infrastructure refers to the combination of hardware such as servers and client PCs in an organization the network used to link

this hardware and the software application used to deliver services to worker within the ebusiness and also to its partners and workers. Infrastructures also include the architecture of the network, hardware and software and where is it located. Infrastructures can also be considered to include the data and documents accesses through e-business application. 


Intranet: the internal network of an organizational entity Extranet: the external network of an organizational entity Internet: the mother of all networks inter-connected on the scale of planet

What is internet? Enables communication between millions of connected computers worldwide. What is internet-client server ,I sp ,backbones , internet timeline?  the client/server architecture consist of client computers, such as PCs, sharing resources, such as database stored on a more powerful server computer Internet Service Provider will providing home or business users with a connection to access the internet. They can also host webbased application. Backbones is a high speed communications links used to enable Internet communication across a country and internationally. Internet timeline where we can see the development of internet as a essential for business.

Physical and network infrastructure components of the Internet (Levels IV and III in Figure 3.1)
Figure 3.2

Definition  a private network within a single company using internet standards to enable employees to share information using a e-mail and web publishing intranet Application are used extensively for supporting sell-side e-commerce from within the marketing function. Also used to support core supply chain management activities. Benefit for manager Improved information sharing (customer service) Enhanced communications and information sharing(communication) Reduced or eliminated processing. Easier organizational publishing.

Definition Formed by extending an intranet beyond a company to customers, suppliers and collaborators. Application middleware or now also referred as enterprise applications integration(EAI) Content management system Benefit to do B2B Increased productivity Flexibility Timely and accurate information Reduced inventory Build customer loyalty

Figure 3.5

The relationship between intranets, extranets and the Internet

Firewall- necessary when creating intranet or extranet because: To ensure that outside access to confidential information does not occur. Usually created as software mounted on a separate server at the point where the company is connected to the internet. Configured to only accept links from trusted domains representing other offices in the company. Limited usage of intranet and extranet The majority of content is out-of-date, incomplete or inaccurate. Almost all information on the internet is reference material, not news or recent updates.
Overcoming or encouraging the usage Always update the business Produce more dynamic content.


Definition -system of resources that enable computer users to view and interact with a variety of information -WWW pages are formatted using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), information is transferred among computers on the WWW using a set of rules known as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Hyperlink( moving, indicates) Web browser-internet explorer, Mozilla( accessing view information stored as web documents on different web server) Web server- stored n present the web pages accessed by web browser. Internet- acces software application e-mail(spam), instant messaging ,FTP Files transfer

Internet Standard(STD) 

is a normative specification of a technology or methodology applicable to the Internet.  Internet Standards are created and published by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Network standards Internet refers to the global information system that ‡Logically linked together by a global unique address space based on the internet protocols (IP) ‡Is able to support communication using the transmission control protocol / internet protocol (TCP/ IP) ‡Provides , uses or make accessible either publicly or privately and high level services on the communications

How TCP/IP Protocol Works

The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard.

HTTP Protocol (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) This is the standard used to allow web browsers and servers to transfer request for delivery of web pages and their embedded graphics. When click on a link while viewing the web site, the web browser will request information from the sever computer hosting the web site using HTTP. Uniform Recourses Location (URL) This is a standard method of addressing, similar to postcodes that make it straight forward to find the name of a site. A technical name for a web address is URL. Example is Domain names Domain name refers to the name of the web server and is usually selected to be the same as the name of the company and the extension will indicate its type. Example is 


Web presentation and data exchanges standards These standard for web pages designs, text, graphics and Multimedia and there are different standards that exist for all these. The design, text and graphical information that form a web pages, Good Content is the keep to attracting customers to web site and retaining their interest or achieving repeat visits. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language): A standard web pages presentation format used to define the text and layout of webs pages. XML (Extensive Markup Language): Is a standard for transferring structural data, unlike HMTL which is purely presentational. Graphical Images( Graphic interchange format): A graphic format and compression algorithm best used for simple graphic. JPEG (Joint Photographic experts Group): This refers to two standard file most commonly used to present images on the web pages. It is use for larger images.  nimated graphical information (GIF abd plug-ins): these are add on program to the web Brower to provide extra functionality such as animations. Examples macromedia flash, shock waves udio and Video standards These are sound and video standard that could be included in a website 

Who control the internet? The internet governance controls the operations and use of the internet and netiquette. 

Some of the established non-profit-making organization that control different aspect of the internet The Internet Corporation for assigned names and Number: ICANN : for IP address allocation and domain name names management. Internet society (ISOC): formed 1992, to provide leadership in addressing issue that comfort the future of the internet and is the organization for the groups responsible for the internet infrastructure standard. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): the technical body for network designers, operators, and vendor ad researcher connected with the development of internet architectures. The World wide consortium: This is the organization that is responsible for web standards.

Layer 2=System software #example of software: Microsoft explorer, Netscape communicator ect. #Standardized plug-in: adobe acrobat to access pdf file ect. #System software for client be decided on; make variant Microsoft windows but alternatives sun micro system Solaris Linux considering system software for the server #Using standardized web server software example: Apache will help maintain *to reduce numbers of contacts for support maintenance and can reduce purchase prices through multi-user license *system software choices occur for client, server and network

Layer 3=transport or network >Example hardware: modem card, external modem in home PCs, network interface card(NIC) to connect to the company (local area) network for business computers >Main management make decision whether it should performed by company or outsource to third party. ƒ Layer 4=storage >Similar to transport layer it can be manage internal and external

Internet service provider or ISP ~provide special web content such as America Online or CompuServe etc. ~two main functions 1. Provide link to company or person enable access world wide web(WWW) and email 2. They host sites or publish a company web site enable other companies or consumer access it ƒ ISP connection methods ~Dial up connection= access to the internet via phone line using analogue modems example: streamyx@tmnet ~Broadband connection=access to the internet via phone line using a digital data transfer mechanisim example: celcom broadband, digi and maxcis .

Speed of access ~The speed of the site governs how quick the response is to a request for information from the end user ~small number user accessing will not noticeable delay on requests for page ~speed of the server mainly controlled by the amount of primary storage ~important point whether the server is dedicated or shared ~the speed also governed by the speed of the network connection, referred to as the network bandwidth ƒ Availability ~refer to the amount of time that a web site is available to customer for company offering 24/7


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Prevent staff downloading, receiving or sending offensive content such as pornographic or racist material, Help protect corporate networks from viruses and worm Improve productivity employee and reduce data network costs Eliminating time-wasting emails such as joke, stories, video clips and chain letters


Mobile phones: A mobile phone or mobile (also called cell phone and hand phone) is an electronic device used for mobile telecommunications over a cellular network of specialized base stations known as cell sites.

Smartphones Smartphones : A smartphone is a mobile phone offering advanced capabilities, often with PC-like functionality



PDA (Personal Digital Assistants) : also known as a palmtop computer, is a mobile device which functions as a Personal information manager and connects to the internet.

Element of proposition No fixed location Location-based services Instant access Privacy Personalization Security

Evaluation User is free from the need to access via only desktop Mobile can use to show the place where ever you are. E.g GPS Always on GPRS and 3G for lengthy connection. Mobile are more private than desktop access. Can set up personal information More secure because mobile phone is in a form of wallet.

What would benefit you?

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High speed wireless local area network Wifi hotspots : Allow costumer to online with their laptop or mobile phone.

Marketing communication (To support purchase, band adverts)

E-commerce (online business)
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Brand building

is a television set with a built in digital tuner. Most of them also allow reception of analogue signals. They do away with the need for a set top box for converting those signals for reception on a television. ƒ In January 2003 in the UK, the new level of access in new media was reported as
ƒ 1. 2. 3.

Mobile phone = 77% Use internet anywhere= 48% Have digital TV = 40%



High-definition television (or HDTV, or just HD) refers to video having resolution substantially higher than traditional television systems (standard-definition TV, or SDTV, or SD). HD has one or two million pixels per frame, roughly five times that of SD. Early HDTV broadcasting used analog techniques, but today HDTV is digitally broadcast using video compression. In the UK, it is a must for everyone to have a HDTV with the HD resolution by 2010.

Element of preposition Instant access Personalization Security

Evaluation Availably rapidly Less practical than PC and mobile phone because only several viewer Credit card detail can be held by the iDTV provider. Making it unnecessarily to enter personal detail.

Distribution interactivity E.g: Video on demand

Information interactivity E.g: Play games and chatting via SMS and advert product on TV

Participation interactivity E.g: Viewer can choose different camera angle in a football match. There's no return path in this case.

Component of an Interactive digital TV system
Cable Satellite dish Smart card Remote control




Managers of e-commerce services need to monitor the adoption of new access devices for the internet. An e-commerce infrastructure should be designed to readily enable new access media as they develop.