To nv leIoved falhei vho has devoledIv given ne and
laughl ne a gieal deaI, and, foi vhon I suppIicale AIIah lo
lIess his Iife and ievaid hin as deaiIv as he has done ne.
The Aulhoi
IoIvganv is a piaclice lhal has leen heaviIv, fienziedIv and
ceaseIessIv assaiIed lv oiienlaIisls lo caII gieal IsIan inlo
seiious queslions and naIign ils honesl nessengei
IoIvganv vas veilaIIv allacked as eaiIv as lhe eia of
Iiophel Muhannad hinseIf, vhen Ievs allenpled lo casl
doulls on lhe vaIidilv of lhe svslen.
Onai, vho vas Chafia's sIave, naiialed, "Ievs, upon seeing
Iiophel Muhannad (peace le upon hin) naiiving a gieal
deaI of vonen, said: Look al lhis nan vho nevei eals his
fuII, and vho, ve sveai lv Cod, is keenIv inleiesled in
vonen". Thev seen lo have casl covelous eves on, and
found fauIl vilh, Iiophel Muhannad foi his poIvganous
piaclice. So covelous lhev veie lhal lhev said, nav AIIah
cuise lhen, "If he veie ieaIIv a piophel, he vouId nol le so
eageiIv inleiesled in vonen". Huvav son of Akhlal, a
Ieading Iev, vas lhe one vho nosl ciilicized lhe piophel.
Hovevei, AIIah - exaIled le He - leIving lhen, loId lhen
aloul His giace and anpIilude of neans vhich He has
endoved His piophel vilh. Maiking lhe occasion, AIIah has
ieveaIed lo His piophel lhe veise ieading, "Oi do lhev envv
nankind foi vhal AIIah has given lhen oul of His
, iefeiiing lo His piophel Muhannad. The sane
veise goes lo sav fuilhei "ßul We had aIieadv given lhe
peopIe of Aliahan lhe ßook and Wisdon, and confeiied
upon lhen a gieal Kingdon", olviousIv iefeiiing lo vhal
AIIah - exaIled le He - has confeiied upon David and
SoIonon (peace le upon lhen lolh) of vives and fenaIe
sIaves: each one of lhen had naiiied noie lhan Iiophel
Muhannad (peace le upon hin) vas lo have Ialei.
Thioughoul ages, foes of lhis ieIigion, inside and oulside
aIike, have leen allenpling lo disciedil lhe piincipIe of
poIvganv, vilh lheii uIlinale goaI as leing lo pIunge
deepIv inlo skeplicisn lhe HoIv Ouian, lhe Shaii'ah and
Iiophel Muhannad hinseIf.
A MusIin counliv has caiiied nalleis lo such an
exaggeialive degiee lhal il has inlioduced a loughened-up
anli-poIvganv Iav on lhe nodeI of Weslein nalions.
In Lgvpl, Iihan, lhe vife of Iale piesidenl Anvai LI-Sadal,
has one dav allenpled a siniIai lan on poIvganv, lul
veII-giounded uIena (ieIigious schoIais) of AI-Azhai, and
The surah of "Al-Nisaa". or women, verse 54.
The Generations of the Prophet's Companions, volume 8, page 233.
nenleis of lhe enliie sveeping IsIanic liend, have
nanaged lo nip in lhe lud lhe allenpled laiiing of
poIvganv. (UnfoilunaleIv, Iihan did Ialei succeed in having
a ceilain Iav passed, vhich iegaided poIvganv as in ilseIf
posing hain lo lhe fiisl vife, lhus enpoveiing a fiisl vife lo
liing a Iavsuil foi divoice. In lhe vake of Iiesidenl Sadal's
nuidei, vilh his vidov having aInosl no infIuence lo
vieId, lhis Iav ailicIe has Ialei leen iescinded.
NeveilheIess, nedia have peisislenlIv leen having a lad
piess of poIvganv, lhough peinissilIe in lhe Shaii'ah. As
nedia have leen iidicuIousIv depicling poIvganisls, as
exhililed lv viIe, Iov-quaIilv fiIns and TV seiiaIs, lhev
have, al lhe sane line, leen aIIuiing enoinilies as a nallei
of jocuIaiilv. A secuIai vonan has even appeaied on an
inleinalionaI leIevision slalion IaleIv lo assaiI poIvganv as
inlioduced lv IsIan.
Sone olheis have leen so insoIenl and peiveise lo have
pulIished in a Caiio-lased veekIv nevspapei a sel of seiiaI
ailicIes undei lhe lilIe of "poIvganv is haian" - oi poIvganv
is nol peinilled lv ieIigion. So sinpIv an olscuie ignoianl
allenpl, vilh a fooIish and insane slioke of lhe pen, lo
suspend lhe appIicalion of confiined lexls of lhe HoIv
Ouian and Sunna (Tiadilions of lhe Iiophel).
IulIic opinion in MusIin nalions has even leen so Ied
asliav lhal vonen in Lgvpl's iuiaI aieas have leen
ciicuIaling a connon saving aloul a nan pIanning lo keep
anolhei vife lo lhe effecl lhal lhev vouId ialhei pioceed in
his funeiaI lhan pioceed in his naiiiage ceienonv.
These ieasons, and olheis, have pionpled ne lo viile lhis
look, vhich I iegaid as onIv a nodesl allenpl al ieclifving
faIIacious nolions and sliaighlening oul nalleis - and il is
AIIah aIone vhose assislance can le soughl in lhe face of aII
such lIasphenv.
Chapter One
Il is nol IsIan lhal has usheied in poIvganv. As hisloiicaIIv
confiined, poIvganv has leen knovn since ancienl lines - a
phenonenon as oId as nankind ilseIf Wilh poIvganv
having leen a connonpIace piaclice since Iaianoiac lines,
Ranses II - Ihaiaohs' nosl ceIelialed King (ieigned
1292-1225ß.C.)- Kepl eighl vives, and scoies of conculines
and fenaIe sIaves vho gave hin noie lhan one hundied
and fiflv sons and daughleis. TenpIe vaIIs, vilh lhe nanes
of vives, conculines and chiIdien insciiled on lhen, sland
vividIv in vilness of lhe piaclice. ßeaulifuI Oueen Nefeileii
vas lhe nosl ceIelialed of Ranses II's vives, foIIoved in
iank and oidei lv Oueen Asiva Nefei olheivise knovn as
Isis Nefei, vho loie hin his son King Meienlelah.
Meienlelah vas lo ascend lo lhe lhione Ialei foIIoving lhe
dealh of his falhei and eIdei liolheis.
Hisloiv looks give an accounl of Moses' Ihaiaoh as having
kepl seveiaI vives, incIuding Asiva (Mav AIIah le pIeased
vilh hei), vho vas his fenaIe cousin loo. Having faiIed lo
give hin anv chiIdien, she heId Moses lo hei loson vhen
hei naids picked hin up fion a lox fIoaling in lhe NiIe
Rivei. The HoIv Ouian ieIales hei sloiv in lhe suiah
(chaplei) of lhe "Naiialion" as foIIovs, "(Heie is) a jov of lhe
eve, foi ne and foi vou: do nol sIav hin. Il nav le lhal he
viII le of use lo us, oi ve nav adopl hin as a son".
The surah of "Al-Qasas", or Narration, verse 9.
IoIvganv vas nol Iess connonpIace duiing Aliahan's eia
lhan il had leen in ancienl Ihaiaonic lines. Hajai, Iiophel
Aliahan's second vife, gave liilh lo IshnaeI, vho vouId
have leen sIain, and vho is lhe foiefalhei of aII Aials. His
fiisl vife Saiah gave Iiophel Aliahan Ishaq. (Ieace le
upon lhen aII).
Iiophel Yaaqul (Iacol) kepl lvo sislei vives, vho veie his
naleinaI uncIe Lalan's lvo daughleis. In addilion lo lhe
lvo vives, naned Liva and RaheeI,
Iiophel Iacol had lvo
fenaIe sIaves, ovned lv hin and vilh lhen he used lo have
Iegilinale inlinacies as lhis piaclice has Iong leen knovn
vhen lhe fenaIe sIaves aie ovned lv lhe naslei. The foui
vonen Iiophel Iacol kepl - lhe lvo vives and lvo fenaIe
sIaves - gave hin lhe so-caIIed liiles (eIeven sons). Il vas his
vife RaheeI vho gave hin his son Yusuf, and Ialei gave hin
ßenjanin. She vas Iiophel Iacol's nosl leIoved vonan he
IegilinaleIv kepl.
Iiophel Davud (peace le upon hin) kepl seveiaI vives and
nuneious fenaIe sIaves. His son SoIonon, aIso a piophel,
had a Iol of vives and fenaIe sIaves.
In lhis conlexl, ve shouId nol Iel go unheeded lhe naIicious
iunois and gioss Iies deIileialeIv nongeied lv Ievs aloul
Iiophel Davud.
Combining two sisters as wives had until then been acknowledged and
has later been explicitly banned by the Quran.
Lnanouied of lhe vife of one of his niIilaiv connandeis,
Iiophel Davud is faIseIv cIained lo have senl hin lo his
dealh al lhe lallIefionl and naiiied his vidov.
Having leen as despicalIe as such, lhe Iie has leen
vehenenlIv disnissed as alsoIuleIv ungiounded lv najoi
inleipieleis of lhe HoIv Ouian, incIuding Iln Kalheei.
Inan Iln Kalheei has fuilhei lianded lhe puipoiled
incidenl as a Iie inleipoIaled lv Ievs, vhich shouId le
liushed aside.
A leIief in lhe infaIIiliIilv of piophels (peace le upon lhen
aII) is an invaiialIe piincipIe of liue failh. To iegaid chaslilv,
and nolIe nanneis, of piophels vilh lhe Ieasl skeplicisn is
lo le oulspokenIv infideI - ve seek iefuge vilh AIIah lhal ve
shouId nol le one of lhose casling doulls on chaslilv of
Iiophels Davud and SoIinan had nanv vives and scoies of
fenaIe sIaves sexuaIIv enjoved. Hence, one can nol peiceive
lhal eilhei one of lhen sliII needed noie vonen lo salisfv
his sexuaI desiies. Moieovei, il is nol Iess inpeiceplilIe lhal
il vas Iiophel David, vho had leen knovn lo olseive
fasling eveiv olhei dav, shouId iesoil lo nean liickeiv lv
gelling iid of his senioi connandei lo fiII in his pIace vilh
his vidov.
Ìbn Katheer in his book the "Ìnterpretation of the Holy Quran", the
interpretation of the Surah of Sad, verses from 21-25.
IoIvganv vas aIso videspiead in pie-IsIan Aialian
Inan AI-ßukhaii (nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hin) naiialed,
accoiding lo an aulhenlic chain of naiialois, lhal vhen
ChiIan of lhe Thaqif liile (a conpanion of lhe piophel)
enliaced IsIan he had len vives. Iiophel Muhannad
(nav peace le upon hin), said lo hin, 'SeIecl foui IegaI
vives of lhen".
Alou Davoud (nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hin) iepoiled in
his coIIeclion of piophelic Tiadilions, lhal Unavia of lhe
Assad liile said, "When I enliaced IsIan, I had eighl vives.
When I loId piophel Muhannad (nav peace le upon hin)
he said, "Keep foui of lhen".
AI Inan A!-Shafi'v (nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hin)
iepoiled lhal NavfaI son of Mu'aviva AI-DaiIanv said,
"When I enliaced IsIan, I had five vives, so Iiophel
Muhannad (nav peace le upon hin) said lo ne, "Keep
foui vives - vhonevei foui vou Iike - and divoice lhe
ienaining one".
Inan AI-ßukhaii iepoiled in lhe ßook of Niqah (WedIock)
lhal Iiophel Muhannad (nav peace le upon hin) nade a
lond of liolheihood lelveen AlduI-Rahnan son of Avf
and Saad son of AI-Rali AI-Ansaii. AI-Ansaii had lvo
vives, so he veiv geneiousIv offeied lo give AlduI-Rahnan
haIf his vives and piopeilv. AlduI-Rahnan iepIied, "Mav
AIIah lIess vou vilh voui vives and piopeilv. Iusl kindIv
shov ne lhe naikel and I can nanage nv affaiis".
IoIvganv vas fiequenl anong SIavic, vho nov accounl foi
Russians, Seils, Czechs and SIovaks, dolled aII aIong
Lilhuania, Lslonia, Macedonia, Ronania and ßuIgaiia.
Ceinans and Saxons aIso videIv piacliced poIvganv.
(Ceinans and Saxons aie lhe lvo najoi iaces lo vhich
aInosl aII lhe popuIalion of Ceinanv, Ausliia, SvilzeiIand,
ßeIgiun, lhe NelheiIands, Dennaik, Sveden, Noivav and
LngIand leIong). Iagans in Afiica, India, China, Iapan as
veII as olhei soulheasl Asian iegions have aIvavs leen
Di. Muhannad Iouad AI-Hasheni confiins "lhe Chuich as
having iecognized poIvganv up lo lhe 17
None of lhe foui gospeIs is knovn lo have expIicilIv laiied
poIvganv. Il so happened lhal sone Luiopean peopIes,
diclaled onIv lv non-poIvganv pagan liadilions, laiied lhe
piaclice of keeping noie lhan one vife. (OnIv sone peopIes
veie knovn lo have laiied poIvganv, since nosl Luiopean
peopIes - as nenlioned lefoie - piacliced il on lhe Iaigesl
possilIe scaIe). When lhal anli-poIvganv ninoiilv
conveiled lo Chiislianilv, il cIanped lhe liadilionaI
poIvganv lan dovn on lhe iesl of Chiislians. As line
passed lv, Chiislianilv vas incieasingIv, faIseIv lhough,
leIieved lo have essenliaIIv laiied poIvganv. Il is onIv an
oId liadilion cIanped lv sone dovn on lhe olheis
lhioughoul ages.
He himself converted to Ìslam from Christianity - refer to the book
named "Religions on the Scales" page 109.
Opponenls of poIvganv aie inviled lo pick up lhe gaunlIel -
if lhev can - and pioduce anv singIe ieIigious lexl oul of anv
of lhe Nev Teslanenl foui gospeIs, vhich piohilils
poIvganv. As lo lhe OId Teslanenl, olheivise knovn as
Toiah, il invoIves expIicil lexls lhal poIvganv vas an
accepled piaclice in lhe cieeds of Aliahan (AIIah's fiiend),
Isaac, Iacol, Davud, SoIinan as veII as olhei piophels senl
lo lhe ChiIdien of IsiaeI (peace le upon lhen aII as veII as
upon oui Iiophel Muhannad).
Lven sociaIIv, socioIogisls and hisloiians, incIuding
Wesleinaik, Hulihos, HiIIei and Cenluig, nole lhal
poIvganv vas videIv knovn onIv lo peopIes vho had
allained a consideialIe anounl of civiIizalion. Having
sellIed dovn al iivei vaIIevs as veII as iainv iegions, and
conveiled lo oiganized cuIlivalion and giazing, ialhei lhan
hunling, coIIecling foiesl fiuil and piinilive faining, lhose
peopIes adopled poIvganv as a videIv-accepled sociaI
svslen. Al an eaiIiei noie piinilive phase, il vas faniIv
unilv and nonoganv, vhich veie lhe pievaIenl sociaI
Those hisloiians and socioIogisls, quoled alove, go even
fuilhei lo announce lhal a voiId of noie civiIizalion lends
lo le heiaIdic of videi-scaIe poIvganv. The accounl given
lv lhose scienlisls- vho aie aII non-MusIins -slands in
leslinonv of lhe vaIidilv of poIvganv, as inlioduced lv
IsIan, and sliongIv iefules lhe aigunenl of lhose faIIacious
opponenls of poIvganv vho pIead lhal il has Iong leen
Theiefoie, poIvganv had leen, as so fai exhililed, a
connonIv -accepled piaclice even lefoie Iiophel
Muhannad (peace le upon hin) vas senl as a neicv lo aII
nankind. Hovevei, poIvganv as such vas alsoIuleIv
uniesliicled, as lhe nunlei of vives oi conculines - as
shovn lv exanpIes - vas IinilIess. A poIvganisl vas nol
iequiied lo faiiIv lieal his vives, noi had he lo do lhen anv
juslice, as Ialei slipuIaled lv IsIan.
So, if IsIan, vhich is as gieal, neicifuI and jusl as il is, has
oideied lhal vives le liealed on a pai vilh each olhei, pul
lhe nunlei of vives kepl lv a husland al one line al a
naxinun of foui vonen and lanned poIvganv if injuslice
is feaied on lhe pail of lhe husland - vhv do sone cone oul
and oljecl lo lhe piaclice so ignoianlIv and ovei sliingenlIv`
Does il sland lo ieason lhal vhen heaven descends neicv
upon us ve lhiov il lack lo lhe nosl ßeneficenl and nosl
Iie-IsIan connunilv vas liinfuI of diveise foins of
injuslice, ciine and enoinilies coveilIv and oveilIv aIike.
Il vas a vonan vho vouId aIvavs le viclinized. A
husland vouId aIvavs spend nosl of his line in lhe loson
of pioslilules, iecognized lv ied fIags iaised ovei lheii lenls,
and vouId go lack hone onIv vhen he is faligued, having
iun oul of nonev and phvsicaI slienglh. In lhe neanline, a
vife did nol daie lo iaise hei voice in oljeclion.
Anolhei husland vouId slav foi seveiaI nonlhs in a iov
vilh a vife of his, vhon he consideis lhe nosl leaulifuI of
aII, confeiiing gifls and enoinous nonev excIusiveIv on his
chiIdien lv hei, vilh lhe olhei vife oi vives - Iel aIone lheii
chiIdien - nevei daiing lo ailicuIale a singIe void in
iesislance lo lhis gioss inequaIilv.
So vhal if IsIan has peinilled poIvganv naking il
iesliicliveIv hinging upon juslice, neicv as veII as naiilaI
dulies and liilule lo aII vives and chiIdien on a pai vilh
each olhei - vhv do ve iejecl il and assaiI vilh alusive
voids lhe divine IegisIalion, Iiophel Muhannad (peace le
upon hin) and lhe enliie ieIigion.
TiuIv il is nol lheii eves lhal aie lIind, lul lhe heails in lheii
Chapter Two
Mouineis vaIking in lhe funeiaI piocession of Iiance's Iale
piesidenl Iiancois Milleiiand vhispeied oul of
aslonishnenl and cuiiosilv vhen lhev sav a Iadv veaiing a
lIack hal and lhick, daik sungIasses, acconpanied lv a
lIonde giiI vhose face shoved lhal she vas ieaIIv and
deepIv in giief, paving Iasl iespecls lo lhe piesidenl's dead
lodv as lhev vaIked side lv side vilh lhe Iale piesidenl's
vidov. Hovevei, lhe funeiaI luined lopsv-luivv vhen il
vas ieveaIed lhal lhe Iadv vas lhe Iale piesidenl's nisliess
and lhe lIonde giiI vas his iIIegilinale chiId given liilh lo
lhiough naiilaI infideIilv.
Indeed, il is Iaiis, lhe voiId's nosl fanlaslic and fieakv cilv:
lhe vife and lhe nisliess seen vaIking side lv side, having
seeningIv deveIoped nuluaI undeislanding and accoid lhal
il vas lhen no use vving vilh each olhei aflei Milleiiand
hinseIf had passed avav.
Sone line Ialei, a Svedish fenaIe jouinaIisl, idenlified as
Kiislina Ioisen, ieIeased a look caIIed "Iiancois ToId Me" -
lv Iiancois she neanl lhe Iale Iiench piesidenl Iiancois
Milleiiand. The look and lhe exciling pholos on lhe inside
pages shoved a sinfuI Iove sloiv and anolhei naiilaI
infideIilv vilh hei lv lhe Iale Iiench piesidenl - nuch lo lhe
suipiise of Iiance and lhe enliie voiId.
Inleivieved lv najoi nevspapeis of Iiance and lhe voiId,
vhich iushed lo have Ienglhv laIks vilh hei on hei affaii
vilh piesidenl Milleiiand, Kiislina Ioisen discIosed lhal hei
Iove affaii vilh lhe piesidenl ian foi 17 veais. One such
nevspapei, "Iiance Soii" iepoiled "Maivin" - an
eighl-veai-oId handsone lov Iiving vilh Kiislina - as
having iIIegilinaleIv leen loin lo hei lv Iaiisian
phiIandeiei Milleiiand.
DecIining lo idenlifv Maivin's falhei lo piofession
coIIeagues, she veIIed, "He is nv ovn son aIone! And I viII
nol evei nake knovn his falhei's nane. I viII nol Iel
anvlodv liespass on lhis veiv piivale pail of nv Iife".
Recounling hei affaii vilh Milleiiand fion lhe veiv
leginning, Kiislina said lhal she had fiisl nel hin in 1979
vhen she vas inlioduced lo hin lv lhe Iale Svedish piine
ninislei OIof IaIne as an enlhusiaslic jouinaIisl vho vished
lo inleiviev hin. AIlhough he vas as doulIv oId as she vas,
an age disciepancv nevei hindeied a ieIalion lo giov.
Connenling on lhe age disciepancv, she said, "In such cases
nanes, ages and posilions faII deepIv inlo olIivion. We lhen
onIv iecaII a sense of ecslasv, leing eniapluied in Iosl
Kiislina vas nevei ashaned vhen lhe Iiench piess aIIuded
lo hei as having leen a lhoin iighl inlo lhe heail of lhe
Iiench piesidenl's faniIv. Ansveiing lack, she said,
"Neilhei his faniIv, lhe enliie poIilicaI quaileis, noi
anvlodv aiound hin can assaiI oi dispaiage ne. SinpIv,
lhev did nol have vhal I had, so lhev had lo vilhdiav
quielIv. Thev ieaIized lhal I vas lo hin lhe lieeze, vhich he
fieeIv liealhed in, oul of his goIden case and his loiing
liadilionaI Iife! Il vas I vho lioke lhe loiedon he had leen
feeIing lhioughoul his Iife lefoie he nel ne: he found
vilhin ne an independenl appioach of lhinking aloul aII
nalleis of his Iife, vhich he had nevei expeiienced lefoie".
Kiislina iecounled a gieal deaI vhich peopIe did nol knov
aloul piesidenl Milleiiand. She discIosed lhal lhev had a
piivale house in lhe voods, vheie lhev nel unnoliced lv
his vife, lhe piess, oi even, his peisonaI guaids. In shoil,
lhev onIv needed a snaII officiaI docunenl, vhich vouId
have nade lhe affaii a Iegilinale and cIean one, and
inpailed Iegilinacv and sociaI iespeclaliIilv lo lheii son
Maivin, lul lhev had nol done so.
Lgvplian veleian coIunnisl Anees Mansoui viole in his
daiIv "AI-Ahian" nevspapei coIunn on Iiance's poIilician
Ceoige CIenenceau, vhon he desciiled as lhe ligei of
Iiance's poIilics. Mansoui said, "Ceoige CIenenceau vho
Iived lelveen 1841 - 1929, vaged hoiiilIe poIilicaI lallIes
and defealed eveivlodv vhon he foughl. He vas alIe lo
laIk lo lvenlv peopIe aloul lvenlv suljecls al one and lhe
sane line! Hovevei, no one had evei peiceived lhal lhe
shievd poIilician kepl 8OO nisliesses, vho gave liilh lo
foilv iIIegilinale chiIdien".
Mansoui fuilhei said "ßul vhen he knev lhal his Aneiican
vife vas expeiiencing naiilaI infideIilv, he gol up al
nidnighl and opened lhe dooi lo Iel hei go dovn lhe slieel
in hei nighldiess. CIenenceau, Iike aII hunan voIves,
despised vonen nosl. Nolodv eIse assaiIed, oi dispaiaged,
vonen as he did eilhei on his pIavfuI led oi iIIness led."
In Ausliia, lhe piess has exposed Iiesidenl Thonas KIesliI
as laking a nisliess vho vas an enpIovee vilh lhe Minisliv
of Ioieign Affaiis. Nevspapeis have liacked lheii ieIalion
lack lo lhose veais vhen he had heId lhe posilion of
Minislei of Ioieign Affaiis lefoie he assuned piesidencv.
The scandaI liiggeied off has senl his vife Ldilh KIesliI
Ieaving lhe house in angei and denanding divoice.
In 1994, Chinese docloi Li Zi Zhui ieIeased an inleiesling
look in lhe US aloul lhe Iife of Chinese Ieadei Mao Tse
Tung caIIed "The ßailaiic Life of Chaiinan Mao". The look
is excIusiveIv devoled lo Mao's piivale Iife as cIoseIv seen lv
docloi Li, vho vas lhe Chinese Ieadei's piivale docloi.
Li savs in his look lhal Mao Tse Tung vas lhe alsoIule
goveinoi of one of lhe voiId's nosl poveifuI nalions. He
vas a Connunisl lvianl vhose oideis couId nol le checked
and capiices had lo le neekIv vieIded lo. He vas a savage
voIf vho vas nevei salisfied vilh sex, changing giiIs as
sinpIv as he changed his socks and shoes. He vouId lhiov
noisv laIIs, aiianged lv his assislanls, lo pick up vhonevei
giiI he desiies fion lhe hundieds of voung giiIs allending.
The aulhoi docloi fuilhei ieIales lhal chaiinan Mao
leIieved lhal sex vas lhe onIv vav lo pioIong Iife. He
deveIoped a Iol of conlagious veneieaI diseases and look
nuch deIighl in connunicaling lhe disease lo as nanv
Chinese giiIs as possilIe, vho vouId, sliangeIv enough,
loasl having conliacled lhe disease as lhe onIv evidence of
having acluaIIv nel lhe Chinese Ieadei.
Iiesidenl CaiIos Menen of Aigenlina has aIso leen
invoIved in counlIess sexuaI encounleis, vilh voiId
nevspapeis daiIv uncoveiing his scandaIs, lhough such
scandaIous sloiies have nol, of couise, deleiied hin. Having
faiIed lo cuil his scandaIous advenluies, his vife has had lo
gel divoice in lhe vake of a ciushing dispule.
As lo US Ieadeis, one can laIk IinilIessIv aloul lheii Iove
affaiis and sexuaI encounleis, as lhe US peopIe does nol evei
iecognize anvlhing as coveil al aII. The US peopIe is a
scandaI-nongeiing peopIe, especiaIIv if lheie is a ceIeliilv
invoIved, vhalevei lhe aiea lhev nav le in! Thev do nol
pIace anv Iid on lhe pulIicalion - lv anv neans vhelhei il le
lhe piess, iadio oi leIevision - of anv peison vhalevei, his
posilion, infIuence oi veaIlh. ßooks scandaIizing senioi
goveinnenl oi lusiness peopIe aie Iapped up lv Aneiicans
and aie lesl seIIeis.
One such exciling look is "Inside lhe While House",
aulhoied lv fanous US jouinaIisl RonaId KissIei. In his
look, KissIei puisues lhe vhins and Iove affaiis of nosl
piesidenls of lhe voiId's nosl poveifuI nalion, dovn lo lhe
ninule delaiIs of lhe sexuaI infideIilies conducled lv each
one of lhen.
The ugIv piesidenl of lhe US, Linden Iohnson, nade Iove lo
five of lhe eighl secielaiies he had iighl al lhe heail of lhe
While House. He vouId feiiel foi piellv vonen anid
ieceplion ciovds: vhen he found oul one, he senl one of his
aides lo liing hei lo hin, as piesidenliaI vishes have lo le
nade liue.
One dav Ladv ßiid, Iiesidenl Linden Iohnson's vife, opened
lhe dooi of lhe While House's OvaI Office lo find hei
husland in a posilion of indecenl exposuie vilh a secielaiv,
iighl vilh lhe sane office as he ieceived visiling voiId
Ieadeis. IoIIoving a healed delale, Iiesidenl Iohnson caIIed
his peisonaI guaids and veIIed al lhen lhal lhev shouId
have done anvlhing lo slop hei. One of lhen liaveIv
iepIied, "We did nol nake anv nislake: lhis is voui piolIen
Nolvilhslanding, lhe US piesidenl peisisled in his liash
lehavioi. AII vhal he did vas lo oidei an "eaiIv aIain"
svslen al lhe Iifl lo vain hin lefoiehand lhal his vife vas
on lhe vav, so lhal he nighl nol le caughl ied-handed in
lhe veiv acl of naiilaI infideIilv. If lhe guaids see his vife
heading foi lhe Iifl Ieading up lo lhe OvaI Office, lhev
shouId give hin a iing lo Iel hin knov his vife is on hei
vav foi hin lo gel lucked.
Iiesidenl Iohnson had Iove affaiis vilh olhei fenaIe
jouinaIisls and giiIs, vhon his assislanls vouId pinp foi
hin. On a singIe occasion, Iiesidenl Iohnson lioughl lhiee
giiIs in one lalch fion his Texas fain and appoinled lhen
as While House enpIovees lo le al his leck and caII.
Iiesidenl IiankIin RooseveIl of lhe US, vho cane lo povei
in 1933 and vas ie-eIecled foi a lhiid lein of office in 194O,
vas highIv vonanizing, aIlhough he noved on a vheeI
chaii. His nosl fanous nisliess vas a vonan idenlified as
Lucv Ralheifoid. He nel hei ieguIaiIv vhen his vife
LIeanoi RooseveIl vas avav.
Rulh, lhe foinei US piesidenl Iinnv Cailei's sislei, vas a
Chiislianizing pieachei, oi, as olheivise caIIed in lhe Wesl,
vas in lhe nissionaiv aclivilv. She vouId pieach on
heaven's leachings, caIIing on non-Chiislians lo conveil lo
Chiislianilv. AII of a sudden, lhe liulh unfoIded: she vas
deepIv invoIved in a sexuaI ieIalion vilh Ceinanv's foinei
chanceIIoi WiIIie ßiandl. US and Ceinan nevspapeis
exlensiveIv iepoiled, in delaiI, on lhe Iove affaii lelveen lhe
"naiiied pieachei" and lhe foinei Ceinan ChanceIIoi. The
Chiislian pieachei's husland vas lhe Iasl lo knov aloul his
vife's sexuaI infideIilv.
Lxpeiiencing lhe sane silualion vas one of lhe nosl fanous
Chiislian pieacheis in lhe US and lhe enliie voiId, naneIv
cIeigvnan Iinnv Svaggail vho engaged in a veiv fanous
delale vilh lhe gieal IsIanic pieachei Sheikh Ahnad Didal.
The ceIelialed Chiislianizing pieachei conceded, as najoi
leIevision slalions, in delaiI, veie inleivieving hin having a
sexuaI ieIalion vilh a pioslilule. Hovevei, il vas Svaggail
hinseIf vho vouId aIvavs, lefoie leing scandaIized, pieach
viilue and shov in a lad Iighl poIvganv as veII as olhei
leachings inlioduced lv IsIan, vhiIe he hinseIf vas
induIged up lo his eais in a fiIlhv niie of sins vhich he
vouId foilid his foIIoveis lo even appioach.
Hence, Svaggail, vho had laIked alusiveIv aloul liue
IsIan, has loppIed ovei and faIIen, pulIicIv confessing lhal
lhe ciicIes of Chiislianizing pieacheis have aIvavs leen lhe
scene of lhe nosl hoiiilIe and iepugnanl pioslilulion,
honosexuaIilv and naiilaI infideIilv. (And sav: "Tiulh has
(nov) aiiived, and IaIsehood peiished: Ioi IaIsehood is (lv
ils naluie) ßound lo peiish").
The Iale US piesidenl Iohn Kennedv acquiied voiIdvide
noloiielv foi having leen sexuaIIv infideI vilh a Iol of
vonen. His nosl ceIelialed nisliess had leen lhe suIliv
acliess MaiiIvn Monioe, vho vas Ialei nvsleiiousIv
nuideied. The kiIIing is leIieved lo have leen
nasleininded lv lhe US CenliaI InleIIigence Agencv, CIA.
Roleil, piesidenl Iohn Kennedv's voungei liolhei, vas aIso
invoIved in a ieIalion vilh Monioe al lhe sane line as his
eIdei liolhei had an affaii vilh hei, and used lo neel hei in
his office, vhen he vas lhe US geneiaI alloinev.
Iiesidenl Kennedv had laken lens of nisliesses lefoie he
lied lhe knol vilh IacqueIvn. Tvo of his secielaiies,
idenlified as lIonde VideI and liunelle IadeI, as veII as a
lhiid giiI idenlified as Iudilh CanpeI, vho voiked vilh
Mafia, veie anong lhose vhon he had leen vonanizing
vilh lefoie he naiiied IacqueIvn.
Lven lhe foinei US piesidenl Ceoige ßush did nol suivive
leing caughl in lhe ciossfiie of liaded naiilaI infideIilv
chaiges. US, aulhoi Susan Tienfu ciled in one of hei looks a
The surah of "Ìsma", or the prophet's trip from Mecca to Jerusalem,
verse 81.
senioi US deIegale lo Ceneva disainanenl laIks as having
aiianged a naking-Iove neeling lelveen lhe lhen US
vice-piesidenl Ceoige ßush (duiing lhe eia of piesidenl
RonaId Reagan) and Iennifei, vho vas an assislanl lo ßush.
The neeling look pIace in a Ceneva gueslhouse in 1984. Of
couise, najoi nevspapeis and TV slalions scandaIousIv
pulIicized lhe iendezvous.
Hovevei, il is incunlenl US Iiesidenl ßiII CIinlon vho has
leen lhe nosl noloiious hunan voIf of aII US piesidenls in
posl-Kennedv eia. He has leen ie-eIecled lo a second lein
of office despile aII lhe fuioie spaiked off lv his scandaIous
sexuaI infideIilies, videIv exhililed lv hundieds of looks,
ieseaiches as veII as piess and TV iepoils.
Iiesidenl ßiII CIinlon has hinseIf confessed lo his videIv
iepoiled sexuaI affaiis. AsseiliveIv decIining lo eIaloiale on
anv of such Iove affaiis, Iiesidenl CIinlon has confiined lhe
exposuie lv nedia of his piivale affaiis as having Ied hin
inlo a deep faniIv ciisis, vhich vouId have senl his
naiiiage luisling al lhe seans.
Iiesidenl CIinlon's Iisled nisliesses aie lo lhe lune of lhiilv
The nosl ceIelialed of lhen aII has leen Monica Levinskv,
lhe cenleipiece of lhe "Monicagale" scandaI. ßecause of his
affaii vilh hei, Iiesidenl CIinlon has leen inpeached, anid
pulIic oulciies lhal he shouId le ousled. Inleivieved lv TV,
she has conceded, in delaiI, lo le invoIved in a sexuaI affaii
vilh lhe piesidenl.
ßefoie Monica, lheie had aIso leen Iennifei IIoveis, IauIa
Iones and scoies of olheis.
A iecenlIv pulIished look, caIIed "In lhe Lollv of
Congiess", ieveaIs scoies of sexuaI scandaIs nade lv
ieveienl iepiesenlalives and senalois al lhe veneialIe US
Moieovei, counlIess sex-nolivaled ciines, incidenls and
scandaIs aie daiIv iepoiled lv lhousands of nevspapeis,
nagazines as veII as iadio and TV nelvoiks in lhe Wesl as
having leen nade lv ceIelialed poIilicians, spoilsnen,
aclois and peopIe in aII vaIks of Iife.
We have had lo pulIish sone of lhose sexuaI scandaIs,
vhich said lo le done lv connunilv Ieadeis in lhose
counliies lhal lan poIvganv. IoIvganv is nol onIv
piohililed in such nalions, lul penaI codes in so nanv of
lhen nake il a punishalIe nisdeneanoi vhich caiiies a
piison lein, vheieas aduIleiv goes unheeded if il lakes
pIace lv connon consenl! We aie asseiliveIv saving lhal
such an anounl of fiIlh has had lo le exposed and lioughl
inlo lhe spolIighl lo Iel lhose vho iise up in ains againsl
poIvganv le knovIedgealIe aloul vhal an innoiaI
aIleinalive lheie is lo il.
A Iine of denaicalion is lhus leing dislincliveIv diavn
lelveen vhal is viong and vhal is iighl of lhe issue in
queslion. IoIvganv is a ieaIilv vhich cannol le disnissed as
non-exisling, vhelhei il le peinilled - as so slipuIaled lv
IsIan - oi nol as lhe case is in nanv of lhe non-MusIin
connunilies, vheie iIIegilinale ieIalions do exisl on lhe
Iaigesl peiceivalIe scaIe in pIace of poIvganv.
The silualion, as lhus fai ievieved, conslilules a queslion lo
lhose dved-in- lhe- vooI occidenlaIisls vho adananlIv iesisl
poIvganv as peinilled lv Shaii'a, vhich is noie giacefuI
and honoialIe, poIvganv oi a nuIlilude of nisliesses` Do
vou peinil an inlinacv onIv on lhe chasle nupliaI led, oi
vou viII le doing as diclaled lv Salan in lolh lhe easl and
Men have nol evei leen knovn lo oulnunlei vonen in anv
counliv acioss lhe gIole. On lhe conliaiv, officiaI slalislicaI
figuies denole olheivise. (A sepaiale chaplei viII le
devoled lo a ieviev of such slalislics). Moieovei, if nen
piesunalIv, onIv foi lhe sake of aigunenl, oulnunlei
vonen, poIvganv viII sponlaneousIv faII oul of piaclice
and anv delale ovei il viII onIv le fuliIe.
Chapter Three
Opponenls of poIvganv do, in facl, iegaid lhe piaclice fion
onIv lhe singIe vievpoinl of vives iegaidIess of hundieds of
niIIions of IoneIv, vielch vonen dolled eveivvheie
aiound lhe voiId. This has vividIv leen denonslialed al
discussions I have had vilh hundieds of nen and vonen
fion counliies as videIv apail as Iiaq, Sviia, Lelanon,
Tunisia, Azeilaijan, Tuikev, Iiance, Ceinanv, SvilzeiIand,
ßosnia and Heizegovina, Cioalia, lhe US, Cvpius, Saudi
Aialia and Lgvpl of couise.
Keeping anolhei vife is highIv deliinenlaI, and does gioss
inequaIilv, lo lhe fiisl vife, nanv poIvganv opponenls
poIIed lv ne do pIead. Thev aigue lhal a poIvganisl's vife
Ioses a haIf of hei husland lo a second vife, lvo lhiids lo a
second and lhiid vives, vhiIe ielains onIv a quailei of hei
husland if he keeps lhiee olhei vives lesides hei.
Thev aIso aIIegedIv sav lhal a husland, naiiied lo noie
lhan one vife, cannol nele oul juslice lo lhen. Thev cile, oul
of conlexl, a veise of lhe HoIv Ouian, saving, "You aie nevei
alIe lo le faii and jusl as lelveen vonen, even if il is voui
aidenl desiie", inlenlionaIIv skipping lhe iesl of lhe veise
saving, "ßul do nol luin avav (fion a vonan) aIlogelhei, so
as lo Ieave hei (as if veie) hanging (in lhe aii). If vou cone
lo a fiiendIv undeislanding, and piaclice seIf-iesliainl oul of
AIIah's feai, AIIah is ofl foigiving and Mosl MeicifuI".
On lhe pages lo foIIov an inleipielalion of lhe afoiesaid
veise viII le given, incIuding diveise opinions as given lv
connenlalois, in oidei lo shed Iighl upon lhe piovisions sel
foilh lv lhe veise vhich iun on a coIIision couise vilh lhe
slandpoinl nade pulIic lv poIvganv opponenls.
Hovevei, an aIIeged deliinenl done lo lhe fiisl vife has,
alove aII, lo le iefuled. Il is nol liue lhal onIv gelling
naiiied lo anolhei vife does gioss injuslice lo lhe fiisl one,
as lhev faIseIv cIain, since she nusl have assuiedIv ieaIized
lhal il is IsIan vhich so enpoveis hin - so Iong as lhe
vives kepl al one line aie nol in excess of foui.
Theiefoie she has no iighl vhalsoevei lo lai hin fion
naiiving anolhei vife, oi olhei vives, unIess she has,
lefoiehand, allached a ieIevanl condilion vhen viiling oul
lhe naiiiage conliacl. She is nol enpoveied lo nake a
naiilaI lie onIv nonoganous, vheieas AIIah has lesloved
upon huslands, vhen financiaIIv secuie and phvsicaIIv alIe,
a Iicense of poIvganous naiiiages.
Second, AIIah, as lhe uIlinale Iav and Shaii'a givei, has onIv
iesliicliveIv nade access lo poIvganv, naking il alsoIuleIv
incunlenl upon a poIvganisl lo adninislei juslice lo aII
vives kepl al a line. A vife undei a piaclice as such
iesliicled viII nevei le sliipped of hei husland, shouId lhe
Iallei gel naiiied lo anolhei oi olheis. He is olIiged lo
Verse number is 129, the surah of Women.
equaIIv piovide foi aII vives, and lo juslIv disliilule
eveivlhing anong lhen incIuding equaIIv slaving oveinighl
vilh each one of lhen. AIlhough a vife in such a posilion
viII have Iess of hei husland, she viII nol le Iosing hin,
once and foi aII, lo a nisliess oi noie.
Thiid, Iife necessilales lhal each of lhe lvo spouses shouId
pailiaIIv saciifice lheii desiies lo lheii nuluaI inleiesl, lo lhe
connunilv's pulIic inleiesl oi even lo lhe olhei spouse's
lenefil if one spouse is ieaIIv in Iove vilh lhe olhei. IsIan
alhois egocenliicilv, caIIing foi aIliuisn ialhei lhan hideous
Novadavs, niIIions of huslands liaveI alioad foi one veai
oi noie in puisuil of lheii IiveIihoods, Ieaving lehind lheii
vives and chiIdien. Much lo oui suipiise, lhose Ianenling
lhal a vife of a poIvganisl viII have Iess of hei husland do
nol evei ullei anv oljeclion lo a vife lolaIIv sliipped, foi
ages, of hei husland vho is aIvavs avav eaining his
IiveIihood alioad. ConveiseIv, lhev pionole such a piaclice
as a najoi haid-cuiiencv eainei foi lhe goveinnenl, even al
lhe expense of vives.
The facl lhal hundieds of niIIions of huslands aie ieciuiled
in lhe ained seivices aII ovei lhe voiId, Ieaving lheii vives
and chiIdien lehind foi lhe sake of defending one's nalion,
has nol evei piovoked a pulIic oulciv lhal nen shouId le
kepl leside lheii faniIies ialhei lhan senl lo lhe ainv: oi is il
a queslion of onIv disnanlIing AIIah's Shaii'a`
Sone olhei nen Ieave on liade nission, oi foi sludving al
univeisilies in olhei nalions, vilh lhe naiiied of lhen
having, as a nallei of couise, lo Ieave aIone vives unliI lhev
have conpIeled sludving in a fev veais' line. Hovevei,
opponenls of poIvganv do nol oljecl, despile lhe facl lhal a
poIvganisl husland goes lack lo his vife's loson in a dav,
lvo davs oi even a veek: vhiIe a husland on a liade oi
sludving nission is avav foi al Ieasl a veai, oi even veais as
exhililed alove`
One noie significanl facl has lo le laken inlo accounl:
naneIv a vife is nol aIvavs avaiIalIe foi naking Iove lo. In
lhe vake of chiIdliilh, duiing a foilv-dav posl-liilh
lIeeding peiiod, an inlinacv (sexuaI inleicouise) is
alsoIuleIv foilidden. The husland hinseIf nav le laken iII,
keeping avav fion lhe nupliaI led foi soneline as a iesuIl:
he vife, in hei luin, nav aIso deveIop anv soil of disease
vhich lends lo esliange hei fion hei husland foi a vhiIe
loo. This is lhe naluiaI couise of nalleis, vhich cannol le
lvpassed oi olslinaleIv ignoied. Nol Ieasl lo le foigollen is
nensliualion, vhich keeps fIoving fion a veek lo a foilh
nighl in sone cases, sending huslands avav fion anv
inlinacv unliI il lolaIIv slops fIoving.
In a nulsheII, lheie is no such a husland vho is gIued lo his
vife aII lhe line. Lven a heaIlhv iesiding husland has al
piesenl lo lun lhe nidnighl oiI foi a slepped-up incone foi
his faniIv, in vhich case he is aIvavs lack hone so Iale al
nighl. Theiefoie, lhe facl lhal nol so nanv huslands aie
soIeIv devoled lo enleilaining vives has lo le inaigualIv
conceded. ConsequenlIv, poIvganv shouId nol lhus le
exaggeialiveIv nagnified as exacling a heavv loII of gioss
inequaIilv on lhe fiisl vife.
Iouilh, vhich is piefeialIe if a naiiied nan is enanouied
of anolhei vonan: shouId he divoice lhe fiisl one - in vhich
case she nav le iII, aged oi infeiliIe - oi he had lellei ielain
hei in vedIock and Iel hei enjov lhe sane piiviIeges as lhe
olhei vife, oi olhei vives, on a pai`
Iiflh, is il nol noie giacefuI and honoialIe foi a husland lo
naiiv lhe vonan vhon he is enanouied of, ialhei lhan
laking hei as onIv a conculine in daikness sliipped of anv
iighls, logelhei vilh hei guiIlIess vouId-le offspiing vho
vouId olheivise end up in oiphanage if lhe falhei is nol
aIIoved lo naiiv lheii nolhei`
Sixlh, if officiaIIv-ieIeased slalislics in nanv pails of lhe
voiId have aIieadv sulslanlialed a cIain lhal vonen noie
lhan doulIv oulnunlei nen, vilh peisisling vai cIaining
noie Iives and sending nuch videi apail lhe aIieadv
gaping disciepancv lelveen lhe nunleis of lolh gendeis,
hov can lhis giave disequiIiliiun le offsel And vhal a
gIoonv fale is lheie in sloie foi hundieds of niIIions of
pooi, niseialIe Iadies vho have Iosl lhe spouse vho
nainlained lhe faniIv, oi sland an incieasingIv dinning
chance of picking up huslands in viev of scaicilv of nen, of
vhon niIIions have peiished in ialid, unlaiiing vai`H
ShouId ve iIIegilinaleIv alandon lhen unnaiiied, jusl
lecause a fevei vives aie so vonanIv egocenliic lhal lhev
cannol sland lhe nolion of lheii huslands leing shaied lv
olheis` Oi shouId ve Ieave lhen openIv susceplilIe lo
honosexuaIilv, laking Ioveis levond vedIock oi inhililion
and depiivalion`
LegisIalion, vhiIe caleiing lo diveise connunilv needs,
shouId aIvavs keep in nind an indispensalIe laIance
lelveen appaienlIv anlivaIenl inleiesls of iivaI connunilv
cIasses, such as a laIance sliuck lelveen enpIoveis and
enpIovees as veII as lelveen IandIoids and lenanls. Hence,
gieal IsIan sulslanliaIIv envisages a sociaI laIance lelveen
a videi najoiilv of lhe unnaiiied vonen, on lhe one hand,
and lhe naiiied ones, on lhe olhei. Il is nol faii, in Lgvpl, as
an exanpIe, lo Iel lhe scaIes heaviIv lip in favoi of eighl, oi
even len, niIIion vives againsl len niIIion olhei vonen and
giiIs vho eageiIv avail a faii shaie of Iife. Il is aInosl faii,
neicifuI and hunanilaiian lo Iel lhen shaie huslands vilh
lhose naiiied vonen foi enjoving nupliaI Iife, svnpalhv
and caie.
Theie is one noie poinl lioughl up lv opponenls of
poIvganv. Thev aIIege lhal a nan's sexuaI desiie cannol
onIv le cuiled lhiough poIvganv. Hovevei, lhis is an
olviousIv faIIacious cIain, iunning counlei lo ieaIilv and
lhe naluiaI couise of lhings. If a nan has lvo, lhiee oi foui
vives he fuIIv quenches, in nosl cases, his enolionaI and
sexuaI desiies, leconing nuch Iess susceplilIe lo sinning.
Mosl inpoilanl of aII, poIvganv is nol inlended onIv foi
quenching Iusl. As nenlioned alove, psvchoIogisls
undeiIine quenching an aidenl desiie foi enolion as noie
significanl lhan neieIv caleiing lo one's inslinclive sexuaI
need. Making Iove shouId nol le lhe onIv laigel of naiiiage.
LnolionaI lianquiIilv, passion, neicv, legelling good
offspiing, sociaI coheience lv naiiiage ieIalionship, as veII
as laking caie of, and pioviding foi, vonen and chiIdien aie
aII quaIilies vhich aie fai and levond having sex in oidei lo
cuil a gaIIoping desiie. Moieovei, nen aie as diveise in
viiiIilv ~ lhev aie in gIullonv.
Alove aII, poIvganv, as a svslen iecognized lv IsIan, is nol
iequiied lo iaise peopIe lo lhe Ioflv ianks of chasle, infaIIilIe
angeIs vho voiship AIIah aII lhe line and do as oideied:
noi has lhe gieal IsIanic Shaii'a nade il inpeialive on
MusIins lo lhus upgiade lhenseIves. We aie, in lhe fiisl
pIace, faIIilIe hunan leings. Hovevei, vhal Shaii'a ieaIIv
laigels is lo as nuch spaie socielv piospeclive eviIs as
possilIe: a MusIin shouId lhus le ained vilh aII vavs and
neans lhal viII uige hin lo Iovei his eves and keep his
genilaIs fion sin. AIIoving poIvganv is one such neans,
vilh lhe condilion of inpeialiveIv nainlaining equaIilv
anong aII vives. The silualion so ciealed lv gianling easiei
access lo poIvganv lends lo heIp vives, in luin, lo adheie lo
cIaiilv, puiilv, Ioveiing eves and pieseiving genilaIs fion
NeveilheIess, sone viII acl peiveiseIv. A case in poinl is
vhen lhe noden slale nakes jols avaiIalIe, lul sone,
despile Iegilinale jol avaiIaliIilv, lake peiveise deIighl in
Iaicenv, lhefl oi diug liafficking lo nake iIIicil gains. The
noden slale is onIv allenpling a cullack, as nuch as il can,
on lhose acling peiveiseIv, and lhis is exaclIv vhal lhe vise
IsIanic Shaii'a envisages. To ieduce lhe nunlei of offendeis
of AIIah's oideis has aIvavs leen an avesone goaI of lhe
Shaiia. (Lnpoveiing huslands lo have noie lhan one vife,
undei ceilain condilions and conlioIs, is a neans lo lhe end
of ieducing lhose sexuaIIv offending). To alsoIuleIv
eIininale offending is inpossilIe in lhe nundane voiId of
faIIilIe hunan leings vho can nol iesisl leing enliapped
inlo sinning, aIlhough, of couise, lhose, giappIing vilh lhe
eviI-alelling souI, vho iepenl and ieluin lo AIIah's foId aie
lhe noiaIIv lesl.
Il is sliII nolevoilhv lhal lheie aie eslinaled lens of niIIions
of vidovs and divoicees vho keep iunnaging aiound foi a
suslainei vho viII acl lhe conpassionale falhei lo lheii
chiIdien, even lhough he is nol al aII invoIved in anv nupliaI
ioIe, vilh lhe acluaI ieaIilv suppoiling lhis.
IauIls aIIegedIv nade lv sone poIvg4nisls shouId nol, lv
anv neans, ieckoned lo le liue IsIan. To ienedv such fauIls
cannol le achieved lv sciapping poIvganv ilseIf Ralhei,
naking peopIe noie knovIedgealIe aloul an indispensalIe
need foi adninisleiing juslice and aII-iound pielv and feai
of AIIah is lhe saIuliious ienedv. Again, an aleiianl pallein
of lehavioi lv sone poIvganisls shouId nol evei le
ieckoned as liue IsIan, sinpIv lecause il sveives fion ils
sliaighl noiaI palh.
In facl, vhal lhe connons do lv neling oul injuslice lo
vonen and unequaIIv liealing chiIdien is lhe innediale
consequence of a giave Iack of coiiecl IsIanic lenels.
Moieovei, nedia nake lhings aII lhe voise lv
disseninaling noiaI I v- sulveisive nolions and vaIues
vhich iun on a coIIision couise vilh gieal IsIan.
So neivousIv a voung genlIenan vondeied: vheie in lhe
fiisl pIace is lhal poIvganv vou aie laIking aloul, vhiIe
nosl voulhs cannol nanage lo have a jol, nodesl fIal oi
Mahi (nonev paid lv lhe gioon lo lhe liide in IsIan) lo
pav lo onIv one vonan lo naiiv` He venl on vondeiing: a
voulh Iike us keeps sciinping foi len veais on aveiage in
oidei lo uIlinaleIv piopose naiiiage lo haidIv one giiI, so
hov do vou denand voulh lo lake anolhei vife`
To ansvei lhis queslion is nuch sinpIei lhan oui fiiend
lhinks, vhon ve have lo excuse foi vhal he said in viev of
lhe facl lhal voulhs aie giaveIv financiaIIv sliapped in an
econonic ciisis-iidden IsIanic voiId, and foi vhich ve
suppIicale AIIah lo nighliIv Iifl il.
A laIk of poIvganv shouId, axionalicaIIv, le addiessed onIv
lo lhose so capalIe, ialhei lhan Iov-incone nascenl voung
genlIenen, foi vhon ve suppIicale AIIah lo suppoil, and
piovide foi, fion a souice lhev couId nol have inagined.
CapaliIilv is lhus indispensalIe foi anvone vishing lo
naiiv, nonoganisl oi poIvganisl le he.
CapaliIilv is idenlified as a nuIli-faceled quaiI. invoIving
lhe foIIoving:
fiislIv, enough soIvencv lo piovide foi vives and
chiIdien aIike:
secondIv, phvsicaI slienglh. An iII husland is nol
peiceived of as having nanv vives, vhiIe he cannol nake
his fiisl vife sexuaIIv salisfied lv caleiing lo hei Iegilinale
inslinclive sexuaI desiie. Theiefoie, a vouId-le poIvganisl
shouId le capalIe of having ieasonalIv enough inlinacies lo
nake his lvo oi noie vives sexuaIIv salisfied.
lhiidIv, lheie shouId le psvchoIogicaI slienglh lo
faiiIv deaI vilh vives on lhe pail of a vouId-le poIvganisl.
So, he shouId as nuch iesisl as possilIe his heailiIv sIanl
lovaids a pailicuIai one of lhen. LquaIIv pioviding foi,
slaving oveinighl vilh, and even pIaving and enleilaining
vives shouId le sleinIv appIied. His sIanled appioach lo a
pailicuIai one of lhen, if lheie is such a sIanl, shouId le
nade invisilIe and inpeiceplilIe so lhal he nav nol huil lhe
feeIings of lhe olhei vife oi vives.
In oui leIief, a poIvganisl husland shouId pul on a pai aII
of his vives, even in leins of lhe nunlei of inlinacies. This
is as cIose an appioach as possilIe lo lhe spiiil of lhe IsIanic
gieal IegisIalion, vhich iegaids in a veiv lad Iighl
unfaiiness oi inequaIilv in leins of anvlhing. He shouId
even iegaid, oi sniIe al, lhen equaIIv - lhis is cIosei lo pielv
and feai of AIIah. If he assuiedIv ieaIized lhal he vouId nol
le faii enough vhen deaIing vilh his vives, he shouId
inevilalIv lhen suffice hinseIf vilh onIv one vife and
divoice lhe olhei vife oi vives. Mav AIIah lhen piovide lhe
divoicee vilh anolhei husland, vho viII, ovei fIovingIv,
shov hei conpassion and Iove.
Sliange enough is one ceilain oljeclion againsl poIvganv,
vhich is faIseIv pIeaded as pulling al slake lhe enliie faniIv
and incieasing chiIdien al a line vhen lhe goveinnenl has
heaviIv leen living lo paie dovn lhe giovlh of popuIalion
lo head off a cIained inninenl popuIalion expIosion.
Those vho so cIain aie pulling lhe cail lefoie lhe hoise, as
il is a lan on poIvganv, vhich, on lhe conliaiv, eiodes lhe
veiv enlilv of socielv and faniIv. As exhililed lv figuies,
unnaiiied giiIs have leen slepping up in nunlei lhal lhev
aie, lv nanifoId, in excess of naiiied vonen. Againsl such
a lackdiop, if poIvganv is nol gianled easiei access,
sex-nolivaled peiveisilv, honosexuaIilv, psvchoIogicaI
disoideis, suicide, pioslilulion and laking nisliesses and
conculines viII le ianpanl aIong lhe Iines of Luiope's
denoiaIized connunilies. As foi an inciease in lhe nunlei
of chiIdien on accounl of poIvganv, il shouId le nade
knovn, levond lhe sIighlesl doull, lhal vhalevei souI AIIah
has oidained lo le ciealed, viII accoidingIv le ciealed and
given access lv AIIah lo lhis nundane voiId despile
vhalevei oljeclion oi iesislance lv vhonsoevei.
AII lheie viII le lhal a iespeclalIv-loin Iegilinale chiId -
vhose IegaI liilh lv a second, lhiid oi fouilh ieveied and
veII-leIoved vife is leing fieiceIv iesisled -viII inslead le
loin iIIegaIIv as a Iove chiId and le laking his vav dovn lhe
slieel oi lo an oiphanage, leconing in a fev veais' line a
haidened, piofessionaI ciininaI posing a giave nenace lo
lhe coie of sociaI slaliIilv and secuiilv.
Nov vilh lhe silualion so fai ievieved, do poIvganv
opponenls sliII iegaid lhis consequence as lellei lhan lhe
pieviousIv expIained iesuIl geneialed lv Iegilinale
poIvganv` One noie lhing has lo le uIlinaleIv speIl oul: if
hunan nassiveness is nanaged lo le piopeiIv cuIlivaled,
lioughl up and iefined, il viII geneiale an effeclive and
usefuI foice aIong lhe Iines of China, Iapan and lhe iesl of
Asian ligeis.
Hovevei, vhv can nol a vonan le a poIvganisl vife, jusl
as a poIvganisl husland` This is, of couise, a highIv naive
and funnv queslion al lhe sane line, lecause il oveiIooks
lhe naluie of lhings and vhal AIIah has Iodged inlo lhe
enlilv as veII as lhe phvsicaI and psvchoIogicaI sliucluie of
a vonan, vho is lhus ciealed lv AIIah lo le diaslicaIIv
diffeienl fion a nan. Iion a poinl of viev, il is inpossilIe
lo idenlifv an enlivo's IineaI descenl vhen a vife is
sIeeping aiound vilhin lhe sane peiiod of line. A silualion
lhus ciealed viII le lhal of alsoIule chaos fieakiIv invoIving
IineaI descenls as veII as sociaI and IegaI lies. Ioi exanpIe,
vhon viII lhis infanl, lhus loin, le an heii lo` Who is going
lo accepl hin as husland vhen he cannol idenlifv hinseIf as
having so and so falhei oi such and such liile oi faniIv`
Who, oul of lhose vilh vhon his nolhei has leen sIeeping
aiound vilh, viII le in chaige of laking caie of, and
pioviding, foi hin`
Iion anolhei slandpoinl, noden science has exposed a Iol
of kiIIei diseases vhich vonen susceplilIv deveIop vhen
senen lv diveise nen fIovs inlo lhe sane vonl -incIuding,
AIIah foilid, uleius and vaginaI canceis as veII as AIDS.
Thal a vife shouId excIusiveIv have one husland is an
eleinaI and innacuIale svslen inlioduced lv AIIah, lhe
Suslainei of lhe enliie univeise, vhich if fIouled, viII
ceilainIv vieak unleaialIe and unpiecedenled havoc upon
hunans. Il is onIv one husland vho shouId ejacuIale spein
inlo a vife's vonl, and cIaining olheivise onIv signaIs
fauIl and inevilalIe annihiIalion.
One noie lhing has lo le uIlinaleIv cIaiified: hov can a
nuIlilude of nen go inlo lhe ledioon of one and lhe sane
vife` ßv AIIah, dunl aninaIs do desisl fion such a pallein
of lehavioi, so a hunan, vhon AIIah has honoialIv
piefeiied lo olhei ciealuies, had lellei desisl fion
induIging hinseIf inlo such a quagniie`
Iiophel Muhannad's Tiadilions Conceining His Daughlei
Mosl poIvganv opponenls allenpl lo lake advanlageousIv
lhe incidenl of Iiophel Muhannad's (Ieace le upon hin)
decIining lo aIIov his cousin conpanion and son-in- Iav AIi
son of Alu-TaIel - vho vas naiiied lo lhe piophel's (peace
le upon hin) daughlei Ialina - lo naiiv lhe daughlei of
Anie son of Hishan, vhose iunning epilhel vas Alu-IahI
(IileiaIIv: "lhe Ignoianus"). Thev inaigualIv pIead lhal
Iiophel Muhannad (peace le upon hin), vhen iefusing lo
Iel AIi lake anolhei vife lesides Ialina, has invaIidaled lhe
oiiginaIIv vaIid and peinissilIe piincipIe of poIvganv, oi
has al Ieasl conceded deliinenl as laking a heavv loII on lhe
fiisl vife vhen lhe husland lakes anolhei vife, oi vives.
To invaIidale lhe aigunenl lhose poIvganv opponenls sav,
ve have, fiisl of aII, lo fuIIv cile lhe piophel's (peace le upon
hin) hadilh (saving) lo knov lhe ieasons foi vhich he has so
The hadilh iepoils AIi son of Alu-TaIel as having pioposed
naiiiage lo Alu-IahI's daughlei vhiIe he vas naiiied lo
Ialina, lhe daughlei of Iiophel Muhannad (peace le upon
hin). The iepoilei of lhe hadilh, idenlified as AI Misvai son
of Makhiana, savs, "I heaid AIIah's piophel addiess his
audience fion his puIpil, and I vas aduIl enough al lhe
line. He (peace le upon hin) said (Ialina leIongs lo ne
and I feai lhal she nav le lenpled oul of hei failh). The
iepoilei of lhe hadilh lhen ciled Iiophel Muhannad (peace
le upon hin) as highIv connending one of his in-Iavs fion
Ald-Shans cIan. The piophel (peace le upon hin) said "He
failhfuIIv laIked lo ne and honoied vhal he pionised ne lo
do" iefeiiing lo Alu-AI-Aas son of AI Rali'i (and I do nol
foilid vhal AIIah has nade peinissilIe, noi do I nake
peinissilIe vhal AIIah has foilidden. ßul, lv AIIah, nevei
viII lhe piophel's daughlei le neeling al lhe sane pIace
vilh lhe daughlei of AIIah's foe).
In lhe sane hadilh, lhough olheivise iepoiled in diffeienl
veisions, Iiophel Muhannad (peace le upon hin) said,
"The offspiing of Hishan son of AI-Mughiia have iequesled
nv consenl lo naiiv lheii daughlei off lo AIi son of
Alu-TaIel. ßul, heielv, I decIine lo give consenl, lhen I
decIine lo give lhen consenl, lhen I decIine lo give lhen
consenl, unIess AIi son of Alu-TaIel so vishes lo divoice
nv daughlei and naiiv lheii ovn. Mv daughlei leIongs lo,
and is pail and paiceI of, ne: vhalevei is huiling lo hei is
equaIIv huiling lo ne: and vhal exacls a loII on hei equaIIv
exacls a loII on ne".
In lhe foIIoving Iines ve viII le ievieving lhe eIucidalion of
lhe afoiesaid hadilh, vhich has leen iepoiled lv Inan
MusIin, (one of lhe liggesl aulhois of hadilhs coIIeclions) as
inleipieled lv Inan AI-Navavi.
Inan AI-Navavi expIains as foIIovs:
(Iuiisls have slaled: lhis hadilh caiiies a piohililion of
anvlhing hainfuI lo lhe piophel - peace le upon hin -vhiIe
aIive lv anv neans oi undei anv ciicunslances, even if lhis
hain is geneialed lv a nallei vhich is oiiginaIIv peinilled.
Iiophel Muhannad - peace le upon hin - has nade il
pulIicIv knovn lhal il is peinilled lo naiiv Alu-IahI's
daughlei lv having said, "I do nol foilid sonelhing vhich is
oiiginaIIv peinissilIe". Hovevei, he has foilidden lhal lolh
vonen le naiiied lv lhe sane husland al one and lhe
sane line foi lvo ieasons. The fiisl ieason vas leing lhal
lhis vas deliinenlaI lo Ialina, and as such il vas
deliinenlaI lo lhe piophel - peace le upon hin -: vhoevei
hains hin liings dovn on hin lhe vialh of AIIah. So, he -
peace le upon hin - has lhus foilidden such a naiiiage foi
his fuII conpassion foi lolh AIi and Ialina. The second
ieason vas leing he feaied foi his daughlei leing lenpled
oul of failh lecause of vonanish jeaIousv.
The hadilh has aIso leen expIained olheivise. The hadilh,
lhus undeislood, is nol inlended lo foilid naiiving lhe lvo
lv AIi, lul sinpIv neans lhal lhe piophel - peace le upon
hin - knev lefoiehand fion AIIah lhal lhev vouId nol le
naiiied lv AIi - as AIIah ieveaIed lo hin fuilhei evenls. As
olheis pul il, il vas piolalIe lhal lhe piophel - peace le
upon hin - foilade naiiving lhen lolh lv AIi lecause one
is daughlei of lhe Messengei of AIIah
And lhe olhei is daughlei of lhe foe of AIIah, lhus adding
such a naiiiage lo lhe vonen Iisled lv lhe HoIv Ouian as
foilidden lo naiiv, in vhich case his saving "I do nol foilid
anvlhing vhich is peinissilIe" shouId le expIained as lhal
he does nol sav anvlhing vhich offends AIIah's iuIings oi
leachings. If
AIIah peinils sonelhing, he cannol foilid il: if He (AIIah)
foilids il he (lhe piophel) cannol aIIov il noi can he ienain
siIenl aloul il - as ienaining siIenl aloul il couId signaI
consenl and peinissiliIilv. Iuiisls lhus concIude lhe
expIanalion of lhe hadilh.)
If ve have lhe iighl lo add anvlhing, ve have lo asseil lhal
Iiophel Muhannad, peace le upon hin, has olviousIv
idenlified lhe ieason foi his decIining lo Iel AIi son of
Alu-TaIel naiiv lhe olhei vonan, in addilion lo Ialina, as
having leen lhal lhe olhei giiI vas lhe daughlei of Alu-IahI
- lhe lvianl vhose iunning epilhel duiing his Iife vas lhe foe
of IsIan. He savageIv and liulaIIv foughl IsIan unliI lhe
nonenl he gave up lhe ghosl al lhe veiv end of sinfuI and
viIIainous Iife. ConsequenlIv, lhe daughlei of AIIah's foe
nusl nol have leen deaIl vilh on a pai vilh lhal legollen
lv AIIah's leIoved piophel and His neicv senl lo nankind.
Moieovei, il couId nol have leen acceplalIe lhal lhe
daughlei of AIIah's Iasl nessengei - vho leIongs lo hin as
veII as pail and paiceI of hin as he, peace le upon hin,
desciiled hei on a Iol of occasions - le pIaced in a posilion of
piofaneIv vving foi a husland's heail, vhich, naluiaIIv,
enlaiIs nuluaI jeaIousIv as veII as leing Iocked in healed
lanleiing and aigunenl as lhe case is in nosl househoIds.
AIIah's piophel and his daughlei nusl have leen Iofliei
lhan lhal cheap cIash, invoIving vonen in eveiv socielv and
al anv line, lo vin huslands' heails.
In addilion, Muhannad's daughlei piesunalIv sels an
exanpIe foi aII vonen of nankind lo foIIov. In hei capacilv
as such, she nusl have leen safeguaided againsl anv iivaI
vonen, so lhal she nighl le lolaIIv devoled, logelhei vilh
hei falhei, lo lhe nolIe caII foi peace and IsIan.
A speciaI nenlion has lo le nade of lhe facl lhal lheie aie
ceilain piovisions vhich excIusiveIv appIv lo AIIah's
piophels and nessengeis- and lheii sons and daughleis
suloidinaleIv. ßeing cenliaI lo lhe IsIanic failh, such
piovisions have lo le caiefuIIv olseived. We fiinIv leIieve
lhal Ialina is a sislei lo aII MusIins, as hei nolhei, Iale
Khadija (nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hei) is lhe nolhei of aII
lhe failhfuI leIieveis as shovn lv lhe HoIv Ouian ilseIf.
Ialina's falhei, Iiophel Muhannad (peace le upon hin), is
cIosei lo leIieveis lhan lhenseIves, and as such he is
iegaided as lhe falhei of eveiv MusIin, le il naIe oi fenaIe.
Theiefoie, if his daughlei Ialina has leen a sislei lo aII
fenaIe MusIins, she shouId nol le conlined in naiiiage
vilh anv of hei sisleis, eilhei lv AIi - as his lvo vives - oi
lv anvlodv eIse. And since Ialina is an exceplion case
coveied lv a speciaI iuIing oi piovision, no olhei case vhich
is nol coveied lv lhe Ouianic lexl iefeiied lo shouId le
nade anaIogous lo hei.
UIlinaleIv, il is nol evei IegaI lhal AIIah's nessengei fIouls
oi invaIidales a piovision, Iike poIvganv, even lhough AIIah
has ieveaIed veises of lhe HoIv Ouian in acknovIedgenenl
lheieof. To sav lhal lhe piophel has fIouled oi invaIidaled
such a piovision is lo cenliaIIv undeinine lhe lenels of IsIan
and ciininaIIv caII inlo queslion Iiophel Muhannad's
Chapter Four
AIIah desiies lul lo nanifesl His nighl and neicv eveiv
nov and lhen. If a leIievei has lo olev and give in lo AIIah's
leachings and oideis, aIlhough he does nol ieaIize lhe
ieason oi ieasons lehind a iuIing nade lv AIIah,
non-leIieveis sonelines heIp liing inlo lhe spolIighl
unavaies AIIah's leachings, lhus causing lhe divine
IegisIalion lo unfoId ils coveil visdon onIv lo an audience
of lhe unliased non-leIieveis vho - in acknovIedgenenl of
lhe vise divine insliuclions - kneeI dovn in ave lo lhe gieal
Cod. An olvious exanpIe in case is lhe peinissiveness of
As denonslialed lv lhe nosl up-lo-dale popuIalion census
conducled in lhe US, fenaIes oulnunlei naIes lv noie
lhan eighl niIIion vonen: in ßiilain, vonen aie in excess of
nen lv five niIIion fenaIes: and in Ceinanv, lhe ialio of
vonen lo nen is 3 lo1.
In slalislics conducled iecenlIv lv lhe veekIv "AI Mavdan"
of Lgvpl, onIv one Lgvplian giiI oul of eveiv len
giiIs al lhe age of naiiiage, vhich has leen pushed up fion
22 lo 32 veais, gels access lo naiiiage. In aInosl aII cases, a
polenliaI liidegioon is so veII ovei lhiilv-five veais lhal he
is aInosl foilv veais of age. This shouId nol le nuch lo oui
suipiise: a nev giaduale has lo vail foi a jol foi len lo
lveIve veais lo ollain il, has lo sciinp foi sone noie line
and lhen sel off feiieling foi his so-caIIed lellei haIaaI "AI
Tuesday's issue, May 6th 1997.
Mavdan" nevspapei goes on lo sav lhal accoidingIv
foilidden ieIalions have leen incieasingIv ianpanl, and so
has leen lhe phenonenaI connon-Iav naiiiage againsl a
lackgiound of niIIions of unnaiiied vonen. (ßv
connon-Iav naiiiage ve nean a foin of naiiiage in vhich
lhe lvo vouId-le spouses do nol daie having lheii naiiiage
- lhough Iegilinale sliII -iegisleied vilh lhe officiaIs so
aulhoiized lv lhe goveinnenl). The suivev -conducled foi
lhe nevspapei lv lhe lvo fenaIe ieseaicheis Chada
Muhannad Iliaheen and DaIia KanaI Azzan undei lhe
supeivision of lhe NalionaI Cenlei of SocioIogicaI and
CiininaI Sludies - has exposed voung naiiiage as having
leen sleepIv in decIine oving lo lhe evei-iising slandaid of
Iife and vilh unenpIovnenl and housing faIIing veII shoil
of lhe iequiied.
Anolhei suivev, ieIeased in lhe US, puls lhe nunlei of
iIIegilinale chiIdien al one oul of eveiv six infanls loin (as
iepoiled lv AI-Akhlai nevspapei of 2/7/1968).
UndoulledIv, lhe nunlei acioss lhe US is lo lhe lune of
niIIions and niIIions of iIIegilinale chiIdien annuaIIv.
ßolh Iiaq and Iian have appaIIingIv leen undeigoing a
giave inlaIance lelveen nen and vonen in viev of lhe
eighl-veai-oId heavv vai lhe lvo nalions had leen vaging
againsl each olhei. In eilhei of lhe lvo counliies lhe ialio of
nen lo vonen slands al 1:5 oi 1:7 in sone olhei iegions.
Hovevei, lhe silualion is aII lhe noie lizaiie and nenacing
in ßosnia-Heizegovina, vhich vas pIunged inlo a fiIlhv
iaciaI vai vhich had ciushingIv and ceaseIessIv peisisled
fion 1992 unliI 1996. The consequence has leen a leiiifving
ialio of 1:27. Yes, onIv one nan lo eveiv lvenlv-seven
vonen. The sociaI calasliophe lhal MusIin nalion has leen
undeigoing oving lo lhe scaicilv of nen and nassiveness of
vonen is levond anv slielch of inaginalion. Connunisn
has leen cIanped dovn on lhal counliv foi lens of veais. Il
jellisoned ciininaI Connunisn onIv lo le ensnaied in lhe
javs of a noie peiishing and ciininaI ciusade. Whal
aIleinalive is lheie foi MusIin giiIs lo do if lhev can nol
cone acioss MusIin huslands` ShouId ve Iel lhen naiiv
Oilhodox Seils oi CalhoIic Cioals jusl lecause sone ovei
sliingenl vonen and nen do nol acknovIedge poIvganv`
Oi is il lhe facl lhal lhose ovei sliingenl vonen and nen
piefei lhal MusIin giiIs shouId lake Ioveis (aduIleieis
lehind lhe scenes) aIong Weslein denoiaIized Iines`
In a hol piess iepoil on lhe "expIosion of lacheIoi giiIs",
Tahani AI-ßuiluqaIi, lhe coiiespondenl in Kuvail of
Caiio-lased "AI-Ahian" nevspapei, iecaIIs vhal happened
a fev veais ago vhen Kuvail's socielv expeiienced lhe
phenonenaI sending lv hundieds of unnaiiied giiIs of
Ielleis lo Kuvaili vives, in vhich each giiI denanded lhe
vife lo shaie lhe husland vilh hei in a lid lo keep alieasl
of lhe piolIen of lhe iising nunlei of lacheIoi giiIs in
Kuvail's socielv as veII as in CuIf socielv in geneiaI.
Anolhei iepoil caiiied lv "AI-Ahian AI-Aiali" nagazine,
on ils fiisl issue, said lheie veie eslinaled 4O lhousand giiIs.
The nunlei is nol IillIe if conpaied lo lhe enliie popuIalion
of Kuvail as a vhoIe - il iepiesenls 16° of Kuvail's vonen
vho accounl foi a IillIe noie lhan 25O lhousand peopIe oul
of an enliie popuIalion of Kuvail as a vhoIe of haIf a niIIion
To depiive a vonan of enolion is a giealei heaIlh hazaid
lhan lo depiive hei of sex. The pIeasuie allained lv a
vonan vhen having sex, in lhe alsence of enolion, does
nol excile a vonan as nuch as a genlIe void oi kind
fondIing viII ceilainIv do, sending hei sexuaIIv exciled lo
lhe degiee of salisfaclion. This ienaik is undeiscoied lv
Saed AlduI-Azeen, a piofessoi of psvchialiv and neuioIogv
al lhe Caiio Univeisilv's IacuIlv of Medicine. He fuilhei
expIains lhal a vonan's enolionaI depiivalion is lhe
shoilesl vav lo acling peiveiseIv, sexuaI fiigidilv and a
videi iange of phvsicaI and psvchoIogicaI iIInesses aIike.
Di. Muhannad HeIaI Rifa'i, a gvnecoIogisl, asseiliveIv savs
lhal lhe Iack, oi even deIav of naiiiage nakes a vonan
noie exposed lo lieasl lunouis, uleius cancei as veII as
filioid lunouis lhan lhe naiiied ones. Having leen poIIed,
nanv vonan palienls vho fiequenl his cIinic
oveivheIningIv said lhev piefei gelling naiiied lo an
aIieadv-naiiied nan lhan gIooniIv ienaining a lacheIoi
giiI. Sone of lhose vonen palienls said lhev even piefeiied
leing a lhiid oi fouilh vife lhan leing peinanenlIv heId
caplive lv spinsleiship.
If lhis is lhe viev of science, a vonan docloi can, lo a
giealei degiee of fideIilv, desciile vhal an unnaiiied
vonan feeIs. A vonan docloi ciles in a nessage lo Ahnad
"Your Private Doctor" magazine of May 1997
ßahgal, a veleian Lgvplian coIunnisl vilh lhe Caiio-lased
AI-Ahiain nevspapei, slalislics as having exhililed lhal
eslinaled len niIIion vonen and giiIs Iive on lheii ovn in
Lgvpl. She fuilhei quoles lhe suivev as cIassifving lhose
vonen and giiIs as eilhei divoicees, vidovs vilhoul oi
vilh chiIdien (vho Ialei giev up and enlaiked on lheii
ovn Iives aIone), oi giiIs vho have nol leen naiiied lefoie.
She vondeis vhelhei anvlodv can inagine lhe nagnilude
of liagedv lhal lhose IoneIv vonen have lo expeiience. Thev
cannol nainlain laIanced ieIalions vilh olheis, lul lhev aie
disliaughl vilh lension, anxielv and a deep desiie lo ienain
isoIaled avav fion cuiious eves, foiked longues and
pie-deleinined chaiges of snalching huslands fion fiiends,
one's kilh and kin oi neighlois.
This aII Ieads lo depiession, iejeclion of Iife and inaliIilv lo
le piopeiIv voven inlo lhe socielv's faliic. The docloi is
iaising lhe aIain lhal lhose unnaiiied vonen aie noie
susceplilIe lo psvchoIogi6aI as veII as phvsicaI diseases,
suc4 as nigiaine, hvpeilension, ailhiilis, slonach and
duodenaI uIceis, iiiilalIe coIon, nensliualion disoideis, Ioss
of haii and noiaI peiveisilv, vilh nanv of lhen having
uIlinaleIv lo naiiv an aIieadv-naiiied nan.
IionicaIIv enough, sone Weslein nalions vheie vonen
aIainingIv oulnunlei nen have had lo appiove poIvganv
as lhe onIv aIleinalive lo an inninenl iiieveisilIe sociaI
Ahmed Bahgat in his daily column called the "Peeping Show",
Al-Ahrarn of May 13th, 1997.
expIosion vhich lhev can neilhei deaI vilh noi cope vilh ils
deadIv faIIoul. This happens againsl a lackgiound of
MusIins onIv in lhe nane diunning up vai againsl lhe
vaIidilv and Iegilinacv of poIvganv.
Di. Muhannad Youssef Moussa, an Lgvplian ceIelialed
univeisilv piofessoi and inleIIecluaI in lhe fiisl haIf of lhis
cenluiv, leIIs a ieIevanl sloiv vhose scene vas an
inleinalionaI voulh confeience in 1948 in Ceinanv's Munich
cilv. Al lhe invilalion of lhe confeience oiganizeis, Di.
Mohaned Youssef Moussa and one of his coIIeagues
allended a seninai al lhe afoiesaid confeience. The najoi
lhene of lhe seninai vas a posl-WoiId Wai II piolIen in
Luiope of having vonen oulnunleiing nen lv seveiaI
foId. Having exhausliveIv deaIl vilh aII soIulions pioposed
lv Weslein pailicipanls, lhe seninai luined lhen aII dovn,
lianding lhen as faIIing IaigeIv shoil of ienedving lhe
innenseIv difficuIl piolIen. Thus fai, neilhei Di. Youssef
Moussa noi his coIIeague had asked foi lhe fIooi lo addiess
lhe seninai. Addiessing lhe seninai, lhev caIIed foi lhe onIv
naluiaI aIleinalive,
NaneIv adopling poIvganv. The IsIan-oiienlaled
slandpoinl vas fiisl aslonishingIv and sneeiingIv gieeled.
Hovevei, having lhoioughIv, faiiIv and piudenlIv nuIIed
ovei lhe viev, ieseaicheis allending lhe confeience ended
up appioving lhe IsIanic soIulion lo lhe piolIen, as lhe one
and onIv soIulion, and adopling il as a confeience
ieconnendalion. OnIv one veai Ialei, iesidenls of lhen Wesl
Ceinanv's cilv ßonn, veie videIv iepoiled lv lhe piess and
nevs agencies as denanding lhe Ceinan conslilulion lo
fealuie an ailicIe aIIoving poIvganv. Hence, AIIah
nanifesls vhal is iighl despile secuIais' unviIIingness.
Wilh lhe svslen of poIvganv having leen in pIace foi
cenluiies, MusIin connunilies have nanaged lo suivive
counlIess eviIs and nisfoilunes. A conpaiison sinpIv sliuck
lelveen socielies in Saudi Aialia, foi exanpIe, and lhe US
viII shov noiaI ciines - such as iape and pioslilulion - as
iaieIv laking pIace in lhe foinei, as againsl nisliesses fai in
excess of vives in lhe Iallei, vilh iIIegilinaleIv-loin
chiIdien accounling foi noie lhan 45° of liilhs in lhe US
annuaIIv. In accoidance vilh officiaI US slalislics,
iIIegilinale chiIdien had nol exceeded 88 lhousand infanls
lv 1938, cIinling lo 2O2 lhousand infanls lv 1957, lo 25O
lhousand lv 1958 and lhen skviockeling lo niIIions of
infanls loin oulside vedIock. Hovevei, ieaI figuies usuaIIv
lend lo le, lv a Iong chaIk, fai noie lhan officiaI figuies
ieIeased lv goveinnenls and vhoevei knovs lhe olhei
hidden pails of lhe silualion.
In viev of aII lhis, Iiance's ceIelialed nan of Ielleis Alienne
Denez once vondeied, "Is a lan on poIvganv noiaIIv
He ansveis hinseIf lv saving, "This is highIv skeplicaI, as
pioslilulion, happening once in a lIue noon in nosl IsIanic
nalions, viII le going videIv ianpanl, sending innenseIv
desliuclive faIIoul eveivvheie. Wonen viII IaigeIv ienain
"Fiqh Al Sunna", by Sheikh Sayyid Sabiq, volume 2, the chapter on the
family system, edition published by Maktabatul Muslim.
lacheIoi giiIs, enlaiIing a gieal deaI of coiiuplion, aIong
lhose nalions lanning poIvganv¨.
From the book "Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah", translated by the
late Grand Sheikh of Al-Azhar Dr. Abdul-Haleem Mahmoud.
Chapter Five
AIIah, LxaIled le He, said, "If vou feai lhal vou shaII nol le
alIe lo deaI juslIv vilh oiphans, naiiv vonen of voui
choice, lvo oi lhiee oi foui: ßul if vou feai lhal vou shaII nol
le alIe lo deaI juslIv (vilh lhen), lhen onIv one, oi (a
caplive) lhal voui iighl hands possess. Thal viII le noie
suilalIe, lo head vou off fion doing injuslice¨.
Inleipieling lhis veise vhich aIIoved poIvganv,
Iln-Oalheei said, "If anvone of vou has in his cuslodv a
fenaIe oiphan lo vhon he feaied lhal he shouId nol give
nahi (naiiiage poilion) equaI lo lhose vho aie siniIai lo
hei, he shouId lhen do hei juslice lv luining lo anolhei
vonan: AIIah has ciealed so nanv vonen lhal he viII nol
le in a Ioss foi one oi ones.
Inan AI ßukhaii iepoiled - aulhoiilaliveIv - Uiva, son of
AI-Zulaii, as having asked his naleinaI aunl Aisha, nav
AIIah le pIeased vilh hei, aloul lhis veise. She iepIied lv
saving, "Mv nephev, lhe veise iefeis lo a fenaIe oiphan
vho, as leing kepl in cuslodv, shaies hei nonev vilh hei
guaidian. Wilh hei nonev oi leaulv lickIing his fancv, hei
guaidian vishes lo naiiv hei vilhoul doing hei juslice (lo
Verse three of the surah of "Al-Nisaa" or Women, the Holy Quran.
"The Ìnterpretation of the Great Quran", by Ìbn-Qatheer. The
elucidation of verse three of the surah of "Al-Nisaa" or Women.
give hei a nahi equaI lo lhe one lhal vouId have olheivise
leen paid lo olheis siniIai lo hei).
So, a guaidian vilh such a fenaIe oiphan in his cuslodv has
leen foilidden lo naiiv hei unIess he deaIs vilh hei on a
pai vilh anv olhei vonan vho is nol in his cuslodv lv
gianling hei lhe naxinun nahi he vouId olheivise have
given lo an equivaIenl vonan. A guaidian, in such a
posilion, has leen oideied, feaiing injuslice, lo naiiv as
nanv as naxinaIIv foui vonen vhon he desiies, apail
fion lhose fenaIe oiphans undei his pioleclion".
Alu-Iaafai Muhannad son of Iaieei, in his eIucidalion of
lhe sane veise, iepoiled Rali'aa as saving, "AIIah, LxaIled
le He, oideied his voishippeis lo Ieave lhose fenaIe
oiphans in lheii cuslodv foi anv olhei foui vonen vhon
AIIah has naxinaIIv aIIoved". Alu-Iaffai has iepoiled olhei
(juiisls) as saving, "Maiiv naxinaIIv foui sliangei vonen
vhon AIIah has aIIoved vou lo naiiv. In case vou feai nol
deaIing faiiIv vilh noie lhan one of lhose sliangeis, vou
have eilhei lo conlenl vouiseIves vilh onIv one vife oi vilh
lhose fenaIe caplives in voui iighl hands".
Olhei juiisls said, as sliII iepoiled lv Alu-Iaafai, "The veise
can even le expIained as foilidding naiiving in excess of
foui vonan so lhal oiphans funds nav nol le depIeled lv
guaidians. A liilesnan of Ouiaish used - in pie-IsIanic
lines - lo naiiv lo lhe lune of len vonen, oi noie oi Iess of
vonen. Having exhausliveIv spenl his nonev on his len
vives and lhus lecone a deslilule, such a liilesnan of
Ouiaish vouId head foi lhe funds of lhe oiphans in his
cuslodv lo spIuige oul on his vives oi on naiiving nev
ones. Theiefoie, AIIah has foilidden such a piaclice".
AI-Inain AI-Nasafv, anolhei gieal inleipielei of lhe HoIv
Ouian, said, "As iepoiled, nen in pie-IsIanic lines feIl fiee
lo connil aduIleiv, lul nevei feIl as fiee lo lake oiphans in
lheii cuslodv. So, AIIah loId lhen if vou do nol ieaIIv feeI
fiee lo lake oiphans in voui cuslodv, feaiing injuslice lo
lhen, vou had lellei feai aduIleiv, fion vhich vou shouId
keep voui genilaIs lv naiiving vonen vhon AIIah has
aIIoved vou lo naiiv and nevei hovei aiound AIIah's
foilidden lhings. Oi lhev did nol feeI fiee lo lake veaIlhv
oiphans in lheii cuslodv, vheieas giving lhenseIves an
alsoIuleIv fiee hand lo keep as nanv vives as possilIe,
aIlhough vhen lhev aie noie lhan foui vives lhev aie noie
pione lo gioss inequaIilv leing done lo lhen. Il is as if AIIah
veie leIIing lhen: if vou feeI hand-lied lo keep oiphans in
voui cuslodv, vou shouId nol feeI fiee lo do lhe nanv vives
vou keep injuslice eilhei: shouId vou feai unfaiiness as
possilIv leing neled oul lo lhose vives, conlenl vouiseIves
vilh onIv one vife oi, olheivise, lake as nanv fenaIe
caplive sIaves possilIe, so lhal vou nav nol lieal anv vife
The neaning caiiied lv AIIah's saving in lhe veise vou feai"
is as foIIovs:
If vou lhink vou viII nol, nosl piolalIv, nele oul faiiness lo
lhe oiphan, oi oiphans, vou have in voui cuslodv, vou have
Please refer to "Jamiul Bayan Fi Tafseer Al Quran" by Ìbn-Jareer
Al-Tabary, the chapter on the interpretation of the surah of Al-Nisaa.
The interpretation of the Holy Quran by Ìmam Al-Nasafi, the chapter on
the surah of Al-Nisaa.
lo "sveive" fion hei lo anolhei one. In lhis conlexl, a conlioI
ovei having nanv vives is nol inpeialive. In olhei voids,
even a guaidian vho does nol feai doing injuslice lo
oiphans, he nav have noie lhan one vife (second, lhiid oi
fouilh vife) lhus doing jusl as lhe one vho exaclIv feais
AIIoving poIvganv is a geneiaI iuIing, vhich
appIies lo aII MusIins, vilh sliings allached. As foi vhal
AIIah said in lhe sane veise "lhal viII le noie suilalIe lo
head vou off fion doing injuslice", il sinpIv neans as lhe
veise savs "To head off fion injuslice", ialhei lhan (as olheis
have unsuccessfuIIv inleipieled il) "lhe Ieasl nol lo have so
nanv offspiing" (The Aialic void used lv AIIah in lhe
veise can nean ¨nol lo do injuslice" oi ¨nol lo have so nanv
offspiing"). AI-Talaiv iepoiled, ciling Iln-Allas, Mujahid
and Iln-Onai, lhal lhe Aialic conlioveisiaI void iefeiied
lo assuiedIv neans "injuslice" and "sIanling". The sense of
lhe conlioveisiaI Aialic void is nol "The Ieasl nol lo le
pooi" eilhei, as lhe enliie sense of lhe veise does nol go iighl
as such. Whal is videIv leIieved, lv IsIanic juiisls, lo le
iighl is "Nol lo do injuslice oi lo le sIanled againsl vhal is
Ncvcr In Exccss nf Fnur WIvcs At Onc TImc
AIIah has Iicensed a MusIin nan lo naiiv fion one up lo
foui vives, as diavn fion lhe veiv voiding of lhe veise of
lhe suiah of "AI-Nisaa" (vonen) and videIv-acknovIedged
savings of lhe gieal inleipieleis of lhe HoIIv Ouian. A
Fiqh Al Sunna", by Sheikh Sayyid Sabiq, volume 2, the chapter on the
family system, edition published by Maktabatul Muslim.
MusIin husland cannol have in excess of foui vives al lhe
sane line: if he feais lhal he is highIv IikeIv nol lo deaI vilh
lhen on a pai vilh each olhei, in case of noie lhan one vife,
he shouId conlenl hinseIf vilh onIv one. The iuIe of nol
doing anv injuslice appIies lo a husland of lhiee vives:
feaiing injuslice he shouId ieduce lhen lo onIv lvo: a
husland of lhiee feaiing injuslice if he gels a fouilh one
shouId conlenl hinseIf vilh onIv lhe lhiee vives he aIieadv
Wise Shaii'aa even lans nonoganv if lhe husland is feaifuI
of doing his onIv vife injuslice. Cieal IsIan is keenIv
inleiesled in adninisleiing juslice undei aII ciicunslances.
Theie is consensus anong juiisls lhal a MusIin husland
nav nol conline in excess of foui vives.
If Iiophel
Muhannad, peace le upon hin, has conlined nine vives
al one line, lhis excIusiveIv appIies lo hin: no olhei MusIin
shouId le anaIogous lo lhe Iiophel.
In lhe foIIoving Iines, ve viII le eIaloialing on lhe ieason
and ciicunslances Ieading hin (peace le upon hin) lo
naiiv eveiv one of lhose vives in oidei lo cIaiifv anv
ieIevanl confusion oi nisundeislanding as veII as lo iefule
Iies nongeied lv oiienlaIisls and Ievs aIike.
AI-Inan AI-Shafii, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hin, said in
his coIIeclion of aulhenlic hadilhs, "The Iiophel's sunna,
eIaloialeIv expIaining vhal AIIah has sel foilh in geneiaI in
Sayyid Sabiq, op cit.
lhe Ouian, has cIaiified levond lhe sIighlesl doull lhal il
vas Iiophel Muhannad aIone vho vas enpoveied lo
keep vives in excess of foui."
Sone Shiile juiisls have said lhal a MusIin husland nav
conline up lo nine vives, inleipieling lhe ieIevanl veise of
"AI-Nisaa" suiah as foIIovs: (lvo + lhiee + foui = nine)!!
Anolhei queei and unaccepled opinion savs lhal a MusIin
husland nav conline 18 vives, inleipieling lvo as 2 + 2,
lhiee as 3 + 3, and foui as 4 + 4, aII lolaIing 18 vives.
Hovevei, lhe veiv voiding of sunna as veII as lhe deeds of
conpanions and foIIoveis calegoiicaIIv denole lhal a
MusIin husland nav have access onIv lo foui vives. Sunni
juiisls, piedecessoi and descendanls aIike, have
unaninousIv agieed lhal il vas excIusiveIv lhe Iiophel vho
vas aIIoved lo have noie lhan foui vives.
We iefei oui ieadeis lo lhe hadilhs pieviousIv ciled in
chaplei one of lhis look, incIuding lhal iepoiled lv Inan
AI-ßukhaii (aIso iepoiled lv MaIik, Nasa'i and Daiaqulni)
lhal ChiIan of lhe Thaqif liile had len vives vhen he
enliaced IsIan. Iiophel Muhannad, peace le upon hin,
said lo hin: "Keep onIv anv foui of lhen vou desiie and
divoice lhe iesl." Anolhei hadilh has aIso leen pieviousIv
ciled in chaplei one of lhis look. Il is lhal hadilh iepoiled lv
Alu.-Davoud ciling Haiilh son of Oais of lhe Asad liile as
saving, "When I enliaced IsIan I had eighl vives. When I
so loId lhe Iiophel, he said: Keep onIv foui of lhen."
Please refer to chapter one of this book, which deals with pre-Ìslam
Iln-Kalheei, eIucidaling lhe veise of lhe Ouian having lo do
vilh poIvganv, saving, "AIIah savs naiiv as nanv vives as
lvo, lhiee oi foui if vou so vish. AIIah, LxaIled le He, said
(Who nade lhe angeIs nessengeis vilh vings - lvo, oi
lhiee, oi foui),
'(2) lhal is lo sav lhal sone of lhose angeIs
have lvo vings, sone have lhiee vings vhiIe olheis have
foui vings. The conlexl heie is lhal of AIIah, lhe ßenefacloi,
nenlioning His loons lhal He has endoved upon His
voishippeis, and leIIing lhen vhal He has aIIoved lhen lo
do. So, if AIIah had aIIoved nen lo conline noie lhan foui
vives, He vouId have nade il cIeai in lhe Ouian.
AI-Inain AI-Ouiluli, iefuling lhe aIIeged peinission foi
nen lo naiiv noie lhan foui vives, has said, "Those vho so
cIain do neilhei undeisland lhe Ouian noi lhe sunna al aII,
alandoning vhal lhe MusIin nalion's anceslois fiinIv
leIieved in. Thev cIained lhal lhe conjunclion ('And) in lhe
ieIevanl veise is an aII-conlining one. In facl, il is lhe juiisls
vho leIong lo lhe secl of Rafida, oi Rafidiles (ceilain
offshools of Shiile), and sone of lhose associaled vilh lhe
secl of Zahiiiles (a ceilain IsIanic secl adopling lhe opinion
of laking ieIigious judgnenls diieclIv fion Ouian and
sunna lexls as lhev aie on lhe suiface, even IileiaIIv,
iegaidIess of vhalevei delaiIs, expIanalions oi iesliiclions
juiisls of olhei schooIs of juiispiudence nav have
Verse number one from the surah of "Fatir", or the Originator of
Ìbn-Katheer's book on the interpretation of the Quran, previously
referred to.
concIuded) vho have nade lhal highIv-ignoianl cIain.
Sone olheis have gone fuilhei lo a nuch voise slielch lv
aIIeging lhal AIIah has Iicensed nen lo conline eighleen
vives. This aII is an exanpIe of gioss ignoiance of lolh
Ianguage and sunna aIike, and fIouls lhe nalion's consensus
as veII, as none of lhe Iiophel's conpanions oi foIIoveis
vho cane in sulsequenl ages vas heaid of as having
naiiied noie lhan foui vives."
Having ciled aII lhe Iiophel's hadilhs in vhich he oideied
conpanions lo keep onIv anv foui of lhe vives lhev had and
lo divoice lhe ones in excess lheieof, AI-Ouiluli
sliessed lhal conlining nine vives al a line vas an
excIusiveIv speciaI lhing of lhe Iiophel, peace le upon hin,
vilh divine diieclion lo fuIfiI ceilain oljeclives foi lhe good
of lhe caII and nessage ilseIf. Then, AI-Ouiluli has said,
"AIIah, LxaIled le He, has addiessed Aials in lhe pIainesl
Aialic slvIe. Aials, eIoquenl as lhev veie, nevei said lvo
and lhiee and foui vhen lhev nean "nine." Aials
conpIeleIv disagiee of an Aial saving: give sonelodv foui,
six and eighl inslead of oul iighlIv saving eighleen. The
conjunclion "And" in lhe giacious veise (Tvo and lhiee and
foui vives) sinpIv neans :inslead of lvo vou nav naiiv
lhiee, and inslead of lhiee vou nav naiiv foui vives." "If he
gels a fiflh vife, lhe naiiiage sponlaneousIv luins nuII and
void and is even punishalIe, lhough schoIais have assuned
diveise posilions on lhis," AI-Ouiluli fuilhei said. In iepIv
lo a queslion vhv AIIah has nol used lhe conjunclion "Oi" in
Al-Ìmam Al-Qurtubi in his book "The Book All Ìnclusive of the Holy
Quran Provisions".
lhe veise inslead of "And," AI-Ouiluli has said, "If (oi) had
leen used, lhe veise vouId have neanl lhal a husland of
lvo nav nol lake a lhiid vife, and lhal a husland of lhiee
nav nol lake a fouilh one, vhiIe aII lhis is peinilled.
CaµabI!Itv tn PractIcc Pn!vgamv
As nenlioned lefoie, having access lo poIvganv piinaiiIv
hinges upon capaliIilv. Iusl as naiiving lhe fiisl vife,
naiiving a second, lhiid oi fouilh vife iequiies financiaI,
heaIlh as veII as psvchoIogicaI capaliIilv. In lhe Iack of
capaliIilv, poIvganv is, aulonalicaIIv, nol aIIoved. He vho
cannol piovide foi lvo househoIds has lo suffice hinseIf
vilh onIv one vife al lhe cenlei of onIv one househoId. A
husland of lvo shouId conlenl hinseIf vilh lhe lvo unIess
he is capalIe, in leins of lolh finance and heaIlh, of keeping
a lhiid oi fouilh vife, and so on.
ßv finance ve nean soIvencv lo piovide foi lhe chiIdien lv
lhe vife, oi vives, kepl.
HeaIlh capaliIilv, in oui opinion, is lhe aliIilv lo salisfv
sexuaI desiies of lhe vives kepl, as ils inpeialive on lhe
husland lo culei foi lhe Iegilinale and naluiaI sexuaI
desiies of his vife oi vives. ßv so doing, he heIps his vife,
oi vives, lo le sexuaIIv chasle. If lhe husland is sexuaIIv
inpolenl, foi exanpIe, he is nol envisaged as having anv
vife, even a singIe one, as lhis does hei gioss injuslice. We
aIso leIieve lhal a husland, oi lhen, sexuaIIv polenl foi onIv
one vife shouId nol have noie vives lecause he is lhus
doing hei injuslice, naking naiiiage giossIv
disadvanlageous lo hei. Hovevei, eveiv individuaI case has
lo le consideied independenlIv of olheis. A husland's
conscience, seIf-honeslv and ieIigious sciupIe aie apl lo
dissuade hin fion inequaIilv lo his vife oi vives. If,
nolvilhslanding, a husland insisls on having a vife oi
vives vhon he is nol alIe lo adequaleIv and ieasonalIv
salisfv hei sexuaIIv, lhe vife (oi vives) lhus kepl has peifecl
iighl lo pioceed againsl hin denanding a divoice on
giounds of deliinenl and a feai of having iIIegaI sexuaI
affaii. A couil judge is lioadIv enpoveied lo assess lhe
nagnilude of deliinenl in eveiv individuaI case.
As lo psvchoIogicaI capaliIilv, il neans an aliIilv lo
adninislei juslice lo lhe vives kepl, in leins of eveivlhing
avaiIalIe, vilhoul shoving anv sIanl lovaids one vife, oi
his chiIdien lv hei, againsl lhe olhei vife, oi vives oi his
chiIdien lvhei oi lhen.
In lhe alsence of anv of lhe lhiee capaliIilv pieiequisiles
ciled alove, poIvganv is nol, lv anv neans, aIIoved.
JustIcc Amnng WIvcs
AIIah, LxaIled le He, savs in lhe lhiid veise of "AI-Nisaa"
suiah, "ßul if vou feai lhal vou shaII nol le alIe lo deaI
juslIv, lhen onIv one."
AIIah, LxaIled le He, aIso savs
"You aie nevei alIe lo le faii and jusl as lelveen vonen,
even if il is voui aidenl desiie, lul do nol luin avav fion a
vonan aIlogelhei, Iesl vou shouId Ieave hei as if she veie
hanging in lhe aii. If vou cone lo a fiiendIv undeislanding,
and exeicise seIf-iesliainl, AIIah is Ofl Ioigiving, Mosl
Verse number 3 of Al-Nisaa surah.
So, hov can lhe voiding of lhe lvo veises of
lhe suiah le ieconciIed` And vhal aie lhe ciileiia of lhe
juslice iequiied`
In ansvei, AI-Inain AI-Ouiluli savs, "AIIah, LxaIled le He,
has infoined His voishippeis lhal juslice cannol le neled
oul lo lhe vives in leins of affeclion, naking Iove and heail
incIinalion. AIIah, LxaIled le He, nosl piopeiIv desciiled
hunan disposilion, naking il peifeclIv cIeai lhal hunans
cannol, lv naluie, lake connand of lheii heails sIanling
heaviei lovaids one oi lhe olhei. In viev of lhis aII, Iiophel
Muhannad used lo faiiIv deaI vilh his vives in leins of
expenses, lhen said, (O AIIah, lhis is lhe vav I vas alIe lo
nele oul juslice lo nv vives in leins of vhal I have conlioI
ovei: so AIIah do nol lIane ne foi vhal I do nol have
conlioI ovei and vhich faIIs onIv undei voui conlioI). Then
AIIah has foilidden excessive luining avav fion a vife lo
anolhei lv saving (Do nol luin avav fion a vonan
aIlogelhei), naneIv do nol deIileialeIv do hei hain - as
Mujahid iepoiled - lul deaI juslIv in leins of slaving
oveinighl and expenses as lhese lvo aie veII undei one's
Alu-Huiaiia quoled Iiophel Muhannad, peace le upon
hin, as saving, "He vho has lvo vives lo vhon he had nol
neled oul juslice, viII le coning on lhe Dav of Iudgenenl
Verse number 129 of Al-Nisaa surah.
Al-Ìmarn Al-Qurtubi in his book "The Book All Ìnclusive of the Holy
Quran Provisions", the chapter on the interpretation of verse 129 of
"Al-Nisaa" surah.
sIanling on one of his sides."
Iuslice, as nenlioned in lhis
hadilh, iefeis onIv lo expenses and slaving oveinighl, ialhei
lhan in leins of Iove oi heail incIinalion, as il is AIIah vho is
in fuII connand of hunan heails.
Iln-Allas, Iln-Iaieei, and AI-Hassan AI-ßasiv said lhal "As
if she veie hanging" neans: do nol luin avav fion hei,
Ieaving hei neilhei divoiced lo gel anolhei husland noi
naiiied lv a husland vho viII lake caie of hei and neel
hei Iegilinale iighls.
Oalada has inleipieled lhe void as neaning: do nol luin
avav fion hei, Ieaving hei as if she veie inpiisoned. Ullav
son of Oaal, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hin, vouId iead lhe
veise in Aialic lo sound lhe Aialic void vhich neans
Iln-Masoud, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hin, vouId iead
lhe veise in Aialic lo sound Iike "Ieaving hei as if she veie
hanging." These aie aII vavs of ieciling lhe HoIv Ouian,
onIv lo cIaiifv lhe neaning: as lhus lhev shouId nol le
iegaided as a change in lhe voiding of lhe HoIv Ouian -
AIIah foilid...
Sheikh Savvid Saliq asseils, "Iuslice as iequiied lv AIIah is
onIv lhe exleinaI one of vhich one is capalIe, ialhei lhan
juslice in leins of Iove and affeclion. No one is capalIe of
The hadith was reported by Abu-Dawoud, Al-Nasa'i, Ìbn-Majah and
lhe Iallei: lhe juslice denied is lhe one having lo do vilh
affeclion, Iove and naking Iove lo."
Muhannad son of Siieen, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hin,
said, "Upon asking Ulaida aloul lhis veise, he iepIied:
"Iuslice cannol evei le achieved in leins of Iove oi naking
Alu-ßaki son of AI-Aiali, laIking aloul Iove and affeclion
in queslion, has said, "no one can conlioI Iove. Lnanaling
fion lhe heail, Iove cannol le laken conlioI of, as il is AIIah,
lhe ßeneficenl, aIone vho can dispose of hunans' heails.
The sane appIies lo naking Iove: a husland nav le
pailicuIaiIv sexuaIIv aclive vilh a vife of his, vhiIe leing
Iess aclive vilh anolhei. If he is nol so deIileialeIv, he is nol
guiIlv. He cannol conlioI his enolion, so he is nol so
AI-Inain AI-Khalali has said, "Things shouId le faiiIv
disliiluled lv a husland lo aII lhe vives vhon he has, so
Iong as lhose vives aie nol caplive sIaves. InadvisalIe is
one's incIinalion lovaids one vife noie lhan lhe olhei, oi
olheis, iesuIling in (naleiiaI) iighls nol piopeiIv caleied foi,
ialhei lhan lhe incIinalion of heails vhich cannol le
The deceased Savvid Oull, a pioninenl figuie of lhe
MusIin ßiolheihood savs, "Whal is ieaIIv iequiied is juslice
in leins of deaIing, expenses, and sexuaI inleicouise. A
Fiqh Asunnah", by Sheikh Sayyid Sabiq, volume two, the chapter on
family system.
husland is nol iequiied lo give oul equaI senlinenls lo lhen
aII, as a hunan leing cannol evei do so lecause il is fai
levond lhe scope of hunan voIilion. And lhis exaclIv lhe
kind of juslice vhich AIIah has desciiled lv saving "And
vou viII nevei le alIe lo deaI faiiIv vilh lhen, even if vou
so aidenlIv desiie). This veise is nanipuIaliveIv used lv
sone as a faIse pielexl lo lan poIvganv, vheieas lhe veise
does nol so nean. AIIah's Shaii'aa is nol so jocuIai lo pass
and adopl a ceilain pallein of lehavioi in one veise and
lans il in anolhei: AIIah's Shaii'aa does nol evei give oul
sonelhing vilh lhe iighl hand and lake il avav vilh lhe Iefl.
Iuslice uiged lv lhe veise is in leins of expenses, deaIing
and naking Iove lo. This is exaclIv lhe juslice vilhoul vhich
a husland nav nol lake noie lhan one vife. Il appIies
nainIv lo exleinaI nalleis vhich have lo le fuIIv caleied foi
lv a husland - nolhing shoil lheieof -in such a vav lhal a
vife is nol favoied lv sonelhing al lhe expense of lhe olhei,
in leins of expenses and naking Iove. A case in poinl is lhe
spIendid exanpIe sel lv Iiophel Muhannad, peace le
upon hin, vho is lhe nankind's Iofliesl nan. He used lo
nele oul juslice, aIlhough eveivone vas peifeclIv
knovIedgealIe lhal he Ioved Aisha lellei. Hovevei, he did
nol evei piefei hei lo olheis in leins of slaving oveinighl oi
In a nulsheII, one's heail incIinalion oi Iove foi a vife noie
lhan lhe olheis shouId, as ve leIieve, le inpiisoned vilhin
"Ìn the Shades of the Holy Quran", by Sayyid Qutb, volume one, edition
published by Darel Shrouk publishing house.
one's loson, ialhei lhan iendeied inlo aclion lhal viII huil
lhe feeIings, oi undeinine lhe inleiesls, of lhe iesl of his
vives oi lheii chiIdien in favoi of lhe nosl leIoved vife oi
hei chiIdien.
We aie, alove aII, hunans ialhei lhan angeIs. Theiefoie,
eveivlodv shouId le conlenl vilh juslice in leins of nalleis
vhich aie vilhin hunan conlioI: alsoIule juslice exisls onIv
in lhe Heieaflei vilh AIIah, LxaIled le He, in Whose
piesence no one is evei done injuslice, vhiIe lheie is no vav
lo conpeI hunans lo equaIIv adninislei feeIings and
AIIah, LxaIled le He, viII neicifuIIv and juslIv conpensale
lhe vife vho does nol lask in hei hsuland's Iove oi favoi. If
she is palienl and feaifuI of AIIah, she viII le geneiousIv
conpensaled vilh vhalevei is good, lolh in lhis nundane
voiId and lhe heieaflei. ßeing Iocked in a silualion of nol
lasking in hei husland's Iove nav le a visilalion lv AIIah lo
hei, foi vhich AIIah viII ievaid hei on condilion lhal she le
palienl and oledienl lo AIIah's oideis. In lhis conlexl, ve
have lo ienind such a vife lhal hei conlinued slav vilh hei
husland - lhough nol fuIIv enjoving his Iove, vhiIe sliII
having fuII access lo hei iighls and hei chiIdien's - is fai
lellei lo hei lhan alhoiienl divoice and lolaI depiivalion of
aII lhal.
This nundane voiId is nol an eleinaI one, vilh uIlinaleIv
defeclive and piofane anenilies. Il is lheie in paiadise,
ialhei lhan on Lailh, vheie lheie is nevei-ending loons and
peifecl happiness.
In concIusion, if il veie liue lhal lhe veise nunlei 129 of
"AI-Nisaa" lans poIvganv - as il has nade il calegoiicaIIv
cIeai lhal adninisleiing juslice lo vives is inpossilIe -
Iiophel Muhannad, peace le upon hin, logelhei vilh his
conpanions, vouId have divoiced lheii vives as soon as lhe
veise had descended, conlenling lhenseIves vilh one vife
each. As ve have aulhoiilaliveIv leen loId, none of lhen
had so done - AIIah foilid lhal lhe piophel oi anv of his
conpanions vouId fIoul AIIah's oideis lo divoice exlia
vives, if AIIah has evei so oideied.
AccoidingIv, poIvganv is liuIv aIIoved unliI lhe Dav of
Iudgenenl. In suppoil of lhis is a hadilh vhich savs,
"Wonen aie dooned lo suivive, vhiIe nen viII le so fev
lhal eveiv fiflv vonen viII have a coiiesponding one nan
lo conlioI, and lake caie of".
This hadilh caiiies a piophecv lhal viII cone liue in vel
olhei geneialions lo cone, and faII vilhin lhose piophelic
liadilions deaIing vilh lhe signs of lhe lhen-appioaching
Doonsdav. Il is, hovevei, significanl as lo oui issue of
poIvganv and lhe inlaIance in lhe nunlei of lhe lvo
DIvIsInn nf tImc and Mnncv Amnng WIvcs
In juiisls jaigon, lhe void "division" iefeis lo neling oul
juslice lo lhe vives a husland keeps in leins of slaving
This hadith is reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Al-Termedhy, Al-Nasa'i
and Ìbn Majah.
oveinighl, expenses and olheis.
A husland is olIiged lo
equaIIv divide food, slaving oveinighl, cIolhing and iesiding
anong his vives.
AII lhe olhei naleiiaI nalleis have aIso lo le equaIIv
divided anong lhen, iegaidIess of lhe vives leing iich oi
pooi, of high cIass oi nol. If a husland feais injuslice and
inaliIilv lo fuIIv calei foi lheii iighls, he is nol enpoveied
lo conline noie lhan one vife.
Whal ieaIIv counls as fai as expenses aie conceined as given
piepondeiance lv lhe foIIoveis of Alu-Hanifa, knovn in
Aialic as Ahnaf - is lhe soIvencv oi nol of lhe husland,
iegaidIess of lhe vives' condilions. ConsequenlIv, aII lhe
vives kepl lv a husland shouId le equaIIv deaIl vilh in
leins of expenses, vhich naluiaIIv invoIve lhe upkeeping
(pioviding enough food and valei), cIolhing and housing
foi lhe vives. Saving olheivise in apl lo liiggei off
disagieenenl and lo nouiish iancoi and ennilv anong lhe
vives and lheii chiIdien lv lhe sane husland.
AccoidingIv, peifecl juslice has lo le deaIl oul in leins of
expenses and aIlogelhei naleiiaI nalleis. A falhei, in oui
leIief, shouId aIso le keen enough nol lo nake pulIicIv feIl
his Iove senlinenls of one specific vife, if he Ioves hei lellei
lhan lhe olheis. A husland shouId le vise and sage enough
"Ìslamic Fiqh Along the Four Schools of Fiqh", volume 4, the chapter
on personal status.
Fiqh Asunna". BV Sheikh Savvid Sabia. volume two.
lo piolecl lhe enlilv of lhe faniIv and lo slen anv possilIe
Iuiisls have allached condilions lo dividing nalleis anong
The fiisl of such condilions is leing lhe slale of nind: a
peison vho is nenlaIIv deianged is nol olIiged lo divide
anong his vives: lul an insane vife shouId have fuII access
lo shaiing vilh olhei vives lhings deaIl oul lv lheii
husland, on condilion lhal she le lianquiI and quiel, nol go
inlo fils and le peinanenlIv slaving in hei husland's house
foi ease, lv hin, of sexuaI inleicouise vilh hei. Olheivise,
she has no iighl lo shaiing lhings.
The second condilion allached is leing lhal lhe husland
shouId le aduIl. Ioi a vife il is nol necessaiv le pulescenl,
lul she shouId al Ieasl sland sexuaI inleicouise. If lhe
husland is nol pulescenl and has, consequenlIv, done
injuslice lo one of his vives, il is his guaidian vho is
inpIicaled, sinpIv lecause il vas his guaidian vho naiiied
hin off and iesponsiliIilv has lo le lIaned on hin.
The lhiid condilion allached is leing lhal lhe vife shouId
nol le a iecaIcilianl one. If lhe vife is disoledienl, aIvavs
exhililing unviIIingness lo olev hei husland's oideis, she
has lhen no iighl lo shaie hei husland, oi vhal he gives oul,
vilh lhe olhei vives. Shaiing spousaI caie is nol diaped lv
anv inpedinenl lo sexuaI inleicouise, vhelhei lhis
Fiqh Along the Four Schools of Fiqh", volume four.
inpedinenl le a vife nensliualion, posl-liilh lIeeding oi
iIIness: Oi vhelhei lhis inpedinenl le on lhe pail of lhe
husland, such as iIIness oi inpolencv. This is lecause
slaving oveinighl vilh a vife does nol necessaiiIv caiiv
sexuaI inleicouise: slaving oveinighl is piinaiiIv inlended
foi enleilaining, ialhei lhan necessaiiIv sexuaI inleicouise. If
a husland is so iII lhal he cannol nove, he nav slav vilh
vhonevei he leIieves viII seive and nuise hin lellei.
This judgenenl is diavn fion vhal Iiophel Muhannad,
peace le upon hin, did vhen he vas laken giaveIv iII
innedialeIv lefoie his dealh. Having leen iII on his dealh
led, lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, vas gianled connon
consenl lv his vives, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh lhen, lo
slav vilh his vife Aisha, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hei.
Thev so did lecause lhev ieaIized hov nuch he Ioved hei
and hov salisfied he vas vilh hei nuising hin.
Undei no ciicunslances a vife shouId le deIileialeIv Iefl
vilhoul sexuaI inleicouise pIeading lhal he does nol Iove
hei. A silualion as such is apl lo send hei acling peiveiseIv
and coiiuplIv. If he does nol ieaIIv inlend lo ieasonalIv and
adequaleIv nake Iove lo hei - in oidei lo nake hei sexuaIIv
salisfied - he shouId inevilalIv divoice hei, and nav AIIah
send hei a husland vho is lellei lhan he is, and send hin a
lellei vife lhan she is.
Theie is a sound opinion lhal a vife has peifecl iighl lo have
hei husland slaving vilh hei oveinighl eveiv foui nighls,
on lhe giounds lhal a husland can keep foui vives. Il is
exaclIv lhe sane iighl gianled lo a nonoganisl vho is
pieoccupied vilh voishipping oi voik, in vhich case he has
lo slav oveinighl vilh his vife eveiv foui nighls, vhiIe
devoling his lhiee olhei nighls lo voishipping.
And lheie is aIso lhe nosl piolalIe veidicl ciled lefoie,
uiging a husland lhal he shouId have sexuaI inleicouise
vilh each of his vives ieasonalIv and adequaleIv lo nake
hei sexuaIIv conlenl and disliacl hei fion lhinking of anv
olhei nan.
Hanifiles, oi lhe foIIoveis of Alu-Hanifa, leIieve lhal a
judge - if lhe vife pioceeds againsl hei husland - shouId
pass a iuIing in favoi of lhe vife leing sIepl vilh eveiv nov
and lhen in lhe vav he deens sufficienl lo nake hei sexuaIIv
MaIikiles, oi lhe foIIoveis of Inan MaIik, leIieve lhal a
husland is foilidden lo inlenlionaIIv alslain fion having
sex vilh one of his vives, duiing hei aIIolled line, on lhe
giounds of saving his slienglh and vigoi foi sIeeping vilh
anolhei one vhon he enjovs lellei. So, if he is slaving vilh
lhe aIIolled one and feIl sufficienlIv sexuaIIv exciled lo have
sexuaI inleicouise, lul he did nol, lo keep his eneigv foi lhe
nosl leaulifuI vife, he is consideied guiIlv. He is sinfuI
lecause his viIIfuI deIav of sexuaI inleicouise is iighlIv
leIieved lo exacl a heavv loII on lhe aIIolled one, even if she
is neilhei acluaIIv hained noi did conpIain.
A husland nav aIso shaie lhings equaIIv vilh his vives in
accoidance vilh his condilion: if he voiks diuinaIIv, he
shouId shaie his line vilh lhen nocluinaIIv: if lhe olhei
vav iound' in case he le a valchnan foi exanpIe, he shouId
shaie line vilh lhen diuinaIIv. Lveiv vife can have, foi
exanpIe, a nighl oi dav oi lvo davs oi nighls. He nav aIso
shaie line vilh lhen as foIIovs: eveiv vife a soIid veek oi
noie, on condilion of gelling lheii connon consenl, lhough
lhis opinion is diveiseIv eIaloialed lv vaiious schooIs of
A husland is foilidden lo have sexuaI inleicouise vilh
anvone apail fion lhe aIIolled vife foi lhal nighl noi is he
aIIoved lo kiss anolhei one apail fion hei. Hovevei, he can
have access lo lhe iesidence of his vife, oi vives, vho is nol,
oi aie nol, aIIolled foi lhal dav oi nighl if necessilv shouId
aiise oi if she, oi lhev, needed expenses, vanled hin lo
cone lo see lhe chiIdien oi lo do lhen anv indispensalIe
HanlaIiles, oi lhe foIIoveis of Iln-HanlaI, leIieve lhal
division anong vives shouId le on lhe lasis of onIv one
nighl each and nolhing in excess foi anv of lhen unIess lhev
so connonIv consenl.
Spending lhe nighl vilh anvone of lhen, a husland nav, as
usuaI, go oul lo nosque foi piaving as veII as Ieave hei lo
honoi a pionise, fuIfiI a dulv oi lhe Iike. NeveilheIess, he
nav nol deIileialeIv go oul noie oflen duiing lhe nighl oi
dav of lhe aIIolled one lhan lhe nighls oi davs of lhe olheis.
If he so does, he viII le deaIing injuslice oul lo hei (unIess
she olheivise consenls).
Fiqh Along the four Schools of Fiqh", volume four.
HanlaIiles do nake an addilionaI cuiious iuIing: a husland
nav nol have access al nighl lo anv olhei vife excepl foi lhe
aIIolled one unIess she is in deep disliess, such as leing on
hei dealh led and vishing lo nake a viII, oi lhe Iike of onIv
giave nalleis. ßv dav, he nav have access lo lhe unaIIolled
one (vhose luin has nol vel cone) foi doing sonelhing
uigenlIv, on condilion lhal he shouId nol slav Iong vilh hei:
if he slavs Iongei, he shouId conpensale lhe aIIolled one -
vilh vhon he shouId have spenl lhe dav - lv spending
anolhei dav vilh hei. If he has sexuaI inleicouise vilh lhe
unaIIolled one, he shouId have sexuaI inleicouise vilh lhe
aIIolled one (he shouId have one noie line of sexuaI
inleicouise vilh hei in conpensalion), lo lhe conliaiv of a
veidicl foinuIaled lv Shafi'iles, lhe foIIoveis of Inan
As foi gelling a nev vife, ve leIieve as noie highIv apl lhal
veidicl foinuIaled lv Hanifiles lhal aII vives, le lhev oId oi
nev, shouId have equaI access lo slaving vilh lheii
husland. As veII, a viigin oi nalion (pieviousIv naiiied)
shouId aIso le deaIl vilh on a pai vilh each olhei. If a
husland gels a nev vife, vhelhei she le a viigin oi nalion,
he shouId slail his naiilaI Iife lv slaving vilh hei: he shouId
spend seven nighls vilh hei if she is viigin and lhiee nighls
if she is nalion. His oId vives have lo le conpensaled foi
lhis peiiod of line he spenl vilh lhe nev one.
DeaIing oul juslice lo vives so iequiies, as exhililed lv
Iiophel Muhannad's, peace le upon hin, sunnah.
Hovevei, a husland nav legin his iolalion vilh his vives
vilh lhe nev one, lhen give lhe olheis lheii due davs oi
nighls in piopoilion lo vhal he has spenl vilh lhe nev one.
A vife nav cede hei nupliaI aIIolled line lo anolhei vife in
ieluin foi sonelhing oi vilhoul. If she cedes lhis aIIolled
line lo anolhei vife lul lhen nade up hei nind lo go lack
on il, she is so aIIoved.
Savda dauglhei of Zanaa - a vife of lhe nine vives kepl lv
Iiophel Muhanned al his dealh, peace le upon hin, vhose
iunning epilhel vas, aIong vilh lhen aII, "Molhei of lhe
IailhfuI" - has once ceded hei aIIolled nighl lo Aisha,
anolhei "Molhei of lhe IailhfuI" as she knev lhe piophel
Ioved Aisha lellei lhan he Ioved hei. Savda has lhus sel lhe
nosl spIendid exanpIe of seIfIessness, noliIilv and
geneiosilv, piefeiiing lo pIease AIIah and His aposlIe lo lhis
piofane voiId, conlenling heiseIf vilh lhe facl lhal she viII
le iesuiiecled anong lhe piophel's vives - and suffice le il
a lIessing.
In case lhe husland pIans lo liaveI, a dislinclion shouId le
nade lelveen Ieaving one's pIace foi anolhei lo sellIe dovn
(Iike Ieaving iuiaI aieas foi Caiio oi AIexandiia, oi even
Ieaving a counliv foi anolhei foi good), one lhe on hand,
and liansiloiv liaveI foi sone line aflei vhich a husland
viII cone lack hone vheie his vives aie iesiding, on lhe
If lhe husland is liaveIIing lo anolhei counliv foi finaIIv
sellIing dovn, he shouId, if possilIe, lake aII of his vives, oi
he shouId, inslead, diav a Iol anong lhen lo lake lhe
vinning one foi sone line and lhen liing hei lack foi
The previous reference.
anolhei one lo go, and so on. If il is difficuIl lo do so eilhei,
he has, inevilalIv, lo divoice lhe one vhon he does nol
vanl and ielain lhe one vhon he vanls lo have vilh hin
vheie he viII le sellIed foi good. The case in queslion is nol
pieciseIv liaveIIing foi voik oi foi louiisn, lul il is ialhei
finaI enigialion. Theiefoie, he nav nol deseil sone of his
vives and lake lhe olheis unIess lhev connonIv give
consenl vhich is aInosl inpossilIe as an unvanled vife viII
Iose hei husland, once and foi aII, if he so Ieaves.
If liaveI is lenpoiaiv foi liade, haj (piIgiinage), caIIing foi
IsIan in a non-MusIin nalion, nedicaI liealnenl, louiisn oi
olheis, lhe veidicl ve deen as aplei is lhal a husland
shouId diav a Iol anong his vives lo idenlifv lhe one lo
acconpanv hin. The peiiod of lhis lenpoiaiv liaveI shouId
nol le ieckoned as vilhin lhe caIendai of lhe vives: il is
excIusiveIv lhe shaie of lhe one vho has von lhe Iol and lhe
olhei vives aie nol lo le conpensaled foi aflei liaveI.
If a vife liaveIs aIone, she shouId nol le conpensaled foi
vhal she has nissed duiing hei alsence. If aII vives go vilh
lheii husland, he shouId shaie his line vilh lhen as he
used lo do in his eaiIiei counliv.
And finaIIv, nav a husland have aII of his vives one pIace`
Iuiisls leIieve lhal if lhe husland's house has nanv fIals oi il
is a nuIli-sloiv house, vilh each of lhose fIals oi sloiies
having a piivale dooi and uliIilies vhich aie peifeclIv
The previous reference.
independenl of lhe iesl of fIals (a piivale loiIel, kilchen, a
pIace foi a cIolhes Iine), lhe husland nav iighlfuIIv conline
aII of his vives in such a house, even if lhev do nol consenl
individuaIIv. Whal counls is lhal each of lhe vives viII have
a piivaleIv independenl fIal in isoIalion of lhe olheis.
If lhe house has a iesidence vhich has onIv one dooi vhich
hinges inlo a singIe ioon oi even a sel of ioons, vilh a
shaied loiIel and kilchen, a husland nav conline aII of his
vives as such onIv vhen lhev aII give consenl. The sane
iuIe appIies vhen lhev aie aII liaveIIing and have lo slav in
one ioon oi lhe sane lenl (as if liaveIIing foi haj, foi
exanpIe) in vhich case lhev can le conlined lv a husland,
vhelhei lhev so consenl oi nol (a case in poinl is lhe
cianned lenls of piIgiins al Minna and Aiafal).
MaIikiles have nade a falva (ieIigious judgnenl) lhal a nan
naking Iove lo a vife vhiIe lhe olhei vife, oi vives, is, oi
aie, valching is "haian" - a lein used lv juiisls lo liand
anvlhing vhich is nol peinilled al aII lv ieIigion and vhich
caiiies a punishnenl lv AIIah foi anvone doing il - ialhei
lhan jusl "disappioved of".
SIeeping vilh a vife in fionl of lhe olheis is nol peinilled
undei anv ciicunslances, vhelhei lhe vife leing sIepl vilh
is fuIIv exposed lo lhe olheis oi nol.
We fuIIv suppoil lhis
sound veidicl lv MaIikiles. In facl, sexuaI inleicouise as
such is nol peinilled fion lhe hunanilaiian vievpoinl, as il
The previous reference.
The previous reference.
huils lhe senlinenls of olhei vives, and iidicuIousIv aiouses
inslincls and iancoi anong lhen. Il aIso liespasses on lhe
decencv of lhe one vilh vhon lhe husland is sIeeping in
fionl of lhe olheis.
Man, vhon AIIah has honoialIv ciealed, piesunalIv
diveiges videIv fion dunl aninaIs, and, keeping lhis
diveigence in nind, sound and unlIenished hunan naluie
iejecls sexuaI inleicouise as done in such a vav as in fionl of
olheis. Lven sone aninaIs, Iike cals, can inpossilIv
copuIale vilh each olhei vhiIe leing cIoseIv valched lv
hunan, oi even cIoseIv vilhoul seeing lhen. And "LxaIled
le He vho has given lo each ciealed lhing ils foin and
naluie, and has fuilhei given il guidance".
We aIso leIieve lhal a husland nav slep up lhe expenses of
one vife lhan lhe olhei, oi olheis, undei ceilain
ciicunslances, incIuding having noie chiIdien lhan lhe
olheis. Ioi exanpIe, if a husland gives a vife having five
chiIdien six Ioaves, vhiIe giving lhe one vilh lhiee chiIdien
foui Ioaves, he viII nol, axionalicaIIv, le deaIing oul
inequaIilv lo eilhei of lhen. This division is exaclIv lhe coie
of juslice, as il lakes inlo accounl lhal eveiv individuaI viII
have a Ioaf. ConsequenlIv, if one of lhe vives is giaveIv iII
and needs nedicalion, lhe olhei vives shouId lhank AIIah
foi having good heaIlh and need nol iequesl lhal lhe: le
paid a coiiesponding sun of nonev as lhe iII one ieceives
fion a husland foi nedicalion.
If a vife-lo-le allaches a sliing, vhen concIuding lhe
naiiiage conliacl lhal hei vouId-le husland shouId nol
lake anolhei vife in addilion lo hei, lhe husland shouId
olseive lhe condilion lv nol naiiving anvone unIess lhe
fiisl vife consenls and cedes lhe condilion allached. A
hadilh lv Iiophel Muhannad, peace le upon hin, ieads,
"The condilions vhich nosl deseive lo le fuIIv nel aie lhose
vhich aie allached lo naiiiage." The hadilh, as iepoiled lv
lolh AI-ßukhaii and MusIin, olviousIv uiges lhal
condilions allached lo naiiiage aie lhe ones, vhich deseive
nosl lo le iespeclfuIIv fuIfiIIed.
Chapter Six
As said lefoie, lhe foes of IsaIn have despeialeIv leen
allenpling, since IsIan davned on hunanilv up liII nov, lo
dispaiage, and caII inlo seiious queslion, IsIan, using lhe
pIuiaIilv of vives lhe piophel naiiied lo liv lo deaI IsIan a
falaI lIov.
Thev have aIvavs leen cIaining lhal lhe piophel vas
alsoIuleIv devoled lo fuIIv salisfving his Iusl lv ioIIing in
lhe losons of nine vives!! When lhis cIain vas iniliaIIv
nade lv Ievs in Yalhiel
- vhich vas Ialei lo le knovn as
Madina aflei Hijia - lhe HoIv Ouian has eIoquenlIv exposed
lheii aIIegalion as nolivaled onIv lv envv foi, and
covelousness of, lhe piophel since lhe lvo piophels Davood
(David) and SoIinan (SoIonon), peace le upon lhen lolh,
had leen lesloved vilh a Iaige Kingdon each and had had
nanv noie vives and caplive fenaIe sIaves lhan Iiophel
Muhannad, peace le upon hin, had.
OiienlaIisls oulside, as veII as secuIaiisls and Ieflisls inside,
aie sliII cheekiIv laIking dispaiagingIv aloul lhe piophel's
Ioflv posilion and his puiified sunna (liadilions) oul of
naIice lovaids lhis ieIigion. Hovevei, AIIah viII le
safeguaiding His ieIigion, despile lheii iII viII, unliI AIIah
inheiils lhe Lailh and vhoevei is on il.
Refer to the introduction of this book.
Sone olheis foIIov suil lecause lhev do nol knov vhv lhe
piophel naiiied so nanv vonen. Iiofound Iook al his
inpeccalIe liogiaphv viII easiIv shov lhal sone of lhose
naiiiages veie piinaiiIv caleiing foi hunan nolivalion,
vhiIe sone olheis veie neanl lo ieassuie eslianged heails
and souIs as veII as lo Iav lhe giound ieadv foi lhe fiisl seed
of lhe lIessed caII foi IsIan. Moieovei, lhe piophel, peace le
upon hin, had a naluiaI iighl and desiie lo naiiv lecause
he vas a hunan leing, ialhei lhan an angeI. As ve have
said lefoie, naiiiage has leen sel foilh in lhe lenels of aII of
AIIah's piophels (even in lhe lenel of lhose vho did nol evei
naiiv Iike Iesus and Yahia (Iohn lhe ßaplisl), peace le upon
lhen lolh). None
of lhe foui gospeIs slipuIaled a lan on poIvganv.
Lel us legin vilh Khadija, lhe piophel's fiisl vife. Khadija,
lhe daughlei of KhuvaiIed, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hei,
had, lefoie IsIan's advenl, leen naiiied lo Hend son of
Nallash of lhe Tanin liile, vhose epilhel vas Alu-HaIa.
Aflei his dealh, she naiiied Aleeq son of Aled of lhe
Makhzouin liile.
Then Aleeq died as veII.
Khadija leIonged lo one of lhe Ouiaish liile's Iofliesl
househoIds in leins of Iineage. She had an enoinous
veaIlh, vhich she used in liade. She used lo send sone nen,
vilh hei nonev on liade nissions lo Sviia. When she heaid
of Muhannad's (peace le upon hin) inlegiilv, she senl foi
hin and iequesled hin lo lake hei nonev on a liade nission
Refer to chapter one, "Polygamy Before Ìslam".
"Al-Tabaqat Al-Qubra" (or Generations of the Prophet's Companions)
lo Sviia, pionising lo pav hin as lvice as she used lo pav
olheis vho peifoined lhe sane lask. Muhannad, peace le
upon hin, look hei nonev foi liade in Sviia, acconpanied
lv hei lov sIave Mavsaia. Theie, he liaded, coning lack lo
Mecca vilh a nuIlifoId piofil fai in excess of vhal olheis
used lo eain foi Khadija duiing lhe sane jouinev. Khadija as
pieviousIv pionised doulIv paid hin.
Upon knoving fion hei lov sIave, Mavsaia, aloul his
niiacIes, peace le upon hin, duiing lhe jouinev: a cIoud
shaded hin and a cIeigvnan leIIing Mavsaia lhal his feIIov
Muhannad vouId le lhe uIlinale aposlIe lo le senl lv
AIIah, as heiaIded lv pievious hoIv looks, Muhannad
lickIed hei fancv noie and noie, and she piesenled heiseIf
lo hin foi naiiiage lhiough hei fenaIe fiiend Nafeesa
daughlei of Unava. AIlhough Khadija vas foilv veais oId,
lhe piophel agieed lo naiiv hei and vas lhen al lhe age of
Khadija gave liilh lo aII of Muhannad's chiIdien -lovs and
giiIs- excepl foi his son Iliahin, vho vas loin Ialei in his
Iife lv Maiv, lhe Coplic fenaIe sIave given as a gifl lo lhe
piophel lv AI-Mukavkis, lhe ieIigious Ieadei of Lgvpl's
Copls. The piophel, peace le upon hin, nevei naiiied anv
olhei vonan unliI Khadija died al lhe age of sixlv-five,
vhiIe he vas onIv a IillIe noie lhan fiflv veais oId.
Nov, ve have lo iighlfuIIv vondei: if lhe piophel, peace le
upon hin, had Iived up lo lhe age of lvenlv-five vilhoul
naiiiage, if he vas highIv connended lv aII of Mecca's
peopIe as lhe honesl nan of inlegiilv, if his chasle and
sexuaI alslinence veie exenpIaiv - as conceded lv lhe nosl
haidened, iancoious and halefuI of Mecca's poIvlheisls -,
and if he Ialei naiiied Khadija, vho vas fifleen veais his
senioi, and conlenled hinseIf vilh hei as an onIv vife even
aflei she exceeded sixlv veais of age, if aII lhese facls have
leen liue, vhal Iusl is lheie lhev cIain lo have nolivaled his
so nanv naiiiages
The piophel, peace le upon hin, vas lhen in lhe piine of
his voulh and had nol leen pieoccupied as vel vilh lhe
heavv luidens of his lIessed caII foi IsIan. If he had leen
sveepingIv IuslfuI, as lhe foes of IsIan cIain, he vouId have
naiiied as nanv vonen as he couId, as poIvganv and
laking conculines vas a veiv connon pie-IsIan piaclice, as
said lefoie,
vilhoul anv Iinil.
Hovevei, lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, nevei so did. Is
nol lhis an evidence lhal he look nanv vives Ialei foi Iofliei
ieasons lhan neieIv salisfving his Iusl, lhough salisfving
Iusl shouId nol in ilseIf le consideied a shane`
SliII, lheie is one noie poinl lo expIain, lefoie noving lo
olhei vives, vhich is lhe facl lhal he aIvavs highIv
connended, and ienained failhfuI lo, Khadija aflei hei
dealh. Lven aflei he had laken nine olhei vives, he vas
ieaIIv fuiious vhenevei anvlodv iII-nenlioned hei, even if
il vas Aisha. He used eveiv possilIe occasion lo sing
Khadija's piaises, ciling hei leing veiv giacious lo lhe gieal
caII foi IsIan. He nevei foigol hei lhough she vas lhe oIdesl
of aII lhose vhon he naiiied lhioughoul his Iife and he
Refer to chapter one, "Polygamy Before Ìslam".
Ialei naiiied voungei ones vho veie, piolalIv, noie
leaulifuI lhan she vas.
Is il faii enough lo desciile a husland as such as naiiving
piinaiiIv foi Iusl!` Can such a spouse le so iII lhoughl of
vhiIe he vas connended lv AIIah, lhe LxaIled, as having
"Cieal nanneis" - AIIah foilid.
Nov, ve have lo shed Iighl on lhe ciicunslances undei
vhich lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, naiiied his second
vife, Savda daughlei of Zanaa, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh
hei. She vas naiiied, duiing lhe pie-IsIan peiiod lo
AI-Sakiaan son of Anie son of Ald-Shans, vho vas aIso
hei cousin. Having lolh enliaced IsIan in Mecca, lhev
venl oul on lhe second enigialion lo Alvssinia. Having
cone lack fion Alvssinia, hei husland died in Mecca and
she lecane a vidov. When she spenl a peiiod of foui
nonlhs and len davs aflei hei husland's dealh - as a MusIin
vife shouId so spend aflei hei husland's dealh vilhoul
naiiiage lo nak6 suie lhal she is nol piegnanl lv de
deceased husland - lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, senl foi
hei and pioposed naiiiage lo hei. IoIIoving lhe naiiiage
she enigialed vilh hin lo Madina.
She had giovn oIdei lv lhe line lhe piophel pioposed
naiiiage lo hei. Wilh lheii naiiiage gelling oIdei, she ceded
hei aIIolled line lo anolhei vife of lhe piophel, vho vas
Aisha. Ceding hei aIIolled line, she said lo lhe piophel, as
iepoiled lv one naiialoi, "Oh vou lhe aposlIe of AIIah, I
sveai lv AIIah lhal I don'l ciave foi nen anv noie
(iefeiiing lo lhe facl lhal she vas oId and vas nol IuslfuI anv
Iongei) lul I piav lhal I vouId le iesuiiecled anong voui
vives on lhe Dav of Iudgenenl". The piophel, peace le
upon hin, accepled hei ceding hei aIIolled line lo Aisha
and ielained hei as his vife unliI his dealh,
peace le upon
hin. So, can his naiiiage lo anolhei oId Iadv, Iike Savda, le
laken as evidence lhal lhe piophel's (peace le upon hin)
poIvganv vas neanl, as nongeied lv lhe foes of IsIan,
onIv foi Iusl and ciaving foi vonen!!` Oi cannol il le lellei
desciiled as an acl of consoIalion lv hin, peace le upon
hin, foi a MusIin vidov vho had no one lo piovide foi
hei, noi had she anv veaIlh, voulh oi leaulv lhal vouId
have pionpled anvone eIse lo naiiv hei`! ßv AIIah, such an
unveained-foi naiiiage vas anong his luidens, peace le
upon hin, and a heavv dulv his nolIe souI lhoughl il vas
inpeialive lo do. Who eIse vouId have consoIed a leieaved
vidov` And vho eIse vouId have heIped anvone lo his feel
aflei having sIipped, vouId have lioken caplivilv oi vouId
have heIped lo foileai nisfoilunes` Il vas he, peace le
upon hin, vho vouId do so, since il vas he vho vas senl as
a neicv lo lhe enliie nankind`
Aisha, lhe daughlei of his conpanion Alu-ßaki AI-Siddeeq,
nav AIIah le pIeased vilh lhen lolh, vas lhe lhiid vife of
Iiophel Muhannad, peace le upon hin. Il vas naluiaI lhal
a pieachei le cIoseIv lied lo lhe nen vho vouId Ialei eiecl
lhe Ioflv edifice of IsIan and vho vouId pionole lhe caII foi
AIIah lo lhe foui coneis of lhe gIole. The lesl lie lelveen
lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, and his senioi conpanions
vas lhe sacied lie of naiiiage. Theiefoie, he, peace le upon
hin, naiiied Aisha, vho vas lhen veiv voung.
"Al-Tabapt AÌ-Qubra", by Ìbn-Saad.
The fouilh vife vas Hafsa, lhe daughlei of his olhei senioi
conpanion Onai son of AI-Khallal. He naiiied Hafsa
pailIv as lhe pievious naiiiage, naneIv lecause she vas his
conpanion's daughlei, and pailIv lo pIease Onai hinseIf.
Onai had offeied his daughlei in naiiiage lo his
conpanion Alu-ßaki aflei his daughlei's husland, Khanees
son of Hudhafa of lhe Sahn liile, died in aclion al lhe lallIe
of Uhud.
He and Hafsa had enliaced IsIan and
enigialed lo Madina, lhen he died upon lhe coning lack of
lhe piophel fion lhe Uhud lallIe. Having spenl foui nonlhs
and len davs aflei hei husland's dealh, she vas offeied in
naiiiage lo Alu-ßaki lv hei falhei Onai. Alu-ßaki
decIined and Onai vas upsel. Onai had eaiIiei done lhe
sane lhing lo Olhnan son of Affan, anolhei senioi
conpanion of lhe piophel, lul he decIined, and Onai vas
aIso upsel vilh hin.
ConpIaining lhen lolh lo lhe piophel, peace le upon hin,
lhe piophel naiiied hei in oidei lo pIease hei falhei Onai.
The piophel had aIso eaiIiei honoied Alu-ßaki lv naiiving
his daughlei Aisha, as shovn alove. Alu-ßaki decIined lo
accepl Hafsa as a vife vhen offeied lv Onai lecause he
had heaid lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, nenlion lhal he
vouId naiiv hei. Alu-ßaki vouId nol discIose vhal he
heaid lhe piophel sav. Anvvav, Hafsa vas nol a leaulifuI
Iadv, as Aisha oi Safivia, lul she used lo fasl and piav al
nighl a Iol and Ioved AIIah and his aposlIe.
Usdul-Ghaba, "volume two".
So, can his naiiiage lo lolh Aisha and Hafsa le consideied
ciaving foi vonen oi salisfving one's Iusl` Oi can il lellei
consideied a necessilv foi slienglhening lhe caII foi AIIah,
pIeasing his senioi canpaign and loIsleiing lies lelveen lhe
piophel and lhe senioi nen in chaige of lhe nascenl caII foi
IsIan` Was nol il consoIing a nailvi's vidov Iike Hafasa
vho vas nol such a leaulifuI oi veaIlhv Iadv lhal vouId nol
have lenpled anvone eIse lo naiiv hei. Il vas lhe piophel
vho vas a neicv and loon offeied lv AIIah lo nankind.
As foi Zainal, lhe daughlei of Khuzaina, vhose epilhel vas
"Unn AI-Masakeen" (oi Molhei of lhe Iooi), nav AIIah le
pIeased vilh hei, she vas lhe vife of his cousin Ulaida son
of AI-Haielh son of AlduI-MullaIel, nav AIIah le pIeased
vilh hin. He feII in aclion as a nailvi al lhe lallIe of ßadi
and Iefl hei vilh no one lo piovide foi hei. So, vas il faii
enough lo ievaid a conpanion, vho vas aIso a nailvied
cousin, lv Ieaving his vidov aIone`! Who eIse vouId have
nainlained a ieIalion of one's kilh and kin, ievaided a
nailvi and lenevoIenlIv, advanlageousIv and neicifuIIv
iepIaced hin vilh his vidov excepl foi Muhannad, peace
le upon hin, lhe Iasl of lhe piophels vho vas aII
lhioughoul his Iife knovn as lhe candid and liuslvoilhv!!`
Can such a naiiiage le iegaided as having leen nolivaled
lv anv sensuaI, oi olhei, ciaving`! Oi nusl nol il le vieved
as an addilionaI luiden on lhe piophel's shouIdeis`!
Hovevei, she died, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hei, onIv a
fev nonlhs aflei she naiiied lhe piophel.
Then lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, naiiied
Unn-SaIana, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hei. Naned Hend
daughlei of SuhaiI son of AI-Mughiia of lhe Makhzoun
liile, she had leen naiiied lefoie lhe piophel, peace le
upon hin, lo his paleinaI cousin AlduIIah son of
AlduI-Assad of lhe Makhzoun liile. Hei husland vas
vounded al lhe lallIe of Uhud, and one nonlh Ialei his
vounds heaIed. He lhen venl oul on a shoil-lein,
one-nonlh niIilaiv offensive. Having cone lack, his
vounds ieIapsed sending hin lo his dealh, nav AIIah le
pIeased vilh hin. Alu-SaIana Iefl lehind Unn.-SaIana
and a Iol chiIdien.
Having spenl a peiiod of foui nonlhs and len davs aflei hei
husland's dealh, she ieceived a naiiiage pioposaI fion lhe
piophel, peace le upon hin. Hovevei, she decIined,
pIeading lhal she vas veiv jeaIous, oId-aged and having so
nanv chiIdien. The piophel iepIied lo hei lv saving "As foi
voui ciled jeaIousv, AIIah viII send il dininishing: as foi
voui oId age, I an oIdei lhan vou aie: and as foi voui
oiphans, AIIah and His aposlIe viII le in chaige of lhen".
Thal is lo sav, AIIah and His aposlIe viII lake caie of hei
chiIdien. This vas a ieason foi lhe piophel lo have
lIessingIv gol naiiied lo hei: lo lake caie of oiphans and le
fuIIv in chaige of lhis ieveied fenaIe conpanion having
leen vidoved. And uIlinaleIv, lhe naiiiage vas aIso in
honoi of lhe deceased husland Alu-SaIana, vho had faIIen
as a nailvi, lv laking caie of his vidov and chiIdien and
nainlaining good ieIalions vilh one's kilh and kin as his
nolhei vas a naleinaI aunl of lhe piophel. So vhal Iusl vas
"Tabaqat", by Ìbn-Saad.
lheie lehind naiiving a vidov vho vas fiflv-pIus veais of
age and laking caie of hei chiIdien`
As foi Unn-Halila (RanIah) daughlei of Alu-Sufvan son
of Hail, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hei, she has a sloiv lo le
loId in oidei lo cIaiifv lhe nolIe ain envisaged lv lhis
naiiiage. Unn-Halila vas a vife of UlaiduIIah son of
Cahsh son of Khuzainah. Thev Iefl foi Alvssinia on lhe
second vave of enigialion, vhich vas oideied lv lhe
piophel, peace le upon hin, lo spaie lhe eaiIv MusIin
leIieveis lhe liunl of infideIs' coeiciveness. Theie,
UlaiduIIah conveiled lo poIvlheisn and lecane a ienegade
- AIIah foilid - vhiIe his vife Unn-Halila, nav AIIah le
pIeased vilh hei, ienained sleadfaslIv hoIding on lo hei
failh, despile aIienalion, foiIoinness and IoneIiness.
Hovevei, she couId nol have gone lack lo Mecca, vheie hei
falhei vas a haidened Ieadei of lhe liile of Ouiaish, vho
used lo coeiciveIv deaI vilh, nosl peisecule, lhe aposlIe and
his conpanions. If she had ieluined, she nusl have leen
pione lo leing suppiessed oul of hei failh, in ieluin.
Theiefoie, she shouId have leen honoied, and conpensaled
foi a ienegade deceased husland, lv lhe piophel (hei
husland had died eaiIiei in Alvssinia).
So, AIIah's aposlIe, vho used lo cuie peopIe's lioken heails
and enleilain lhose vho aie foiIoin, senl lo lhe Negus - lhe
Lnpeioi of Alvssinia, vho had enliaced IsIan - oideiing
hin lo viile oul, on his lehaIf, his naiiiage conliacl lo
The Negus did as oideied lv lhe piophel and senl fuIIv
honoied, lo hin in Madina aflei his hijia.
Upon knoving of his daughlei's naiiiage lo lhe piophel,
peace le upon hin, Alu-Sufvan vas veiv nuch deIighled
and, iejoicingIv, connended Muhannad as lhe lesl and
nosl conpelenl evei son-in- Iav. Alu-Sufvan son of Hail
said so aIlhough he vas sliII an infideI and a foe of IsIan.
Hovevei, he candidIv leIieved, as a falhei iegaidIess of
failh, lhal his daughlei naiiied hunanilv's giealesl and
nolIesl nen.
AIIah's viIIing vas lhal line vas aiound again and il so
look pIace lhal Alu-Sufvan cane lo Madina lo dissuade lhe
piophel fion conqueiing Mecca aflei infideIs had lieached
peace vilh hin. The infideIs of Mecca had allacked and
kiIIed lhe piophel's aIIies of Khuzaa liile in Mecca, lhe
sancluaiv of AIIah, duiing a "Haian" oi sacied nonlh (one
of foui nonlhs duiing vhich fighling is piohililed lv
IeeIing al a Ioss aflei lhe senioi conpanions had decIined lo
inleicede foi hin vilh lhe piophel, peace le upon hin,
Alu-Sufvan had lo iesoil onIv lo his daughlei's house.
Having aiiived lheie, his daughlei, nuch lo his ovn
suipiise, fuiIed hei nalliess fion hin nosl disguslingIv.
On seeing lhis he said lo hei, "ßv AIIah, nv daughlei, I do
nol knov vou did nol vanl ne lo louch lhe nalliess`"
IIalIv, she iepIied lv saving "Il is lecause lhis is lhe
piophel's, peace le upon hin, and vou aie sliII a poIvlheisl
Cood heavens! Il vas a failh as deepIv iooled and
unshakalIe in lhe heail of lhe piophel's vife as a nounlain
vhich nade hei so daiingIv face up lo hei falhei vho
geneialed hei. The incidence piovides a vivid exanpIe of
hov liulhfuI and deep failh nakes AIIah and His aposlIe
noie leIoved, lo a liue MusIin, lhan his nolhei, falhei, son
and liolhei.
Aflei aII, vas lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, iequiied lo Iel
lhal gieal Iadv dovn lo Iose lhe iighl palh having leen loin
lelveen a ienegade husland and a fIagianl infideI falhei`!
Who eIse lhan he, peace le upon hin, vouId have iushed lo
honoi and ievaid hei foi hei sleadfaslness, palience and
sliuggIe foi hei failh and nessage` And vho eIse vouId
have leen noie equaI lo lhe daughlei of a Ouiaish nolIe
nan lhan lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, vho is lhe head
of aII anceslois and descendanls lo cone unliI lhe Dav of
Nov, ve cone lo lhe sloiv lehind his naiiiage, peace le
upon hin, lo Zainal daughei of Iahsh of lhe Assad liile,
nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hei, vho vas his cousin as she
vas lhe daughlei of his paleinaI aunl Unavna daughlei of
AlduI-MullaIel son of Hashen. She lhus leIonged lo one of
Ouiaish's nosl lhoioughlied nolIe and Ioflv househoIds.
She vas aIso iepoiled as having leen chainingIv leaulifuI.
When lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, senl soneone lo
piopose naiiiage lo hei, hei faniIv nislakenIv lhoughl lhal
he vanled hei foi hinseIf. Much lo lheii suipiise, he vanled
lo naiiv hei off lo Zavd son of Haiilha.
Having leen a sIave in pie-IsIan lines, Zavd, nav AIIah le
pIeased vilh hin, had ended up as a sIave undei lhe candid
and liuslvoilhv piophel, Muhannad son of AlduIIah, vho
faiiIv deaIl vilh hin. The piophel, peace le upon hin, so
affeclionaleIv and conpassionaleIv infIuenced hin lhal
Zavd piefeiied lo slav vilh hin foi evei lo going lack vilh
his falhei and uncIe (having leen in puisuil of hin aflei
leing soId as a sIave, his falhei and uncIe finaIIv found hin
vilh lhe piophel and cane lo lake hin lack). Al lhal poinl,
lhe piophel asked lhen lo sland vilness lhal he vas
adopling Zavd as a son lv saving, "Zavd is nv son and ve
nuluaIIv inheiil each olhei". His IineaI falhei so consenled.
AIlhough lhe piophel enfianchised and adopled Zavd (Ialei
IsIan disnanlIed lhe adoplion svslen iesuIling in Zavd
iegaining his nane and fieedon even lefoie lhal) lhe faniIv
of Iahsh luined dovn lhe naiiiage pioposaI nade lv Zavd,
cIaining lhal lheii daughlei, anong olhei giiIs, leIonged lo
a nolIe and dignified faniIv and vas nosl soughl aflei lv
lhe lesl voulh of Aialian IeninsuIa.
Hovevei, AIIah LxaIled le He, so desiied lhal lhis naiiiage
shouId foigo ahead foi a gieal vise ieason, even a nuIlilude
of ieasons. The nosl inpoilanl of lhese ieasons is leing
disnanlIing lhe connon piaclice of loasling IineaI descenls
in oidei lo confiin, and send noie deepIv iooled, lhe
eleinaI, innacuIale and sage iuIe lhal "The nosl honoied of
vou in lhe sighl of AIIah is lhe nosl iighleous of vou", lhe
nosl iighleous - ialhei lhan lhe veaIlhiesl, lhe nosl
lhoiough lied oi nolIesl.
On lhal occasion, AIIah senl dovn His veise fion lhe suiah
of "AI-Ahzal", oi cIans, vhich ieads, "Il is nol filling foi a
leIievei, nan oi vonan, vhen a nallei has leen decided lv
AIIah and His aposlIe lo have anv oplion aloul lheii
decision. If anv one disolevs AIIah and His aposlIe, he is
indeed on a cIeaiIv viong palh". As soon as lhe alove veise
had leen senl dovn, AlduIIah son of Iahsh and his sislei
Zainal, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh lhen, acknovIedged lhal
lhe onIv oplion lhev have vas lo fuIIv olev AIIah and His
aposlIe. So, AlduIIah loId his naleinaI cousin Muhannad,
peace le upon hin, "I viII do vhalevei vou oidei ne". And
so he, peace le upon hin naiiied hei off lo Zavd son of
AIlhough lhe naiiiage vas fuIIv consunnaled, Zainal sliII
luined hei nose up al hin, pIeading lhal she vas noie
lhoiough lied. So peisislenlIv had she leen doing so, lhal
Zavd, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hin, couId nol enduie hei
anvnoie. ConpIaining hei lo lhe piophel, he iequesled his
consenl lo divoice hei, on lhe giounds lhal he couId nol Iive
vilh hei anv Iongei. The piophel, peace le upon hin,
oideied hin lo le pious enough, so feai AIIah lhal he shouId
ielain hei as his vife.
In lhe neanline, AIIah, LxaIled le He, ieveaIed lo lhe
piophel lhe fuluie evenls lhal Iav in sloie vilh AIIah: Zavd
vas lo divoice Zainal, vhon AIIah vouId lhen naiiv off lo
His liulhfuI piophel. The pioceduie as such, lhe piophel
vas fuilhei ieveaIed lo, vouId alsoIuleIv upiool lhe
pie-IsIan piaclice of adoplion. The noie faii and iighleous
pioceduie, AIIah loId His piophel, is lo caII chiIdien lv lhe
nanes of lheii ieaI falheis, ialhei lhan lv lhe nanes of lhose
adopling lhen. If IsIan has, foievei, foilidden a falhei lo
naiiv his daughlei-in- Iav, lhe case is nol so vilh an
adopled son, as he is nol a ieaI son and shouId nol so le.
AIIah, LxaIled le He, senl dovn anolhei veise of lhe suiah
of "A!-Ahzal", oi cIans, naiking lhe sane occasion. The
veise ieads, "ßehoId! vou did sav lo one vho had ieceived
lhe giace of AIIah and voui favoi: Relain voui vife in voui
vedIock and feai AIIah. ßul vou did hide in voui heail lhal
vhich AIIah vas aloul lo nake nanifesl: You did feai
peopIe, lul il is noie filling lhal vou shouId feai AIIah. Then
vhen Zavd had dissoIved (his naiiiage), vilh hei, vilh lhe
necessaiv (foinaIilv), We joinled hei in naiiiage lo vou: In
oidei lhal (in fuluie) lheie nav le no difficuIlv lo lhe
leIieveis in naiiiage vilh lhe vives of lheii adopled sons
vhen lhe Iallei have dissoIved lheii naiiiage vilh lhen.
And AIIah's connand nusl le fuIfiIIed".
The lesl inleipielalion of lhis veise - (il is lhe lesl lecause il
is lhe cIosesl lo lhe nolIe posilion of piophels, vhose
infaIIiliIilv is unaninousIv agieed levond anv doull) - is
piovided lv Inan AIi son of AI-Hussain son of AIi son of
Alu-TaIel, vhose epilhel is ZainuI-alideen (vhich neans
lhe nosl devoled lo voishipping), nav AIIah le pIeased
vilh hin.
Shedding Iighl on lhis veise, he said, "Iiophel Muhannad,
peace le upon hin, had eaiIiei ieceived ieveIalion lo lhe
effecl lhal Zavd vouId divoice Zainal and AIIah vouId
naiiv hin off lo hei. So, vhen Zavd conpIained lo lhe
piophel, peace le upon hin, lhal his vife, Zainal, had leen
hainfuIIv disoledienl lo hin and lhal he pIanned lo divoice
hei, lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, said lo hin lv vav of
poIileIv advising hin (ße feaifuI of AIIah and ielain voui
vife), aIlhough he, peace le upon hin, had knovn in
advance lhal Zavd vouId divoice hei and he vouId le
iepIacing hin as hei husland. Il vas exaclIv lhis knovIedge,
as iefeiied lo lv lhe veise lhal lhe piophel hid in his heail.
The piophel, peace le upon hin, desisled fion oideiing hin
lo divoice hei on accounl of his knovIedge lefoiehand lhal
he hinseIf vouId naiiv hei, feaiing lhe deliinenl lhal
couId have leen done lo hin lv poIvlheisls and hvpociiles if
he had naiiied Zainal in pIace of his foinei sIave'Zavd in
case he oideied hin lo divoice hei. Theiefoie, AIIah spoke
lo lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, iepioachfuIIv foi unduIv
feaiing peopIe's gossip vhen enlaiking upon sonelhing
vhich AIIah peinilled hin lo do, as exhililed lv leIIing
Zavd lo ielain his vife, aIlhough he had knovn lefoiehand
lhal he vouId divoice hei. AIIah, LxaIled le He, loId hin
lhal il is AIIah vho is voilhv of leing feaied undei aII
Oui juiisls, nav AIIah have neicv upon lhen aII, said,
desciiling lhe alove-ciled inleipielalion lv ZainuI-aliddin
"This veise of lhe Ouian has leen lesl eIucidaled as such.
This eIucidalion (as piovided lv ZainuI-aliddin) has leen
lhe one deened as nosl appiopiiale lv lhe HoIv Ouian
inleipieleis and veII-eslalIished schoIais vho do nol accepl
anv hisloiicaI incidenls unIess lhev lhoioughIv veiifv lhen.
On lop of lhose uIena (eninenl schoIais) aie AI-Zuhiv, ßaki
son of AI-AIaa AI-Oushaiiv, Alu-ßaki son of AI-Aiali as
veII as olheis".
Inan Iln-Kalheei, nav AIIah le pIeased vilh hin, has
adananlIv iefused lo acknovIedge as aulhenlic anv olhei
hisloiicaI accounls - ciled in lhe conlexl of eIucidaling ils
veise - vhich iuns on a coIIision couise vilh lhe infaIIiliIilv,
and lhe Ioflv posilion, of lhe piophel, lianding such
accounls as concocled ones vhich Iack aulhenlicilv lolh in
leins of lhe chain of naiialois and in leins of lhe lexl
Connenling on lhese unvilling hisloiicaI accounls, vhich
eIucidales AIIah's saving lo His piophel "And vou did hide
in voui heail lhal vhich AIIah vas aloul lo nake nanifesl,
vou did feai peopIe, lul il is noie filling lhal vou shouId
feai AIIah" as diopping a hinl al lhe facl lhal Iiophel
Muhannad, peace le upon hin, fancied Zainal, AI-Inain
AI-Ouiluli said lhal such an aIIeged cIain can le nade onIv
lv soneone vho is eilhei unvilling aloul lhe piophel's -
peace le upon hin - infaIIiliIilv oi lv one vho is pIaving
dovn his veII-deseived esleen and iespeclaliIilv.
The Ìnterpretation by Ìmam Al-Qurtubi, volume eight, the surah of
The "Ìnterpretation of the Great Quran", by Ìbn-Katheer, volume three.
AI-Hakeen AI-~iinidhv said in his look, lilIed "Nvadei
AI-UsuI" (vhich neans lhe nosl soughl-aflei of ieIigion
fundanenlaIs), "AIi son of AI-Hussain deIved deepei inlo
his highIv-lieasuied knovIedge in oidei lo cone up vilh
lhis eIucidalion of lhe veise vhich is as gIilleiing liiIIianlIv
as a highIv-iefined gen. This is lecause AIIah laIked lo
Muhannad iepioachfuIIv onIv as He, LxaIled le He, had
loId hin lhal Zainal vouId le added up lo voui vives: so
vhv nusl vou (Muhannad) have loId Zavd lo ielain his
vife, seiiousIv laking inlo accounl peopIe's gossip Iesl lhev
shouId sav: Muhannad has naiiied his daughlei-in-Iov,
vhiIe (Il is noie filling lo feai AIIah, ialhei lhan anvlodv
AI-Nahas quoled sone schoIais as saving "This is nol a sin
having leen connilled lv lhe piophel, peace le upon hin,
as he vas nol oideied lo iepenl oi ask AIIah's foigiveness
lheieof Wheieas an acl can le iegaided as nol sinfuI, il
cannol le accepled lecause olhei acls vouId have leen
lellei. The aposlIe, peace le upon hin, hid in his heail an
acl vhich he vas going lo do Ialei, so lhal he nighl nol
lenpl peopIe oul of failh".
In a nulsheII, lhe piophel naiiied Zainal daughlei of Iahsh
aflei Zavd son of Haiilha, as oideied lv AIIah had divoiced
hei. Then il vas AIIah vho oul iighlIv naiiied hei off lo His
piophel Muhannad, peace le upon hin, lo disnanlIe -
once and foi aII - lhe svslen of adoplion and so lhal falheis
nav nol feeI avkvaid lo naiiv lhe foinei vives of lhis
The interpetation of the Quran, by Al-Qurtubi.
adopled sons, vho aie nol ieaIIv lheii ovn sons. Zainal vas
lhe piophel's paleinaI cousin - hei nolhei leing his falhei's
sislei - and il vas he vho vas in chaige of hei liinging up:
if he hinseIf had desiied lo naiiv hei, he vouId have oul
iighlIv naiiied hei, ialhei lhan having naiiied hei off lo
Zavd iniliaIIv.
Lale Sheikh Muhannad eI-ChazaIi has uiged sliongIv lo
invaIidale vhal hvpociiles said in inleipielalion of lhis
veise. He said, "Thev cIain lhal il vas a fancv foi Zainal
vhich lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, hid in his heail and
foi vhich he feaied gossiping peopIe, ialhei lhan AIIah.
Thal is lo sav lhal AIIah, aIIegedIv, iepioached hin foi nol
naking pulIic lhis fancv Iove!! We aie lhus iighlfuIIv
vondeiing jusl foi lhe sake of aigunenl: is il in Iine vilh
good noiaIs vhen a nan is in Iove vilh a vonan lhal he
shouId nake lhis Iove pulIic, nuch lo hei disgiace in
MusIin socielv, especiaIIv if he is so enolionaIIv peiveise lo
le in Iove vilh soneone eIse's vife!`` Can a nan vho has
faIIen in Iove vilh soneone eIse's vife and has lhus hidden
lhis Iove in his heail le iepioached lv AIIah`! WouId he
have leen in a good Iighl if he had viillen Iove poens lo
innoilaIize his Iove lo hei`!! This vouId have leen an acl of
ieckIessness and slupidilv!
And il is exaclIv lhis fooIishness vhich sone fooIs deen
filling lo appIv lo lhe inleipielalion of lhe HoIv Ouian!!
AIIah vouId nol iepioach anvone foi conceaIing in one's
heail a ieckIess and unfuIfiIIed Iove. Hovevei, vhal lhe
piophel ieaIIv hid in his heail vas a feai of a polenliaI hain
lhal, he lhoughl, vouId have leen done lo hin lv lhis
naiiiage inposed on hin lv AIIah, ieIuclance lo enfoice
AIIah's oideis lheieof as veII as a feai of peopIe iII gossiping
aloul hin upon seeing a svslen of adoplion -lhev had Iong
leen acquainled vilh - disnanlIing.
AIIah, LxaIled le He, senl His piophel fuIIv ieaIizing lhal
His divine oideis cannol le pul on lhe lack lunei lecause
of Ialoiing undei a ceilain deIusion, and lhal, in viev of a
divine oidei, he shouId have inevilalIv vieIded as ancesliaI
nessengeis vouId do. AIIah has ieveaIed :lhe 38lh and 39lh
veises of "AI-AIizal", oi cIans, suiah foIIoving lhe
pieviousIv nenlioned veise lo undeiscoie lhis neaning. The
38lh and 39lh veises of "AI-Ahzal" iead as foIIovs:
(Theie can le no difficuIlv lo lhe Iiophel in vhal AIIah has
indicaled lo hin as a dulv. Il vas lhe piaclice of AIIah
anong lhose of oId lhal have passed avav. And lhe
connand of AIIah is a deciee deleinined. Il is lhe piaclice
of lhose vho pieach lhe nessage of AIIah, and feai Hin, and
feai none lul AIIah. And enough is AIIah lo caII nen lo
Sheikh Muhannad AI-ChazaIi fuilhei savs, "You nevei
heailen anvone lv saving: feai nolodv excepl AIIah, vhen
he is aloul lo connil a sin. You onIv heailen hin lv saving
so vhen he is aloul lo enlaik on a najoi viiluous acl vhich
conliavenes inheiiled liadilions. AII of lhose veises have
nade il olvious lhal AIIah nevei encouiaged His aposlIe lo
le fuilhei induIged in Iove vilh a vonan, lul ialhei
encouiaged hin lo invaIidale a lad liadilion connonIv in
piaclice lv his peopIe, vho even vanled hin lo conpIv
Theiefoie, AIIah, LxaIled le He, savs in lhe innedialeIv
foIIoving veise, disnanlIing lhe enliie svslen of adoplion,
(Muhannad is nol lhe falhei of anv of voui nen, lul he is
lhe aposlIe of AIIah, and lhe Iasl of lhe piophels: And AIIah
has fuII knovIedge of aII lhings)".
As foi Safivva daughlei of Huvavv son of Akhlal vhose
falhei (Huvavv son of Akhlal) vas lhe Ieadei of Ievs - she
vas capluied lv MusIins aflei conqueiing Khailai aflei hei
falhei, liolhei and husland had leen kiIIed in lallIe. To
have neicv upon hei, lhe aposlIe, peace le upon hin, asked
hei lo opl foi one of lvo lhings: eilhei lo ieIease and
enfianchise hei, Ielling hei ieunile vilh hei liile - if she so
vished lo ienain a Iev - oi lo accepl his pioposaI of
naiiiage in case she decided lo conveil lo IsIan. She iepIied
lv saving, "O nessengei of AIIah, I have fancied IsIan and
leIieved in vou, even lefoie vou nade such an offei lo ne.
Having caIIed on ne lo have one oplion lhan lhe olhei,
naneIv lo ienain as an infideI oi lo enliace IsIan, I an
heielv naking il pulIic lhal AIIah and His aposlIe aie noie
leIoved lo ne lhan leing disenfianchised and Iel vaIk fiee
lo nv peopIe". As a iesuIl of lhe alove slalenenl, AIIah
nessengei naiiied hei, naking lhe veiv acl of iedeening
and ieIeasing lhe nahi (poilion) due lo hei on naiiiage.
"Al-Tabaqat" or "The Generations of Prophet's Companions" by
The daughlei of lhe chief of lhe Ievs nusl, olviousIv, have
leen naiiied off onIv lo soneone vho is supeiioi lo hei
ovn falhei in sociaI iank. So, il vas Iiophel Muhannad
aIone, peace le upon hin, vho vas so fai supeiioi lo hei
falhei's posilion lhal he vas alIe lo naiiv hei - as he is lhe
chief and head of aII nankind. Hovevei, il vouId nol have
slood lo ieason lo Iel lhal sulnissive Iadv - aflei having
"Ten ioIIing in supeiioiilv, sulIinilv and affIuence - naiiv
jusl anvlodv vho vouId have nisliealed hei oi lealen hei
on lhe face.
This couise of evenls, visuaIized as such, is suppoiled lv a
hisloiicaI accounl naiialed lv Dehva of lhe KaIl liile, nav
AIIah le pIeased vilh hin, vho said lo lhe piophel, "Cive
ne a fenaIe sIave of lhose capluied fion Ievs". The
piophel, peace le upon hin, iepIied lv saving "Co and lake
foi vouiseIf a fenaIe sIave". Upon laking Safvva as his
fenaIe sIave, lhe piophel's conpanions sav hei and said lo
lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, "O AIIah's aposlIe, she is lhe
chief Iadv of lhe lvo Ievish liiles of lhe Ouiaizas and lhe
Nadeeis. In hei capacilv as such, il is noie filling lhen lhal il
is vou, AIIah's aposlIe, vho shouId naiiv hei"
The piophel, peace le upon hin, vas pionpled lo naiiv
Iuvaiiiva on siniIai giounds. Naned Iuvaiiiva daughlei of
AI-Haiilh son of Diiai, she vas lhe daughlei of lhe Ieadei of
AI-MuslaIaqs, vho foughl MusIins and vas so cuishingIv
defealed lv lhen lhal his liile veie leeleiing on lhe liink of
alsoIule annihiIalion foi sulnission foi evei.
"Usdul-Ghaba", volume seven, by Ìbn Al-Atheer.
ConsequenlIv, hundieds of lhe peopIe of AI-MuslaIaq veie
laken caplives as sIaves, incIuding Iadv Iuvaiiiva daughei
of AI-Haiilh. Upon having leen laken caplive, Iuvaiiiva
venl lo lhe piophel saving, " I an Iuvaiiiva, lhe daughlei of
AI-Haiilh, vho is lhe chief of his peopIe. You nusl have
knovn vhal has lefaIIen ne (iefeiiing lo caplivilv and
ensuing sulnission). I have faIIen vilhin Thalil son of
Oais's poilion of sIaves and loolv: leing nv naslei, he gol
ne lo sign a deed lhal I viII le ieIeased upon paving nine
ounces (of goId), so heIp ne in paving lhe needed nonev".
Iiophel Muhannad, peace le upon hin, said lo hei, "Do
vou Iike sonelhing lellei`". She inquiied vhal lhal lhing
vas and he iepIied lv saving "I ianson vou off and naiiv
vou (if vou so agiee)`". She said "Yes, aposlIe of AIIah, I do
agiee and accepl vou as husland". The piophel, peace le
upon hin, said, "I an, heielv, accepling vou as vife". He
lhen vaIked oul lo his conpanions and loId lhen aloul lhe
good lidings. Upon knoving lhis, his conpanions couId nol
sland having lhe piophel's in-Iovs in caplivilv (iefeiiing lo
hei liile of MuslaIaqs) and iushed lo ieIease anv of lhen
vho happened lo have leen in caplivilv unliI no one vas
Iefl caplive.
Connenling on lhe naiiiage, Aisha, nav AIIah le pIeased
vilh hei, said "ßv naiiving Iuvaiiiva off lo lhe piophel,
peace le upon hin, one hundied househoIds have leen
disenfianchised. AccoidingIv, I knov of no olhei vonan
vho has evei leen so feIicilous lo hei peopIe".
AII of hei
"Usdul-Ghaba", volume seven.
peopIe Ialei enliaced IsIan and even lecane iighleous
Hence, lhal naiiiage vas a highIv feIicilous lo IsIan and
MusIins fion aII facels, ialhei lhan inlended foi laking
nanv noie vives as leIieved lv lhe unvillv and
disseninaled lv hvpociiles and oiienlaIisls!!
If il had leen a desiie, on lhe pail of lhe piophel (peace le
upon hin), foi having as nanv leaulifuI (vonen as
possilIe, AIIah vouId nol have foilidden hin Ialei lo naiiv
anv noie vives aflei lhe said one, in vhich case lhe aposlIe
vouId have naiiied and divoiced al viII. Hovevei, al lhe
line of his dealh, lhe piophel, peace le upon hin, vas
suivived lv nine vives, vilh lvo of his vives Khadija and
Zainal lhe daughlei of Khuzaina, having died duiing his
Iife line.
Hov exceIIenl a husland and a conpanion he vas, as aplIv
heiaIded lv AIIah, LxaIled le He, as "We senl vou onIv as a
neicv lo aII ciealuies".
The "Biography of the Prophet", by Ìbn-Hisham.
Chapter Seven
The Iale Ciand Sheikh of AI-Azhai, Sheikh Mahnoud
ShaIloul, caIIed on voung genlIenen, so capalIe, lo naiiv
noie lhan one vonan.
Duiing lhe eia vhen Sheikh ShaIloul vas lhe Ciand Sheikh
of AI-Azhai, nuliIe fenaIe´s lhieefoId oulnunleied naIes
vho veie capalIe of gelling naiiied.
Theiefoie, Sheikh ShaIloul deened lhal eveiv such
voung-nan shouId aplIv naiiv lhiee giiIs in a lid lo slen,
once and foi aII, lhe piolIen of having so nanv lacheIoi
giiIs. ConsequenlIv, lhe Sheikh's iighleous connenls
spaiked off a huge fuioie al lhe line, vilh Weslein-ninded
peopIe having agilalingIv allacked lhe ieveied schoIai.
NeveilheIess, he venluied oul lhe sloin Iike a fiin
nounlain, nevei loving lo il as olheis aie doing lhese
Asked lv a voiId TV slalion announcei aloul vhal he
lhoughl aloul poIvganv, veleian Lgvplian viilei Anees
Mansoui said, "If I an in favoi of a peison's iighl lo give
liilh lo as nanv chiIdien as he vishes, il does nol nallei
lhen vhelhei lhev le loin lo lhe sane nolhei oi nol - il is
up lo lhe falhei lo fieeIv decide". In iepIv lo anolhei
queslion lv lhe sane announcei vhelhei he ienains
connilled lo liile, voin-oul piincipIes, ialhei lhan keeping
alieasl of a iapidIv-changing voiId vhich does nol anv
Iongei lack a nuIlilude of chiIdien as geneialed lv
poIvganv (iefeiiing, of couise, lo lhe non-MusIin voiId),
Mansoui said, "You have said lhal vou aie naking voui
queslion peisonaIIv, and lhis is nv peisonaI opinion. Moie
candidIv speaking, I an gialefuI lo lhe Iack of liilh conlioI
foi nv piesence, as I an lhe ninlh anong eIeven chiIdien. I
an nol in favoi of conlenling oneseIf vilh onIv one vife, as I
vas loin lo lhe second vife of nv falhei vho kepl lvo
vives al a line. And I suppoil fieedon of choice".
Di. Ahned ShaIalv, a piofessoi of civiIizalion and IsIanic
hisloiv al lhe Caiio Univeisilv Aialic-Language IacuIlv,
savs, "OiienlaIisls have agilaledIv leen naking an oulciv
lhal poIvganv - as Iicensed lv IsIan - is nol acceplalIe.
Hovevei, vhv shouId ve use lhen as oui vaidslick`! Il is
exaclIv lhe Wesl, vhich peinilled nisliesses, vilh niIIion
iIIegilinale chiIdien ensuing.
UndoulledIv, poIvganv is noie sulIine and chasle lhan
having conculines. A nisliess has no access lo iighls, noi
does hei chiIdien. IoIvganv is noie IaigeIv lo vonen's
advanlage, ialhei lhan lo lheii deliinenl."
Thev even
can foieslaII poIvganv if lhev connonIv consenl lhal none
of lhen shouId naiiv a naiiied nan. NeveilheIess, lhev so
do lo salisfv a need, inslead of ienaining lacheIoi giiIs".
"Stolen Moments", a book by Anees Mansour, Daru-shruk edition.
"History and Goals of Orientalism", published by "Al-Nahda" bookshop.
Di. Ialhivva AI-Nalaiavi, a piofessoi al AI-Azhai
Univeisilv IacuIlv of IsIanic Sludies, savs, "A MusIin
vonan iejecls oi hales poIvganv onIv vhen she is
iII- educaled and veak in failh. Duiing lhe piophel's, peace
le upon hin, eia, MusIin vonen did nol oljecl lo
poIvganv, aIlhough vonen aie naluiaIIv knovn lo le
aveise lo poIvganv: even lhe piophel's, peace le upon hin,
vives veie knovn lo le jeaIous of each olhei.
Hovevei, lhe silualion slaliIized and socielv acknovIedged
poIvganv as Iicensed lv ieIigion vhich has leen senl dovn
fion AIIah. A vonan cannol oljecl lo poIvganv as Iong as
hei husland is so financiaIIv secuie lhal he can piovide foi
hei and his chiIdien lv hei: she can nol oljecl eilhei, so Iong
as hei husland viII assuiedIv nele oul juslice lo, and
piolecl, hei and his chiIdien lv hei as againsl lhe nev vife.
Is nol il lellei lhal such a naiiiage le peinilled and nade
pulIic, oi shouId nen le denied access lo such a naiiiage
vhiIe gianled uniesliicled access lo lhe lhen inpeialive
couise of aclion invoIving sin` A poIvganisl husland
shouId lhen le heId in high esleen on lhe giounds lhal he is
a MusIin lvpicaIIv feaifuI of AIIah.
NeveilheIess, I find fauIl vilh a Iol of nen vho, having gol a
second vife, keep a second naiiiage seciel aIlhough lhev
have gol IegaIIv naiiied. Thev olviousIv feeI avkvaid lo
nake lhis naiiiage pulIic lecause chiIdien aie lioughl up
lo iegaid a second vife as a calasliophe, vilh nedia
faIIaciousIv sliiking lhe sane nole and inpoiled Weslein
palleins of lhoughl iife".
Di. Ialhivva Nalaiavi goes on lo sav fuilhei, "I have
knovn sone coIIeagues vho have, fion lhe veiv leginning,
accepled leing second vives. Hovevei, since naiiiages
veie consunnaled, lhev have leen allenpling lo gial
huslands onIv foi lhenseIves and lo send lhen alandoning
lheii fiisl vives - one of lhose vives has even iequesled hei
husland lo divoice his fiisl vife. Is lhal IogicaI` Does such a
lehavioi sland lo ieason`
Oui socielv has leen undeigoing a nuIlilude of lIuiiv,
faIIacious piecepls vhich nake lhenseIves nosl nanifesl in
leins of an issue Iike poIvganv, lul lhev do exisl - lhough
lo a Iessei degiee - in a Iol noie aieas of oui Iives".
Anolhei vonan piofessoi of fiqh (IsIanic juiispiudence),
Di. Nadia Hashen, aiis hei vievpoinl as foIIovs, " In leins
of Shaii'aa, vhal does lhe veise (Maiiv vonen of voui
choice, lvo, oi lhiee, oi foui) exaclIv nean` Does lhe veise
signaI geneiaI and alsoIule peinissiveness, oi ialhei,
peinissiveness quaIified lv ceilain cuils allached lv
Wheieas sone juiisls have said lhal lhe veise signaIs
alsoIule peinissiveness, iegaidIess of necessilv oi nol, sone
olhei juiisls have inleipieled lhe veise as signaIing onIv
quaIified peinissiveness.
Hovevei, I advocale lhe Iallei lean of juiisls vho leIieve
lhe veise as. having peinilled poIvganv onIv quaIifiedIv.
Of lhe ieasons I deen vaiianling laking a second vife, oi
noie, aie an iII oi infeiliIe vife, a husland vho is so
excessiveIv polenl lhal he faiIs lo conlenl hinseIf vilh onIv
one vife, oi sinpIv fenaIes oulnunleiing naIes in socielv.
Theie aie eslinaled lhiileen niIIion unnaiiied giiIs -al, oi
veII alove, lhe age of naiiiage - in Lgvpl, vilh giiIs alove
lhiilv veais of age accounling foi foui niIIions giiIs.
In nv ovn opinion, a necessilv aiises foi poIvganv againsl a
lackgiound as such: if ve do nol iesoil lo poIvganv undei
lhese ciicunslances, a haIf of socielv's giiIs viII ienain
lacheIoi giiIs unalIe lo le sexuaIIv alslinenl".
Di. Nadia Hashen goes on lo expound hei vievpoinl lv
saving lhal a husland has peifecl iighl lo naiiv anolhei
vife, oi olhei vives, vhelhei his fiisl vife consenls oi nol.
This is lecause il is a husland vho is in connand of a
naiiiage conliacl: in a capacilv as such, he is enpoveied lo
dispose al viII, on condilion lhal a vife has nol allached,
vhen viiling oul lhe naiiiage ceilificale, a condilion lhal
hei husland shouId nol lake anolhei vife, oi olhei vives, in
addilion lo hei.
Di. Nadia Hashen fuilhei cIaiifies lhal vonen in MusIin
socielies do nol acknovIedge poIvganv anv noie: vhelhei
lhev le educaled oi nol, veaIlhv oi pooi, uilan oi iuiaI, as
veII as ieIigious oi nol. Coiiupl connon piaclices - deepIv
sending oul iools - ieIigious un-enIighlennenl, doninaling
Weslein piecepls aie giaveIv inpIicaled foi MusIin
vonen's iejeclion of poIvganv. Oui socielv unduIv uphoIds
a connon piaclice of luining dovn poIvganv as inequaIilv
leing done lo fiisl vives. Hovevei, Shaii'aa sliesses as
coiiupl and invaIid anv piaclice vhich iuns on a coIIision
couise vilh ieIigion. Having onIv scaice knovIedge of
ieIigion sends a vonan aveiling fion poIvganv. If she had
leen an ulleiIv MusIin vonan, she vouId have assuiedIv
ieaIized lhal she cannol, noi does she have anv iighl lo,
head off a second, lhiid oi even fouilh naiiiage lv hei
husland, so Iong as hei husland fuIfiIIs hei ovn iighls.
UnfoilunaleIv, vonen's educalion, doninalion of secuIai
piecepls and lhe so-leined enancipalion of vonen have aII
leen seiiousIv faIIaciousIv insliIIing - lhioughoul Iong
decades - inlo vonen's ninds lhal poIvganv hoIds vonen
in Iov esleen.
Latc 5hcIkh Muhammad c!-Ghaza!I gIvIng hIs
Sleadv uilan and econonic Iavs inevilalIv govein Iife,
vhelhei lhev le knovn in vhich case lhev viII le caulioned
againsl - oi unvillingIv handIed, vilh lheii inpacl, sliII,
sponlaneousIv unfoIding ilseIf.
Il is sociaI ciicunslances, vhich govein hov nanv vonen
an individuaI nan shouId have a ieIalion vilh. To oveiIook
"Al-Musfirnoun" newspaper of 6 June 1997.
such sociaI ciicunslances is lo iesisl fail acconpIi lo no
avaiI, as lhe ialio of nen lo vonen can eilhei le equaI on
lolh sides oi liIling in favoi of one side againsl lhe olhei.
If lhe nen-lo-vonen ialio is equaI oi vhen nen do
oulnunlei vonen, poIvganv has lo sponlaneousIv faII oul
of piaclice, vilh eveiv nan conlenling hinseIf vilh lhe
vonan coeiciveIv poilioned oul lo hin.
If vonen do oulnunlei nen, onIv one couise of aclion has
lo le opled foi oul of lhe lhiee foIIoving oplions:
(1) lo judge lhal sone vonen le depiived foi Iife of
having lheii sexuaI needs nel:
(2) lo peinil keeping nisliesses, vilh aduIleiv
acknovIedged as lhus Iegilinale:
(3) oi lo aIIov poIvganv.
A vonan is videIv leIieved even lefoie a nan - lo desisl
fion eilhei depiivalion oi a disoledienlIv sinfuI led. Wilh
lhe silualion as such, she has lo shaie anolhei vife's
husland, fion vhon hei vouId-le chiIdien viII have a
IineaI descenl, iesuIling in poIvganv - as slipuIaled lv IsIan
- leing inevilalIv acknovIedged.
Moieovei, nen do diveige videIv in lein of sexuaI desiie:
sone nen aie so heaIlhv, sliong in eiolica senlinenls and
Ieading a Iuxuiious Iife vhiIe olhei nen aie nol. To deaI on a
pai vilh lolh a sexuaIIv-iigid nan fion his eaiIiei peiiods
of adoIescence and anolhei vho is so sexuaIIv eneigelic lhal
he can le easiIv exciled is a nallei vhich videIv nisses lhe
naik of juslice.
Aie gIullons nol aIIoved lo have noie anounls of food lhan
aIIoved foi peopIe vilh Iess appelile` So, vhv nol
sexuaI-vise` Il is lhe sane loken voiking heie.
Theie is anolhei vise ieason foi aIIoving poIvganv: a vife
nav le so feelIe, diseased, infeiliIe oi oId-aged lhal she
cannol anv Iongei salisfv hei husland's sexuaI needs, so
vhv shouId she le so heIpIessIv Iel dovn lo le viclinized
lv lhese excuses`
Cood conpanv has lo le ielained lv a husland, vho is lhen
fuIIv enpoveied lo liing in anolhei vife, oi olhei vives,
vho can fuIIv peifoin a vife's ioIe.
In spile of aII lhose ieasons pIeaded as vaiianling
poIvganv, IsIan has adananlIv foilidden lhal poIvganv le
inlended foi giving venl lo sone nen's sexuaI Iusl and a
sIanl foi phvsicaI pIeasuie and doninalion.
A gain shouId coiiespondingIv le nel lv a Ioss: easiei
access lo sensuaI pIeasuie shouId le ensued lv luidening
Hence, vhen enlaiking upon poIvganv juslice has lo le
assuiedIv and safeguaidedIv neled oul. If a husland feais
doing injuslice lo hinseIf, chiIdien oi vives, poIvganv is
lhus foilidden. A poIvganisl shouId le alIe lo piovide foi
lhe necessaiv expenses. If lhe Iavgivei, in vhich case il is
AIIah vho has given oul Shaii'aa, iegaids inaliIilv lo
piovide foi expenses as an excuse nol lo naiiv an even one
Iadv, such inaliIilv vouId ialhei piohilil a nan lo naiiv
noie lhan one.
The Iavgivei enjoins fasling on unnaiiied voulh so Iong as
lhev cannol naiiv , lhus oideiing a nan vhon is unalIe
even lo have one vife and le sexuaIIv alslinenl. AIIah lhus
savs in lhe suiah of "AI-Noui" (Lighl), "Lel lhose vho do nol
find lhe vheievilhaI foi naiiiage keep lhenseIves sexuaIIv
alslinenl unliI AIIah gives lhen neans oul of His giace".
Whal aloul a nan vho has onIv one vife` He vouId ialhei
le palienl and had lellei le sexuaIIv alslinenl: lhe noie
vives a husland keeps, lhe noie chiIdien he is IikeIv lo
have. IsIan enjoins falhei lo deaI vilh chiIdien on an equaI
fooling in leins of upliinging, educalion, honoiing and
Ioving as veII as neans of Iiving hovevei diveigenl lheii
nolheis nav le. A falhei vilh nanv chiIdien shouId lhen
le caulious enough nol lo le capiicious vhen handIing his
chiIdien loin lo diveise nolheis: as a husland a nan
shouId inpeialiveIv adninislei juslice lo his vives.
Hovevei, if a heail incIinalion is loo slulloin lo le
conlioIIed, eveiv husland can fuIIv olseive lhe iuIes and
guideIines in queslion, iighlfuIIv veigh his lehavioi and lo
feai AIIah in vhalevei AIIah has nade hin guaidian of in
leins of a vide specliun of deeds and ciicunslances.
These aie lhe lioadei confines of juslice as allached lv AIIah
lo poIvganv. He vho can fuIIv fuIfiI such Iinils nav gel
naiiied lo lvo, lhiee oi even foui vives: olheivise, he has
lo suffice hinseIf vilh onIv one vife, in iesponse lo vhal
AIIah savs:, "If vou feai injuslice, lhen keep onIv one vife".
I have seen sone jouinaIisls oljecling lo poIvganv as
Iicensed lv IsIan and vondeiing if a nan is enpoveied lo
have as nanv as foui vives, vhv is a vonan nol aIIoved lo
have as nanv huslands as foui`
Having lhoioughIv Iooked al lhose vondeiing jouinaIisls, I
have found lhen oul noslIv Ievd, cuckoIds oi pinps. To
nv ovn nuch suipiise, lhev aie Ieading a Iife liislIing vilh
aduIleiv, aveising nosl lo cieale a chasle faniIv.
To ansvei lhis invaIid queslion, I have lo cIeaiIv slale lhal
lhe uIlinale goaI of sexuaI ieIalionship is lo cieale a faniIv
and ieai chiIdien in a cIinale of cIean cuslodv. This cannol
evei le achieved in a hone vheie a Iol of peopIe fiequenl,
and fighl lo gial, a vonan vhose piospeclive offspiing
cannol le idenlified as having descended fion anv of lhen.
In addilion, a vonan's sexuaI ioIe is lhal of a ieceivei, ialhei
lhan a doei of lhe aclion, of lhe one leing Ied and caiiied,
ialhei lhan of lhe Ieadei, caiiiei. One can visuaIize a
Ioconolive puIIing foui caiiiages, ialhei lhan a caiiiage
puIIing foui Ioconolives. Men aie disposed lv naluie lo
nainlain and suslain vonen, and lo disniss lhis facl as
aIIegedIv unliue is coIIiding vilh lhe naluiaI couise of
When sone of lhe connons, veiiIv unfoilunaleIv, unheed
lhese confines allached lo poIvganv and go keeping as
nanv vives as foui vilhoul ieaIizing lhe sense of juslice
lhev aie enjoined lo adninislei - lul ialhei lo ansvei lhe
caII of Iusl - onIv gioss sIanling and inequaIilv viII le lhe
AIlhough a nan cannol even piovide foi hinseIf, he is in
puisuil of anolhei naiiiage: vheieas he is unalIe lo le in
chaige of onIv one vife, he goes seeking anolhei. A
poIvganisl nav nol le deaIing equaIIv, ialhei capiiciousIv,
vilh his chiIdien in leins of educalion and poilioning oul
veaIlh: he nav lake anolhei vife onIv lo deseil lhe fiisl one
and Ieave hei as if hanging in lhe aii.
ConveiseIv, aIlhough a nan nav le veaIlhv enough lo
naiiv foui vonen al one and lhe sane line and lo piovide
foi vhonevei chiIdien lhev legel hin, he Ieads a Iife of
sexuaI legging ad ioIIing in lhe losons of lioIIops.
Does foilidding poIvganv cuie a nalion's eviIs as such` No.
To foilid vhal is peinilled is nol anvlhing lhal viII le a
diIenna in lhe eve of IsIanic IegisIalion. Hovevei, if
ieIigion had ienained siIenl aloul ils posilion on poIvganv,
ve vouId, ialhei, have nade oui sav on il lv cIaiifving lhal
il is peinilled lo pieseive pulIic inleiesl as alove expIained.
A Iine of denaicalion has lo le diavn lelveen insliluling a
piincipIe and nisusing il. In as fai as lhe ioIe of IegisIalion in
ieclifving oui socielv and ienedving ils aiInenls is
conceined- in leins of an inpeialive need lo nele oul
juslice lv a poIvganisl - Iel ieseaicheis le piinaiiIv
occupied vilh adjusling lhe vaidslick, as veII as lhe
nanifeslalions, of juslice if lhev so desiie. Anv allenpl al
undeinining and deiiding poIvganv in piincipIe is dooned
as leing of no avaiI. I can even iighlfuIIv cIain lhal
conlenpluousIv iegaiding poIvganv has leen an innediale
faIIoul of a soil of nev Ciusade againsl MusIin nalions.
SeveiaI sociaI cIasses nov do iegaid poIvganv as sonelhing
eviI, vhiIe lhev considei aduIleiv and foinicalion
insignificanl enleilainnenl! The piolIen has cone lo ieIale
lo undeislanding and acknovIedging lhe enliie ieIigion.
Againsl such a lackgiound, lo allenpl iesliicling poIvganv
is lo iepuIsiveIv allenpl lo soiI lhe enliie socielv in lhe nane
of Iav and al lhe expense of IsIan.
Manv a piophel and good voishipping nan had noie lhan
one vife and lhe piaclice vas nol leIieved lo inpinge upon
his pielv oi feaiing AIIah. ßooks of lhe OId Teslanenl sland
vilness lheieof.
IsIan does nol iegaid alslaining fion naiiiage a soil of
voishipping, as nonks do, noi does il considei keeping foui
vives a sin, as Chiislianilv is faIseIv cIained lo have
lianded. (As ve have seen lefoie, none of lhe foui gospeIs
foilids poIvganv: lhe aulhoi Handi Shafeek).
To sin is ieaIIv lo give a fiee iein lo sexuaI desiie, oi lo
inhilil il, Ielling il liickIe dovn as undeigiound valei
liickIes dovn undei lhe deseil.
Fiqh AÌ-Sira", (Understanding the Prophet's Biography), by Sheikh

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