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Prof.Dr/ Mohiy Mohammed hadhoud #, Dr.Abdalhameed shaalan*, hanaa abdalaziz abdallah* # Faculty of computers and information, Menofia University, Shebin Elkom, EGYPT *faculty of engineering, zagazig university, zagazig, EGYPT E-mails: mmhadhoud@yahoo.com, dr_shaalan2005@yahoo.com, flower002a@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT A quantization based method for watermarking digital images is presented here. This scheme inserting a watermark bit into wavelet coefficients of high magnitude (LH3-HL3). Also, this watermarking technique is blind (i.e., neither the original image nor any side information is required in the recovery process) as well as being very computationally efficient. This watermarking algorithm combines and adapts various aspects from more than one existing watermarking method. Results show that the newly presented method improves upon the existing techniques. Keywords: Watermarking Techniques, Digital Image Watermarking, Wavelet.

1

INTRODUCTION This paper introduces a new quantization based, blind watermarking algorithm operating within the wavelet domain. The motivation for this new algorithm was based upon various aspects from more than watermarking schemes .For example the new algorithm improves upon the [1] algorithm in that it can survive the same malicious attacks whilst producing marked images of greater visual quality. An improvement is made upon the semiblind used in [2] scheme as the new method does not require a file containing the positions of the marked coefficients (i.e., the new watermarking scheme is blind).

2

BACKGROUNDS Previously, algorithm in [1] presented an additive watermarking method operating in the wavelet domain. A three level wavelet transform with a Daubechies 8-tap filter was used; no watermark was inserted into the low-pass subband. Unlike some non-blind watermarking schemes [3, 4], this scheme allowed a watermark to be detected without requiring access to the original image (i.e., it is a blind watermarking system).this scheme also performed implicit visual masking as only wavelet coefficients with a large enough magnitude were selected for watermark insertion. Wavelet coefficients of large magnitude correspond to regions of texture and edges within an image. This has the effect of making it difficult for a human viewer to

perceive any degradation to an image marked via this scheme. Also, because wavelet coefficients of large magnitude are perceptually significant, it is difficult to remove the watermark without severely distorting the marked image. The most novel aspect of this scheme was the introduction of an image sized watermark consisting of pseudorandom real numbers. However, only a few of these watermark values are added to the host image. Using an image sized watermark fixes the locations of the watermark values; thus, there is no dependence on the ordering of significant coefficients in the correlation process for watermark detection. This is advantageous as the correlation process is extremely sensitive to the ordering of significant coefficients and any change in this ordering (via image manipulations) can result in a poor detector response. Another watermarking algorithm operating upon significant coefficients within the wavelet domain (implemented via 5/3 taps symmetric short kernel filters) was presented by algorithm in. [2]. This method takes a three level wavelet transform of the image to be watermarked and inserts the watermark into the detail coefficients at the coarsest scales (LH3, HL3); the low pass component LL3 and diagonal HH3 are excluded).The [2] scheme is a quantization based watermarking technique which aims to modify wavelet coefficients of high magnitude thus embedding the watermark into edge and textured regions of an image. The quantization process used by this scheme is very straightforward and simple to implement as it requires a file to be saved detailing the locations

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of where the watermark bits were embedded. It is thus a semi-blind scheme as opposed to a blind scheme. 3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PREVIOUS WATERMARKING ALGORITHM The algorithm in [1] has three main advantages: 1. It is a blind algorithm, 2. It incorporates implicit visual masking, thus, the watermark is inserted into the perceptually significant areas of an image via a simple and straightforward process. 3. It uses an image sized watermark to negate the order dependence of significant coefficients in the detection process. There are two main disadvantages to the algorithm: (1) It embeds the watermark in an additive fashion. This is a drawback as blind detectors for additive watermarking schemes must correlate the possibly watermarked image coefficients with the known watermark in order to determine if the image has or has not been marked. Thus, the image itself must be treated as noise which makes detection of the watermark exceedingly difficult [5]. In order to overcome this, it is necessary to correlate a very high number of coefficients (which in turn requires the watermark to be embedded into many image coefficients at the insertion stage). This has the effect of increasing the amount of degradation to the marked image. (2) The detector can only tell if the watermark is present or absent. It cannot recover the actual watermark. 4 PROPOSED TECHNIQUE It is possible to use the advantages of the [1] watermarking schemes whilst removing the disadvantages. This can be achieved by using its idea of an image sized watermark in conjunction with adapted versions of scalar quantization insertion/detection techniques. The resultant watermarking system will be blind and quantization based. It will employ a watermark equal in size to the detail subbands from the coarsest wavelet level and only perceptually significant coefficients will be used to embed watermark bits. In summary, this new technique improves upon the previous method by using quantization and replaces insertion process (rather than an additive insertion process). Thus, for comparable robustness performance, the new method will produce watermarked images with less degradation than the [1] scheme. It improves upon the [2] scheme by having no need for a

position file in the recovery process. A flow diagram detailing the necessary steps is shown in Figure 1. 4.1 Embedding The watermark embedding process:

**1. Transform the host image into the wavelet domain (3rd level Daubechies wavelets of length 4).
**

The coefficients in the third wavelet level (excluding the LL and HH subbands) with magnitude greater than T1 and magnitude less than T2 are selected. 3. Let fmax is the maximum absolute wavelet coefficient of a set of subbands to adjust the significant threshold T= α. fmax Where .01 <α <0.1. And T2 > T1 >T. 4. A binary watermark the same size as the entire third level of the wavelet transform is created using a secret key (which is a seed to a random number generator). 5. The selected wavelet coefficients are then quantized in order to embed a watermark bit. The value that the selected coefficients are quantized to depends upon whether they are embedding a 1 or a 0. 6. A selected wavelet coefficient, 𝑤𝑠 will 𝑖𝑗 embed a 1 if the value in the watermark file at the same location 𝑥𝑖𝑗 , is 1. 𝑠 Alternatively, 𝑤𝑖𝑗 will embed a 0 if 𝑥𝑖𝑗 is 0. Thus, The quantization method is similar to that used by[2]: s s If xij = 1 and wij > 0, then wij = T2 – X1, s s If xij = 0 and wij > 0, then wij = T1+ X1, s s If xij = 1 and wij < 0, then wij = -T2+ X1, s s If xij = 0 and wij < 0, then wij = -T1- X1, 2.

7. The X1 parameter narrows the range between the two quantization values of T1 and T2 in order to aid robust oblivious detection.

8. After all the selected coefficients have been quantized, the inverse wavelet transform is applied to all the wavelet coefficients and the watermarked image is obtained.

4.2 Detection For oblivious detection: 1. The wavelet transform of a possibly corrupted watermark image is taken. 2. Then all the wavelet coefficients of magnitude greater than or equal to T1 + X2 and less than or equal to T2 – X2 are ′𝑠 selected; these shall be denoted via 𝑤𝑖𝑗 . Note that X2 should be less than X1.

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3.

In the insertion process, all wavelet coefficients with a magnitude greater than T1 and less than T2 are selected and then quantized to either T1 + X1 or T2 – X1. 4. In the recovery process, all the wavelet coefficients of magnitude greater than or equal to T1 + X2 and less than or equal to T2 – X2 are selected to be dequantized. This helps ensure that all the marked coefficients are recovered and dequantized after being attacked. 5. Unmarked coefficients are unlikely to drift into the range of selected coefficients after an attack. The introduction of the X1 and X2 parameters to the watermarking algorithm gives a degree of tolerance to the system against attacks, i.e., they collaborate to give a noise margin watermark bit is decoded for each of the selected wavelet coefficients via the same process described by [2]: ′ If 𝑤𝑖𝑗𝑠 < (T1 + T2)/2, then the recovered watermark bit is a 0. ′ If 𝑤𝑖𝑗𝑠 ≥ (T1 + T2)/2, then the recovered watermark bit is a 1 6. The recovered watermark is then correlated with the original copy of the watermark file (obtained via the secret key) only in the locations of the selected coefficients. This allows a confidence measure to be ascertained for the presence or non-presence of a watermark in an image.

4

RESULTS This section outlines the results obtained by [1], scheme, [2] scheme and the newly proposed scheme. It is the aim of the new scheme to be as robust as the [1] scheme without degrading the marked images to the same extent. This newly proposed blind scheme improves upon the semiblind [2] scheme as it does not require a file containing the locations of the coefficients that were marked. In order to measure the degradation suffered by host images after watermark insertion, the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) metric and the Watson Metric [9, 10] are used. The Watson Metric computes the Total Perceptual Error (TPE) which is an image quality metric based upon the Human Visual System (HVS). It takes contrast sensitivity, luminance masking and contrast masking into account when calculating a perceptual error value. Unlike the PSNR, this merely measures the differences between pixels without considering the HVS. The higher the TPE value, the more degraded an image would appear to a human viewer. The Checkmark package [11] was used to determine the TPE. The original and recovered messages were compared by computing the Normalized Correlation (NC): 𝑁𝐶

= 𝑚

∗ .𝑚 𝑚 ∗ . 𝑚

(1)

4.3 Perceptual quality metrics The aforementioned limitations of pixel based image quality metrics helps argue the case for quality metrics based upon the HVS. In recent years, there has been an increase in the amount of these metrics published. Two such metrics were presented by Lambrecht et al. [6] and Watson [7]. The Lambrecht metric was described by Kutter et al as a fair and viable method for determining the amount of degradation suffered by a watermarked image. It makes use of coarse image segmentation and alters banks to examine contrast sensitivity as well as the masking phenomena of the HVS. This scheme then returns an overall measure of distortion for the watermarked (modified) image compared to the un-watermarked (original) image. The Watson metric was incorporated into the Checkmark package [8] in order to help determine the visual quality of a watermarked image. It operates within the DCT domain and utilizes contrast sensitivity, luminance masking and contrast masking in order to calculate a Total Perceptual Error (TPE) value between the watermarked and un-watermarked images.

Where m is the original message and 𝑚∗ is the recovered message (convert unipolar vectors, m € {0, 1}, to bipolar vectors, m € {−1, 1}, in this equation).For all the tests in this paper, MATLAB 6.5 was used. JPEG compression was carried out via the imwrite function which uses the Independent JPEG Group’s. All tests were performed upon an 8-bit (grayscale), 256 × 256 baboon image. 5.1 Results of technique used in [1]: T1 = 40, T2 = 50 and α = 0.2 (the same parameters that were used in our paper). The watermarked image was then attacked with JPEG quality5 (Q5), quality 10 (Q10) and quality 15 (Q15), Gaussian noise addition (σ^2 = 375) and cropping (from rows 60 to 190 and from columns 60 to 190) on average, it can be seen that scheme is surviving all the attacks. However, for the JPEG quality 5 and half sizing attacks, the watermark was not always detected. . Results are shown in Table 1. 5.2 Results of technique used in [2]: This algorithm was encoded and the following parameters were set: T1 =50, T2 = 120, we find the results are better than that of [1] because it is semi-blind technique. Results are shown in Table 2.

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Dwt (3levels) NxN Input image Pick all high pass coefficients in the third wavelet level (LH3-HL3) of magnitude greater than T1 AND less than T2 Embed watermark at these locations via quantization NxN Watermarked image

IDWT

Owner seed

**N x N Binary watermark (equal in size to wavelet level 3(LH3HL3)
**

Recovered watermark Pick all high pass coefficients watermark In the third wavelet level of magnitude greater than T1+X2 and less than T2−X2 Dwt Dequantize the coefficients at these locations to obtain the recovered watermark.

NxN Watermarked image

Figure 1. The blind quantization based watermarking scheme. The top part shows the insertion process whereas the bottom part shows the detection process. Table 1. Results of [1], T1 = 40, T2 = 50 and α = 0.2. Each test was upon the baboon image.

NC No attacks JPEG Q5 JPEG Q10 JPEG Q15 Gaussian Salt& pepper cropping Half sizing 0.429889 0.145309 0.22643 0.264691 0.189755 0.213674 0.187535 0.118576 Chosen threshold Det. 7.157312 8.20676 7.91128 7.91188 7.1900 7.440845 9.275418 7.15731 PSNR (dB) 36.68 22.079 23.76 24.75274 22.3604 23.82075 7.365388 21.46714 TPE 0.057164 0.344422 0.2992 0.26493 0.37091 0.245311 7 0.673658 0.382016

5. 3 proposed technique results The same attacks were used to test the new algorithm.T1 = 115, T2 = 200, X1 = 20 and X2 = 10 were the parametric values used; Figure 3 shows this watermarked image and the effect of attacking this watermarked image with various attacks. Table 3 presents the quantitative results for these various attacks. An analysis of the probability of obtaining a false positive detector response is studied in Table 4. In this study, the recorded normalized correlation (NC) value and the recorded recovered watermark length were saved. Using these values, it is possible to calculate the probability of obtaining a false positive reading [12]. The probability of obtaining a false positive Pfp reading is calculated via:
𝑃𝑓𝑝

=
𝑁𝑤

𝑛=𝑁𝑤 (𝑇+1)/2 𝑁𝑤 𝑛

**Table 2. Results of [2]. T1 = 50 and T2 = 120. Each test was done upon the baboon image.
**

NC

No attacks JPEG Q5 JPEG Q10 JPEG Q15 Gaussian Salt&pepper Half sizing 1 0.526882 0.942652 1 0.935484 0.978495 0.706093

PSNR(dB)

39.57 22.13 23.82 24.82 22.36 23.71 21.57

TPE

0.0259 0.3432 0.3017 0.2692 0.3758 0.2665 0.3785

0.5𝑁𝑤

(2)

(a)

(b)

Figure.2 (a) Baboon image marked using watermarking scheme in [1] (b) Baboon image marked using watermarking scheme in [2].

Where Nw is the length of the recovered watermark and T is the chosen detector threshold value. This is a worst case scenario of obtaining a false positive detection as the NC value and the recovered watermark length are being used in the calculation. The detector threshold value of 0.4 was selected to determine the presence or nonpresence of a watermark. This value means that the new algorithm is highly robust to JPEG quality 10 attacks, Gaussian noise ( 𝜎 2 = 375) attacks and half sizing attacks. Also, the chance of obtaining a false positive reading after suffering one of these attacks is extremely remote. However, the “cropping" attack poses a problem

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in that, only 47 out of a possible 91 watermark bits were used by the detector, thus decreasing the reliability of the scheme. This lower number of recovered watermark bits leads to a greater chance of a false positive reading than the other survived attacks (see Table 4). The scheme is not robust to JPEG quality 5 attacks (just like the [1] method).Thus, while surviving the same attacks as the [1] scheme, the new scheme does not degrade the watermarked image to the same extent. From Table1, PSNR value is 36.68dB and the TPE is 0.057164. The PSNR (39.57dB) and the TPE 0.0259) values recorded for the [2] scheme and PSNR value is (46.60dB) and the TPE is (0.00771) values recorded for the new scheme which is the better one. Table 3. Results for the proposed scheme (with T1 = 115, T2 = 200, X1 = 20 and X2 = 10).

NC No attacks JPEG Q5 JPEG Q10 JPEG Q15 Gaussian Salt&pe pper cropping Half sizing 1 0.146667 0.480519 0.853659 0.544304 0.794872 0.489362 0.395 WM length in 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 WM lengt h out 91 75 77 82 79 78 47 77 PSNR (dB) 46.60 22.14 23.81 24.80 22.37 23.88 7.37 21.58 TPE 0.0077 1 0.3421 0.2981 0.2643 2 0.3707 55 0.2535 07 0.6730 94 0.378

techniques (using the notion of noise margins) has been presented. The new method is superior to the [1]method in that it can survive the same attacks with higher detection (NC) and producing marked images of higher visual quality (measured via the PSNR and Watson metric quantitative techniques). Although the robustness of this new scheme is not quite as strong as that presented by [2], this can be attributed to its blind nature compared to the semi-blind nature of the [2] method but it gives higher visual quality. 7 REFERENCES

Table 4. Probability of false positive detector response for the new scheme (with T1 = 115, T2 = 200, X1 = 20 and X2 = 10).

NC No attacks JPEG Q5 JPEG Q10 JPEG Q15 Gaussian Salt&pepper cropping Half sizing 1 0.146667 0.480519 0.853659 0.544304 0.794872 0.489362 0.395 WM length out 91 75 77 82 79 78 47 77 Worst case Pfp 000000 0.1240228 0.000014 0.00000 0.00000063484 0.00000000000008724523 0.00054426 0.24719

6

CONCLUSIONS

The proposed watermarking scheme using the method in [1] of determining the positions of marked confidents (via an image sized/subband sized watermark) in collaboration with adapted versions of the [2] insertion and detection

[1] R. Dugad, K. Ratakonda and N. Ahuja, A new wavelet-based scheme for watermarking images,Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Image Processing, ICIP’98,Chicago, IL, USA, Oct. 1998, 419-423. [2] H., A. Miyazaki, A. Yamamoto and T. Katsura,A digital watermarking technique based on the wavelet transform and its robustness on image compression and transformation, IEICE Trans., Special Section on Cryptography and Information Security,E82-A, No. 1, Jan. 1999, 210. [3] I. J. Cox, F. T. Leighton and T. Shamoon, Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol. 6, Dec. 1997, 1673-1678. [4] M. Corvi and G. Nicchiotti, Wavelet-based image watermarking for copyright protection, Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, SCIA ’97, Lappeenranta,Finland, June 1997, 157163. [5] P. Meerwald, Digital image watermarking in the wavelet transform domain, Master’s thesis, Department of Scientific Computing, University of Salzburg, Austria, 2001. http://www.cosy.sbg.ac.at/˜pmeerw/Watermarkin g/ [6] C. J. van den B. Lambrecht and J. E. Farrell. Perceptual quality metric for digitally coded color images. In Proceedings of EUSIPCO, Trieste, Italy, September 1996. [7] A. B. Watson. DCT quantization matrices visually optimized for individual images. In J. P. Allebach and B. E. Rogowitz, editors, Human Vision, Visual Processing,and Digital Display IV, volume 1913, pages 202{206, San Jose, CA, USA, February 1993. SPIE. [8] Checkmark benchmarking project [online]. Available from World Wide Web (date accessed: December, 2004): http://watermarking.unige.ch/Checkmark/. [9] A. B.Watson, DCT quantizationmatrices visually optimized for individual images, Human Vision, Visual Processing and Digital Display IV, Proc. SPIE, Vol.1913, San Jose, CA, USA, Feb.

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1993, 202-216. [10] A.Mayache, T. Eude and H. Cherefi, A comparison of image quality models and metrics based on human visual sensitivity, Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Image Processing,ICIP’98, Chicago, IL, USA, Oct. 1998, 409-413. [11] S. Pereira, S. Voloshynovskiy, M. Madueo, S.Marchand-Maillet and T. Pun, Second generation benchmarking and application oriented evaluation, Information Hiding Workshop, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, April 2001, 340-353. [12] D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, Digital watermarking using multiresolution wavelet decomposition, IEEE ICASSP’98, Volume 5, Seattle,WA, USA, May 1998,2659-2662

(a)

(b)

©

(d)

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(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

Figure 3. (a)original baboon image (b) baboon image marked via our watermarking scheme with T 1 = 115, T 2 = 200, X1 = 20 and X2 = 10 and attacked with: (c) JPEG quality 5, (d) JPEG quality 10, (e) JPEG quality 15, (f) Gaussian noise (σ^2 = 375), (g) impulse noise (normalized density of 0.015), (h) cropping and (j) half sizing (followed by resizing back to the original size).

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