BIBLlOTHECA INDICA WORK No.

258

THE RUBA'IYAT O]j~ 'UMAR-I-KHAYYAM

PEHI:HAN 'I.'EXT, INTHODUCTION. ILLUSTRATIONS, ETC.

A A A

THE'RUBA'IYAT

OF

. A -

'UMAR-I-KHA YY AM

PERSIAN TEXT EDITED FROM A MANUSCRIPT DATF.tf1 911 A.H. (1605 A,D.) IN THE COLLECTION OF PROFESSOR S. NAJtB ASHRAF NADVt

WITH

A FACSIMILE OF THE MANUSCRIPT

BY

M. MAHFUZ·UL.HAQ, M.A.

ProjeRHf)r of Arabic rind Persinn. Presidency (Jollerl', (Jalell"ft

PRINTED AT THE BAPTIST MISSION PRESS PUBI,TSHED BY '!'HE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL

CALCU'rTA 19:m

Printed by P. Knight, Baptist Mission Press, 41A, Lower Circular Road, Calcutta.

CONTENTS.

Page

PREFATORY NOTE vii

1. Introductory Remarks

II. Calligraphy, Ornamentation and Illumination

of the Manuscript .. 4

III. The Miniatures 15

IV. Contents of the Manuscript I!)

V. The' Genuineness' of the Quatrains in the

Manuscript 20

VI. ) Concordance' of the RubO:£yat .. :l6

VI¥ Text, . . : . .. 43

VIII. Additions and Corrections 81

IX. Appendix A: Text of Taql Kasht'e Codex of

the Rubd'£yat 84

X. Appendix B: Text of the Rubd'£yat from a

Manuscript dated 750/1349 8!)

XI. Facsimile of the Manuscript Plates I-LlV

Coloured Plates LV-LVII

PREFATORY NO'fE.

The publication of this edition of the Rubd'£yat of 'Umar-i-Khayyam has been delayed by nearly a decade. The text with its introduction was ready in 1930 and the Council of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal sanctioned its publication in the Bibliotheca Indica Series in 1931. A peri~d of nearly ten years has elapsed between tho time when the introduction was written and made ready for the press and its actual publication in September, 1939. As a result, some of the observations made by me in the introduction are not quite up-to-date and I should have very much liked to modify some of them, but this has not been possible

, as the entire work had been set in type soon after it was sent to the press. I have, however, referred to some of the, more important researches of recent years in the 'Additions and Corrections'. I have also added two valuable texts of the Ruha'£yat from

1. J Taqi Kaaht's Khuld~(J,t-ul Ash 'ar Wa Zubdat-ulAIMr (Oriental Public Library, Patna, MS. No. 684)

and

~. A Majmu'a, dated 750 A.H. (1:149 A.D.), in the KitabkMna-i-Majlis, Tehran,

in the Appendix.

I am extremely grateful to my friend Professor Saiyyid 'Najib Ashraf Nadvi, M.A., for very kindly placing his manuscript of the Ruba'tyat at my disposal and to Mr. A. H. Harley, M.A., I.E.S. (Retd.), for revising the introduction

I and suggesting some valuable changes. ,

The monochrome blocks of the manuscript have been prepared by the Indian Photo-Engraving Co., Ltd. and the Calcutta Fine Art Cottage. As the first few {olios of the manuscript were damaged .and the paper had become

(·vii )

( viii )

slighfly dark in colour, the Persian writing had to be retouched on the copper plate. Unfortunately, the artist who did the work was not a calligraphist, hence the writing has deteriorated considerably as will appear from a perusal of the blocks of Folios 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, etc. The three four.eolour blocks have been prepared by the Calcutta Chromotype Ltd.

Before concluding. I must otter my heartfelt thanks to Dr. Baini Prashad, D.Sc., F.Z.S., F.R.S.E., >F.R.A.S.B., . and to Dr. B. S. Guha, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.A.S.B. (Honorary General Secretary of the Society), for the keen, personal interest they took in expediting the publication of this work.

M. MAHFUZ- UL HAQ.

Presidency Vollege, Calcuttn.

1'he 15th September, 1939.

I. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

It was long believed that the West, and not the East, had prepared the first illustrated copy of the Ruba'i?Jat of 'Umar-i-Khayyam. The idea was shattered some two. years ago by the discovery of this remarkable manuscript, which is now reproduced here, for the first time, in fac-

. simile. The manuscript is now recognized as the earliest, and probably the only, illustrated copy of the quatrains of 'Umar yet discovered. Its importance does not lie in its antiquity-for older copies without illustrations are known-but in its beautiful ornamentation, illumination, calligraphy and, above all, in the charming miniatures that adorn it. The manuscript has an important textual value also. We shall presently sec that the number of genuine quatrains in our copy is larger than in several old collections of 'Umar's Rubd'z!lat.

There is an interesting. story behind the discovery of the manuscript. A dealer in old books purchased it at an auction-sale in Calcutta, and for many months it lay IJ.nnoticed in his shop. Eventually he showed the shabby, loose and damaged manuscript to my friend Professor S. Najib Ashraf Nadvi (now of the lsma'Il College, Andheri, Bombay) who at once realized its importance and purchased it for his library.

Unfortunately, the original fly-leaf of the manuscript, which should have contained its romantic bistory during the last four centuries, is missing. We do not know as to how and when it travelled from Persia to India and finally

. .

came into the possession of a Hindu scholar of the Panjab--. Devi Dds of Pasrur a tahsil in the Sialkot district of the

, "

Paujdb. Again, it is a mystery how thc manuscript

came out from the library of Devi Das and entered the sale-room of the Calcutta auctioneers, Messrs.

Mackenzie Lyall & Co., from whom the aioresaid book-seller

C 1 )

2

purchased it. There are, however, a few notes on the border of the manuscript which carry its story to the latter half of the last century.

We learn from a note on fo1. la that the manuscript had a very large border, but being damaged by the ravages of time, it was replaced by a new one in May, 1891. The note which is in Urdu runs as follows :-

1,)"1 - ~ $.J" ~ <.::-.t! I,)"~ [. .~ ,,:,,15 ~ ~jl ~

f t'M' ~ ~ r- .f 1,)"1 ~ ,,:,,1 - Ii ~\.. Iy' ~ IS" ":"\?

>;) ~ jI ... k »-1 (..st- ~I) .::-o~

[Translation: The book had been with me in a most worn-out condition. It had very large borders. I had it repaired by Shamim Ahmad, a book-binder, on the 30th May, 1891.]

Next, we have the following signature on fo1. 59b in a shaky hand in English: 'Dave Dass '.

The original manuscript is preceded by three folios which, I believe, were added by the book-binder who repaired the copy in 1891, They contain the following notes in a tolerable Nasta'l~q hand:-

On fo1. la we have the following Persian verso written diagonally :-

rs- J;) ~J;) ~ f ~ ilS" ;);)f 4i ; IJ )~;) L..:£ ~~ )~;) ..:..:_,.!.

followed by the following inscription in Persian: ...,.1~.J'.l"r.. 1S.J.Jr" i.e, Munshi Devi Das Pasrfirl, This Devi Das is identical with the aforesaid' Dave Dass' whose signature (in English) we have already noticed on fol. 59b. He was an inhabitant of Pasrur, a town in the Sialkot district of the Panjab,

Fol. Ib is blank; fol. 2a contains the following note in bold N..~ta'Z~q: t '"'' 4:... .;. Y" (i.e. 30th May, 1891). On fo1. 2b we have the following note in running Nasta'ltq:-

3

.;. ~.J:J jJ.f. ''lor ..::..J:" [Tran8lation: Memorandum-Conversation with my friend, Dastudar, on the 21st September, 1896 A.D. = 7th Asivaj, 1953, Samvat, on Monday.]

From this point traee has been lost of the manuscript until it came into the hands of the firm of Calcutta auctioneers who disposed of it to the Calcutta book-seller.

II. CALLIGRAPHY, ORNAMENTATION AND ILLUMINATION O:F THE MANUSCRIPT.

The text, which is written in a superb Nasta'l£q hand on a well-polished paper of mellow ivory tone, is surrounded by lines in gold and a. lapis lazuli 'I:Iashiya' , with artistic, flowering plant-motives in gold-besides multicoloured lines which surround the ' I:Iashiya '.

Unfortunately, the outer border of the manuscript, which presumably contained beautiful hunting scenes and geometrical designs in gold, is no longer cxtant. It was, removed, as already stated, in the process of rebinding in 1891. It is needless to emphasize that if this outer border had remained intact it must have given an additional charm to our manuscript. Nevertheless, from the fact that the manuscript was transcribed by the world-famous calligraphist, Sultan 'Ali of Mashhad, and illuminated and illustrated by some of his worthy colleagues, who have lavishly expended gold, lapis lazuli, and other costly pigments in adorning the manuscript, it is probably correct to surmise that it was prepared for some royal personage, possibly Sultan Husayn Bayqara (872-911/1468-1505), who is acknowledged to have been one of the greatest patrons of art in the East.

The long and prosperous reign of Sultan Husayn, which extended over forty years, was a most glorious period in the history of art and letters. Himself a distinguished poet and a talented writer, he had a galaxy of brilliant poets and scholars, and skilled artists and craftsmen who flocked round him in the beautiful city of Herdt, If Sultan Husayn had an able, far-sighted, scholar-minister in Mir 'Ali fShir Nawa'i, a sweet and melodious singer in Jam! and' a distinguished writer and soholar jn Mulla Husayn Wa'i~, he" also had a great painter and miniaturist in Bihzad and an expert calligraphist in

( 4 )

5

Sul~an 'Ali of Mashhad.1 They lived and worked for him under ideal conditions in Herat, the city of refinement and culture.

Here Sul~an 'Ali was engaged in copying for his royal master, Sultan Husayn, and his great minister, 'Ali Shir, works of ancient and contemporary poets, while the in-. comparable Bihzad and his pupils were employed in adorning those manuscripts with miniatures of unsurpassed

. elegance and charm; then there were gilders, decorators and illuminators who added finishing touches to the splendid copies. Thus there developed an art of manuscriptmaking which was hardly surpassed in any period or clime; and it was the painters and the caUigraphists trained in this atelier who added lustre to the courts of the Safawids of Persia and also to that of the Timurids of India. Besides Bihzad, several well-known artists, notably Mirak, Shah Mu~affar, Sul~an Muhammad and Shaykhzada Mal,unud worked in the royal studio, while a host of skilled calligraphists, including Khwaja Shihab-ud-Din 'Abdullah Marwarid, Khwaja 'Ala-ud-Din Mikal, Sultan Mul;tammad Nur, Sultan Muhammad Khandan and others, were engaged in transcribing the manuscripts. It was here that Sultan 'Ali trained a band of earnest students of calligraphy who in their turn rose to the rank of ustad or master. Sultan 'Ali was adored and appreciated universally and glorious tributes to his great talent as a pen-man have been paid him by two of his royal admirers, the Emperor Babur and Prince Sam Mirza ~afawi. The former osservcs in his ·1Lfer.noirs :---

, Of fine pen-men there were many; the one standingout in Naskh-ta-liq was Sl. 'Ali of Mashhad who copied many books for the Mirza (Sultan Husayn) and for 'Ali-sher

1 Sultan 'Ali was styled 'Zubdat·ul·Kuttdb', or 'Tho Cream of the Calli. graphists', by Sulj;&n ij:uBByn. See Abu'l Qasim Ivaghli ij:usayn's collection of letters in the British Museum, (Add. 7688), in which B letter of Sulj;&n ]Jusayn addressed to Zub4at·ul Kuttab Sultan 'Ali is included (Rieu, Perl. (Jat., i, p. 39OG).

6

Beg, . writing daily thirty couplets for the first, twenty for the second.' 2

Prince Sam Mirza, a scion of the Safawids of Persia, states in his Tu~fa-i-Sam~,3 a biography of the 'Contemporary Poets' :-

, The pen of creation has not inseribqd on the page of existence a ealligraphist of the excellence of Sultan 'Ali al-Mashhadi. '

Further, he observes in another place :-

'Mawlana Sultan 'Ali Mashhadi is more famous in Nasta'lrq calligraphy than words can describe...... In spite of the fact that he had passed the age of sixtythree, he wrote a beautiful hand, as will appear from the following two Mathnawi verses which he composed about himself :-

~ ~ .::-1 ~Iy. ij_fA I J. ~L.1.aL ~I t ~.;

() J.:;'. 4..).::-1 ~./ Iv" J=:- ) y- jl j~ iIi

Besides the above two works, notices of Sultan 'Ali will also be found in Kh1J,ld~at-ul-Akhbar,4 lfaMb-us-Siyar," Tartkh-i- Rashtdt, 6 M ajalis-ul- M u' mintn, T Risdla-i- Khush-

naw£st,8 M ir' dt-ul-'Alam, U Tadhkira-i-Khushnawtsdn,16 Tadhkimt-ul-Kha!!d/£n,l1 ete., but they are usually very brief and sketchy and throw very little light on his life-history. But Sultan 'Ali himself has furnished some important data regarding his life in his well-known treatise on calligraphy,

2 Memoir8 oj Oabur, (tr. by A. S. Beveridge), p, 291.

3 Tu1!Ja.i.8dml (my MS., transcribed from the Oriental Public Library, Patna, .

MS. No. 683, dated 971 A.H.), fol. 17a.

4 Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal MS., No. DIM, fol. 369b. 6 Vol. iii, J uzv iii, p, 344.

8 (By Mirza ~aydar DughIAt), Royal Asiatic Sooiety of Bengal MS., No. 046,

fo1. 450.

7 '.J't'l-r&n, A.H. ]248, Majli8, 10.

S (By 'Abdullah), Oriental Public Library, Patna, MS., No. 1076, fol. 23a. 9 BOhAr I.ibrary, Calcutta, MS., No. ]2, lol. 2676, lI6Sa.

10 Biblio.J:ew Indica 8erie8 (edited by M. HidAyat ~usayn), pp. 48, 49. n (By MirzA SangIAkh), 'fehran, A.H. 1291.

7

elltitied Ri8ala-i-Khu8hnau)~8~, 11 which he composed at the age of eighty-four, in 920 A.H. We learn from the Risala that Sultan 'Ali was born about 836/1432-33, for he states that at the time of the composition of the Risala (i.e., in 920 A.H.) he had attained the age of eighty-four (fol. lIb):- .

yi J JM- iii J.lj d Y.,?./)~ J .'lb.. .'lY,

His father died when he was a boy of seven only, i.e. in 843 A.H.; while his unole left this mortal world when he (Sultan 'Ali) was forty (fol, 4a):-

t'" jI .'lY, 0.'l5 ;.,. f tl....1 ~ 0\j .J..\,. jI

L. j o~./. JH... ~.11 I~ owl:L. ~\... .::..AA JjI 0A

fl ~ 0" jI .'l~ .'lL 0~L }j':" ).'l 01! lSI..:-

. .

J.'l ../' ~Ik J ISJA; Cf .'lL 0~./. 1S.'ly"1 <::J".J

He worked hard in his youth to improve his hand-

writing (fol. 3a) :- .

r. 0;' jl 1Swl:1.J .k;. ~ r.- IS~ .k__$:. Jly. jI

• l3.'lj ~ ~Ij \;' l3.'lj i..li r IS! J"" Y.

He learnt tho rudiments of calligraphy from Mir Muftis! (fo1. 3a) :-

~j_,_l.'l 0~ ..I.oT ~ ISj.1.J ~ J.!A ~ j\

JI_r ~I J~ t~ ~ . J~ ...-L.. J .'l Y, J\~I .s:;lj iJ.! 0.'lL.. .'l/ .Jl_::j f J.'l iJ.! O.'l~j .k;. ~ '":"':"" u:,j

11 Calcutt .. MadrlUl8h Library MS .• No. CXLLVI. I have also occasionally consulted the Royal Asiatio Society of Bengal MS .• No. II. 519.

8

(

At the age of twenty he entered a Madrasah, where he practised calligraphy from morning till evening. Afterwards, he used to visit the Holy Shrine of Imam RiQa at Mashhad and then come back to his house, where his mother awaited his return (fo1. 3b) :-

~~ il ~ j b_,....k,:. ..I::-"J ~ ~. ~ft ./ 4:....

t.._""J J $ J4 J. t..JoM ~ i.)L-t= JJ

I .. ~ i\! \;" J' OJ

i:JJY ~ J :J_.f. Y Y (' ~ i:J..;-:- J..!.o .J

i:J.>-.;" ~L:...T ~T .f, J"'" i.)Y, \:...J ~J) J') i\!

~JJ:J ~~ i';':' J.)\.. J.::; ~.J~ ioM T ~ JJ jl b; ft

Soon he acquired fame and distinction, and students of calligraphy began to flock round him in the Madrasah (Iol. 4a):-

~ . • ~I i~ ..IA..I ~ -. j! b;ft
'.r-r" - . J _. IJ"""'
u- 'b.-Y, .k,:. ~ .Jt: J~ c: ~\..;.~ v- ~
~~- jl .Iy J !l; jl ,Ir ~.).' jl J JJ') j 1S~..1.oT
_ J After some time Sultan 'Ali left the Madrasah and began to practice fine penmanship in his own house, in Mashhad (fo1. 4a) :-

i:J! ""J~. IS~~ vS i.)) ""J..1.o !l; ~jl ..w

~y ~ j_,... jl ~ ~y ~\..;. ~ i:J\r J"'"

.Sultan 'Ali observes complete silence regarding his departure to Herat, where he lived for nearly fifty years. He only states that for a period of five years, preceding the composition of the Risula (i.e, between the years 915 and 920 A.Jf.», he suffered from ubilalt-i1arang or French pox:·-

~ J~ .~~ lSI I!!J ~T tJ j i.)Y, .~

~ ~Ijl I!!J J~ ~\ ; ~ d) iY. IS~ ~.) j t

9

~ ~T tJ ..;1 i~.J! .J.r: ~jl ~ d ~I.,,:.;

These are the more important events of Sultan 'Ali's life which are recorded in his Risala.

Of the extant specimens of his calligraphy, the earliest signed specimen known to me (if we exclude the British Museum MS. No. Add. 773813 and the Bibliotheque Nationale, MS., Ancien Fonds, No. 7114) is the beautiful manuscript of Ni~ami's Makhzan-ul-Asrar in the British Museum, Or. 25801,15 which was copied by him in 865/ 1461, at the age of twenty-nine,

Probably, about this time Sultan 'Ali was commissioned by Sultan AbU Sa'id (855-872/1452-1467) to complete a copy of the Shahnama which was lying incomplete in his library. It is stated that Mawlana Ja'far, a well-known calligraphist of the age, was engaged in copying the manuscript for the Sultan, but before he could complete it, 'the pen of Destiny removed him from the page of Existence'. Sultan Abu Sa'id did not like to hand over this superb manuscript to medioeres, and so he waited to find out a worthy successor of the Mawlana, and such he found in the person of Mawlana Sultan 'Ali. It is recorded in Risala-iKhushnaw£s£ that 'the courtiers of tho Sultan reported to him Sultan 'Ali's excellence in calligraphy and his everincreasing fame as a penman. Indeed, he received greater approbation from the general public than the calli.graphista themselves. So the Mawlana ~as summoned

18 Rieu, Oatalogue oj Persian Manuscripta in the Briti8h Museum, Vol. ii, pp. 637-638. This is a MS. of Kullludt-i-Kdtibi, which was transcribed by Sult·8n 'Ali in 857/1453, but it is uncertain whether this Sultan 'All is identical with Sul~n 'Ali of Mashhad.

14 Schulz states in his Die Per8iBche-Islamische Miniat.urmalerei, (p. 165) that Sul~An 'Ali al-Mashhadi transcribed this copy in 849/1445, but in view of the fact that Sultan 'Ali WIU! then only 13 years old, we feel BOrne hesitation in aseriblng the transcription of the MS. to him {al-Mashhadil_

15 Rieu, Persian Catalo(JW!, Vol. ii, pp, 5726, 573a.

10

,

at the instance of the "Sultan and was charged with the duty of completing the unfinished copy'. 16

Sultan AbU Sa'id occupied Herat in 861/1456-57 and remained in possession of the town (except for a temporary interruption by Jahan Shah in 862/1457-58), till his death in 872/1467-68. It is certain that Sul~an 'Ali came to Herat before 872/1467-68 and that, on the death of that Sultan, entered the service of his successor Abu'l Ghazi Sul~an Husayn, who occupied Herat on Ramadan 10, A.H. 872 (April 3, 1506). Sultan 'Ali enjoyed the patronage and personal favour of that king for some forty years and, on his death in 911/1506, joined the service of Shayban! Khan, the great Uzbcg leader who occupied Herat in 913/1507-8. Shaybdni Khan, ruthless and savage though he was, is nevertheless acknowledged to have been a good poet, painter and penman. But' he formed too high an estimate of his own achievements, for he took upon himself to correct the drawings of Bihzad, just as he would touch up the handwriting of Sul~an 'Ali of Mashhad, the greatest calligraphist of his day '.17

Probably Sultan 'Ali- returned to his native town, Mashhad, sometime after the death of Shaybani Khan, which took place in 916/15lO, or possibly earlier, for he was attacked with 'abilah-i~farang (morbus yaltliens), or French pox, about 915/1509.

Several conflicting dates have been assigned to the

death of Sultan 'Ali. According to Mir'at-ul-'Alam,18 he died-in 910 A.It., while the author of Tadhlcirat-1tl-KhaHa/£n 19

-------_. __ ----

16 'Abdull&h, Oriental Public Library MS., No. 1076, foJ. 23a. My translation is not quite literal.

17 Arnold (Sir T. W.) Painting ill IBlam, p. 33. See also the Memoirs oj Bdbur (tr. by A. R Beveridge), p. 329, and Tul],ja·i.Sdml (R.A.S.B. MS., fol. 20b), and the Islamic Bc,01e (Arnold and Grohmann), p. 74.

18 BiibAr MS., No. 12, fol. 29b. The MS. of lIfir'dt·ul.'Alam consulted by the editor of 2'adhkira·i·Khuaknawladn (Bib. Indica Series, p. 49, n. 1) gives A.H. 902. 19 1ehran, A.H. 1291.

11

places his death in 914 A.H. The authors of !fab£b-usSiyar 10 and Majdlis-ul-Mu'mintn 11 record his death in 919 A.H., but we cannot accept any of the above dates as correct for the reasons given here:-

(i) He composed the aforesaid Risula on calligraphy in 920 A.H., as he states in the conclusion :-

~I.-. tJ 'j ~ .J ~ ~~. 0;.\ ~ j'--il JL

J\A.. .J JI; .l:--J _;.T t JL J.J\ j .:.-i o\.. 'Y,

(ii) A Persian MS. exhibited in Paris, in 1912, was copied by him in 920 A.H., as appears from the following colophon 22 :--

\y. <I:... ~~ )i:. ~~I ~ ~\kL. ~.ill ~I ~

(iii) A copy of Risdla-i-Khwdja 'A1Jd1tlldh An§cM, transcribed by him in 921 A. H., is preserved in the Ra,mpur State Library. 23

The only conclusion which we can possibly draw from the above facts is that he did not die before 921/1515-16.

. We learn from the Majdlis-ttl-Mu'mintn that Sultan 'Ali was buried at Mashhad, beside the library which is attached to the Holy Shrine of Imam Ri9ii. u

. To judge from the extant specimens of his calligraphy, Sultan 'Ali was undoubtedly an indefatigable worker; he even copied manuscripts at the advanced age of eighty-four. I have been able to trace some thirty manuscripts which bear his signature, but it must not be assumed from this fact only that they were all transcribed by Snltan 'Ali

20 Vol. iii, Juzv iii, p. 344. 21 Majli8, 10.

U Marteau (G.) and Vever (H.l, Miniatures Peraanes, Paris, HIl3, Forme, 8, No. 12.

18 Joul'1Ull oj the Aliatic Society oj Bengal, 1918, p. cxxxiv. 2' Majlia, 10.

12

, ~

himself, for besides the' possibility of a forged signature in

the colophon, it is quite probable, indeed certain, that some of these manuscripts were copied by other calligraphists who were his namesakes. The author of Tadhkira-iKhu8hina/w~8an gives us the names of four 25 namesakes of Sultan 'Ali, namely, Sultan 'Ali Fani,Z6 Sultan 'Ali Ta,brizi, Sultan 'Ali Khurasani, Sultan 'Ali Qazwini. To the above list we may add the names of (1) Sultan 'Ali Qa'ini, who also enjoyed the patronage of 'Ali Shir Nawa'i'

and died (according to Mir'at-ul-'Alam) in A.H. 914,27 (2) Sultan' Ali al-Haravi, who transcribed a Persian treatise on the astrolabe 28 in 999/1590-91, (3) Sultan 'Ali Shushtari, who was a distinguished painter and, as appears from his signature on one of the paintings, was probably a calligraphist too;" and (4) Sultan 'Ali Shirazi.30

We are unable to say whether or not Sultan 'Ali left any male issue, but it is rather curious to note that Schulz;" Jackson," Marteau and Vevor," Huart 34 and several other writers on Persian painting are almost unanimous in declaring that Sultan Muhammad Nfrr, a distinguished calligraphist of the period, was his son. I have consulted some of the most important and trustworthy contemporary authorities on the subject but have failed

25 Bib. Indica Series, p. 42.

26 According to Khwand Amir'a Khuld~.ul.Akhbdr (A.S.B. MS., No. D. 155, fol. 369b) Fani worked in the library of Sul~n ij:usayn. He was alive in A.H. 950. According to 'Abdull8h's Risdla (Oriental Public Library, Patna, MS., No. 1076, fol. 23a) Fani WWl 110 pupil of Mawlana Ja'far.

27 Biih8r Library MS., No. 12, fo!' 29b. According to 'Abdullah (RiHdla.i.

Khushnawi8£, Oriental Public Library MS., No. 1076, fo!. 23a), he was 6 pupil of Mawi8na A~har. See also Huart, Lee Oall., p. 214.

28 Blochet, Schefer Oatalogue, No. 1474.

It Martin, Miniature Painting and PainterB of Per8ia, India, and Turkey

(London, 1912), p. 112 (Figures 18 and 20),.

30 A MS. of Diwdn.i.Qdfi~, copied by him in 991 A.H., is preserved in Patna, 31 Die. Per8iBche·IBlamiBche Miniaturmaierei, p. 165.

38 Oo/.nlogue 0/ Persian ManuacriptB (Cochran Collection, New York), p. 61. 33 Miniatures Persane«; p. 26.

34 Lea OalUgraphea et lea Miniaturistes de L'Orient Musulman, p. 223.

13

to find any statement supporting 'the assertion of these

distinguished writers. 3&

Sul~an 'Ali transcribed our manuscript of the Rubri'tydt on the last day of Rajab, A.H. 9U. Probably it was the last copy which he prepared for his great patron Sul~an Husayn Bayqara, who died only a few months later, on the 11th of Dhu'l-Hijja, 911 (May 5, 1506). The colophon runs thus:-

't)~ .1; ~I ~u.. i~./ t::f ~I ~ ..::J~~J .l!. ilt

- 4l_r.'1 ~~I ~\.-i J .r ~.1>-1 ~ ~)I '-;A.'" J ~ tL* ~\5J1 jc ~1kL ~..ill ~I ~

'Fini~hed the Rubd'tydt of Shaykh 'Umnr-i-Khayyam, the King of Philosophers, May AUdh make his dust fragrant, on the last <lay of Rajab-al-Murajjab, in the year Nine Hundred and Eleven of the Hijra of the Prophet. Transcribed by this sinful slave, Sul~all 'Ali al-Katib.'

Here Sul~an 'Ali has signed his name 'Sultan 'Ali al-Katib ', and has omitted' to add' al-Mashhadi ', after his name, but we ncod not attach any importance to this omission which is probably incidental only. The fact that Sul~an 'Ali used to sign his name as Sultan 'Ali alKatib also is proved beyond all doubt from the following

35 Khwand Amir, who wrote his flablb.us·Siyar (in 930/1524) during the life time of Sul~an Mu\rnmmad NUT, calls him Sultan Muhammad bin (i.e., "On of) Nurullolh (Vol. iii, Juzv iii, p. 350). Tho ubovo statemeut is conclusively proved from the signature of the calligraphlst himself, which appears em a MS. of Chah!

lladlth in the St. Petersburg Library. It runs as Iollows :- .

.il.)j .:.: ~ .:,UoL

(Sul~o1.n MUl}ammad, Bon of Nurullah). Seo Dorn's Catalogue rles Manuscrit. eot Xylographes Orientaw: de Ia Bibliotheque Imperiale Publique de St .• Petel'sbourg,

No. CDXXXVII. Another signature': .)j,:,: ~ ':'UoL.~ (ThA slave, Sultan Mul}ammad, son of Nur) appears on a MS. of 8ub~at.ul.Marjdn (dated, A.H. 913) in the Oriental Public Library, Patna, (See KMn llahadur 'Abdul Muqtadir's Catalogue, Vol. 1, p. 74.) It is quito clear from tho above quotations that Sultan Mul}ammad was the Bon of NurulLi.h and not of Sultan 'All al·MashhBdi.

· 14

t

note ·011 a, Wa~lt included in the Album of the Emperor Jahangir, ill the Berlin Library 81 :-

,-?~l ~ ~\kl.. JIai .wI ~J JI (~I ~.lll ~I ~

o .;Iv" ~I)~ 1tJ..J':f .;... .J ItJ.j~ )f- ~~I

36 Goetz (H.) and Kuhnel (E.). Indian Book Painting from Jahangir'8 Album in 1M State Library in Berlin, Plate 24.

III. THE MINIATURES.

There are five beautiful miniatures (on folios 30b, 31a, 40b, 41a, 50b) which adorn the manuscript. They are interesting specimens of the pictorial art of Persia that flourished at Herat in the 15th and early 16th centurics ·A.D. Although four of the miniatures lack the artistic perfection of Bihzad or Malpnftd, yet there can be no doubt as to their having been drawn by a painter who had received his training in the studio of Bihzad, There is one miniature however (on fol. 41a) which appears to ha ve been executed by the great Bihzdd himself. This one, which is undoubtedly the finest in the manuscript, is characterized by that excellence of workmanship, finish and refinement which have long been recognized to be the most pleasing features of the miniatures executed by that great artist. Simple in design and execution, charming in its colour scheme and supremely decorative in character, it has a fascination of which the observer never wearies. The signature of Bihzad, which is in microscopic letters, has been cleverly eoncealed in the fringe of the Kamar band (or, belt) of the youth sitting on the right. In fact,· the artist has so cleverly concealed his signature that it escaped my notice for more than a year.

I regret, however, that ill spite of the beRt endeavours of the photographer and the engraver it has not been possible for them to reproduce the signature of the artist; it is in faet, so minute that they eannot be detected oven in the original without the help of a magnifying glass.

It is a matter of common knowledge to the students of Persian painting that Bihzad employed certain very clever devices in concealing his signatures. Dr. Martin, a notable authority on. Islamie painting, has laid down

( ·15 )

16

the following test for identifying the authentic signatures of that artist :-

, Real signatures executed by the artist (i.e. Bihzad) are extremely rare, being recognized at once by the care and discretion shewn in their application. It may be taken as a rule that all conspicuous and carelessly written signatures are of a far later date. Those who know Bihzad'a real signature are aware that most of those ascribed to him are false, and have not the slightest resemblance to the microscopic character of the master. If the signature is placed within a small shield or anything similar, its authenticity is pretty certain.' 37

By applying the above test we find little difficulty in asserting that the signature on our miniature is probably authentic. But is the quality of the miniature such that the great Bihzad might have painted it? I am inclined to answer the question in the affirmative, but I should like to emphasize at the same time that its quality must not be judged by the reproduction given here. The art of process-engraving in India is still in its infancy, and therefore it is impossible to reproduce in print the extreme delicacy of the lines or the dazzling beauty of the colours that the painter has used. In fact, the reproduction gives only a very hazy idea of the consummate skill of the artist. I leave the matter here, and now it rests with the expert to examine the original miniature and to pronounce his judgment on the authenticity or otherwise of the signature of Bihzad.

All the miniatures, with the exception of the last, go in pairs. In the first set of double-page illustrations the artist has illustrated the subject-matter of the following Quat~aiu :-

:J.1, "",If- ~I .J y~ .• ~ ~T

).1, "",I_r vY' J\S" ~k 0.r.

:J.1, "",If- ~ JY.J ~.x..../ ~ ~T jl J_,..!u J .:s- ~ t,

37 Miniature Painting and Painter. oj Persia, India, and Turkey, p, 49.

17

In paradise, they tell us, Houris dwell, And fountains run with wine and oxymel:

If these be lawful in the world to come, Surely 'tiS' right to love them here as well.

( Whinfield).

The first two lines of the Quatrain arc illustrated in the first miniature, while the last two are illustrated on the

. page facing it. We find in both the miniatures youth and beauty meeting 'to snatch and to turn to good account a few moments from annihilation's waste '. The lawn is green and the light crimson background is overshadowed by a golden sky. The colour scheme is immensely pleasing, but it must be admitted, however, that the artist has not displayed his skill to the best advantage. He was apparently a mediocre one only.

In the second set of paintings we find two youths sitting on the green lawn, with a 'Cup of Wine' and a 'Book of Verses', reminding us of 'Umar's dream of , Paradise on Earth ' :-

A Book of Verses underneath the Bough,

A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread-and Thou Beside me singing in the Wilderness-

Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow l

(Fitz-Gemld).

The blossoming tree, the fine landscape behind and the golden horizon above, flecked with white and blue, curling patches of oloud, transform us to a 'fairy world of unearthly vividness and beauty'. The picture on the opposite page, which is no doubt the finest in the manuscript and was perhaps painted by the great Bihzad himself, depicts a scene of close intimacy. The lawn is as usual green but the background is of dazzling gold and the horizon of wonderful lapis lazuli, a pigment which 'must have been worth its weight in gold'. Th~ effect produced

2

18

by the alternate use of gold and blue, both charmingly fresh and bright, is immensely pleasing.

The text, illustrated in the minatures, is as follows :-.

, ,

J.;.I.J\ y\; ;.)~ ':'\_r, ,,;.r ~ J.;.I.J\ y'f. -=-!~ r~1

Youth is the time to pay court to the Vine,

To quaff the cup, with revellers to recline;

A flood of water once laid waste the earth, Hence learn to lay you waste with floods of wine.

( Whinfield).

The fifth and the last painting, which is a single page illustration, is the least attractive of all the paintings in the manuscript. Further, it has "been badly mutilated by some over-zealous moralist who was probably annoyed with the scene depicted. The Quatrain illustrated here, runs as follows:-

.:, \:.... .:, \:.... .:£ j j.J ;.) ~ :r:-

.:,~.:,~ j.).r.)b ~.J.) ISj.JJ

.:,\:....) .:, \:....) A;" .) J. ~ .,51 ~ u"~ f .)~.J Y:!-J'.

The following is a free rendering of the text :Now that the Nightingale has struck his lyre, Fill full the cup of joy for the days that be ; Awake, arise, for the spring is in full array,

Accept naught but the brimming cup from Saqi's lily hands.

IV. CONTENTS OF THE MANUSCRIPT.

The manuscript (6X4!; 4lox3Ilo) should have, as originally numbered, comprised 62 folios, but we notice that:

Fol. I is numbered 3 ( Y' ), from which we may conclude that 2 folios which apparently contained a double-page

. miniature, are missing; and, as such, it is probable that three quatrains are missing from the copy. I have counted the number of quatrains in the following manner,: fo1. la (or fly-leaf) blank; fo11. Ib and 2a, which might have contained miniatures, one RubtN ; fol, 2b, two Rubd'£s.

Fol, 33, which should have been originally numbered 35, is actually numbered 36, which is either due to the fact that fol. 35 is missing, or that the page has been numbered wrongly.

Fol. 37, which should have borne 40, is actually numbered 41.

FoIl. 49, 50, 51, and 52 (numbered originally 53, 54, 55, and 56) are blank. But these pages do not form a part of the original MS., for the paper of these folios is very modern. Probably these pages were actually meant for the outer cover of the MS., and were added towards the end of the last century by the book-binder who remounted the copy on new margins. An exactly similar leaf actually precedes the MS.

FoIl. 12 and 55 are misplaced; the fermer should eome after fol. 55 and the latter should follow fo1. 45.

( 19 )

V. THE' GENUINENESS' OF THE QUATRAINS IN THE MANUSCRIPT.

The manuscript, which contains two quatrains to a page (except fols. 31b, 32a, 41b, 42a, 50b, and 54a which contain miniatures), comprises 206 quatrains, arranged alphabetically. The number of Rubci'£s, under each letter of the alphabet is as follows :-

Ali! (7); bci (3); to, (85); j£m (I); 1yi (I); khd (I); dal (45); 1'a (13); za (8); s£n (2); s},,£n (5); ka! and gal, which are not separated, (3); m£m (Il); nun (8); waw (4); and ya (9)=206. But we find that under md£! 'to,' Quatrains 44 and 45 are identical; thus the total number of quatrains in our copy is 205.

It may now be asked: How many of these quatrains may be safely attributed to 'Umar-i-Khayyam t I cannot attempt to answer this question without referring to the, methods pursued by scholars. to test the genuineness of the Rubti'£yat attributed to 'Umar, As pointed out by Sir Denison Ross, the following four methods have ordinarily been followed by scholars :-

'(1) To eliminate from the attributed verses all those which are found in old MSS. of early poets, (2) To eliminate verses which have from the first been claimed for later poets,

(3) To accept as genuine incidental quotations from -'Omar, 'occurring in early works of biography and in anthologies, and

(4) To take the style and subject-matter as the test of genuineness.' 88

The first two methods were adopted, for the first time, by the late Professor Zhukovski in his monograph, "Umar-i-Khayyam and the Wandering Quatrains', which

38 Bulleein oj the School oj Orienta! Studiell, Vol. IV, Part ur, (1927), p. 433.

( 20 )

( 21

appeared in the al-Mu~affar£yya 3~_a volume of ssudies presented to Baron Victor Rosen, in 1897. Zhukovski was able to show in that monograph that at least eighty-two quatrains included in the edition of Nicolas 40 could, on equally good authority, be attributed to other poets. The study was taken up later by Professor Arthur Christensen, in his Beeearehe« 8ur lee Rubd'£yat d'Omar lfayyam (Heidelberg, 1905), who was able to add 19 quatrains to Zhukovski's list of 'Wandering Quatrains '-thus raising the number to 101. He was later able to find 7 more. U

It must not be supposed, however, that this method is not fraught with danger or difficulty. As pointed out by Dr. Rosen in his article, Zur Textfrage der Vierzeiler Omar:« des Zeltmacher8,u 'the faet that a quatrain is ascribed at the same time to 'Umar and to another poet, docs not necessarily mean that 'Umar is not the author of the quatrain' in question. Two quatrains which are

ascribed to 'Umar and likewise to l'alib-i-'Amuli oannot be composed by the latter, for they occur in the Bodleian MS. from A.D. 1460-61 and l'aHb died in 1625 or 1626. Only two out of sixteen quatrains that are ascribed to I:lafi~ arc to be found in a MS. of Hafiz' D£van from A.D. 1639,

. . .

and none at all from about A.D. 1500.(3 Of four quatrains

attributed to 'Umar and to Jalalud-din Rumi not a single one exists in a RUm! MS. from about A.D. 1500.' He concludes: 'We are not justified in rejecting a priori as

89 The original article appeared in Russian. Dr. Ross published its sU!l1mary . in the Joornal of eM Royal Alliatk Sooiely, April 1898, Vol. XXX, pp. 349-366 . .., Paris, 1867. This edition comprises 464 quatrains of 'Umar-i-Khayyam.

" Oritical Studie8 in eM Ruba'iytU of 'Umar-i-Khayydm, (Copenhagen, 1927), p. 8. Sir E. Denison R088 (J.R.A.S., 1898, p. 356) and Profe88or Schaeder (Rosen's edition, Berlin, p. 34) also have discovered one 'Wandering Quatrain' each.

el Z.D.M.G., 1926, p. 285 et. seqq., I have been unable to make use of the original article, which is in German, and have, therefore, relied on Christensen's Hummary in his Studie8, pp. 10,11.

&8 I may point, however, that Q. No. 202 of Nicolas's edition (Whinfield, No. 246) is present in a MS. of Dlwdn-i fldfo:, dated 827/1423 (see 'Abdur Ra1)im Kbalkhill's edition, Tehran, 1928).

22

spurious a 'wandering quatrain' that exists in " the 'Ruba'iyat of 'Vmar.'

I find on an examination of the text of the present manuscript that ont of a total of 206 Ruba'iyat, 30 arc included in Zhnkovslri's, 2 in Christensen's, and 1 in Rosen's list of the 'Wandering Quatrains'. I suppose there are still quite a good number of quatrains in this copy which can be traced in the Diwans of other poets, and as an instance I may point out that Quatrain No. 62 is present in the KuUtyat of Ibn-i-Yamin, dated A.H. 1026, preserved in the Bilhar Library, Calcutta.

I append here a list of the' Wandering Quatrains' of the present MS. :-

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17

18 19 20 21 22 :>3 24 25

1 6 13 17

Serial I N. AB~r:f I BOdleian-l~infield'sl- Nicolas'H I

No. MS. MS. Edition. Edition.

------- - -----_ ---...!----..:-----

, Wandering Quatrains' included in Zhukovski's list.

I

5

..

II

19

7 2 52 28 57 62 66 42 73 72 93 76

164 177 142 140 185

8 3 49 24 54 59 63 38 70 69 91 74

141 1118 113 IIO 168

Attributed to

'AWlr.

IJifi,.

Tilib-i.' Amuli. A~rir-ud-Din lJasani. Na.im·ud-Dln Rill:i. Ri4A-ud.Din. N8.9lr-ud.Din 'f\lsi. lJifi,.

'AbdullAh An,in. Sirij-ud-Din Qumri. Rizl,Ni'matuIlihKirminl. Ruml.

Fakhr-ud-Din Rili. Afdal·i. K4!hl.

IJ~, Majd-ud-Din

Hamgar_ Maid-ud.Din Hamgar. ShAh!, '.\kift.

lJiO,.

23

Serial IN. Ashraf I Bodleian !Whinfteld'S I Nicom's !

No. MS. MS. Edition. I Edition.

Attributed to

31 32

'Wandering Quatrains' included in Christensen's list.

70 1 I 43 1 39 1 Af4al.i.Kaaht.

so l1S AbU Sa'ld.

33 I

'Wandering Quatrain' included in Rosen's list,.

186 I 389 1 Alm'l Hasan Khar'lAni.

In connection with the third method, namely 'to accept as genuine incidental quotations from 'Umar, occurring in early works of biography and anthologies', Zhukovski, Rosen, and Ross have examined a large number of Persian works and they have been able to discover 2 quatrains in Najm-ud-Din Razi's Mir~dd-ul-'Ibdd (composed in 620/1223); 1 in Juwayni's T&rtkh-i-Jahdn Gushd" (composed 658/1260); 2 in Shahrazu.ri's Nuzhat-ul-ArwalJ, (13th e., A.D.); 1 in Hamdullah Mustawfi's Tartkh-iGuztda 45 (composed in 730/1330); 2 (one being identical with the quatrain in Tartkh-i-Guztda) in Firdaws-utTawarikh (compiled 808/1405); and 13 in Mu'nis-ul-AIJ,rar48 (741/1340-1), a unique anthology of the works of Persian poets. There is good reason to believe that all these 18 quatrains are genuine and may be taken as the basis of the text of 'Umar's Ruba'tyat. Christensen, however, considers 10 of these quatrains as genuine, 3 uncertain and 5 spurious. t7

" Gibb Memorial Series, Part I, p. 128. U Gibb Memorial SerieR, Vol. I, p. 81S.

" The manuscript has been described by MIrz& Mui}anunad KhAn Qazwtnl, its discoverer, in the Bulle'in oj the School oj Oriental SlUdiu, Vol. V, Part I, (1928), pp. 97-10S. The text of the quatrains was first published by Dr. Rosen as a,n appendix to his Berlin edition of "RuM'lydt.,.'Umar.i.Khayydm' (1925), and, later, re-pelnted (from the original MS.) with an EngliBh translation by Sir Denison ROBS, in the B~n of the School oj Oriental Studies, Vol. IV, Part III. (1927),

pp. 433-439. \_

" Studies, pp. 40--4'\1.

\

24

Of the quatrains in the above-mentioned books: the

following are found in our copy also. :- . A ,A

No. 19 of onr copy is No. 1 III the M"r~ad-~l- _Ibad and No. 11 in the Mu nis-ul-

Ahrar.

No. {) in the Mu'nis-ul-A~rar. is included in Tartkh-i-Jahdn

Gushd.

No.1 in the lIfu'ni8-ul-A~rar.

No.8" "

No.4,. "

No. 12 ,. "

No. 13 ,. "

No. 37 No. 52

"

"

"

"

No.--I05 " No. 173 " No. 181 " No. 197 .. No. 203 .,

"

"

"

"

"

Of the 12 quatrains which contain the pen-name of 'Umar, only six (including No.8 of .Tajarml) have been declared by Rosen to be genuine. '8 Our copy contains 5 quatrains (Nos. 43, 82, 167, 173, and 192) which bear the pcn-name of 'Umar, and three of them (i.e. Nos. 167, 173, and 192) arc included in Rosen's list of 'genuine' quatrains, while one more (No. 43) is declared by Christensen to be genuine."

I have myself pursued these two methods with some amount of success and have discovered a quatrain of 'Umar in a unique and exceedingly valuable manuscript of Tartkh-i-H erat, 50 which was composed by Sayf Ibn Muhammad bin Ya'qub al-Harawi and dedicated to Malik Ghiyath-ud"Din Kurt, the fourth King of the Kurt dynasty of Herat, who reigned during the years 708-729/1308-1328. The MS. does riot bear the date of transcription 'but the

'8 Rubd'iydt (Berlin, 1925), pp. 16-23. Christensen, however, does not a~e with Borne of the conclusions of Dr. Rosen. See Studill8, p. 40.

. " Studies, p, 42.

60 The MS. is preserved in the BubAr section of the Imperial Library, Calcutta.

It is written in a beautiful, bold Naskh and is in an excellent condition of preservation. r'lr a full description of the MS. see Khl1n BaMdur Mawlawl 'Abdul Muqtadir'9 article' Notea on a unique history oj Hen1t, di'ICol18red in the B1lMr colle". nor. oj }'[S8. 'n the Imperial Library (Calcutta) • in the Jouf'1lal oj the ABiatie Society oj Bengal, Vol. XII (New tleries). No.4 (1916).

25

nature of the handwriting and the general appearance of the copy tend to suggest', as pointed out by Khan Bahadur 'Abdul Muqtadir, 'that it was transcribed during the lifetime of the author or immediately after his death '.&1 The quatrain occurs on fo1. 45b of the MS. and bears the name of 'Umar-i-Khayyam, in red ink, on the margin :-

(i~ /) ~~; If' J j~ t ~ .»: (~ ~\i vi' j j i J.r !l~; f.; ~ ~ oJ.-! j \la;. 'J:--- ~ (I; j\ .M~./, 'J:--- t J.:; j\j

The quatrain also occurs, as appears from Christensen's , concordance' (No. 516), in several collections of 'Vmar's ROOa'iyat, namely Rosen's MS. (dated, A.H. 721) Bibliotheque Nationale MS., Supp1. Persian, 823 (dated, A.H. 902) ; Bodleian MS., No. 376 (circa, 16th century); the British Museum MS., Or. 5966 (dated, A.H. 977), etc. It is also found in the Amritsar (No. 638), Lueknow (No. 516), and Nicolas's (No. 280) editions of the Rubd'iyat, but in all these editions the quatrain has two lines quite distinct from the Tarikh MS. I quote the text from Nicolas's edition (No. 280) and refer the reader to Rosen for variants, etc. II

(~; ~~ vI'~ ) ~ y. \S~ j (~ ~L' vl'j j iJ.r !l~;

rL• yT .r: J~ ~ t jJJ ji ~ JS~; J j~ t ~ vi' j

A comparison of the above text with ~he text in the

. Tarikh MS. will hardly lea ve any doubt in our 'mind regarding the excellence of the text, in the latter manuscript. I am of opinion that, as the ROOa'i occnrs in a MS. which was written before 729/1328, and, further, as it is also found in several fairly old collections of the Rubd'iyat, it

51 Catalogue Rawtmn8 oJ Ihe BaMr Library, Vol. I, Persian Manuscripts (Calcutta. 1921), p. 43.

&I Rubd'SydI.i.'Umar.,.Kl!ayydm, (Berlin, HI25). No. 198, p. 100.

26

should be Included among the genuine quatrains of 'Uinarj-Khayyam.

I should also like to refer here to another discovery of

16 quatrains which I made in 1929 in Taqj-i-Kashi's is extremely rare Kkuza~at-ul-Ask'ar wa Zubdat-ul-AJkar (1016/1607)preserved in the Oriental Public library, Patna." Of these 16 quatrains, I was able to trace 9 in certain collections of 'Umar's RuM'£yat, but the remaining 7 could not be found in any available edition of the RulxNyat .. As I have already discussed the value and importance of Kashi's codex in an article which I contributed to Vol. III of Islamic Culture 55 (Hyderabad, Deccan), I do not propose to re-open the discussion. I shall, therefore, give only a brief summary of the remarks that I made in that

paper:-

1. 'I'aqi-i-Kash! is a remarkably accurate bio-

grapher.

2. The Patna MS. was revised and corrected by

Taqi-i-Kashi himself.

3. The Patna MS. presents a more correct text of

the R1dxi'iyat than some of the older codexes transcribed by the professional oalligraphists, The value of the text is proved from the fact that 3 of the 'traced' quatrains (Nos. 5,58 8, and 967) are present in Jajarmi's

63 He was born about 946/1539 and completed his Tadltkira of ancient and contcmpcrary poets in six volumes, in 1016/1607. The Patna MS. comprises the fourth volume of the Toohkira, followed by a Tadltnib (foil. 270-:195) in which he gives seleetlons of the verle~ of a large number of poets. Taqi's TadAkira contains (as remar~ed by Sprenger) 'the soundest critical and most exact and complete bio •. gr~phlcal remarks on the Persian poets; the author aeems to have consulted their Dlwans and to have collected all the information conneming them he could' (Oude CatcOOgue, p. 14).

" A full desc~iption of the 1\[S. will be found in KhAn Bah4dur 'Abdul Muqtadir's Catalogue Of Pet'Stan Manuscript8 in the Oriental Public T.A"""-· Patn V I VIII pp. 73-75. vow.~, a, or, ,

55 "01. III, No.3, (1929), pp, 369-374.

A.H~e9~1sn.~~e~~~~cl in Rosen's edition of Sul~an Mul;lammad Nur's MS., dated 67 Also included in Rosen MS. (dated A.H. 721) (No. 50).

27

J.fu'nz8-ul-A~ra,., 4 (Nos. 1,58 2, 3,51 and' 4 60) in the Bodleian MS., and the remaining 8 (Nos. 6 and 7) in Rosen's MS. (the colophon of which is dated, A.H. 721).

4. In view of the above facts, there is reason to believe that the 'new', or 'untraced', quatrains are also probably genuine and that some of them at least can be traced in the unpublished codexes of 'Vmar's Ruba';,ya,t.

Our MS. includes 5 of these 'traced' quatrains, i.e.

Nos. 3, 4, 6, 7, and 9 corresponding to Nos. 200, 38, 111, 81, and 19 of our manuscript.

The text of the Rubd'iyat in Taql-i-Kashf'a Kh'U:ta~a is printed as a supplement at the end.

I may also mention here that ar-Rawandi's Ra7).at-u~- 8udur (composed in 599) and Sadr-ud-Dln Warawini's J.lfarzuban Nama (composed towards the beginning of the 7th century Hijra) contain two Rubd'£s which are ordinarily attributed to 'Umar-i-Khayyam, Although neither arRawandi nor al-Warawini mentions the name of 'Umar-iKhayyam yet there is good reason to believe that the following Quatrain, quoted in the Ralfat-u~-~~udur, probably belongs to 'Umar 81 :-

~ .r ~JJ.!! J!.)o ~ ~ [J" jJ ~. J~ t::_\;' j r= .:.-:.;.

The Quatrain in the follows II :_._

..::JJ J'IF Ij J. ~ o::JR- ~ jl ..::JJ J'IJ.;. "- J ;; ~ ~ ~I..l:-'

~ j $1. j J' ~ tt..~ 4 J~ J..JI ~ JJ._) .!ll. j I ~ .:.-:.;. ft M arztiban Nama runs as

..::JJ J'I_; t.>.i" J o::J ~. J. jl 5' ;..L.I U; jl J 4f ! f..;,.

68 Alao included in Rosen MS. (dated A.H. 721) (No. 90).

69 .... (No. 321).

eo See Rosen. No. 33, n2.

el Gibb Memorial 8eriu (edited by Prof. Mlll)ammad Iqbal), p. 425. el Gibb Memoria! 8eriu (edited by Mirza Mlll)ammad KhAn). p. 216.

28

but : as it is included in the list of the 'Wandering Quatrains' and is attributed to 'Abdullah An~arl, we are not quite sure rogarding its authorship.

In connection with the fourth method, namely 'to take the style and the subject-matter as the test of genuineness ',some useful work has been done by Dr. Rosen, but he was unable to make much progress owing mainly to the fact that' nearly all quatrains are " as pointed out by Professor Browne, 'so similar in form, metre, style, and diction, so brief in extent, so much more prone to treat of the Universal than of the Particular, and so easy to make or paraphrase, that not even the most accomplished Persian man of letters could seriously pretend to decide by their style as to their authorship'. 83

Professor Arthur Christensen has, however, followed a new method. Besides applying the aforesaid tests, he has further relied on the occurrence of a quatrain in a certain number of fairly old codexes before declaring it to be genuine. He had for this purpose 18 collections 84 of the Rubll'tyat before him, which he di vided into two main groups: (A) Alphabetical and (B) Non-alphabetical." He laid the following general rule for testing the genuineness of the Rub(i'tydt attributed to 'Umar, "If a quatrain is so amply represented in texts of both groups A and B, that it has been in their common source, its existence in the Ruba'iyat of 'Umar-i-Khayyam is warranted for so early a date that we safely consider it genuine". U Further, he -lithl down that if a quatrain occurs in at least five texts of group B and (generally speaking) in three orfour texts of group A it is fairly safe to assume its genuineness. He has, after applying these rules, selected only 121

68 IAterary Hiat,ory of Peraia, Vol. II, p. 258.

U He has discussed thc impo~tance of these texts in his Studiu p. 15 et .eq.

86H' f" h 'h ' ,

. . e IS 0 opnuon t at t e non·alphabetical texts represent a textual tradition

which IB older than that of the single alphabetical texts, for the alpbabetical arrangement, cnee adopted, bas persiBted '. (Sludiea, p, 26.)

eo 8tudie8, p. 39.

29

quatrains as genuine, out of a total of 1,213 R'IiM'tydt

attributed to 'Umar-i-Khayyam.

Our copy contains 78 RUbd'ts out of a total of 121 quatrains selected by Christensen as genuine.

They are:-

-
Serial N. Ashraf Christensen's Serial N.Ashraf Christensen's
No. MS. List. No. MS. List.
--- -----
1 I L (5). 40 102 XCV (234).
2 4 LXXVI (13). 41 103 XCIV (235).
3 10 LXVI (29). 42 104 XCVII (245).
4 19 LXXX (41l). 43 105 XVII (247).
5 31 LXXIX (44). 44- 108 XLVIII (262).
6 32 LXXXI (62). 45 110 X (264).
7 35 XXXII (94). 46 116 VII (277).
8 36 LXXXII (69). 47 119 IV (281l).
9 37 LI (104). 48 124 XLII (301l).
10 38 XXXVII (84). 49 127 XCVIII (308).
n 39 LXI (61). 50 129 VIII (310).
12 41 LXXXVIII (122). III 130 XIV (312).
13 42 LXXXIV (92). 52 132 XX (243).
14 43 LXVII (74). 113 133 LXXV (267).
15 {:: I XI (158). 54 135 XII (358).
55 145 LXIX (472).
16 48 XLIX (68). 56 146 CII (402).
17 50 LXXXIII (80). 57 150 ern (409).
18 fil XXV (51). 58 157 LII (427).
19 ii2 LXXVII (50). 59 1118 CIV (423).
20 51l XXXIX (96). 60 160 LXXII (435).
21 60 XXIX (181). 61 162 VI (443).
22 63 II (189). 62 164 LXV (446).
23 65 LXXXIX (191). 6.'J 167 III (454).
24 66 XV (192). 64 169 cv (462).
25 67 XXIII (l93). 65 173 XXXI (474).
26 68 XC (194). 66 177 XXIV (519).
27 69 XCI (195). 67 178 CVII (518).
28 72 XIII (198). 68 181 IX (537).
29 73 LVIII (199). 69 184 XXVI (.546).
30 74 LIX (200). 70 186 CX (58).
31 81 XLIV (210). 71 189 CXII (605).
32 84 LXXXVII (115). 72 192 • LVII (617),
33 85 LXIII (215). 73 195 CXlV (624).
34 86 XXII (216). 74 197 XXXV (634).
35 87 XCII (217). 75 198 CXVII (698).
36 88 LV (89). 76 201 XXVIII (697).
37 89 XXI (218). 77 202 XVIII (713).
38 98 XCIII (229). 78 203 XXVII (723).
39 100 XCIV (232). It must not be supposed, however, that only 78 , genuine' quatrains are included in our copy, nor should it be supposed that all. these 78 quatrains are absolutely

30

, b bl .,.

genuine; we can call them pro a Y genuine . only. '7

I should like to make it clear also that Professor Chnstensen has not made use of a very large number of fairly old collections of 'Umar's Buhd'tydt ill making his selections and, as such, his list can by no means be called complete. It has to be revised from time to time, whenever a new and important codex of 'Umar's Rub(Nyat comes to light. A very good start can be made, even to-day, with the help of the following manuscripts which were not available to Professor Christensen :-

Bibliotheque Nationale MSS. of the RuM'tyat :-

1. Schofer Collection, No. 1425. This beautiful, illustrated manusoript contains selections from the Diwaus of the Persian poets, including 'Umar-i-Khayyam. Blochet ascribes the MS. to the 16th century, A.D.68

2. Schefer Collection No. 1481. This undated, but apparently 16th century, MS. comprises 34 folios. 69

3. Schefer Collection, No. 1366. This 16th century manuscript of 'mixed contents' contains another collection of 'Vmar's Ruha'tyat.70

Manuscripts of the R1.f,bti'tyat in India ;-

4. The most valuable MS. of 'Umar's Ruba'iyat in India is a copy, dated 826/1422-23, in the collection of Mr. Gourl Prashad Saxena, a well-known art-dealer of Lucknow. The MS., which is Rome forty years older than the famous

. '.7 Christen~n says: 'The 121 quatrains selected according to the prineiplea resulting from the preceding enquiry certainly do not include all the versea composed by 'Umar, lind it is not impossible, on the other hand, that there rnhal be aD_I' ,ng thorn a few spurloua quatreins, which have found their way into

t e eolleetion at an early date but at all >_ th . .

authentical thll '. even", e text given here IS more

(SCt«liu. pp. 4:' ~,,~~"t of any particuler manuscript or printed edition •

68 Bloehet, Scheler OolkcliOtl p 97

89 Ibid., p, 106 ' • •

70 Ibid .. p. ua

31

Bodleian MS., forms part of a collection oi 15 n 'Miscellaneous Works' of Persian poets and prose writers. The collection was made by Qiwam bin Mu~ammad al-Mazandaranf, at Kirman, in 826/1423, as appears from the colophons of MSS. No.2 12 (i.e. a prose version of the story of Joseph made apparently by Qiwam himself), No. 373 (i.e. selections from Farld-ud-Din 'Attar's Mukhtar Nama) and No. II it (i.e, Abu Iahaq's Ri8ala-i-Qalandar~ya). The Ruba'iyat, of 'Umar-i-Khayyam (No. 12 in

71 Tho Ri8dlaa are arranged in the following order :(1) ~a!ar.Nama, composed for Jamahid.

(2) Firdawsi's Yfl8U! wa ZulaikM.

(3) The story of YfllJUJ and Zulaikhd in proBo, probably written by the scribe himself.

(4) Selections from 'AHdr's Mukhtdr Nama made by the scribe, as he Bays:-

.. L· .J~ ..,..15 -.lI:- jI "';J? .J:I ..,..:r ..,,_I • ..I.! .::..! ..,..15 .J:.J'! .::.l:-!I .J:I ...•

c e .... ,yo 4..01.. ~ .• l! ..,..6:.:.;1 ..,,_I IS.JJI.'-4 .J~ .J:JI~) .•. ~I .11.. ~ ! (5) Farid al.Al;twal's lli8dla on Astronomy.

(6) Ql1flda by Khwdjt1 of Kirmlin.

(7) Qa~lda of Anwari.

(8) Qa~lda of Amir Mal;tmild Yamlni. (9) QIlfida of Ibn-i-Saif,

(10) Ri8dla·i·Sham' (in prose) by Jaml·ud·Din KhwBfi. (Il) Ri8dla·i·Qalandar'ya (in prose) by AbU IBJ:tBq.

(12) RuhlNwtt of Sul~n al·ij:ukamli 'Umar al·Khayylim. (13) Ql1flda by Rabi'i FQshanji.

(14) Qaflda by 'Ali ij:asan al·Blikharzi.

(15) Qafida by 'ImBdi in praise of samr Abu'l Qasim .• 71 The colophon runs thus :-

..:- ~ .!I.JI:J.I .;,I.:....J ",.:. V'L' ~'11 r JI. C.JL• J ~L.)I • .1t ./.~. V' t) ..Ii J

, .;,I..! rl.i..t. ~l.clc' J "r .J

71 The colophon runs 88 follows :-

o .;,I..! ';'1..'11)~ ~;..,.II ;.y, 4:.. J ~ IS~ c:-L' J L· .J~ ..,..15 ~i

7' The colophon nms thus :-

yy loft; ~I c:--I JI,JJijlll .J- v: rl) ~I ~I ~ ~ ~.J..clOl1 ~L.)I ~.

• flY' 4:.. rl).1 ~ ,j6

32

order of sequence) are introduced with the following heading in beautiful NaaM:-

~l!' /' ~, .:,lkL. ~~~J

There are six quatrains to a page with additional quatrains on the margin. The total number of the Ruba'is is 206-126 in the middle, 79 on the margin and 1 on the title page. The quatrains are not arranged alphabetically, which fact enhances the value of the text, for, as pointed out by Prof. Christensen, 'non-alphabetical texts represent a textual representation which is older than that of single alphabetical texts'. The MS. opens with the following Ruba'i:-

('-J~ ~~- <\i\..j j\ t ..;..;.. ~\j r-J~ ~\_;' ~- ~I.r j :ti- Y.

f-_)~ ~T t ~\..\ """..x; ~I~ I.Sj.JJ'_)l; I.S.JJ oJ;- i:» J.

and concludes with :-

cJ- \ J 4.!>-lt L-:Af ~ ~ jf ~~ ~ \:AS'"

5. MS., dated 868/1463-4, in the collection of Khwaja Muhammad Salim of Lahore. The copy which was made by J:[ajji Farajullah at Baghdad, in 868/1463-4, comprises 143 quatrains, arranged alphabetically. The text is written in beautiful ~a8ta'liq, on gold-sprinkled paper. 76 Of the 143 quatrains the manuscript has 135 in common with the Bodleian MS. 78 6 can be traced

,

76 The MS. was noticed, for the fimt time, by Professor Mul;1ammad ShaEi' of the Oriental College, Lahore, in tho Proceedings 0/ the IndiGn Historical RecordlJ OommiBeicm. Vol. VII, p. 56, and, later, by Profesaor Mul:umunad Iqbal of Lahore in the Orier.tal Oollege Magctzine, Lahore, Vol. II, No.3, pp. 14-23.

78 I cannot 8ay which quat.rains the manuscript hB8 in common with the Bodleian copy, dIIthe owner does not SCE'm to be willing to supply me with information on -this point.

33

in other printed editions 77, and 2 (which 'Prof. Mu~ammad Iqbal was unable to trace in any available edition of 'Umnr's Rriba,'~yat 78) ha,r~ been traced by me in tIw Diwan of I:lali~, and in two MSS. of the Ruba'iyat, of 'Umar-iKhayyam."

6. An undated, but apparently 16th century, MS. in the Oriental Public Library at Patna. The

---------------

77 'I'he following quatrains, which arc absent from the Bodleian MS., Can be found in Nicolas's edit.ion, except. No. 5, which is present in the NILwlt1 Kishore edition, Lncknow, 1!l24 :--

(i) .:--:.. ~;J '1.$ '.,rl..l.o ~ ~_/ (Nicol,," 1'\0. !li).

(ii) ~ .)1.. Y J ~ ~ ;' .. J()2).

(iii) jI;, .1; ~I .j\{;j) ~ jl .. 217).

(iv) ..;..._) ('..t' .jl.,.,... j .,..u... J, ..,1 (Lueknow, No. 459).

(v) &'; ~;b ~ jI ~I..j i~ (Nlcolas, No. 2(2).

(vi) JI.. ..,1 ..,..I_;! J ..:-1 e .. 428).

'I'he quatrain beginning with).., ..,1 r.- J ..11::, ;1,.1. ' which Professor Iqbal WIl8 unable to tracIJ in tho Bodleian MS., Is given there under the letter I'd (No. 151 ol Heron-A lien'. edition).

78 Oriental CollRye lIfaya~ine, Lahore, Vol. II, No. 3, p, 18. 79 Tho Quatrains arc :

1. d .jI.1.~ ~ d ..,..1Jt""

d .jL:..~ r; ~ .jl"w'

2. .j.J..:! f ':"J._~ ~ ! ):.:J ~

d .jl;;j ~ Y ! .j.i::! ..,' ..,..I_;. .,f .j~ ';j!:- .:;f .J'

.j~ft ':"J._~ ~ t j .,~ .j)'; ~I:.o ;p .jlj\ .,~ ~ ..:-1 :r.-

Tho former Quatrain is quoted thus in tho Oriental Public Library MS. of

RuM"yUt·j.·Umar.i.Klrayyam, No. 10 (fol. 3/), No. 40) : - .

d .j1J'.1 y 4:.!.(,r ..,..Ifo.- d .jl;;j ~ J' t .j.i::! .sl

d .jL:.., r; ~ .jl;; yl_,;. .,f .j~ .;;!:- .:;f .1

It iR also quoted in the Calcutta Madrll8llh MS. No. 14, 19/1 :- . d .JIJ'.~ ~ ~ ..,..1, d .jl;;j ~ y t .j.i::! ..,1

d .jL:.., r; ~ .jl;} ..,..I.J';' .,f .j~ ';j!:- .:;f .1.

'1'he next Quatrain is quoted in almost all the editions of Dlwdn.i·lJdfi~, including tho Tohran edition (1930), which is edited from R MS. dated !!_27/1424.

:I

34

Ruba'iyat, 613 in all, are arranged alphabetioally."

7. An undated, but apparently late 17th century, MS. (No. Nl., 160) in the library of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. The MS. includes 78 Ruba'is of 'Umar-i-Khayyam."

8 and 9. An undated, but probably early 17th century, MS. (foll, 31) in the library of the Calcutta Madrasah. The qnatrains, 316 in all, are not arranged alphabetically. ~I The MS. is bound with the Kulliyat of Khaqani, which is dated 917/1511-12. The same library possesses another non-alphabetical collection of the Ruba'iyat, apparently belonging to the 19th century."

Resides the above manuscripts, Professor Christensen did not have access to the following valuable collections of 'Umar's Ruba'iyat, whose existence has very recently been brought to my notice by Herr C. Herrnhold Rempis (of Tiibingen, Germany).

10 and 11. Two MSS., dated 1448 A.D., in the Bibliotke,que Nationale, Paris, comprising 56 and 47 Ruba'is, respectively.

12. A MS., dated 1451 A.D., in Vienna, comprising 42 Ruba'is.

13. A MI::i., dated c. 1474 A.D., in Uppsala, Sweden, comprising 256 RuM'is.

14, 15, ,16, and 17. Manuscripts, dated 1456, 1460, 1462, 1472 A.D. and comprising 139, 313, 372,

--------_. -- ------- - ._-

I!O Oatalogue of Persian MuuU8C,-il'ts in the Oriental Public Library, Patna, Vol. J, pp. 16-18.

b. (W. .vanow), Oa!alof/Ue of l'er"ian Manu8cripts in the Library of Asiatic Society of Bengal, p. 798.

81 See the Hand·liBt of Arnbir.. Persian and Urdu Book« and MS8. in the Library of lhe Oalcutta .~.Jadrasah (prepared by Mltwlawi Abu'l Makilrim Fadlu'l Wahhilb) p.35K. . ,

83 iua; p. 376.

35

and 336 Rl1ba'is respectively in Istainbfil (Constantinople ).

Thus we find that four MSS., i.e. Nos. 4, 10, II, and 12 of the above list are even older than the famous Bodleian MS., dated 865/1460 (which was up to now believed to he the oldest MS. of 'Umar's Ruba'£yat in existence), while No. 13 was transcribed in the same year as the Bodleian MS. (i.e. in l460 A. D.).

VI. 'CONCOHDANCE' OF THE RUBA'iYAT.

In preparing 'thc concordance' of the Ruba'iyat (which, 1 must confess, is primarily meant for the use of Indian students, as the works of Rosen, Christensen and other Western scholars are, ordinarily, not available to them) I have made use of the following munuseripta and editions of 'Umar-i-Khayyaru r->

(1) Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal MS. No. NL. 160, dated c. ] 6th century.

(2) Calcutta Madrasah Library MS. No. 14, 19'1, dated c. 16th century.

(3) Edward Heron-Allen's edition of the Bodleian MS. (dated 865 A.H.), B.

(4) Dr. Rosen's edition of the Berlin MS. (dated 721 11..1£. ?).

(5) Dr. Rosen's edition of the MS. of Ruba'iyat-iKhayyam, transcribed by Sul~an Mul,lammad Nur in 930 A.H., R. N.

(6) .T. B. Nicolas's edition (Paris, 1867) based on the Tel,lrau edition.

(7) E. H. Whinfield's edition based on the Nawal Kishore edition and other MSS. (London, 1883).

(8) Shaykh Ghulam Mul,lammad's edition of 906 quatrains (Amritsar).

(9) Nawa] Kishore edition of 770 quatrains (Lucknow, 1024 A.H.).

1 have also referred to Muhammad bin Badr-iJajanni's ' Anthology' which contai~ls 13 quatrains only, and to Knwaja Mul,lammad Salim's MS., dated A.H. 868, from which only eight quatrains are at my disposal.

( 36 )

:l

3 4

,i

[] t s !I In II l:l 1:1 14 I.'; Itj Ii 18 1!1

~() :ll

22 23 :l4 25 26 :l7 :lS :lO :10 :11 :12 33 34 a5 :16 ·:17

:Itl 20

:10 29

40

41

42

43 22

44

4/j

tn 34

47

II

37

=;====;:==;====;===- ._- ._---_" ._"".

I ., .

, ~

.5.S

s.e

~il

7 R

40

27

19 44nl

72 73 :17

21 32

511111

78 OS :I!I n:l 1m 62

33n2

42

42

III

:t:;.

-~ " 0

~:~

,~ 't:i

f'-"

==

154

--- -_- --- -- ----:----

1~:l 181

54

3S

8 7

13

6 r,

7 n

uo

15R 135

71i 52

80 56

81 57

159 136

167 144 tH

147 124

1:l9 98

87 63

94 70

flS H

SII 62

100 77

IS4 161

125 .94

93 O!l

120 104

Christ. 771 AIM) in III irs(id and .Tdj- 8rmi(No. 11),

Jitjarmi, No.5,

155

125 788 198

1011

289 100

226

:l

47

3 2

Ii 4

l.i IS

14 17

I!J :l:l

10 Ii

Hi II

17 12

18 13

2i'! 23

29 24

23 U!

40 36

:1:1 2R

:1,; 30

HiM 141)

1M 13l

102 7S

7:l 4t!

7f) 41i

48 109

l51l 133

49

(i9 -Hi

22 21i 108 84

44 47 85 61

172 14!1

01 1i4 145 122

63 06 12:1 92

81 8:1 OS 74

64 67 Ill! 158

64 67 ist 158

lOS 126 llii

2011 1 Only first couplet idontienl,

su :!-l-

4n ,i2

,iii ;i9

52 an

;n 60

2.j, 2!l

" 124

37 41

53 56

1211

.j,(J 44

121

35 :H 33

30 34

2ii 29

li4 1i7

1i0 53

60 6:1

sn 62

39

71

{ 223 I 108 I

I

38

00 '" i!: •
e ,..; "i ::.I '" ..
~ ,..; .... • :t g ~. ., . o §
-I': ~6
i· ~ = ::.100 ~ " 0 .h
]00 O'~ ]~ .;:~
-:~ -g::.l :!l i .::.1 ~ ~;g ~;g _3;g
0 Ol <
Z IX! Il: Il: 0 Ii ~~
-- '--, -- -- -- --- --. -- -- -- _. --
48 " i 69 .. 1711 48 .. 92 611
49 .. 35 .. 142 .. . . 6:! 3S
50 .. 70 .. 66 . . 9,; HI; 1M 80
iH " 61 .. 134 .. 6,; Oil 75 51
52 19 HI .. 12!l .. :J~ 42 Ii.! 40 .\IRo in
Tdrlkh·i.
Jahdll
GU8UI.
53 " .. .. . . .. .. I:W 1:12 1011
54 .. I .;1 .. 1M .. " .. 77 5:1
55 25 I .!7 .. ~:l3 .. 82 Il! 127 911
56 .. ;12 .. .. .. 72 . . 157 134
57 " .. . . .. 7:1 75 202 17!l
51! i .. 117 119 203 ISO .\IRfl in
.. .. .. ., "
I 1'1,,1 i In
MS.
59 .. 15 .. 17,; .. . . .. I 90 sn
tiO i 24 4,; .. .. .. 41i 49 204 1111
61 .. .. .. . . .. . . . . 2011 Ill:!
62 .. .. .. .. .. i7 79 207 lilt
63 3S .. .. 2;j~ . . 9:1 !Iii 212 IIlO
64 " .. .. .. .. III 86 213 190
65 .. .. .. 107 40 70 7:l ~lH 191
66 26 .. .. 22M .. 8!) R7 215 192
67 17 2:) .. . 70 .. .. 1I2 216 193
68 .. 17 .. .. 23 O!) 100 50 194
69 31 58 .. .. .. 31 35 217 195
70 I .. .. .. . . .. 39 43 218 1911
71 .. .. .. . . .. 39 :If! 210 197
72 .. 23 .. 151 .. .. 119 220 198
73 33 59 .. .. . . 90 02 221 199
74 27 43 .. 15!) .. 48 51 222 200
75 .. .. .. ., .. :13 37 115 119
76 " 33 .. .. .. .. .. 223 201
77 .. 55 .. 10K 46 " .. 224 202
78 " 21 .. .. .. 67 70 22!i 203
79 .. .. .. . . .. OS 71 2~R 201l
80 " .. .. .. .. .. III'! 231 209
81 .. 13, .. 121 73 611 72 2:12 210
82 .. .. .. .. .. 80 82 WI 100
83 .. .. .. 19(j .. " .. 2:J5 213
84 .. 41 .. 210 .. .. .. 138 115
85 .. 74 .. .. .. 118 99 237 21:;
86 10 22 .. .. .. .. 117 238 216
87 .. 66 .. 313 11 91 0:1 239 217
88 40 67 .. .. .. 92 94 113 1111
89 .. 30 .. 60 .. " .. 240 21 I'!
90 .. .. .. .. .. 97 911 241 219
91 ". .. .. .. .. " . . 243 221
92 .. .. .. . . .. 58 62 244 222
93 " .. .. .. .. 36 40 245 223
94 .. .. . . .. 35 39 247 22!i
95 " .. I .. .. .. 74 76 246 224
96 .. 79 .. 171 .. .. . . 248 226
--- 39

z

-- - --
...; .g 00 '"
fa ...; ::s .'" . ;;,. ... ~ .
..... '" ::: -::: <II • 0:::
rli =- ci' :sirli ;:ci ,So '" 0 .. ::: e.s
::s 'Soo '" ....;::S 0'';: q::.~ ]~ ....: ..
:g::a .. :ll rli ",._ =;t:: ~:a
0 .~ ":j .~ "tl
p:; 0 '" ...: z" ;<:" <al .4"
>Q p:; o ...
C>:i ...
-- -- -- ---- -- -- ----- -- -- -- -----
97 .. " .. .. .. 10i .. 252 227
98 47 81 .. .. .. 105 13,l 254 2:l9
99 . , 108 .. :l05 60 141 164 301 2:U
00 51 125 .. 46 .. 1~7 176 :U)2 232
01 .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 303 233
02 .. 89 .. H7 .. 1U7 1:17 :304 2:14
U:1 .. 110 .. 225 fl5 .. 23:1 30:; 235
04 ISO 97 .. 157 .. 106 1:16 :115 245
0,; .. 11,; .. .. .. .. " :117 217 Jajal'mi,
No.1.
011 .. " .. .. .. 158 177 32() 250
07 .. 81S .. .. .. 4114 209 :l31 261
08 50 " .. 160 .. .. 216 332 262
09 .. 102 .. .. .. .. " :1:13 2r;3
10 4!) .. .. H3 .. .. 217 :134 264
11 .. 146 .. .. .. 11:1 142 335 265
12 .. 144 .. :!li4 I 185 200 352 282
1:l .. " .. .. .. .. " 353 28:1
14 .. " .. .. .. Ull 140 356 286
15 .. 132 .. .. .. .. 2211 3411 2711
16 68 1U .. .. K 156 175 347 277
17 .. " .. .. .. 1:16 160 :H8 278
18 .. .. .. .. .. .. " 354 284
19 .. 137 .. 221 6 168 IHii 3,;5 :l1l5
20 .. " .. 249 .. 169 .. 3117 297
21 711 .. .. 277 .. .. .. :111:1 293
22 .. .. .. .. .. . . 227 :l73 303
23 .. .. .. .. .. . . " 3U 304
24 77 " .. .. .. 179 1!J4 :175 305
25 .. .. .. .. . . .. ~2iJ :176 3011
26 .. 1:18 .. .. 4 .. .. 377 3U7
27 69 120 .. .. .. 1011 13!1 :178 308
28 .. " .. .. . . 118 146 379 309
29 85 149 .. .. .. 194 .. 3110 310
3U 65 .. .. 227 . . 142 165 382 312
31 76 .. .. 212 .. .. .. 385 315
32 78 " " 276 .. IIlU 195 :113 243
33 .. 95 .. 2110 .. lSI 196 3:17 267
34 57 82 .. :100 .. .. 236 383 313
35 52 " .. 230 .. 112 .. 428 358
36 .. " .. .. .. .. " 431 361
37 .. 83 .. 52 .. .. .. ·135 365
38 .. 111 .. :108 . . 139 162 400 330
:19 .. .. .. .. .. .. " 387 317 Variants.
40 .. .. 23 .. .. .. .. 397 327
41 .. .. 24 .. .. .. .. 398 328
42 .. " 28 .. .. 12K 155 402 332
43 .. .. 30 .. 41 .. .. 404 334
44 .. 152 .. .. .. l!)r. 241) 168 398
45 90 162 .. 263 .. 196 .. 495 472
46 .. 160 .. 148 .. 214 " 472 402
47 .. 11)6 .. 44 :1:1 19S ~~2 482 412
48 .. " .. .. .. 209 .. .. ..
49 .. .. .. .. 254 478 408
" ..
__._ I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I 1

'1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1

40

--------
00 '"
';; ..; -d ~ ., . ;e. [ar:i ~ .
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,At (184)

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76

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Fol. 48b.

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Fol.49a;

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'M (188)

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,

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Fol. 49b.

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(J~ • ..I.o~ .)_,;. ! ~ 0.)."...1 .J ~J'. ').Jj (J~ ~:f (JT J.) i.f-

". {190)

5 ~ (J~ ,j.:;- j i~ JWI.J 5 ~ (J\...T (.) J'. (J~ I.5V

5,,~ J ,)f-' ~ j i) jl ~T o- ~ b) .J )~ (' _,;. j.JV"\

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ft ~.J )jo~ ~~ ~) ..I, r.' J~ ~ .J ~) ~~ J~ .u

j ~ J~ j~ i~ ~L .u j ~J ~J..!. ~ rf."\;·

77

\~\ (191)

Fol.50a.

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\~r (192)

\ ~r (193)

Fol. 50b.

c,\:....~ c,\:....~ Ai~ ~ J. t c,'p\ ~ ~~ .§ ~ ~ .J Ji-..I,

\ ~t (194)

Fol. 51a.

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\~O (195)

.f 15~.J"'" L. .~J .J c,..I.oT j\ c,~ 0'~ c,~ i-.r; ~ J~

. - \.,.;

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Fol.51b.

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78

iw (197)

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79

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Fol. 54a.

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~~I ~I 4S\..-i .J ?- ~..I.-I ...:-

._;~I ~ ~UZL ......;.lll ..uJ1 ..5

VIII. ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.

The publication of the text of' this MS. has boon delayed by nearly a decade. I wrote the Preface in the early part of 1930 and extracts from it were read by me in tho April (1930) meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal. I need not enumerate here the causes which· led to the delay but I may refer to one of' them, namely the delay in

. obtaining the MS. f'or photographic reproduction. I feel that after a lapse of nearly ten years, some of the points discussed in my Preface are somewhat out of date but, nevertheless, they are expected to prove useful in some respects at least. I may add that a detailed descriptive note of the MS. will be useful to those who have perused Sayyid Sulaiman Nadvi's Kkayydm ('A~amgarh, 1933).

P. 23, l. 15. In NuklWat.ush·Shdrib wa 'Ijdlat.ur Rdkib, (composed between 1258-1282, A.D.), a quatrain of 'Umar (beginning ft • .Ai»

-=-'} ,-:,.r ~ ~j) is quoted with its Arabic translation (Mingana, Oatalogue of Arabic Manuscripts in the John Ryland'8 Library, Manchester, p. 774, No. 465).

P. 23, i. 16. 'Ubaid.i·UMk8.ni (d. 772/1370·71) quotes one quatrain (No. 203 of this copy) of 'Umar in his Akhldq.ul.A8hrdf (composed in 740/1340) and another in his Ri8ala·i.Dilgushd (Constantinople, p.91).

P. 23, l. 23. Sayyid Sulaimdn Nadvi states in his Kkayyam ('A~amgarh, 1933, p. 288) that the following quatrain is attributed to 'Umar in the Bombay edition (p. 51) of the QabUs Nama (composed in 475/ 1082):

S I,$J)' J "j- jl J ~ J~ 1,$1 S I,$J.J~ IJI) jkJ ,:r,Ub j.J tJ "j- .;I .J ~Ji- W O~~ j' S I,$J)' jl ~ W j 4I.}

But I have been unable to find it in the 1'ehran edition (J312 Shamsi) of the QabUs Nama, which is edited from a MS. dated 7501 1349. Similarly, Dr. E. Edwards, who is editing the Qab'tU Nama for the Gibb Memorial Series, has boon unable to find it in any ol~

81 )

82

codex of the work and considers it to be an interpolation (Bompis, Beitriige zur Qayyam.Forsckung, p. 88 n 1).

P. 30, I. ll. Dr. Csillik has published the text of nine Ruba'iyat MSS. in his Le8 Manuscrits Mineurs des Ruba'iyat de 'Omar Kkayyaffl dansla BibliotkCq'Ue NatiOMle (Szeged~ 1933). The MSS. included in Dr. Csillik's edition are:-

(i) Suppl. Pers. 1777 (dated 1448, A.D.) 56 quatrains,
(ii) " .. 826 (dated 1540·41, A.D.) 75 "
(iii) " " 745 (begin. of 16th c., A.D.) 8
(iv) " " 793 (end of 16th c., A.D.) 6 "
(v) .. " 1481 (16th century, A.D.) 34 ..
(vi) .. .. 1425 (middle of 16th c., A.D.) 60 "
(vii) .. " 1817 (17th century, A.D.) 28 "
(viii) " " 1327 (1819, A.D.) 31 "
(ix) " " 1458 (1851·52, A.D.) 95 .. He has also published the text of three more MSS. in his The Principal Manuscripts of the Rubd'iydt of 'Umar.i.Kkayydm in the Bibliotkeque NutiOMle, Paris, Vol. I, (Szeged, 1934). Theyare:-

(i) Suppl. Pers. 1417 (1475, A.D.) 268quatrailUl.

(ii) Anc. Fonds 349 (1497, A.D.) 213 "

(iii) Suppl. Pers, 823 (1528, A.D.) .. 349 "

Of the above twelve MSS., Suppl. Pers. Nos. 1417, 823 and 826 and Anc. Fonds 349 were available to Dr. Christensen.

P. 34, I. 21. Dr. Csillik has published the text of 56 quatrains of this MS. (Suppl, Pers, 1777) in his Lee Manuscrits Mineurs, but the text of the remaining 47 Ruba'is, occurring on foil. 326a-328a of this MS., is yet to be published.

P. 34, l. 27. The MS. is in the NatiOMlbibliotkeque Wien and the Ruba'is are on foIl. 249a-252b. The MS. was copied in 855/1451.

P. 34, I. 28. The Istambul MSS. of the Ruba'iytit are:-

(i) A MS., copied at Shira.z in 861/1456 preserved in the 'Aya Sufiya. Library (foIl. 194b-206b), comprising 139 quatrains, (ii) A MS. copied in 865/1460, preserved in the Nur 'Uthmaniya Library (foil. Ib-66b), containing 313 quatrains,

(iii) A MS., executed by Yar ~ma.d ibn Huaayn ar-Rashldl in R67/1462 (foIl. Ib-75a), preserved in the Nur 'Utbmaniya Library, containing 372 quatrains.

(iv) A MS. (of Lama'at of 'Iraqi), copied in llbu'l Qa'da 876/1472 . (foil. 39b-82a) preserved in the Sulaimaniya Library, eontaining 336 quatrains.

83

P. 35, 1. 2. The publication of Dr. C. H. Rempis's 'Omar Ohajjdm und Beine Vierzeiler (Tiibingen, 1935) and Beitriige zur (Jayydm FarsMung (Leipzig, 1937) constitute a most important contribution to 'Oma.ria.n literature during the present decade. Dr. Rempis has discussed the question of the identification of the RuM' ;'yat and of the' Wa.ndering Quatrains' and other allied subjects in a comprehensive manner. He has also brought to light the existence of another valuable codex of 'Umar's RvlJd';'ydt, dated 731/1331, which is ten years older than Jajarmi's Mu'nis.ul-AlJrdr (741/1340). The RuM'ia of 'Uma.r-31 in number-a.re included in a MS. of Nuzhat-ul-Majdlis fi'l Ash'dr of Isma.'il Ibn Isfandiydr Ibn MuJ:tammad Isfandiyar, dated 25th Shawwal, 731 A.H. It is preserved in the Jarullah Library, Istambul. Dr. Rempis has very kindly sent me a transcript of the RvlJd'ia.

Another valuable colleotion of 11 RuM'is of 'Umar-i-Khayyam has been discovered in a Majmu'a (or a manuscript of ' mixed contents ') of Abul Fa4l MuQ.ammad bin MaJ:tmiid bin 'Ali bin Sadid bin Al}.mad, dated Jumada I, 750 A.H. (July, 1349), preserved in the Kitabkhana-i-Majlis (No. 9011 of that Library), ~ehran, 'Aqa. Sa'id Nafisi has published the Text in the Bharq of Rabi' I, 1350 A.H. I am grateful to my friend Mr. Madan Murad La.! Saxena of Lucknow for sending me a transcript of the RuM'is. They are published here in Appendix B. Of the 11 RuM'is in that collection, NOB. 4, 6, 10 and 11 correspond with Nos. 3, 181, 105, 183 of our manuscript.

P. 65, 1. 7. Text: ..rJi. P. 70, 1. 2. Text: .JJ):

IX. APPENDIX A.

TEXT OF THE Ruhri'tyat OF 'UMAR-I-KHAyyAM.

From Taqi Kashi's Kkuld~at-ul Ask'ar wa Zubdat-ul A.fMr (Oriental Public Library, Patna, MS. No. 684).

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r (2)

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85

~ (4)
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86

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87

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" (16)

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~\J ~ u:.JJ tJJ ';;;;tJ vS

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" v-J.J ' J.... ~

X. APPENDIX B.

TEXT OF THE RuM'€yat OF 'UMAR-I-KHAyyAM. From a Majmu'a (or a manuscript of' mixed contents') of Abul Fa<:ll Mul,lammad bin Mahmud bin 'Ali bin Sadid bin A1,lmad, dated Jumada I, 750 A.H. (July, 1349), preserved in the Kitabkhana-i Majlis, Tehran.

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_ I.Y JJ~ I!: of.

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yo (3)

(1)

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y (2)

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t (4)

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1 Text ,:,1).

2 Text ..Y. L (i .

( 89 )

90

D (5)

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, (6)

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V (7)

" (8)

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\ (9)

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, . (10)
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• ..1. • J •• 91

" (11)

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f-.)~' J.I""; L- yl_';' j :r.?- ./. .,sj.JJ [l; oS.JJ oJ.:- t..r. 0;_ti'

The compiler attributes the following well-known RuM,'?, usually attributed to 'Umar-i-Khayyam, to his ~ousin ( ( ~, ) Majd-ud-Din;-

~ rts" 51 ..::...o~ (,j.f ~ ib J.: .J .;Iy. iJ£..J ~

XI. FACSIMILE

OF THJ<J ~IANUSCRIPT (PLATES I TO LVII)

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