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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
June to 25th
This is to certify that PRATEEK JAIN(08BEE110), student of 2008-2012
Batch of Electrical & Electronics Branch in 2nd
Year of Vellore Institute of
Technology, Vellore has successfully completed his industrial training at
Badarpur Thermal Power Station- NTPC, New Delhi for four weeks from
May to 26th
June 2010. He has completed the whole training as per the
training report submitted by him.
Badarpur Thermal Power Station
NTPC, Badarpur New Delhi.
Table of Contents
2. About the Company
3. Thermal Power Plant
4. Electricity Generation Process
7. Control & Instrumentation
With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to
complete the training here. I express gratitude to the Program Manager and other
faculty members of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Department of SELECT
of Vellore Institute of Technology for providing this opportunity to undergo
industrial training at National Thermal Power Corporation, Badarpur, New Delhi.
I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Ms. Rachna Singh Bhal for providing me this
opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization.
I am extremely grateful to Mr. G.D.Sharma, Superintendent of Im-Plant Training
at BTPS-NTPC, Badarpur for his guidance during whole training.
I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS-NTPC for their co-
operation and guidance that helped me a lot during the course of training. I have
learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this
value addition in me.
Finally, I am indebted to all whosoever have contributed in this report work and
friendly stay at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, Badarpur, New Delhi.
ABOUT THE COMPANY
³A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth with increasing
B- Business ethics
C- Customer focus
O- Organizational & professional pride
M- Mutual respect & trust
I- Innovation & speed
T- Total quality for excellence
NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India, Public
Sector Company. It was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power
development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of
India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of
the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and
others. Within a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power
company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.
NTPC's core business is engineering, construction and operation of power
generating plants and providing consultancy to power utilities in India and abroad.
The total installed capacity of the company is 31134 MW (including JVs) with 15
coal based and 7 gas based stations, located across the country. In addition under
JVs, 3 stations are coal based & another station uses naphtha/LNG as fuel. By
2017, the power generation portfolio is expected to have a diversified fuel mix
with coal based capacity of around 53000 MW, 10000 MW through gas, 9000 MW
through Hydro generation, about 2000 MW from nuclear sources and around 1000
MW from Renewable Energy Sources (RES). NTPC has adopted a multi-pronged
growth strategy which includes capacity addition through green field projects,
expansion of existing stations, joint ventures, subsidiaries and takeover of stations.
NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the
company has 18.79% of the total national capacity it contributes 28.60% of total
power generation due to its focus on high efficiency. NTPC¶s share at 31 Mar 2001
of the total installed capacity of the country was 24.51% and it generated 29.68%
of the power of the country in 2008-09. Every fourth home in India is lit by NTPC.
170.88BU of electricity was produced by its stations in the financial year 2005-
2006. The Net Profit after Tax on March 31, 2006 was INR 58,202 million. Net
Profit after Tax for the quarter ended June 30, 2006 was INR 15528 million, which
is 18.65% more than for the same quarter in the previous financial year. 2005).
Pursuant to a special resolution passed by the Shareholders at the Company¶s
Annual General Meeting on September 23, 2005 and the approval of the Central
Government under section 21 of the Companies Act, 1956, the name of the
Company "National Thermal Power Corporation Limited" has been changed to
"NTPC Limited" with effect from October 28, 2005. The primary reason for this is
the company's foray into hydro and nuclear based power generation along with
backward integration by coal mining.
A graphical overview
R S Sharma, Chairman & Managing Director
INR 416.37 billion (2008)
INR 70.47 billion (2008)
´A world class integrated power major, powering India's
growth with increasing global presence.µ
Develop and provide reliable power related products and services at
competitive prices, integrating multiple energy resources with
innovative & Eco-friendly technologies and contribution to the society.
Introduction of steam generators (boilers) of the size of 800 MW
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology
Launch of Energy Technology Centre -A new initiative for development of
technologies with focus on fundamental R&D
The company sets aside up to 0.5% of the profits for R&D
Roadmap developed for adopting µClean Development
Mechanism¶ to help get / earn µCertified Emission Reduction
Corporate Social Responsibility
As a responsible corporate citizen NTPC has taken up number of CSR
NTPC Foundation formed to address Social issues at national level
NTPC has framed Corporate Social Responsibility Guidelines committing
up to 0.5% of net profit annually for Community Welfare
The welfare of project affected persons and the local population around
NTPC projects are taken care of through well drawn Rehabilitation and
The company has also taken up distributed generation for remote rural areas
Partnering government in various initiatives
Consultant role to modernize and improvise several plants across the country
Disseminate technologies to other players in the sector
Consultant role ³Partnership in Excellence´ Programme for improvement of
PLF of 15 Power Stations of SEBs.
Rural Electrification work under Rajiv Gandhi Garmin Vidyutikaran
All stations of NTPC are ISO 14001 certified
Various groups to care of environmental issues
The Environment Management Group
Ash Utilization Division
Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection
Group on Clean Development Mechanism
NTPC is the second largest owner of trees in the country after the Forest
JOURNEY OF NTPC
NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the
Government of India. In the last 30 years, NTPC has grown
into the largest power utility in India.
In 1997, Government of India granted NTPC status of
³Navratna¶ being one of the nine jewels of India, enhancing
the powers to the Board of Directors.
NTPC became a listed company with majority Government
ownership of 89.5%.
NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalization of
The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its
changing business portfolio and transforms itself from a
thermal power utility to an integrated power utility.
National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power
generation company in India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008
ranked it 411th in the world.
National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power
generation company in India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008
ranked it 317th in the world.
NTPC has also set up a plan to achieve a target of 50,000
MW generation capacity.
NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75,000 MW
company by 2017.
NTPC is the largest power utility in India, accounting for about 20% of India¶s
THEMAL POWER PLANT
Power Station (also referred to as generating station or power plant) is an industrial
facility for the generation of electric power. Power plant is also used to refer to the
engine in ships, aircraft and other large vehicles. Some prefer to use the term
energy center because it more accurately describes what the plants do, which is the
conversion of other forms of energy, like chemical energy, gravitational potential
energy or heat energy into electrical energy. However, power plant is the most
common term in the U.S., while elsewhere power station and power plant are both
widely used, power station prevailing in many Commonwealth countries and
especially in the United Kingdom.
A coal-fired Thermal Power Plant
At the center of nearly all power stations is a generator, a rotating machine that
converts Mechanical energy into Electrical energy by creating relative motion
between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy source harnessed to turn the
generator varies widely. It depends chiefly on what fuels are easily available and
the types of technology that the power company has access to.
In thermal power stations, mechanical power is produced by a heat engine, which
transforms Thermal energy (often from combustion of a fuel) into rotational
energy. Most thermal power stations produce steam, and these are sometimes
called steam power stations. About 80% of all electric power is generated by use of
steam turbines. Not all thermal energy can be transformed to mechanical power,
according to the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore, there is always heat
lost to the environment. If this loss is employed as useful heat, for industrial
processes or district heating, the power plant is referred to as a cogeneration power
plant or CHP (combined heat-and-power) plant. In countries where district heating
is common, there are dedicated heat plants called heat-only boiler stations. An
important class of power stations in the Middle East uses by-product heat for
desalination of water.
Nuclear power plants use a nuclear reactor's heat to operate a steam turbine
Fossil fuelled power plants may also use a steam turbine generator or in the case
of natural gas fired plants may use a combustion turbine.
Geothermal power plants use steam extracted from hot underground rocks.
Renewable energy plants may be fuelled by waste from sugar cane, municipal
solid waste, landfill methane, or other forms of biomass.
In integrated steel mills, blast furnace exhaust gas is a low-cost, although low-
energy density, fuel.
Waste heat from industrial processes is occasionally concentrated enough to use
for power generation, usually in a steam boiler and turbine.
By prime mover
Steam turbine plants use the dynamic pressure generated by expanding steam to
turn the blades of a turbine. Almost all large non-hydro plants use this system.
Gas turbine plants use the dynamic pressure from flowing gases to directly
operate the turbine. Natural-gas fuelled turbine plants can start rapidly and so are
used to supply "peak" energy during periods of high demand, though at higher cost
than base-loaded plants. These may be comparatively small units, and sometimes
completely unmanned, being remotely operated. This type was pioneered by the
UK, Prince town being the world's first, commissioned in 1959.
Combined cycle plants have both a gas turbine fired by natural gas, and a steam
boiler and steam turbine which use the exhaust gas from the gas turbine to produce
electricity. This greatly increases the overall efficiency of the plant, and many new
base load power plants are combined cycle plants fired by natural gas.
Internal combustion Reciprocating engines are used to provide power for isolated
communities and are frequently used for small cogeneration plants. Hospitals,
office buildings, industrial plants, and other critical facilities also use them to
provide backup power in case of a power outage. These are usually fuelled by
diesel oil, heavy oil, natural gas and landfill gas.
Micro turbines, Sterling engine and internal combustion reciprocating engines are
low cost solutions for using opportunity fuels, such as landfill gas, digester gas
from water treatment plants and waste gas from oil production.
In a thermal power plant, one of coal, oil or natural gas is used to heat the boiler to
convert the water into steam. The steam is used to turn a turbine, which is
connected to a generator. When the turbine turns, electricity is generated and given
as output by the generator, which is then supplied to the consumers through high-
voltage power lines.
Process of a Thermal Power Plant
Detailed process of power generation in a thermal power plant:
1) Water intake: Firstly, water is taken into the boiler through a water source. If
water is available in a plenty in the region, then the source is an open pond or river.
If water is scarce, then it is recycled and the same water is used over and over
2) Boiler heating: The boiler is heated with the help of oil, coal or natural gas. A
furnace is used to heat the fuel and supply the heat produced to the boiler. The
increase in temperature helps in the transformation of water into steam.
3) Steam Turbine: The steam generated in the boiler is sent through a steam
turbine. The turbine has blades that rotate when high velocity steam flows across
them. This rotation of turbine blades is used to generate electricity.
4) Generator: A generator is connected to the steam turbine. When the turbine
rotates, the generator produces electricity which is then passed on to the power
5) Special mountings: There is some other equipment like the economizer and air
An economizer uses the heat from the exhaust gases to heat the feed water. An air
pre-heater heats the air sent into the combustion chamber to improve the efficiency
of the combustion process.
6) Ash collection system: There is a separate residue and ash collection system in
place to collect all the waste materials from the combustion process and to prevent
them from escaping into the atmosphere.
Apart from this, there are various other monitoring systems and instruments in
place to keep track of the functioning of all the devices. This prevents any hazards
from taking place in the plant.
Steam Generator or Boiler
The operating performance of NTPC has been considerably above the national
average. The availability factor for coal stations has increased from 85.03 % in
1997-98 to 90.09 % in 2006-07, which compares favourably with international
standards. The PLF has increased from 75.2% in 1997-98 to 89.4% during the year
2006-07 which is the highest since the inception of NTPC.
Operation Room of Power Plant
In Badarpur Thermal Power Station, steam is produced and used to spin a turbine
that operates a generator. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam
turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the
steam is condensed in a condenser; this is known as a Rankine cycle. Shown here
is a diagram of a conventional thermal power plant, which uses coal, oil, or natural
gas as fuel to boil water to produce the steam. The electricity generated at the plant
is sent to consumers through high-voltage power lines.
The Badarpur Thermal Power Plant has Steam Turbine-Driven Generators which
has a collective capacity of 705MW.
The fuel being used is Coal which is supplied from the Jharia Coal Field in
Water supply is given from the Agra Canal.
Table: Capacity of Badarpur Thermal Power Station, (BTPS) New Delhi
There are basically three main units of a thermal power plant:
1. Steam Generator or Boiler
2. Steam Turbine
3. Electric Generator
We have discussed about the processes of electrical generation further. A complete
detailed description of two (except 2) units is given further.
Coal is conveyed (14) from an external stack and ground to a very fine powder by
large metal spheres in the pulverised fuel mill (16). There it is mixed with
preheated air (24) driven by the forced draught fan (20). The hot air-fuel mixture is
forced at high pressure into the boiler where it rapidly ignites. Water of a high
purity flows vertically up the tube-lined walls of the boiler, where it turns into
steam, and is passed to the boiler drum, where steam is separated from any
remaining water. The steam passes through a manifold in the roof of the drum into
the pendant super heater (19) where its temperature and pressure increase rapidly
to around 200 bar and 540°C,
sufficient to make the tube walls glow a dull red. The steam is piped to the high
pressure turbine (11), the first of a three-stage turbine process. A steam governor
valve (10) allows for both manual control of the turbine and automatic set-point
following. The steam is exhausted from the high pressure turbine, and reduced in
both pressure and temperature, is returned to the boiler reheater (21). The reheated
steam is then passed to the intermediate pressure turbine (9), and from there passed
directly to the low pressure turbine set (6). The exiting steam, now a little above its
boiling point, is brought into thermal contact with cold water (pumped in from the
Cooling tower) in the condenser (8), where it condenses rapidly back into water,
creating near vacuum-like conditions inside the condensor chest. The condensed
water is then passed by a feed pump (7) through a deaerator (12), and pre-warmed,
first in a feed heater (13) powered by steam drawn from the high pressure set, and
then in the economiser (23), before being returned
to the boiler drum. The cooling water from the condensor is sprayed inside a
cooling tower (1), creating a highly visible plume of water vapour, before being
pumped back to the condensor (8) in cooling water cycle. The three turbine sets are
sometimes coupled on the same shaft as the three-phase electrical generator (5)
which generates an intermediate level voltage (typically 20-25 kV). This is stepped
up by the unit transformer (4) to a voltage more suitable for transmission (typically
250-500 kV) and is sent out onto the three-phase transmission system (3). Exhaust
gas from the boiler is drawn by the induced draft fan (26) through an electrostatic
precipitator (25) and is then vented through the chimney stack (27).
The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m)
tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60
mm) in diameter. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at
the four corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the center. The
thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water
that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water
circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically
driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes
into steam at 700 °F (370 °C) and 3,200 psi (22.1MPa). It is separated from the
water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced
into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases
as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 °F (540 °C) to
prepare it for the turbine. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the
high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the
electrical generator. The generator includes the economizer, the steam drum, the
chemical dosing equipment, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and
the superheater coils. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid
excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft
(FD) fan, air preheater (APH), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash
collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack.
For units over about 210 MW capacity, redundancy of key components is provided
by installing duplicates of the FD fan, APH, fly ash collectors and ID fan with
isolating dampers. On some units of about 60 MW, two boilers per unit may
instead be provided.
Schematic diagram of a coal-fired power plant steam generator
Boiler Furnace and Steam Drum
Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent
heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the
water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel.
The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the
economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water
enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall
headers. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is
eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by
the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). As the water is
turned into steam/vapour in the water walls, the steam/vapour once again enters the
External View of an Industrial Boiler at BTPS, New Delhi
The steam/vapour is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then
dryers inside the steam drum. The steam separators and dryers remove the water
droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. This
process is known as natural circulation. The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment
includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and
observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior.
Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout
are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting
the coal. The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air
vents and drains needed for initial start-up. The steam drum has an internal device
that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam
generating tubes. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. Geothermal
plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. Heat
exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains
excessive suspended solids. Nuclear plants also boil water to raise steam, either
directly passing the working steam through the reactor or else using an
intermediate heat exchanger.
Fuel Preparation System
In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first
crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers.
The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverisers may be ball
mills, rotating drum grinders, or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn
fuel oil rather than coal. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel
oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming unpumpable.
The oil is usually heated to about 100°C before being pumped through the furnace
fuel oil spray nozzles.
Boiler Side of the Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi
Boilers in some power stations use processed natural gas as their main fuel. Other
power stations may use processed natural gas as auxiliary fuel in the event that
their main fuel supply (coal or oil) is interrupted. In such cases, separate gas
burners are provided on the boiler furnaces.
Fuel Firing System and Igniter System
From the pulverized coal bin, coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal
burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to
enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air
and thus to enhance the combustion. To provide sufficient combustion temperature
in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal, the furnace temperature is raised
by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural gas (by using auxiliary
burners and igniters provide for that purpose).
External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The forced draft
fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warming it in the air preheater for
better combustion, injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall. The induced
draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace,
maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through
any opening. At the furnace outlet and before the furnace gases are handled by the
ID fan, fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric
pollution. This is an environmental limitation prescribed by law, and additionally
minimizes erosion of the ID fan.
Fly Ash Collection
Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or
fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before
the induced draft fan. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection
hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. Generally, the fly ash is
pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or
Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal
At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the
bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water
to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Some arrangement is
included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom
ash to a storage site.
Boiler Make-up Water Treatment Plant and Storage
Since there is continuous withdrawal of steam and continuous return of condensate
to the boiler, losses due to blow-down and leakages have to be made up for so as to
maintain the desired water level in the boiler steam drum. For this, continuous
make-up water is added to the boiler water system. The impurities in the raw water
input to the plant generally consist of calcium and magnesium salts which impart
hardness to the water. Hardness in the make-up water to the boiler will form
deposits on the tube water surfaces which will lead to overheating and failure of
the tubes. Thus, the salts have to be removed from the water and that is done by a
Water Demineralising Treatment Plant (DM).
Ash Handling System at Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi
A DM plant generally consists of cation, anion and mixed bed exchangers. The
final water from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide
ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. The DM water, being very
pure, becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere
because of its very high affinity for oxygen absorption. The capacity of the DM
plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. However,
some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. For this
purpose, a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously
withdrawn for boiler make-up. The storage tank for DM water is made from
materials not affected by corrosive water, such as PVC. The piping and valves are
generally of stainless steel. Sometimes, a steam blanketing arrangement or
stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid
contact with atmospheric air. DM water make-up is generally added at the steam
space of the surface condenser (i.e., the vacuum side). This arrangement not only
sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated, with the dissolved gases being
removed by the ejector of the condenser itself.
The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work
satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment
generally has a heavy, large diameter shaft. The shaft therefore requires not only
supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimize the
frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings. The bearing
shells, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt
metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and
bearing surface and to limit the heat generated.
A 95 MW Generator at BTPS, New Delhi
Barring Gear (or Turning Gear)
Barring gear is the term used for the mechanism provided for rotation of the
turbine generator shaft at a very low speed (about one revolution per minute) after
unit stoppages for any reason. Once the unit is "tripped" (i.e., the turbine steam
inlet valve is closed), the turbine starts slowing or "coasting down". When it stops
completely, there is a tendency for the turbine shaft to deflect or bend if allowed to
remain in one position too long. This deflection is because the heat inside the
turbine casing tends to concentrate in the top half of the casing, thus making the
top half portion of the shaft hotter than the bottom half. The shaft therefore warps
or bends by millionths of inches, only detectable by monitoring eccentricity
meters. But this small amount of shaft deflection would be enough to cause
vibrations and damage the entire steam turbine generator unit when it is restarted.
Therefore, the shaft is not permitted to come to a complete stop by a mechanism
known as "turning gear" or "barring gear" that automatically takes over to rotate
the unit at a preset low speed. If the unit is shut down for major maintenance, then
the barring gear must be kept in service until the temperatures of the casings and
bearings are sufficiently low.
The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is
circulated through the tubes. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine
enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing
over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. Such condensers use steam
ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases
from the steam side to maintain vacuum. A Typical Water Cooled Condenser
For best efficiency, the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as
practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam.
Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below
C where the vapour pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure,
the condenser generally works under vacuum. Thus leaks of noncondensible air
into the closed loop must be prevented. Plants operating in hot climates may have
to reduce output if their source of condenser cooling water becomes warmer;
unfortunately this usually coincides with periods of high electrical demand for air
conditioning. The condenser generally uses either circulating cooling water from a
cooling tower to reject waste heat to the atmosphere, or once-through water from a
river, lake or ocean.
A typical water cooled condensor
A Rankine cycle with a two-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater heater. In
the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler, the
surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam as it
changes states from vapour to liquid. The heat content (btu) in the steam is referred
to as Enthalpy. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a
feedwater heater. The feedwater heating equipment then raises the temperature of
the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine.
Preheating the feedwater reduces the irreversibility¶s involved in steam generation
and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system. This reduces
plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal
when the feedwater is introduced back into the steam cycle.
A Rankine cycle with a 2-stage steam turbine and a single feedwater
As the steam is conditioned by the drying equipment inside the drum, it is piped
from the upper drum area into an elaborate set up of tubing in different areas of the
boiler. The areas known as superheater and reheater. The steam vapour picks up
energy and its temperature is now superheated above the saturation temperature.
The superheated steam is then piped through the main steam lines to the valves of
the high pressure turbine.
A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of
air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in order to avoid
corrosion of the metal. Generally, power stations use a deaerator to provide for the
removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feedwater. A deaerator
typically includes a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top of a
horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as the deaerated boiler feedwater storage
Boiler Feed Water Deaerator
There are many different designs for a deaerator and the designs will vary from
one manufacturer to another. The adjacent diagram depicts a typical conventional
trayed deaerator. If operated properly, most deaerator manufacturers will guarantee
that oxygen in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm3/L).
An auxiliary oil system pump is used to supply oil at the start-up of the steam
turbine generator. It supplies the hydraulic oil system required for steam turbine's
main inlet steam stop valve, the governing control valves, the bearing and seal oil
systems, the relevant hydraulic relays and other mechanisms. At a preset speed of
the turbine during start-ups, a pump driven by the turbine main shaft takes over the
functions of the auxiliary system.
Generator Heat Dissipation
The electricity generator requires cooling to dissipate the heat that it generates.
While small units may be cooled by air drawn through filters at the inlet, larger
units generally require special cooling arrangements. Hydrogen gas cooling, in an
oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient
of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces windage losses. This system
requires special handling during start-up, with air in the chamber first displaced by
carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly
flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. The hydrogen pressure
inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid
outside air ingress. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where
the shaft emerges from the casing. Mechanical seals around the shaft are installed
with a very small annular gap to avoid rubbing between the shaft and the seals.
Seal oil is used to prevent the hydrogen gas leakage to atmosphere. The generator
also uses water cooling. Since the generator coils are at a potential of about
15.75kV and water is conductive, an insulating barrier such as Teflon is used to
interconnect the water line and the generator high voltage windings. Demineralised
water of low conductivity is used.
Generator High Voltage System
The generator voltage ranges from 10.5 kV in smaller units to 15.75 kV in larger
units. The generator high voltage leads are normally large aluminum channels
because of their high current as compared to the cables used in smaller machines.
They are enclosed in well-grounded aluminum bus ducts and are supported on
suitable insulators. The generator high voltage channels are connected to step-up
transformers for connecting to a high voltage electrical substation (of the order of
220 kV) for further transmission by the local power grid. The necessary protection
and metering devices are included for the high voltage leads. Thus, the steam
turbine generator and the transformer form one unit. In smaller units, generating at
10.5kV, a breaker is provided to connect it to a common 10.5 kV bus system.
Monitoring and Alarm system
Most of the power plant¶s operational controls are automatic. However, at times,
manual intervention may be required. Thus, the plant is provided with monitors
and alarm systems that alert the plant operators when certain operating parameters
are seriously deviating from their normal range.
Battery Supplied Emergency Lighting & Communication
A central battery system consisting of lead acid cell units is provided to supply
emergency electric power, when needed, to essential items such as the power
plant's control systems, communication systems, turbine lube oil pumps, and
emergency lighting. This is essential for safe, damage-free shutdown of the units in
an emergency situation.
ELECTRICITY GENERATION PROCESS
(A BASIC OVERVIEW)
HOW ELECTRICITY IS GENERATED?
Thermal power station burns fuel and uses the resultant heat to raise steam which
drives the TURBO GENERATOR. The fuel may be µfossil¶(coal,oil,natural gas) or
it may be fissionable, whichever fuel is used, the objective is same to convert the
mechanical energy into electricity by rotating a magnet inside a set of winding.
COAL TO STAEM
Its other raw materials are air and water. The coal brought to the station by trains
or by other means, travels handling plant by conveyer belts, travels from
pulverizing mills, which grind it as fine as the face powder of size upto 20 microns.
The finely produced coal mixed with preheated air is then blown into the boiler by
a fan called primary air fan where it burns more like a gas than as a solid, in the
conventional domestic or industrial grate, with additional amount of air, called
secondary air supply, by forced draft fan.
As coal is ground so finally the resultant ash is also a fine powder. Some of it binds
together to form pumps, which falls into ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. The
water-quenched ash from the bottom is conveyed to pits for subsequent disposal or
sale. Most of ash, still in fine partical form is carried out of boilers to the
precipitator as dust, where electrodes charged with high voltage electricity trap it.
The dust is then conveyed to water to disposal area or to bunker for sale while the
clean flue gases are passed on through IP fans to be discharged through chimneys.
The heat released from the coal has been absorbed by the many kilometers tubing
which line the boiler walls. Inside the tubes the boiler feed water, which is
transformed by heat into staemat high temperature and pressure.. The steam
superheated in further tubes (superheaters) passes to turbine where it is discharged
through the nozzle on the turbine blades. Just as the energy of wind turns the sail of
the windmill, the energy of steam striking the blade makes the turbine rotate.
Coupled to the end of the turbine is the rotor of the generator. The rotor is housed
inside the stator having heavy coils of the bars in which electricity is produced
through the movement of magnetic field created by the rotor. Electricity passes
from stator windings to step-up transformer which increases its voltage so that it
can be transmited efficiently over lines of grid.
The staem which has given up its heat energy is cahnged back into water in a
condenser so that it is ready for re-use. The condenser contains many kilometers of
tubing through which cold water is constantly pumped. The staem passing around
the tubes looses heat.Thus it is rapidly changed back into water.
But, the two lots of water, that is, the boiler feed and cooling water must never
mix. Cooling water is drawn from river- bed, but the boiler feed water must be
absolutely pure, far purer than the water we drink (de-mineralized water),
otherwise it may damage the boiler tubes.
My summer training of 4 weeks (31st
May ± 25th
June) has been
scheduled as follows:
EMD-I (Electrical Maintenance Department-I)--- 1 week
EMD-II (Electrical Maintenance Department-II)--- 1 week
C & I(Control & Instrumentation)--- 2 weeks
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