carbon terminals and zinc bottoms should be cleaned and brightened before insertion of the batteries. The buzzer will not operate if one battery is reversed in the compartment. On rare occasions, after hard use, the zinc containing case of a battery will be eaten through and the electrolyte will escape and corrode all brass work in the compartment. If this occurs, the base on which the instruments are mounted should be removed by taking out the four screws in the

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white circles (two under the condensers) and the metal work of the compartment and the wiring on the bottom of the base should be cleaned thoroughly and dried before the base is replaced. 12. With the key in proper adjustment and a good battery in the instrument, there is little difficulty in adjusting the interrupter. The contacts between the screw point and the vibrator spring should be clean. The vibrator -spring is first adjusted so that it lies parallel to the end of the coil and very near but not touching the iron core. Loosen the locking screw of the screw point and unscrew the point well away from the vibrator spring before making this adjustment. A slip of paper should pass freely between the vibrator spring and the iron core of the coil. Now carefully screw in the screw point until it just touches the vibrator spring and the buzzer should operate. Adjust for loudest operation and test for operation as the sending key is rapidly opened and closed while tightening up the locking screw. If the key, battery and vibrator spring are all in proper condition and the interrupter either fails to operate or operates with brilliant sparking at the contact, the primary condenser is either short circuited or open. Remove it and replace with one of the line condensers which are identical with it. 13. The receiver and its cord can be tested by touching two poles of a dry cell to its binding posts, or by disconnecting the cord on (R) post and touching it on post marked (T). A sharp click should be heard. The receiver rarely gets out of adjustment and should not be opened except by an expert. The whole secondary receiving circuit can similarly be tested by touching the two connectors on the line plug cord to the two poles of a cell when a sharp click should be heard in the receiver. The transmitter and its cord are only in circuit when the buzzer is used for telephoning. A complete test of the talking circuit can be made by listening in the receiver with line short circuited and blowing in the transmitter while pressing the button switch and letting it go. The blowing should be distinctly heard when the switch is closed. The rear cover over the switch and connections can be removed

COURSE "A," LECTURE XI

73

in the event of a fault being localized there. The transmitter proper must never be opened under any circumstances, as this will invariably result in its complete destruction. Emergency Operation 14. The service buzzer may be the only telegraph and telephone instrument that will survive and operate properly in active operations in the field. Therefore, a few suggestions on its operation when spare parts and supplies cannot be obtained and some possible uses in the theater of operations follow: 15. When no Tungsten Type A batteries are available take four dry cells of any type and connect them in series with leading-in wires from the two end cells and from the connection between the two middle cells. The used-up batteries being removed from the case, attach one end wire to lug P of the coil and the other end wire to the horizontal bar along the side of the coil. The middle wire goes to binding post T and is unnecessary if the telephone transmitter is not to be used. This system of wiring in battery may be used to advantage where the buzzer is permanently installed in an office, but fine wire must be used to get it under the screw heads. 16. If the line plug is lost or broken, the two parts of the line jack may be scraped bright and the line and ground wires wrapped around them several turns and twisted up tight. Watch the insulation of the wires at this point. The "Rec." key, models 1912 and 1913, is not a vital part of the buzzer, and if damaged need not be replaced. Keep the contacts of this key well separated. Any telephone receiver and cord may be substituted for the receiver and its cord. Any local battery transmitter may be substituted for the telephone transmitter, but a common battery transmitter will not work satisfactorily. A switch must be provided in the transmitter circuit if an ordinary -transmitter is used.

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The line and primary condensers are identical and may be interchanged. The line condensers are only essential in the rare case when it is desired to bridge buzzers on a line already being used for Morse signaling. The primary condenser reduces sparking at the interrupter terminals, and is not absolutely essential, although it should be in circuit if a condenser is available. It would be difficult in the field to find substitutes for the sending key and coil, but they are of rugged construction and not liable to damage. 17. In addition to the ordinary use of the buzzer on battery lines, some of these uses are possible: It may be used as an office instrument on long, badly insulated lines where Morse operation is impossible or unsatisfactory. It will work through a break and dead ground if both ends of the wire at the break are grounded. It may be connected to a local battery telephone switchboard for use as a telephone, in which case the point screw of the interrupter must be carefully screwed up against the vibrator spring until the latter just cannot move when the key is pressed. The call and ring-off are made by a few dots with the key. This method will operate line and clearing-out drops in a switchboard as positively as a magneto through 600 ohms line resistance. The receiver is not as satisfactory as a call bell, but central's ring can be heard distinctly for some distance as a series of clicks. As already mentioned, two or more buzzers can be cut in on a line already being utilized for Morse transmission by throwing the line condenser switch in. Neither method of operation will interfere with the other. It is understood that the buzzers must be connected between the line and the ground, and not cut into the line in series. Dry Cells 18. The operation of the buzzer depends much on the condition of the dry cells used with it. Dry cells deteriorate in storage and, in general, are unserviceable after six months. The date on which each battery is installed in a buzzer should be plainly marked with an indelible pencil on the. 1ttery.

COURSE "A," LECTURE XI

75

The general tendency is to blame any failure of the buzzers on the dry batteries; throw these away without test and substitute new ones. This practice should be rigorously checked and all questionable batteries should be be examined to see that their terminals are clean and bright, and that the spring contact between the two cells inside the paper tube is sufficiently strong to properly connect the two cells in series. This may be done by sliding one or both of the cells out of the tube.

Lecture XII
COMPUTATION OF FIRING DATA OFFICERS should learn how to teach enlisted, men to compute firing data, so that they may readily take charge of a battery in case the officers are killed or wounded or otherwise removed from the battery. In order to teach the majority of the enlisted men this work, the greatest simplicity must enter and the work made more or less mechanical, eliminating as much mathematics as is possible, otherwise the enlisted man, who has not been fortunate enought to have a good education, but who is otherwise a good practical artilleryman, will be very loath to take over the work and will be inclined to get discouraged with the work clouded in a mystic veil of mathematics. To this end the parallel method of computing the deflection is best adapted for general work. It is best to start out in fact with this mechanical method in teaching any beginner. If the target cannot be seen from the vicinity of the gun, select a battery commander's or observation station where it can be seen. Assume that the B. C. station is selected 150 yards to the left of the second gun in prolongation of a line of guns and at about the same level; that the aiming point is 4,000 yards to the left rear and that the target is a hostile battery at range 2,500 yards, 6 mils higher than the guns, and 8 mils below the skyline. Proceed as follows: 1. Set up, level, and focus B. C. telescope. 2. Put the azimuth reading to zero. 3. Unclamp the scale and turn the telescope toward the aiming point. 4. Think of the line joining the aiming point and second gun; estimate the perpendicular distance from the B. C. station to this line (in the case assumed, suppose this is 100 yards). Divide this distance in yards by /Aooo of the distance in yards to the aiming point (100 divided by 4 equals 25). The result is then off set on the aiming point. The off set is always made away from the gun, namely in this case when the off set is made the telescope with a deflection reading zero would be
76

COURSE "A," LECTURE XII

77

pointed 25 mils to the right of the aiming point (as one faces it). To make an off set: (b) Use azimuth micrometer and turn the vertical cross line toward the guns the required number of mils for the off set. (c) With the slow motion screw, put the vertical cross line on the aiming point where upon the off set on the aiming point is made. This is probably the best single method to make the off set on the aiming point, as it works with all B. C. observing instruments or aiming circles. 5. With the scale clamped use the azimuth wormknob and turn the telescope until the vertical cross line is opposite the right portion of the target, bearing in mind that the initial deflection is computed for the second gun directed on the right portion of the target. 6. Think of the line joining gun and target, estimate the perpendicular distance from the B. C. station to the line (as 150 yards for the case assumed) ; divide this distance in yards by /iooo of the distance to the target (150 divided by 2.5 equals 60 mils), use the azimuth micrometer and turn the telescope until the vertical cross line is 60 mils to the left of the target (away from the guns). Look through the telescope to see that it is being turned in the proper direction and observe the change in reading on the micrometer to insure that the correct number of mils 60 are set off. Then read the deflection (deflection 4,085). The initial deflection is given to the nearest multiple of 10. In this case, it could be read deflection 4,080 or deflection 4,090. 7. Point the telescope to the center of the target, bringing the horizontal cross line to the base of the target and read the sight to the nearest multiple of 5 (site equals 305). 8. Measure the front of the target by using the graduated field in telescope or in the case of target covering a larger front by reading the deflection of the right and left limits of the target and subtract one reading from the other, thus obtaining the width of the target. 9. Measure the height of the skyline above the base of the target by using the graduated field (hk equals 8 mils). Either field glass with graduated field or- B. C. ruler may be used to measure the front of target and the height of skyline. If the skyline is more than 10 mils above the base of the target, take a prominent crest or land mark beyond and on line with the target. 10. Take the deflection

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FIELD ARTILLERY

difference from the B. C. ruler and add 10 algebraically. In this case, assume deflection difference equals zero (actually minus two); zero plus 10 equals 10; deflection difference equals plus 10. Right here it may be stated to advantage, that the parallax of a point is the base divided by the number of 1,000ths. of yards in the range. In computing the deflection difference, the distance between guns is considered as the base and in normal time is 20 yards. In order to obtain parallel fire for the guns, that is to have the lines of fire from the 4 guns parallel with each other, the parallax of the aiming point is taken as the deflection difference. Supposing the guns in this case to have been 20 yards apart, the deflection difference would have been 20 divided by 4 or 5 and as the aiming point is to the rear of the line of guns, it would be minus. This would be obtained if the aiming point had been directly to the rear of the guns, but as the aiming point was to the left rear, almost on the left flank, the value of the angle at the aiming point subtended by a base of 20 yards between 1st and 2d guns was considerably decreased by what we call obliquity. Refinements in the computation of parallax are uncalled for but frequently where the aiming point is located on the flank and the corrections are not made: for obliquity, a faulty forming of the sheaf of fire is obtained. A mental picture of the diagram in cut will quickly determine the deflection difference for parallel fire without referring to the B. C. ruler. It is especially convenient in the absence of the B. C. ruler. If the aiming point is at or within 400 mils of "Full" take the "Full" parallax; if at or within 400 mils of half, take of the parallax and if at or within 400 mils of zero line of guns, disregard parallax. If the aiming point is in front of the line of guns, the parallax is positive; if in rear of the line of guns it is negative. Ascertain the range from the range finder. If there be no range finder, an estimated range will be used. In either case care must be observed that the range finder, reading is correct for the position of the gun; thus if the range finder reading shows the distance from the B. C.

COURSE "A," LECTURE XII

79

station to the target as 3,000 yards, and if the guns are 200 yards behind the crest on which the B. C. station is located, the range used must be 3,200. Obtaining Firing Data Without Instruments If instruments are not available firing data may be obtained by means of the B. C. ruler and field glasses, if the man is well trained. Example: (1) Without instruments, aiming point to the rear, assume that the station is near the second gun and that the correct deflection as determined by the B. C. telescope is 3,150. If the B. C. ruler was used to measure the angle it would have to be placed and moved 10 times. There would be 10 chances for error, but if a right line passing through the aiming point and B. C. station is established, there would be only two chances for error-one in establishing the line, the other in measuring the difference between this line and target. To establish a right line, aiming point in rear, proceed as follows: face aiming point, place an article on the ground (hat, handkerchief, rock, etc.,) and for convenience call this station No. 1. Go toward the target about 10 to 20 paces and place yourself on line with station No. 1 and the aiming point; drop another article at your feet, station No. 2. Go to station No. 1, and face squarely toward station No. 2. You are now looking along the line from a straight angle with the aiming point (3,200 mils). The difference between the established line and the line joining station No. 1 and target measures 50 mils; target being to the right, subtract the difference from 3,200 (3,200 minus 50 equals 3,150). If the target is to the left of the established line add the measured distance. Example No. 2, with assistant: Aiming point to the rear direct the assistant to go 10 or 20 paces toward the target keeping under cover if possible and have him align himself with you and the aiming point stations No. 1 and 2 are thus established simultaneously. Face squarely toward your assistant and proceed as explained in example No. 1. If aiming point is in front, measure directly from aiming point to the target; if target is to be left of aiming point, the angle measured between the two points is the one desired. If target is to the right of aiming point, subtract

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the measured angle between the target and the aiming point from 6,400 mils. This will give you the outside angle, which is the one desired. To determine the deflection of right gun from a point other than the vicinity of the right gun, the amount to be off set is calculated in the same manner as with instruments. Df==A±OP±OT in which Df equals deflection for the right gun. A equals angle in mils as measured before transforming for the right gun. OP equals offset of the aiming point; it is additive when made to the right of the aiming point and subtractive when made to the left of it. The reverse is true for the offset of the target; OT=off set of the target. It is additive if made to the left of the target and subtractive if made to the right of it. The offset is always made on that flank of the aiming point or target which is furthest away from the right gun. No matter at what angle the aiming point is, if the line joining the right gun and the aiming point does not pass at or near your station, there is an offset to be made. The same is true with respect to the target if the line joining right gun and target does not pass close to your station. In computing the angle of site, a rough rule is to measure with your field glasses the angle of thumb of site of the target from your station, by means of the vertical scale in your glasses; looking at the position of your right gun, and estimating the difference in level in yards from the battery commander's station and the position of the right gun. Divide this difference by the number of 1,000ths of yards in the range to the target. Apply this correction to the angle of site, measured with your glasses. Example: Assume range to target 2,000 yards; angle of site measured with glasses, 310; estimated difference of level between the B. C. station and right gun, 20 yards (gun below). Twenty divided by 2 equals 10 mils. Guns are below B. C. station; target is 10 mils above B. C. station, therefore target is 10 plus 10 or 20 mils above guns and angle of site of guns for this target should be 320. This method is sufficiently correct, if care is taken in estimation of distance and difference of elevation.

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81

Prismatic Compass In using the prismatic compass, to obtain a deflection, the magnetic north is always assumed to be zero and the graduations on the prismatic compass are contra-clockwise, just as is the case with the B. C. telescope. It is easily seen then that if the aiming point is given as magnetic north and this nomenclature is used with the circle divided into 6,400 mils, the same as on the B. C. telescope that we can easily lay our guns where distant aiming points are not available, due to the guns having been "dug-in" or placed in a thickly wooded area. Similarly deflections for targets by use of maps at known places can be given to guns by means of reading directly from a circular protractor graduated in mils, placing the protractor directly on the map providing the map is of reasonably large scale and reading the deflections. This method of laying is in common use in Europe today. B. C. Telescope as an Aiming Point If the battery commander is unable to locate a suitable aiming point for his battery and the battery is able to see the B. C. telescope, he may designate his telescope as an aiming point. Setting the instrument at 3,200 and sighting directly on the right piece, he clamps the instrument and turns the upper limb onto the target, making the offset in the manner prescribed in the preceding problems. He estimates the distance in yards to the line of fire from his station and notes the distance to the target, divides this distance by the number of 1,000ths of yards in the range to target to obtain his offset. If the battery commander is on the right of the guns, this offset is subtractive and if done in a mechanical way the offset is made to the right or away from the guns. If B. C. is to left of guns the offset is additive and is made away from the line of guns.

Lecture XIII
FORMULAS FOR ELEMENTS OF THE TRAJECTORYESTIMATING RANGES

A FEW appproximate methods of computing elements of
the trajectory are given herewith, which are sufficient for all practical purposes. 1. TO FIND THE ANGLE OF DEPARTURE (AD) for any given range: Formula: (R =l ooo of range) AD = 5R (R plus 3). Example: What is the angle of departure for range 3,000 ? Solution: 5R = 15; plus 3 = 6; 15 X 6 = 90 mils (ans.) 2. TO FIND THE TIME OF FLIGHT (t), in seconds, for any given range: Formula: (R = iooo of range) t = R/10 (3R plus 16). Example: What is the time of flight for range 3,000? Solution: R/10 = 3/10; 3R plus 16 = 3 X 3 plus 16 = 25; 3/10 X 25 = 7.5 seconds (ans.) 3. TO FIND THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE (the highest point of the trajectory in feet): (MO)

Formula: MO = 4t squared. (t = time of flight in seconds) Example: What is the maximum ordinate for range 3,000 ? Solution: t for 3,000 = 7.5; t squared = 7.5 X 7.5 = 56.25; 4 X 56.25 = 225 feet (ans.)

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83

4. TO FIND THE DISTANCE (D) TO THE MAXIMUM ORDINATE: Formula: (D = 3/5 of the range) Example: What is the distance to the maximum ordinate when firing at range 3,000? Solution: 3/5 of 3,000 = 1,800 yards (ans.) 5. TO FIND THE HEIGHT OF TRAJECTORY (HT) in yards at any given point: Formula: HT = K (ADWhere: K= -iooo of range to the point in question. AD = angle of departure of range to target. ADC = angle of departure for range to point in question. Example: The battery is firing at range 2,000; what is the height of trajectory at a point 500 yards from the guns ? Solution: K= .5 AD 50; ADC -9; AD -ADC 41 .5 X 41= 20.5 yards (ans.) 6. TO FIND THE ANGLE OF FALL (AF) : Formula: Angle of fall= angle of departure plus 1/2 of same. Example: What is the angle of fall for range 3,000? Solution: Angle of departure for range 3,000 = 90; 1/2 of 90 = 45; 90 plus 45 = 135 mils (ans.)

ADC)

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7. TO FIND THE DANGER SPACE (DS): Formula: DS =1,700/AF, where .AF= angle of fall. Example: What is the danger space when firing at range 3,000? Solution: AF for range 3,000 = 135 mils; 1,700/13512.6 yards (ans.) 8. TO FIND THE REMAINING VELOCITY (RV) at any point of the trajectory: Formula: RV RV 400 x 4R plus 36) (R -= T-o = 00×(4R plus 9) of range)

Example: What is the remaining velocity for range 4,000 ? Solution: R = 4; 4R = 16; 16 plus 36 = 52; 4R plus 9 = 25; 52 divided by 25 = 2.08; 400 X 2.08 = 832 feet per second (hand book gives 837.2). 9. TO FIND THE MINIMUM RANGE (MR) that will clear the crest; and also to find the DEAD SPACE (that space which is beyond a hill or crest and which is below the trajectory which just clears the crest) : Formula: MR = C/K plus ADC Where:

si. DS = MR -

DC

MR = angle of departure in mils for minimum range C height of crest above level of guns in yards. K = Aooo of distance (yards) to crest ADC = angle of departure in mils for distance to crest si = site to T- 300 DS = dead space DC = distance to the obstacle from the gun.

COURSE "A," LECTURE XIII

85

Problem: C is 21 yards above gun and 700 yards from it. Site to T - 290. (a) What is the MR? (b) What is the dead space? Solution: 14; si - 10; C 21; K- .7; ADC 24; 30 plus 24 = 54; 10) 21/.7= 30; 14 -((a) 54= AD for Rn. 2,050 (ans.) (b) 2,050 - 700 = 1,350 yards (ans.) CLEARING THE CREST: Formula: (C/K plus ADC)= plus or - mils AD plus sithat will clear crest Problem: Crest 700 yards distant, 28 yards above gun; site 290, Rn. 2,100. (a) Will the guns clear the crest? (b) By how many mils? Solution: AD for 2,100 = 54 mils; si - - 10; C = 28; K -. 7; ADC =14 54 plus (-10)=44; 28/.7=40; 40 plus 14 = 54; 44 -54= - 10 (a) No. (b) 10 mils (7 yards) ans.) 10. TO DETERMINE THE SIGHT (SI) to guns at a considerable distance from B. C. Sta. and when the RN (guns to target) and the distance from B. C. to target differ considerably. Formula: SI = Lg = Lt = R= Example: SI to SI to 300 - Lg - Lt/R level of gun above or below B. C. in yards level of target above or below B. C. in yards Aooo of RN (guns to target) gun (Sg) = 240, that is, (-60). target (St) = 305, that is, (plus 5).

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Distance B. C. to gun (BG) =800 yards. Distance B. C. to target = 2,000 yards. 2,500 yards. RN (gun to target What is the SI from gun to target? Solution: Lg= - 60 X .8 - 48 Lt =5 X 2=10 R = 2.5 300(-48-10/2.5) =323.2 (325) (ans.) If it is desired, as it frequently is, to locate the position for the guns before the guns are brought up, a battery commander must know whether the guns will clear a crest and at what ranges the crest will be cleared, in order to avoid loss of time and the occupying of a position from which he will later have to move his battery, on account of inability to fire. For this reason, the formula just quoted above, 5R (R plus 3), which gives roughly the angle of departure for any range, should be familiar to all and should be memorized. Suppose that a battery commander desired to fire at target 1,000 yards in front of the covering crest of his guns, on which his B. C. station is located. He figures by the formula that the angle of departure for 1,000 yards range is 20 mils; setting 280 on his angle of sight scale of his B. C. telescope, he directs it on the ground in rear of the crest which he desires his battery to occupy. The lower horizontal line in the telescope will cut the ground at the place where his guns can be placed, and they will clear the crest in question. It is usually better to place guns a little further beyond in order to insure safety. It is readily seen that this method, although a rough one, is of inestimable value in locating the position of guns in advance of their arrival, and thus doing away with unnecessary delay, incident to their movement to proper ground later. Estimation of Distance It may frequently happen that a battery will be without a range finder, or that a range finder may get out of

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87

adjustment in action. For this reason it is absolutely necessary that officers and noncommissioned officers, who are likely to command the battery, practice themselves in the estimation of ranges. In order to correctly estimate range, you must have some knowledge on which to base your estimate. "Guesses" are not "estimates." The difference between the two must be understood. When changing station from a lower to a higher altitude, or vice versa, one is usually deceived by the objects appearing nearer or farther, as the case may be, resulting in either underestimating or overestimating ranges. It is necessary, therefore, that upon changing from one general locality to another one acquaint himself with the appearance of the various objects of the terrain, by comparing same with other similar objects located at points to which the ranges are known. Form a mental picture of the way objects appear to you on the known distance small arms range, at say, 1,000 yards. Use this distance in a comparative way in estimating artillery ranges. It is quite difficult to give a definite rule as to how certain objects appear at different ranges, even with respect to one general locality, since the personal visual equation plays an important part in the determination of outlines of objects. It must be left to the individual to acquire this faculty by daily practice. A general rule is here given which may aid the beginner to formulate a line of reason for his own observations. Estimating distance by the appearance of tree trunks: Branches and foliage (subject to variation, due to reasons above stated).

FIELD ARTILLERY WITH THE NAKED EYE (Trees average 18 inches in diameter.) Distance. 500 to 1,000 yards. Trunk. Visible. Main or inner branches. Visible. Minor or outer branches. Visible. Remarks The foliage pertaining to each branch' towards the observer can be easily distinguished. Begins to blend in cluster - like shape, with small apertures permitting visibility of some of the inner branches. More densely clustered, p r e senting a rather surface. rough The outlines of foliage of a large branch or group of branches distinguishable. In clusters representing a smooth surface. The outline of the fotrees of liage distinguishable. Assumes the apof •a pearance continuous cluster blending with of the foliage adjoining trees. Assumes the apof a pearance continuous cluster blending with of the foliage adjoining trees. Assumes the apof a pearance continuous cluster blending with of the foliage adjoining trees. Surface of each cluster or group of clusters, motion smooth; caused by ordinary winds not detectable.

1,000 to 1,500 Visible. yards.

Visible.

Distinguishable.

1,500 to 2,000 Visible. yards.

Visible.

Blending with or obscured by the foliage.

2,000 to 2,500 Visible. yards.

DistinBlending guishable. with or obscured by the foliage. DistinBlending guishable. with or obscured by the foliage., Blends with foliage. Blending with or obscured by the foliage. Blending with or obscured by the foliage. Blending with or obscured by the foliage.

2,500 to 3,000 Visible. yards.

3,000 to 3,500 Lower yards. half

visible.

3,500 to 4,000 yards.

Lower half distinguishable.

Blends with foliage.

4,000 to 5,000 Blending with yards.

foliage.

Blends with foliage.

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89

Five thousand yards and beyond whole area covered by trees appear like a bushy area at about 100 yards distant, except that the surface is smoother and blackish. Estimating by the Appearance of Objects
1. 1. An object appears near: (a) When looking over water or a large ravine or depression. (b) When the sun is behind the observer. (c) When the air is clear, especially after a rain. (d) When the background' is in contrast with the color of the object. An object appears further: (a) When looking over rolling country. (b) When the sun is in front of the observer. (c) When the air is not clear, due to fog, smoke, rain, etc. (d) When the background is similar in color to that of the object.

2. On hot days, especially when ground is moist, an 'object will appear further if observed from a kneeling or sitting position, due to refraction caused by the evaporating moisture. Sometimes the refraction renders the object invisible. Allowance must be made: (a) When using field glasses. (b) When trees are leafless-as in winter. (c) When the trees or branches are silhouetted against a clear skyline or a contrasting background. Estimating ranges by a progressive method. Commencing with a short range, which is easier to estimate. (a) Estimate the distance to a near object, say an object at 500 yards. (b) Locate a second object which "appears" to be as much beyond the 500-yard object as the 500-yard object is from the observer. The distance from the observer to the second object equals 3 times the distance to the first object: 3 X 500= 1,500 yards (approximately). (c) If the object whose range is to be estimated is still further out proceed as above, i.e., locate another object which "appears" to be as much beyond the second object as the second object is from the observer. Multiply the distance to the second object by 3, and it will equal the distance to the third object (approximately). In the above 4,500 yards. case, would be: 1,500 X 3 If the depth from the near object to the object whose range is sought appears to be less than the depth between the observer and the near object, double the fraction there-

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of, add it to one and multiply by the estimated range of the near object; i.e., suppose that in (c) the depth between the second and third object appeared to equal the depth between the observer and the second object the range would be determined as follows: 2 X % = 1/3; 1/ plus 1= 2%; 2/3 X 1,500 =3,500 yds. Keep in mind that the apparent depth between the objects appear small when looking over depressions or when the ground at the object is not visible but the object is "cut" by a nearer crest or other features of the terrain. To obtain proficiency in any of these methods one must practice them daily, though it be for only a few minutes, until proficiency is attained.

Lecture XIV
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, BAROMETER AND WIND' UPON RANGE AND CORRECTOR Temperature

RANGE:

The temperature of the air changes the rate of burning of the powder charge when it is first ignited. High temperature causes the powder to burn faster, causing greater bore pressure, which increases the velocity of the projectile. If the gun is loaded when it is hot, the propelling charge will be heated before the gun is fired, increasing the muzzle velocity, which increases the range. When the temperature of the air is low, the propelling charge starts to burn slower, due to its low temperature, causing the bore pressure to be lower and decreasing the muzzle velocity, also the range. If. the gun is kept cool it will retain its proper muzzle velocity. Under service condition, as the gun becomes heated in firing, the bore pressure increases, due to the more rapid burning of the powder until, if not carefully watched, the pressure will become so great as to endanger the gun and the men serving it. Barometer The atmospheric pressure varies the range to a greater or less extent, and is a very important factor when guns are kept in the same position for several days and required to fire very accurately. To properly fire guns under such conditions an officer must be familiar with elementary meteorology and understand the daily variations of the barometer. When the barometer is high the air is heavier and the range of the gun is shortened. In almost all parts of the world the barometer has a local daily variation, and a knowledge of the phenomenon would help considerably the accuracy of fire and would account for variations that are observed during a day's firing. With careful study these could be obviated.
91

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Low atmospheric pressure (low barometer) increases the range of the gun. Low atmospheric pressure is encountered at high altitudes where the air is light. In general we might say that in winter, when the temperature is low and barometer high, the range is short. In summer, when the temperature is high and barometer low, the range is long. Wind A 12 o'clock wind retards the projectile in its flight, while a 6 o'clock wind has the opposite effect. The Fuze Temperature and atmospheric pressure effect the rate of burning of the fuze and must be taken into consideration when firing at the same objective under different atmospheric conditions. Low temperature causes the fuze to burn slower and increases the burst range. It can be readily seen that should fire be carefully adjusted on a target during the day it will not necessarily be correct after nightfall when temperature and atmospheric pressure have both changed. High temperature of the air increases the rate of burning of the fuze, thereby shortening the burst range and raising the height of burst. Low atmospheric pressure causes the fuze to burn slower, lowering the height of burst. High pressure has the opposite effect, causing the fuze to burn faster and raises the height of burst. It will be seen from the above that the normal corrector varies with the atmospheric conditions, and these factors should never be lost sight of where accurate fire is to be employed, especially when it will pass over and endanger our own infantry. An accelerating wind, or 6 o'clock wind, lowers the normal corrector; a retarding, or 12 o'clock, wind has the opposite effect. The daily variations in range and normal corrector caused by atmospheric conditions increase with the range. Cross winds have very little effect at short ranges on the projectile; however, at the long ranges, the

COURSE "A," LECTURE XIV

93

wind has quite an effect, due to the loss of velocity of the projectile. Information from the European War indicates that great attention is being paid to the effect of temperature, barometer and wind upon artillery firing. Data is computed for different targets from day to day, and recorded on maps known as fighting maps. At the time of registration of all this data, the temperature of the air, the barometer and the wind are all recorded. When it is later desired to fire upon these targets, with the calculated data, corrections are made according to charts that are issued by the Ordnance Department to correct the range and deflections. These corrections at mid-ranges make a difference sometimes of at least 150 or 200 yards, quite an important item when it is considered that artillery must fire at hostile trenches in some cases not more than 150 or 200 yards from our own infantry trenches. Field artillery officers should give this matter the closest attention in their work or preparation to take command of batteries in the present war. It is hoped that our Ordnance Department will furnish us at an early date data with similar charts, showing corrections to be made in the range at different temperatures and pressures, for our service ammunition. Storage of Explosives Magazines: Magazines for the storage of explosives should be located far enough from works or structures to avoid destroying them should the magazine blow up, and not more than 100 tons of nitrocellulose powder should be stored in one magazine. Primers or igniters should not be stored in the same compartment of a magazine with powder. Magazines for the storage of powder should preferably be of very light material, which is not inflammable, so that in case of explosion the parts will fly but a short distance. The magazine should be well ventilated and carefully protected from fire and lightning. An excellent material for the.construction of magazines is sheet metal, which is light and fireproof. This sheet metal should be connected to damp ground in a good many places, and wire should be run along the roof and edges as a protection against lightning and all carefully connected with the ground.

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The temperature of the magazine should be kept, if possible at 700 F, and should the temperature rise much above 1000 F, the powder should be at once tested for stability. The temperature should never fall below the dew point, as this would cause moisture and tend to deteriorate the powder. There should always be fresh air in the magazine, and this air should circulate if possible for the purpose of removing the gas that might collect from the decomposition of powder. The following tests and examinations should be made of smokeless powders (not stored in soldered metallic cases) kept in service magazines at posts. Daily.-A sample from each lot of smokeless powder in the magazine is to be kept in a glass-stoppered bottle in a conspicuous place, and frequently examined in a good light as to its external appearance. Fortnightly.-The powder in one or more boxes or bags of each lot to be examined externally for evidences of incipient decomposition. Monthly.-The sample in the index bottle will be subjected monthly to a moist litmus paper test for 30 minutes. Quarterly.--A sample from each lot in the magazine to be subjected to the potassium-iodide-starch test for 40 minutes once a quarter, and also to a six-hour litmus test. In case of a pungent odor is detected it should be investigated. Transportation of Explosives The transportation of explosives in large quantities is, in general, the function of the Ordnance Department. Artillery officers, however, especially those assigned to the heavy artillery, will be required to transport their own ammunition which is on hand when changing station, and they should be familiar with all of the details and difficulties of the work. Ammunition, especially the propelling charges for heavy artillery, should not be shipped in cars with other supplies, and great care must be exercised in the proper security of the shipment.

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95

The regulations for the transportation of explosives are prescribed by an Act of Congress and are very rigid. Should an officer be required to make a shipment of ammunition or powder he must, before preparing the shipment, make himself familiar, not only with the government requirements, but also the requirements of the transportation companies involved. This should be done several days before the shipment is to be made. In packing ammunition in a car care must be taken to properly cleat the containers in position to avoid any motion due to jolts during travel.

Lecture XV
ARTILLERY PANORAMIC SKETCHING connection with the field artillery work, it is absolutely necessary that officers, noncommissioned officers, and members of special details be familiar with the methods of panoramic sketching in use in the service. A well-made panoramic sketch is of a great deal of value. The greatest effort should be made to record all these sketches according to date. It is not desired that pretty pictures be made, but that the reference point be definitely identified, and that the deflections and ranges and angles of site be correctly measured and recorded. Remember that it is of the greatest importance to put in on your sketch the date and the hour at which made, your name and the weather conditions under which made, the magnetic bearing and the place from which made. A short treatise on panoramic sketching, prepared by the School of Fire for Field Artillery in 1916, is given you herewith, with copies of sketches drawn at Fort Sill, Okla. In connection with panaromic sketching, officers should also practice themselves in the preparation of fighting maps. These should be drawn to scale and by means of protractors graduated into mils and range arms graduated to the desired scale; practice should be had in plotting sectors with objects definitely located therein, and all data recorded, same showing the amount of change to be made in shifting the line of fire of the battery from reference point to cover them. I. Equipment Pencils,-medium black lead,-colored pencils are usefull; Paper,-smooth hard finished; Good pencil eraser,-should be dispensed with as facility is attained; Knife; Compass,-preferably graduated in mils; Battery commander's ruler; Field glasses.

IN

96

COURSE "A," LECTURE XV

97

II.

Sketching Pad

Sheets,-held either by rubber bands or by being gumImed along opposite edges.

Size,-convenient to carry in the field,-preferable width, 6 inches; length, 9 inches. Ruling,-in very faint lines so as not to obscure the sketch. (a) Nine parallel lines (vertical) one inch apart across width of sheet, leaving one-half inch at each end. (b) Parallel lines (horizontal) across length of sheet as follows: Five lines one-half inch apart, the lower line one inch from bottom of sheet,-used as aids in entering features of landscape in their approximately correct vertical relation. Six lines, one-fifth inch apart, upper line one inch from top of sheet,-used in recording data. .A sample sheet is attached. III. General Use of Spaces

The one-inch space above the upper horizontal line,used for writing in the names of registration points, targets, etc., and for entering their estimated or measured ranges; measured ranges should be underscored. The space covered by the six horizontal lines,-used for entering, in the order given, the deflection, deflection difference, site, corrector and range for the gun position. The deflection difference and corrector for any particular target or point should be entered only after these data have been determined by actual fire. The deflections (actual deflections from the aiming point) should ordinarily be computed and entered before opening fire, data should be changed after delivering fire so as to show the actual data determined. The one-inch space below the six horizontal lines and above the five horizontal lines,-used for noting the angular distance from the reference point to prominent points on These angles targets shown in the body of the sketch. should be recorded immediately below the lower of the six horizontal lines. This space may also be used for recording
ART.-4

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times of appearance and disappearance of targets and for reference letters to sub-sketches when such sketches are used. The two-inch space covered by the five horizontal lines, -used for the body of the sketch which is usually confined to the limits covered by the lines. The one-inch space below the five horizontal lines,used to enter the place from which the sketch is made; the north-south line; the date and hour; the condition of the weather; the name of sketcher and miscellaneous notations. IV. Procedure

1. Study sector. Select most suitable reference point in sector; estimate where horizontal plane cuts the landscape; determine what features should be shown on sketch, with especial reference to locating targets, if present, or their expected routes of approach. 2. Select horizontal and vertical scales so that sector may be included on limits of paper. Horizontal scale 1 inch = 100 mils will give a sector of 800 mils on above size of paper while allowing a one-half inch margin at each end of the paper. These margins are ordinarily used to extend the principal lines of the sketch a little beyond the limits selected. 3. Orient sketching pad. Indicate location from which sketch is made in the center of the blank space at the bottom of the paper. Hold the paper in the horizontal plane, point the vertical line through the center of the paper toward the reference point and draw in the direction of north from the compass. 4. Plot the reference point. The reference point is the origin of measurement of horizontal angles. It should be plotted on the vertical line which is nearest its relative position. Thus, if it is near the center of the sector the reference point should be plotted on the center vertical line; if it is to one side of the center of the sector, the reference point should be plotted on the vertical line approximating this position. 5. Horizontal control. Select a few important features as the basis for horizontal control. Measure the horizontal

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angular distance of each from the reference point and plot the feature, writing the angle above the plotted point and immediately below the six horizontal lines. Sketch each feature in, with very light lines, at its proper height as in<dicated below. 6. Vertical control. Select a line on the sheet for the horizontal plane through the position of the observer so that sketch will appear within vertical limits desired. In plotting vertical positions a slight exaggeration is permissible, but do not over-exaggerate or the sketch will lose all resemblance to the actual landscape. Select a few features as the basis for vertical control; place them at their proper relative height above or below the horizontal plane and sketch them in very lightly. Such features may well be horizontal crest lines, edges of woods, roads, fences, etc. It is necessary only to select a few features to which to refer all others in filling in later. 7. Alternative method of obtaining horizontal control, sector and reference point having been selected. Face the sector; take sketching tablet with one hand and hold it vertically about twelve inches in front of the eyes, face of paper toward you; top edge horizontal. Two marks near ,extremities of upper edge indicate limits within which sector is to appear. Close one eye and move tablet to or from you until these marks coincide with limits of sector. Hold pad as above and observe over the top edge of the paper the highest points and prominent objects in the sector; make a dot, in the proper lateral relation, near the upper edge for each object which you desire to transfer to the sketch. Sit down; transfer dots from top edge to the body of the drawing; place them in their approximate vertical relations by interpolation by eye, using horizontal very faint lines as aids; sketch in skyline and important features. Other features can now be.sketched in by placing them in their proper relation to those already drawn. 8. Fillingin. When the frame work has been made by sketching in a few features as a guide to locating all others in their proper positions, these others should be sketched in

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free hand with bold, free strokes. Begin in the distance and fill in toward the foreground. Use faint, thin lines for features in the distance. Use heavy wide lines for features in the foreground. Stop each line in the distance just short of its intersection with a line in the foreground. These devices give the appearance of depth to the drawing. Look at the ground before drawing in lines. Do not draw a line aimlessly so that it will have to be erased but notice the actual position of the features with reference to those which were selected as control features. When its relative position is clearly in mind draw in on the sketch boldy and without hesitationto conform to this position. It is better to use the time in observation and judgment before drawing than to use the same amount of time in erasing a line whose shape or position was wrong because not properly observed. The mind must form the impression before the hand can transfer it to the paper. 9. Finishing up. (a) At bottom of sheet check to see that location of position from which sketch is made, date, hour, name of sketcher and condition of weather have been noted. (b) See that the direction of north is indicated by an arrow. (c) Through each target or important feature rule a light vertical line terminating one-quarter inch above the horizontal lines. Place an arrow on the lower end of the vertical line to the reference point and write 0 on that line immediately below the six horizontal lines. (d) Write in the name of each target or feature so that it can be read without turning the sketch. Enter estimated or measured range from the observer immediately below and parallel to the name or description of the target or feature; underscore measured ranges. Place the first letter exactly at the upper extremity of the vertical line and incline the word obliquely upward to the" right. For example:

COURSE "A," LECTURE XV

RN.

(e) When the necessary computations have been made, enter the deflection, site and range from the directing gun to the various targets or registration points. All these entries must be on the proper horizontal lines and on the vertical line to the target or feature to which they refer. (f) It may occasionally be desirable to number each important crest line shown in the body of the sketch. When this is the case begin with the skyline and in the margin near the left edge write in the numbers in proper order together with a brief name or description; each number and name being placed opposite the proper crest or feature. For example,No. 1. Skyline. No. 2. Wooded crest. No. 3. Hill. No. 4. Ravine. When of advantage to do so the site and range may be added after the name.

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(g) When the instruments belonging to the B. C. station are available, deflections, sites and ranges may be accurately measured. After firing at a target or registration mark, the deflection, deflection difference, site, corrector and range producing, the best results should be noted and entered on the sketch so as to provide a readily available record for use in changing target or in quickly opening effective fire on any objective. (h) It is frequently desirable to show certain features on an enlarged scale so as to bring out more especially important details. In such cases make a sub-sketch on a separate sheet of paper utilizing the entire sheet for the subsketch. Mark the first sub-sketch (A), the second (B), and so on. Make suitable notation on the original sketch of all sub-sketches as shown in the example attached. V. Hints

1. Do not try to show too much. A sketch gains in clearness by omission of detail. 2. Show only such features as are of military importance or as are necessary to identify landscape. 3. Do not spend too much time on details of distant outlines. Much of the distant outlines could be omitted, a few of the striking or prominent features being retained. The eye looks for important features as a means to identify the landscape. Aid it by omitting those which are not important. 4. Features of military importance: Land marks; Ground forms, hills, ridges, spurs, valleys, ravines; Obstacles, rivers, stream lines, marshes; Roads, bridges, railroads; Positions held by enemy or liable to conceal him: Woods, hedges, fences, walls, embankments, cuts, hills, ravines, etc. ; Villages, towns, groups of buildings. 5. Features of the foreground in the immediate vicinity of the sketcher usually should not be included in the sketch. 6. The eye will interpret a few form lines and the mind

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supply missing details. Thus, a gable and ridge line will indicate a house; a mere irregular outline the top of wood, etc. 7. Slope and shape of ground may be indicated by form lines drawn in the direction of the slope. 8. Use shading very sparingly. 9. In finishing up look over general appearance of sketch as a whole and seek by bold strokes to block in features so as to give realistic effect. VI. Conventional Signs

It is necessary to study conventional signs or how to indicate certain features, such as,1. Woods. 2. Individual trees as land marks. Rows of trees. 3. Ground forms: Level land; Hills, ridges, projecting spurs; Gullies, ravines, valleys. 5. Rivers. 6. Bridges. 7. Fences, walls, hedges. 8. Cultivated land, crops. 9.' Targets of various kinds. VII. Principles of Perspective

1. Objects nearby appear larger than those in the -distance. 2. The horizon, as the term is used in perspective, is on a level with the eye. 3. Each set of horizontal parallel lines has its own vanishing point on the horizon at which these lines converge on the drawing. Thus parallel horizontal lines directly to the front converge at the center of the horizon as it appears on the drawing. Those parallel to the top of the sketching pad, as oriented, appear parallel to the horizon on the drawing. Sets of parallel horizontal lines between these two directions converge at the proper point on the horizon to indicate their direction.

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4. Parallel lines sloping downward converge at a point below the horizon. To make a sketch look as though the foreground slopes downward, the ground up to the level of the eye must be filled in, otherwise the foreground will appear as though sloping upward. 5. Parallel lines sloping upward converge at a point above the horizon. If these principles are not understood or are not applied the drawing will not look right, for any one can perceive when slopes look wrong, even if not able to tell why they do so. VIII. Application of Principles of Perspective

1. Select a horizontal line at proper height across the sheet to represent the horizon. (a) When most of the landscape is above the level from which the sketch is made, place the horizon toward the lower part of the sketch. (b) When a wide strip of intervening foreground is below this position, select the position of the horizon well up on the paper in order to give the impression of removing it to the distant line where the horizontal plane cuts the landscape. 2. Features of the landscape should be shown in their relative positions above or below this horizon. 3. Form lines to indicate the slope of ground, etc., should be drawn so that if produced the lines would converge at the proper point to indicate the slope desired. This can be done by using the ruler to sketch in very lightly, when necessary, and then covering these lines by bold strokes in finishing up. 4. The effect of level ground is best secured by a few form lines parallel to the horizon. 5. Shading should be sparingly used, but when it will emphasize ground forms at desired points, as in the vicinity of the target, etc., draw in shaded lines with soft pencil, the lines being parallel to indicate level ground, or converging at a point to bring out the appearance of the slope.

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105

IX.

Other Devices

1. Trees, houses, rows of telephone poles, roads, etc., disappearing or partly disappearing behind crests, help to bring out ground forms. 2. A row of telephone poles, hedge, trees of about equal height, should be drawn according to the principles of perspective as if two parallel lines were extended along their tops and at their feet. If so drawn they will help to bring out such ground forms as valleys, level ground, hill forms, etc. 3. When winding streams and roads are properly drawn in perspective, those portions directed toward or away from the sketcher appear wider than other portions equally distant but directed across the field of view. 4. The eye grasps many forms as a whole. The details of the pencil lines may be mere scratches bearing no relation whatever to the actual details of the feature drawn. Examples of various devices and sketches are appended. X. Preliminary Practice

Valuable preparation for panoramic sketching will be attained by copying good landscape sketches.

Lecture XVI

DUE to intense fire during some actions,

CARE OF GUNS IN OPERATIONS

guns may be fired for a long time without interruption. The excessive heating produced results in premature wearing of bores and the burning out of some recoil mechanism joints. While volleys can be fired with the greatest rapidity possible, there should be intervals sufficient to avoid excessive heating. Cooling can be hastened by the use of water either thrown on the outside of the gun or, preferably, used in washing the bore. Precautions (a) A receptacle full of water must be kept at each piece during firing. (b) During each interval in firing, even for a few minutes, wash and grease the bore without causing smoke. At the end of the day, or during long interruptions but not during short ones, the breech mechanism must be dismounted and cleaned. During prolonged firing, pieces and even platoons may cease firing to permit cooling, cleaning, and greasing. (c) Grease the rotating bands freely, leaving a certain amount of grease on the forward edge of the band. (d) Whenever the rapidity of fire permits, make sure before each round that the bore is free from foreign bodies, such as pieces of cartridge cases or unburned powder. (e) If the fire has been intense enough to cause copperfouling, remove the copper at the first opportunity. After each day's firing the gun must be given a general examination. See whether any dangerous fault exists. Estimate the seriousness of each depreciation. Inform the proper authority. Make bold decisions, and do not hesitate to keep the piece out of action provisionally, making report of the circumstances. The bore must be cleaned carefully with hot water and coal oil, if necessary, to re106

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move caked grease in guns badly cared for. Examine both ends of the bore carefully. Provide light by candle, electric light, or sunlight reflected from white paper. Common Manifestations of Deterioration (a) Erosion.-Large pitted areas close together in groups near the forcing cone or the beginning of the rifling. They are not dangerous unless they degenerate into fissures. (b) Indentations.-In the chamber and barrel recess, caused by rupture of cartridge cases and usually not deep or dangerous. (c) Fissures.-The beginnings of cracks in the tube appearing as fine lines usually parallel to the axis of the piece. Generally isolated and very deep. Differentiated from the scoring made by foreign bodies by their great depth. Rare, but very dangerous. Watch for deterioration of this nature that grows with further firing. Do not confuse with scars made by foreign bodies or tools. (d) Scars.-Made by hard bodies, they are frequent and may easily be mistaken for fissures. They are usually more continuous than fissures, long, shallow, and not necessarily parallel to the rifling. Not dangerous. (e) Scratches, Cuts and Dents.-Ordinarily caused by the presence of foreign bodies in the tube during firing. Of no importance unless they obstruct the passage of projectile. In such case, retire the piece; this is very important on account of the use of high explosive projectiles. Dents are frequent in guns using fixed ammunition. They are not deep. In spite of the gravity of their appearance, they are not serious unless their edges project into the bore. (f) Swellings.-Recognized from the appearance of the bore. Retire the gun. Record all marks of the ammunition that was used and report. (g) Copper deposits.-Pay no attention to a tinge of copper appearing at the muzzles even after a few rounds. In case of slight copper-fouling, remove the copper with ammonia solution. Deposits having the appearance of caked dirt may be removed only under expert direction. (h) Wear of lands near their origin.-Light guns can be submitted for condemnation when the wear exceeds

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0.5 millimetre and, at the same time, dispersions over level ground of rounds of the same lot of ammunition equal eight times the probable error. The rule is the same for 4.7 and 6-inch cannon when the wear exceeds 1.0 mm. (i) Exterior dents caused by hostile hits.-Examine the bore. If swelling will oppose passage of projectile, retire the piece. Each gun must have its record book, in which are entered the rounds fired and an account of accidents and important incidents. It must be presented at all inspections of materiel. In it the inspector enters important information. It must remain always with the gun. It is not a battery record. The adjustment of sights must be made daily or, even better, after each firing. Only simple field adjustments are required. Assemblage of parts will not be made in the battery when forging, riveting, or filing of delicate parts is involved. War experience shows that the wear of bores is not due alone to the number of rounds fired, but also to the way in which fire is conducted and to the methods of cleaning, cooling, and care. Some light guns have become unfit for use after from 3,000 to 6,000 rounds, while others, after 20,000 rounds, are without copper-fouling or excessive wear. One battery is known to have fired nearly 1,000 rounds per gun in 24 hours without wear, copper-fouling, or change in the bore. Pieces and platoons were fired alternately, the inactive pieces being cooled, cleaned, and greased. Copper-fouling is one of the most frequent and important causes of trouble. Under the friction of the projectile light pieces of copper, liquefied by high temperature or flaked off by friction, are detached from the rotating bands and fixed to the surface of the bore, where they sometimes remain as though they were welded. The smal. projections thus formed increase the wear of subsequent rounds, and the copper becomes more and more deeply embedded in the metal of the tube, especially if the temperature is greatly raised. Even if the fouling is removed by chemical means the surface remains rough, and is liable to fouling again after even a few rounds.

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For a given kind of copper the fouling depends upon: (a) The condition of the bore-whether smooth and polished, or rough; whether clean and lubricated, or dirty and full of powder residue; whether subjected to excessive heating, or cared for by rest and cooling; whether dry and clean, or seldom or rarely cleaned. (b) The action of the rifling on the rotating band-a function of the velocity of the projectile in the bore, its weight, and the inclination of the rifling. In cannon with constant rifling the fouling is chiefly at the beginning of the grooves; in those with increasing twist, nearer the muzzle. It does not occur with low-velocity guns if they are not badly cared for. The change in the surface of the lands and grooves, particularly in the edges of lands, is marked in cases of bad fouling. This is followed by changes in the rotating bands that explain some more or less erratic shooting. Sometimes small flakes are nearly sheared off from the band, resulting in loss of powder pressure and irregularities of fire. Sometimes larger bits are actually broken off and projectiles leave the muzzle with decreased rotational velocity that may be so low as to cause tumbling early in the trajectory, and that will frequently result in tumbling on the descending branch at long ranges. Due to copper fouling, great difficulties will therefore result from firing rapidly without proper precautions. But improper use also causes erosion and premature wear. These again increase the fouling. Thus the destruction of materiel and waste of ammunition are direct results of improper use and care. Tubes would be conserved longest by washing and greasing before each round. Tactical and technical requirements of war make this ideal difficult to reach, but it must be sought. It is possible in some cases. The more nearly it is approached the greater will be the saving of life and materiel and the earlier will be victory. As the initial velocity and power of cannon increase, the greater is the necessity of special precautions. During

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fire from the heavier guns, tubes should be greased at least every four rounds. Whenever the tactical situation demands it, the fire should certainly be as rapid as the materiel permits. But before each such fire is ordered from large calibers it is essential that commanders should have examined the situation in all its particulars and have balanced the necessity of the moment against the probability of the partial or total destruction of some pieces. From guns having variable charges the full charge should never be used except when the range or the nature of the target requires it. One round fired with a full charge wears a gun as much as five rounds fired with a half charge.

Course "B"
CAPTAIN SEAMAN

Lecture I
BITTING AND SADDLING THIS course will cover twenty-four periods. Fourteen of these periods will be devoted entirely to practical work in the riding hall, as will a part of the other ten. The remainder of the time will be devoted to a theoretical discussion of the following subjects:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bitting and saddling. Grooming, watering, and feeding. Conformation. (a) Artillery, riding and draft horses. (b) Pack mules. Common ailments and picket line accidents, their prevention and treatment. Shoeing, under the following subheads:

6. 7.
8.

Normal check and correction of blacksmith's work. (In connection with this, your attention is invited to The Army Horseshoer, 1912, a copy of which should be in the possession of every mounted officer.) Artillery harness and the adjustment of same. The care of artillery harness and leather equipment.
Draft; light and heavy artillery.

9.
10.

Care of animals.
Loading (and unloading) of animals, artillery harness, and

equipment for shipment by land and water.

As you realize, this will allow us to touch only the most important points on these subjects, as the time allowed for this is insufficient to permit our taking up a detailed study. You must remember, however, that a thorough knowledge of these studies is of vital importance to every field artillery officer. The only reason for the existence of the field artillery is its ability to assist other arms of the service on the field of battle. To enable it to do this effectively, artillery must be able, first, to march rapidly and in good order, and to establish itself promptly and without confusion in such positions as to best utilize the available terrain; second, to deliver an effective and overpowering fire upon any designated part of the enemy's position. To accomplish the first of these objects, a thorough knowledge of the horse, his training and equipment, his physiology and psychology,
113

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his powers and his limitations, is absolutely necessary. Without this knowledge, the battery commander cannot hope to have his horses so trained and so conditioned as to withstand the terrific demands made upon them by campaign conditions. The instruction given you here in these subjects will be only sufficient to enable you to continue this study individually after you have arrived at the organizations to which you are assigned. In all your work with horses you must remember that patience and kindness are, above all things, necessary in their handling. Bitting and Saddling-Bits In the field artillery of our army the are almost universally driven with the single the individually mounted men of the batteries with bit and bridoon. The adjustment of the is very simple. team horses snaffle, while are equipped single snaffle

(a)
The cheek straps are adjusted so that they are of even length and so that the snaffle rests easily in, but does not draw up the corners of the mouth. A mouthpiece that is too low strikes the tushes and makes them sore; one that is too high causes the horse discomfort and makes the corners of his mouth sore.

(b)
The browband is examined. If it is too short, it causes the sensitive skin at the base and back of the ears to be galled or cut by the crownpiece. If it is too high on the crownpiece, it causes the same trouble at the base and sides of the ears.

(c)
The throatlatch is buckled loosely, being only sufficiently tight to prevent the crownpiece from slipping over the horse's ears. Generally speaking, it should permit the entire flat of the hand to be inserted between it and the

COURSE "B," LECTURE I

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throat when the horse's head is reined in. A tight throatlatch interferes with the large blood vessels of the neck, with the gullet, and also with the windpipe.

(d)
The mane and forelock are carefully smoothed out under the crownpiece to avoid causing a sore at the poll and also to present a neat and tidy appearance. Double Bridle The fitting of the bit and bridoon on the horse of the individually mounted man is somewhat more complicated. The bit should be of sufficient width to fit. the horse's mouth, the branches of the curb touching lightly the outer surface of the lips. The snaffle, or bridoon, should touch lightly the upper corners of the lips. The curb should rest just below the snaffle. The curb chain should lie flat in the chin groove, and should be of sufficient length as to cause the reins, when stretched from the pommel of the saddle, to form a right angle with the branches of the curb. If the curb bit is placed high, it is less severe; if placed low, it becomes very powerful. It should not be placed so low as to strike the teeth, nor so high as to raise the curb chain out of the chin groove. One of the most vital causes of restiveness and impatience on the part of the horse lies in improperly fitted, and hence, painful bits. Use and Effect of the Bit and Snaffle The effect of the snaffle is very mild, because it is received more on the lips than on the bars of the mouth. Its action is upward, and it tends to raise the head and neck. It gives a comfortable support, is the bit most efficacious for relaxing the jaw by means of vibrations, and if the horse carries the head too low tends to correct it. The effect of the curb is much more severe than that of the snaffle, because it is received almost entirely on the bars of the mouth, and the lips and the tongue ameliorate its pressure but little. Its action is downward, and it tends to lower the head and neck. It gives an uncomfortable support if maintained continuously, because the

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ARTILLERY

bars of the mouth become deadened to sensation and the curb chain stops circulation. If the horse carries the head too high the curb tends to correct it. To Put on the Double Bridle Bridle: Take the double reins in the right hand, the crownpiece in the left; approach the horse on the near side; slip the reins over his head, letting them rest on his neck; take the crownpiece in the right hand and the lower branch of the curb in the left, the forefinger against the mouthpiece; bring the crownpiece in front of and slightly below its proper position; insert the left thumb into the left side of the mouth above the tush; press, upon the lower jaw, insert both bits by raising the crownpiece, then with the left hand draw the ears gently under the crownpiece, beginning with the left ear; arrange the forelock, secure the throatlatch and the curb chain, taking care to adjust them properly. The bridle with snaffle bit, only used on team horses, is -put on in a similar manner. A bridle with curb bit only is not permitted to be used on the horses of individually mounted men, because the curb when used alone is a powerful instrument requiring such dexterity in its use that only an expert horseman on a perfectly trained horse is capable of using it with sufficient delicacy and discretion to obtain perfect control without injuring the horse. A horse quickly resents and is easily frightened by abrupt or sudden movement about his head. Bridling should therefore be done in a most deliberate and careful manner. The ears are especially sensitive, and extreme care must be used in drawing them under the crownpiece and into their place. A reliable test that a horse has not been mistreated in bridling is that he permits, without sign of fear or resentment, the gentle stroking of his ears. Except in the field, or when equipped for service, or when the duty is such as to make it necessary to tie up a horse, the halter is taken off before bridling, the reins being first passed over the neck.

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117

If the halter is not taken off, the halter strap is tied in the near pommel ring, or, if the horse be not saddled, around his neck. When the halter is to remain on, care should be taken that the halter rope is untied from the manger before attempting to bridle a horse that is liable to pull back. Fitting the Saddle Great care must be taken in the fitting and adjustment of saddles to prevent sore backs. There are six axioms in saddle fitting: 1. The withers must not be pinched nor pressed upon. 2. The central line of the back must have no pressure upon it. 3. The shoulder blades must have full and unhampered movement. 4. The loins must not carry weight. 5. The weight must be put upon the ribs through the medium of the muscles covering them. 6. The weight must be evenly distributed over a surface which extends from the play of the shoulders to the last true rib. To fit the saddle: (a) The saddle, without blanket, is placed in its proper position on the back. It is noted whether the upper or lower edges or the front or rear of the side bars gouge into the back at any place. If this occurs, or if the saddle when lifted from the back a distance corresponding to the thickness of the blanket otherwise fails perceptibly to conform to the outlines of the back, the test and remedy described under (e) should be made and applied. (b) The existence of wither pressure is determined by blanketing and saddling the horse and placing an assistant in the saddle. The hand is run over the top and along both sides of the withers beneath the blanket. To make the test effective the man in the saddle should lean forward, and the examiner should not be satisfied with anything less than the introduction of his entire hand. (c) It is noted that the central line of the back and also that the loins bear no weight, even when the assistant in the saddle leans to the front, rear, or either side.

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(d) To determine if the blade bones have unhampered movement, the hand is passed underneath the blanket from the front until the play of the shoulder blade can be felt. -The foreleg is raised and advanced to its full extent to the front by an assistant while the hand is in this position. If this can be done, while the man in the saddle is leaning forward without pinching the fingers between the side bars and the shoulder blade, the fit in this respect is satisfactory. The test should be made on both shoulders. If the fingers are pinched, the blade bones will also be pinched and the action of the horse restricted. To correct the difficulty the saddle must be raised, assuming that it is at the proper place on the back, by placing under it a greater thickness of blanket or by attaching pieces of felt under the side bars. (e) To ascertain whether the pressure of the side bars is evenly distributed the saddle is ridden in for half an hour or more. On completion of the ride the saddle is carefully ungirthed and lifted from the blanket without disturbing the latter in any way. The blanket will be found to bear the imprint of the side bars, and an examination of this depression will show at a glance whether the bars press evenly from top to bottom and from front to rear. This examination must be made quickly, as the elasticity of the blanket soon causes it to lose the impression of the side bars. Any irregularity in the fit of the side bars may be remedied by the introduction of pieces of felt to fill up the spaces between the side bars and the blanket. With very little practice these pieces of felt may be cut to the required shape and thickness with a very sharp knife. Some edges will need to be as thin as a knife edge; other parts may require the addition of more than one thickness. After determining where these pieces of felt are to rest they are attached to the side bars with glue and bound in place by sheepskin tacked to the side bars. The most radical alterations in the fit of the side bars can in this manner be effected. The method is simple and quick and can easily be performed by the average battery saddler. (f) The cincha should be sufficiently tight to keep the saddle in its place and no tighter. Generally speaking, cor-

COURSE "B," LECTURE I

119

rect cinching has been obtained when the flat of the hand is easily admitted under the quarter ring safe. With most horses, after exercising for a while, the cincha will be found too loose, and should be taken up. A tight cincha restricts the animal's breathing, and also brings too much pressure upon and strangles the tissues. Especially is this apt to be the case under the quarter and cincha ring safes, where strangulation soon causes lumps, puffs, and sores. (g) Care is taken that the quarter straps are so adjusted and the cincha so selected that the cincha ring safe will be a sufficient distance from the quarter ring safe to avoid pinching and galling the skin between them. Blanket The saddles furnished to the field artillery have on their under surface, next to the horse, no padding of any sort, other than a facing of sheepskin, the purpose of which is to prevent the saddle from slipping from the front to In order to provide some cushion between the rear. horse's back and the saddle, our army uses a saddle blanket which is practically the same size as the bed blanket issued to the troops. The blanket, after being well shaken, will be folded into six thicknesses, as follows: Hold it well up by two adjacent corners, the longer edges vertical; double it lengthwise, so the fold will come between the "U" and "S," the folded corner in the left hand; take the folded corner between the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, thumb pointing to the left; slip the left hand down the folded edge two-thirds of its length and seize it with the thumb and second finger; raise the hands to the height of the shoulders, the blanket extended between them; bring the hands together, the double fold falling forward; pass the folded corner from the right hand into the left hand, between the thumb and forefinger; slip the second finger of the right hand between the folds, seize the double folded corner; turn the left, disengaged corner in and seize it with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand, the second finger of the right hand stretching and evening the folds; after evening the folds

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grasp the corners and shake the blanket well in order to smooth the folds; raise the blanket and hold the upper edge between the chin and breast; slip the hands down halfway, the first two fingers outside, the other fingers and thumb of each hand inside; seize the blanket with the thumbs and the first two fingers, let the part under the chin fall forward; hold the blanket up, arms extended, even the lower edges; retake the middle points between the thumb and forfinger and flirt the outside part over the right arm; the blanket is thus held before placing it on the horse. To Put on the Blanket Approach the horse on the near side, with the blanket folded and held as just described; place it well forward on his back by tossing the part of the blanket over the right arm to the off side of the horse, still keeping hold of the middle points; slide the blanket once or twice from front to rear to smooth the hair, being careful to raise the blanket in bringing it forward; place the blanket with the forefinger of the left hand on the withers and the forefinger of the right hand on the backbone, the blanket smooth; it should then be well forward with the raw edges on the left side; remove the locks of mane that may be under it; pass the buckle end of the surcingle over the middle of the blanket and buckle it on the near side, a little below the edge of the blanket. To Saddle For instruction, the saddle may be placed 4 yards in rear or in front of the horse. The stirrups are crossed over the seat, the right stirrup uppermost; then the cincha and cincha straps are crossed above the stirrups, the strap uppermost. The blanket, without the surcingle, having been placed as previously explained, seize the pommel of the saddle with the left hand and the cantle with the right; approach the horse on the near side from the direction of the croup and place the center of the saddle on the middle of the horse's back, the front ends of the side bars about three finger widths behind the points of the shoulder blades; let down the cincha strap and cincha; pass to the other

COURSE "B," LECTURE I

121

side, adjust the cincha and straps and see that the blanket is smooth; return to the near side, run the left hand back up, down the withers so as to raise the blanket slightly under the pommel arch, in order that the withers may not be pinched or pressed upon; take the cincha strap in the right hand, reach under the horse and seize the cincha ring with the left hand, pass the end of the strap between the ring and safe and through the ring, then up through the upper ring from the outside; if necessary, make another fold in the same manner. The strap is fastened as follows: Pass the end through the upper ring to the front; seize it with the left hand, place the fingers of the right hand between the outside folds of the strap; pull slowly from the horse with the right hand and take up the slack with the left; cross the strap over the folds, pass the end of it with the right hand, underneath and through the upper ring back to the folds, then down and under the loop that crosses the folds and draw it tightly; secure the end of the strap. Another method of fastening the cincha strap is as follows: Pass the end through the upper ring to the rear; ;seize it with the right hand, place the fingers of the left hand between the outer folds of the strap; pull slowly from the horse with the left hand and take up the slack with the right; pass the end of the strap underneath and draw it through the upper ring until a loop is formed; double the loose end of the strap and push it through the loop and draw the loop taut. The free end should then be long enough to conveniently seize with the hand. Having fastened the cincha strap, let down the right stirrup, then the left. The surcingle, if used, is then buckled over the saddle, and should be a little looser than the cincha. In saddling a horse the cincha must be tightened gradually, and not with violence; the latter is a practice that, if persisted in, renders a horse ill tempered and mean in saddling. To Remove the Saddle Unsaddle: Stand on the rear side of the horse; unbuckle and remove the surcingle; cross the left stirrup

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over the saddle; loosen the cincha strap and let down the cincha; pass to the off side, cross the right stirrup, then the cincha over the saddle; pass to the near side, cross the cincha strap over the saddle; grasp the pommel with the left hand, the cantle with the right, remove the saddle over the croup and place it in front or in rear of the horse, as may be directed, pommel to the front; if in the stable, place the saddle on its peg; grasp the blanket at the withers with the left hand and at the loin with the right; remove it in the direction of the croup, the edges falling together, wet side in, and place it across the saddle, folded edge on the pommel.

Lecture II
GROOMING, WATERING AND FEEDING Grooming OUNTED work will be followed immediately by stables; the horses are then thoroughly groomed and the harness and equipment cared for and put away in good order. The lieutenant in charge of Department B is present and in immediate supervision of this work. He is assisted by the first sergeant. On Sundays or holidays the horses are thoroughly groomed once during the day. This is usually done at morning stables. The lieutenant 'in charge of Department B or some other officer of the battery is present at this time. On days that the horses are worked morning stables are held before they go out. At that time each chief of section superintends the removal of manure and foul litter from his stalls or picket line, seeing that it is placed in piles convenient for carting away; he causes the drivers and individually mounted men of his section, after cleaning their stalls, to look over and carefully examine their horses to see that they are fit for work, and he causes each horse to be brushed clean of dirt or manure. The lieutenant in charge inspects the general condition of horses and stables at this time. On returning from a drill or exercise and after a march the horses are unbridled, their collars and traces removed, and the girths loosened. The men then put on stable clothes, relieve themselves, and prepare for the work of caring for the equipment and grooming while the horses' backs are being cooled under the pressure of the saddle. After the bits and collars are cleaned the remainder of the harness is removed from the horses and disposed of deliberately, the necessary cleaning being done at the same time and in the most convenient manner. After the allotted time has been given for the care and disposal of the harness and equipment the horses are groomed and cared for.
123

M

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FIELD ARTILLERY

The horses are habitually groomed at the picket line. Under a noncommissioned officer, the horses of the battery commander's detail, the ninth section, and the supply section are groomed by their riders or drivers or detailed privates, two horses to each man. Under the chief of section the horses of each other section are groomed by their drivers or riders or detailed cannoneers, two horses to each man. An absent chief of section is replaced by a caisson corporal. The horses of officers are groomed by specially detailed men. The men are marched to the horses, take the position of stand to heel at the direction of the first sergeant, and then begin work as soon as the first sergeant commands: Commence grooming. Grooming is essential to the general health and condition of the domesticated horse. Horses improperly groomed, with ragged manes, unkempt pasterns, feet improperly looked after, form an indication of an inefficient organization. Clean horses, properly harnessed and smartly turned out, add to the spirit of an organization and give a fair indication of its discipline and efficiency. The principal use of the currycomb is to clean the brush. For this purpose a piece of hard wood with channels along its surface answers equally well. The currycomb should never be used on the legs from the knees and hocks downward or about the head, and when occasionally required to loosen dried mud or matted hair on the fleshy parts of the body it must be applied gently. To groom the horse proceed as follows: First clean the front legs, then the hind legs. They will thus have time to dry while the rest of the grooming is being done. Next, on the near side, with the currycomb in the right hand, fingers over back of comb and the brush in the left hand, begin brushing at the upper part of the neck, the mane being thrown to the other side out of the way; thence proceed to the chest, shoulders, back, belly, flanks, loins, and rump. In using the brush the man should stand well away from the horse, keep his arm stiff, and throw the weight of the body against the brush. The principal work of the brush should follow the direction of the

COURSE "B,"

LECTURE II

125

hair, but in places difficult to clean it may be necessary to brush against it, finishing by leaving the hair smooth. After every few strokes clean the brush from dust with the currycomb. Having finished the near side, take the brush in the right hand, the currycomb in the left, and groom the offside in the same order. Having done with the brush, rub or dust off the horse with the grooming cloth, wipe about the face, eyes and nostrils, arrange the mane and tail, and clean the dock. Finally go over the legs once more and clean out the hoofs. In cleaning the mane and the tail begin brushing at the end of the hair and gradually work up to the roots, separating the locks with the fingers so as to get out all scurf and dirt. Tails require frequent washing with warm water and soap. The skin under the flank and between the hind quarters must be kept soft, clean, and free from dust. Currycombs, cards, or common combs must never be applied to the mane or tail; the brush, fingers and cloth are freely used on both. The wisp is used when the horse comes in wet, and also for stimulating the coat. It is made by twisting or plaiting straw into a rope. The ends are then bent together, cut off square, and rubbed on a board until they form a soft, even straw brush. The wisp should be worked forward and backward well into the coat, so that full advantage may be obtained from the friction. After finishing with the wisp the coat should be laid flat. Hand rubbing is beneficial. When a horse has had very hard, exhausting work his legs should be rubbed and afterwards bandaged, taking care that the bandages are not tight. An exhausted horse should also be given stimulants and warm gruel. The value of grooming is dependent upon the force with which the brush is used and the thoroughness of the work. Officers and noncommissioned officers should, by continuous personal supervision, see that the grooming is properly done. No horse should be considered in order until he is thor-

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oughly clean, his mane and tail brushed out and laid flat, his eyes and nostrils wiped or washed, and hoofs put in order. The pasterns and that part of the mane where the crownpiece of the bridle rests should be neatly trimmed and the mane and tail plucked. At each stable the horses' feet and shoes are carefully examined. Horses requiring shoeing are reported to the chief of section, who notifies the stable sergeant. The sheath will be kept clean by washing, when necessary, with warm water and castile soap. A horse should never be teased in grooming. It is bad practice to attempt to make an animal submit to rough or harsh grooming. To do so means that he will be provoked into kicking, striking, or biting, and perhaps confirmed in these bad habits. If he objects to the use of the brush or currycomb, the hand or cloth should be gently used instead. Careful work will usually win the animal into sumitting to the proper use of the grooming tools. The object of grooming is not merely to clean the coat. The skin must be rubbed and massaged to keep the animal healthy and in condition. An abundance of friction applied to the skin when the horse returns from his work is of special value in keeping him healthy and fit. Quick grooming is to be encouraged. Under ordinary conditions a horse should be thoroughly groomed in 20 minutes. On the other hand, at least that much time should be devoted to him. Each chief of section, after the necessary time has been devoted to grooming and after he has made a thorough inspection of every animal in his .section and finds them all satisfactorily groomed, reports to the first sergeant and to the officer in charge: First (such) section horses in order. The officer, after making a general inspection of the whole section and a critical inspection of three or four of the horses selected at random may, if the grooming is satisfactory, permit the chief of section to dismiss his men. To confirm recruits in a thorough and systematic method of grooming, and to impress upon them the amount of

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time to be ordinarily devoted to the different parts of the horse, they are required to groom by detail during their instruction in The Soldier Mounted. To groom by detail the instructor causes the men to stand to heel and commands: 1. By detail. 2. COMMENCE GROOMING. Clean and brush front legs from the knees down, rubbing under the fetlocks ard around the coronets with the brush and hand; time, 2 minutes. 3. CHANGE. Same as at second command, the hind legs from the hocks down; time, 2 minutes. 4. CHANGE. On the near side, with currycomb and brush, groom neck, shoulder, arm, elbow, back, side, flank, loins, croup, and the hind leg to the hock; time, 4 minutes. 5. CHANGE. First on the near side, afterward finishing up on the offside, groom chest between the forelegs, the belly, and between the hind legs; time, 3 minutes. 6. CHANGE. Same as 4, on the offside; time, 4 minutes. 7. CHANGE. Brush head, ears, and and throat; with the hand rub the throat and between the forks of the lower jaw; time, 1 minute. 8. CHANGE. Brush and lay forelock and mane; time, 2 minutes. 9. CHANGE. Brush out the tail; time, 2 minutes. 10. CHANGE. With the grooming cloth, or with a damp cloth or sponge if the parts are foul, wipe out the eyes and nostrils; wipe the muzzle, dock, sheath, and up between the hind legs; time, 2 minutes. 11. CHANGE. Clean out the feet; time, 2 minutes. 12. CHANGE. Complete any unfinished work. 13. CEASE GROOMING. 14. STAND TO HEEL. Total time required for the horse, at least 24 minutes. To facilitate supervision, the men must be required to change promptly at the command. To judge the cleanliness of a horse, the hand may be passed the reverse way of the hair to get a view of the skin. When the points of the fingers are run firmly against the set of the coat, lines of gray are left on the coat of a dirty skin and the points of the fingers are covered with scurf. Between the branches of the under jaw, under the crownpiece of the halter, at the bends of the knees and hocks, under the belly and between the forelegs and thighs

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are the places usually neglected when the work is not thorough, and which should be looked at when the horse is being inspected. Watering Except when they are heated, it is desirable that horses should have free access to water at all times. It is always best to water a horse so frequently that he will never be unduly thirsty. As frequent watering, however, is usually impossible it becomes necessary to water at stated times. Horses should, if possible, be watered before feeding, or not until two hours after feeding. As horses rarely drink in the early morning, the watering must follow the feeding, but after the proper interval, if practicable. A horse requires from 5 to 15 gallons of water daily, depending upon the temperature and upon the work he is doing. Except in very cold weather, horses should be watered at least three times daily-in the morning, before noon feeding, and before the evening feeding. In warm weather, water drawn from a cold well or spring should be allowed to stand long enough for the chill to pass off before the horse is allowed to drink. A horse.should be allowed ample time to drink his fill and not be led away the first time he raises his head from the water. This must be carefully explained to the untrained man who thinks, because a horse puts up his head to get his wind after his first fill, that he has finished. Horses are always led or ridden to and from water at a walk. Stable Duty-Feeding Three principles should be adhered to in feeding: 1. Water a thirsty horse before feeding him. 2. Feed in small quantities and often. 3. Do not work a horse hard immediately after a full feed. The water which a horse drinks passes almost immediately from his stomach into the small intestines, and thence, in the course of a few minutes, to the caecum or blind

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gut, which is the reservoir from which it is absorbed and used by the horse as needed. To water a thirsty horse immediately after he has eaten causes a considerable portion of the contents of his stomach to be carried with the water into the intestines. As a consequence digestion is incomplete, there is avoidable loss of nourishment, and indigestion or colic may result. The digestive organs of the horse are arranged to admit of leisurely feeding for long periods at a time. Thus a horse will graze 22 out of 24 hours. The fact that the stomach of a horse is small, the capacity of the functional stomach being only about 1 gallons, points to the necessity for frequent feeding in small quantities. The intestines, on the other hand, are very large and require a considerable bulk of forage to fill them. If bulk is withheld, horses will eat quantities of earth or sand or otherwise be,come depraved in appetite to fill up the void. A horse will not thrive if bulk of forage, in the form of hay and other good roughage, is not supplied him, even if highly nutritive food is given in abundant quantities. A horse requires, roughly, about 2 pounds of provender daily for each 100 pounds of live weight; that is, about 25 pounds for a 1,000-pound horse. Of this amount the proportion of hay to grain should depend upon the severity of his work. When the work is very light one-third of the allowance should be grain and two-thirds hay. When the work is very heavy, two-thirds should be grain and onethird hay. The proportion varies between these limits according to the amount of work the horse is doing. The daily allowance of oats, barley, or corn is 12 pounds, and of hay 14 pounds for each light artillery horse. It is 14 pounds of grain and 17 pounds of hay for each field artillery horse of the heavy draft type weight 1,300 pounds or more. Substitutions of hay for grain or grain for hay are authorized, so that in garrison the horses of an organization may at all times be properly fed in accordance with the severity of their work. The best substitute for the slow, continuous feeding natural to the horse is regular and frequent feeding. The value of regularity is abundantly proven by experience. The
ART.-5

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digestive organs become organs of habit, and perform their functions best if called upon to work at fixed and regular times. If not limited by other important considerations, five feeds daily would be better than three, the first one being not later than 6 a. m., and the last at 11 p. m., the other three so that the intervals between feeds are as nearly equal as the work may permit. In the service such frequent feeding is impracticable. Artillery horses should be fed at least three times a day-at reveille, in the middle of the day, and at night. Ordinarily one-third of the grain ration is fed each time. Hay, if the horses are to work, is not fed in the morning, but about one-third of the ration should be fed at noon and the remainder at night. Immediately after a full feed the stomach and bowels are distended. If hard work is given at once they press against the lungs and impede their power of expansion, thus leading to blowing and distress. Fast work should, therefore, be avoided after a full feed. Moreover, though such work rarely results in colic, it interferes with digestion to such an extent that looseness of the bowels occurs and the food passes through undigested and is wasted. Food remains in the stomach about one and one-half hours. Fast or heavy work should therefore be deferred for from one and one-half to two hours after a full feed. A bran mash acts as a mild laxative, and should be fed once or twice a week to stabled horses. A little dry bran mixed with the oats is of value in compelling more thorough mastication and prevents greedy animals from bolting their grain. In spring or early summer the animals should be grazed daily when practicable. A lump of salt should be kept in each manger. . Before feeding hay it should be thoroughly shaken out with a fork so as to get rid of dust and seed; it is also advisable to moisten the hay before giving it to the horse. The grain, if possible, should be run over wire screens or allowed to fall through the air to remove dust. It is advisable to feed at least a portion of the allowance of hay before feeding the grain.

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Grain should never be fed or placed in the mangers until it is certain that the horses are thoroughly cool. In the morning horses are usually fed at or before reveille. The noon feed of hay is usually placed in the mangers while the organization is at drill, but the grain is not fed until the horses are thoroughly cool. The evening feed is placed in the mangers after the stables have been thoroughly policed for the night. All horses do not require the same amount of forage; the amount given each horse must be based, therefore, upon his individual requirements. When forage cannot be obtained, grazing should be required at every spare moment, especially early in the morning when dew is on the grass, but not if it is covered with frost. All forage should be inspected by the lieutenant in charge to see that it is up to weight and contract specifications. A forage book, showing daily' entries of all forage drawn, fed, and remaining on hand, together with the number of the public and private animals fed, will be kept by the stable sergeant and checked daily by the lieutenant in charge. All officers should be familiar with the characteritics of good forage and the manner in which it is commercially graded for contract specifications. To obtain this knowledge, officers should be encouraged to visit large commercial stables. Barley possesses a husk so tough and indigestible that it should always be crushed before being fed, else a very great part' of its nutrient value is lost. Sudden changes in food are to be avoided. The digestive organs are frequently unable to accommodate themselves to' a sudden change, and scouring, constipation, or colic may result. If sudden changes become necessary, the ration of the new feed should be greatly reduced and then increased gradually to the full requirements. Good oats weigh about 40 pounds to the bushel; barley about 48 pounds; corn about 56 pounds. Pressed hay weighs about 11 pounds per cubic foot.

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The standard bushel in the United States contains: 2,150.4 cubic inches. A cubic yard contains 21.69 bushels. A box 16 by 16.8 by 8 inches holds 1 bush'el; a box 12 by 11.2 by 8 inches holds half a bushel; a box 8 by 8 by 8.4 inches holds 1 peck; a box 8 by 8 by 4.2 inches holds onehalf peck or 4 quarts.

Lecture III
CONFORMATION OF ARTILLERY ANIMALS-RIDING AND DRAFT HORSES AND PACK MULES

THE

Artillery Riding Horses

riding horses of a battery with the exception of those used by the battery commander's detail, should not differ in type from the draft horses for the reason that it frequently becomes necessary to place them in harness when the draft animals become unserviceable, due to the exigencies of the service. Horses used by the battery commander's detail, should have the same conformation as a cavalry horse. The following description taken from Carter's "Horses, Saddles and Bridles," is believed to be an excellent one: The head should be small and well set on the neck; ears small, thin, and erect; the forehead broad and the face straight; eyes large, prominent, mild in expression and with fine eyelids. Lips thin and firmly compressed; nostrils large and open. The neck should be of medium size and moderate length, tapering toward the head with its upper border or crest longer than the under side and with mane intact and fine. The withers should be moderately high, but not too much so as horses with very high withers, while pleasant to ride, are unsuitable for hard service with packed saddles. The shoulders should be sloping, well muscled, and comparatively long as this conformation does not tend to displace the saddle. The back should be short, straight and well muscled. The ribs should be well arched and definitely separated. Flatness, shortness and nearness together are undesirable, because they limit the volume of the chest, andcharacterize the horse as short-winded and deficient in power. The chest should be full, deep, and moderately broad, and plump in front. Narrow chested horses lack endur133

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ance. From a point just in rear of the elbows, the lower line of the chest and belly should be nearly or quite horizontal. If the belly be large and hang down the horse will not be fit for any but slow work, and if the circumference of the body decreases rapidly from the forehand to the rear, the horse is "tucked up" and if the horse is "tucked up" in the belly, the tendency is for the saddle to slip back. The forelegs should be vertical, springing from the chest perpendicularly when viewed from the front. The elbows prominent and clear of the chest. The forearm large above and heavily muscled. The upper bone of the leg should be long in proportion to the lower or cannon bone. This bone cannot be too large or too fully supplied with muscles. The knee should be wide from side to side and thick from front to rear. The leg just below the knee should not be very small or tied in, which indicates a weakness of the part, but should be as large as the other portions of the limb in that vicinity. The back tendons should run parallel to the cannon bone and not adhere closely just below the knee. If the bone at the back of the knee is not prominent, the objectionable conditions mentioned will be almost certain to exist and the animal cannot stand hard service. The large bone between the knee and the fetlock, known as the cannon bone, cannot be too short or too strong. It should be straight, broad, and flat. The pastern, consisting of the upper and lower pastern bones, should be strong, not too oblique, and of moderate length. The feet should be somewhat circular in shape, of medium size, due regard being paid to size and shape of the horse, and there should be no visible difference in the feet as to size and form. The hind quarters: The stifles should be prominent and well defined; should be close to the abdomen, and be slightly deviated from it. The hocks should be neatly outlined, lean, large, and wide from front to rear. The leg below the hock should incline but little if at all below the body. The same remarks refer to the canon in the rear leg. The hocks should be viewed from behind with refer-

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ence to the parallelism to the median plane of the body. The hocks that turn towards each other behind, (cowhocked) and those which turn away from- each other are both objectionable. The tail: The dock or solid part of the tail should be large and muscular. The tail should be carried firmly and well away from the hind quarters. Light Artillery Draft Horses The conformation of an artillery horse is somewhat hard to define exactly. He should be an animal capable of pulling heavy loads and yet able to move at a rapid gait. For light artillery, such as the 3-inch gun and 3.8-inch howitzer, a horse about 15 hands 2 inches, weighing from ten hundred and fifty to eleven hundred pounds, is the most desirable size and weight. He is a combinaHe should have a tion of the saddle and draft types. clean head, not too large, well set on at the neck, neck well formed and fairly heavy, shoulders not so straight as that of the common draft horse, but more so than that of the cavalry horse. A short straight back, strong loins and a broad, strong, well-formed rump. His feet should be as small as possible in this type of horse as large splay feet are hard to keep in condition and go to pieces easily on hard ground, as well as being fertile causes of injuries to the cannon bone. The cannon should be short, broad from front to rear, and flat. The forearm and gaskin should be relatively long as compared to the cannon, and should be well muscled. The breast should be full and broad and the chest large, and deep from the backbone to the breastbone. Probably the best artillery horse that can be found is the typical pure bred Percheron, as he possesses great draft power combined with more agility than any other grade of heavy horse, in addition to which he is very docile and intelligent. Heavy Artillery Horses Draft horses for the heavy artillery, by which is meant those batteries, the carriages of which weigh from 8,500 to 10,000 pounds each, should be of a heavier type than those for the lighter guns, but should be built along the same

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lines. These horses should weigh from twelve hundred and fifty to fourteen or even fifteen hundred pounds each, and their height of course is proportionally greater than that of the lighter artillery horse. In the choice of these horses, however, agility must not be lost sight of, as it is sometimes necessary to move even these heavy guns at the trot or even at the gallop, although such a procedure is a rare one. Here again we find that the Percheron breed will give us more nearly the ideal that we desire than will any other. The greatest drawback to the Percheron is his color, for while we often find bays and blacks among them, iron grey is the predominating color. This is of course a distinct disadvantage because of its high degree of visibility. Bay, black and sorrel are the colors most to be preferred. Pack Mules In our service pack mules are used by the quartermaster for the transportation of supplies and by the mountain artillery and machine gun companies for the transportation of material and ammunition. The Q. M. and ordnance aparejos, while not actually alike, do not so differ in essentials as to necessitate different types of mules in the two different services. The pack mule should be about 15 hands 1 inch and weigh about 1,000 pounds when in condition. As nearly as possible the conformation of his legs should be similar to that of the artillery riding horse just described, although you will find them in almost every case, much smaller and lighter than those of a horse of the same size. "Cow hocks" are quite common among mules and in this case are not to be considered as being nearly so undesirable as they would in the case of a horse. The pack mule's shoulders should be sloping and well muscled, his breast full and plump, his withers low and rather broad, with a short The fore part of his body behind the straight back. shoulders should be cylindrical, increasing in size from this point to the rear. The most vital points in the conformation of a pack mule are: low withers, making a continuous straight line with his back, and a tapering body as this makes fitting of the aparejo much more simple than if he

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have high withers, sway back or unequally shaped body. It is most impossible to work a mule with high withers or sway back under an aparejo for any length of time without seriously injuring him.

Lecture IV
COMMON AILMENTS, PICKET LINE ACCIDENTS, THEIR PREVENTION AND TREATMENTS VERY field artillery officer should have some knowledge of the more common ailments that may befall horses, as well as those accidents which most frequently occur to them, and a knowledge of the treatment required to cure the disease or repair the injury. The following extracts from "The Army Horse in Accident and Disease" cover those things which we most frequently encounter in the service. Wounds, Sprains, Abrasions Wounds (separations of the soft tissues) are classed as: Incised wounds, or cuts; lacerated wounds, or tears; and punctured wounds, or holes. A dressing is a local, periodically repeated treatment, producing a continued action and often following the performance of an operation. It is the application upon the surface of the wound of healing substances, which, in some cases, are mechanically held in place by bandages, stitches, etc. Before applying a dressing the wound should be thoroughly cleaned and freed from blood, pus, the remains of previous dressing, and, in a word, of any foreign or other substances capable of becoming sources of irritation. This is best done with water, but the effect is frequently greatly improved by combining with it some of the antiseptics, such as carbolic acid, creolin, bichloride of mercury, etc. Antiseptics are remedies which prevent putrefaction, or rotting, and their combinations with water are called solutions. The solution may be applied by, carefully passing a saturated ball of oakum over the surface of the wound, or it may be used more freely in larger ablutions (washings). Crusts or scabs, if present, may be removed with
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the scissors or scraped away with the knife, but the finger nails must never be used for such a purpose, for the practice is both filthy and dangerous. The wound is to be handled only when necessary; all needless handling irritates. If the wound is deep, it should be cleansed by syringing. The essential condition of cleanliness applies not only to the wound, but also to the materials used for dressings, and soiled cloths or bandages and dirty oakum must be rigorously rejected; everything coming in contact with a wound must be absolutely clean, hands as well as instruments and dressings. Instruments, however, should never be immersed in the bichloride solution, which rapidly corrodes metal. In the treatment of all wounds cleanliness is of more importance than medication, but the two in combination, when thoroughly and intelligently carried out, will leave no room for the propagation and ravages of those germs that cause the formation of pus and retard the healing process. The farrier, or the man who is to care for the injured animal, should have his hands thoroughly cleaned, and should procure in a clean can or bucket a solution of creolin or other antiseptic, and several clean pieces of cotton, gauze, or oakum. Sponges are cleaned with difficulty and should not be used. If hemorrhage (bleeding) is profuse the first step is to arrest the flow of blood by ligating (tying) the blood vessel or vessels with a piece of silk, or if none is at hand, with a clean piece of string; if the blood vessel cannot be tied a thick pad made of cotton or of several layers of gauze or clean cloth, folded so as to cover the wound, and held firmly in place by one or more cotton bandages, will check the flow of the blood. This arrangement, called a compress should be left on until the hemorrhage ceases, and the wound treated as described later. In applying dressings (except compresses) unnecessary pressure should be avoided, especially on the soft tissues. Incised wounds: If the injury is one that can be sutured (sewed) a needle and silk should be immersed in a solution of creolin-creolin 1 part, water 50 parts;

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the hair around the wound either be shaved or be clipped with a pair of shears, and the wound thoroughly cleaned by washing it with cotton saturated with the creolin solution; all dirt and hair must be removed, all ragged edges, if any, cut away, and the edges of the wound placed in contact with each other if possible and held in place by the aid of sutures, care being taken to allow free drainage; the wound should then be wiped dry with a fresh piece of cotton or gauze, and over the surface should be dusted some iodoform or acetanilid. If the location will permit, the wound should be covered with a pad of gauze or absorbent cotton ,and a cotton bandage wrapped around the parts to hold the pad in place. The wound should be dressed once or twice a day until the formation of pus ceases; when the wound is dry, only the powder should be used. Lacerated wounds: If the wound is a large one, with the tissues so badly torn and lacerated as not to admit of the use of sutures, the torn and ragged edges (especially if the lower part of the wound hangs down) should be removed with the knife or scissors and the wound dressed as above directed. When the wound begins to granulate (fill with new tissues) care should be taken that the granulations are not allowed to grow out higher than the skin, causing the condition known as proud flesh. The treatment of proud flesh consists in the removal of the unhealthy tissue by the use of the knife or by the application of a red-hot iron; burnt alum or salicylic acid dusted upon the surface of the wound will also destroy the unhealthy granules. Punctured wounds: Punctured wounds (except those around joints) should be explored with a probe to ascertain if any foreign bodies are in the channel; if so, they should be removed, and if necessary a dependent opening be made to allow perfect drainage. The parts should then be syringed out thoroughly with a solution of creolin, 1 to 50; carbolic acid, 1 to 20 or 30; or bichloride of mercury, 1 to 1,000, and the outside opening sprinkled with iodoform. This treatment should be applied twice daily. For a few days the wound should be swabbed with tincture of iodine or packed with strips of gauze saturated

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with this drug in order to destroy infection, check the formation of pus, and promote the growth of healthy tissue. Wounds of the lips, nostrils, and eyelid heal very rapidly; if of several days' standing they should have their edges scraped and then be sutured and iodoform or acetanilid dusted over the surface twice daily. An excellent antiseptic solution for the treatment of wounds during fly time is made by dissolving 8 ounces of gum camphor in 3 ounces of carbolic acid. Apply with a clean swab several times daily. One ounce of creolin to 8 ounces of olive oil is a good substitute. Punctured Wounds Around Joints Open joint is a wound situated on a joint and extending through the capsular ligament, allowing the joint fluid to escape. Treatment: Remove the hair and thoroughly clean the parts around the wound with a solution of bichloride of mercury, 1 to 1,000. Unless a foreign body is known to be lodged in it, do not probe or explore; as the introduction of any instrument, even if thoroughly clean, will be the means of setting up considerable inflammation. Apply a blister of biniodide of mercury 1 part, cosmoline 4 parts, for the purpose of closing the opening, limiting motion, and relieving pain. Use the slings if the wound is very painful. If the wound is so large that a blister will not close it, the treatment should be as prescribed for an open wound. A punctured tendon sheath is treated like a punctured joint. Cause and Treatment of Sprains Sprains affect muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The fibers of which they are composed are severely stretched, sometimes torn in serious cases, causing inflammation and subsequent contraction, and, in case of muscles, atrophy, or sweeny (wasting away). Strains of the Muscles Muscle strains occur in various parts of the trunk and limbs; thus, a horse may strain the neck muscles, as

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a result of falling on the head; the muscles of the dorsal region may be strained by the hind feet slipping backward. When a muscle is strained the injury is succeeded by pain, swelling, heat, and loss of function. An inflamed muscle can no longer contract; hence in some strains the symptoms resemble those of paralysis. Sprains of the Suspensory Ligament and Flexor Tendons
("Breakdown" and "Bowed Tendons.")

The fibrous structures situated behind the cannon bone, both in the front and hind legs, are often the seat of lacerations or sprains resulting from violent efforts or sudden jerks. The injury is easily recognized by the changed appearance of the parts, which become more or less swollen,. the swelling usually extending from the knee down to the fetlock and occasionally even farther. It is always characterized by heat, and is variously sensitive, ranging from a mere tenderness to a degree of soreness which shrinks from the lightest touch. The degree of lameness corresponds to the severity of the injury. Sprains of Ligaments The calcaneo-cuboid ligament, situated at the back part of the hock and uniting the calcaneum, the cuboid, and the external splint bones, is frequently sprained. This condition is known as a "curb." The various ligaments entering into the formation of joints are subject to sprains and injuries. This condition is indicated by lameness, accompanied by pain, heat, and swelling. The capsular ligament when sprained very often becomes weakened, resulting in distention of the synovial sac. their location. Bog spavin is a characteristic bursal enBursal enlargements receive different names, according to largement. It is found on the front and inner side of the by slipping, hard and fast work, irregular exercise, and tion of the capsular ligament. The trouble is usually caused high feeding. Draft animals, pulling heavy loads over rough hock joint and varies in size with the amount of disten-

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or slippery ground, are particularly subject to this injury, which is also more commonly seen in young than in mature animals. The swelling can be readily detected; under pressure it fluctuates; heat may or may not be present; lameness rarely results unless the injury be accompanied by complications, such as bone spavin or bony deposits. In sprain of the stifle joint, the ligaments holding it in position are severely stretched, in some cases sprained or ruptured, and even dislocation of the patella may occur. In this trouble the patella is forced outward and thus makes the joint immovable, the leg being extended backward and the foot resting on the toe. If the animal is forced to move, he drags the leg, being unable to bring it forward in the natural manner on account of the dislocation. The bone is returned to place in the following manner: A rope having been placed about the pastern, the leg is steadily drawn forward by one or more assistants, while the operator stretches the patella forward and inward. When the bone regains its proper position, the animal has proper control of his leg. Reduce the inflammation promptly and blister as explained below. In case the patella persists on slipping out again, a rope should be fastened to the pastern and attached to the collar about the horse's neck; the rope should be drawn tight enough to prevent the horse extending his leg to the rear, but allowing him to stand upon it; keep the rope on until the blister has worked. General treatment of sprains: Perfect rest is absolutely necessary and must never be overlooked in the treatment of all sprains; therefore the injured animal should be at once removed to a level stall where it can remain until complete recovery has taken place. Hot or cold applications should be applied to the injured parts. These applications should be in the form of fomentations (bathing) or bandages saturated with water. Flannel bandages must not be allowed to dry while in contact with the injured parts, as flannel applied wet shinks in drying, and will not only retard the reparative process, but cause unnecessary pain. Cold water is often materially assisted in accomplishing the desired results by the addition of acetate of lead or sulphate of zinc, witch-hazel, or nitrate of potash. A convenient

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solution is made as follows: Acetate of lead and sulphate of zinc, each 1 ounce; water, 1 quart; or, 1 pint witch-hazel, 1 ounce of acetate of lead, 2 ounces; water to make 1 quart; this application is of more benefit when applied warm. All applications should be used several times daily. If, after the inflammation is reduced, the parts remain large and swollen, benefit will result from the application of tincture of iodine, well rubbed in, twice a day. If this treatment fails to restore the parts to their normal condition in a reasonable length of time, a blister should be applied. It is made as follows: Cantharides (powdered) 1 part, cosmoline 4 to 5 parts; or cantharides (powdered) 1 part, biniodide mercury 1 part, cosmoline 4 to 6 parts. Before applying either the blister or the iodine the hair should be clipped from the parts to which the medicine is to be applied. To obtain the best results from the blister it should be well rubbed in for at least fifteen minutes. The animal must be tied in such a manner that he can not reach the blistered part with his mouth; the blister should be left on for a period of twenty-four to forty-eight hours; it must then be removed by washing with warm water and castile soap. After the blister has been removed the animal may be untied. The parts should be kept clean, free from scabs, and soft by the use of cosmoline, olive oil, or glycerine. Rest is necessary throughout the treatment, and even to test his soundness the animal should not be moved more than is necessary. If the desease does not yield to blisters, the parts must be fired. For this operation, two kinds of instruments are used: The Thermocautery, which generates its own heat, and the more common form the iron heated in the fire. Two methods of firing are in general use: Line firing, for diseases of the tendons, ligaments, etc., and puncture firing, for diseases of the bone. Bruises In the artillery horses, the most frequent bruises are saddle and cinch galls, and bruises of the withers, bruises. of the shoulder, and bruised necks.

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Certain horses suffer more than others, on account of the presence of old sores, scars, or scabs or because of peculiarities in conformation making it difficult to adjust properly the different parts of equipment. Unless great care is exercised in the fitting of steel collars and the proper adjustment of the holding down straps, sore necks and sore shoulders will appear on even well formed horses during a long march, and hard service in the field. All horses, whatever their conformation, are subject to saddle and cinch galls; bruised neck and shoulders, produced mechanically by several causes. Saddle bruises are produced by unequal distribution of weight, faults in saddling and cinching; faulty packing of saddle, and sometimes by poor riding. Collar bruises may be a result of ill-fitting collars, poor driving, or too heavy loads on the pole yoke. There is another sort of injury caused by the collar other than bruises. This is an abraision, caused by sliding of the collar up and down, or laterally on the surface of the horse's shoulder when the collar is not properly fitted. Bruises are evidenced by local swellings. After a long ride or after having been left a long time with constant pressure on the back or shoulders, the blood vessels under those parts are compressed and almost empty. If this pressure be suddenly and completely removed, blood is vigorously forced into the paralyzed vessels and may rupture their walls. On the other hand, if the saddle is allowed to remain for some time in position, circulation is gradually restored without injury. Treatment As soon as a swelling is noticed, application of cold in the form of pads saturated with cold water and massage in the form of gentle stroking with the fingers will aid in the absorption of the fluids causing the swellings. Injury to the withers require different treatment-cold applications without pressure and without massage, on account of the danger of the fluid burrowing. A solution made of the following is a very good appli-

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cation for bruises: Sugar of lead, 2 ounces; laudanum, 4 ounces; water to make one quart. This should be applied several times daily. A poultice made of flaxseed meal, to which has been added an antiseptic; such as creolin or diluted carbolic acid is also beneficial. Bruises caused by kicks or by running against obstacles are of a different type and should be treated by application of water, the best method of making this application being to allow a constant stream of cold water to run over the parts. If painful, an anodyne (pain reducing) liniment should be applied. The following makes a good anodyne: Witch-hazel, 2 parts; tincture of opium, 1 part; tincture aconite - part; water 2 parts. This should be applied locally with the hand. The white lotion, composed of one ounce each of sugar of lead and sulphate of zinc, dissolved in one quart of water, is also an excellent remedy for bruises and abrasions as well. Bruises of the Sole and Heel These are quite frequent and should be treated by hot or cold applications, accomplished by holding the foot in a tub of cold water or incasing the foot in a hot flaxseedmeal poultice. If suppuration (pus) forms, the under run horn must be removed and the parts kept clean and covered. Abrasions An abrasion or chafe, is an inflammation of the skin, resulting from friction. Parts of the equipment frequently wear away the hair and leave the skin -raw and tender, as in the case of a sore shoulder on an artillery horse, when the collar slides up and down or transversely across the face of the shoulders. Treatment of Abrasion One ounce of tannic acid in a pint of witch-hazel is especially valuable for collar chafes; zinc oxide as a dusting powder is effective, and the white lotion is always beneficial. In emergencies, bathe the parts with cold water to which a little salt has been added.

COURSE "B," LECTURE IV

147

Rope Burn Rope burn is an abrasion, usually at the back of the pastern and caused by the animal becoming entangled in the halter shank, picket line, or lariat. The injury may be simply a chafe of the superficial layer of the skin or it may involve the deeper structures. In the latter case it is of a serious nature and requires careful attention. Treatment If possible, give the animal complete rest. Clip the hair from the injured parts, at the same time removing any torn skin; wash with some good antiseptic, such as solution of creolin or carbolic acid, and apply a dusting powder, such as zinc oxide or iodoform, the former preferably. Apply a pad of clean cotton and secure with a cotton bandage; change the dressing daily. Should the parts be slow in healing, an occasional dressing of tincture of iodine is beneficial, and good results are often obtained by alternating this with a dressing of olive oil 3 parts and creolin 2 parts. Should proud flesh appear, the three sulphates (iron, copper, and zinc) may be used, or powdered copper sulphate alone. Use until the granules disappear. When the wound begins to heal nicely, it is better to dispense with the pad and bandage. Pharyngitis and Laryngitis-Sore Throat Sore throat is an inflammation of the lining membrane immediately in the rear of the mouth and is caused by irritating medicines, by bodies bruising the tissues, by sudden changes in the temperature and by infection. Symptoms Diminution of the appetite, cough, stiffness, of, the head, soreness when pressure is applied to the throat, a considerable amount of mucus and saliva in the mouth, escaping in long, transparent threads, and usually a profuse thick discharge from the nose. Swallowing of liquids is painful; they are ejected through the nose and are often of a greenish color and contain quantities of food. Temperature may range from normal to 106 degrees F., with difficulty in breathing.

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Treatments The sick animal should be separated from the healthy ones and placed in a comfortable box stall, free from drafts, but well ventilated, and should be given green food or very fine hay, steamed oats, bran, or gruel; fresh water should be left within reach. Four drams of either ammonium chloride or potassium nitrate should be added to the drinking water. The lips and nostrils should be kept perfectly clean and the mouth washed frequently with fresh water. Cold compresses should be used if the parts are hot, tender, and painful. In a mild case, use ammonia liniment. If an abcess is likely to form, poultices of linseed meal may be applied, and the abscess, when ready should be opened, but never with a knife. Cut through the skin only and then insert a blunt instrument, or the finger and allow the pus to escape. If the animal breathes with great difficulty, manifested by making a loud, wheezing sound, an opening should be made in his windpipe and the edges of the opening held apart by inserting a suture in each side, tying the silk ends up over the neck; or a tube may be inserted in the opening. This operation is called tracheotomy. The sore-throat patient should never be drenched: If the horse should cough while taking medicine in this manner, the liquid might enter the lungs and cause pneumonia. Fever may be combatted by cold water injections into the rectum, 1 to 2 gallons at a time. Strangles, Commonly Called "Distemper" Strangles is an acute, infectious disease, and usually attacks young horses. Symptoms The disease begins with a high fever, ranging from 104 degrees to 106 degrees; a discharge from the nose, at first watery, rapidly becoming thicker, and later assuming a whitish-gray or greenish-yellow color. The glands below the lower jaw become swollen, hot, and painful, and

COURSE "B," LECTURE IV

149

occasionally there is soreness of the throat; loss of appetite, depression, great muscular weakness, and occasionally, swelling of the hind legs follow. Sometimes a swelling may be found on some portion of the windpipe or other part of the body. Treatment Separate the sick animal from the healthy ones and place him in a well ventilated stall, free from drafts; clean the nostrils frequently; clothe the body according to the season of the year; apply hot poultices to the abscess several times daily, and, as soon as pus is formed, open and wash twice daily. Give easily digested food, green fodder, roots, or slops made of bran or steamed oats, and to his drinking water add one-half ounce of saltpeter; do not drench, as the throat in many cases is sore. Spasmodic Colic-Gripes Spasmodic colic is a painful contraction of the intestines. The usual seat of the trouble is the small intestines, and it is usually caused by indigestible or chilled food or drink, and frequently by sudden chilling of the body. Symptoms The suffering is very violent but of short duration; the spasms appear suddenly and disappear with the same rapidity. .The horse paws, stamps, looks around at his flanks, lies down and rolls, and if the pain is very severe, sweats profusely. During the attack a few pellets of dung may be passed, and attempts to pass urine are frequently made. This latter symptom has misled many persons to the impression that the disease was located in the "urinary organs". Treatment Place the animal in a large, well-bedded stall and give the following: Cannabis indica, 2 to 4 drams; aromatic spirits ammonia, 1 ounce; water to make one pint. Or, fluid extract belladonna, 2 drams; nitrous ether, 2 ounces;

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water to make 1 pint. Either one of these prescriptions can be given at one dose and repeated in three-quarters of an hour. If the animal is not relieved in one hour, give a purgative of aloes (physic ball). Warm water injections, per rectum, are often of advantage. Flatulent Colic Flatulent colic is generally due to the animal having eaten improper foods, such as musty oats, sour bran, green corn, etc., which interfere with the process of digestion and give off much gas. It is sometimes caused merely by a sudden change of diet from oats to corn. This trouble is also frequently observed in horses that have the habit of wind sucking. Symptoms The rapid swelling of the belly constitutes the characteristic symptom. The abdomen is distended, the pain is not so severe as in spasmodic colic, but more constant. With the increase of swelling the breathing becomes more difficult, anxiety and restlessness are shown, walking is painful, and the animal staggers, lies down and rolls, but only for a short time. Treatment Place the horse in a large, roomy stall, and give the following drench: Sulphuric ether 2 ounces, aromatic spirits of ammonia 1 ounce, fluid extract belladonna 2 drams, water to make 1 pint. Repeat in one hour if necessary. Should the animal not be relieved after the second dose, administer a purgative. Cold water injections into the rectum are sometimes of advantage. If the abdomen continues to distend with gas, the trocar and canula must be used. This is an instrument for puncturing the intestine, but should be used only by one who understands the operation. The instrument, as well as the seat of the operation, should be thoroughly disinfected.

COURSE "B," LECTURE IV

151

Sand Colic When animals are in the field and have to pick their food up off of the ground, we frequently find another sort of intestinal disturbance known as sand colic caused by picking up dirt, and sand by the animal and the consequent lodgement of these substances in the lower parts of the intestines. This is a condition extremely difficult to combat, and frequently results in the loss of life. Thrush Thrush is a diseased condition of the frog, characterized by a dark-colored discharge of offensive odor. Causes Uncleanliness; horses standing in stalls saturated with urine, or in wet earth filled with decomposing vegetable matter. Symptoms At cleft of a time highly matter, first there is simply an increased moisture in the the frog, accompanied by an offensive smell. After the discharge is more profuse, then watery and offensive, changing gradually to a thick, putrid which rapidly destroys the horn of the frog. Treatment Remove the cause; keep stalls clean and dry. Pare away all lose portions of the horn, so as to expose the diseased parts; clean thoroughly by washing with warm water; dry with oakum and pack with powdered alum, calomel, or copper sulphate; if the dressing will not remain in place use a leather boot. Puncture of the Sole and Frog-Pricks in Shoeing A puncture of the sole or frog is usually caused by a horse stepping on a nail, a piece of broken glass, or other sharp object. If the wound enters the soft structures of the foot, it results in lameness and the formation of pus. Pricks in shoeing are of two kinds: First, when the nail is driven into the soft structures, and second, when it

152

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ARTILLERY

is driven too close, causing a bulging of the inner layer of horn, which is forced in upon the sensitive laminae. In the first case the horse goes lame immediately; in the second case lameness may not appear for several days or weeks. To detect a punctured wound of the foot, remove the shoe, examining each nail as it is withdrawn for traces of moisture. Then test with the pinchers. When the sore spot is pressed, the horse will flinch. Treatment Open the wound and let out any pus that may have formed; wash out with a solution of creolin, 1 to 25, or of carbolic acid, 1 to 20. Unless the pus has a good outlet, it will burrow into the surrounding tissues and quittor or canker may follow. Moreover, there is always danger of tetanus in all cases of punctured wounds, especially in the feet. The germ of this disease is present in nearly all soils and is very liable to be carried into the wound upon the nail or other object. After the wound has been opened up and washed out, the foot should be placed in a hot flaxseed poultice, a fresh one being applied three or four times a day, and the parts washed out after each poultice as in the first instance. The treatment should be continued until inflammation is reduced and the formation of pus has ceased. The hole can then be plugged with oakum and tar, the shoe reset and the horse put to work. Simple Injuries to the Eyelids Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the eyelids may be caused by bruises or the presence of a foreign body, such as sand, chaff, etc. If the eyelids should become torn, they must be sutured; the utmost care is necessary as the needle may puncture the eyeball and blindness will follow. Treatment Keep the parts clean with a saturated solution of boracic acid, and dust with iodoform.

Lecture V
SHOEING HE horse's foot is particularly liable to disease both 1from the delicacy of its mechanism, and the injury to which it is naturally exposed. The feet of the stabled horse :bear eloquent testimony to the class of stable management which is in vogue. Cleanliness is an all important feature; under the influence of manure, and urine the horn of the foot is very liable to suffer, the urine acts chemically by its alkaline nature, in which horn is more or less soluble. This corrosive action is particularly evident in the matter of the sole and frog, especially the latter, where in conjunction with wet and filth inflammatory trouble is set up in the sweat glands of the frog, with destruction of horn and loss of function. The horn of the foot requires for its healthy condition to be kept in contact with the ground; the effect of pressure is remarkable, and especially is this seen in the frog. Pressure also keeps the foot normal in shape and width; the parts are intended for contact with the ground and pressure, and if the pressure is not obtained the foot atrophies, wastes away; this shrinkage, besides other effects also means a loss of bearing surface. The care of the feet in the stable or on the picket line is comprised in the words "cleanliness and ordinary dryness." Cleanliness to insure the horn undergoing no change as the result of the action of urine and faeces, ordinary dryness to avoid the rotting of horn by constant exposure to wet. It has been known for ages that horses kept on dry surface had stronger and better feet, more capable of resisting injury, than those brought up on filthy and moist ground. As the wear is greater than the secretion, the excessive wear of the foot which results from work necessitates some protection being afforded, and this is given by shoeing.

T

153

154

FIELD ARTILLERY

In the application of the shoe to the foot the functions. of the various parts must be borne in mind. A horse's weight is carried by the wall of the foot and that part of the sole adjacent to it, the bars and frog. All of these parts in an unshod foot are in contact with the ground. The sole being concave, would not rest upon the ground. excepting in soft soil, nor is it intended to carry weight excepting where it joins with the wall. When a shoe is placed on the foot the natural condition just mentioned should be complied with, the shoe should rest on the wall, adjacent circumference of the sole, and the: bars. The frog should rest on the ground; it is one of the, anti-concussion mechanisms and cannot perform this function unless on the ground. This India rubber-like structure acts like a non-skidding, pneumatic tire to the body, excepting that it does not wear out from constant use. I wish to draw your attention to an important part of the foot which is greatly ill-treated or neglected in shoeing, and that is the heel, we find that all its parts are constructed with an elastic structure intended to yield, to expand and contract, to act as a buffer or cushion for the lateral cartilages; furthermore the wall is one-third thinner, one-thirdlower and one-third younger at the heel than at the toe, all helping the elastic cushion in its function. With this positive knowledge of the rational requirement of this part of the foot, it is most essential that we should shoe accordingly. That is to retain, as much as it is possible to do, the natural functions of the heel. There is no form of shoeing that prevents and blocks these functions more effectively than the application of calks to shoes, consequently calk shoes are not to be recommended except for winter shoeing when the roads are icy and slippery. At no other time, whether for draft or other purposes, roads hilly or not, should calk shoes be tolerated. It is useless to elaborate here and explain the why and wherefore of every point brought out; it is, sufficient to state that every statement made is the result of study, observation, and experience. The art of horseshoeing is simple, and not complicated. It mainly consists in the removal of the wall, at the lower

COURSE "B," LECTURE V

155

or bearing surface, which has grown since the previous shoeing, the foot rasped to a proper level all around, the shoe adjusted to its entire circumference and applied. No other manipulation of the foot should be allowed, except for therapeutical or surgical reasons and under proper authority. There is an excellent order published, which I herewith submit for your information: "G. O. No. 16, A. G. O. 1888.-In preparing the horse's foot for the shoe do not touch with the knife, the frog, sole. or bars. "In removing surplus growth of that part of the foot which is the 'seat of the shoe' use the cutting pinchers and rasp and not the knife. The shoeing knife may be used if necessary in fitting the toe clip. 'Opening the heels' or making a cut into the angle of the wall at the heel must not be allowed. The rasp may be used upon this part of the foot when necessary, and the same applies to the pegs. No cutting with a knife is permitted, the rasp alone is used when necessary. 'Flat-footed horses' should be treated as the necessity of each case may require. 'In forging the shoe to fit the foot' be careful that the shoe is fitted to and follows the circumference of the foot clear around to the heels; the heels of the shoe should not be extended back straight and outside of the walls at the heels of the horse's foot, as is frequently done. Care must be taken.that the shoe is not fitted too small, the outer surface of the walls being then rasped down to make the foot short to suit the shoe, as often happens. Heat may be used in preparing and shaping the shoe, but the hot shoe must not be applied to the horse's foot under any circumstances. Make the upper or foot surface of the shoe perfectly flat so as to give a level bearing. A shoe with a concave ground surface should be used." The only rasping of the wall that can be allowed is in the removal of the fringes which are left after levelling the surface for the shoe, and the only cutting of the sole that can be permitted is the removal of the loose flakes. A slight impression of a hot shoe to the foot may be used to determine an uneven surface and level accordingly, but nothing beyond this use of the hot shoe should be allowed. As the

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bars are part of the wall, it goes without saying that their bearing surface should be maintained and never cut beyond the level of the wall. In proper shoeing the frog should be flush with the shoe, with no nails driven close to the heel. In flat feet, accompanied with low broad heels, "swelling" of the shoe at the heel may be allowed to avoid excessive frog pressure. In contracted feet brought on from any cause, except navicular disease, tips should be used to develop the frogs and heels till normal shoeing can again be restored. "To maintain a level foot bearing, tips should be counter-sunk." The practice of hoof-dressing with oily substances or hoof-stuffing with clay or other material is not to be recommended when the foot is sound and in normal condition, even if it should happen to be hard. Such practices, when once started, have to be kept up and it then becomes a nuisance. The method of shoeing as described above, taken from Major LeMay's lecture on that subject delivered to the last class, illustrates what is known as normal shoeing, or the fitting of a shoe to the average horse in good health, and having healthy and whole feet. There is another type of shoeing known as corrective or, pathological shoeing which has for its object the correction of defects either in the foot itself, or in the gait of the animal. Upon this subject we have no time to touch but you will find it fully covered in the "Army Horse Shoer," published by the Government Printing Office, and in similar works. Paragraph 32, Volume 1, Field Artillery Drill Regulations, direct that one officer of a battery will be in charge of stables and animals and held responsible for the shoeing, feeding, fitting and adjustment of harness, etc. This officer is known as officer in charge of Department B and he should be thoroughly familiar with the little red book called "The Army Horse Shoer" and with the principles enumerated therein. Horses, like men, cannot march unless their feet are Scomfortable and properly shod. Good horseshoers are extremely rare and it is often with the greatest difficulty that

COURSE "B,"

LECTURE V

157

the battery horseshoer can be made to follow out the rules of shoeing laid down by the school for farriers and horseshoers as enunciated in the book referred to above. It is only by the exercise of the closest supervision of all details connected with shoeing that the battery commander or his lieutenant in charge of Department B can have his battery well and properly shod at all times. The following are a few suggestions as to the method of checking up and inspecting shoeing which have been tried in many batteries and have always given the results desired:-The stable sergeant is required to keep a book known as the "Shoeing Record" in which are entered the numbers of all the horses in the battery, the section to which they belong, together with the dates on which they were last shod, and information as to whether or not the animal was shod all around at that time. Every morning at stables, the officer in charge of Department B has the stable sergeant bring to him the shoeing record together with a memorandum of what horses were shod the previous day and what horses are to be shod today. The officer then has the chief of section bring to him for inspection the animals shod yesterday and carefully examines every shoe, noting its fit, whether or not the heels are too short, if it bears properly on its upper surface, whether the bars have been cut out or any other evidence of the knife having been used on the sole. He should also examine each animal standing squarely on all four feet, to see if the feet have been so leveled that the axis of the leg when produced is coincident with the axis of the hoof. He should then compare his memorandum of the horses that were to have been shod yesterday with the records of those actually shod and see if the horseshoers are keeping up with their work. The number of horses shod each day should equal the total number of horses in the battery divided by the total number of working days in the month less two, to allow for emergencies. The officer in charge of Department B should make frequent and lengthy visits to the battery shoeing shop in order that he may be able to discover and correct any bad practices on the part of his horseshoers. These visits should occur at least once each day and more often if possible. He should

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see to it that each of his horseshoers has a copy of, and is familiar with, the "Army Horse Shoer" and if, as will occur in many cases, he finds his horseshoers unable to understand exactly what certain passages mean, or the'reason which lies behind the rule given, he should carefully explain such things to them, as in this way alone can he expect to secure their conscientious following out of the rules laid down.

Lecture VI

T HERE are two types of field artillery harness.

Artillery Harness-Its Nomenclature and Adjustment

That which is used on the wheel pairs, known as wheel harness, and that used on the swing and lead, and in the case of four pair teams, on the wheel swing, lead swing, and lead, which is known as the lead harness. It consists roughly of five principal parts which from head to rear on the horses are: The bridle; the collar and' its attachments; the saddle and attachments; the back strap and its attachments; and the traces. These latter are of steel cable covered with leather to protect the horses' sides from abrasion. The nomenclature of various parts is shown on the accompanying plate and its explanatory table. The collars used by the field artillery are of two types. The steel collar which encloses the horse's neck completely and bear upon the entire front face of his shoulder, and the leather breast collar. The former is the one most generally in use at present, but in light batteries is being rapidly superseded by the breast collar. It will be retained in heavy batteries, however, where the draft is so much greater. The chief reason for dropping it from the light batteries is that it requires considerable expertness for its proper adjustment, especially when, under field conditions, constant changes of adjustment are necessary to meet the changes of conformation of the horse's neck and shoulders as he falls off in flesh. In such batteries the loads behind the teams are light and the breast collar offers a sufficient traction surface to take care of that weight under anything except abnormal conditions, in addition to being more easily adjusted by novices. This feature makes it exceptionally valuable when, in time of war, most, if not all, of the officers on duty with batteries lack experience in fitting harness. Steel Collars Steel collars are made in the following sizes: 2A, 2B, 4A, 4B, 5, 5A, 5B, 6, 6A, 6B, 7, 7A, 7B, and 8A. The number and shape of the collar are stamped on the front
159

160

FIELD ARTILLERY

side under the extension bolt. The A and B shapes have straighter sides than the numbers without letters. When issued with harness, unless otherwise ordered, 10 per cent of the collars are No. 5, 50 per cent No. 5A, and 40 pea cent No. 6. In requisitions, the size of collars desired should be given. The steel collar pads are made in seven different sizes: No. 0 is 4 inches wide, No. 1 is 4.5 inches, No. 2 is 5 inches, etc., to No. 6, which is 7 inches wide. The pad connections are also furnished in seven sizes, from No. 0 to No. 6. For the plain number of collar (5, 6, or 7) the regular adjustment requires a pad connection of the same number as the pad. The A and B shapes have straighter sides and take a pad connection two sizes larger than the pad-that is, it would take a No. 3 connection with a No. 1 pad, etc., for the regular adjustment in these shapes. When the collar is very wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, the size of the pad connection must be increased one or two numbers to allow the collar to close easily at the bottom. In the reverse case, a smaller pad connection must be used. The collar pads are numbered on the front inner side. The pad connections are numbered on the side having the round holes, which side must be kept to the front on the collar. In requisition for the collar pads and pad connections the sizes desired must be stated. The buckle is made in two sizes. No. 2 is 1 inch longer than No. 1, and is used with the larger sizes of collar pads. The correct adjustment and fitting of collars is of the utmost importance. The variety of sizes and shapes of collars, pads, pad connections, and buckles, issued by the Ordnance Department is sufficient to enable any horse to be correctly fitted. Efficient supervision by officers of the fitting of collars and of the adjustment of the point of draft (trace plate) is required to secure proper results. The Artillery Harness The component parts of the artillery harness are given Plate I shows the harness of the in the table below. off-wheel and off-lead horses. The nomenclature corresponding to the numbers in the plate will be found in the table.

COURSE "B," LECTURE VI
Wheel
in
_________________

161
Lead
-

Class

ec-

in plate

Component parts.

Near orse

Off horse

Near Off horse horse

tion

1-4
1

2 3 4 .8,9 8 9 2-7 5 6 2 3 7 4

Backstrap and crupper, complete-___________ _____1 Consisting ofBody and hip straps---------------------1 _____ Dock--------------------------------------1 Loin strap-------------------------------------1 Trace loops ------------------------------- 4 Backstrap-hooks ----------------------------1 Breast strap, complete-----------------1 1

1 1 1 1 4 1

Consisting ofConsisting of-

Breast strap--------------------. 1 Breast-strap hooks---------------_--2 Breeching, complete--------------------1

1 2 1

10-19
10 11 12 18 19 13 14 16 17 20 21 40 22,23 22 23 24,25 24 25 27 15 28 29 42 43 44 80 91 82 33 84 85

Backstrap (1) and hip straps (4)__ 1 1 Body ---------------------------1 1 Dock ----------------------------1 1 Backstrap hooks--------------------1 1 Side strap hooks ----------------2 2 Loin strap ----------------------1 1 Side straps----------------------2 2 Trace loops------------------------2 2 Bridle, complete------------------------1 1 1 Consisting ofBrow band------------------------1 1 1 Brow-hand ornaments--__--__---___2 2 2 Cheek pieces------------------____ 2 2 2 Coupling strap-------------------_____ ----Connecting strap-----------------------1 Crownpiece--------------------.._ 1 1 1 Snaffle hit (watering) -----------1 1 1 Reins (pairs) _-------------------1 1 1 'Throatlatch -- _------------ - ------1 1 1 Collar, steel--------------------------1 1 1 Hame tug, a part of the collar_ ___ ______ Collar strap---------------------------1 1 1 Halter, complete-___________________ 1 1 1 Consisting ofHeadstall -----------------------1 1 1 Strap --------------------------. 1 1 1 Martingale, complete-__---__----------1 1...........

1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

iv

8

Consisting of-

26-33

Saddle, complete-----------------------

Martingale ----------------------Cincha strap-----------------------1

1

Consisting of Cinchas, with reenforces and loops.. 1 Cinchas, without reenforces and loops -------------------------------------Lead-rein roller and strap----------__--_ Quarter straps, including ring, safes, and cincha straps---------------1 Cincha strap, a part of the saddle quarter strap -------------Coat strap, 83-inch (pommel) 3 Coat strap, 45-inch (cantle) -------1 Coat strap, 60-inch _--__---------- _____ -Saddletree, leather-covered----------1 Stirrups, brass (new style nickel 2 steel) -------------------------Stirrup straps _-------__--------2 Saddlebags, pairs -----------------1 Saddlebag side straps--------------2

1

1 1

1

1

i

1---------1 1--------1 2 1 2-1 2 2 1 2 1 8 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2

-

ART.-6

162

FIELD ARTILLERY
Wheel Lead
Class Sec-

No.

in plate

Component parts.

Near horse

Off horse

Near horse

Off horse

tion

86

37

38

41

Traces, lead, model of 1908 -----------Consisting of1 trace body, 2A----------------1 trace cover, 2E..............___ 3 links, 2B 1 chain, 2C-------------------1 toggle, 2D ---------------------2 sockets, 2F ------ ______________ 2 cones, 2H ---------------------2 filler pieces, 2G ----------------Traces, wheel, model of 1908_____7 Consisting of1 trace body, 10C_________________ 1 trace cover_-------------------1 ring, 10B -------------------2 sockets, 2F ------------------2 links, 2B --------------------2 chains, 2C --------------------2 toggles, 2D -------------------2 cones, 2H2 filler pieces, 2G ---------------Mogul spring, a part of wheel trace-----------------------1 loop hook, 10F---------------1 ring, 10E ---------------------1 Mogul spring loop, 10D ___---1 locking strap, 10G -----------Whip----------------------------Sweat leathers..................... Blanket, issued separately from harness

2

2

2

2

1

2 1

1

Table of Dimensions
Size of collars fitted with No. 3 pads. Length of collar inside. Inches. 18 18 192 Width 6 Width 8 inches inches down from down from top. top. Inches.
63

Number. of collar.

Width at draft. Inches. 88
8

Inches.
7/

2 2 4. 4 5 5 5

A ---- ---- ---B--------------A --------- ---B-------------A-------------B---------------

7
74

192
21 21 21 222
222 222

814
92

61 7 7
7 7
7
7 7

78 8s

9.
94

6
6 A--------------6 B--------------7 7 A--------------7 B--------------8 A ---- ---- - ---

71/1

24 24 24

104
7$

10
10 94

252

COURSE "B," LECTURE VI

163

Table

of

Dimensions-Continued

Size of collar fitted with No. 1 pads. 2 A---------------2 B--------------. 4 A----------------18 4 B-----------------18 5---------------162 162 54 44 58 53 64 51 54 62 54 78 68 54 64 64 7$ 7 6 74 74 84

192 21 21

5

A-------------------192

54
54 67 6 54 63

74
74 84 8$ 84 8$

5 B----------------192 6 -----------------6 A----------------21 '6 B-------------7------------------222

7
:8

A---------------- 224 7B-----------------222446
A-.-------------24

54
54

64

84 84
84

64

The table of dimensions gives the largest and smallest

size that each collar can be made with the No. 3 and No. 1
pads. Adding one-half inch in length and width to the smallest dimensions given in the table will give the size

of the collars when fitted with the No. 2 pads. These examples are given to show the three regular adjustments in
each size collar, but these dimensions can be varied to suit the different shapes of necks. The largest pad can be put in the top of the collar and the bottom taken in to its smallest dimensions, or the smallest pad can be put in the top and the bottom let out. While each collar can be lengthened or shortened and taken in or let out at the bottom by -means of the adjustments provided, the width at the top can not. be changed without using a larger or smaller pad. In fitting irregular shapes none of the connections In such a may give just the proper tension on the pad. the extension at the top.

case use the one that comes nearest and straighten or bend When the collar requires. to be.

widened at the top to relieve the pressure on the pad and
make it lock easily at the bottom, open the collar wide and place a round piece of hard wood or iron, 1-inch in diameter and 2 inches long, between the connections and collar side close up to the hinge; then press the sides together. and bend both sides alike, so that they will be the same length at the bottom. Do not let the fulcrum rest on the pad, for it will bend it. If the collar sides require straightening to close them tighter on the pad and give more tensions on the

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latch at the bottom, open the collar at the bottom, hook the wrench over the top of collar side, and press down the lever, treat both sides alike. Both of these operations can be performed with the collar put together. The spare parts furnished for the repair of the collars with the correct names of the parts are shown on Plate II. Canvas collar pads are not part of the artillery harness, but are furnished upon requisition. They are made in sizes, Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, as called for, if no size is called for, they are made in equal proportions of Nos. 4, 5 and 6. Adjustment You must appreciate the fact that every sore, every injury, every abrasion of the skin, is due to a certain definite cause which, if removed, can produce no further effect. If ill-fitting harness has escaped the notice of a driver while his horses were at work, any injury caused thereby must not escape his notice at the next stables. Failure to discover and report such injury at once to the instructor or to the chief of section is a neglect calling for disclipinary correction. The bridle and saddle are adjusted as explained in the lecture on bitting and saddling. The collar should fit about the horse's shoulders and neck easily and uniformly. It should freely admit the thickness of the hand between the lower part of the collar and the throat and, when pulled to one side, should admit the thickness of the fingers between sides of the collar and the neck. A short collar chokes a horse by pressing on the windpipe; a narrow one pinches and rubs the neck. A broad collar works about and galls the shoulders. More injuries result from collars that are too large than from collars that are too small. The final test of the fit of a collar is to observe it carefully when the horse is in draft, and at halts, to notice what effect it is having on his shoulders. After a collar has been properly fitted to a horse it should be marked with his battery number. This is conveniently done by painting the number just above the left draft spring on the inside of the collar. The back strap, when adjusted, should admit the

COURSE "B,"

LECTURE VI

165

breadth of the hand between it and the horse's back. If too short, the crupper will cut the tail and the saddle will be displaced. The collar strap should not be tight; otherwise it will pull the saddle forward on the withers. The surcingle, when used, should be buckled on the near side of the near horse and on the off side of the off horse, less tight than the girth and over it. The hip strap should be so adjsuted as to bring the breeching body flat against the thighs and with its rear portion high enough on the buttocks so that its sides make a continuous straight line with the side straps. To produce this effect the rear hip straps must be considerably shorter than the front ones. Care must also be exercised to prevent placing the rear of the body too high, as otherwise it will slip up and over the point of the buttocks and will only be prevented from climbing on the horse's back by its coming in contact with the lower face of the dock. Another thing which must be guarded against is the placing of the breeching so high as to cause the breeching rings into which the side straps are buckled to rub against and injure the stifles. The side straps are adjusted to cause the breeching body to bear quickly should the horse be required to check the carriage, but not so short as to impede the animal's movements while in draft. The exact adjustment can be obtained only by watching the horse in draft, both up and down grade. The martingale is fastened by its cincha strap to the neck yoke. The length of this fastening should be such as to permit the D ring and D ring safe on the martingale to be well through the standing loop on the cincha, thus .avoiding catching and interfering with the latter when the horse is set into breeching. The martingale must be kept smooth and soft or it will chafe the inner sides of he legs and rub the belly. The breast straps should support the pole in a horizontal position. If the pole is too low, the effort of supporting it is increased; if too high the martingale and neck yoke may rub the breast.

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The loin straps should be adjusted so that the traces when in draft, will be straight and without downward pull on the trace loops. Otherwise, galls on the back will result. The traces: The length of the lead and swing traces must depend in a great measure on the size of the horse and his stride. The rule for lead and swing pairs is to allow about 1 yard from the head of the horse in rear to point of the buttocks of the horse ahead when in draft. The length of the wheel trace is fixed, but allowance may be made for difference in the size of the horses by proper adjustment of the martingale and side straps. This will allow a minimum distance of about 14 inches between hind quarters and singletree for the average wheel horse when in draft. The traces should be adjusted by a strap under the belly or one over the saddle so that their directions shall be as nearly normal to the shoulders as possible to avoid any downward or upward pull of the collar. A downward pull of the collar. will tend to gall or injure the neck, while an upward pull on it will tend to make it rise and choke the horse. The rear trace chains of the lead and swing traces have a ring at one end and a hook at the other; the hook is passed through a "D" ring at the front end of the trace of the horse in rear and hooked back into any desired link. By this means the length of the lead and swing traces may be adjusted. Care must be exercised that the traces belonging to any one horse are of even length. The coupling rein should be so adjusted as to permit the off horse properly to maintain his trace and yet to hold him to his place in the team. In the adjustment of the breast collar, which consists primarily of a broad soft strap passing across the horse's breast and supported in that position by another strap passing at right angles to it, and over the horse's neck, it is only necessary to see that the strap passing across the breast fits so as to give the greatest amount of traction surface on the horse's breast and shoulders without being high enough, to choke him or low enough to impede his movements. This adjustment is made by shortening or lengthening the strap passing over the neck.

Lecture VII
THE CARE AND PRESERVATION OF LEATHER

A

TTENTION is invited to the following:"It is forbidden to use any dressing or polishing material on the leather accouterments or equipments of the soldier, the horse equipments for cavalry, or the artillery harness except the preparations supplied from the Ordnance Department for that purpose." (A. R. 293 of 1910.) Reason for Oiling

Leather, as it comes from the tannery in manufacture, is hard, rough, brittle, inflexible, and readily absorbs water. To remove these undesirable qualities and render the leather soft, pliable, flexible, and impervious to water, to increase the strength and toughness of the fiber, and to give the leather such a surface color and finish as will make it most sightly and suitable for the purpose for which intended, the manufacture is continued by hand stuffing it with a "dubbing" made of pure cod liver -oil and tallow, which the experience of curriers has shown to be the best material for this purpose. This dubbing is thoroughly absorbed by the leather, penetrating it completely, and is not merely limited to the surface. The russet leather now used by the Ordnance Department in the manufacture of all leather equipments is pure oak tanned, of No. 1 tannage and finish, hand stuffed with a light dubbing made of pure cod liver and tallow to preserve the leather, the dubbing being so sparingly used that the oil will not exude. This leather, as it comes from the manufacturer, contains enough oil to materially improve its quality and prolong its life, but not enough to soil the clothing if the equipment is properly cared for. No oil whatever is added to the leather in the manufacture of the equipments at the government arsenals." Articles of leather equipment should never under any
167

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circumstances be placed in water or have water allowed to run over them as a means of cleaning them. Water, when applied to tan leather, has almost as injurious an effect upon it as has acid on the living skin. At the regular weekly battery harness cleaning, an officer should always be present and preferably two of them, the executive or officer in charge of Department A should be present at the cleaning of the materiel other than harness, while the officer in charge of Department B should give his closest attention to the supervision of cleaning of the harness and leather equipment. Harness, saddles, and bridles should be completely taken down at every weekly harness cleaning. Every buckle should be unbuckled in order that each individual part of the harness and other equipment can be thoroughly cleaned throughout. If any portions of the leather equipment have mud caked upon them, this should be removed by manipulation of the leather between the hands, or by brushing. This done, every leather part should be thoroughly soaped with a lather of castile, Propert's, Hollingshead, Miller's, or English Crown saddle soap, all of which are issued from time to time by the Ordnance Department. This lather is prepared as follows:After saturating the sponge thoroughly, squeeze out from it nearly, but not quite, all of the water, then rub the sponge over the soap, and by manipulation of it, work up a thick, creamy lather. This lather should be made with the least possible amount of water in it. The lather is then applied to the leather with the sponge, being rubbed into both sides of each strap and then left to dry. If any article of equipment is unusually dirty, the first lather, after having been left on long enough to penetrate and loosen the dirt, should be removed and a fresh lather applied; this in order that the soap may thoroughly soak into the pores of the leather. As all the soaps mentioned above contain a considerable amount of pure oils, their application does away with the necessity of oiling except in unusual cases. If, as stated above, the leather becomes harsh and dry, from exposure or other causes, necessitating

COURSE "B," LECTURE VII

169

the application of oil, it is almost impossible to use little enough. One tablespoonful of Neatsfoot oil is sufficient for oiling the entire harness for one pair. In removing mud from the hair cinchas of the saddles, manipulation with the fingers and beating with a switch are the best methods. Collars In cleaning the breast collar, the process is exactly the same as for any other piece of leather equipment. Special care must be exercised to keep the surface of the breast collar which comes in contact with the horse's breast soft and pliable, in order to prevent abrasions and sores. The same is true of the supporting strap which passes over the neck. In cleaning a steel collar its zinc surfaces should be washed with water and a sponge. The zinc surface should never be scraped with any sharp instrument, nor should vinegar or any other acid be used upon it for the removal of foreign substances. To resort to any of these methods results in the removal of the zinc itself. This is followed by rusting, which makes the collar worthless. "Elbow grease," a sponge and water are all that is necessary to keep the steel collar in condition. The unzinced surfaces of the collar, those which do not come in contact with the horse's neck or shoulders, should be kept well painted with the brown collar paint issued, as this insures protection from rust and greatly enhances the appearance of the collar. All collars, either breast or steel, and all bits should be cleaned immediately after their removal from the horse not only each day, but after each drill or exercise; thus it may be necessary to clean your bits and collars two or three, or even four, times a day. If this is done, however, your bits will always be clean, as well as your collars, and the number of sore necks and sore shoulders will be materially reduced. If this is not done, the presence of foreign matter upon those surfaces of the collar in contact with the horse's flesh causes additional friction and an uneven bearing surface, both of which are fertile causes of sore shoulders and necks.

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Bits Bits should be washed after each exercise, preferably in warm water, if such is obtainable, as this dissolves the accumulation of dirt and saliva more readily than cold water. Care should be exercised, however, to see that when the bits are placed in the water, the ends of the reins and the cheek pieces into which they are buckled are not. Careful inspection is necessary to prevent this, as a lazy man (and you will find some in each battery) will be tempted to dip his whole bridle into the bucket. Aparejo In the cleaning of the aparejo, the sobrejalma should be removed and its leather binding cleaned with lather in the same manner as any other article of russet leather equipment. The crupper should not be removed from the aparejo for cleaning as with the sobrejalma removed; it is possible to reach every part of the aparejo and its crupper without difficulty. Both the inside and outside of the aparejo should be cleaned with lather as described above for russet leather, except where the inside of the side pieces of the crupper are faced with canvas. This canvas should not be washed at all, but should be scraped clean with the edge of a very dull knife, preferably a Great care must be exercised in the cleanmess knife. ing of the dock piece which, when in use, is constantly in contact with the tender skin on the under side of the animal's dock. This dock piece should be very carefully and thoroughly cleaned with lather and should it, through exposure to the weather or other causes, become so harsh and brittle as to necessitate oiling, a new dock piece should be put on if possible. The canvas facing of the corona should be thoroughly scraped with a dull-edged knife for removal of sweat, dirt, hair, etc., and should occasionally be thoroughly scrubbed with a stiff brush and a lather of saddle soap, preferably castile. SThe canvas surfaces of the corona, the canvas facing on the inner side of the crupper side pieces or bodies, and the dock piece of the crupper must be thoroughly cleaned immediately after the removal from the animal's body

COURSE "B," LECTURE VII

171

every time they are used. For this cleaning, scraping of the canvas surface with a dull-edged knife to remove accumulation of foreign matter and sponging the dock piece is sufficient. Unless this is done after each exercise, sore tails, rubbed buttocks, and abrasions on the sides and backs will occur. That portion of the canvas cincha which is in contact with the mule's belly should also be cleaned after each exercise, in the same manner as the other canvas parts.

Lecture VIII
ARTILLERY DRAFT

IN

addition to his ability to ride horses properly, and to instruct other men in doing the same, the field artillery officer must have a thorough knowledge of the subject of draft. That is, of securing from his horses the greatest amount of tractive force with the least possible expenditure of energy. Owing to the varying nature of the guns and howitzers with which the field artillery of all armies are equipped, this subject has at least two, and possibly more, divisions, but the underlying principles of both are identical. The horse-drawn guns of our army today are the 3-inch rifle, the 3.8-inch howitzer, the4.7-inch howitzer, the 4.7-inch rifle, and the 6-inch howitzer. It is hardly probable in these days of rapidly developing motor traction that guns caliber than 4.7-inch rifle or howitzers larger of than the 6-inch, will depend upon horses for traction. Indeed, at the present moment at least one of our 4.7-inch gun regiments is motorized, and it is believed that practically every type of field artillery of calibers heavier than the 4.7inch howitzer will depend almost solely upon motor traction in the future. With this type of traction we have but little to do in this course further than to state that a tractor of the type known as the Caterpillar has been subjected to very severe service tests and has been found to be very satisfactory under almost all conditions. If time permits, a brief description of some of these tests which were conducted by the field artillery board at Fort Sill, Okla., in 1915, together with illustrations of some of them, will be included in this course. The subject immediately under consideration, however, is the tractive power of horses when utilized for moving light and heavy batteries from place to place. This subject has, as you can readily understand, a very considerable bearing upon the manufacture of the different types of field artillery, upon their range and weight, and the weight

'greater

172

COURSE "B," LECTURE VIII

173

upon the projectile which they throw. There is a limit of weight beyond which it is not possible to go and still have a piece light enough that the horses can move it at a gallop over rough ground without quickly exhausting themselves. If the weight of the piece is cut down in order to increase its mobility, its power must. be correspondingly reduced or the metal of the piece will not be sufficiently strong to withstand the stresses set up by gas pressure in its interior. Since a howitzer can throw a heavier projectile to approximately the same range with a lower powder charge than can a gun, we find that it is possible to make a howitzer powerful and still retain a large degree of mobility; for instance, the 3-inch rifle throws a 15-pound projectile to a maximum range of 8,000 yards, and when completely loaded and equipped, has a weight behind the team of 4,260 pounds. The 3.8-inch howitzer, with aprojectile weighing 30 pounds, has a maximum range of 6,338 yards, with a weight behind the team when the howitzer and limber are loaded of 3,970 pounds. Light guns and howitzers intended for use close up to the infantry lines must have a high degree of mobility, as it is frequently necessary to move them under heavy-fire, either to the front or to the rear, when speed means a lessening of the probability of destruction from fire. In the heavier types, which are intended for use at a greater distance behind the infantry lines, made possible by their long range, the same high degree of mobility is not necessary. In our service the light batteries, horse batteries, and light howitzer batteries are the ones of which a high degree of mobility is expected, while the heavy gun and howitzer batteries are those of the second class mentioned just above. The first-named three types have 6 horse teams, the horses being of the type described in a previous lecture as light artillery draft horses, and have the following loads behind the teams: In the light batteries the gun and limber completely loaded and equipped weighs 4,260 pounds, the caisson 4,560, or an average weight behind each horse of the team of 735 pounds. This does not include the weight of the cannoneers who ride upon the carriage. In the horse batteries, which

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are armed with the same piece as the light batteries buton which the cannoneers do not ride upon the carriages and in which no ammunition is carried in the limber, the weight behind each horse is only 623 pounds. In batteries in which the cannoneers ride upon the carriages an average weight of 130 pounds per cannoneer should be added-in computing the load behind the teams, making for a 6 horse team an additional weight per horse bf 863 pounds (four men on each carriage). In only two types of batteries do the cannoneers ride; they are the light, and light howitzer batteries. In the light howitzer batteries, that is, the 3.8-inch, we have, when not including the weight of the cannoneers on the carriage, a load of 666.4 pounds behind each horse, or if we include the weight of a cannoneer, 752.4 pounds. In the 4.7-inch gun batteries we have an average weight behind each horse, 1,061 pounds. When the limber and caisson are completely loaded and equipped in these heavy batteries only one cannoneer rides upon the carriage, the man who applies the brake, and for him a load of 164 pounds. per horse should be added to the figures above, making them 1,0774 pounds. In the 6-inch howitzer batteries, not including the weight of the brakeman, we have a load behind each horse of 1,037 pounds, including the brakeman, 1,053pounds. In order that you may have some way of arriving at these weights for yourself, the following weights are quoted from the hand books of the various types mentioned. All weights given in this table are for the gun and its limber and caisson and limber completely loaded and equipped, but do not include the weights of the cannoneers.

COURSE "B," LECTURE VIII

175

3-inch gun and limber

-097'

6

710

710

+

760 735

Caisson and limber -------- 4,560 3,8-inch gun and limber 3.8-inch gun and caisson ---------limber --4.7-inch gun and limber 4.7-inch gun and caisson limber -----------6-inch howitzer gun and limber ----------6-inch howitzer caisson limber ___ ----------_ 3,970.4 --4,026.5 8,756 8,221 8,611 and 7,997

6 6 6 8 8 8 8

760 661.72 . 671.08 1,094.4 1,027.5 1,076.

1,470+2 666.4 1,061

1,037 1,996.8 J

Line of Traction If the harness is properly adjusted, the line of traction along the traces of each horse is at right angles to the face of his shoulder. If the battery commander could ideally size up the horses for his battery he should have a straight and continuous line of traction from the collar of his lead horse to the singletree of his limber. This, however, is impossible, due to the fact that his horses come to him as they are issued from the remount depot, not as he would like to have them so far as shape of shoulders and height of horses is concerned. This line of traction along the trace, sometimes known as the line of draft, can be made perpendicular to the shoulder of each horse, however, by lengthening or shortening the holding-down strap which passes under the belly through a loop in the girth and which has at each of its own ends an adjustable loop through which the trace passes. This strap is not shown as a part of the artillery harness in the plate or nomenclature table, as it has only been recently made an article of issue. While its use undoubtedly brings some component of draft upon the horse's chest at the girth, this is more than counteracted by the beneficial results of having the line of draft squarely perpendicular to the face of the shoulder of each individual horse, thereby lessening the movement of the collar from side to side and preventing choking in going across

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gulleys, etc.; when, except for the use of this strap, the collar would be pulled up tight against the horse's neck. With this strap properly adjusted, and with all the horses of the team constantly in draft, the load behind them is equally distributed and the horses will suffer but little fatigue as a result of their labors. This much to be desired result can only be obtained, however, by a thorough training of the drivers and by constant and unending supervision and inspection on the march by the caisson corporal, chief of section, platoon and battery commander. Drivers must be made to keep their horses at the gait prescribed, whether it be walking, trotting, or galloping, and to see that their horses neither lag nor pull the whole load,: and that the traces are tight all the way from the collar of the leader back to the singletree. If the hametugs of the swing and wheel pairs are hanging loose, then the leaders are pulling the whole carriage and the wheelers and the swing pair are loafing. Often the wheel and swing pairs pull the load while the leaders move along with the traces loose. Any and all of these things are bad. Every horse must pull his share, or the result will be a part of your team fagged while the others are still fresh. As was said before, officers and noncommissioned officers must be constantly on the watch to prevent this. While the column is in motion an artillery officer has no such thing as a fixed position anywhere along the column to which he belongs ; he must constantly ride around, behind and on both sides of his platoon or his battery, as the case may be; the one place where he must not ride is at the head of the subdivision for which he is responsible, for there he sees nothing, while from the rear and the sides of his sub-division he has it constantly under his eyes. This rule should be applied not only to officers, but to the chief of section and caisson corporal as well. Jigging or prancing on the part of the team horses. is one of the most fertile causes of slack traces in parts of the team and must not be allowed. Drivers must be instructed how to prevent this, and if, as is rarely the case,. it is impossible to cure the horse of his bad habit, he should be taken out of the team and used as an individual mount

COURSE "B," LECTURE VIII

177

No artillery officer should ever be satisfied with the driving in his organization until every horse is in his collar every minute, except when going around curves or backing. The mobility of a battery of field artillery depends to a great extent upon the degree of proficiency which its drivers have attained in constantly keeping a proper line of draft in 'their teams. If this is not done, neither quick maneuvers, long marches, nor efficient transportation service can be assured. This result is greatly facilitated by a careful teaming of the horses. By the term "teaming" we mean a selection of horses that are to work together in one team. Horses possessing uniformity of temperament, gait, size, and conformation, as stated above, represent the ideal conditions which a battery as a whole is never able to even approximate. In any battery, however, the individual teams may be made up with a uniformity of qualities mentioned. The first consideration in teaming horses is uniformity in gait, which usually means also a uniformity in temperament. At their natural walk, and trot, the six or eight horses selected for a team should cover as nearly as possible the same distance in a fixed length of time. Having selected a team in this manner, the horses are then paired with regard to, first, activity and temperament; second, size (height, weight) ; third, conformation. The pair that is most active and that has the most free, willing, and most responding temperament should go in the lead; those that show these qualities to a less degree should go in the wheel. If activity and temperament afford no choice in placing the pair, the blockiest or heaviest pair should go in the wheel and the tallest or lightest pair in the lead. Matching for color, though desirable for the sake of appearance, is the least thing to be considered when teaming horses to obtain draft efficiency. The most freely moving team should be assigned to the first section piece, the next to the first section caisson, the next to the second section, and so on throughout the battery. Then, if the first section leads, there will be a slight but uniform' tendency throughout the battery to lose distance, while if the last section leads there will be a slight tendency to crowd.

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. As a general principle, horses under seven years of age should habitually be employed as off horses, while the older ones are used on the near side; also in any pair the horse of the better saddle conformation should be the near horse, and the freer driver the off horse. However, in any team the horses should be interchanged in order that they may be trained to work willingly in the lead, swing or wheel and as the off or near horses in the pair. In all movements from a halt or in changing gait or direction, each driver gathers both of his horses before applying the aids or giving the signals which they are to obey. In starting a carriage it is desirable that all the horses of the team simultaneously apply power in the collar. Though this is extremely difficult, since three or four drivers cannot usually start six or eight horses at the same instant, the endeavor to do so should always be made. A good start is rendered more certain if the traces are reasonably well stretched before the team is called on to move. In stretching the traces, however, a driver must be careful not to permit his horses to bump into the collar, because such a practice tends to make them think that a bump on the shoulder means to stop. A good start is rendered certain if every horse steps slowly into the collar and holds there, quietly straining at his task until the slower horses in the team overtake his motion and add sufficient strength to move the carriage. A gradual start, then, becomes of greater practical importance than a simultaneous start. Chiefs of section and drivers have a constant tendency to start off too quickly. This evil is aggravated if the command for starting has been loud, sharp, and abrupt, rather than low and prolonged. A good start is facilitated if the command of execution habitually follows the preparatory command at a fixed interval. At the preparatory command each driver gathers his horses; at the command of execution he applies the proper aids to the near horse, touches the off horse, if necessary, with the whip, and speaks to both horses with a low cluck or chirrup, causing them to respond promptly by stepping slowly into their collars and straining until the carriage moves.

COURSE "B," LECTURE VIII

179

The same principles apply in increasing the speed of the carriage by passing to a faster gait. Abruptness or suddenness of the movement is to be avoided. Drivers must appreciate the necessity for co-operation, and each one must be constantly attentive to what the others in the team are doing. Each should regulate his movements on those of the pair ahead of him; the wheel driver especially must be careful that his pair does not lag behind or attempt to start the carriage alone. As an example, for the wheel driver to have his horses in the breeching when the others are in the collar is inexcusable. When, for an unexpected reason, a driver must stop his pair or can not start it at the command, he must give a warning call to the others. To Stop a Carriage or Reduce its Speed To the same degree that effort is made to avoid abrupt or sudden starts, so also should effort be made to avoid abrupt or sudden stops or reductions in speed. In stopping the carriage the drivers hold their horses out of traction and stop with the gradual stopping of the carriage. The wheel driver may, when desirable, assist in stopping the carriage by holding his horses back in the breeching. The brake, if carefully and gradually applied so as not to jerk the horses, is of great use in stopping the carriage or checking its speed. The lead and swing drivers regulate the movement of their pairs by those of the wheel pair, keeping out of the way, but avoiding any strain on the traces. To Back a Carriage The wheel driver is responsible for backing the carriage. The other drivers must give him complete liberty of trace. Both horses are reined back together, quietly and steadily, according to the principles outlined in "The Soldier Mounted". To Confirm in Horses a Willingness to Pull Almost any horse can be trained to be an honest and willing puller. Through ignorance, lack of judgment, bad management, or laziness on the part of the driver, he can

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far more easily be trained to be a shirker and a quitter. A horse will not pull freely or willingly if to do so causes him pain. It is essential, therefore, that his harness, especially his collar, fit him with absolute comfort; that his shoulders be hardened through careful conditioning and rational work and are therefore not tender or sore; and that he apply his weight in the collar slowly and gradually, without sudden starts or jerks that would pound and bruise his shoulders. Even though all of the above conditions be favorable, a horse will not pull unless he is confirmed in the belief that when he applies his strength the load behind him will yield. Thus a willing horse may be hitched to an immovable object and within a few minutes, especially if he be yelled at or whipped, be transformed into a sulker and a balker that only long, patient, and careful handling will cure. To allow repeated trials and failures in pulling is the quickest 'and most effective method of ruining the draft efficiency of a team. It must be borne in mind that there is a limit to the draft power of any artillery team, and that this power, due to the tandem method of hitching, is, even with perfect driving, from 20 to 50 per cent less than the sum of the powers of the individual horses. A team should never be given deliberately a task that is clearly beyond its strength. It is right and proper in order to train a team and to develop its draft power to a maximum to give it from day to day or week to week tasks that gradually increase in difficulty. Such tasks will occasionally stop the team. No evil results will follow if the animals, when stopped, are permitted to rest quietly for a few minutes and recover their wind. The first tendency of the inexperienced noncommissioned officer or driver when a team stops is to urge it forward immediately. This is exceedingly wrong. The horses are either taking an absolutely needed rest or are showing by their action that they need assistance. While the horses are resting, a sufficient number of cannoneers with drag ropes should be brought up so that when the signal to move is given the carriage will certainly move. Such a practice trains the horses that there is no such thing as failure or defeat in a pull and. therefore confirms a willingness to pull whenever they are called upon to do so. A team so trained

COURSE "B,"

LECTURE VIII

18i

may, when it has become hardened to its work, be called on to make the attempt to pull out of a difficulty unaided unless such a task is clearly beyond its strength. However, if the attempt fails, it must be appreciated that the team to a certain extent has been injured and that for some time to come it must not again be subjected to the risk of failure. A team trained and managed in accordance with these principles can always be counted on to occasion a minimum of delay to a battery which encounters difficulties in transport. Driving up Steep Slopes and Over Difficult Ground In order to exert his maximum strength when in a difficult pull, the draft horse must get the greatest possible weight forward and into the collar. By maintaining a low, extended, and advanced carriage of the head and neck he is able to add considerably to his power of traction. He should, therefore, be allowed full freedom of rein when in a heavy pull and not be forced to fight the driver's hand. Because a horse can exert a greater power of traction when ridden, it is often advantageous when in a difficult pull to mount cannoneers on the off horses. When pulling up a hill the drivers should lean well forward and should encourage their horses by a low and 'quiet use of the voice. The most favorable gait for heavy pulling is a steady, uniform walk, with every horse straight in his collar and the team straight from lead to wheel. The tendency to rush a hill or other difficult pull must be avoided. Any increase of speed for such a purpose can not be taken up with perfect uniformity by all the horses of a team, and the footing for each horse is rendered more uncertain and difficult. This causes undue weight to come upon the shoulders of some, while none at all may be borne by others. Uneven draft quickly results, often to the point of stalling the team. In going over a V-shaped ditch unusual effort should be made to keep the horses at a steady walk. In such a place the brake must be used with great care, so that the traces will be tight and the horses in draft during the entire crossing. The brake should be released a little

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too late rather than too soon, for, in the latter case, the carriage rushes forward into the bottom of the ditch, where it stops, and the horses on again coming into draft are given a violent jerk. When maneuvering off the road, steep ascents should be taken in line to avoid checks. When on a road or track, if circumstances permit, the battery should be halted to rest and blow at the top, or, if the hill be a long one, to be halted a number of times during the ascent. Each carriage or section, after such a halt, moves out in time for the carriage or section which follows to halt on the same ground.. Cannoneers, instructed to follow and watch a carriage in difficult draft, may, by applying their strength at the moment a stop seems imminent, prevent the carriage from stalling. When a carriage has been stalled it may, in some cases, be found best to have cannoneers first back it for a few feet, in order to put both horses and carriage on more advantageous ground from which to make the start. Crossing of Streams When crossing streams on ferries with the field artillery, it is advisable to unhitch the teams and to first ferry across all animals, with the exception of one or two teams of the battery. These should be left on the near side of the stream for the purpose of hauling the carriages to the ferry slip or approach. After all the carriages are ferried across, the remaining teams may be taken over. The reason for this, as you can readily see, is that in case an accident occurs to the ferry, the horses and their drivers are free and have a chance to swim out of the wreck. Because of this fact, before loading the horses on it, the coupling rein should be unbuckled, and the pole yokes removed from the wheel pairs. Bridges Before going over ordinary road bridges that are not known to the officer in command, the floor and support of the bridge should be carefully examined to ascertain whether or not it is of sufficient strength to carry the load which

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must be placed upon it. Weak bridges may be strengthened by shoreing up from underneath, by laying down planks for the wheels of the carriages to run over, thus distributing the weight over a greater surface; or by being refloored with timber near at hand. When a bridge is too weak to support the carriages in column, the carriages may be sent across one at a time, or the horses may be unhitched and either led across the bridge or made to ford the stream, and the carriages be drawn across by hand. Occasions may arise when it will even be necessary to unlimber carriages and take across first a limber, and then a piece or caisson. Under circumstances of this sort, it is advisable to have most of the traction applied as follows: Fasten a prolonge or picket rope to the pole of limber, leaving only enough men with it to guide it, having the other men at the end of the prolonge pull the carriage across, thus reducing greatly the amount of weight upon the bridge. Fording Practically any ford that is passable for a wagon is passable for an artillery carriage. Fords should always be entered, crossed, and left at a walk; there should be no shouting or excitement to irritate the horses. Where a ford is narrow it should be marked .by posts in the daytime, and lanterns hung on the posts at night. If a ford is boggy or full of quicksand it may be necessary to mattress it, or even corduroy its bottom. If the banks leading down to and up out of a ford are very steep, the carriages should be stopped before entering the ford and halted again before leaving the water in order to quiet the horses and give them a chance to get their breath. Mountain Artillery The field artillery officers attached to mountain batteries will find that while they do not have draft to consider, that the adjustment of the pack animal's load and the keeping up of that load in adjustment will require just as constant and unremitting attention on their part as does

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the maintainance of a proper line of draft on the part of their fellows in those batteries equipped with wheeled carriages. In the lecture on the Adjustment of Harness, the fitting and adjustment of the aparejo itself was not touched upon, as it requires a very lengthy description. What the mountain artillery officer must constantly watch for on the road is to see that the pack animal's loads are kept always in such a position as to keep the arch of the aparejo directly above the center line of the mule's back. The motion of the animal, the height of the load above the center of motion, brushing against trees, the swaying of the load, all tend to disarrange the pack. The best position from which an officer can observe the loads of his pack animals is from directly behind them. The loads of gun mules, particularly the cradle gun and trail, all of which are top loads, require special attention. Many pack animals grunt with each step when loaded and marching. However, officers must be on the alert to distinguish this grunt from the groaning of a mule that is suffering either from being too tightly cinched, too heavily loaded, or exhausted from other causes. One positive indication of exhaustion on the part of the pack animal is the appearance of sweat about the poll and ears when the rest of his body is dry. This is usually accompanied by groaning. As soon as these things are observed the mule should be halted, his load removed, and the cincha loosened, and an examination made to determine the exact cause of his exhaustion. As a rule it will be found to be due to having been cinched too tightly. Crossing Streams with Pack Animals In the passing of unbridged streams with pack animals, the stream may be forded with the animals loaded, provided the current is not too rapid and the water is not so deep as to come above the bottom of the hand poles in the panels of the aparejo-this, of course, providing the bottom of the stream is a hard one. In crossing dangerous fords, a number of mounted men should remain on that side of the ford toward which the danger lies, in order to drive back on to solid footing any mules that may escape from their drivers.

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When unbridged streams are too deep or too rapid to ford, or have bottoms of such a nature as to make fording inadvisable, the animals may be unloaded and the loads ferried across. The animals with the aparejo on may then be swum across the streams. If the aparejo is properly cinched little or no water will enter the handhole and the buoyancy of the aparejo will assist the mules in swimming. Since all pack animals are used to being herded, a simple manner of having the animals land at the right place on the far bank is to send several men to the far side, one of whom carries the bellmare's bell. Before the animals are allowed to enter the water this man begins to ring the bell on the far bank, the animals are then freed and will swim for the bell, the rest of the men on the far bank catch them as they arrive. This expedient greatly facilitates the crossing of streams, as it obviates the necessity of ferrying across the aparejos.

Lecture IX
CARE OF ANIMALS

O

garrisons have but little difficulty in taking the proper care of their animals. The stables are usually excellent, provided with corrals in which the horses can be turned in fair weather when not eating, with box stalls for sick animals, the veterinary hospital close at hand, and with plenty of water. It remains then only to see that sufficient ventilation is provided for the horses when, at night or in inclement weather, they are kept in the stables; that the stables and their vicinities are kept scrupulously clean; that the animals are properly fed, groomed and watered. In the field, however, they find themselves deprived of all the above mentioned aids, and they must resort to all sorts of expedients in order to preserve the health and efficiency of their horses. The first thing which it is necessary to provide in the field is something to which to secure the horses, and in the field artillery, except in the mountain regiments, we find ourselves very fortunately provided with a means of putting up high picket lines. On the limber of each carriage is carried a prolonge, or picket rope, which has fixed to one end a heavy ring and to the other a strong hook. By joining all the prolonges of the battery and passing them around and over the upper portion of the wheels of each one of a line of carriages we are afforded an excellent high picket line. The mountain artillery, however, is not so fortunate and must depend upon a ground line unless they are willing to add to the loads of some of their mules, some sort of telescopic pair of shear legs by means of which they can raise their picket line off the ground. These should preferably be made of two sections of light water pipe about three feet long, bolted together about six inches from one end and perforated at intervals of about four inches for about a foot from the other end; two other sections of pipe sufficiently large to slip back and forth over
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FFICERS of mounted organizations in permanent

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the first ones, and about three feet long, which are also perforated at intervals of four inches for a distance of one foot and a half from one end, and provided with pins to lock them together. By raising the small pipe until one of its perforations comes opposite one of those of the lower section and slipping a pin through the two coincident holes, first on one leg and then on the other, you are thus able to raise the picket line to any desired height. The reasons for desiring a high picket line are many; It practically does away with the two most dangerous features of the ground line. First, rope burns, caused by a horse getting his feet entangled in his halter shank; second, the picking up of dirt off the ground with the food. Horses fed with nose bags always spill more or less of their grain on the ground, and if they are so tied as to enable them to get their heads down, will, after the removal of the nose bags, attempt to pick up this grain. In this way they always pick up more dirt and sand than grain and sand colic is the result. No matter what the conditions in the field, officers should under all circumstances attempt to avoid the necessity of feeding their horses on the ground. A strip of canvas may be laid on the ground and the hay placed on that, or temporary hay racks may be erected if the camp is to be of sufficient duration to warrant the labor required. In the temporary camps where the command is going to remain but a day or two, and where the ground is covered with turf, hay may be fed on the ground itself without any very great injury. The expedients for securing high picket lines mentioned above are only some of those that may be resorted to in temporary camps. Permanent Camps In permanent camps every effort should be made to increase as much as possible the comfort of animals in every way. A permanent picket line should be erected by putting up strong posts, preferably about six to eight inches in diameter, and stretching the prolonges over these. These posts should not be set further than thirty feet apart in order to prevent sagging of the line. The ground about

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this line should then be graded so as to bring it above the surrounding surface, care being taken to see that it is highest at its center and has a uniform slope away from the line of posts. This grading should extend for at least twelve feet on each side of the line and a gutter should be dug along each side of the grade to carry off the water. If possible some sort of overhead cover should be erected over this line to provide protection from the sun and rain *inthe summer and from snow in the winter time. Any sort of light framework covered with grass, boughs, straw, or canvas is of the greatest benefit to the animal. Hay racks should be constructed along the center of the line, and if possible, improvised feed boxes provided. If material and time permits, a second line similar to the first except without hay racks and feed boxes should be constructed in order that the animals may be shifted from one to the other, thus giving an opportunity for the line to dry. It is of the utmost importance that these picket lines be kept thoroughly policed at all times, as otherwise flies will breed rapidly and sickness will be frequent. One of the best methods of keeping down the breeding of flies and of preventing thrush, canker and tetanus is to cover the ground along and about the picket lines with straw sprinkled with crude oil, which is then set on fire. This should be done about every five days. Not only does this destroy any fly larvae, or other disease germs which may be in the ground about the lines, but it bakes the surface of the ground, making it much more impervious to water. Care must, of course, be exercised in this burning to prevent the destruction of the picket line posts, the hay racks, overhead shelter, etc. Probably the best means of controlling the fire is to burn only short sections of the line at a time and to have water buckets, wet sacks, etc., always at hand while this work is being carried cut. If the camp is to last for any length of time and materials are available it is desirable to build corrals into which the horses can be turned. As this involves a considerable amount of work, it is hardly worth while attempting it unless the camp is to last two or three months. If the camp is to last through cold. weather, some sort

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of windbreak should be erected around the picket line. This can be done by constructing hurdles of boughs somewhat after the manner described in Field Engineering under the head of Revetments. All of these things add materially to the comfort of the animal, thereby making it far easier to keep him in condition. In extremely cold weather horse covers should also be utilized. Water Troughs Where possible, water troughs should be provided, one for the well animals and one for diseased ones. These may be extemporized from lumber, or may be made from canvas hung on improvised wooden racks. These water troughs, of course, can only be used where a pump or a pipe line brings water directly to the stables; otherwise, watering in running streams has to be resorted to. The question of feeding and grooming is always of the utmost importance, and demands even greater attention in the field than in garrisons. Care and Conditioning of Horses All mounted men must thoroughly understand the following rules for the care of horses: Horses are nervous animals, and for that reason require gentle and quiet treatment. Docile but bold horses are apt to retaliate upon those who abuse them, while persistent kindness often reclaims vicious animals. Before entering a horse's stall, and when coming up behind him, speak to him gently, then approach quietly and without sudden or abrupt movement. A horse must never be struck or threatened about the head. Such treatment quickly makes him head shy and renders his proper control difficult and exasperating. Never kick, strike, or otherwise abuse a horse. On rare occasions punishment may be necessary, but it must be administered immediately after the offense has been committed, and then only in a proper manner with whip or spur, and never in the heat of anger. Before taking a horse out carefully examine him to make sure that he is fit for work.

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Give the horse an opportunity to drink before leaving the picket line or stable and before putting the bit in his mouth. In cold weather warm the bit by blowing and rubbing it before putting it in the horse's mouth. In taking a horse out, always walk him the first mile to start the circulation in his legs. Habitual disregard of this rules leads to foot and leg troubles that will render the horse unserviceable before his time. Always walk the last mile, or farther if necessary, to bring the horse in cool and breathing naturally. To be certain of no ill effects, a horse brought to the stable in a heated condition must be cooled out and dried before he is left tied up in his stall. To cool the horse, walk him about slowly, under a blanket, if the air is chilly. Occasionally interrupt the walkings by giving him a good, brisk rub-down and two or three swallows of water. Walking is especially valuable, because this gentle exercise keeps the muscles moving slowly and so assists in working any excess. of blood out of them and out of his vital organs. The brisk rubbing dries him and assists in bringing the blood back to .the skin, and so aids in restoring the circulation to the normal. If the surface of the body becomes chilled, or if the cooling out is too sudden, the congestion existing in the lungs or in the feet may not be relieved, and pneumonia, laminitis, or other troubles will then result. A sudden stoppage of hard work is always bad for the feet, and is very liable to result in laminitis. The water given in small quantities slowly cools the horse internally, and so aids in sending the blood back to the surface and restoring the normal circulation and tempera-

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ture. The cooling-out process must always be a gradual one. To throw water on any part of a horse is particularly dangerous. Except as directed in the preceding paragraph, never water a horse when heated unless the exercise or march is to be resumed immediately; if the exercise or march is to be resumed at once water will be of the greatest benefit But a to the horse, no matter how heated he may be. horse should not be called upon to do fast work for at least a half hour after a big drink. Never feed grain to a horse when heated or fatigued. Grain is a highly concentrated food that requires high digestive power. Abnormal temperature impairs the power of the digestive organs. If the animal has been worked to the point of fatigue, all bodily functions are for a time injuriously affected. For that reason he must be rested and his normal digestive power restored before concentrated food of any kind is given to him. On the other hand, hay, being a bulky food, will not hurt a horse, however heated or fatigued he may be. Never remove the saddle and blanket in such a way as to expose a wet back either to the rays of the sun or to a sudden cooling. The pressure of the saddle restricts the blood supply and so weakens the tissues of the back. In this condition a hot sun more readily -burns or inflames the skin, while a sudden cooling contracts the blood vessels and prevents the proper return of the blood to nourish the tissues. In either case sores and swellings may result. When the saddle is removed the back should be properly rubbed and massaged to dry it and restore the circulation. If this is impossible, the next best thing is to replace the blanket with the dry sides next to the skin and again put on the saddle, girthing it loosely. After a long or hard march it is necessary to restore the circulation in the back very gradually, or sores and swellings are liable to result. To do this the girth should be slightly loosened and the saddle allowed to remain on the back for 15 or 20 minutes. The more gradually the circulation can be restored, the less severe will be the pain and swelling.

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In hot weather, especially on the march, it is very refreshing to the horse to have his eyes, nostrils, dock, and the inside of his hind quarters sponged with cool water. When the horse comes in wet with rain he should be scraped, then blanketed, and his head, neck, loins, and legs rubbed. If the weather is cold an extra blanket should be put on for 20 minutes. The wet blanket should be changed when the horse dries. Do not wash the legs. This practice is one of the surest means of causing scratches. The legs should be rubbed dry and bandaged loosely with thick bandages. Strips of gunny sacks are satisfactory for this*purpose. It is far more important to have the legs warm and dry than clean. The best method of treating muddy legs in order to avoid scratches is to bandage them to keep them warm until they are dry and then brush them clean. Never leave a horse for the night until he is thoroughly clean, especially around his legs, pasterns, and feet. Individual men returning from mounted duty or pass will report their return to the stable sergeant, who will inspect each horse and see that he is properly cared for. Stables and Stable Management A lieutenant of the battery is responsible to the captain for all duties in connection with the care of the horses, with the stables, and with the stable management. He is assisted by the stable sergeant, who takes immediate charge of the stables, picket line, and paddock, forage, and stable property in general. The stable sergeant is responsible that the stables and their surroundings are kept at all times thoroughly policed and free from odors; he is usually assisted by one or more stable orderlies. Sufficient men are detailed as stable police to perform the general police and to remove all manure as it is dropped, either in stables, on the picket line, or in the paddocks, during the day. The stable police also assist in the feeding, watering and bedding of the horses. Foul air and dampness are the causes of many diseases of the horse; hence, the importance and economy of spacious, clean, dry, and well-ventilated stables.

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It is impossible to give the horse too much fresh air, even in the coldest weather. Stable windows should be closed only when it is necessary to prevent rain or snow from beating in on the animals. The stables should be considered as merely a shelter from storms. The more nearly the air of the stables approaches the purity and temperature of the outside air, the more nearly are the stables adapted to the health and comfort of the animals. A practical and satisfactory test that a stable is properly cleaned and ventilated is that, on entering it, the sense of smell detects no apparent change from the air outside. The picket line should be established in the immediate vicinity of the stables. The floor of the picket line should be raised and trenches to carry off the rain should be provided so that the ground upon which the horses stand may be kept dry. A horse prefers to stand with his fore feet lower than his hind feet, as this rests and relieves his tendons. Where horses are required to stand for long periods on the picket line the floor should be constructed so that this is possible. Paddocks, with shade and water, should be provided near the stables; if there is no shade, shelter from the sun should be extemporized. The picket line and paddocks should be sprinkled to keep down the dust; crude oil may be used to advantage. Racks for drying bedding should be provided near each stable. The horses are assigned stalls and places on the picket line by sections, as nearly as practicable according to their usual place in the battery. The name and hoof number of the horse are posted over his place in the stall. Over the middle of each double stall occupied by a driver's pair are displayed the number of the section, the carriage, and the position of the pair in the team, as: First, Piece, Wheel, or, Fifth, Second, Caisson, Swing. Manure or foul litter must not be allowed to accumulate in or near the stables, but must be carried to the manure heap daily. In the morning stalls are cleaned and the stable policed
ART.-7

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under the direction of the stable sergeant, assisted by the chiefs of section. The bedding is taken up, carefully shaken out, and sorted. All parts of the bedding which can be used again is taken to the bedding racks and spread thereon for a thorough drying; parts which can not be used again are sent to the manure heap. Special attention is necessary in this matter, as the allowance of straw, 3- pounds per day per animal, is insufficient under most favorable condition. In the evening the dried bedding, mixed with such fresh bedding as may be necessary, is laid down. The bed must be soft and even, with the thickest part toward the manger. If practicable, all woodwork within reach of the horses should be protected with sheet metal or painted with a thin coat of gas tar; other woodwork and brick should be painted a light shade and then kept clean and free from dust. Feed boxes must be kept clean; they should be washed from time to time with diluted vinegar and always after feeding bran, mash, or other soft food. During the day, except in the very cold or stormy weather, the horses, when not being used or fed, should stand at the picket line or in the paddocks. In hot climates, however, if there is not sufficient shade on the picket line or in the paddocks, it is better to keep the horses in the stables during the heat of the day. Smoking in the stables is prohibited. One or more covered lights should be provided in the stables at night. Condition and Exercise Condition means thorough bodily and muscular fitness for the work required. Although thorough fitness is essential, the standard to be aimed at is not that of the race horse, whose condition is at the maximum of work, and a concentrated nervous energy which can not be indefinitely maintained at highest pitch. The quality of condition required for the artillery horse is shown in a horse well covered with flesh, well hardened on, without sign of running up light toward the flank, full of spirits, capable of long-

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without fatigue, and with a good digestion waiting on a healthy appetite. Such a state of bodily health can be almost indefinitely continued when once attained and allows some reserve of flesh and animal spirits to draw on when hardship comes. Condition of this description must not be confounded with fatness. The fresh young horse from the dealer is fat, not fit; his muscles, are soft and flabby, unable to stand severe exertion and rapidly fatigued. Although he is full of life at the beginning of the day, a very moderate amount of work will tire him. The only way to get animals into condition is by the combination of sufficient good food and sufficient healthy <exercise, continued over a long period. The transformation of fat, flabby flesh into hard, tough muscle is a gradual process that can not be forced; a regular course of graduated exercise is the only way to accomplish it. This work should never be so severe as to fatigue the animal; the soft muscles will suffer to such an 'extent from the reaction of over-exertion that an actual loss of flesh will result. Working tired animals when unfit is a fruitful cause of accident and disease. But once good, hard, muscular development has been attained, any. work within reason will not only be performed without great effort, but will continue to add to the quality of the condition already acquired. It is important to recognize this cumulative power of condition. It means that a good amount of work may be demanded from a seasoned horse, that it actually does him good, and that, while performing it, he will run less and less risk of accident and disease. Thrown entirely out of work for a considerable period, however, the conditioning process will have to be repeated, though not, perhaps, to the same extent. This must be particularly borne in mind when animals are taken into work after a run at grass or a long period of sickness. At first the work should be light, but, if possible, spread over a considerable time. A minimum of two hours daily, excepting Sundays, should be required. Much time should be spent in the open air daily, pure atmosphere having a good effect on the health and spirits.

,continued exertion

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The bulk of the work in conditioning a horse should be carried out at a slow pace. The conditioning exercise for the race horse may be considered ideal. To fit such an animal for the faster part of his preparation he is kept constantly on the move for 2 or 21 hours in the morning, 2 or 3 miles being at the trot and canter, and for 1 or 1 hours in the evening at the walk. Even when his faster work is in progress long walking is continued. Plenty of walking, then, and a moderate amount of trotting should constitute the exercise for putting an artillery horse in working condition and for maintaining it. In the early part of the work the trot period should be of about 5 minutes' duration; this is gradually increased until, within 4 or 6 weeks, trot periods are of 20 minutes, which should rarely be exceeded. During any daily period the ratio of walk to trot should be about 4 or 3 to 1. The first mile should always be covered slowly, so that the horses can feel their feet, stretch their legs, and empty their bowels before they are called upon to trot. The last mile should also be walked so that they return to the stables cool. To crowd much work into short time, under the impression that ft will add to condition, can not be too strongly condemned; it does not harden muscle on the animal, but tends to reduce his flesh, to irritate his temper, and to render him liable to chill on return from work. The latter part of the elementary training period should find the horses of a battery in thoroughly fit condition. During the drill period, while the cannoneers are getting their specialized training in the gun squads, the lieutenant in charge of Department B trains the drivers and conditions the horses. In employing the conditioning trots, it is desirable to put the drivers on a large circle with pairs unhitched and traces unhooked. The officer can then most favorably watch the riding of the men and the working of the horses. During the later drills by battery the horses should not be permitted to stand idle when the guns are unlimbered, but should be worked at the walk or trot sufficiently to maintain or to add to the condition of the animals. The horses should be in their hardest condition when training in marching begins.

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To produce the best results, the policy of full feeding and fair work must be adopted. No other combination will get the best out of the animal. A small ration and little work will keep him normal in appearance, but plenty of food and sufficient work judiciously combined make the only routine which will really fit either the draft or riding horse for use in war. The correct adjustment of ration to work is a matter of practical knowledge which a book can not teach; it must be gained by observation and experience. When the work is light, as at the beginning of a young horse's training, half a grain ration is generally accepted as a standard on which to begin feeding, but a rule of thumb method should be avoided and each horse's needs considered; in no case should the ration be so small or the work so hard that a round and glossy sleekness disappears. Thirst and sweating are very prominent features of the early stages of conditioning and are to some extent dependent upon each other. Apart from the sweating which may naturally be expected as the result of work, some young horses sweat very profusely from purely nervous causes, more especially when the work is conducted in a confined atmosphere. It is not always possible to prevent every young horse sweating from the excitement of new lessons, particularly in the case of highly bred or excitable animals; but such outbreaks exhaust a horse more than a far greater amount of quiet work and should be avoided in every way. Working in the open air in preference to a roofed school, absolute quietness of methods, the avoidance of long, monotonous lessons, and the example of older, wellbehaved animals quietly doing the same things are all valuable in keeping horses cool in body and temper; but there are instances where sweating can not be prevented, and thirst is a natural result. Thirsty horses are to be allowed to drink their fill; it is best that they should not be sweating, but the fact of their being hot need not be a bar to their drinking if care is taken to keep them on the move until cool and so prevent

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risk of chills. As their, condition improves the keenness of their thirst will :diminish. The quantity and quality of the sweat are very generally and correctly taken as an index of condition. When the body is. soft and flabby, slight exertion produces copious sweat of a soapy, lathery nature which dries slowly and frequently breaks out again. As the condition improves the amount of work required to make the. skin damp increases and the sweat itself is less greasy and more watery in consistence, while it dries with rapidity and does not recur. There are, however, some free-sweating horses that lather freely even when in good condition. Weather has a great influence on the amount animals sweat, for whereas on a cool, clear day it takes a lot of exertion to turn a hair, a damp, muggy morning will make them sweat freely.

Lecture X
TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS BY RAIL AND WATER SN covering this subject we will first call your attention to the following extracts from Major Le May's lecture on "Notes on Veterinary Field Sanitation", which have to do with the sanitary features of transportation by rail and water. Transportation by Rail Before loading public animals every car should be carefully inspected to see if it is in good repair throughout. Projecting nails, bolts and splinters, loose boards, broken fixtures, doors, all mean liability to injury and discomforts for the animals. Cars should be well cleaned and disinfected. Railroad companies cannot be depended upon in the cleaning and disinfecting of cars, so that it becomes necessary for us to do this work, giving us additionally the satisfaction of knowing that it has been done, and done properly. While waiting for the cars to arrive, a detail of two men to each car, with tools and implements, such as shovels, brooms, buckets, ash cans and the necessairy disinfectant, with water handy for dissolving, should hold themselves in readiness to carry on this work upon their 'arrival.. The disinfectants used are carbolic acid, creolin, or similar coal tar products, corrosive sublimate, and formalin in 5% to 10% or stronger solutions. The application of these disinfectants, except corrosive sublimate, which corrodes tin,. is more effectively applied with a spray pump or machine, as by this means the preparation gets into all the cracks and crevices. Cars are at first swept, the dirt collected and burned, then the disinfecting solution is applied with a broom or spray to the walls, ceiling and flooring. The necessary amount of time must be allowed for the complete or partial drying and disappearance of disinfectant
199

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odors before the cars are sanded and ready to load. Never whitewash cars, as the lime is likely to get into the animal's eyes, nostrils or lips and produce injury. Never use straw or hay for bedding in cars, as it soon gets.wet and becomes slippery; again, sparks from its own or passing engines might start fires. Never tie horses in cars not having individual stalls. For officers' mounts, cars with individual stalls should be provided in all shipments. All the states of the country now have a 28-hour law, which requires that all animals must be unloaded, for feeding and watering and rest, after 28 hours' travel. Most states also require a veterinarian's certificates as to the health of the animals in transit. At stock yards, all water troughs should be thoroughly cleaned before a fresh supply of water is put in. No feed of any kind found in these yards should be used by our animals; it should be removed from the yards before our animals are unloaded. Vicious animals should be tied so as not to interfere with the feeding of the others. The time of rest in the yards is from 6 to 12 hours. Transportation of Horses at Sea The selection and fitting of ships for the transportation of animals is usually carried out by the Quartermaster Corps, and the duties of the line officers in this matter are confined to inspection after completion, to see that the fittings are in accordance with specifications, that the stores are of good quality, and that the ship in every way is fit for embarkation. During war, or at remote ports, any officer may find himself called upon to report regarding the fitness of a ship for the conveyance of them. It is therefore necessary to have an accurate general idea of the requirements and fittings, and a close acquaintance with the details of management during a voyage. The importance of this knowledge being possessed by all officers is very essential. For oversea expeditions, the value of horses landed in good

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condition at the base of operations is not to be estimated in money; if in bad health, they are useless till they are fit; if landed well, they are invaluable. Class of Ships Required The typical horse transport for troops should be of good speed, roomy for the number to be carried, a steady sea boat, broad of beam, with big hatchways, watertight doors leading through compartments, ample mechanical ventilation, good means for drainage, lighted throughout by electricity, and with specially good arrangements for exercise. These requirements set a high standard, but the importance of the animal's condition when landed for a campaign is such as to more than justify all the expenses incurred by their being insisted upon. Ventilation Too much importance cannot be attached to the provision of ample means for ventilation. It is at all times difficult to ventilate lower decks and holds which are beneath the water line, and special care should be taken to provide methods both for withdrawing the foul air, and for pumping in a fresh supply; this is especially necessary in the vicinity of stalls which are furthest removed from the neighborhood of the hatchways. In addition to hatchways and port holes, which should be kept constantly open whenever possible, the means for ventilation are: Permanent air funnels; iron wind scoops; canvas wind sails, electric fans or blowing machines; and steam ventilation. Artificial ventilation appears to be the only real solution for supplying air on board a ship. A ship has been compared to a bottle with a narrow neck; there is plenty of air of the purest kind at sea, the difficulty is to introduce it; ships are proverbially close, stuffy, and objectionable. Artificial ship ventilation may be effected in many ways: By air conduits opening beneath the fires in the stokeholes; exhaust pipes opening into the funnel; steam

202

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being ejected into exhaust pipes; jets of compressed air introduced into an air conduit, acting either as an extracting or propelling agent; rotary fans of the centrifugal variety. All of these act either by extracting or propelling air, and experience in ship ventilation shows that of the two, propulsion is superior to extraction. Drainage This is usually unsatisfactory on horse ships. The whole drainage runs, as a rule, from the decks, down small pipes leading from the scuppers to the bilge; the entrance to these pipes is guarded by a perforated cover to prevent them becoming choked with dung and other solids. Notwithstanding this precaution, the pipes constantly become so choked, the urine has to be pumped up, and overboard by hand. For this reason, suitable hand pumps should be provided, unless a better system is adopted. There should be no difficulty in dealing with the drainage of decks above the water line; it should run straight overboard, and not into the bilge. In decks, however, which are below water, it is more difficult to dispose of, and unless the ship is specially fitted for the purpose, it must be gotten rid of as already stated. Stalls Transports conveying mounted units can, as a rule, accommodate the horses on two decks only, owing to the amount of room required for troops; but in ships chartered for the carriage of horses only, all the decks may be utilized for the erection of stalls, and the hold and alleyways can also be occupied if suitable. Horses are not to be carried on topgallant, forecastles or poops, nor are they to be stood against bulkheads or in the vicinity of steam pipes. Arrangements of stalls: All stalls should be placed athwart the ship. Down each side of the deck a long row is erected, heads inward. When there is room enough for a row down the center of the deck, there must be sufficient space both in front and behind for free passage, and if width permits of double amidship rows the animals oc-

COURSE "B," LECTURE X

203

cupying these stalls should face outward. Under no circumstances should a sea-going ship be fitted with fore and aft stalls. This would place the horses sideways of the roll, in which position they are unable to balance themselves; as the angle of the ship's roll is always greater than the one she pitches, they are swung from side to side and frequently injured. The strain on the fittings, especially the side rails, caused by this pendulum-like bumping, is always very great, and they may give way. Heavy losses have occurred in the past as the results of stalls being so placed, and the plan is unsuited for a ship which may encounter heavy seaways. It may be used to advantage for river transport, and economize room. As to the construction of stalls and the material needed, we will leave it to the quartermaster and the marine carpenter; there are other subjects to consider. Sufficient to say that all constructing material should be strong; all woodwork of stalls should be well rounded and smoothed on the inner sides. There should be arrangements made for exercise, some box stalls and a veterinary hospital. Treatment Before Embarking Before horses are placed on board a ship, they should be reduced both in work and diet for a few days prior to embarkation, and their bowels rendered laxative by bran or alfalfa hay. On the day of embarkation they should be watered before going on board, as it saves trouble, and after being placed in their stalls they may be fed with hay, in order to settle them to their new surroundings. They should be shod without calks on both fore and hind feet; shoes should never be removed for a voyage. Good health before embarkation should be insisted upon; the weak or feverish will probably succumb. Freedom from infectious and contagious diseases is a veterinary duty of the utmost importance; it is far better to leave a doubtful case behind than to run any risk by taking him. No more favorable conditions are conceivable for the spread of disease than life on board a ship, for

204

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the animals are placed closely together, frequently with their noses touching, and there is the utter impossibility of keeping the feeding boxes separate. In addition, the animals are breathing a vitiated air which lowers their power of resistance. Glanders, distemper, pneumonia and mange are diseases among horses which soon get a foothold, and find most congenial conditions existing for their spread at sea. The most rigorous inspection before embarkation is necessary to avoid their introduction; all animals should have been previously malleined; if such a disease as a case of mange got on board, it would be sound economy to at once destroy it in order to stay its spread, as it is almost impossible to treat mange effectively at sea, for it spreads in the most rapid way on board ship. A febrile condition is very common at sea; it may be due to heat in the tropics, but is more commonly caused by air poisoning and nausea. Such cases are frequently the prelude to matters more serious. Management on Board During the voyage, the two points which demand the greatest attention from all concerned, are ventilation and exercise. On the amount of ventilation and exercise together which it is possible to give depends the condition in which the horses land. The means by which they may be obtained I have already described; it remains only to note that a constant inspection of every ventilation, outlet and inlet, is necessary. Sufficient and free exits for foul air are as important as entrance for a fresh supply. Exercise and the cleaning out of stalls -should, if possible, be carried together, half the men being employed on each duty alternately; the more exercise, the better. Sanitation This includes the mucking out of the stalls and cleansing and disinfecting the decks. When the horses are taken out of their stalls, the droppings are removed, the platforms raised, and flushed with the salt-water hose and disinfected with sole odorless disinfectants.

COURSE "B," LECTURE X

205

Watering should be done three or four times daily, according to the condition of the weather. Feeding: Full ration of hay and half grain ration, with an occasional feed of bran as a bowel regulator. Duties on board are of the most exacting and harassing kind; an inspection of every animal on the boat must be made at least three times daily in the working twelve hours, and a fourth visit should be made at night. These visits are the means of picking out all cases of sickness as early as possible, and detecting irregularities in stable management, of which the most common is the waste of hay in the gangway, and insufficient watering. It takes a long time to go around a ship and inspect three or four hundred horses, and a round seems hardly completed before the next has to start; but there is a feeling of security given by these inspections. The Care of Horses After Landing This is a matter of supreme moment. It will take the animals as long to regain condition on shore as the journey occupied. To work them at once is the height of folly and can only result in absolute disaster. Having arrived at our destination, we are about to go into camp. Camps are of two kinds: Permanent and temporary. However, it is the sanitation of the permanent camp that is all important as a military necessity. On arriving in a new country it is always a wise precaution, with the veterinarian of the command at least, to inquire of the diseases among horses peculiar to that locality, so as to adopt the necessary measures to safeguard our animals against them. As the sanitation of a camp is a part of the medical officer's duty, that part of it pertaining to the picket line should concern the officers in command as well as the veterinarian. Loading of Animals In the loading of animals in stock cars for shipment, if possible, the car should be spotted at a stock shoot, as the animals will enter the car much more readily from

206

FIELD

ARTILLERY

the shoot than from a platform, providing the shoot is of sufficiently heavy construction as to give them solid footing. Next in advantage to the permanent stock shoot is the heavy platform between the car on which is laid a short, heavy ramp. When neither of these expedients are available, temporary ramps may be constructed; but as the horses are afraid of the ramps and bridges constructed of new lumber, and as portable or temporary ramps, while they may be strong enough to carry horses,. usually set up considerable vibration, animals frequently resist being led on or over them, with injured animals and men as a result. If a horse hesitates at the bottom of a shoot, he can usually be forced in the following manner: Two men, one on each side of the shoot, clasp each other's wrists firmly, then bring their arms against the animal's rump about where the breeching body usually rests, and force him forward. If this is properly done, it is impossible for the animal to injure either of the men by kicking, and sufficient force can be exerted in this way to either move him forward or topple him onto his nose. When loading animals over new ramps their fear of them may be lessened by covering the floor of the ramp with dirt or straw. When loading animals into stock cars they should be packed as tightly as possible, as in this way there is less danger of their falling or becoming bruised. At least 18 heavy artillery horses can be packed in the 36-foot stock car if the loading is properly done. Frequently, when a car seems loaded to its capacity, two more horses can be forced into it. In unloading animals care should be exercised to prevent the animals from rushing from the car. Only one animal should be allowed to leave the car at a time; they should be led out quietly, and at a walk. If this is not done, they are sure to injure themselves against the sides of the doors, or may slip and fall when reaching the platform outside the door. Animals should be handled quietly at all times, but over and above everything else in their loading and unloading should quietness and kindness prevail; even when it is necessary to force animals up shoots or into cars, there should never be about any loading or

COURSE "B,"

LECTURE X

207

unloading point, any shouting, waving of hats and hands or cracking of whips, as all this serves only to add to the horse's fright and make him still more unmanageable. Transportation of Material by Rail This subject is so well covered in Field Artillery Drill Regulations that I do not deem it advisable to take the matter up here, other than to refer you to the paragraph Nos. 1728 to 1804, inclusive, for Transportation by Rail, and 1805 to 1808, inclusive, for Transportation by Water, calling your attention to the fact that the tables of Cars Required, given in paragraphs 1749, 1750, 1751, 1755, were worked out under the tables of organization of 1914 and must be modified to fit the increased organization provided for the organization tables of 1917.

Course "C"
CAPTAIN MILLER

209

Lecture I
IN CONNECTION WITH BLACKBOARD AND SAND BOX SIMULATED FIRING

T

HERE are many ways in which officers may improve themselves in firing practice, but there are two simple methods given herewith, which can be done at any time by two men. Blackboard firing is a method of simulated fire designed to give indoor practice in conducting fire and in giving commands. The size of the blackboard used is not important, one 5 feet by 2 feet being large enough. The instructor works at the board, and the students take a position about 20 or 25 feet in front of it. One student at a time is given a problem, the others give attention to his commands and to the criticism by the instructor. The instructor draws a target upon the board and assumes a range and corrector. For example, Fig. 1 (cut attached) represents a battery upon a crest, and the instructor assumes that in order to get a proper height of burst for ranging a corrector of 38 must be employed, and that the effective range is 3,550 yards. The size of the target drawn on the board is not essential, say, about 2 inches by 4 inches. The instructor now gives the problem to the student, as: "Your target is the battery upon the crest; front of target 15 mils; height of skyline 5 mils; range finder's range 3,500; wind blowing across line of fire from left to right. Range on your target and open an effective time fire as soon as possible." From this point on, the instructor offers no comments, but illustrates upon the board the burst or impact of the projectiles. In the elementary instruction in the conduct of fire, it would be advantageous to criticize each command given wherever such criticism. is applicable. The method is illustrated in Fig. 2 (cut attached). In this figure:
211

212

FIELD ARTILLERY

(a) Represents an air burst, but too high to be observed for range. The corrector used by the student is too high; the deflection is correct. (b) Represents an air burst over; deflection and corrector good. (c) Represents an air burst short; deflection and corrector good. (d) Represents an impact over; deflection good, corrector too low. (e) Represents an impact short; deflection good, corrector too low. (f) (g) and (h) show conditions arising with platoon salvos. Assuming that the right platoon has fired, these illustrate: (f) and (g) Error in deflection difference, corrector too high. (h) Bracketing platoon salvo, deflection good, corrector good for adjustment. With regard to the deflection and the deflection difference, the instructor may assume that the values given .by the student are correct, or he may assume that there are small errors. The instructor, by assuming that there are small errors and by placing the bursts so as to show these errors, can give the student practice in handling these elements. The instructor should watch the initial commands and represent upon the board the position of the shots as they would actually fall; for example, the student might give such a deflection difference as to cause converging or cross fire when he desires parallel fire. The instructor shows upon the board the bursts of a salvo or volley as soon as "Fire" is given (in case of an opening salvo), or as soon as the range is announced for a succeeding salvo. He then allows the student one or two seconds to see what is represented and erases the bursts but not the targets. The student announces his sensing of shots and gives his next commands. Figure 3 (cut attached) illustrates the complete working of a problem. The instructor has drawn a figure similar to Fig. 1 and has assumed a corrector of 38 and a

COURSE "C," LECTURE I

213

range of 3,550. The width of the target is given as 15 mils and the range finder range as 3,500. He announces the problem as indicated above. The student gives the commands: "Aiming point the water tower. Deflection 3,210, on second piece open 5, site 300, corrector 25, rightright, 3,500. Fire." Suppose that the instructor assumes that there are small errors in the deflection and the deflection difference. The corrector given is lower than the one assumed while the range is short. He places the bursts on the board, as shown in Fig. 3-a. The student calls: "Graze, short. Graze, short," and commands: "Left 5 on first piece, close 10" (or "Right 5 on second piece, close 10"). "Up 5, 3,700." The corrector is still too low. The instructor sees that proper changes have been made in the deflection and deflection difference. He may now show bursts as in Fig. 2-d, or he may announce "Lost" (assuming that the bursts were in a ravine behind the target). Suppose he announces "Lost." The student calls: "Lost," and commands: "Up 10, 3,700." Figure 3-b illustrates. The students calls: "Normal, doubtful. Normal, doubtful," commands: "Down 5, 3,700." Figure 3-c illustrates. The student calls: "Low, over. Graze, over," and commands: (a) "Battery 1 round, up 3, 3,600," (b) "3,500," (c) "3,550," and so on. The instructor may stop the firing after obtaining the. proper adjustment, or he may continue it to represent fire for effect, which, however, is not easily done on a blackboard. He then criticizes the work of the student, or he may call upon another student to make the criticism. Attention should be paid to the methods used by the student, whether the commands given are correct, and in the proper sequence, if proper corrections are made, and if the time is excessive. Students should be required to give the commands without delay and hesitation. A well-instructed student will announce his observations as soon as the bursts

214

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are shown and his commands will follow immediately. A stop watch should frequently be held against him, and he should be "killed" and the problem passed on to the next man if he has consumed more than five seconds from the spotting of the last shot to the announcement of his next commands. The students should frequently act as the instructor, since this gives most excellent practice. It will be found that the instructor must have a good knowledge of the principles and mechanism of fire in order to represent the shots correctly and without unnecessary delay. If a blackboard is not available for this work, a common slate and slate pencil answer the purpose admirably if the number of students is not large. Two or three men working together in this way for 15 or 20 minutes every day can develop remarkable dexterity in the conduct of fire. The nomenclature used in designating heights of burst for shrapnel are as follows: B equals bursts in air below bottom of target. G equals burst on impact or percussion, graze. L equals low a burst between zero and 2 mils high. N equals normal, or a burst between 2 mils and 4 mils high. H equals high, or a burst between 4 mils and 6 mils. VH equals very high, or above 6 mils. All observations are made and distances measured from bottom of target to top of smoke ball at instant of burst. This nomenclature will be applied in all blackboard, sand box and smoke bomb fire, and in recording observations. The principles of blackboard fire may be applied to the sand box in the same manner, except that the bursts are indicated by an instructor standing in a position close to sand box with a small white disk attached to the end of 'a rod about two feet long, to represent a smoke ball; targets are represented by pieces of cardboard; hills and hollows are constructed in the sand. If the smoke ball silhouettes the target, the shot is said to be over; if the smoke ball blots out the target, it is said to be short. If from the observing position, the smoke ball is so high that it cannot be told

COURSE "C," LECTURE I

215

whether it obscures the target or silhouettes it, the shot is called doubtful, the corrector is lowered, and the range is repeated until observations are obtained. Officers should practice themselves frequently in their odd moments with blackboard firing and sand box firing, using these methods, one officer acting as the instructor and the other conducting the fire.

Probabilities
EFORE any one can make the best use of a complicated piece of machinery it is necessary that he know its mechanism thoroughly and its powers and limitations. This is as true of field guns as of any other machine. Every one who has fired or has seen fired, any number of shots knows that all shots with the same angle of departure, do not fall exactly in the same spot, but the knowledge of the reason for this is usually very vague. No machine is perfect and therefore each has its personal error and this applies to guns as well as to anything else. The principal causes of inaccuracies, eliminating errors of personnel are: Variation in action of gun and its carriage (jump) ; Variations in the powder (temperature, age, stability) ; Variations in the projectile (dimensions, weight, location of the center of gravity); Variations in atmospheric conditions (temperature barometer, wind). All of the above apply to time as well as to percussion fire. In addition, the variable action of the time element of the fuze goes to make up further variations. None of the above causes of error can be corrected for by the field artilleryman, who has neither the appliances nor the time to make any corrections for them. But every field artilleryman should know that these errors exist, or otherwise he cannot use his weapon to the best advantage. Inaccuracies due to errors of personnel are variable and depend upon the training of the battery, and therefore in making up tables showing the accuracy of a gun, the data from which these tables are made must be as free as possible from errors of personnel and are therefore obtained with the greatest care. Upon first glance at the dispersion tables it may appear that our gun is very inaccurate and comparison may be made between the accuracy of our gun and of those used by
217

218

FIELD ARTILLERY

the coast artillery and the Navy. In this connection, however, it must be remembered, that the three things which tend to increase the accuracy of the guns, particularly for vertical targets, namely; increase of muzzle velocity, weight of projectile, and weight of carriage to insure greater stability, are extremely limited in application, when it becomes necessary to design a field gun possessing in proper proportion, power, mobility and structural strength. It may be added that our gun is about as accurate as any foreign field gun. By the study of this subject it is certain that every officer will be greatly benefitted in his knowledge of artillery fire, and it will also save a great deal of time wasted in checking up instruments for apparent abnormalities and errors, when none of them exist. Also an officer should be able to distinguish between the abnormal and say, the unusual, the latter however being within the error of the gun. The probability tables are however not to be used to excuse or explain poor shooting, but to give an officer such knowledge of his weapon as to improve his shooting, by permitting him to get the maximum efficiency out of his guns. If a great number of shots are fired under the same conditions and with the same data, their points of impact on a horizontal or vertical plane will form an ellipse, the center of which is the center of impact. The points of impact are most dense at the center of impact, and become less dense as they approach the outer part of the figure. The shots are grouped symmetrically about the center of impact, and each shot has one diametrically opposite it, and at the same distance from the center of impact. By the law of probabilities a deduction based upon higher mathematics, with which we have nothing to do in this paper, it is possible to apply to a finite number of shots the rules deduced for an infinite number, with the assumption that the results obtained are what has probably happened or will probably happen. On page following this treatise are given certain tables the use of which will be shown in problems to follow.

PROBABILITIES

219

The method of obtaining the data for these tables is about as follows (same can also be found in 3-inch handbook, 1917, page 181). Firing is conducted with the greatest care to eliminate personal errors and with all shots fired under as nearly identical conditions as possible. Several shots are fired at each of several ranges and their points of impact, or of burst in case of time fire, accurately determined. The number of ranges used, and the number of shots fired at each range are as great as possible, and the greater they are, the more accurate the results in the tables will be. These points of burst, or impact, are referred to co-ordinates, the center of which may be the gun itself for range, or the target for range and deflection, or any other convenient center and axis may be used. The following table is taken from the 3-inch handbook and with its explanation is inserted here, so that everything of practical value will be included in this paper. From the ranges and deviations obtained at each elevation the mean values are computed. The difference of each round from the mean value gives the error, and the mean of the errors affords a measure of the accuracy. The following table illustrates this method:
No. of round Range Sa Yards 5,973.6 5,978.0 6,026.0 5,956.6 6,053.6 6,012.2 36,000.0 6,000.0 Variation from mean Yards 26.4 22.0, 26.0 .... 43.4 53.6 12.2 183.6 30.6 Deviation right, drift Yards 62.4 58.7 53.1 48.0 49.2 60.4 331.8 55.3 Variation from mean Yards 7.1 3.4 2.2 7.3 6.1 5.1 31.2 5.2

1 2 _ 3 _-------_ _ 4--_______ 5 --------6 --------------Mean______

The second column in the above table gives the actual The mean range is obtained by adding all toranges. gether and dividing by 6, since 6 rounds are considered. The third column contains the error or difference of each round, irrespective of sign, from the mean range just

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found. The mean of these differences is then obtained and called the mean error in range. Evidently, if all the projectiles fall nearly at the same range this error will be small. The fourth column gives the lateral deviation from the direction in which the axis of the bore points before the piece is fired. The mean deviation is at the bottom of this column. The fifth column gives the difference from this mean, with a mean at the bottom called the mean error in deviation or mean lateral error. Collecting the results from the table, we have:
Mean Mean Mean Mean range -------------------------------longitudal error ------------------------------------------deviation right -----lateral error -------------------------------Yards. 6,000 30.6 55.3 5.2

The angle of fall of the 3-inch shrapnel at 6,000 yards is known to be 23° 40.9' and the mean range error of the point of burst of a series of rounds is 30.6 yards for the same range, then the Mean vertical error==30.6 tan 230 40.9'=13.4 yards. Vertical targets are employed at the shorter ranges because they may then be of moderate size, and errors due to inequalities of the ground are eliminated, but at long ranges targets can not generally be made large enough to catch all the rounds. The center of impact on a horizontal target is the intersection of the lines of mean range and mean lateral deviation, and on a vertical target it is the intersection of the lines of mean vertical and mean lateral deviation. The above table gives very uniform results for the six shots fired, but it often happens that in a small number of shots one or more may occur, either erratic or so unusual, as to be of very rare occurrence and which, if used in computing tables, would indicate a greater inaccuracy in the gun than actually exists. For this reason shots of this nature should be thrown out and the following table has been prepared and inserted here to be used to determine whether or not shots should be thrown out.

PROBABILITIES No. of Rounds. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12. 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Factor. 1.92 2.03 2.16 2.27 2.34 2.41 2.44 2.49 2.54 2.58 2.62 2.66 2.69 2.73 2.76 2.80 2.82

To use this table first find the mean error of the complete group of shots. Multiply this mean error by the factor taken from the table. If any shot has an error greater than this product it should be thrown out and a new mean error determined and the test repeated. The following will illustrate; X being distance of point of impact from co-ordinate:

No. of shot. 1 2 3 4 5

X 188 0 157 171 176

Error. 49.6 138.4 18.6 32.6 37.6

5

692
138.4

5 276.8
55.36

The factor for five shots is 2.03. 55.36X2.03 equals 112.4. But shot No. 2 has an error greater than this and is therefore thrown out, and the above table becomes:

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No. of shot. 1 3 4 5 4

X 188 157 171 176 692 173

Error. 15 16 2 3 36 9

4

The factor for 4 shots equals 1.92. 9 X 1.92 equals 17.28 and none of the shots has a greater error than this and these shots should be retained for computation. Having now arrived at the mean error it can be shown by the theory of probabilities that the mean error multiplied by .846 equals the probable error. The probable error for range is the distance from the center of impact, measured in the direction of range, within which 50% of the shots fired will probably fall. The other 50% will fall a greater distance than this from the center of impact. We likewise have the probable error for vertical and lateral deviations. Now if we draw two lines parallel to each other and perpendicular to the line of fire, and on opposite sides of the center of impact, and at a distance from the center of impact equal to the probable error,. we will have a zone which will probably contain 50% of the shots fired. This is known at The 50% Zone For Range, and is the one used in the tables. Its width can be obtained directly by multiplying the mean error by 1.69 (2X.846). The 50% zones for lateral and vertical deviations are obtained in a similar manner. If we went deeper into the subject of the theory of probabilities we could find that the chance of exactly 50% of the shots falling in the 50% zone is only .11 which is greater than for any other percentage falling in this zone. Also that the chance of 51% falling in this zone is exactly the same as the chance of 49% falling in it. There is no practical necessity for going this deeply

PROBABILITIES

223

into the theory and the above statement is made only to impress the reader with the fact that we are working with what probably has happened, or will happen. The theory is based upon an infinite number of occurrences, shots, and we apply the rules deduced for an infinite number of occurrences to a finite number under the assumption that they will probably follow these rules. This is only probable. In other words the rules which are absolutely true for an infinite number of shots are assumed to be probably true for a finite number, and we can make no serious error in this assumption if we always remember that what we find is only probable and can not be assumed as a positive fact. The following table comparing theory and practice is of interest. It shows how closely they agree. The first column shows the hits actually obtained in firing and the second column the hits which would porbably have been obtained under the same conditions.

~

Actual Hits. 1 9 11 11 13 16 19 21 21 22 27 28 28 31 39 43 45 47 49

Probable Hits. 2.5 5 7.5 10. 12.5 15. 17.5 20. 22.5 25. 27.5 30. 32.5 35 37.5 40. 42.5 45. 47.5

224

FIELD ARTILLERY TABLE OF PROBABILITY FACTORS
PerCent Factor Per Cent Factor Per Cent Factor Per Cent Factor

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

0.02 .04 .06 .07 .09 .11 .13 .15 .17 .18 .20 .22 .24 .26 .28 .30 .32 .34 .36 .38 .40 .41 .43 .45 .47

26 0.49 27 .51 28 .53 29 .55 30 .57 31 .59 32 .61 33 .63 34 .65 35 .67 36 .70 37 .72 38 .74 39 .76 40 .78 41 .80 42 .82 43 -. 84 44 .86 45' .89 46 .91 47 .93 48 .95 49 .98 50 1.00

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

1.02 1.04 1.07 1.09 1.12 1.14 1.17 1.19 1.22 1.25 1.27 1.30 1.33 1.36 1.39 1.42 1.45 1.48 1.51 1.54 1.57 1.60 1.64 1.67 1.71

76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

1.74 1.78 1.82 1.86 1.90 1.94 1.98 2.03 2.08 2.13 2.18 2.24 2.30 2.37 2.44 2.52 2.60 2.69 2.78 2.91 3.04 3.22 3.45 3.82

Taking the width of a 50 per cent zone as unity, the factors in the above table are the width of other zones containing different percentages; thus 80 per cent and 20 per cent zones are, respectively, 1.9 and 0.38 times as wide as the 50 per cent zone. If the width of the 50 per cent zone is given in yards or feet, the widths of other zones, containing different percentage can be obtained by multiplying by their corresponding factors: Thus, if the width of a 50 per cent zone is 3 yards, the widths of 25 per cent and 72 per cent zones are 0.47X3=1.41 yards and 1.60X3=4.80 yards, respectively. Conversely, if it is required to find what percentage will fall in a zone of given width, the factor must be obtained by dividing by the width of the 50 per cent zone. Thus, with the same 50 per cent zone (3 yards wide) as before, what percentage will fall in zones 2 yards and 6 yards wide? The factors are -=0.67 and %=2,and they correspond to 35 per cent and 82.4 per cent, respectively. One thing must always be remembered, a zone always has at its center, the center of impact.

PROBABILITIES

225

To give an idea of the variation of the density about the center of impact the following figure may be of assistance.
2 pc 7 pc 16 pc 25 pc C 25 pc S16
0 7

For range

pc
pc

2 pc

For

2

7

16

25 C 25

16

7

2 deviation

The distance between lines is in each case equal to the probable error. The above figures can be used also for the vertical and lateral deviations if the direction of fire be considered as perpendicular to the paper. By superimposing the above figures we can get a very good idea of the general dispersion. 2 71 161 25 25 161 7 2::

.04
.14 .32

.14

.32

.5
4.

.5

.32

.14
.49

.04
.14 .32

2
7 16

.49 1.12 1.75 1.75 1.12 1.12 1.96 4.

1.96 1.12

.5 .5
.32 .14 .04
ART.-8

1.75 4. 1.75 4.
.49 .14

6.25 6.25 4. 6.25 6.25 4.
4.

1.75 1.75
.49 .14

.5 .5
.32 .14 .04

25 25
16 7 2

1.12 1.96 4.

1.96 1.12

1.12 1.75 1.75 1.12 .32 .5 .5 .32

226

FIELD

ARTILLERY

The above figure shows the probable distribution of 100 shots the number in each small rectangle showing the number of hits to be expected in this area. While the actual area in which all the shots will probably fall is an ellipse, it is more convenient to consider it in this form. Note the symmetry of the disposition of the hits. As has been stated, the tables are computed from data obtained with greatest care. All the nearly ideal conditions of test firing can not be expected in the field in time of peace much less in time of war and therefore instead of taking the values as in the tables we introduce another factor 1.5, called the field factor. Actual target practice firing shows this to be about correct, but many believe and with reason, that this is too small, and that war conditions will require even a greater factor. This factor assumes a well trained battery, doing its work well. The following problems are given here to illustrate the use of the tables. It must be understood that no effort is made to use these tables during actual firing. The purpose of the study is to give everyone a thorough idea of trajectories, with their inherent errors so that he may know what to expect to see and when he sees a thing to be able to recognize it and act accordingly, instead of wasting time seeking errors in instruments and personnel which exist in the gun and its ammunition and which can not be eliminated. It is believed that enough is given in this paper to make anyone studying it sufficiently familiar with his weapon to handle it to its full capacity and to be able to analyze and criticize target practice reports intelligently.
Problem No. 1. Percussion

What position does the center of impact occupy with respect to the center of the target, when out of a total of 8 shots fired, 2 are observed to be either short or over, and 6 over or short of the target? Range 4,000 yards. As. 2 shots out of 8 fall short of the target, the percentage of shorts is % equals 25 per cent. In any case 50 per cent fall short and 50 per cent beyond the center of impact. Now, if 25 per cent have fallen

PROBABILITIES

227

short of the target, then 25 per cent more must fall between target and center of impact. The center of impact is always at the center of the 50 per cent zone, therefore onehalf of the shots in the 50 per cent zone fall on either side of the center of impact, or 25 per cent on either side. The target is therefore at the edge of the 50 per cent zone. Therefore, if we find the width of the 50 per cent zone, and divide it by 2, we will have the distance the target is in front of the center of impact. From probability tables we find depth of 50 per cent zone at 4,000 yards equals 48.21 yards. 48.21 X 1.5 equals 72.3, the corrected 50 per cent zone. 72.3 divided by 2 equals 36.1 yards, the distance of target short of the center of impact. The converse, or 6 short and 2 over, would place the target 36.1 yards beyond the center of impact. Therefore, when out of 8 shots 2 fall short or over, the center of impact is either 36.1 yards beyond or short of target, and the range should be diminished or increased by 25 yards, which would bring the center of impact within 11.1 yards of target. The figure illustrates above problem-for 2 short and 6 over. 25% .............. 25% ............. X --- 25% ...... . . 25%

......... 25yds
.. T....

...........36.1 ..
Center of impact

Proper point Problem No. 2. Percussion

What position does the center of impact occupy with respect to the center of the target when, out of a total of 8 shots fired, one shot is observed as short or over, and the remaining 7 as over or short? Range 4,000 yards. s equals 12.5 per cent, which fall short of the target.

228

FIELD ARTILLERY

Then 50 per cent minus 12.5 per cent equals 37.5 per cent, which equals the percentage of shots falling between target and center of impact. 37.5 X 2 equals 75 per cent. The center of impact is at the center of 75 per cent zone. The target is at the edge of 75 per cent zone. To find depth of 75 per cent zone: 48.21 X 1.5 equals 72.3 equals depth of 50 per cent zone. Factor for 75 per cent zone equals 1.71. 72.3 X 1.71 equals 123.6 yards, the depth of the 75 per cent zone. 123.6 divided by 2 equals 61.8 yards, the distance of center of impact beyond target for 1 short and 7 over, therefore in subtracting 50 yards from range in first case and adding 50 yards in second case a range will be obtained which will bring the center of impact within 11.8 yards of target. Figure illustrates above problem for 1 short and 7 over.
Center of impact

i..---. ....- 37 -% . . ....--

X ----------... % ...... ..... --. 372 -

Problem No. 3.

Time Fire

What should be the percentage of points of burst in front of the target when the range of burst is normal, i.e., fire properly adjusted? Range 4,000 yards. - Assuming range of burst to be normal when projectile bursts 75 yards in front of the target. This point is the center of burst corresponding to center of impact. As many burst short of this point as beyond it. The target is at the edge of a zone 2 X 75 equals 150 yards in depth. If therefore we find what percentage burst in this zone, and subtract from 100 per cent, we will

PROBABILITIES

'22.9

get the percentage which burst outside of it. One-half of this percentage will burst short of this zone and one-half beyond it, or beyond target. To find zone whose depth is 150 yards: Depth of 50 per cent zone equals 44.1 X 1.5 - 66.1. 150 divided by 66.1 equals 2.27, which is factor in tables-this factor corresponds to 88 per cent, therefore 12 per cent burst outside of this zone and 6 per cent beyond target and 94 per cent short of target, or out of 16 shots, 15 burst short and one beyond target. Figure illustrates. .. ............ 75 yds ................- X..-- ... 75 yds ............ ..--...-. ... 88 pc. :6 pc T
Problem No. 4. Time Fire

--.-..--...

-6 pc

What is the mean range of burst when out of 8 shots fired, 1 is observed to burst beyond target? Range 4,000 yards. ( equals 12.5 per cent, which burst beyond target, therefore the target is at the edge of the 75 per cent zone; 100 minus (2 X 12.5) equals 75, because as many burst short of any zone as burst beyond it. Width of 50 per cent zone equals 66.1 yards (44.1X 1.5). Factor for 75 per cent zone (page 181, Handbook) is 1.71. 66.1 X 1.71 equals 113 yards, the depth of 75 per cent zone. 113 divided by 2 equals 56.5 yards, the distance of point of burst in front of target. As 75 yards has been assumed as the proper interval of burst, by subtracting 25 yards from the range the point of burst will be brought to 81.5 yards in front of target, which is better adjustment. Compare this problem with Problem No. 3.

230

FIELD

ARTILLERY

Figure illustrates problem No. 4. .......................... 75 pc12 p -. 56.4 yds--- - --------25 ydsProper point
Problem No. 5

56.4 yds............

12A pc T

What is the mean range of burst when out of 8 shots fired, 2 are observed to burst beyond target? Range 4,000 yards. 9s equals 25 per cent. Therefore the target is at the edge of the 50 per cent zone; 100 minus (2 X 25) equals 50. Depth of 50 per cent zone equals 66.1, therefore point of burst is 66.1 divided by 2 equals 33 yards short of target. By subtracting 50 yards from the range the point of burst will be brought to the best position. Figure illustrates Problem 5. .. 25 pc...... ............ . Center of burst. ........... ...-... .. .... 25pc
T

33 yds

X .........33 yds .

..............50 yds ......
Proper point of burst

.

Problem No. 6

When the corrector has been adjusted to give burst of normal height, what percentage of bursts on impact and exceptionally high points of burst are to be expected? Range 4,000 yards. Height of burst equals 3 mils equals 12 yards, the height of center of burst above ground. 50 per cent zone for vertical dispersion (H. column in table) equals 8.92. 8.92 X 1.5 equals 13.38 yards.

PROBABILITIES

231

2 X 12 equals 24 yards height of zone to be considered. 24 divided by 13.38 equals 1.79 equals factor corresponding to 77 per cent, therefore 77 per cent burst from ground to 24 yards (equals 6 mils) above ground, the remaining 23 per cent burst half on graze and half above 6 mils in height. 11.5 per cent graze. 11.5 per cent over 6 mils high. Figure illustrates. 11 pc 12 yds.
Center of burst ---

X-

77 pc

"..."

12 yds 3 mils . """""""'' '.. 11J pc
Problem No. 7

ground

When the corrector has been adjusted, what percentage of low bursts are to be expected (low point of burst less than 3 yards high)? Range 4,000 yards. This problem, in other words, is to find what percentage of shots burst in air, within 3 yards of ground. 4 X 3 equals 12, the height of center of burst above ground. If two zones be used, one of 24 yards depth (12 X 2) and one of 18 yards depth (12-3X2), the difference between the percentages in these two zones will be the percentage of shots bursting within 3 yards of ground and between 21 and 24 yards above the ground, and one-half of this percentage will be the percentage required by the problem. 24 equals 1.80 factor of zone, hence zone con8.92 x 1.5 tains 78 per cent. 18 equals 1.34 factor of zone, hence zone con8.92 X 1.5 78-63 equals 15. tains 63 per cent.

232

FIELD ARTILLERY

15 divided by 2 equals 72 per cent or one shot out of 14 will give a low point of burst. Figure illustrates.

71 pc
78 pc 12 yds 63 Px 9 yds . Center of

63 pc

x-

impact.

12 yds 9 yds 3 mils

7A pc

3yds

ground
Problem No. 8

What is the average height of burst when out of a total of 8 shots fired, only one low point of burst is observed? No impact burst. Range 4,000 yards. a equals 12- per cent burst within 3 yards of ground. 100-- (122.X 2) equals 75. Find depth of 75 per cent zone. 8.92 X 1.5 X 1.71 equals 22.9. 22.9 divided by 2 equals 11.5, the height of center of burst, above a point 3 yards from the ground. 11.5 plus 3 equals 14.5, the height of center of burst. 1 mil equals 4 yards; therefore 14.5 yards equal 14.5 divided by 4 equals 3 Figure illustrates. mils.

122 pc

3 yds 112 yds

--75 pc -------

-----112 yds

------

Center of impact.

122 pc
I, , F

3 yds
F F

F

F

F,

F

'ground

PROBABILITIES Problem No. 9

233

What is the average height of burst when out of 8 shots one explosion on impact or point of burst below the target is observed ? Range. 4,000 yards. I equals 12 per cent. 100-(2 X 12) equals 75. The ground at the target is at the edge of the 75 per cent zone. 8.92X1.5 X 1.71 equals 23. 23 divided by 2 equals 11.5 yards equals height of center of burst. 12J pc 23 yds 75 pc 11.5 yds 121 pc
Problem No. 10

-

ground

What is the average height of burst when out of 8 shots, two low points of burst are observed (in air within 3 yards of ground, or on graze) ? 9s equals 25 per cent. 100-(2x25) equals 50 per cent zone. Depth of 50 per cent zone equals 8.92 X 1.5 equals 13.4. 13.4 divided by 2 equals 6.7 equals height of center of burst above point 3 yards from ground. 6.7 plus 3 equals 9.7 yards equals average height of burst. 25 pc
A A

25 pc 25 25 pc6.69 pc
V

6.69 ;
A A

Center of burst

25 pc

3 vds.
v

ground

234

FIELD

ARTI'LLERY

Problem No. 11

A platoon salvo is fired at a range of 4,000 yards, and one graze and one burst 5 mils high is observed. Is it necessary to check up platoon or to make a change in corrector before firing the next salvo ? Referring to probability tables we find width of 50 per cent zone for'vertical dispersion equals 8.92 yards. Hence 100 per cent zone corrected by factor equals 1.5 X 8.92X 4 equals 53.52. Therefore there is: nothing abnormal about the combination of bursts obtained, as the vertical difference between the two bursts is only 4X 5 equals 20 yards. This combination in fact gives a zero height of burstirand one best adapted for adjustment at long ranges. Hence fire should be continued with this corrector setting and no change should be made unless subsequent fire shows error. There is none shown here.
Problem No. 12

Assume the range and deflection to be so accurately determined that the center of impact of all shots is at the center of target two yards high and four yards wide. What is the probability of obtaining a hit on this target, percussion fire used? Range 4,000 yards. Width of 50 per cent zone for vertical dispersion equals 10.29. Width of 50 per cent zone for lateral dispersion equals 3.40. 10.29X 1.5 equals 15.43. Sequals .13 factor corresponding to 7 per cent. 15.43 3.40 x 1.5 equals 5.10. 4 Sequals .78 factor corresponding to 40 per cent. 5.10 Now if 7 per cent of all shots are correct for height and 40 per cent for deviation the percentage correct for both is equal to .40 X.07 equals .028 or 2.8 per cent, or under these ideal conditions the probable expenditure of shots per hit will be 100 divided by 2.8 equals 36 shots.

2

PROBABILITIES

235

Figure illustrates. 40 pc 4 yds

2 yds
.. . . . . ..

C

2.8pc

7 pc

C is center of impact..
Problem No. 13

The assumption of the center of impact being at the center of target having been made n a1bove problem, which

will rarel Iif ever happen, assume

the center of impact at

two yards to the right and two yards above the center of the under target. What is the probabili' of abtaiiing a

"hit

these conditions?

Range 4,000 yards.

'Figure illustratds. C is center of impact.

'd
2yds

e

lyd 1 yd
a

2 yds'
b

4yds

4 yds

From bottom of To find percentage between lines, a b. target to C is three yards, hence find the percentage in a zone 6 yards wide and percentage in a zone 2 yards wide: One half the difference between these .two percentages will equal the percentage in a b. To find percentage between lines d and e.

236

FIELD ARTILLERY

Find percentage in a zone 8 yards wide. One-half the percentage will be the percentage in space d e. The product of these two percentages will be equal to the percentage in target. 6 equals .39 factor corresponding to 20 per cent. 15.43 2 equals .13 factor corresponding to 7 per cent. 15.43 20-equals 6.5 per cent in (a-b). 2 8 equals 1.56 factor corresponding to 71 per cent. 5.10 71 equals 35.5 per cent. 2 .355 x .065 equals .023 or 2.3 per cent or about 44 shots per hit.
Problem No. 14

Assuming the ball of smoke from shrapnel bursting in air to be four yards in diameter, and the dirt and smoke from percussion shrapnel to be four yards in diameter, what percentage of air and graze bursts are sensible against a target two yards high and four yards wide? No wind. Assume a zero height of burst, i.e., half air, half graze. Range 4,000 yards. The ball of smoke rolled around outer edge of target, asuming the point of burst to be at center of smoke ball, will increase the size of area to be considered by .two yards in height and four yards width. Range 4,000 yards.

4 yds

2 yds

2 yds

PROBABILITIES

237

Assume deflection exactly correct: Width 50 per cent zone lateral dispersion equals 3.40. 3.40 x 1.5 equals 5.10. 8 equals 1.57, therefore 71 per cent. 5.10 Width 50 per cent zone vertical dispersion equals 8.92. 8.92 x 1.5 equals 13.38. 8 equals .60, therefore.31. 13.38 .31 divided by 2 equals .155 the center of burst being at bottom of target. .71 X .155 equals .11 in air. or 11 per cent. 50 per cent are on graze, Hence: .50 X .71 equals .355 on graze or 35.5 per cent, total sensible, 46.5.

These problems taken literally might result in considerable discouragement, and might convey the impression that it is hardly worth firing. For example in the last problem with ravines in front and rear the grazes would be lost, but with ravines in front and rear, several of the 50 per cent on graze, would be bursts in air below target but sensible, making almost 6 per cent more to be added to the 11 per cent already obtained making 17 per cent sensible. Then in addition thereto, if there is any cross wind, as there usually is, lateral dispersion so far as sensing is concerned, could be eliminated by shifting the sheaf, which would finally make about 20 per cent sensible, or say one shot in five. This illustrates the fact, to prove which is one of the objects of this paper, that a large percentage of shots cannot be sensed. Hence every effort should be made to sense shots correctly, and a battery commander, even at the short ranges, must of necessity have a large percentage of questionable sensings and must not hesitate to act upon the sensing of a single shot, in obtaining his rough adjustment. When consideration is taken of the impact shots which are sensible and also of the patterns, these low figures appear exaggerated. It is regretted that so much of our prac-

238

FIELD ARTILLERY

tice is held during the summer, where we have every advantage of dry and dusty soil, making observation much easier than we may normally expect it to be. The impact firing for direct hits also appears extremely discouraging. However if a battery commander, with 4 X44 equals 176 projectiles, could put out of action the ma-

teriel of another battery, it would be ammunition well spent.
Solutions of problems similar to these and at short and mid ranges will be of value in illustrating the rapidity with

which the. accuracy of the gun diminishes as: the range increases. Tables for. Use in
3-INCH
3 o *'
.0 oo 0 *' I

Probabilities
FIRE

FIELD

GUN-SHRAPNEL-TIME

~
y

O

44

4-

a
a

3p.

30

ao
N F

0
-0

0
3
'.
o'.

ro

a

v

ai
EI

a) U4

yO 3-~

I~; ,8-.

.. 0
2

o4.
a p

Range.

0o

'a

4-0, G c 3

a
kov ,Q 0E '-4, 0

a O
a 45.3
4-4M

,
4.F

a3r
Ce 'JO

L' a~

a

54.' a

'a

3 '3i

Yards 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000 6,500 7,000 7,500 8,000

Yards 0.0 21.5 35.0 47.0 58.0 67.0 76.0 84.5 92.5 100.0 107.0 113.0 119.5 125.5 131.0 136.4 141.7

Yards Yards Yards 0.0 0.0 0.0 .2---------------------------.32 .9_---------------_-----------2.2------_-------------------1.15 4.2 4.3 20.4 22.0 6.8 + 4.2 +13.0 23.4 10.3 24.8 14.5 +21.0 19.7 +28.3 26.1 26.1 +34.7 27.4 +40.2 28.6 33.6 29.6 42.2 +44.8 52.4 +48.9 30.6 31.6 64.3 +52.5 77.8 +55.6 32.6 33.5 93.0 +58.4 110.0 +60.9 34.2

Yards 0.0

Yards0.00 .61

34.5 37.2 39.5 41.9 44.1 46.3 48.3 50.0 51.7 53.4 55.1 56.6 57.8

1.54 1.86 2.54 2.95 3.40 4.23 5.42 6.92 8.78 11.15 14.00 18.00 23.40

8 41 9 54 11 06 12 06.. 13 02 13 52 14 28 14 54 15 22 15 48 .16 12 16 32 16 48 17 05 17 20 17 35 17 50

Yards 0.00

2.48 3.80 5.34 7.22 8.92 12.18 15.09 18.52 22.67 28.11 34.44 43.54 52.55

PROBABILITIES 3-INCH FIELD GUN-SHRAPNEL-PERCUSSION
4w "

23:) FIRE

so

-n v
d+ .,...u

t9~'

C" et o
Osq q

:

a,

Range.

c
OS

., et

-

'

qA,

4

0.0 0 -----------------500 --------------- 12.9 31000-------------- 24.8 1,500--------------- 5.6 45.4 2,000-.--_

Yards

Yards

Yards
0.0 .5 .95 1.8 2.4

Yards
0.0 .13 .63 1.64 8.28

Yards
0.0 8.27 13.90 22.82 29.10

Yards
0.0 .32 .61 1.15 1.54

Yards
0.0 .083 .403 1.05 2.10

2,500 ----

53.9 3,000-------------- 61.5 3,500- ----------- 68.6 4,000 -------------- 75.2
4,500_---_ 81.1

2.9

5.49

84.55

1.86

8.52

5,000 -------------- 85.8 5,500 ------------ 89.5 6,000 ------------ 92.4 6,500 ------------ 95.1 7,000 ------------ 97.2 7,500------------99.2 8,000 ------------ 101.0

10.8 18.7 17.4 21.9 27.2 88.2

8.96 4.6 5.3 6.6 8.45

8.30 11.76 16.05 21.16 26.94

38.43 40.52 48.69 58.20 69.80 82.60

39.42 48.97 48.21 51.99 55.00

57.87 59.28 60.96 62.81 68.59 64.74

6.92 8.78 11.15 14.04 17.44 21.28

2.54 2.95 8.40 4.23 5.42

.

5.82 7.54 10.29 18.56 17.27

21.48

25.97 81.21 37.81 44.42 52.95

Tactical Walks
(Fort Leavenworth Map 3"=1 mile)

General Situation: Missouri (Red) and Kansas (Blue) are at war. A Red invading force from the south is reported to be at Lansing. A Blue force consisting of the First Brigade Infantry, First Battalion First F. A., and the First Squadron First Cavalry, based on Kickapoo, are guarding supplies being accumulated at Fort Leavenworth. (Blue): Special Situation At 11-00 A. M., on the morning of October 31, Gen. Hill, commanding the Blue force, received the following message from the outpost cavalry: One Mile north of LANSING, 31 Oct. 1917, 10-00 A.M. Gen. Hill, Fort Leavenworth. A Red force, estimated to consist of one brigade of infantry, one squadron cavalry, and one battalion field artillery, marched north from LANSING at 10-00 A. M. I continue reconnaissance. Smith, Lieut. General Hill assembles the three colonels, the artillery commander, and the cavalry commander and gives the following order: "The enemy, estimated strength, one brigade Infantry, one squadron cavalry, and one battalion field artillery are reported to have marched north from LANSING at 10-00 A.M. this morning. "There will be no reinforcements sent from KICKAPOO. "We will hold line MISSOURI RIVER-POPE HILL-LONG
RIDGE-ATCHISON HILL. 241

242

FIELD ARTILLERY

"The first regiment will occupy position from 800 yards west of PRISON LANE to point 100 yards west of GRANT AVE. "The second regiment will occupy position from point
100 yards west of GRANT AVE. to MISSOURI RIVER exclusive.

"The third regiment, constituting the reserve will be stationed just north of SOUTH MERRITT HILL. "The cavalry will withdraw to the right flank. "The field artillery will take position in the vicinity of
SOUTH MERRITT HILL to support the infantry line.

"The trains will remain in their present position at quartermaster corral. "Messages to me at the reserve." Major B, the field artillery commander, sends the following order to his battalion: "The enemy estimated at a brigade of infantry, squadron of cavalry and battalion of artillery is reported to be moving north from Lansing toward Leavenworth. Our infantry is taking up a position along the line: MISSOURI
RIVER-POPE HILL-LONG RIDGE-ATCHISON HILL.

"This battalion will occupy a position in the vicinity of
SOUTH MERRITT HILL to support the infantry.

"The battalion will form at once in column on POPE AVE. with its head at GRANT AVE. "The combat trains will be consolidated and will follow the battalion at 500 yards. "Battery commanders with details, reconnaissance officers, and Lieut. Y as combat train agent will report to me
immediately at the corner of POPE and GRANT AVENUES."

When all have reported, Major B rides south on Grant Ave., taking with him the battery commanders, details, reconnaissance officers, combat train agent, battalion adjutant and detail, directing the sergeant major to mark the route and reel cart to follow at a walk. As he proceeds he observes the terrain on both sides of the road to locate suitable positions for combat train and limbers. On reaching South Merritt Hill Major B leaves the road and makes the reconnaissance of the battalion position. Before reaching South Merritt Hill Major B notices the deep ravine leading from Merritt Lake east of Grant Ave., and directs the combat train agent to reconnoiter this ravine as to its suitability for position for combat train and to report to him on Pope Hill. Major B also notices a suitable position for limbers south of Merritt Lake.

TACTICAL WALKS

243

Major B having reconnoitered the terrain assigned to his battalion, decides to place his own station on Pope Hill and selects as the battalion reference point the northeast corner of the prison wall. The combat train agent has returned from his reconnaissance reporting that the position is suitable for the combat train. Major B now sends an agent to direct the battalion to proceed south along Grant Ave., at a walk. He then gives the following order to the assembled officers and details: "There is no further information of the enemy. "The battalion sector extends from the MISSOURI RIVER,
exclusive, to ATCHISON HILL, exclusive.

"The battalion reference point will be the northeast corner of the prison wall. "My station will be at this point (POPE HILL). "Battery A will occupy a position on the north slope of SOUTH MERRITT HILL, flash defilade, with its left at a point 100 yards west of GRANT AVE., and will cover sector, battalion
reference point--ATCHISON HILL, exclusive.

"Battery B will occupy position on north slope of SOUTH MERRITT HILL, flash defilade, with its left on GRANT
AVE., and will cover the sector, BATALLION REFERENCE POINT -GRANT AVE., inclusive.

"Battery C will occupy position on north slope of POPE
HILL east of GRANT AVE., covering the sector, GRANT AVE., to

MISSOURI RIVER, both exclusive. Commander of Battery C will have his B. C. station with me. "I will establish telephone communication with batteries A and B. "Lieut R (reconnaissance officer) and orderly will report to Gen. Hill as agent. "Lieut. S (reconnaissance officer) with one scout corporal and one scout private will report to commanding officer First Infantry and will keep in touch with me. "Lieut. T (reconnaissance officer) with one scout corporal and one scout private will report to the commanding officer Second Infantry and will keep in touch with me. "Lieut. Y (combat train agent) will place combat train in ravine on south side of ONE MILE CREEK, 200 yards east of
GRANT AVE. and will then report to me."

Required,

FirstDay:

Capt. A's actions and orders.

244

FIELD ARTILLERY

Required, Second Day: Capt. C's actions and orders. Approved Solution-Capt A After receiving the orders of Major B, Capt. A turns to his battery detail and says: "You have heard the orders of Major B, mount, and follow me." Capt. A proceeds north by a concealed route crossing Grant Ave., about 100 yards south of Merritt Lake. He halts in rear of house on north slope of South Merritt Hill, dismounts, and proceeds alone to top of crest, avoiding exposing himself to view from the south. Having satisfied himself that this crest is the best position from which to observe the sector assigned to him, he decides to establish his B. C. station in hole on crest 300 yards west of Grant Ave. He observes from this station that the area assigned for his battery affords an excellent position. Capt. A then calls: "Detail." The instrument sergeant, range finder, and scout No. 2, dismount and come forward with the instruments. When these men arrive, Capt. A gives the following order: "There is no further information of the enemy. "Our infantry line is on that ridge (pointing). The cavalry is withdrawing to the vicinity of ATCHISON HILL (pointing). "The battery sector extends from the northeast corner of prison wall, inclusive, to ATCHISON HILL, exclusive (pointing). Do you identify the limits of the sector? *"Battery reference point will be that round cupola on building just west of prison (pointing). Do you identify it? "The B. C. station will be in this hole. "The right gun of the battery will be about 100 yards to our left rear. "Aiming point, B. C. telescope. "Telephone communication will be established. "The B. C. station will be prepared with overhead cove- " Capt. A then goes to select the exact position for his guns.

TACTICAL WALKS

245

As he proceeds down the slope he calls: "Detail." At this command the balance of the detail dismount, link their horses, turn over to the horseholder, and report to the B. C. at double time. Capt. A places scout No. 1 at the point where the left of the battery will rest, being careful not to encroach on ground assigned to Battery B, and operator No. 1 where the right piece of the battery will rest, being satisfied that the trajectory at minimum range to be used will clear the crest. He then directs the telephone corporal to establish telephone communication between battery and B. C, station and to hook on battalion line at B. C. station. Capt. A then mounts and with the first sergeant rides to the vicinity of Merritt Lake and selects a position for the limbers, in ravine just east of Grant Ave., and along One Mile Creek. He then directs the first sergeant to ride back and meet the battery and lead it into position. Capt. A returns to B. C. station and after carefully examining data and panoramic sketch prepared by his de.tail, begins a careful study of his sector. As soon as he has examined the data he sends the initial deflection to the battery. Approved Solution-Capt. C During the reconnaissance, Capt. C has noted that the area assigned to his battery is thickly wooded. After receiving the order of Major B, Capt. C turns to his detail and gives the following order: "You have heard the orders of Major B. "Our infantry will occupy that crest (pointing). "' he sector for this battery extends from GRANT AVE. to the MISSOURI RIVER, both exclusive. Do you identify the limits of the sector? "The battery reference point will be ST. JOHN'S CHURCH (pointing). Do you identify it? "The guns will be stationed to the left-rear. "Reciprocal laying will be used for the initial deflection. "The instrument sergeant, range finder, and scout No. 2 will set up the instruments here, at once. B. C. station will

246

FIELD

ARTILLERY

Cannoneers will be be intrenched with overhead cover. sent to prepare 'position." "Mount and .Capt. C directs the rest of the detail: follow me." He then reconnoiters carefully the ground assigned him and selects a position for his guns, two on each side of the ravine 200 yards east of Grant Ave., and 50 yards north of his station. He places scout No. 1 marking the left two guns, and operator No. 1 the right two guns. Capt. C gives scout No. 1 the direction of fire and directs him to notify the executive officer on his arrival to lay the guns on the reference point by reciprocal laying. He then directs the telephone corporal to establish telephone communication between the battery and B. C. station. He then mounts and with the first sergeant selects a position for the limbers just south of Davin Ridge and to the left rear of the battery. Capt. C directs the first sergeant to lead the battery into position, turning east from Grant Ave., just south of One Mile Creek and following the unimproved road to the position. He then returns to his station and examines data and panoramic sketch prepared by his detail and begins a careful study of his sector.

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DIAG~RAM
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BATTERY-

BATTERY

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DIAGRAM

LINE

THEORETICAL

DIAGQRAM

V

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