Mukhiasar Minhaj Al-Qasidin

(Towards 'he: Hereatter)

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'Trans]ated by:

Wa'il · ... A. Shllob

Revised by Sa"id Farm

Da Al-Manarah'

For Translation, Publ! ~·h.i'ng,& Distribution

© Dar A"I- Manarah for Trsnslarion, 'Publisoing &. :OiS'ttibution 1422 AHi 2002 AC

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ii

Chapte r [One: ACTS [O'F WORSHIP I. n. nr.

IV.

v

PtiJ.rificaJ!iom .d. Salah .!! •• " •• ,,' i " , ." ••••• '. , •• "" , •• , •• ,i •• '·i -. '. ,.

15 24

Siyam

31

V'I! H~ ,t; ";;'I"!I-~'E !!''!-'!l'!!-,,!,,! .. ,iI i,';,';"" Ii !Ii Ii· !I! oIi Ii I''''I!!! !fjl! 1!!1~,iI iI.lli .. ."i r.'tIlli "!hI!! 1'!Io'!! !I'''!!'!' !-~rf!''; iii,. i" iI1:1i·Ii·,'1j III' 35

VI. T.he Glorious Qor~,all ,." i e ee e ••• , i.·, 40

V:Ir.. Dhikr and Du "'Q" .'" •••••.••.•• , •••• , ••• ,." ••• i".',~ ••••. ,., •••• !, •.• , •• ,i,i •• , •••.•• 46,

Cbaptel' [Two: CUSTOMS .· ·., " ,·i.'· ••• , ••••• ,' ••• " 72

L Serving .Food, Sbaring It, and :Hospimn~ ." ... " .. , .. '!-!I "'" 73· n .. ID. IV~.

Vii

79[ ,5[6

'62

Earning Liv;eliliood and Subsistenoe . '" '" ., '" '" .. Iii" ... ,." .....

Th.e Lawful ,and Itbe Prohibited .u ",! .. _! '!" ."'.'.,,."'

Pri,endship and Brotherhocd "uil', n'''.nH.~i .• 'i~ ~ .• ''' •• i. 103

Vl. MOi,[WS o[f Traveling .i,., •• , .. ,. .••. , ••.• ',.! ...... , ••••• " ••• '., ••••• !.,.', •. ~ ••• 12~6

·VII. Commanding the Ri.ght and Forbiddingfhe

W '1. -:-.8:','

. L' "',:]to:ng ,.·.' .. 'ii i'iII-lii'i-'li'!!i !-""": ' , i·. i!'~.t;,,,, 1iI!.1I; !I. III •• 1 ••• ,.r-. .'''''''!i'~of! !!>+'! .00; .. , •• I'''. lIi,riI"!I, ~

vm i Customary E,vi]s~ and [Cornmaodhlg Rulers to Do

Good and Forbid ~rong i.,; ••••• ! •••••••• ! , •• , a •• ! .

IX. Manners of me PF'op:het " .. ! , i •• i,," •.••• ' •••.• ' •••••• i •••• , •• ! •••• -

iU.

Ckapter' Three:: DESTRU;CTIYE ·FLAW,sU+i' .... ii[ .. 160

Iii' Wi'tttim 'me Heart 'I!!!'!' If. '1i·!II:I I,'" , •• ,." rio !!' "!! !t.!@! of! I- ~ 'Ii i' Ii,. iiiillllll!! I." ti •• !II Iii I, .. ,. iil" I,_!·!!' .!. ,Ii iii I. ill ,Ii .I61

D.. Spbitual Exercise for the Soul, G[R'inin,g Good.

MOlr,alily,. and Remedyingdle HeaR Diseases , " .. 167

Ill, The Appetite, of Eating and D1l'iDlkim;g and 'dIe

Sexual Appetite .' .... , ... i·.,i ••••• !'. ~ ••• ,.,. , ••• ,. ".' '.·1 ••• ' •• · ••. i .,. !' 51 ., e e . ! 51' 1'191

'IV, The FJa,w'S P[ermining: to the TOQg-ue U .... i, ••••••• ! •••••• , ••••• ,. 1;82

v, '" AnilJ'[e'r M' _11"..,V· .1i'1i·1~ and P'u'VY' 196' ,

b'" ",I ~~ 'U,!l''''''',I.~~,' WI,: I:t" ....... !''!''!!!!!''I''! iI':tI:E" ii, '" ,ii ii'''''',!,~I!!'I!!'~'f. it. !fI1IiI1,tl,. ,_ .. ' ..

Vl, Jah (Pr-ondnefJce [and Prestige) and ,Rzya ~ (Ostenmtion. and, Leving to Be Seen 'by People):

Analysis [and, Remedy. " ... , ..... ! ••••••• ,. i'l! •.•.• ,. .• ' ••• " •• i '0 ...... '1"." " 21.9

VII. Pr.ide ~ A:rr03ance,~ ,and Self-admiration ·i •• ,i ••• i •• ' •••••••••• 23 m

ChaptEr Four: MEANS OF SALVATION' ·i,~m •• '."'''''"' 245

Ill' 'Repe-nrtance ~!o'l! !!'''lIi'~llIIli i'" til .'111'1 !!l~.f! 11~"'<i II !Ii iI,iIi",i • '!'! 'I'! !!-!!'!!'ff.".· ... fli i ihil i """ •• if'I!!Iii 1'!t!'.',,'.·!I'!Ii '246

0,;. Patience aad G'Ia.t.i,wde .• !' •• ' ·i· •• 0 " ' ••••••• 0 ••• i ., • ' ••• " .••• " 2.73·

,m. Hope artd Fear , .. i· •• ,i , •••••••• , ••• , ••••• 'I • I ••. , .,' ••• ". ,i, I, 3()6

IV.. Asceticism aad Poverty . ' ,. i" m.' •• .,. '" •.•• '. ••.•.••• ::l3,1

V. Oneness of Allah and Trust in R·lm .... ,"" "_,, ! ••• I· ••• " .... · ••• ,i'.' ••• 34,9

.v]. " ,. .... d Pl "oiL A' )-I""·fI.,. '3-'57

.", '!I' Love 811._' ,~ Icuure W'IY.l ",,", __ ~. !Ii .. llilllli,ii; ..... il~r!!!!!-II!!!liIJo;t;'I ... Ii'.'iJ!!Ii'i+!'i"ii •• ''!'~ ::, •. ' ....

VII. IlltentioDt Sincerity., and TruthtuJ.m.es,s . "0' i, ••• " ... " IU.'." , .• 383

·VIII.. Selr .. s:c.rotiDy " ' .. " i, ", • '. " ••• , .' ~ ·i ,i ~ ' " " .. ,i i, i· •••.•• '!' 3,97

x. Rememberino Death [and, Life ,after It , .. ' ,4].3·

- ,;r,

[Glossuy of Arabic Tenus. .. ' ,' !' <PO 11" ~ n·... 4.54

T,auslatof"S Note.

Praise be '£0 AUab. We 'tbaolk Him, seek His Help and forgiveness. We seek remge in Allah, from 'the evi],s,whbin ourselves, and, that of our bad deeds, He 'whom AMab guides, is 'troly ,guided,~ and. whom be Allah 'leaves to s.tt3iy,~ none can g;uri,de him" I bear witness 'tbat there is no' god but AUaib and, mat Muhainmad is His final Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah 'be: upon brim).

In fact, the task of tr,anslatiom is not an easy one. 'Rmthert it :is a tremendous one, particu]ady when it is, related, to religion, So, I ask Allah to forgiv,e :my sins and dedicate tthis 'work for His, Sake.

Ho'wever ~ I w(ruld lite to draw Ute ,attellltion o,f the readers 'W the' f-oUowing pouus:

1 11l,h. translanon I is not ,,!:te' ijl';"~ 'O'-'II'N;I; Ra - ... ber '1',,,, "I: ill Ojli'lll

. !t; ,.,' ,Ia 'LII. !CUJJ.LIiJ.ta:u . ., .., ",' D .. ' ~ itP ._ .·,llll.~ io " ..' U!IJ." _ 'J. . n, .;]I lu.I:JI

abridged tJ~anslartion.,

2. The translation of .. he Qur'anlc verses are quoted, from, Yusuf ,,_ Ali" s tnm;stanon of' The' Holy QUT'an.

'1" When, I see ;it necessary b) clarify or comment on somethiD,g, I 'put. it between sequ.e brac,ketts:' [t. ] . .

4. The boot: in hand, Mukhtasar Minhaj Al:_Qasidin, is an abridged, version of ibm. ,AI-J.mwzi 's :summery of mmam. Abu 'Hamid Al .. Ghazali's well-known book, /hya' ",Ulum Atl~D!in,.,

'Finany" aD, praise :aJ]Jd thanks ,u,e due to . Allah, wilhouJt Whose help iUld guidance: n01li1ing: can, 'be: accomphsbed.

Tr,8nslaio:r

'U1 ,n iii. A. OI:,·L .......

"a' N' J:I.~ ~i'~

v

Preface

AU praise is, due to Allah and 'may peace and blessings, be' upan "line Messenger of .Allah., 'his family, Iris Companions, 'his. followers ,and those wbo d~s.semimue his call until rtbe~ Day of Judgment.

Today, MllIs,lims are (required 1;0 reflect on the e'ady nghteous MusUms;' works so as to improve' the modem world. "by means of authentic and sound theories ..

Therefore" Dar AI ... Maaarall worts hard. to 'translate the well-reputed works of me ea:dy dg;IJ.~eou:s, MllsUm. scholars [alld. tbilmters·. Mukhtasar Minha} A.l-Qaddin is one of 'dle,st important works .. So, we hope mat this book would promore a bener understanding, of Islam all over ·the world,

AlsO', we ask OUI' beloved readers to read ilhis valuable book vdth anenave 'minds so as EO get the 'benefit therefr-om"

Dar Al-·Manar.ab Director .M~ "Uthnum

vi

J,Dt~roduetjon

Praise be to .Allah., Who showets, His mercy 00 all His· servants, and guides His o~aient servanrs tome stf,ai,gflt. pad}., I test~fyiliat there is no ·g,od. hut Allah" dl~ OneWbo bas no partner, and 'that Muhammad is His Messenger and. se.rnmt" 0 AUahf B·lessour Prophet Mubammad and his -hooontble fam'Uy,:

When I read ibn .AI -Jawziyy' s Minhaj Al:"'Q'aS.idin, I found it very ben.efb:ial for' people, So, I decided Ito read U oneemore in order ·10 absorb its deep meanings. Yet, when re-adingil "f~)ir the second time, my adrrtiration for "it greatly increased ... I found. it so elaborate ma!t I liked, tooodine U. focusing on the: im_portamE points and obje:ct.ilv-es". In doing SO~ I len out. some topics, which are d~all 'wi·ili ID other famous books .. Also, .1 did not follow the order of the .ad,ginal book, and included some sddl·nonal Doles iba't. are necessary: Prophetic Ahadith and comments,

However, the authO'1 of Mz;nhqj A.I"QaJidm,~, i:bn AI-J a.wzi.yy~. says: Imam Al-IGmazal'i.·1 s llrja" .. ,UIlJm Ad~Din (The

R,', ·jf;:;:l" ..... ~ -'. f' ....... S·-·,' ,., ' o···r'· D, ·1": " .. ) 'Ik,. . , .... ...ifI"",~ ... ;10;:; ,ii.., ... t

:CV11iQ lZwlOD 0 UJ~e '.,~., C,lences ... , i Il\,e~ .Igmo . I ,lUas same· ~ ... ec~!,1~ .

onlIy scholars can realise, such asdJe narrations which have been traced ·b'·: ?~.c··k·, (to .. "'~ Prophet) w·k'il-· e·'· ":L.ey· are ... "abri-colled or

~Jj;1 ".;r.lH ~ __ .,,_ -_I .. ,. UL~ ,~l .. ' .1B;_,. 111 ~ .. 'U;),..c I. lIj_. _ ... , .A"_"_ I .',

·inaudl.en.tic. Therefore, I. have 'compiled a 'book free of those defects, and :r·etaining me' benefits ofthe~ orig mal book (lhyar). 1 this, book. I havereli.ed only on authentic. and fam_jQUs narrati.ons, and I deleted 'Crom or added £0 'dle origmal book wbat see:m·s necessary '.

This book is divided inu) four chapters as fuUows,::

Chap."er One': Acts or ·WorIsh.ip' Chapter 1Wo~. Customs

1

Chapter Four: :Means -of Salvation

Each one of these fOlll!f chapters OOll'StS'tS .of :oum,f'fOUS u:t1Jes . . and &I.b~tit1es ..

2

AC' TS"-' 0"F'" W' .. '0" RS:'" HI'" P .

. '., " .. ', •.. '" .'. .' ".". [ ' ·· _·'1, .. ~

I. Koo,,'I,edue ·Meri~,s. of Knowledge

Allah, :Most High, higbUghts dle merits of knowledge" saying,

(Say: are' those ,e:q,uai" those 'who know and those who do .1'101 know? It' is those who are e:.nduedwith unde:rstandi'ngthat receive admonil.io1:l.)

(Az-Zomar: 9)

(A.llah 'will raise :up',. to (s.u.i:table) "ants (and' degrees), those of you wh:o believe' and whO' have been granted (mystic)' knowledge.'

(AJ":M:ujadalah:' 11)

Commenting Oil ili.e above Qur~,anic verse, ibo (son of) "Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them 'boltb) said" "Sehelars w.iU have .higher degrees seven hnndr:ed. times than. the other believers; 'tile di.Sf311tt between each degree amd the other is Ii ve hundred years of marching" "

Moreover, AUai1,~ Most High,., says,

(Those truly lea., Allah, an,long His $e1l'lanr:5', who - have' knowledg'e.)

(Fatir: 2;8):

In this context, Abu Umamah (may Anab, be pleased wirth :him) said. that 'the Mes~nge.r' of' A11ah (peae,e and blessings of Allah be upon him) 'was informe-d. about ,two men: a scbo~ar and. ill devour woeahiper, Thereupon.~me Messenger of AUah (pe-ace andblessings of Allah 'bi,~. upon him) sai.d.,

fI!"'f'!J.~ ,. ,if. :r~, ~ , .-, ' .'- .' '. _. II' .t.IL... J_. "t·

_ . .l.. tIC aCf;~afUr .IS more s,upenor ,(?,;,..U:; ~vcu

wo,rsniper ~ the same' amoUlU' that .1 am s.,uperi'Qr to

1-1. ...... ""'." t. '-".', " " I .... ' iii'

.. J'tC .,owes, amo.n:gsr J'O,II.

(Reponedby A1l;~ TiImidhi)

In another version,

"TLA ',.l..,. ~'-,. ,. ,..-"' "'" .: -, 'r' '-h' ..,' .. ,

'A ".-u:. scnotar I~S more superior to it, ·e' uevDiUt

wtJrshiper by ,the same amount as' the ftIll moon is superior to other planet». Scholars ha-ve not ,l'eft :f.. ... L· d' D'" D' .. 1.,.......... R ,l. ''-.;nl t ,It be'it,"' , . ..J Ut::/:iI11_ . ·"um.r or ·l.rrU;Ui~.,:a.II;,er, t,..K;.j"eJt. ' ..• ,·~I{inu.

knolvleage., Th:u:s~ wnoever Sleeks u, wUl have ,an

abunda'- 'I '" nit g;',.ra· ·l.~n' 11

, _ ~ • , ' • .' -.. • _ J

_: ' -" , __ ; _" __ - ;111

(Reported, by Ar- Tirmidhi)

Mu'" awiyyab ibn Abi Sofyan (may AU. be' pleased with them both) reports thavt. he: heard, the Messe:ngeiC' of ADal1 of Al'liLn (peace and b,tess,ings of Allah be upon, him) say "

'filf A.llah wishes someone .gaod~ he' hJ1,lpS him. to comprehend'the re'li'gio,Tl (Islam)" "

(Reported by AI.-Bu'kbarn and Mus,)]m)

Safwan ibn "Assal (may Allah be pleased wi.th, bma) reports that ·the Prophet (peare and blessings of Anah 'be upon him) said,

5

pteasure with the knowledge seeker. ft

(Reported by Abmad)

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah 'be pleased, wllll. him) :oarrates tha·t me Messenger of Anatl (peace' and blessings of ABah be upon him) said;

"If one treads ,Q path in order to .seek blo'w.ledge~ Allah 'Milti' make easY' for kim the .(way)1 10 enter Paradise. ~"

(Reported by MusUa)

M .h P h tft .""_".~ i • f ... ,'L, s, ... oreover, tne . ropnet weace _w blessmgs o~ All~ue'

upon him) said"

.PlWhoever dies' while ,seeking knowledg,€ In .orde,r to revive Isla"'l~ will be in Paradi$,e ana nothing wou/4 be between him and' the Prophets ,ex,cept ,URI!

degree .. IJ

.Amongst dle virtues of teachmg is, what is, reponed on the authori~y of Sabl ibn Sa" d (may Allah be p.leased w.i.tIl tUm) rhat the Messenger of Allah (peacemdl 'blessin,gs of AUahbe., upon him) said to "' .Ali (.may Allah be pleased with. bim.),

"It is better/o', you, that Alla.h guides one man. (to the paino!' Islam) through you than fo:r you, to ~f' red (expcetlsi;vej cauie. II

(Reported by AI -Bukharf and Mu.slim)

On dIe: .authority of' Ahu M.usa. (m.ay Allah be pleased wi.th :bim) who sa:id that 'dIe Messenge:r of A~lah (peace ,andblessio,gs of Allah be upon him) said,

6

h·' h it ,n·;",)., .&..""... - ."': J........ ;r.._"._ A'_ •

W ~C', 'AMi nas sent me IS HIIlt ~a'niilaUlst nun,

£,' If"' h' ,.-1.., ~-~ h" h '", ",~'.... "I ,ialing on 1:'- e eann; some 0" c W. sa -, was lle:rll'u: SOl

that aOsorbedroin water ,and broflght fvrth

, -'. d ., b don- (And- 'II'

• /. ' _'",- - ... [,' _." . - -. . ,- -, "', -1,--- ',_ _- - . l-" ", - - ,', ._] ,:, -, I', _. I

ve;getatlon QlL g.ra:5iS; m a UIL ceo 1_ I,.) anomer

portion,o! it -lm.r. hard ,and held the rain 'wa~te'r and Allah benefited' the' people w.ith i't~ and they u#li'zed it far drinking, making their ,animalSi drink /tom .it and ':or irr.ioatin,(J the land'to:'r cultivation (A"_ .. , nd1, a

- . 'Jf. .,. '.' (~f- _il ·eJ '_ .... __ " "-:' .' '_ .. - . i· . - -l!

portion of it was borren; whi'ch could ,neither' ,h,old the' water noT bring forth veg'e,totion (then, ,thaI' land gave no .benefits). TIlle ,first is the' ,exantp,le Of ,the perso« who ,compr;ehe,nds Allah. rs .re'ligton. and gelS' benefit (from .the ,knowledge) which Allah ,has.

1"O"~ .' le--d :tL,,,,,,,,,,~,"ij)h"1 _0 fc"'l:.,,D. p, -'- - . Ii., ~- , ,_..til' 1'·- '---," ._ ,."AI' s" rea," . .-.' linr ~:e;.- ,m:~, ~M;I.i~ . r'(}p',~f~"s la,meam,;JI ,Q,w,

then teaches otners. The last lexample is ,mat of a peTrSf)H who does not care jor it land does ,not ,to'ke Allah 's g,urd:anc:e revealed thrOU;,'h: me {He is' like

t.·-l.",~,t J..~rr.nlh land' )

IW. ba: ~'''' -""'. _-!II-

(R' d- b A' ,t B 'li.,1... ., d M' - ", )-

,--'epo,rre-!y .~-I·uKJlati, ,an. ' .. USdm

Al .. Hasan (may ,Allah have' 'mercy on biro) is reported to have said, '·Ifmere had been no scholars, people would have been like animals, n

Mu'" ,adlh, ibm Jabal (ma:yAUab, 'be pleased wi~h him) said, nSeek knowledge for seeking j,t '['Or' me sake of Allah is a sign of coasciousness of Allah;, lacquiring it is an act of worsbip,;

Ai· •• lorff - ., (f A'II"':t..:) A 'h'"".,., r

sWuym,g 11 IS a giorn lCaOon :0' ,', ", 'w_~ i; ana se'UC''lng :1(ii1i" It IS "a,

kind ofJ Jihad (Sl!ri.ving in. ,Allab' s cause).".'~

Seeking Koowledgels a Duty

Anas (m~y AUab be pleased with him) said ib.Jl!t the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be llIpon 'him) said~

"S~eldng ,know:ledg,e is an ob-Il:gatton upon every

M""l·.l'··· " usum.

(Reported by ,Ahmad)

Mus,Mm. scholars, however, diller over dIe meaning of "knowledge" in the llJievlousHadith. Scholars of Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) .hold lbe oplaion that. "knowledge" in dds fl'a4ttli. refers to' 1s.lamic Junsprudence, 'which is the 'means of knowm:g

. what. is lawful and whal is prohibised, Scholars ole Hadith and T€ifsir (.ex<e:getes of the Qu:r11,an), howevervare of 'the view that "knowledge" inthe Hadfth stands for umders·tandingtbe .Boo.k of AJ]8h and. the Swmoh~ for 'd1ey are 'the key to other sciences. Sufism mamtai,ns that knowl,edg.e 'is meant fO'r knowing how ito

'jj-~lI'il~'IiiI1 ,." :,' ',~, ::-' ,'d' .... , '. _' ]'·i ,;.:t,. " - d:" ,',- C', "f' .,L '. ,,',11

at~.J:. smcerny an ,. .L.U rea tze "'LIe· ',' J.seases or we sou.

·Nev,erll1el.ess" the view believed to be dle most correct is thai ~:tnowledgleU in the Hatlith refers EO ibe knowledge. of the relation between man and his Lord, Mos High.

Pr "', ~'Il._ Ko' :1 d'

. -1J1:St';'Wvl1 Wt~ : , •• " 1 ow. e:' ge

. '

You should know l' dear reader ~l Ilalt praisewofillhy knowledge ls divided 'iinro two categories:

1- Extremely ap,praised kno'wledge::Tb.e more one acquires of this field of knowledge., the more virtues be gets, This field, of knowledge is 'whaE is related [(11 AUah~H is .A:ttr~butes", ,and His Acts.

2- Knowledge: which is recommended to 'be' sought in certain amounts: This kind - .of knowledge comprises ~bi.ose ,commu:na1 duties M'usUms are required to -observe.; if sufficient number of people: seek this knowledge, the 'rema:indeI' will be' excused ,. How,ever" if none of them seek ill' all people win be siaful. E~amples of this knowledge are medicine and madIem,atics"

8

Useless Kmowledge

Argumentation with. Ihe sole' intention. of boasting and defeatin.g O'dleTS is 'tbe source olf evil manners, It leads to pride and. showing-off, whi,c..b wiH be ,of no ,avlaU in the Hereafter.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of .Allab be '~pon him) is '.' 1·····11· 'dl t .... · h .. '. .' jd .,

repo _fi_ 1.0 ave StU·.

~'On the Day of Jud:g,me.nt1. the. most grievous torment wiU be inflicted upon III scholar wnose

it""' ........ "lD,d' ,10""'" U~;;:O' o· ~,(t n. I.n n·.I·...,.,..;.!·. '" IlJ'llI 1l,V .. r;;. : 0, I[:;: rn..k1i [- ',:1" :. -v- [1l,.CJ""'I~!I.!' _ If!

(Reported by At-Tabarani)

Etbics of'the Teacher and the Shtd.e·nt

The: student shoald start with pnrilylng his. own soul, and steer' clear of evil manners, for knowledge isthe worsbip of the heart, He should. dedicate: his life for seeking .. knowledge., The early Muslims used to give preoedencetomowled.ge over anytmng else. For example, Imam. Ahmad (may Allah have mercy upon him) did not marry except after the age oif

'~OU"iII"l'iGlmD l!.1 '.~.:t:! • .!!;" ' ..•

To Ibe student. the teacher should be :~.iike a phys.:kian Ito a patient. The studeut sheuld serve 11:&5, teacher. In his Jami ' .. . Bayan Al- "11m wa Radtih; Ibo" Abdel .. Barr states 'dlat Ibn '-. Abbas, (may AUab. 'be pleased with them 'ooth) used to. hold the rein of Zayd ibn Thablt Ii smouot and derive it" saying, "Thi s is wDat we are requir-ed '(0' do with scholars '. fI

The studem shonidbe on hi'S guard against feeling pride, for j.t '~_s. the flaw o·fdt.eigll.olmlt" lie:" filnilber.; sholild evaluate Ithings and give preference to hms teacher IS OPliD,ion over' hi's own. In At-Jam£"' li AkhJaq AI~Raw,i wa Atklb .ds=Sam\ AlKhatib AI~.Bl!]gbdadi reported Ihat .. Ali (may ADah 'be pleased

9'

",..,\., bi" ) "d ~1'I"" ,.:,1., 'ghl f' iI-< .... ""'- . .,.,]R ~... " ':b '1i...1"

WJ(U ,1- m, san ,: - t IS ILl~.e.rl_ It '~L 'uil;; scnoiar to greet 'we pUul]le

in general and 10 be: greeted in paroC1!lJlar ~, You s,nou]d sit be:(oife ,him and avoid overburdening ,him with questions. You s.bould net divulge his secrets" nor' 'bac.kb~'re people in hisp'resence,t nor fmd his faulrs.,.,. ~

The stude,nt, ,at the: begirming of ,seeking knowledlge~, is recommended not to owuply his mind with 'the diffeR'noes of scholar,s. in -order 0011. ~o peIibJIb ,ms mmd,

As to 'the teacher, 'he. should be: p,tuien't ,and forbearing. He should decUcare his efforts ill teaching: knowledge fOIF' the Sake of A1Ja.b.~1 and not to seek not rewards or ,gradrude from people, Eady Muslim, scholars used to' refuse gifts. from students, The teacher s.boutd offer ,advice 'to, .Dis :illudentsl and fo']]ow the best manners in th.is regard,

The 'reachel~, funhermore, should te~acb his student 'what the

'I '.-.'" .'," - d rstand . , 'd" i.··., " ,. b· d' 'M' '-. " "--- ,. ""'fl,'f,. ...1....'

,atmet' can UIIl, eISIJ,iiwi . anc compre ,00· '. ,'or.e JmporL.Wilt~y ~ II.!!lJ,e

scholar should behave according to bis knowledge. Allah, Most

H~g.' ,~. savs:

, .a. .H, dD.l.J' ... :t ...

(Do ,y'e enjoin, rlghJ cmu:lucl' on the people; ,aR'd !or:giet (tv pracuse it)1 y.O'urs,(!,lv:eSJI [and yet ye study t.he Scripture? 'Will )"e .not understand?)

(Al .. ,BaqMan,:' 44)

'Categories. of Sdtolars

Scholars may be' classified Into 'fINO classes, namely, evil schoms 3!Od righteous scholars, Each class, has its OWO, [characteristics, which may be ou.tlmed as follows:

Righteous. scholars are ,di.stinguiJshed by thefbUowim,g eaaraeteri sties ,:

10

a) Avoiding praising and, :~nrenningliQg with rulers and people m'bf"~i"id- jJ.;.-r. .A··'l-,_,-M·,e,--", ...... said: III'1f .".-~-, c '__ c __ arg;e" ~ a _, _ ,_u:t~,_, ,_ usa;yy,al.!' Sal,. ,l you see a

scholar knocks the doors of rulers you should beware of him for' he is a thief, l'

b) Refraiaing from issuing legal ve:rdictsex . cept 'with 'know ledge, Early Muslhu scholars used to refer people ttl one another for the sake of issuing Islamic rulings regarding issues." .Abdu:r-Rahman, j,bn Abi Layla (may Allah have :mercy 00 him) criticized scholars who we-re haJSt.y to, issuing Islamle FUU~g,~ sayiQg: II I have been contemporary whh one hundred, Ind, t~i',e:Dty Companions of the Prophet (peace ,i;l!lod blEtSsiflg:S. of Allah be upon him).~ and iij 'was their custom !o wish, thai, no' one asked 'them, abvult a given question but another 'brother i.n Islam answered :hi,m,.However,~ after they passed away ~,people claimed, 'to be :truJwledgeable' and basd]y aoswer-ed questions, If they :had been presented to .. U mal', he would Dave consulted aiUlthose; who partic-ipated in, me Battle O'fBadr fegarding.dle answer of'these questioTis "

c) Following thewa,y of the Companiens and Righteous Successors (Tabi' " un).

,d·) S< ·1·~A",r· ~'ifi O"';~Q""r- , .... f - "B";d·' "'_it.') here ~s·y· F.intiird' 'l"n" novsdo IfJ-7 '~m,'i:'P;~~g· ,. ~......"

,_,_.' ",.I.~,,,",u~~~~u,..., '\J'""" '\ '·-1". (l;l'l ... _. ', __ ,_> UI,-1t.~ __ ~_j,,_lru.aj"'.J_. ,;,., lJ . .!.._. ~~,~~_·'~JV'I.II,,,

e) Searcbing: for tne ubjecilves of the legal mlings jJS possible,

f) Giving jnecedence jn 'die Hereafter over th~s world,. and

Prre·4"Arll'"~ii"IIIiO'~:ba useful h-nw)aA01;g to o·,:!bo'.:.::r seiences w. __ ] 3<_:1_' 0 .. _._"

J""l", ,!!.1t!!.~t:. IUl:o.".i . ~"", _= rulv -""";;'~a,'" " 'Wit""", ~,_, ..... ",!: .... ;i:;),

scarce bene-fi'ts.

In thls '~""'r"~.:.·····t, I:'1t!injjifi A'· 'I-'B'u'kh~--j t'm,''-'<lI".'', A···· Jl:""1j<; have me ~ .... ~_ II .. U,= ,,",'I!.I\lt~II,:!O;X, ...:l.!lJ"""'l:I-~ _ ~_AJj = \ __ UJ."! . = W,l, __ ia! - . = = ''','''';;

on him)s.aid to Haran, "You have accompanied me for some time,what have you learnt from me?" The la'tter' replied, III have leam,t rue foDow:mg, eight:

I- I have notieed dla~, people' used to keep every val uable thing they possess, Then I reflected upon 'tile Qurl anic 'Verse:

"'What is w,ith you must van,rsli:' wha:t tswith Allah

wi It €nauf;-(!',.) -

So] decided to keepmy valuable things, widt AUah,~Most High. 2- I' It,ave observed ~bait everybody has a 'beloved one" but no beloved one: could accomprarny the lover to the grave, Therefore, I have' dedd~d to love g:ood deeds, wbich would aecompanyme to my grave.

3,· 1 have ,reflected upon ibe Glorious Qur 'anic verse that reads: , =nd for such as had' entertained tlze lear oJ standing before their Lord's I(tribunal) [and has restrained ,(thelr) s.aul/rom; lower ,desires.",.

(An-·N'azi" at: 40)

Acco:rdlnglYt ] have exerted :my;self' to steer clear of 'whims until. my self has accustomed 110 obeying Allah" M:ost High.

4= [ have moo-ked at people! S concern of property and, aiutbori:tty.

Then I pondered .on Anah~ s saying in the 'Glorious Qur'an:

~ Verily the mast honoured of y.ou in the sight of Allah, is (He Who is) the most righteous Qfyo,u.J (AI..,HujuFal:: 1.:3)

Conseqeenuy, :I concerned myself with consciousness, and fear of Allah" Most High, so as to attam henor in lids, w,odd

l2

and 'the Hereatter i

5- I have notice,dtbe spread of envy amongst people, and reflected on die QUI,II anie verse:

: It is 'lNfIe Who portion out beiween th.em their lt~enhood in the ii/eot this world.,"

(Az-ZUtllrnf: 32)

Therefore, ] kept: aJ,way from envy.

6- ] have observed, the promulgation of e:nm.l'ty amongst people. andthen reclted the Qur'anlc verse:

: ,Verity Satan is an enemy to you,: '0 treat him as. an enemy!)

(Fa:tir:: 6)

So I refrained fr-om thelr ,enmity and lnsisted onmaintaining enmity ito Satan.

7 - I have loo:tedal people ji s humiliiuruon in earning livelihood, and then pondered on the Qur'anic verse:

(The,re is no. moving creature on earth but its sustenanCle depetuJeth on A.llah.",

(Hu.d~ 6)

Therefore, I concerned 'myself witll carrying out Allah'! 8, Duties andputmy trUSI, on Him in earning 1iveUhood,.

,8- I have observed that people depend 0.11 their trade, manufaemre, and health. Yet, 1 decided '£0 rely only 00. Allah Mos.t High Ii

Evil sc,bolll's,~ on the contrary, are those who seek dIe benefits and interests of tbisworld, while disregarding the

Hereafter, In this regard, Abu Hur,ayrnb (may .Allah be pleased] 'with bim) reported thalt the Prophet (peace ,and blessings of Allah be upon bim) said:

'''Whoever seeks knowledge ,that should be dedl'cated to A.llnh 'with the' ,llu:enti'On of attaining a worldly gain, will .be deni'ed the- ,fragrance' oj Paradise: on the Day of lUdgme.nt., ".

(Reported by Abu Dawud~

Another H'a"'dith states

_"'"'"'~. I.. <= I, ,_, _' _. ~ ,.

"iJVhoe~e.r seeks knowletige with the intention of

b ... ""., I' . • lito . "Ii h l' d· ,. . h' •

~tm:8 m idJnt OJ so oues, ) ·lsplltlng 'Wlt Mtl'e

1, . . l J A '" -. "II it..

peop e, or gQlnJf~g peop. e s aumiratlon~. WE .. ' oe

condemned to the .ne,ll'-jire ton the Day of Judgmen't). ,_'

(Reported by At .. Tinnidh:i)

Some' early Muslims said mat 'dIe most regretfulof people at the time, of death are unreasonable scholars.

We should keep in m.md~ however, that scholars are supposed to abide' by the commands .and prohibitions of Shari '" ali" noito refrain from me ~awful or and show' indiifference to' 'n11lS world, Yet, they are recommended not to be extravagant in ,enjioy[ng woddlypleasures~ SufY,aR Ath ... Tbawri for lnstance, used t.o eat deUcio1JS foods whUe Imam Abmad ibn. Hanbal (may AUah have mercy on "him) insisted 00. leading an austere living"

14

II~ Puri:licati,on ftDd Salah

Purification, in fact, tan: be class;ified to the following four

..t .... 'ot'ee·e. ut:~~' .. " . ~ +

1- Purifie.lon o!f the body from, dirt: md impurity.,

2- Purificadon """" t'l.\j;I!o orzans from 'E'I'I~<'lo

_ C-'IU~ ~I.I;,. -QAtLJlVII.1 U., . 1.l1.r '.' J O'OiIl.liiIiJ, "_," ., ~', ,_JJ<I~,!!

3- ~ifi.cadon of Ule heart fr(~m, :immuraJit:y.

4- Purlfieation of 'me unseen ftow. others, thrut ,AU,all.

The: last degree hi, the: most superior one,~w.ihich. can 011ly be autltai:ned. people' of deepiDsight. Narrow-minded people, in corarast, confine tbemselves to: rtb,e' first degree, ignoring tile oflherimportruru degr-ees~8Jnd so£1:1,ey waste most of their time in 'llie superficial purificamio1il.,

" r.f.-.i[., '" e "j!" ""d S' 1 l. d

J1i me time .J,Of iQ pnscnm:.~'a::a,t comes, anL a

Musii",: performs ablution properly ~and' then QfJer,~

I. '. S' J' """~ ) • LL, '"~"" .... ,.,;;, A 1.."""",, "' t: A ,fl I.) .

ms .'. a~u.rl:' Wlt;,:~ f~Umi!llty Ui~~ w1fVlng \/0 .. ' t_at"·. '"' It'

"II bean exo: , fi h" .! l' h

' . '." ~..., "IIF ' " '.' t SJlS ',.IOU' asne

W! ..... ,an ,explaluJ__rJ, . tJ pas_ ._ Il __ , so ___g, . _ .'

bas '·'-t --,-,~':~"'tt':-d""···-, NUl·" ···~~o··:r- si»: ·(J·n:'d·" lh:·'~'~s'· is

1_."1 " . I ,_. , j ,.' t " " •• ' ,". .'. , I·.·· " ',' ,I

a. no com.m~e a . .' .'. _,_ • ____. _ .

applicable' to all times. IJ

fIumransaidmat be saw'''Utbman perfunning' ablution.;, he 'washed 1:115 hands Ilhri(!e~ rinsed h~s m,(Jufb and 'dIen w,aJshed, his

b ,. ..' ,~_ . .:J ~;,.. 'I •• ;~ , • .. d 'ii.., d'

nose, y putlm,g walet' In. u .. u,iI, men y,llowmg it out, an 'W,81Si~e

his :face tbri.ce.,~ and then washed his, dght forearm up to the elbow thrice; and then the left forearm up to' the elbow thrice" then wiped his bead. witnw,arer, w,asheCi mi:srigbl foot dtrice·t aDd 'then his left foot. ithrice and, said, "l saw A.1Iab~'s M:esseng,er performin,g ablution s'imilar to my pil,esent ablution, and (ben he

id

sal,; ,.

'11'hoewr ,pe:tj'o'rms ablution (like my presem ablution) and then, offers two Rai'"'at (Prtzy,e', u'nits)

, ,iIO, ••. ,L, L A' . ,f.. .I'~ ... tl "d·",.~ L • . II .to.

U'J 'Willet,: fie' aoes ,notl';ftfl".~ wor~·.·~'y .trt.lng.S~ au ms

s . .' ... '. . Oil' J..... -F. ...• . nl'

prev,ous sms W:I" tn'.J'O,."ven.

(Reponed by A.I,.,Bukbad and MuslIm)

·y.ou should know tbat, Salah consists ,of pillars, dUnes" and Sunnan,_ The spirlt of Prayer is lmendon, devotion, and contemplation of heart, Withcrut c,oDtemplalioD? tnvocation is of

U·_· ,*'I!.." :11'( 'b fu'-' '1 B ......... 'n\,.

no ava SUlee trus wu e .. n e utterance. . y tne same lorr.e:n,

WI. other acts of Prayer will Dot 'bring forth its, avowed frui'ts~ i .e., roe act of Qiyam (standio,g) connotes service and tbe act of Sujud' (prostration) ill1pUes, humllity and glorificadon, whic])' 'will never be attained 'througb inatteDticm .. Allah, Most High, says,

. It is not their mea: or .their blootl that readus Allah,;" it is J'()!urpiety that reaches Him., J

(AI = Hajj: 37)

It is, n.ow clear diat what reaches AlIab, Most High" is 'the state olfthe bean" which compels it to submit to 'the commands of Allah, In ·this way alenness and miDdfuhwssarerequiFed ,in Salah 'e-ven '~f a lapse of negligence is pardoned by dle LawGiver as lon,g as 00Ji);SCiOU5,ness dominates it,

'('I' J -.!.. no:.·· e.' -,11. .... 1 ". sonsl ~j'D I'U ~i1.o'e '&:0' ···'l]nW1'·'n'i') ·1..-e- ,~Qfaff""l,.;V'.I~uc.l.ess,, cc ns srs = IW'. JJI . ,v'' ..... :,~ mree:

1 = COlMcwusltess:. It. means to show 'indifference: for aU wodd~y lnteresta and have ,abs,o;~ule consciousness, of ,Allah" Moslt ·Hi,gh.. The cause of such consciousness. is decisive intention. since ~be Dl;an who has decisive intention, to do

somethin g',:, neeessarilv puts h'i~f' he' girt- to 1"*. T'hI1f1;S·,.

~., '. ", ,U~·!JQI .'I ,_ '.. ~,.,.,.&;I '!.L , II., ,,v: _ "

conselousness bas no place in Salah but, 'dtrrou.gh man' s mindfulness, COnSCiO'llSneS;S", ill fact, differs, according to 'nh,e ,stt,ength of belief in, the 'Hereafter and scorn of this, world, Therefore, if you miss consclousness in. Sola/i." yon should know that the rooa-eause of ·this 'is weakness of {ai.m, ,and so you, should exert yourself to strengthen and oolls'mer' i,t,;

'2- R'e/le'ction. ,on the won'b't which is, the second. step atter consciousness: Consciousness may be present without graspingdle meaning, and so attention shou'ld 'be direclted 10 grasping lli,e meaning by refraielng from !thinking of other 'mat1ers .'

3-, ,Glorification and.lear of Allah, Mos;£ Iiigb, whieh emana'le from two facts: [,ealizmg 'the Majes;ty and Magnificenoe of ,Allah., and looking, down upon one's self, 'whichwul!Jl~d

'~e," ,11,. , •.. , Ii..,r- dlit - d· .en, '"11' so· e, '".1' HO·I···· ,. b, ·a'~s· "lIo1f'li

r .sUI,," m ,uuml 1 ,'1 anc onsciou ,5S;. tope I.,. !I.' 10 1M!

',,- '-, If.""ri If it .;1<"" " ('! 1: ""L. lb' , .. -~ . b +ire'" S· ... s, L ~'Il..'" Idl rmportam racnn Wi, .jQfWt,,· re one wno on .. ·f'S; 'Wa", snouu

hope' for the reward of Allah~ and fear the punisbment due to his impeefecfion.

The worshiper should ;oootemplalie on every act of Salah,,, 'When he b,ears Ithe Adha,n he sbou'id remember tlh,e call on the Day olf Judgment, ood prepare h~mse,~f to the answer" thinking how to reply. When the worshiper covers his private parts, he should remember 'his concealed vices. wbi,cb no one knows ,exoept AJ~ah!, Mos(High,; and whidhrequi.re "e:pentm.ce.

Wben. the worshiper faces die Qiblah" be turns his face '[O'w,ards· tbe House of Allah and mrns his 'back to aU other

17

,dbeclions . No dolllbt~ di:rectin_g bls heart jcwards AUa1l is wOflbwbtle.

When you say:: .~ Allah is the Greatest", ,your he3f1! s'hould not beUI: .f01lr tongue. If' you 'bellieve tha't 'the.re is sometlUng gr.-earer than, AD.ah." you will 'he ,a liar. Be 'clutjious.

When. you. say: '"1 seek fefu,g,e in .ADz {tom 'me accursed Satan:", you shoul.d take lnto account ·that you. resort to Allah.;, ·Mo.st Hi:gh. 1n.d1is CBlS\e" if' y'our heart is mOlt in rune 'widI your tongue" w'hat you say w'ill be' nonsense and irranonal. Try te graspthe meaniln.g olr whar you say.

When you say: (Praise' be to Allah, tire Cherisher- and' SUislainer c( theJV:o~ld$;,) you should ponder over the m.eomg of these words, Also, you reflect on Allah's mercy when you read: (Most :r;r,acious, Mos.t MercijU'I). 'Thinkalbout A,I]ah~ s power when you. read: (Maste:r oj the' .Day of Judgment)'., In 'd1is way, one should reflect on wbat he 'reads or say in Salah,.

It is repor~ed tba'~ Za:m·rab ibn Abi Awfa (may Allah 'be plleased wltb him) feilidead when .. he reciiedthe Qur'aoic V'eJSf;"

This is, no doubt, is due: to his imagination. of this horrible scene"

When oolwimg, try to' show hu:mili'l:y to "our Lord, Likewise" you should be more humble when prostrating since you place yourse'~f 'in Its proper and original position, nameJy, we earth

Il, ' -J...!i··L, .... h '-,." been ,', -.'.; ":-AI In" ·lfl. .. ·., .: .... " ... 1"'-'. '." ""fl'" "1

trom WIUC.U. you . ave I,. en createa, ., uns case, tty to reo eet

on W'· ·b~'t you JI:1,gIY'"

_ '_'._:~W '~" -.'1.11, ~_'!II

18

FinaU.,~. you sbo'Wld know lb.atperforming Salah- in. suehe manner purine'!;, .mdenlightemsrthe heart, w'hicll~,in, tum., could behold the [Glory of .AJlah.. In. fact, no one but· !the devout seholars can grasp fhese meanings.

In contrast, wh(lev:erpe'r1fofl[W;s, Salah: w~.,t1t1ou'tt observing jlts reqlll1!',emooJts woo'ld to. ItO w',ay grasp its signiDcan~:,. Such a. man, furiililermore, may exceed the :~i'mim ,and. deny its exis&ence.

M', ...,..·1 .... 'Da~;n;'i1in ", .... 'F'- i·d· , , 'd' I·t· .n....' " or~ .r~.~-fi MI[ .,.In_ ~y an._ .1_s,£r:-ay'eJ"

1= To prepare himself 'for' frida.y Prayer since Thersdayaad F'dday might ~y'cleanmg his body and w,aming ,c]ome:s.

2,... To ,Perform !r;husl befOregoin:g '£0 'me :mnsque to offer Fri.day Prayer as jot is recommended :~n more ·tn. one aumem:£ic Hodith.

3· Te 'k...,... ii-'4"; h ii~,p~'ilf- b-~' ustn g ..,t.p ,1.1" ...... ,_.l. ('.\noR':'" !ll!'tick) and '- ,v ucaUd!l.y .1UI.Jl~~ . .!J.J'U~ " iUU~ .Jrrj:b~ !";~lLII-Q:t..~. ,_1_

wearing, permll1e~, shaving rtbepubic hairs, clippmgthe .nai1s,.

d" . ,,'L 'L,

antrlmmm_g UlemO:USIWClie •

• L 'T" 'I ,". '[' , . a -]., to [ .~'il... .' • ," ,~.II·fI1e - 'lb.,-:" [I - ffe' ·r· F- 'n'i.rl""""

'",,= . () g,o ,ear .. y__ tllile mo:sque WJlUL!w".re U,C; Wi On' ,_,UQ.,II

Prayef'~[ Ito ·walk. ,and ·~o intend to o:bsefV[e'Jnka/ (spiritual remea't) •

.5- T~) avoid slepping over others![ necks mtbemDsque.

7- To plajy in 'Ole firsl~ 'row i

8- To repeat the A.dhan (ICan to :r.r,aye:r)behlnd the muezzin, awfto li:s,te:1l atteo~tve'ly 'to 'Frio.'y .KhNtlJ'1Jah (F'r.iday

sermon).

'g:.. To o:ffer supererogatory .Pruyel': two. four" or six Ralc'- at (units) after dIe· o'bUg,atory friday Prayer,

10- To stay indle mosque until, the "'As,r (Afrtemoom) PraY'fJr. ll-:To seize the Honolaib]e Hour, m which AUah, Most High •. answers 'dre call O'f His devout servants. Muslim scholars have held dliffereru 'Views regarding de,cidiog the exact time of ltbis Hour. Some scholars have 'maintained flla'l it is between the time the Imam sits down and. the end of the Prayer ,. A!bu Burda, ibm Abu M'usa Ash-Ash' ad reported, U" Abdullah ibn '''Omar said to me, "Did you, hear anything. from your' farther narrating somemlng from. the 'Messeng,e;r of Allah (peace and bl.essmgs of A1Lab. be' uponhim) about the Honorable Hour on 'Friday?' )[ said, 'Yes, I heard him say r'eporfe-dthe Messenger ofA]]ah (peace and blessings of Allah be: lllpon bim.)lO b31v'e said.

(Reponed 'by' Muslim)

Other seholars have he'Jd lheoprnlon 'that it is the last hour

'~",J" .-. -

after the ":Asr Prayer t 'based on .3, Huulth narrated mme Sunnan

of .AJt-TiIDl'~dbi. Moreover, Anas (may Allah be pleased wiJlb him) reported th'l the Messenger (peac·e and bkssings of Allah be upon him), said,

n.Se,ek it ,Oetwe'en "Asr .Pray,er .fi'll,~tm'Jet. 01'

(Reported by An ... ,N sa' i)

.Abu. Baler A1-,Adn:am (may Allah have' me:rey om 'him) disclosed the· fad 'that this hour 'may move between the above-mentlonedtimes.

20

l'2-To iuv'lZlke Allah. to send ble.~sjng~1 upon 'His, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessm,gs of Allah be upon, him) and to forgive His servants' sins, [T., A'Us ibn ,ADS "epa,rted t hrut theProphel (peace ,and blessings of Allahbe upon him) said" IIft'T.... • .e d' iF ... iL, (F :;A',.,,) On'

. -JLlemOS'E, V] nnous U~,' your ,- a,ys :~;s ~'um -'-0'1 '"':[R.m),,,.,-,

that day, Adam W'a5 c;f:eated and, on that, day he died; (OIl that day) the hom 'will be blo'WD and the people will be: dUm!bfounded~ Increase' your prayer;s 'upon me as, your prayers upon me 'will 'be pr-esented 'ID me. II The 'peorplle said~, "10 :Messenger of AUah,. [lOW wlllour prayers bepresented 10 you when you have passed a:w,!y'?"" He ;said, "Allah has prohibited, the ,earth :from ~ealtm,g" 'Ihe bodies of dIe Prophets. n (Tbis Hadith is reported AI-Bukhad and Muslim)

Ib A- 11 Q:' -' - '" ," -. '~' III't i' - -,..t - .. -.' -d- It" , -- ,- , rt - AI'" 'I ... l...:t..... ". . d ,.11 _' _-~-3'y~m :s'ays., ,I IS pre',le-ne _ ItO pray ILO ,IIAU, ILV :sem:

blessings on the Prophet dluringtbe daY' and night of Jum '", 00,. as. the Pr'opbet said, 'Invoke many prayers upon me dluring:tthe day and nigbl of Friday. liThe Messen,ger of Allah is the' j,e-dtie,r of mankind, and Jum' ah is tbe best of' the days of me week. Prayers upon him during tbat day are a privilege (be deserves), which belongs, to no one adler 'than him, This act also has anutber wisdom, and rtlhat is that. aU of the' good 'ttitat has p,assed onto dds ,Ummah;.in 'fhis Ure and, the, Herearter .,has, passed through him, Allah has ,gathereddte good of tbis life and the next life for this Ummah, and the greatest honor ru:rud success will be granted to 'them on F'rida;y. On dIat dlay~ they will be granted their houses and palaces in Paradise and that is the day- they will 'be given more' when they enter Paradise, lit is a day of celebration for ttJltem in 'this life, It is also a. day in wm.ch Allah fulfiUs, 'their' needs andooswers ilih.eir' prayers md Ie,qnests in. this, wor'td. 'They are aware of all of that and are Ible~ 1[11 abm it because of the' Prophet and iI is thruugh him (ltbat 'dley received these: teachings)-; therefore" in ,grati-bJde and apprreciauon for the~ great bless;in,gs., we received dJlougb

21

bim~ we: should, send n:umy prayers, upon him during the day and nigh't o:f Ju'm; +''fl'/;". 'Ft (Sayd Sabiq, .Fiqh As~u:nnah}.]

11- To recite Sural AI.,-Kabf in me night or in 'd~e day of Friday.

Ibn. "Umar (may. Allah be pleased with them both) reports tba.1 file Prophet (peace and blessings be upon. him) said"

W'ft1haev:er recites SUf;aI .AI-.Kanl on Jum" ah 'will be blesse;dwith a. .light .rhat wUI rise fram underneath

his .teet to the pmk of the SJ;yi,. This. will be a ligM'

/01' him on the Day oj Judgment~ and he will be jo,rg,iven fO'r 'what is besween the Ju'm ",uk (lmd the

next) "',firm" ah. fl'

(Reported. by ibn :Mardwwiyail)

LT., .Abu Sa," id Al .. Khud:ri reportedthat the Prophet (peace and blessings of All,all be upon him) said,," Whoever r-ecites Surat Al .. ,Kaihf on .Jum "'all 'will have iUuminaUon from. the· I:i,ght from one ,Jum "ah fn the: next," ,(Re:poned. 'by' A]l=Nasa'i)]

Supererog:tdol'Y Prayers

Superero.g.3.tor:ry Prayers, are. di:vided ilntothe following three kinds'::

1- SunalJ: These are ·the supererog:atory Prayers, which tthe Prophet. (peace ,andbl.ess.,iogs, o.f Allah be upon him) persisted :inoffermg,.

2·- MUsiahbat: These [are the supererogatory Prayers, ,aOOlllt wbiichdIere is a Prophede Haditb. tIl,at recommends 'offe,rin,g it but 'there is no indication thai the Prophet (pea.ce and blessings of Allah 'be upon him) persisted. in offering them.

3~ Tataw" at: 'These' are me options] Pr,ayerS:,t whicJ1 ,I Mus.Ii1n. - offers allhou.gb there is no Hadith ·that recommends dl.em.

22

Supererogatory Prayers, in :fact". arethe most virtuous acts that a servant of' AUah ·can do to dra.w himself closer to Allah. These Prayers are [dealt with in detail in dIe: 'books of Fiqh (I;dam~.c Judsprudence).

2:3

In., Zakah (O'bligatory !Charity)

Zakah (obligatory charity) is one of ~he pillars of Islam.

Allah" Most :High, has usually mentioned it 'immedia'ely ,a,fter Prayer, He" for example, says,

(And' be .steadfast' in Praye»: proctue regular Charity.)

(Al-Baqaraa: 43)

K:ind~,!, dIvisions, and, causes of Zakah, have been dealt wim, 'in d,eitai1~nthe books of Fiqh.

E' ,.L.,+ ,- '''7' ..... ,l;,. .... J.. ,.,- .. !liIlCS (I( , ~f:l

Certain inward 3!ui;tudes and duties are incumbent onthose who seek" 'thr-ougb. plyi:ng7Akah, the way that leads 'W! the Bereatter as follows:'

1 ~ Understanding me si,goifi,eanc,e and objective:s, olf Zakah:

IObjec£ives of :ZOlah 1e.S.(, die degree of love for Altlab~

'~. . . f'· 'II"' d 'In.' -.- d

enmtnarton a mrsernness, anc snowing g;nllutu ie.

2~ GlV'ing: Zakah in secret: Secrecy 'In p~ying Zakah is, farthest removed from hypoo.r:~t~c.a~ display and replJJItB1tioo seeking. Giving Zakah openly ,m,ay harm. the poor when he feels hu.mility. _

3- Avo,id~ng taunting and hurting peoples i feelings: 'One sbould not invalidate his Zakah by 'Ea:un~ing: and hurtingpeoples' ,feelings., Whatev,er' Itbal, may be" there is no problem between 'the donor and the poor recipienr until the former comes to see himself as ,a,benefaclor. One should ~ moreover, realize dl.at giving Zakah, :is ,3cruaUy playing Allah,. l\t!'ost H,ig'h" wilal: Is due, while the P{)(l'f man IS

24

actua1lJ.y receiving his sustenance from AUaltt to Whom. it has fusl, passed.

4- Showing humbleness: This signifies thinking: little of one's donstlon, for '£0 regard 'it great is to invite' 'tha'& sanctimonious p,ride which i,sone IOf the deadly sins, rendering good deeds worthless.

5- 'Paying, ,Za'laih from wbat is good and Iawful: According to a, Hadith narrated 'by Muslim" AUallt Most; High, is Good arnd does not accept, but, dl,atwh'ich is good, Zakoh :s:hould be given from the 'best of one I s wealth, In this eomext.Allah, MOIS,1 High, says J

.. .

.0 ye ~hO' l}if,liey;e! 'Give' Qf t.he good ,things w.hich

Ya have (12" tFloHAC·· •. -z",;"l'!, e' J . .I'I'Ji"H.o.J .... ' .... ,..,I O~if!'t:'r..6 m':I;.~''''n£ the ~ .' W' ~~ . 'v# J!f,iUs t'W~.rJ .' Mr , j.~U, ,urw '. 'J.I~c;;, J # ,l4>il"" 'VJ' ,r.fie

~-nrth, ·u;;L;rt. ·W,·.:l'O i" .... y:" p:·'::rl ... ·'·,~~ .... r~d to::·, .y.:(Ju ."''''..1' 4.".. 'l(Io··t: "'u ,_. ~'t',i"""",,r' .... ,f!!U I' .. f !U'u.tH'\,-lI;.l ... , '.' e= .!Ii UfW (,lv' ~,~ _

'. or .. t.., ,t. ,h:f • L ,..I" "A''''

even arm ,at' ge.ttlnganyt,d,ng W"lC,1 JS oaa, In oraer

that out oj it' y'e lIury give raHKzy somethi1J;g'." (Al-Baq,a:rah.: 26'7)

{By 1W means shall y.e ,attalu rigki'eousness ,unless "e gi've'(freely1' ollha, 111_hi,cn ye love; and whatever ye giJle~ of a truth Allah knaweth it, 'well.)

(Al "Imran: 92)

6- 'Oi'Ving Zakah to those who are most worthy and deserving: 'One should seek out a, truly worthy reclplent for his Zakah., rather mao be content wilh, just anybody who happens, who fall wilhin dIe eight categories of :legally qualified benefleiaries, For among: IlJhose generally eligi.bJ.e 'persons there are some wi'dl special qualities,. Consideradon should be given, to' me following, six qualitles ~

,Fint, one should seek 10'01: 'those righteous people who have renounced 'ale WQdd and devoted tbellllse:~v.es sole]y 'toldle

2$

:Hereairer, .. The: reason for this is that, YOUI charity will help tb.e dghreous person bolster his pie:ry;: by me),pmg him youwiU bave a share ~n. 'h:is worship i,

Second,. the re·cip1knt should be chosen from amongst the peop.l~e· of learning, in order to support him in his, quest of knowl,e.dge.

Tldrd,. the recipient should be sincere' in 'his faith ami should have profound devotion. to Allah a1l.one.This rsmgleness. of worshlp and cIe vo lion (Tiawhia, ls. a,pparent wllenj om aocepWl,g [a, gifl, he offers praise: and thanks to Allah, Most, High, reg.arding H,1m [as 'the source of the blessings rathe~[' 'Ulan any' intermediary" Such a man is a. trUly grateful to Atlah; M()st Hlght, re(;ogn]z'~ng 'lba'm ,aU bl,e5s~mgs, 'flow from HIm.

Fo",g", dierreip,ient 5001l1d 'be a person who 'has remained

d· 'i!.. b,~: d- \,.," Ii b i. •

anonymous, ,an , .~e,ptws neec , to ilfl!m:se.lIJ:~ no1emg' given to

russ and complaint, In. this connection, Allah" Mos:t H'i,gb, says I'

~ .

'"a'''~''''''' -"w is} F. . , .. t.,.,.. '., •. '. -, "',:s .1.,,,,,, • ·"l·, ... LJ'. '." .

r .. na"f*J 'tS,JQ1 mose tn neea Wf,W, In ill., WI$. S cause

are r ... e~{!,1t.M;r.,~LJd l~'- "I'!~~ill,l~ .t'I;iU1d·· ,C·V"I'":~#'li~' :~nrllM:' . .;JI~il·'"

1Jt:II-_ ~ iJ!I!"·IJ.~J."!Ipr._- ~r 'U'.r"" ~if! ~"_"~'Jji Mff!'~ _ "gr.N-M.1f' ,r'iJ,V·p'-~· uUUIo'N-

in: ,the: land~ seeki~g (fo.rtr,flde· or work);: the

". " .. ,' ... .' - ,t.r.. ',.:r..~ 0.··. '.£' ,I.L·-, "', .' ,..:I ' .. ru .rJ.., .... '"

',g:nomnt man .J#ln~j" ecause oJ tnesr moue.s~J" "iKU

they' are freefram want. Thou ,shtdt know-them by their (u'!failing)1 mark;' t'uzy' beg nOI importu.nately from all and sundry" And whateve'r 01 good ,e' g,tve~ be assured Allah kno'weth i·, well.)

(Al .. Baqarab: 213)

Such men shol1i~d, be sought out 'by thorough :invC'-stiption of

. _" -

th ;I'" 11· h' l'!th,'k.... "" ......... d d" b 1i 'I .. ~

e rengtous peoJ_JlJie m eac neigneornee r, ana '." ry dlo.uog

deep.i~y lnto ·the ·circumstances of good and deeent people, slaee the 'reward. for addressing charlty 10 dIem is many times g,earer Ulan for spending on those: 'who are vocifer-ous in their begg,in,j,

Fifth, the recipient should 'be someone saddled with a large

- .

family ;0'1· else Id'msabl.ed by illness or some other cause.

Sixth, the recipient should. be: a close relad ve ,whetber pa·temru or materaal. The off-e:rin,g wUllhen serve ·meaddidonal purpose of s[[:engdlenmg ties of kinship t the reward fOI' wh~id:ll is. incalcula:lb.le.

Now "we should keep in mind the: 'fact that if any one CaD. be found in. whom all dIe;se: 'Q:ualities are cembined, 'tba!t is dIe g,r:eatest treasure and Ibe supreme prize. If one fails to fiad sucb a man, then the person iin whom. fi.ve qualides an: combined. is better tbaa the person in whom. four' qaalitiesare found, and so on.

Qualities ft,r the .Recipient

The' reci:pient of' ZakDh should be one 'Of the' eight categories of l.e,gaIly [qualified beneficiarie~s.H.e" moreover, should 'be characterized wim the foUowing four q.uali,ti,es.:

1"3 He should Wlderstaud that Ztikah, is, levied upon Itb..e wen-to .. , do M.u;s\~.ims in or-der t:o meet hls needs, and. 80 he: s.hould - concern himself 'wiilb aeeking fhe pleasure ·IDf Allah alone.

2.-Ue shou]dilhmk. the giver of Zalmh and can upon Allah. 00. bis· behalf. hl a Ha'dith narrated by Abu Dawud. ~.t is eoafirmed that one w.ho does not thank people does not thank AUah, MOist High, Yet, ,this form olf voicing gratiwde should not excee-d Ibe limiE. of thmitillg: an. intermediary whom Al11h." Most High, decrees to give tttH ,cbari·~,~ while Allah remams the sour,ce of all. bounties. 'This [quaUty necessitatesthat a recipient shoeld ·DOlt Itbmk little of 'dIe .gift;. Pnrthermnre, a reci.pient of Zaktih shou1.d cover the faruUsaf the gift.

27

.3- He ShOUlld accept only what is lawful,

. .

4-He should take only what meets his needs.

Virtues, aDd Ethics of Optional, Cbari'ty (StuJaqat At-

Tata.w' ") .-

Virtues of optional chaJily are numerous. Below are some of th 'em,-""I'"

__ . _"'" I

"Abdullah ibn M,as'" ud (mllY Alta]} be pleased with him) reported thatthe Messenger of AUah (pea,ce and blessings of

" '

AlI.an 'be upoa him) said:

A'Who among you: considers the' wealth. oj his heirs dearer to' him than his Olvn 'wealth? II They (the Companiolu of the' Prophet) .replie.d~ fI'O Mess,eng,er o[ Allah! There is none amo.ng us but lQvf!$ his own wf,alrh more. II The Prophet said; "So ,his wealth is. 'What;ever he .s'{J',ends Ifin A.lfIJ:h·ls· Cause) dW'in:g his life (all good deeds) while' the w;ea:llh of his. heirs is whateve'f he leaves afte.'r .his dealh. jj

(Reported by Al ... B'U.khari)

Abu Hurayrah (may A]lah 'be pleased with him) reports that Ibe Messenger IOf ,Allah (peace and. blessings of ADih be' upon. :him) said::

"1'£ hil"liJ...~' • i!'.. ~ • ,I.. • •

v' som'i!,~ig"ves out zn. ,C1runty sometnJng e-qIlGJ

A,. ft.: ' I.. J' u::i'f.ul't' - d ·f,'

to a asue pom ms "a~~J"~"-Y gamea money .... jor

nothing ascends to Allah except that' 'which is good -

·,L A'l-t.."t. "Ii ,,,,,.r,.,. ·"h U' R' 11-' 1£1 dq ,~

tri:en ni:liwJ Wl tW>.€ U Wit·, ms ,'!,g.!l \nQH'j ana

bri"g it up jor its owner as anyone of you briilgs UP' a baby horse, untillt becomes .ltke a mountain" ,.

(Reported by A1.=Bul~hari)

28

fI'Giv€ ,DUt charity for it guarantees Y,Qur .salvation

firom'h"? HeU_,R.- ,:;

• ! "l,~· , _"',J",;p.·~ill

(R"- - rted b 'A··.· II- ·T··b· ' .... -~) . . . eporteo _y . ,,-,a,I:ar8IU1

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with ilim) narrates tih'at 'the Propbet (peac,e and blessings of Allah be upon him) said':'

H.C-harity does not in: any way decrease one's wl!alth·'·" ·,~·l.·e·· servam w.ho .. ··· -FA,-,o-:rV:.os·i' ,l~n'h ~A'A!, #YfJ! Iz:;'cr ...

_ -_. " I,'f! _,._ ~ ~fuJ.J"'1io I L '_. J'U', OJ[~ I ·~i"'1 11"". '. ~tli) tv- I "ic.:.J

respe.c/, and the one' who shows .humr:tity~ Alla:h eievates him: in ,the' estimaJi'o.n (of the .people)I .. , .,,, .. (Reported by Musli'm)

. .

- .

The Modller of tbe Believers, "Aisbab (may AJ.lab 'be pleased

wid1 her) narrased thar once tlbi,ey slaughtered a sheep when fhe Prophet (peace and blesstngs of Allah be upon blm) asked her, - . f!Wha-t is remained of it (.aftergilving cha~dlJ' )1"" She. replied" "Notblng bas. remained except its shoulder." Thereupon" the Messenger of AUab (peace and blessings of .AUah be upon him) said: -

"AU ol.lt has re:mained' ,except itS' shouliter (inceanin,g that what is. g,iven in charity will remain/o" them ,in

the Bereafttr).,~' '. .

(Reported by At ... TI:rmidhi)

- .. .

. As to the ethics of optional 'charity, . they are me: same as the

-._ ethics of obUg,atory: .Zilka'h;, •. '" r

. . . - .

.. _·.Mu;Sli1l1 scholars; however, :bav,e differed on dte.lding which

- " .. is better ft?r the Poor" 00 tak~ 'from Zakah' qr from optienal .. cbarity::A group of scholars has preferred ·Eb.e former white' -._ ... -:o~e'rs have gjven precedence '10 the latter.

29

." -

As to tbebeSlt c~hadty, 'it is explained fn me HadiiJJ nar,r~lmed on the, authority of Abu Hurayrsh (may An;ah be pleased with .him) that a man, asked the Prophet (peace and 'blessings of Allah 'be upon him), 110 Messenger of ,Allah! Wbat kind .of c~arit~y is

the b 'f'<lIn' H"" .. ~" d:

Ute les~ r ' e rep!l.lle •

~,l'o give tn cnar;ity - while you are healthy land

dy l.:,;,~ • 'f.~ r.;.L . .;1 nA- Old' ~R f.,."", "

gree rwp.lng to oe weauriy ana !~,J lat.~ q,. Vi;;comllzg

poor. Don't delay ,giV.f1ig in charity until that time you will be on the death.bed wh.en ,you: .say:~ fGive so tlu.tchtfJ' so-and-so andso l1tUch to s(J<t.(Jnd' ,S(}~ " and

, na ' " .fIit..d ,. b' . ,. J.,.-l'

at t..fll time me property 'is not YOUr'S ,: lut it V'e'ongs

t·' .. ' ~."", .... ,..i!' . '.' " ,", : .' ,,"~.l.,., .,~'.f. ' . -'J lit

'0 so-ana-so ~ I. e., your mneruors r »

(Reported by ,Al=Bukhalli and MusUm)

30

'IV II Siytllll (Fasting)

. .,

You should. know that :~he worshi'p olf Fasting enjoys.

partlcular privilege, namely that is a worsbip wh.icb is. attributed to ,AUah, 'Most I.: ligh, In, ,tile .Hadith narrateden the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be 'pleased withbim) the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of .AUall be upon. him) said:

;IA llah $aid~'A II tht;!' deeds CIt Aidam 's sons {human .beings) are lOll" them, except fasting which is .for Me; land 1 wiU gi'we ther,eward'for it.' .11

(Reportied. by AI .. Bukll.ari an,d, Muslim)

Fasting" however, enjoys this, pa:rticular 'privilege for the following, two reasons':

ill ~ n is. a hidden act of worship Ithat no one knows except Allah~ Most High, and snit is far fr-om hypocri"tical display

an- d' sli.· .... win "'g' o~f,:

, . ~ [ . . uu '. K ~.; ,'.IJ ...

2·.. n overcomes me accursed SataD,the enemy of .Allah, 'Most 'U"nih,

,,' .l~ .•

Sunan o.f Fasting.

1-, To lake a pre-dawn meal caUedSahur. 11 is, highly reeommeuded that it is, 'taken as close to Fajr dIme: a's possible,

2-, To break Fasting as soon as, one' is sure Ibruttbe· :snl1., has set" and. 'i.t is r-ecommended to, br,eaik. Fasting wilh dates ....

3- To be more geaerous. espec~aUy to the poor.

4-, To do much righteous deeds"

,5.- To g:ive mor-e in chari~y.

6,.. To spend time: im. smdyimg :the Qur I an ..

7~ To - observe a :spi:rimal· retreat 'by staying 'in 'the mosqee ( "ltikaJ) ~ particularly in rue last ten days of Ramadan. "Aishah (may Allah-be pleasedwith her) reported:

H'W,ith tnt! start-oJ' the l"t:ut ten, days of Rarm:1ilall~ the. Prophet used to tighten . his waist belt (i.! e. ~ work hard) and used tv pray [all the night;. and used to ke:~p his famify awake /0" the Prayers. "

(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

~Irees or Pasting .

It should be known tba.t there. are three degrees of jf"astilng:

. ,

. . - .

1. '" Ordinary Fastin.g ,"DIemS ,abst.aining, form. food.; drink and

_ - sexual gratificasioa. .

2, .. '· Special" Fasting means, keeping one's ears, eyes, 'tongue" -:b3.flds~ and feet - and. an other- organs ~ free from sm.

3,- Extra-special. - F.asting- 'means fast~g orf 'the heart from:

...i!l.. . .... . d . Id'~ il-J... 1!....' .,,,,'111 dis . . d

·unwol UJY 'c·[)noems, ,an: . '\Vor ." Iy "lJ.l0UgUts" m to.... . ... isrelar, ..

.of ev,ell'ything 'but, .AUah., MOist High .

. .

S' .. ., b . . . '. il-1.. r# 11]" ; .

. Specia; Fasnn8~ .,Ow.ev-er,t requirestne :[01 .. owmg: .

,... -

. a) Lowering one's gaze' and not looJdng lus!rfuUy at the

opposite sex· ..

·32

b) Guawd.i:ogone" s tongue ;from.lw:addle, ~hlI;c"" baQkDiti:ng., ebseeni .• y,~ ere.

c) Closing one IS ears to ,eve:rythlng; reprehensible.

) A'· "d" ,.

e I .: ··vol.ilng overeanng.

OptionallFasting

1m addition to the mandatoty Fasting "olf Ramadan; the fon~)willg 'kmds of'Fasdng ale ""ec·ommend.e.d. by "(he SJm1Mh.::

"1- Pasting six. days during the m,ooD of Sb,awwal, the month following Ramadan.

2~ Pasting the Day of "Arafah (lhe gm of Dbu],-I-lijjab) provided 'that tile 'person is, DOl perfO:rm Hajj (pilgrimag.e) that year ..

3- Fastin.g during 'Ibe month of AI-Muharram ,especially the tenth day (the Dayof · ... Ashunl")~aJlld. i:f possible the ~ and the 1101 of the same month.

4-- Fastmg. Mondays md Thursdays ..

S- 'Fashng·the 13th; the 14th, and l$dl of all months.

In the Sunnan" it is. ,admiued dt,at the best form of Fas'lin.1 is rtbaJt of Propbe'[ Dawud (peace and blessin.,s of Allah be upon, him)" .. AbduUah ibn "Amr (may A1l1!ah be i',lelsed wiith them both) narrates that Allah."s, Messenger' (peace and. btlessing of Allah be upon hlm) told. me:

"The m:ost belO1led Prayer to Al'ah is thaI' of .D'GWud~ and the most beloved fast' to Allah is that oj',Dawu.d~ He' used to' sle·ep lor ,half of tlienight and thin p.ray

33,

Jar one rhi,rd .of the nisIn- land again sleep/D" its sixth part, and' he used tojast on ohemate days. ti

One who intends to perform Hajj :shouid 'first make Tawbah (repentance to ,AUah}, repay his debts", prepare suffici,ent proYis,ion for 'his, journey and for his family until his return, gl veback trusts '£0 'tileir rightful owners, and 'meet, his expenses, by Iawful means. H,e: is recommended '10 8'Ocomparoy righteous men to helpeach other in their journey" If 'there are a group of

- ,

people going out for llqjj" iliey sIiluuld, choose. one of dIem '~O be

their leader during their journey so 318 ill ser his a:[fairs arigbt., The pilgrim should sde:k to the Tslamic good m.anners in :aU aspects, a.!it righseous 'people 'to make D.u "a" {su.pp,Jication to AJJah) for him, and say the autbendc Prophetic supplicanons that the Prophet (peace and blessings of A,nab be upon bim) is reponed eo have said on hls journey and making Rajj. These Prophetic supplications are dealt with in detaU [0 the books of ~lqh, so one should refer to dlem, ftHr more information in thJ;s, r-egard.

Inward Etbics aad, S,igni.ficlllee O'f ,Hajj

You should gel yourself well-acquainted with the fact that were is no way of attaining to Allah, Most HI.g'n,ex:e'ept b, divesting oneself of desires" abstaining form ple asure s, confining oneself tOI necessiries and. devoting oneself exclusively to Allah, MOist ,Hi,glltin every 'mom,eoJt and, rest lit was, fOil tbis reason that the ascetics of previous religions used to isolate: memselves fram the people, retiriag to mountain, caves and preferring solitude to the cUlupl,any of others, in quest of indmacy wi'th AUah,~ Most 'High. Hajj 1 therefore, is decreed 'by ,AUah to be the ascetic aetof the Muslim Umnwh., The pilgrim is ",'oommended. 'to free his minds from all businesses except the obedience of Allail,Mos:t High, He should be shabbily dressed, di'SlIeV'e'~edt and dusty, not-over ademed nor inclined

35

to things 'that excite vainglory and rivalry .Also~ he should take I, s.imple riding-beast for transport, abstaining fr-om 'being carried in a litter unless 'there is, a fear tbat be could nOli 'ddt: the animal,. In litis ,oollltext~ltI1e Messen,ger of Allan (peac,e and blessings of Allah 'be upon. him) is reported to: have maoeHajj on a riding came" wiilh I, 'worn saddle and laUered pad.

Here, we may' recall the narration of Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) that 'Ure' Prophet (peace .ut blessings of AUahbe upon him) said:

"Allah, Most High,~boasts me 012;8,(~,ts af.xxut me

'·,l' '. ,. "'ir - t; M "'"

pugnm; saying, .LOO'" at "y servants; if~:ey came' to

Me, disMv:eled ,and' dusty~ from eVf'ry deep ravine. I make yo,u witness th'tlt I kavejorgiven the.m., ; It

(Reported by ibn Kbayzamall')

A]Jab,~Most Hi,gil; bas honored His House, sMlcUfied it, ,and made it. a visitlng-place.

You 811,0111,0., ferthermere know that eV,efy action and. pillar

,. H .. . I dmoni ., I

pertment to ~a:Jj compnses a, essen or all. a,l momnon to people

of sound mirlid as follows:

When the pilgrim feels. himself impelled to take a 10:£, seeking enough 'to last him the whole journey without spoiling or going bad before he reaches, his destinatio.n, let him "remember that the Journey to the: Hereafter is, a, much longer

th ':1.' 00- ib,.,,1... .., Ii. '. ., • A .

one annus ill'- u:"a£ me prOV1S,lon for It" 'IS, true ple,y. Apart

from piety, wbatev.er one supposes to be provi:sion will be left behind one di,e8~lea'viug him in the lurch" IE will '00 more keep mm me fresh food iliat goes bad on the first lleg of the journey, leaving one dismayed and, be.lp:less in the moment of need, Beware, 'therefore, in case the deeds, wbjcb make. up your provision for the Hereafter; do nat go 'w.ith you after death, but

36

get spoiled instead by idle taint ofltt:yPoorisy and sh:owing~ff,.

1'ln., , .. 1. ;i1 ",A.". 'b" b 1I. ... nd '11 ik~ ..... , b

'" nen me p'ugnm u;.:;parts, ,i-IS ,~, ome,~,s ,!let mm rememt er

ihe assured di eilili ...... m .. _, of f,'i,jliil!, 'Itr.J.I!rf'ilI.:!,I· ~'n!1iV 'w.,o,'1f'I'd' It.;.. ,jf1..e Here eafter, ru, Q1;I~-UL1'~, ",. '_ ~'AIi __ I ..... _ 'Ul_o _ ,QI1lL] I&.'\J~J .' , . .11. ._ iW w," = """. _.Wh~ !II

, ,

When 'the pilgdm puts, ,off bis, norm:aI clomes and wears '(Jbe clothes of [harm" he mould recall. 'dIe shroud inwhich he win be wrapped. fOr buriat

When the pilgri"m utter'S ~tbe words of'Talviyab., he: should.

. bear 'in 'mind, that this signifies a response to the summons of

AJ]- lab' M" ost High !!li~ ~it )'IS s'ITa:"lTed" ;1fI~I.;'e' Qur I am' " ill" verse .'Ii.. ""'f

.. '" ' """ "', ",WI, "_!k iii ' !U!.L Uf, ,< I " ' "'" 11"'1;;.'.1"" UlAli.

reads

,1.'1Ii,,-Q " '" "

, ' (And pFvclaim ,the pUg,rimcige ,amo,n;g men: they will come to thee on fOOl and (mounted) on every kind of '. eamei; lean .on ac.ctJunto/, journeys· through deep' , a:nd distant mountain highways.»

. (Al-Hajj:; 27)

, ,

Hope, therefore, to, be accepted and dr;ead. be:mg told: i,No

favor to ,fo11une for you] QscUlaJte between hope and, feu; rid, 'yourself of your power and s:(f;engtb, and re'~y on the Grace and , . Gemeros,itty otfAllah~ Mo(s,rHigh. '

When the pilgrims, enters '£he ,Haram (the Sanctuary of Allah) l' he sh.ould, hope to be safe from the: Punishment of Anab~ Most High'" and' should d,read not bemg, wormy f~O IlPluoacb Him" for in that case his entry '[0 die Sanctuary would _ leave him, frustrated and fit to be: abhorred. At, ,an times, however, his. hope sboold be U1ppermos't~ for AUab"-s Generosity

·is comprehensive, the Lord is Compassionate, the 'honor of the

'R" do '1!.. .,. 'I • n1l1 • d d

. ouse IS tremendous ,[uevlstto,r s rl,~'l.l ,IS respeeee _, an,

'prorectionis secure 'for all who seek refuge"

n.... • ":1.. 'v n," b"':i.. th' '·'11 ,. L, '~d L_~ • ,.

VIJ seemg tee ft4.' ·au ~ .. ~e piL~rfm SuOlll!l' _ 00 CO!D:SC1!OU,5, in

37

his heart of the :majesty of the House, veneraring it with such

., • ..'II.. h ' i b h ~d;' th L AI f ;,'111..

'~nt'Cn;sUy u:ia:£ .' e seems to anncrpate ~e_:.,(hi mg t e Lord 0 - me

Hoose. He, further" should express his .gr.ati·tude to .. "Uail, Mos'm High, for bringing hi:m to this. hig'h degree, and for' including him 'in the company of those who reach Him.

On (oucuing the Black Slone, the pilgrim sh.oldd believe that. be i~s. pled,gmg allegiance 'to Allah, Most High, and 'Vomng obedience 'to Him. He, also, has 'to make his resolve to be loyal -to his oath, for Ihe Wf[atb of AUah is the trahor's due.

00 c1ingin.8 to the coverings of the Ka' bah. and pressing one's breast against its wan (alt 'fIle part called Al~Mu]tazam)., 'fhe pilgrim intention should be: to draw close in IOiVe and yearning tothe House and the Lord of the House, seekinggrace d1.~o'Ugh.lhe contact and h.op;m:g for :immuniry from the- H,eU= Fire', .. At the same time, his inlteu:tion should be ,earn.eiUy to seek forgiveness [and to beg for mercy ~ just as one who has sinned against another will cling to his ,elotbeswh-ile: imploring his pardon, demonstf,ating thathe has no refuge or recourse except to his forgiveness.

0.0. running between Al-Safa and A]- Marwah" the pilgrim sbo:u:td reca:U how be wiU oscillate between the two scales of the Balance at the' site of Resurrection. Also" he demon s'traote S, devo~i.ooto dlu,ty and hopes to be viewed with compassion, just ~:ike who enters jhe presence of a king and. leaves, without kino,wing w'bellier the sovereigu has decided jo accept or to reject him i, He keeps going bac-k across the courtyard time after time, h,opi.ng to receive mercy' dIe second rime if not the first,

On standing at " Arafah, the pilgrim should ~ when be beho;~ds the tbroo,gi.m.g crowds, hearsthe loud voices speaking in :many too.gues~ [and sees jhe various groups following jheir Imams. 'tIllr-ougb the ritual obser-vances ~. recall the site of

.38

Resurrection, Ithe gathering of die communities with their Prop he ts, and Ieaders, each community foUowing its Prophes, aspiring ,after' dIe intercession, all wavering with equal unc.erwnltybetween rejection and acceptance,

A ~ . f IJ.... It'D ''Ii til 'I '. ~ .

s ror casting 0: :pe'l~b; es ,Aanu" '" 'e pt~ .gnm s purpose m

this should be o1bedieoceto the Divine command" to demonstrate submissiveness and servitude and readlness ~o comply without any obv'ruous rational of psychological justiflcation

Whell tbep'~]gdm" s eyes alights on. the wall of M,adinah" he

" "

j[lJ...01U' 'd:' remember 'th', a',f ..... ,~~ ~Ii! th 'e' IiIO·Ui.fn1 w, hich A111'ah'; M',: '0':'5' t H' Ish

",,11." ,,~:.' .. , ...... ,u~~ ,.""Ji, to .11- Uh,.<;l' ~1i;Ii , '" ",.n.lu. ,,1 .. ··.. ~., ~'" ,.", .~. ""

chose for His Prophet (peace: and blessmgs of A,nab be upon him), that he made it the goal of hils, 'migration, thallt this was his, Mamie. He should :furtfuer envisage the fU()ltp,rints of 'the:

Mes.s.eng,er of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be uptm hi'm) as be went about the cityand recall how' he used to go about ius streets, pietaring 'to yourself his humUity and his graceful gail.

[Om vislidng Allah" S Messenger, tile pilgrbn should. feel in, his, :beart his tremendous dignity and realize that be is aware of his presence, of his visit. and 'dmt be is receiving bis greeting. The pilgrim, also, should imagine the Doble form. of dlepr-op[het (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

1I,ft ,~ ~

Tbe Glorious QUf"an

-

:Merits of the Glorious Qurr,an

The most important virtue of the Glorious Qur'im is that it is the ·WOIEd. of AUah~ Mos;t High. ADM, Most High" describes His. Book, saying,

,L .... ' .... .1 :th" ~,,', " 1,._.1 .... ' "L: .. L Jtl/', .~~, ." ,;. ..I.. . .. ) i!!V1"1U .' fiLl ss a ,Q{:J'O~:~ W;ruCn;; He TUllAe serif,. uown.., ..

{AI.-An·" ,am,:' '92)

. ~eril'y this flur 'an doth guide to' that" which· ts most ,r:ighl.J'

(Al-Isral: 9) (No' falsehood' can apP'17oot:h _it from btf/ore or .behind it.)

(Fussilat:: 42)

"Utbmanibn ... Affoo. . (may AUah. be pleased with h~m) reports the Prophet (peace and bless,rugs, of AUah be' 'upon him) to have said;

'. nThe bes: ,(111W1J,gn' you is' the one' wh'o learns the

. _ Q:IJtr'(I'H and' teaches i,· IJ' . ,H'1JI' w..lI'r.~ .. .' ,~tu;W'G1iJ iIlo.t'l!!

(Reponed by AI_:Bukbari)

An (. All I..·L '1 d ".1,.,''''''' ') 'd ;5-''1);.... th

a:smay ... , an iue 'P~.easewlill1 ulm. sal" 'Uiu't r e

Messenger of Allah (peace and b~ess,ings of ,AUab. be upon him) said;

JtSurely~. Allahj, MOst .HfghJ' has c.hfJs:en_ some people (to be His javo'fite" servants)., if It l~aJ 8aid~ "Who, ar-e' those people; 0 Me.s.se:n.ger' of .Aliloh? ~l ~.The people Of the QUI'; ani' ", '. the Prophe~t sa.~d and added"

40

~'they are Ike (favori'te)1 people ojAllah.","

(Reported 'b:y An-Nasa,'i)

Furthermore, ibn ,. Amr (may Allah be, pleased with them bo~h) narratedthat the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said':

~ (Dn th,e Day oj J,Udg,mem~) it will be said to the people ql lhe(!ur~an~ 'Read {the Qu:r~ an) and' occupy Jour high degrees. Recue I(the Qur 'an) as

",,' " sed ,t,' ,"t" ,'t' ',,, ~"" ... " ,·:r..lfi' ',,-', : ", ' ,', '-r;' -

yoa usea to rea e z, !n ""a:: WOr:liU, tor )I,our Pos'~"llJn

"Ir, l..~ , "I. ,~~ ,J:r. J...... In •• , J' .'.~

Wi:,. oe at tne ena vJ - tne tast i~"r amc) 'V(?:-rs,e Y.Ou

r,ead. ,,,

(Reported by At .. Tirmidbi) Buraydah (may Allah be pleased wi'dl, him) reportsthat dIe

Prophet (peace and blessings ~)f AUah be upon him) said::

~IOn the Day of Jud,gm,ent~, the crOWll of "fig,niry will be put on the head' of the' one 'whO' memorizes t.he Qur~a.n:t and his parents will be dressed tn ,hVO' garmems that th·e worldis fUJI' equal to, thereupon

r.. ·'1"'" J 'I"J:J'L,...., t: A 't.~ d" d·

Ef'le] wtu ask; ',nKH .fJJOS moue us tIe' aressea tn

these garments?' ~ .and' it will be said~ fThal is because ,your son "smemlJ'ri'zatio,n of the Qu, ,ian {in

III"":'" '..i,~nr~'A.!1 ~ iii! ~IW [ft'Vf'W/!I!

Ibn Mas"'ud (may Allah be 'P,j,eas.ed w,ith him) relates, "One who memorizes the Qur'an shoukl be distinguished. by his (Frayer) at night while people sleep,ing~, his (Fastin,g) in 'the' daytime while people not fa:S'lmg" his sadness \1Ilbil,e people rejoicing,; his weeping while 'pe op Ie lau.ghmg,;., his silence while people mdulgm,g in nonsense, and his consciousness of Allah wbile 'poop,l.e bein,g cOftce'hed" He should not 'be bare foote a ,

heedless, vociferous, 001£ hOl -tempered .. II'

AI-f'udayl (may Allah have merc.y Oil. him) reports, "The one who keeps ·the Qur'arn by heart is the bearer ofthe banner of Islam, Therefore; he should not indulge in non sense 11 play, orenmsement - like ofher peeple do - due to his. revereseeto Al1ab~ Most High, Also, he should not be in need of others.' favors; rather people should look forward to his favor. "

Furthermore, Imam. .Ahmad, ibn Hanbal (m.8\Y AUab have

m,e'··c··, o'n' bim) is enorted to· I b .. , 'u,e s'a' id: "I have toe. "1 lb" 'f ..... ""..:1

. ry .... l!" . II Ii_JI'(" L. I .. u.8.'I' .. _ . .1." ... av"" i,1- .. en. ,_e J.....UIlU

of Mighty in at vision, and. asked" 'O Lordl Wbat is most virtuous act thai devout peop:re sboul,d do to brin;g 'd1emselves nearer 'to You.?He (Most High) said, "(Reading) My 'W(!!rds,,! 0 Ahmadi" l said, '~O Lord! Should it be with understanding?" 'It may be with 01' without uDderstallding,~" he declared"

One wh.o recites jhe Glorious Qur'an is recommended 10 have an ablutio.n and be pure" Reciting 'lhe Glolrious Qur'lanm Prayer, while one is standing, is more virmous th.an reciting it in any other situation. Likewise. one is recommended to read

+t..~ IG·ii~.n.11I'~ lQu':' r'an 'm' .' the m' fi Jl:!Ii1 lie'"

U~: '.' ,II,V(!I,~V'~' ':":-.". , M,;:I,.~ IJ ,I"., vn:;!I~ .. :. Of.

As to the period in. which one should finish reciting the whoie Our'an early Muslims were of diverse stances on. this point. Some of them used to finish, reciting the 'whole Qur',an every day, Odlers used to finiSh it 'in three, se'Ven;.ordli.rty days. This varied according Ito each one's circumstances, SO', one is. recommended to read as much as he can of the Qur',iUl so kmg as one r:eflects upon and understands w.bat he: recitesc and

d . . hi ~dl" d11'

. '. ~ ,. ." I' ", . . 1 ' :., - ...., •

oes mot ignore _ lS WOf .. , .y....tle:s, •

In mis regard, ibn ".Abbas (may. Allah be pleased with them.

42

both) sa,'id, "To me, it is better Ito correctly recite only Sural Al-Baqarah and Sural Al "" Imran and reflect uponlheir meanings. tban, tOI heedlessly recite the- whole [QUf 'an, '1

'Ilbn M'" ,:,", I'd' (ma ", A·" It"".... b '-I,e ' I, ted ,'" ith h ,'i )' s"a'~[d'l ~li:W· .', h'-" "',': !,; ,

,'I! ,_as U ",:t,!,UJ!.Y "~" ,dJ,.1 e p, ase ,.' WI _un ,1_ ,t .. rever

finishes reciting the whole Qur'an, willbav,e a, Du "!Q J1 (supplication) that will be responded by Allah." On fmisbing, the recitatlon of the' whole Qur'~an, Anas (may Allah be. pleased wi'ttl bim) used 'tOI ga1ther his -(;amily aadmake Du "!a",

Reciting, the Glorious Qur' an, witb sweet voice is recommended", However l' if one is mot able ~o read 'the Glorious Qur "aa with sweet voice, he has, to exert himself to. do so.

Likewise" reading Ithe Glonous Qur' ~D! in a low voice is recommended, III this context, a lladith says,

"The superiority ,Of reading (the Glorious 'Qur 'an) in a lo-w l'o.i,c!e over reacUng (U) in, [0 ,loud'voice ls like' the superiority oj giving alms in secret Q.v;e.r gi'lling it in pUblic" "

(Repo.lJted by An,-Nasa,~i)

But we: should keep jn mind the ,fac[ that reciting Ilbe 'Glorious Qnr'an in a, loud. voice is recommended in certain situations. sueh as, leaching the Qur'an, awakening I sleeping, person, etc.

One. also, should read in a mode 'tlilat permns him, to hear his rechation,.

As to Iowermg and raising one's voice in reading tb,e Qur'sn in Pni,yel\ '[his is, dea~t with rhoroughly in lthe books of,Fiq/l'. On the reading Ott Gloriol!]s Q:UI'3n; one sho.uld. bear in mind the

4,3

Glory of the Speaker" Most. High, and reflect, upon what he reads. Moreover, none caooot r-e;f1I.ect U.pO'D 'What he: recites except after repe.ating: Idle verses, he recites, he is recommended! to repeat 'the Qu:r~anic verses so as to ponder over them" In this connection, ibn. Mj~j,ah reported onthe authority of Abu Dharr (may Allah be pleased wi:dthi:m) who reposted than t1le P'fiJphet (peace and. blessin.gs, o.f Allah be: upon him) performed a Ni,gbt

Praver re a din 0' 0' '1I"iU~; verse r~i9n9'l1,,;rng" ~t·;;;""'ii" ver (l&i, reads

, ,'_, .... ~ .t'.. UJ,,£ji!,. ,u,,", . '" I..,!i,.',~ ''''''r,",OII~jJ,.,~ ~." Uh,,," v~· ",,~, """'Ql1JI~,

"q Tlwu dOst punislf, tnem, they rare 1721 servants;' if Thou Idust ,!o'rgive: tnem, Thaw lore the Exalted in power, the Wise.,,.-

(A' 1 M' " "'d ... :b;, 1'1' 8')

"' ". '-i.a ~!._.J", ",

Likewise, Tamilm Ad-Dari (may Allab be pleased with him) prayed a, Night: Prayer repeating the fo.UowingQur'tanic verse:

:rULa' '[, D' to t.'~ .... ,jII. ,10 'w' h· o : seez fl(fe' r ~'i.i'j~ W" -·11\""'" til· f"',;",J~ tha:

'ff'Ir.f . ',_ - .lV ·1"W.iJ!I~ _\ -';".' I .. ,? [~'''J .' II.;' ff'" '~J~ I . 1fA., ~ r,,,"

We. shalt hold them equal w:lth t.hOS[f who believe'

d ""'... .'.it. .A.. ,r..' I 'Ii I.. ,it. ... '. 1 il'.

an UQ rlg,,,te.o.U8de'eifM. mas equa: WI_', ere tf,fi:.tr:~e

land' rheir death? III is tire judgment t.hat they 11tClke.) (Al"Jathiy,ah:' 21)

On reading the 'Qur~'anjjc verse malt re:a:ds,.,Prais,€' be to Allah}. WhO' created the heavens and the' earth, (AI-,Ao'" am:: 1)~ one should ponder on. the Mighty and Power of dl-e Creator, Most, High.

On reading 'the Qur' snlc verse that says, .. ,D'() y:e' then. see?

The (human seed) that y'e [throw out) (A~-'W~~rah,: :58)~ one

• if. .~, Il

should. reflect upon ,the. marvelous stages (If man" 5, creation

from semen, DotH, he becomes a, powerful man"

Purrhermore, a reader of 'the Glorious Qur",aJ1 should steer

c].,.". , ef ; ,h,· • b" °1; d:" ·-'S· 'lb,' ',-',' understa 'd\' 'I"J 0&' ,;bt" 0:::;1-0'-":'- "Q' IlJIr'''an

c ,ear 0 W" 311, ""lll,e1i _ ,e. un . ,!i;;-.I .,dlO cm~ '."~ UI,e '- ' :nous '" '.: ' ',' ..

·44

such as concerning himself only with 'the correct prommciation of sounds" committing sins, and. 'fOUowmg his. vain desires and whims.

Also" a reader of the Glorious, Qur",an should consider the GlOriOllS QUf·,aJl as addres.sing him, and, therefore, act according to hs ins'ttuc:tions,~

45 - -

After reading the' G'~,Oirious Quean; there is no act of' worship better dian Dmkr and Du ';' a J'"

The merits of remembrance of AUtdl" Most H'~gh, are

h·I,., 'I\., lighted e i-1.,.~.s: lI]l ." Q' ... " " ...

1 ~gUJl ,"1100 Ul u!it:; ,~,O,I·OWU1;g ., ..• ,ur muc verses,::

(7',1.- , .. J. ",' .. -', .', ,j",,' IiI, l""·:"·"l'l : ,'-, .. 1.., .... ,. , " B'.

inen. ao ye remember sae; " WI:" rememoer vou . ,'€

gral'efld to Me, and reiea not Faith .. ')

. '(AJ-Baqarah:' 152)

, '.,j, and for men and' women who engage much in:

·~l·.I' .... ,l. ,P ','" ,.", " 10' ,'h" , . has A· t .. ,....,.L;, "I'" , ared

n,wn; S praise."" ,rem ,as ,'·~,"n p:repar.e ..

Ii. ' ,'~ ,',' .. '. "",,"'...1 ""~" ,t ' . '," "d -

Jorgrv1en:eS8 ,ww. gretl rewa!: ..

The' Prophet (peace and blessing;s, of Allah. be upon him) is reported, '£0' have said,

"SuT;ely~ Allah, Glorifte:d ,ana Exalted be He, says~ f.1' will be with My servant ,as iCIng as he makes mention .of Me' and' ,milve:s his lips in .. mokil.~g

".!>>J'It· !.r'i>HnJ:F1 "e' ,. 1,1' m,,".nlVI,~' v) lfl!.

{,tlL:r c' ~ . 1· ' , ... ~:r ,', .... - "J", Allah'" b.'I1'';'''' ., '.,-"1",,,

,1:1'0' pe:op (1 essemme to .n.ememv'tT" ',' .... ',m ang,e~

surround them, mercy covers mem, Sakinah; (calmness) de$cend~ ,upon tn;emJ• and Allah mentions

-,l' '. H'" , , 'hi ~"

lde,m!n ,':U ,QBSefflv,Y' "

(R,qw:rted by Mushm)

Abu Hurayrsh (may Allah. 'be pleased with him) reported the Pro-pbe.[, (peace and blessings of ,AlI-ab, be upen him) as bav'ing

said"

"No people sit in a ga#z€'ring and then depar: e'ach other without making m:entiat!· Qf Allalt (G,lorifirtd and ,Exalu!d be He), but they aepanfrom tne like' ,elf

... £J "I~~ ... _,~ "I.," ,I:..' 'l"t

,a carcass <.;' a (lon-lUJY ena ,tid5 ,gatr.€rI2nng W,Z' Ii cause'

t.hem jere" regrer on the ,DflY of,ludg"~elu. ~,.

,(R"a'poC:_i .. ~, .... A 'b-y-, Abu Dawu d ,)',

• I ~~ •• ILI~U. _ . , " U,. fA. _' _." _ '.

, '

Another HiJl:lith reads,

"1\:1'" , p""o.ln J' S'I in ' Ii): , ';-l. ... jilino w' rtlJ.,fl,U' '-,,n:r.ino

teo peopte su _of' a Oa~/.le.i' ~>6 '!Ifivm 'J'~Il., ~

n-lfl1#On of Allah (Glorifi,ed and' Exalted be He) or sending bless.ings upon the Prophez (peace land ble'ssings of Allah be 14pon ltirm.Jr. but they dep,Qrt,frOIfl; thf! like oj a carcass of a dQ1lkey and this gmhi!ring 'will cause them: feel regre: on ,the Day of Judgment. ~

(Reported by At-Tirmidhi)

M '" r-'n--e-:' ... ·:;-

erlts 0: I ,8 ,"

As to the merits of Du 'a J ,,[hey' are higblighted in Ole following Ahadith:

Abu. Hurayrah (may Allah, 'be pleased with him) reportedthe 'P:rop'bet (peace' and blessings of ,Allah be upcm bi'm)as having said",

ftin the siQ.·ht .0:1' Allah Glori:ned' and Exalted' be' He',

, , ", ' , ,0' -- ','J " ... ~ -" - iJ it' , - r, - --. '. 1

nothing ts more /wn,orablie than Im "a', ~

to., .. d b A· T" "d-JI,.") \.I"epone, "y:t-I, l(,mllifl

.il7,.' ~,

'U~erily'> the most vlnu(}1.U act .of worship is Du: a'. ,~ (Reported by AI-BtlkhariJ

.Abu Hurayrail (may Allah be' plJeased,with him) reported the Prophet (peace and blessings of AUah, be upon hhn) as having said,

'"Who.ever does not ask Allah, will incur A,llllU 's

wr,n-+h "",11'.,. "':11 h--j~':t'e~l£ "-

~i' M-y'V"", _' ~filr'l:iiJl !I r

(Repoeted 'by At- TirmidhO

_lIm. MaS)" ud,(mtay AUabbe pleasedwith hhn) reponed the Pl'ophe£ (peace and bless,:ing,s, O'f AUah be upon him.) asha.ving,said,

[.;J, . ~',

"B,eseecIJ A.lIah to' s.no'wer His Bounty upinJ ',O,ft/or' .Allah loves to be .besought. v

(Reported. by At:~Tirmidhi)

Ethics of'lJu 'a j

FoUowms are some edJi(~s tha'~ lone w'bo' 'makes - Du",a-~' is recommended to stri,ctly adhe're to:

'ii' 'C-,_'b!Q:o"-if!inIO, tbe 0,; p-=-,t"l"'m-:-nm-- times to:', make D, 'u-- -"a,"-'I' ·'r~,e::cm-i - ;f\-U1C" h as

I,., __ "_' _~.'~ Lt",!, I ,'!L,!I ." ~., , ", "." W~]I,:"" ,!i.li ,," "

me Day or' Arafah, (9.th day of 'diemooilb, ()f Dhu-l- Hijjaj), the mootb of R,amadlwt lthe :Frida.ys~. tb,e last 't~me o'f the night before the: D3I,wn., the time between Atlhan and lqamoo" after -the performance of Prayer. ,dur~ng rain, in times, Qif Jihad~ atiter fini;sbing the: recitation of the' wb.o;le' QUI"an, durifug SU,ju'a'i' after brealdng one's Fast, etc

2 F' 'aein i g- the W-· "'b"';",~

'!' .. ~. ;I,\r.o " " "'_ :UUI~

. -

3" Lifting one" s band" 'towardstb.e 'Sky. "

16. Commencing Du"a~ with pf,ais,ing Allah, Most Hlgh.,

1. ,Sendmg, 'blessings upon the Prophet (peace and bless,ing,s of Allah, beupon him),

:8,. Steering clear of oppression and sins" 9. Keeptog peni~eJl;~!,

Awrad 0:1 'the Day mdNight

One should get bim__self weli ... a,cquai,nt~ed 'wi'tb the fact 'that the w,ay tobrmgios; ,hi'mself closer to Mlah,.Mast, High, lies in ,eoHStandy worshiping Him by day and! night.

In 'tllis context, Allah" 'MoOs(, High, says in the Glorious

Qu" I ~.r an,

.( iIi .... A 1.1." .r.. :u: ' 'II:f;r;.:r ~ d' ,. ,11' '\t:ITW ceteorase me ~:~ame ~,- t,~y Lur_ I1Wm;ing tina

eve'fu:n.g. And 'part o/' the night~ prourate thyself to

Him: and glor-ify Him a. l:ong, ,night throu.gh .. ) -

. (Al".Insan,: 25-26,)

Tb" ~ N' ' b '.' , ,f-;A ",,,,_;1 I"f-' ~IL .... , D'~"', :,' -d: fbi', N: ""::h,'t , e L UlDer 0 ' rJ,,",nm,.g ~,.l syaoe "e, 1,611

The day is divided hlJIO seven Aw.raa aud, the night, is di'Vid.ed lnto six Aw~ad" Below is, Ihee:x:p,laoadoll. of 'these Awrad and

til ,. f 'h "I:U+ ""J' . e vU"lu.e 0'. eac ... ;-rlfu:

1he first Wi,d' of the day: This, Mra begins, W;(Jtb. the &dveDJt of the dawn ualil rise of dIe SUD .• ' Thi.s an honorabte time, 'by

,49

which AUah., Most. High, has made an oath in the following verse:

A'- d 1ft. 'D""'" .. m,t, bc,--..,.-l;f.t.~ .",' rl. .... >!la ,11:..,..."" "'" n: IIf,r,t!;· . aliVfI. las l' ·,fir;.aJ;f;u:;.S away in;; tli :fNl!ess. 'I:'

(Am,- Takwir: 18)

When at devour worshfper awakes, be is recommended to make' Dhikr with 'the' :foUowing: ,PFop~hetic sayings:

"Praise be to' A llem. M,,, has caused us. to live ,ofie'r He has caused us to die/ and:' to Him is the ji:ool issuing. i'I!

(Reported by Al-Bukharf)

, -

Ibn Mas"ud (may Allah be pleased. with him) saidthat when It 'was, evening Allab II s M'esseDger (peace' and blessings of AUab be' upon ,bim) used to supplicate,

"We have em:e,re:(i upon evenin:g and so" too, tlM' who-Ie' Kin~d:Oll! of Allah has lemered upon evemng,

P . ,. AI Al'-" Ti. . rood b A "~' ,.L,

, rtUI,e l8 ,dee to ',. "_ f.tih. j (rete ts no g~.,; .' ut .' ,u-an; ..

the One hoy,in:g no partne with Him. His is the SQ'Vereignty land to Him is praise' ,due and He is Potent over e1!elY'thing." MY Lord, l beg of ,You good

_ _

that lies in this night: and good that foll(Jw~ it and I seek r-ejUge' in YOU; ,fr_oln the' evtl ,lnat ties in tlUs night land from the' evil Of that which follows it. ,My Lord) /' seek r-e.:{uge in Y.o.l.t fromsl{Jlh~ from the evi'l oj'vani:ty,. My Lord, .1 see« refi:t,gf' in You from torment of the fle,ll-jiTte and from tormem of the g.rU",A'f. ~.

fun M,as"ud added that~ and 'when. it was 'morning he said Iike tM"s"

tt.'We entered' upon. ,morni'ng and the whole' Kingdom:

50

{If Allah, enJ,ere.d upon ,morning. '. , n

(Reported by Muslim)

~ln, th-e NCU'11e of A,Uuilj' -with 'W'hO'se Name nothing in the earth nor in the heaven, and He is the AU' Hearing, the' All Knowing" II'

(Reported by At- Tirmidhi)

"I have' s.atiifi'edl1fith Allah as m:y Lord, with islam as my religion. and with the Messenger as my Prophet (peace and blesdn;gs -oj Alla/z; be upon ,him)

..".""",,1 :11 ,- -- -- I,"~

WI« IVlfssenger.

-

(Reported bY' ,A'I'~ Tirmldll.i)

00 prlrayi!ng tile F,~j r Prayer ~ one: is recommended to say the' -following Prophetic suppJi.catio.o. w'bJle still silting ,in tile position. of Tashahw!J.':

"There is no god but A,ll£ihJ, the One'lVko has no partner. His is the S()l!ereignty [and His is the

P- r-n:; (M' F"':'_J>br- o~-£ ,1';£," e- , .... ~,.:I D- -:[.<:I,_..",+1:. a: - na - '-'Odll.,~ ""'n,""'w-' -erc'

.J NiCoi!."'I~,,. U'J iVC-, ::'1 'UJ~ tu;J«, r ··,-~UJ.fl-;. I,'., "_' .C.lI~ fum- yV' ". -,'

__ - .' . '-:L1I1" '"

ov:e,r elleryr,dng.

!.(R •. Reported by ,At- Tiirmidln)·.

- ~-~.. .

Then 'be is to ask ,AILah"s forgi.vene~ss, by dIe 'most superior

form, of seeking forgi veeess of Allab, as follows:

«-,0 Allah! You are my Lord. Thefe is .00' ,god but, You. You have created my and 1 am Your servant, I do mY' best to keep ,my [covenant and promis-e' with V-""Ii.., l' ,[io?.;Jil .. r-'D~"04 ~n You ft' -om "h. 011' evil d( W·· _:l.;."", 1

..IIVK.o'1 ~I~~J.\, 'C?J ~o;~ ,~. _ .. _ . :..~' i .jl.!. .. ~ _. UJ" 1'!l...W .

,have done . .I ,oc.fawwledge :YauT favor upon me and I acknowledge ,my .sin,. So, jor-giil1e'me~ .to'r no one &ur You who ,can forgive' ,sl'ns" 1J

(Reported by Al-Bukhari)

51

And, he should say.,

~'We' have beg,un the' day in .the way' Qf Islam: and wit/,l. the 'word' of devotion, in the reU~io,n t)'r our Prophet MUhammad fpeac:e' and blessi~gs of A.flak be ,upon .him), tn the ,natiOn of OUf' jathert lIJrohim~ the' true' Unitarian, who »w never an ath.eist. U

(Rep Of red. by Ahmad)

{Reponed, by Mus]im) ~O Allah!' Yau are'm,' ,lnrd~ There' is no god lmt You" l' place' 1ny trusz in: Yau. You are the Lord rtf the' ,glofious 1'hr(),ne. Sure·ly~. 'what lakes place is flcc;o'rding to You,. . Will and what does not rake. ,plac,'e is ,according to Your' Will,. l,beUeve In'(11' .AllDh hlMpaw:er over ail thi'ngs and W'hose .knowledge.

. !encmnpW$;,fS everytht'ng. 0 .Lo.rdt I seek r:e~ge ,in You from .the evU within myself ,and from the ,evil of every movitig creassre that Fou haV,f ,the graspqf us fo,elock .. ,Ve.,i'ly~ it is ,my Lo;rtl that fa on a straight

pat'l. '"

1~:" _-'.i!!1

Before ,going ·QUlI: to perform Faj r 'P,rayer in. Ibe :m{)lque~ one iisreoommended 001 pra,)" the: Superero,ga'OClry Prayer m IlJs, house, 'W1lengoill(g ,out~othe mosque, he should say:

'2 .

141'0·· . .' A·-n ,I.., /'., .,n't"k·. 1'J".' . '" ""'-.LtL,,d ,. "f.;+ O'fjif' ... z;. ..... ,Il"'O, u.L.·.,. nit".'"

'.' .... ,'J'IQ-Il. ,!I.I1;)l .IQ,U. Wl,~" ,Uif.'~ .ng,r'-'I- ''J nW!iiI[!;. 1t')"I"f;O UIiJ,"

, You and Wilh this going out of me to You. For, I ,aD not seek with my going OUI (to You) ,/U.nJ' m:",ratimde showing''',,\oJR'_ or Tame .n

. 0-'. .. - -" .. - ,j!! I '_ .' '_, fU; . J'~. .. II

(Reported by ,Ahmad)

Whem ,ernterillg the mosque, he is re.c(l!~ndtedl tol caU, upon Allah •. Most Hlgh,. according to the followi:o,g Hodith:

'1Vhoever enters the mosque" ,shou-ld pray for the M essen ver at Allah tseace and bless,;~'Q" o'Allah be

!I~ ._. .~ . - .. U~,.j!!I;;-i. - - - - . _. .. ~'LJ:a'~ .'J' "..... I. ..

'Unon h: "m' -J" .... _ . ..l . . '0- A' B_L[, Op' -- - -- ~I" .' +1..-

iMr '. ' .. 1< W'W s;ay~ . ...., ;J-,uUI"",ell ,It;;i~' 11ft! i-ne'

doors. of Your ,"Jere].. ~ And when. he' getS' (Jut' be should say, lO Allah, 1 beg .of YOl.l Yours grace' .. ~ oj

(Reponed by M'uslim)

He should try to -pray indJ.e 'first row of Ibe JaJn!l"ah" ,trod engage himself in remembering and 'making D« ~Ia'~ tOI AUah between the Adhtm: and. lqamah., After' Fajf' Pr,ayer ~ he irs, recommended to :s,ray :in [be mosque until soori;se 'for Anas (may Allah be pleased 'with him) reported that the. Prophet (peacoe and blessings of' Allah, be ~pon) said,

.. '~Whoe~~r prays the 'Fajr Prayer In lama"[an and· then st01J 'in, the m()/s,nlJe \ re:memb,e.rmg·' All"'~· Most

- , """.;,r ~.". .', "'''1 - J . '. . -." .. U(.J.,~ - --.

u" r. ··l --.f....! 'J£ 'mA ,i.,

. n rgr.", tauu tne nse 0' sun, [aim men p"ay two

. . ,Rail." at, will have (a reward ,of) Hajj and ,. Um"ah .:

. ~ ""+:'··!I.L ~

. pe'it!,clilty •. ,., .

. .

(Reported by Ait-TinnidhO .

. .

.' . 'I"'E. ... ,~.dIt'V'l'"'"(~. U},';.'L~d o~!rl~h: iD .;:1m,!' 'T'ik:: (l 11.1cjttl starts from 'the rise

. J: fJe; ~~·~-v'tU '-',1" I. r ~ Ji~. II;. UV)". IlU~ ",1;.,1_._< ," _ - ".UILIlI.. . [,,;~

. 'of the' sun, urntildle end of d1e D.uha Prayer. This, Wird' is!

0" _ '-.. • !

~ ."' . .5-°3,'

• • L '.' ~ •

a.pproxima:Eely three hours, In thisWird~ one is recommended 10 carry out the fol"lowing two::

2., To pay visits to sick people, Ito aU'e1ld edueational sessions, to meet Ih,e need of hi.s fellow Muslims or to' engage himself in reading the Qur' an andDu "a ~'!

The third Wird CJj the day,: This ",lrd starts from me end of the Duha Prayer time untU midday. Besides dieafore.mentioned four .good deeds, that one is recommended to do in (No. a in) the second l¥i~d' of the 'Day, be is 'recommended to do the :foUow'ing two:

1.. To earn his liv,elihooct

2. To sleep fo[, ,I while jn order to help himself:pr,ay Qiyt1m Al~ Layl:, and to awake before 'llie ZUhr Prayer to prepare himself 'EO offe:r it.

The-fourth Wird' Qf tne' day,;' This Wli'ird starts from the mid of dIe day until the end of 'me ZUh:.r Pray,er. In this, ~i~d" one is, recommended ·to repeat 'the Adhan after themeezzin when be cans to the Zuhr Prayer 1 '10 pray four Ralc" at ,as a supererogatory Praye'I' before praying the ZUhr Prayer .to :pray the ZUhr Prayer, and then '£0 pray f.our Ra;k,'''m as ,a. supereroga tlW'U p. rayer

.,u.· ~~' ..... " L, •• ~ :'~'.:r1-' , ~, ::_~_~ ¥I, '"

The ,fifth 'W,ird of the day:' This Wi.rd starts, from the end of the .Zu:hrPr.ayer 'uotH the time of tbe ".As,. Prayer, In tbis Mrd' one is. recommended to. engage in Dhikr J' D,lI," Q '. and aJU forms of good deeds; amongst the best good deeds, is wailing Prayer a4e:r P ra . yer

._...II"LJ. _ l ~Ii \io' iii

54

the' "Asr Prayer until yellowness of the sun, III this lime, one is advisedto pray four supererogatory Rat ~'al' before performing '£~be "As.r Prayer. Afterwards .• he 'm,s recommended to engage ln doing what he is recommended to do 'in the firstWira' of the day, particularly recning 'the- Glorious Qur'an and pondering over its meaning

The seventh. l¥lr.d' of the day: It stares from the yellowness of the sun, und~ the set of the: sun, This is an excellent time about 'which Al-Hasan Al-lBisd (may AUah have mercy upon him) said, "Righteous men used '10 g'm.orify the end of 'the claymore than ttlte beginning of in i, '" In particular glorifying .d, seeking forgiveness; of Allah, are recommended in thislirird.

By Ibe set of [be sen, the Awrad of the day come to am, end".

So, one sbould refteer OD. his acts in the' bygone day" If be sees lhat be bas dune wen through lhe day, he: sJl0uld. express his gradmde to Allah, Most Hight for His favor andguidan,ce., In contrast, If he sees that be has had some shortcomings, be should make 17a:wbah and intend to do wen. in the ·coming ni,sht. He should~ furdIer, keep' in mind fh.at by the' end of the day at part of his life bas expired, In this, context, Al." Hum said" '"'0, son of Adam! Know dla'l you ~ife' consists in days; so 'when a

d" -.,'. , .. , , -, ut f life h" e" ;;""" 'iI' '0" . 'I:'IJ.. .. _-", .' "'j,,. 'Id'

.. ay passes, a, part o u enme .·'XPlt,,'eS. '.' ne, usewise, M10Ut

dlank AUah, MOISt High" for glt8ntiD,g him good health and giving him mJJI'e time Ito do good deeds, ,A group' of ihe early Muslims liked to give almseach day"

The first Wird oj ,the ,night: n, starts by fue' set ot 'llie. sun until time of the ",Is.M" Prayer, ,A:fter perfonn:iog the Maghn~b Player ~ one' is recommended to keep' on dolo,g virmes Qm:1U the end of this, Wircl Commend»g on the glorious, Qur'anic verse 'dlat reads ~

55

'~Thelr limbs. do forsake thelr beds oj steep, thewhi,te theY' ,call on the,it Lora, in Pear and Hope: and they spend tin Charicy) rOut. .of .the sustenance whJ..ch, We' have bertO'wed on then!.·'

(As-.sajdah~ 16)

Anas (may Allah be pleased witll him) said, . 'This 'Qu:rinic v'e-1:8ewa.s revealed to descri.bethe Companions of tile' Messenger of Allah (peace' and. blessings or Allah be upon him) 'who used. to pass 'fhe~ime between Ml1:ghr-ib [and ... lsna' 'P1iayers in offering Prayers,

. -

In this. connection, Abu Hurayrah (m.ay Allah be pleased - -

with h~.m) narrsses that 'the M;essen,g,er of AUah (peace and

- b'-I, -' :' ',. ;,'.1/: A· ·1'~ .... 1-.. 1,..,? -- him) said:

.'.- eSSlllgs Ch - _ ,_ 14U IJ!Ij;. upo.n. I. ~... ". .

kliI·_n...,...e·-vr'.r.·- p:-~-~,f:.·r-m.s six Raka - "at i6'~~'r- tLe·I'.ra· ;(i'·rib.-~_

:rr.fK/ .. t;.. "J,J;"J'V' ._' ~~ ,R _.il",. -_._ .-~.~~ ,'.J.. ~:'-j!. ~Ol'

- be do -, ·'1

Prayer, between them .. ~e . toes not [engage in eVl.

ta:lk~, ~i'll have [a reward equal to lW},rship'ing (A.ltah)-

fio-- two if:... jJ

jor r . e~ Ire years,

(Reported by At ... Tinnjdhi)

The' second 'M,~d of the .nlght: 'This' H'ird starts from ihe diisappear:am.ce of 'me' red - twilight 'Until U'le.lime of one ~ So sleep.

10 dds time, one: :is recommended to' -pr.aly as much as he can offer. Likewise, he is to read Sural ,As-Sa}dlah [and Sunlt AI..: . M:ul1k for -the M'essenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah 'be upon him). according rrO ,At-Tlrmidhi 's narration, used, to. not - sleep 'before readingthem, Here, we' recall anotheruarration of - .. Abd.ull~ ibn Mas"ud (may _-AJJla:h be pleased 'wi'(h him)--:wbo _

. said that the Messenger of.Allah (peace' and blessings orf Allah' be upon h:h~.) satd;:

~~-~er recites Surat Al-Woqi"ah each- night; ,Will' . - - never be lnf/i,cted 'w:i~h jJtwetry" - ~ _ - ~ _. . - _ . . . (Repartedby - ibn AS~U!Jmi)-

- .. -_-

11u? third Wird of the nigh:t: This, Wil'd consists in. ofiedn.g Wi'tr Prayer 'before s~.,eeping ,wiOt the exception of the' one who used to offer Qiyam Al-Layl" since for him it :~sbetter to delay offering tile Witr Prayer, . .. A ~ ishah (may Allalb be pleased with be~r) reported,

ifAllQh'$ Me:sse.nge'r offered Witr Prayer at ilijJer-e,nt nigh'ts at various ho,u'rs ,extending tfromthe "/lha·F Prayer) ,up to the last hour o/'th€ night. jjo

(.Agr,eed upon Hadith)

";Glory be the Holy King., n

(Reported 'by An-Nasa'l)

The' !aiUth Wird of th·e night:: This Wi.rd '~S, sleepmg jtself, We count sleeping asWird for j.n.~ if one ,applies its, morals, 'is an act of worshlp in i~selJI., In ®hiscon~e,xt~ Mu' adh (may A11ab. be: pleased wi.'Ul. him) said,

Ui 1 .sleep and then get "p'., I slft:p and' hope fo.l" Allah 's R:eH"ard jor ,my sl€Cfl a~ I seek His ~eward toe .i1'ro Fltmam AlI:"',Jz'n;I· ~

.J~ '-' iP,~-~.)' ~.~I .. ,,' ,., ~J .. liI

(Reported by .AI .. 'Bukhari and, Mus;~.ru:m)

AmomgS:i the' good manners of s~eep,ing: 'is O'ff~dngWudu J' befor-e :r-eUring toene's bed. ".A 'ishaib. (ma:y Allah be pleased with. her reported,

"Uthenever .rhe Prophet intel.Med t~ s,leep' while he ~ Juuub~ he used to wash Idsp.rlwlt,'eparts and peiform .ablur:i'o,rJ like that fo.r theP'fayer. U

(Reported. ·b,. AI,-B!ul~dulti and M'usUm)

.57

Allah, M'Ost High, in order to purifY' his mward soul. as he has p1!lf,ifi,ed :his .outward body.

Also, he is £0 iuJtendto. persist in steering clear of d.ece:it, oppression,~ wrongdoing, [and aU sins,

One is instructed 'by tile' Prophet (peace and, blessings, of

AI· 1~1!.. j..._"" . - biro", ,). . ,j hi . ·111 .. A- b dl.,,:1~~'L 'b '. U

001 ~: upon ' r- :. to wnte I U;, WI!. ;; ~[ !U!liLat!l tn - c[mar

(may Allah be pleased witll them 'botb) reports the Prophel; (peace 00£1 bless,iin,gs of Allah be- upon bhn) as ,havIDg said,

"II is not p,ermiss,ible' fiJir any Muslim who has something to. 'will to sta:j for ,two' nights without having his liut will and testament written ond kept

'Ii'hhilu.' 'uri:r.:',t. h'· im n , ~u:u.r '-11f,"_'1'~ . f}, .' , •

(Reported 'by Al .. 'buldJari and Muslim)

. 'Excess, preparation of' one's bed shouJd be [a'voided for :it may 'eollarge the time of his sleeping, Once" the Prophet's bed W,IS folded ~m order 'EO be more comfortable] when he said,

""T"iL,.'f.;~ ~e-d 1n8 fi..--;.i'im" -'/..11:. "ng' U' - "un. A l ,,7n"11:'l' _",

--,J: :ru'3 n'~lW'" e n en '!,.I'l .. ~JJ erm; 'ij am .... , '"'~ j. •

(Repor~ed by A't"" Tirmidhm)

One is recommended 10 fo.llow in the footsteps of 'the ea,rly 'rightOO1.lsMusltims who used to no:t sleep until, they' become overwhelmed, by sleep.

Moreover ~ amqst the 'morals of sle-ep!mg is flciQl the Qibah:lh~ makin,g Du "'al[w Allah wi-1ft the authentic. Propnetic

IIlU~I'·- tl , .... -~ Ivi ",,",0. one' rii,o:i1.,[' S,:A.- Bol-·.t."IIw '1-."0" . V;;!!'r

;;:1;' .. 'Jt,v.!!.~ca.l101!l.s,; ,UI!iU .ylllg..it I '. n So: ,~~lluiJ" _ ·:mue. . ... 10.0: .• 1'i"J1 ..... ' , l!!i. we· ',,", '~

are some relevant Ahadith:

Abu Hurayrah (DUlY ,Allah be pleased wi:thbim.) reports 'that the Prophet (peace ad blessings of,AUah be upon him) said,:

58

"Mien anyone Qfyou retires to his bed, he' .should take' hold of the hem of his lower .garment iand clean {h.is bed) w,ith, tne .he'lp oj that three times for he h.irnself does not know what he left behind .hJm on his bed. lY.hen he intends to ti,e on hi's bed, he shQ,uJd 8ay,~ ~:ln Your Name, my Lord; I hav.elatd mys,e,l/ down, and in. Your Name I slwU rise. q you take ,my soul, then have mercy on it; and if You release it~ tsen prosea it' i'n. tne way You protea Yo,ur faithfol servants .: ~"

(Repofted by AI-Bukbari and Muslim)

.. A."ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported,

''''Me'll the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be lIptJ'u .him); redrea to his bed he used to no,ld his hVo palms t()gether~ blnw in them. ana' recite .surm. Allkhlas~ Sural' A,l-:FataQ.~ and Sural AnrNas;' then lie used to wipe' with his .two palms much .oj ,his ,body, .starting fry w,iping his he;ad~ his face; and most of his .body., He used to' do so three times. D

(Reported by .AI-Bukhari and Muslim)

Al-Bara' ibn" Azib (may Allah be pleased wi'lh 'b.im) reponed"

"Tbe Prophet (pea,ee and' bles,dngs of Allah. be up.rJ'fI him)1 said to me. ~Whenever; y·.;ou gO' to bed p··.e....t'arm

._ • - '. , •• , " •• " • - - - - _' - J '. ~ ,I. .' .;. ')-t

abluttan like thnl jor lite pr,ayer. lie or your right side (J~d ,s,ay:O Allah! I surrender to you~ entrust all rn"\ a_.fftJifS to' YauF and depend upo,n, You fOf' You; ,8,les8,ings, bo:th with hop'c and fear (~, You. Tnere is no jle,e;ing from YuuJ and there is !,r,,· place ,;Jj pr:fJ:tection and 8a/fty excep: wl1h Yo,u "f;!,ti,ev:e In Your ,8'001 (the Qur~an)1 which ,You hav« 'er,ea!ed

and tn ,Y~ur .Prophet (Muha:mmad) whom ,You: have

",.".",. Th',' ,,', if"" ,"',,' ": 11":"'" ,," t','", 'f ," ",'~, h't, "" '~l'l d'" sem, , ,: en. t YOU" .Ie on ,ZUl,\ very lUg: , J' YOli WI, ,~, J€

with .faith fl. e., or the ,religion .of /sWn!). Let tse afores-aid words be- yaur last uuerance {be/ore sleiep1" ~ I}

(Reponed by AI-Bukhari and Musli,m)

._, Ali (may A:nah, be pleased 'widJ. him) reportedthat Fatimah complained of 'what she suffered from, the hand 'miU and from irindil1g~ when she got the news 'fuat some slave girls of the 'booty bad, been brought 'to AUah,'ls Messenger, She went to him 'to ask for a, maj!d~servant~ but she' could not fmd him ~ and told " A"ishah of her need, When the Prophet came, Aishah informed him of that. The Prophet carne to our bouse wb.en. 'we had ,gone to our 'beds. (On seeing the' Prophet) we 'were ,going to get up, 'but he said, «Keep at your places," I felt me coolness oldie Prophet' s fic'et on my chest. Then be said,,,

ltShall .I te:ll'you a ,thing' which is' better t.hanwhat

you asked me for? Men yo:u go to' "our beds, say,; 'Allahu Akbar {i .. €.,. AUah.is the' Greates't}J/oT fortythree times, (JM ~Al Hamdu Ii l-.lahi if I. e. , all the praises are for Allah)' for thJr-ty-th:ree times, and Subhano. Allah {i,.e., Glorified be Allah) for thi'rty,three times. This is beuer for you than whm you bave req:ue:sl:ed. iti'

(Reported by Al-Bukhari and Mus:t:im)

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported, '"AJ.1ab"sMesseoge,r deputized me 10 keep' Sadaqah- \A,I~Fi''') of Ita'madan., A comer came and started taking handfuls of [the' foodstuff (of the Sadaqah) (siealthUy)., 'I took bo~"d. of him and, said, ~By AUJah~ I win take you In AUah,"s, :Messenger.' 'He Sl):~d." 'I am needy ,Ind have many dependents. and I ,am in great need." I released him, and '~n the morning Allab"sM'esseo,ger

'k ,.,,1 , 'W' L,_ did " ,A d 9' ,~' I ;'d' 0'-

aseu me" '-11"t w _ yourpnsoner ~O yest:erl_ay~' 5a'l_,,"

AUabis Messenger! The person complained o:f being, needy and of having :many dependents, so, I pj'[i,ed him ,and let him, go,'; Allah I s Messenger said, 'Indeed, he Itold you a li.e' and he wiD be coming again.' I believed that he would show up again as A]]ab" s Messenger bad told me that he would remm, So,) waited for him watch'fll~_l'y. When he (:showed up and) started stealing bandfuls of fOOOSltU:ff, I caught hold of him again and, said, ,i I will defJlnilely take you to A_nah IS Messeng,er., He said, 'Leav if; 'me far I "liTn very needy and havemany depen Id' en t S>' I

..... _., ,_,- '.,.,'" '_ .. «.1,11. ," ,-~ .. _,",.:_ "-,,,,_ D.JJ.IIl. ,'/,-. _,_rt.,.. ,.!I'

- ' '

promise I win 1100l come back again, ~ I p,itied him and let him

g- n 1[ ...... -. IIf1k.cA rn omln ',jJj!' A" 1:1-'1-., 'I'M" s" er ger ask edn , "'Wl" h' t did

,v" J1IiJ. '~,J,~" '. '".!I,U' '0' .Ii. :iD.1l S, , C"'S :Il_ - ~>iV, ,me" .. _ I a'.. ,~L

your prtsoner do? I repUed,."O AUab!sMessenge1i'~ He, complained of his great need and of 100 man.y dependents, Sill' I tookpity on him and set him free. "Allah~s Messenger said" liVen]y" be told you a lie and he wiU return.' I waited for him a'ttenti.ve'ly for tbe thinJ time, and when he (came' and) starred s(!ealiog bandfuls of itbe foodstuff, I coo,gh-n. bold of him and said, ~I will surely take you to AUa1l.":s, Messenger as. if is 'Ehe 'third time you promise not to refilm" yet you break your promise andcome.'~ He said, "(Forgive me and) I wn.n teach you some words with which AUah wi)] 'benefit you.' I asked,4'Wbat aredley?'" He replied, "Whenev'er you go to bed, recite ~.Ay,al-

,~U' -;, ' . " .... Ii.. I' u L 'l'I,~ I' "I I' I"l .... '. '1

as-sum - A.luutu a uana uta 1lUwa·, '·'Hazy,·-u~ ~,y,um "oo:t1.

you finish the' whole verse, (If you do so), Allah will, aplpoinit a guard fE)I" y,oo who will stay with you and no Satan, wiJJ]come neas you wl'li,1 :monUng. ~ So, I released him,. 1m. the moming, Allah is. 'M,esseDger asked, ~Wbat did your' prisoner do yest.erda.y?") replied, "He claimed t.hat he would reach. me some 'words-by which Allah will benefit met so I le~ him go.' A,Uu!'S Messenger asked" 'What are 'lhey?"; I replied, 'He said 'to me, • Wb,enev,er you, $,0 to bed, recite Ayat:-al-Kursi from the beginnmg to the end.' He' further said to me, l(If you do so), ,Analh wi]] tqlpo,iot a ,gru3Jd f(ll[ yau who will stay 'wilh you, md

no Satan. will come' near you 'ootU morning,' The: Prophet said,

"0 ~hl ,,;".l,;' l. 1['[" l. r., "

Ute .re(J'I~~J spoee me man, [Qt'1IiOUg:,", ne ':8 [an

absolute iiar. Do you know' whom you were talklng

to ",be' se t··,L. ree :1i1[ig'/d,it" 0" . Alb· U'" H' u -'IIi"nu.r- ",,,,~, ",', A" b u

__ ":J! iJ.I"I!.-.1ol1• ' 'U-~,:: I~J. :;··UI.J!" ,,_. n· ,'. oJ, ':'~j',-:Wl~ .' -I".K

Huruyra.n said, 'NO.~' He' said, ~li was Satan. ,'Jj[ (Reported by Al-Bukhari)

Anas (m,ay Allah 'be pleased wilb him) reports that wn.enthe Ptopbei (peace and blessmgs of Allah be upon ,hiln) retired no his bed he used to say::

"Praise is due to' Allah Who Je[eds US~ provides [us [drmk~ stlffl'ces us~. and' provides us with she.li;erj far many a peolJle there is none- to l!;lif/ice and none to

P,P.!"nj ".PI .• ,. L, :i," ,. , n'

;r v vlue" sne: ef.

When O· "111030 o,e"S 'U' p' "'0' off e'r ''7":'" t,ii .. A' Pr . aver he 1:~'S

. .: I .;, ~'-'= t:t:,_,,(,;" :. ",_. lb·: \ .>:;1" .l.'Wt&J'MU .:j.-'w.l., ,!I_lIi._ ,_.-

recommended 1,0 say 'dIe Prophetic Dtt "[a"~ that is, reponed in 'this conneetlen Ill..,,,· .. Ab' b ai1' (. . A- U~ .... 'k .... p'I""" "d' 'w~·'1i.. the --. both) "",:Ull.lJ!J,.~!i: .... ,.,1". ,un ,,', ~ \may . lllLill.l. I.I"t; .. ~ase dJ!1 _ .:_;1)1 .' .. Ul

reported that when the P'ropbe't (peace and. 'ble.ssi.D,gS of ,AUah be upon him) got up at ni.ght tOl offef' Tahajjud Prayer, he used 10 say:

"0 A,llah! .All the praises are for you~ You are the Holder of .the' Heavens and the' Earth., and wnatever is In tnem. Au tne praises arefor You;' .You have' the possession of the Heavens and' the Earth [and

"l....... •• h A' .ol ,1.. • e v

w,:tu"J;ever IS [II I· em ... ' J tlt€ praises are ror JOu,:[

'V'. , ",' th··· L ".t., "'~F t..t.. ~ D.-· "" .. ' d" _.1. , E'I'" r""'h' '"

~ou are .... ,!e .·.lg,r"tOJ 'fKr neavens [an·· tnt! .. a;; 'II-. '.

A.nd' all the praises are/or Youj" You. are' the ,King ,of

'th'" Dc" .,-,- d" ","-, .. li"'i"f.!. A-'..l ···l·ll,t., .,-,.~,.~- .. , ~,,·tJ ,neavens [an·.·.· ,.'fie ,c..Q,.,." ... ' fW a .. ,lle praIses. are

for Y:o.uJ~ YOll are .I.he Truth [anti Your Promis« is Ihe

th.J V' 'v Ui'f ,,,/" l. .".

tru _. an't to meet r (}U IrS true, "our front ts tne

tnab: A,nd Paradise is true ami' Heu is true" And aU the' Prophets ore true, ana' Muhammad is true. And the Day of J~gment ts true. 0 A,lla'h! 1'sUrrtrMfi'r

I ·'11)'" v l' b t· "V d ..I' d

~,mJ 'WI I to rout « neueve ,~ni'Ou an. uepen. on

Yo.u" ,And repent to Ymt~ and' with Your' .he'lt)' I Qr,gue (with mY' opponemsj Ihe non-believers). And 1 take You. Q:J a Judge' (to. judge benvee,t us.). Please

fi .. . d' ;t;j! i, _A orgnre me my preVlOUS an' J ,~Ul,,,e sms; aria

whatever I concealed or revealed. You are ,the One

Who mok~ (some people) forward and (so,me) backwrard. There is no.ne to be worshipped but

"17" " "o.u;. -

Stlfyan said, that ", Abdul. Karim Abu. U-ma,yyab added to -.e above,

"Tnere ts neither mi.ght noT' pawer except through, Al'lah. U'

(Re:ported by AI-Bul::haLri, and Muslim)

One should exert- himself ItO make his first utterance afte:r getling up and :hls las'[ lllUer,amce before :sle.'eping consist in ,D:hilu, for this, is a token of one's truef'~ ilb ..

The' fifth Wird 01 me nfg.ht: This M.rd starts frem jhe second

_ - -

half of Ihe niglu until the last one-sixth of '[h.e night This is ,all

honorable tbne. Abu Zan ('m,ay Allah be pleased with him) 'reported tn-at he asked the Messenger of Allah. (peace andblessings 'Of Ail. be upon 'him) which time of the night in. it Qiya,n tl{rcLllyl is more virtuous; thereupon dle latter replied,

~Tt.,;",;~ 'J~"'J the ~WI;';'-.j~(Jh·:-t -o'1iMd··· I"H;U' (p··-,~(J1le) w,~ ... ~ . ..,.

1. rlkl! i),ilI! \ Inl_- _ _ _ ,"-,IIi'Who . , ~~ _ ,}t;;,II'I' . - 'Vl;JI'y . _. _. ,'-K! au'

(p- .).~

i ray tn, U.

(Reported by 'Mubammad. i.bn Nasr) When. waking up to offer ,Qiyam At~Uzyl'l! 'one is 6J

recommended 'to read the last len verses j))if Sural, ,Al '," Imran as, .. AbduUah, 'ibn "Abbas, (may Allah be :p']eased with them both) narrates, thit he passed a nigbrt in tile house of Maymunah, itbe Mother' of me Believers 'who was his· aUDit. He said ~ II I slept across. 'the bed, ,and AUah's; Messenger along: wilbbis wife slep~t le-o,gtbwise., ARah's, Messenger s~epl; until midnight or sUghtly before or after i.t. Then Anah~s Messenger woke up, sat., and removed the traces of sleep by rubbi.ng: hls hands over hIs face~

T<\." r h ','-" ""''''' .... ..;I''~,1i.. ... 'I stt ,-", ,- ' -'f-S' -'-i,ActA' "'I' ,-,- "

I. il~,en e rec'~,~ UR; as,_:en verses ouru;,., '\I. mr,an" •.

He is advised to commence 'Qiyam Al-Layl with two short Rilko "at, .AbuHurayraib (may ,AUab_ be pleased, with him)reports. Allab"s Messenger (peace' ,arnd blessings be: upon him) as sa,uing~",

-J_ ,

g-M1hen ,Q:ny one ,of yOU' g:ets up at .night. he slwuld'

j.,~. • rfh·- P. " , ,,"~IIi!;, two . .il." . .,. Ra'· k' ",nct U'

~8'Ul , ' e, n:zyer WUn.· , " Sr,~Q.r}; ... ".."'.

(Reported by 'Muslim)

Then, he' should IU3Y two Rat "at 'by two. Acco.rd:ing to AlBnkhari and Muslim, .. ,Aisbal-m, reports 'mat the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) 'Used no offer lbi.rtftn ,RaJ( "til of Qtyam Al-:loyl :and that included dle Witr and two Rak '',(It (Sun'flah) of the Fa/r Pr:31yer.

The .sixth. Wird' of the night: This is ~he six-di part of the night, wbicb is the time of sahar. Hi.ghli,ghtingtbe: virtues of this time" AlIlab" Mosl' High11 praises His devout slave-servanrs, saying"

, ~nd tn the hours of ,ea-rly ,aawn~ they (w,er.e found)'

'" fl. e i, )

p'~ayl.ng, or Jorglv,eness. '

(:Adb,,,,Dhariyat: ·~:8)

Jabi.f. fmay AnEtb 'be pleased w,i:th him) reported Allah's Messenger (peace aDd bless,imgs, of Allah be upon him) as

64

jj, U' 'rh "d' ',IL,.. " ., h'

'_'i:J anyone' IS QJ:;W,' f,lial fie may not get up tn me

latter par: oj the ,night~ he should observe Witr In the ,firs.t paa {)f it," and if anyone is- eager to gift up in the last part of it, h~e should' observe Witr at the end of me ,night:, for Prayer ,at ,the ,enii (1/ the' night ls witnessed "by the ang,e.ls) and that is prejeralJ,les n'

(Reported by Muslim)

- _

,A'w'rad'and, Cat~ries o:f People

People who walk. 'in the path, o~f 'the Hercatter are of six ,.'

categories:

First,~ Ibe wO'lshiper wbo dedicates. aJ1 his time towofsbipjOg:

AUah" 'MOist High: Such 'Person does what we have mend6ned of the' Awarad ,of Ibe day and the nlght.

Second, the scholar: Sue,_h knowledgeable pe,rson, should divide his time between, seeking, and leaching knowledg:e~ and

worshiping .IiU31b~ .

Thi,.d',~ the srudent: Like the scholars,~, the: stude(l,t should di vide m;s,time between leaming, and 'worshiping ,AI'hm,; .Most

H"n't"

" I,&t~.

Fourth. the mler, 'ithe judge, and. these who mange ate 'pe{lp'~e 's affairs: In me day ~ they should concern themselves widl tbe people's :mt'CI,esl besides perfermlng 'tb.e prescribedacts of worship. lume n:~gbt~ they should offe:l' the A,wrad of the nig~ht..

Fifth~ craftsmen: They should earn ,their Iivelihood m,oder3Jtely, and then offer what remains of A wrad.

6.5

Sixth,. true lovers of ,AUah: They sh.ou.~dincessand.y stick 'to offe'ringtbe Awrad and consciousness of Allah,. for the Messenger of ,Allah (peace ,and blessings of AUah be upon ,him)

S• aid

. \Jt

I!1!h .... , ' .A~"',...I .J,- ds -- " , ert "'",." ,fli:! ,_.:I,., ,J ' • .... ·if,' l!'\j

uv gooa ue,e S pr,opi€rYJ< S:fIlCere,J<1 ana ,m(},uer~eJ

IQJui knQW that yo,ur deeds w:t.tt no: 11ll'ike yo« enter Paradise, and that ,the mast be;lO'ved de,e,(/. to A.llah r s is the "tost regular and constam even: tilo,U;gh it were little. "

(Reported by Al-,Bukilari and Muslim)

. '

ttThe regular ,constant one."

(Reported by A:n~Blllth31ri ,and MusUm)

Qi.yam Al~La11

Merits of·0'1lm AI-Layl

'.§"'J"ft,. '"il"' ...... ", ~,. fi ... 1, -k"' t. .. ..l oj l' ,~,

,\.l",elr dll:wJ ao torsese leIr oeas o s_e,ep~, t,~e.

while th#u,'" call on rheir[o'rd ill Fear and Hone I'

•••. - I .. "'J _ ... ,' _' I .. '.1 lJi ; __ " _ ". ' •. - _Y',if.

(A~Sajdah: ) 6)

Likewise, th~' Messenger' of Allalll (peace and blessings of ADah 'be upon him) is reported to have. said;

~ It is highly ,,,er:ommended for yOU' to observe' Qiyam - A.l-:lAylt .101 it ww ,the practice o/,your righteous

p'.j,', .... dec .Q""~O'~~ _ nr~"a:·m, .':, A··.~-r .o'I"I;.~" b' .I,.;~g.., ;s. ·U Ii" ,C'~()': ',~:4' t en

'~~" ~j~hJi .. ,.·~l.. ~IJl _.' .. "I ,~y' . J'~'.Ii. . ~ ._.~. ~~ _V'

Your Lord, atones for our sins, drives disease from

J.fin.4i;, ..... ,,1 ,. 'N

t',I.e~)' J' ana .puts a stop to' tran$.gres$~on i

(Reponed 'by Al-Bukhari and 'Muslim)

Jahir (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that he heard the, Messenger of Allah (peace and b~.e:s.S'ing;s. of Allah, be upon him) say;

"There is an· bour in .the nigh/I' ,in whic.h no Muslim .individunl 'will ask Allah for good' in; .this 'world' and the next without g.ivl.ng it to' Him; and that applies. to

,',. . ." .. ,L·: '"

ey,ery .nlgn:l.

(Reported by Muslim)

Al-Hasan Al-Bisri (may Allah. have mer:cy on him) said" i'We know of no harder act of ·wo.rsJUpr 'than ,endu:r.i:n,g through the nigllu, and offe:ring up 'Our money" ',", He was asked, "How is it ma;t diose who, observe Qiya.m Al'_Layl are among the people wi.lh the most bearutiful faces?" To this, be replied, "Because tb.e.'y commune with the Most Merciful and He doilies, tbe'm 'in light front His light."

Dear' re.fu:ier'.the following measures will help you to observe 'Qiy,am tll-Layl: Good intendon and. devotion to AUah., determinatlon, wm:tinual repentance, keeping way from s,ms" going to bed. early, taking a nap if possible, avoiding overeating, depending on Allah, and reallzing the merits of observing Qiyam A,l-Lay,l.

Dell'e.es of 'QiJ'lUR Al"':Layl

Observing ,QiY'O'tn A,l:-:l . .tryl is. of varlous degrees, as follows:

Fir£1'" prayinglhe whole night as some olf our early

67

righteous 'Muslims. were accustomed to .

.s:eoond,!, p'£-aying for ba1f of the n~ght Here, one' is recommended to sleep' me tirst third andthe 'last si~tlb of die ,night,.

Thinl" pntyio,g for one-third of the nigb~. Here, one is recommended to sleep the first half and, the last sixth, oflhe mght, 'Prophet Dawud (peace and ble,ss:ing;s. of AUah be upon him) used to observe Qiyam AI .. :lllyl inthis wary.. .. Abdullah ibn .. Amr ibn AI,- .. As (may Allah. be pleased with him) reports that:

Allah! s Me,ssen,gcr (peace and blessings of Allah 'be upon him) told me,

"The' most ,beloved Prayer to Allah ts tli'at .of Duwud ,and the most belovea /OJts to AUah are those of DawtuJ." ' . .1Je used' j!1""" '':14,e.'P· fi'nr hal-f'~:f f' "i!:..,"", n:igilo" and

_ I " if .~.I!_ [' .. ';-. ~~ ~I ~", .,V, [ __ .. ~ ~J' [/'~~ I .. " ,I'~ ~I_

. -

then pray far one~/d~tl of the night .and again sleep

- '.

forils s,fxlh part and used ,tojast on. abernase days. _'!!

lq~iif'i,e··41 bv A:_ '-B" . khari and M'u, ,£,'I]j]mi- ')1 \~-r .,,,.1, 'Ii-U, _ Y " Jl ,!!.lIN I:W.~, DIU _ " . ,.AlI\!I~ .'.

PlJUl1lJ, prayilng for one-sixth or one .. fifth of the night. It is better' to pray in the second half or die last sixth of the night.

Flith, praying with no estimation O'f time. There are two

f ~ " n' All L I" th'· ~ II

ways 0' ouse,fvlng i,£,ry.am '. -~ ay III '. ~s '~lay ,as ,~O .. ows:

1., 'Praying from the beginning' of 'We night oudl sleep' overcomes him; illten be gets up to pray until sleep overcomes him, and so 00. A group of the' earlyrighmoos Mwdims used to' observe QiY1am Al-Layl in 'this ·way. According 'to Al-Bnkharl and Mu sllsn ". Anas ibm M,alik. (may Allah be pleased wUh him) reports 'fual sometimes AUah's Messenger (peace and bless,in!gs be 'Upon. him) would. mot fast (for so many days) lha£ 'we tbou.gnt 'dlalt he would not faS;l

68

Ibm: month and he; sometimes 'Used 'to fMt (for so nlany days) 'ma't we 'thought he would 'Rot leave: fasting ttm'(JugboU'£ 'that 'mouth" and (as regards his Prmy,er and sleep atnight) if you wanted to see him prra,ying at night, you. could see him,

• .,1 'f- d ' him' " I • ]'d-

praymg ana 1 ' you WaDle'_ to see ,'I S eepmg, YOUCOI!I,:,

see him g,I,ee-pmg,.

2,. Sleeping ,at, the beginmng of ' the nig:m:. and 'fh,en. g:fU:ing up '10

prny "'rw ·:fb~ remain iin - '.0 par' iii- o.ft ..,'J,\,,~ niah t 1--' ,roo",'av-t' S'; 'fyAH' ,u_ J!\J!II Ilillli", ' -, ,I,_;'_~ •• , lie; ; ~ _ II "_ ,II. UJ.IIr. :1I~ ~. n, n ";';;.~t.!p,;~"" "U ~ w,w

Atb-Tbawri, said, "I steep at the begimnin,g of Ihe nig'ht~, and 'dleD get up to observe ,Q,iyam Al-Lay,l' ,in the re:maining, time of the ni,ptto

,Sixth, praying, four or two Rak '~lJII in dIem,gllt. The Prophet (peace Md blessings of' AUah be upon Itim.) is, reported to have said,

'ff Pr.UJ in the Right;; pnay fouT' Rat "!a1~~ p.ray two ,Rak"al", :!:o

Abu, Hurayrah (may Allah, 'be pleased with him) reports 'llie Mes.se:n,ge'r of A1i1aJb (peace and blessings. olf Allah be upon him) as havm:g :said':

;',;;'IJiJi,}'L, ",:" ... , J\i!Il:J'! uj,n,l~e' 'iI" fJ',", n:t iH; oh" t·' /.II1'J;'ilr ht'IiiiL~ II" w;£.. 'n "'0' ~o' , frr'iKlet.'·~J' ,1I'lu.K· "u.Ji I"T IU.~ r-.K,O:'_· IU,i1iU ~~,l tl'l ,tJ...J _ "-)"1;: ,~r .," UI . .'

so ,in order to o_ffe.r nvo Rak" atl' wi'll be' recorded amongst those' whO' ,make much Dhikrof A.llah ,t.n

J.. ,.".... ':1.,# H'

mar HZg," '.

(Reponed b:Y' Abu Dawud)

Seve1Jlh~ offering,Pr.ayerm 'tbe' t.ime between the Maghrib and 'Isna ~ Prayers." and observing, the' Wird' of 'fbe time of Sohr.

Wh.en, It Is :Oifticl1lt ,to Perform Puri6lcs)'tion at Night Whoever' fmds, :it difficult to perform 'puri'fi,catioo, atmght:

and to o:fferPraye:f. should. sit facing the Qiblcih and engaging:

- .. -

hi"mse:.~f in. making Dhikr of .AUah and Du" a I'" ]f be; h01wever! 'is

.nOit able to sit, he is recommended to make Dhi!r of .AUab while he is lying on his bed. Whoever is accustomed to observe certain Wir,d, 'but onee sleep overcomes him, should. make it up

.... A .... _. nravina .1...e· D' ..•. F·L.a··. Pray r Dir i:ULCI l( 111:;,1' ,ILL~ lU_llt.. ..··w,. rl.DI:~:~"" ~

Whoever get hilmse:lf accustomed to offering: Qiyam Al~ayl" sboaldbeware of leaving it, forthe M,ess·en,ger of Allaib (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to .. A.bdIllUab. ibn ". Amr (mllY Allah be pie'asedwi:th dl~m bOitb);

'~O ·"A.bdullah! .00001 be like so and so 'Who usedto pray ,at night and thens-topped ,offering ·Qiymn A.l ..

Lffi.!'l· 1!i

"_J 0,'1

T.be Optimum Times fur Qiyam AI"'CLayl and 'Good. Deeds

Toe most virtuous nights ~ that. 'dte d:evoul slave-servant of Allah should observe Qiaym Al-Layldle:re:iiu) are:

171b 2:'1'" tii'3·-:m "I,,ii;'I!b 21":7tl], . d- Z-'9"ih .... f Ram ... .A·

- '1·" ", .,"c. it ~ ~".' ~ ,an c . OJ!.~ IC1!!l!mn,

1 sa j and 10th of ·M'uharram."

,~, Pt1' and 15111. of Rajab,

i5~ ofSha"bm,

- glh of ·Dhw •. Hlij,ah, 1m: of Sh.l1wwai, and - l'O~ of ,Dlud.~H~jjiah ..

As for ·m.e IDOSE virtuous days,. they are as follows: - Ihe day of" Arafah (gth of D.huI=H~jah.)"

- tb,e day of" Asbiura,' o,om of Muharram),

70

- 27tn of Ra,1. ,00

, . :J ' , . ,

171h of .Ramadan, 1,S1ib of Sah,""boo" _, :Fridays,.

" Idul~Fitf' (pt of Shawwal),

... ,"J··'~: .. AdiL:n: (l(tb of D~u~;oHiHah)'"

;[uu,~ . ' .. ':Iu 0. ILJ!L, ~ . ,

'M ,the (ust, ten d~.ys of Dhul-H:ijjdl~,

_ the days, of'Tubriq (I ICh, 121h" snd 13,ilb of Obul .. Hijjah). .. Mondays,~

,_ Thursdays" and

,~, Ild\, 121ib t ,and 13;(b of every month.

7m.

L Servingl Food" Sharing I,t, and HospitaUty

We have several kinds of'm,mmers, while' serving food ,to' guests - either before eating - during' ·it or after flnishin a it

1_ ,- - .. - , ... - .. -..... ", - " " .' ,I "- L" . ., -_ - - -' . e ,', "

We mould wash our hands before starting to eat so as, to secure irs cleaaliness, Food. should also be served on amodest table: fixed to Ithe ground rather than a high one as, has, been dune by the Propbet (peace and bkss,ings, of Allab be upon him). One should sit on his left sole while erecting die ri,ghl knee. intending to strengthen oneself thereby rather them mer;ely :relisbiDg food, Such 80'int:e:Dti,ou j,smarked by satlsfaction nl'Urer' than sa'lia-UoD., The Prophet (peace and, blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

"Ahu,nan bei'll;g has not fi.lled ,any vessel 'w.hich is wor.se' than la belly. ,Erwug.h jor the son 01 Adam are some mo,uth{uls which can keep his back str:-aig:n(;' .but ij',there is no escape' he shoutdflll it a ,rhird wi'th faad~ la third with drink, ,(ttJ.tJ' ,leave' ill third empty., ,Ii

(Re,pofted by At-Ti'rmidhi land ibn Maj;ah)

Man ~;'bou'ld not eat exceot when he 'is hunarv In that- W,RY'-

._' •• - "' _-C._'_~ •• _ • ",_'I!:?'""!!f!JIt'_' .. """ ,_, . .. "~'~.1,!!" " .. : '8,

man becomes, healthy,. Hie :should also be coment w~th wbateVcer 'food, 'be has and share it ,,{hI! uUlersas far a's he can,

'n.- ..... '. E""''''':

yPJ::lDg ..... ng

Man should start ,ea;tim,g wiitb, menuoning dle Name ,of Allah ~inld, fmish i'£ up 'willI 'd:lanting Hun, Man also should ca'C with his right band. taking, small morsels and chewing them very good .. , Man never takes a s-econd morsel till he swallows the'

73

flrst one. He should, not show di,slike to any son of food and eat from whar is near to him, unless 'the.re' 'is ,8 variety of food, such as, fruits., Man should ,eat: with. three fingers. If a morsel drops" he should pi,ck it Likewise, he should not breathe iD~.o 'the hOI food, He should mot also pul: his refuse 'wid! 'food;, as if putting: date pits wi:m da'res in one plate. He should rather receive ilt em. Ihe back ofilis bood then PUI it away,.

Man should not drink water whjJe he eats, Likewise, man shou~d receive die m-inJdng pOI 'with bis, r.igbt hand~ I.oat into it and 'dIen drinKs m, small sips. M,an, shouldalso breathe thrice while drin_tlng:, ~ .. e., take 'three 'intervals :in drinking,

"AUah IS M ess,eng-trr (peace and' blessings .of AllQh: he' upon him) has been reponed as' taking bre:ath

h· . ". -h' . ..1.,.,.:. :r...: "

tree times w.o.en wd1i1Yn;g •.

(Rep{Jif*ed by Al:-Bukhari)

This meens that 'Ute Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be' upon him) used "0 remove the pot, away from his mouth and breath rather than ibread:d:ng into me' pet,

AffeF'E,ati__ng

M,an shoukl stop, eating before reaching sadation. He should also lick :bis hands rathe:r than wip'ing them." Further more" he sbould not leave- any food remains in the pot, Thanking the Abni.gb(y should be given mt the very end, The' Prophet (peace ,armd bIDess,mgs of Allah be upon him) said,

"All£lh; is pieased ~hen a: man: eats ,Qn.a thanks Him therefQre'~' drinlts ,(tOO: .tha:nks Him ther,e!o.:re., ,I,' (Reported by Muslim,)

'P'ina]ly; man should wash his bands after eating.

When sharlng fnod with others, one should not 'proceed with eating befor-e tire elders, All partlelpants should chat together in decent ~ermsi'Each of them should prefer bis brother to himself and starl eating freely at the same '[[me, One ShOldd £l!otglance at other"s. le.a'iing lest th.ey become: discouraged.

One' should avoid vile ba'bi(s such as shaking out his hand. in the pot or stretching: his head over me ,pot wbilie eating, .If one takes semething out of his moeth, he should divert his mouth ,and take 'it out 'with his. len haud, In addition, did one eat a :Iiiule 'pit of a. morsel, he: should DO't sip it into the poi. again ..

Servinl Food to :Brotbefi

Serving food. '10 ndl.ers is commendable. Imam Ali said,

"Collectin;g Oro.the"s around food is better for tne than setting lac .slave free .: ~

K.lmi.thama used ro prepare 'many tasty foods and invite 'Ibrahim An .. Nakh" 'i and AJ-"A "mash. and say,

Then h 'l- d 'If" . e . d h h d ("'k.; ....

.• en .. ue wou I.' serve ·W.ILlI~ever .fOOU J e I. a'_ • 'liiile~ However"

should reserve some of Ihe food to h.ms fami~,y" A. visitor should not suggest a certaia kind of food In case he is askedto choose between two kinds". he should opt for the' less expensive unless me host is. pleased by his choice of the expensive one and

'11' b • • O' A t, S·I!.. e:» ,. •• d A... Z'" fi' •

JJl3JStenS toruli n..nce ~ sn-saan I Vls;,~.te. ra-« a ,a;[aIJU~,

who used to write a paper of the daily food and give it to fhe

id A""L. Sh .t::"" ··k "I... .. ..;;I Aldl'"'d +J.., ki d f

man ;en ,. - M.t~.~aJil I too me 'paper aDu ,au;. e anomer :m.. (!I'

75

food .. Knowing this; Az~ z."' afararni became s'trongly de:Ughred"

Avoidhlg PoopfeWh,cn They E,at

Know]ng' that some people are eating, one shoUld not approach tbem, However, if he nnblt~ntiomany comes across them and they invlte him to share their food, he s.nou]d cons:ide'r itprudently. If 'they shyly 'mv:ilte him, to eat, he should ,not eat. Ome:rYlisebe: can share food wiUllhe,m. If it happened, that one visited a friend 'who is out and food are offered at his place one cam eat, if be is. certain IJhat 1"1Is frj,end would be pleased if he eats of bis food.

Hos,pit:aJity

[0' :"ne" !fl)!'b"AlI'E~'d, invite ':Lj3; rig ,hi ·fA .... l~.{(! neoole Some ea 'r'~y' M' uslims

" .. , ..::II, ,vu!l[, ",~,_ ,- iUI,!;'Vr.o' .II" 111~.,Y'!I.iI.:l!' JIt".""' .... .t"',_ •. 1l.J!'.!LII~ ,.' i. _. oJi ,I,J.~'

said,

''''YO.U should eat .of the rigfU:eous" food and' vise

"

versa"

In addition, one should look for 'dle poor rather than the rich and serve them properly .. He should, also invite his friends and acquaintances. By serving rood to' others, one should seek adherence to the' Sunnah" show jntimacy and try to pleasing others ntither 'than ostentation. One should also invite 'those 'who can hardly respond to the: invitation due to one reason. or - th

anomer,

As fOT' responding to an jnvitation, if it is fur ,I marriage banquet one S:hou~d accept ir, when invited on the first day. One should, not accept 'the rich's invitation only but also (hal of the poor, If be happens to 'be fas'£in.gt be shou1d also respond '£0 'the invitation. If his fast is voluntary, and he: knows 'd]a't his host 'WiU be pleased 'b.y sbarin.g: his food" he should 'brook his. fast.

76

Purthermere, if he knows, that his fOOd is 'forbidden, be should not acoept the invimtion.. The same. 'rulmg, applies in

,J;" h' "'m' d" d' . ".f' d' ... :t., . i

case OJ! usmg pro 1.'. -'te·1 ga_ gets 01' servtng tooc wnn musac.

Likewise~ one sbould mot accept m.e ottender's, the sinner s, the. If'i!p·ip'1i,es.·~,OT!' 's .or dle h/JiWJt?S inrviladon-'"

'" '4.J,=-;'" """,,, l., - ... ~J'~ .-. ~ .. _," ... '!'

Acceptbi,_ allinvitation,~ food sbould not, be the end", but ramer to abid.e by tb,e Prophet's Surrns/1., (peace and blessings of .Allah 'be upon bim) , honoring broihers aud avoiding misundersmndmg, due to declination. Declining an invitation, one! may be i,gnorantly presumed as an arrogant, In the! same vein, one should behave mod.esUy amengst die feUow guests,

O h 'Id' Is . - h 1l... h '.d"" Ii..'; 0- . h l'd- al

ne S IOUI., a' 0 SIt lV' . ere ms ~os,t gmoes nun. . ne s oUJJ J ' so

avoid glancing at food. when served, lest 'itmo.y. be taken as a sign of greed.

Serrin'g F,ood

MauRers ,of Serving, Food to, Guest

1- Food should 'be served pr-ompdy as soon as the guest rests,

2= Fruits sbould be served 'first, AUah says.

if JI, '-,£" "tIul'il',L, In'~ ~,;,-. a~"-' t,r...Hoi :tit .01;" m,au il'b·r n·."""" A' - n A' 1I'.r. .. '\Llnu '-""~ fl, Jf,~'IiS . r.';''"'" tl·Ko:J •• "....;,;J .;,J,~~~t.:i!-, ~ .t,""'· ';fU;:

flesh offowls any .that ,they may des.ine.)·

(AI-Waqf' ,ab: 20~21)

Then, mealt is served" then any 'Otber food. ·Fin.aU:)", ttbe! dessert Is served, ,A1tdIe end one: drinks cold, water and washes 'his bands wi.tb warm water.

3- All a'v~]]~bje' kinds 0,( food should be SC:FVed.

. 4", Guests should 'be afforded :ample; 'time to be sati,s;fied,

77

5~ Food sh.ou]d. be. quire' enough" The: hOISt' s share; of flbe food sbould be set aside before it is served to ·tIle guests After eating, if' a guest seeks departing, the host should see him ou~, with a cheerful smile and kind terms, 'The guest, tool." should, out of his modesty and good manners, be. satisfood and o08tended even if he 'finds sametbing wrong, He should, not depart unless ·the host lets him go. The guesr should be mindlU] of the time he' stays by 'the hosl ..

18

II. Marria:g,e

Its, Mann.ers

Scholars unanimously agree on Ih.e point that marriage is eomm.en.da1ble and has. m3mi.fo~.d virtues, web as 'having offspring, pleasing the Almighty by plfOc.reard1oo, pleasing the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allal). be upon him} by increasing his 1foUowers,tb.ein,gb~essed by' ,aprayef' of 3. righteous child ..

Marriage has also some other virtues saeh as warding against satanic temptations amusing one's self with. his wife'. By marriage, 'man gets an his household acnvi.des prope:rly cared for whereby .heeojloys ample time for seekiag knowledge and working, a good wife wi.U be rhere to help her 11iusibarnd. 'In marriage 'man ualas himself on responsibility and. guardianshipl" meeting, his household meeds and bearingtheir bad behavior if any" and exerting utDlost efforts to reform them .. Ge~~tmg married, man. duplicates hisefforts to seek his liv'e,Ubood and care fuf' bringing up his, cIlUdlren.. The Prophet (peace and blessings of .AUah be u.pon :hi'm) s3!id~,

«Sp' - c_J", D'!' '. "". th:', ".,.p .A,u·h-- ", ··t't';·--

.• '. e.fRlmg a .. uzar In .··e cause 0)' . .auG ... ~ tn se_ InK

a slave free'~ as a charity and ianother one on: yoor

fia'_,ih, *'h J.- tit ~,r ~f. .... L ... -,f o'·~'al1·' '" '. '. ,,,U,i;_rJ .t~. 'e ~ia.,·,. l~, U.iIt: ,ueS,~ "'.~' :_~:. .

{Repolled by .Muslim)

Evils of Marriage

The worst evil of Marriage is man's inability to satisfy his, desire wim his own wife :~n. a. la.wful way" This may caase him. to :[;eSOfE to unlawful ones. A man may also fail to fulfiU hils wifc":s, rights, or bear her bad manners, This is, a quite

79

,dangerous, 'iliin,1 since man is,responsibl,e for his bouseho.td. Furthermore, man"s household may di.straot bim from divime: remembrance; 'thus, becoming wltaUy preoccupied by them and enjoy,g hi~, (loing so. Tbefcfore be may forger all ,about the

H ··A,_-

erear ter.

Against. Ibis. background each represents a. specific case in judging whether marriage 'is, oblig,aw,I'Y for him. or not. This, depends, on all '1lbe aJbove .. ,meutioned m:fo,mu.don., ]m fact,

-p:k"DIO 'm- om" riaee m i"lon .,.·1..'0' '11':Id' first .... on ,C! I": d'; er all these ~Of'i;I""'fII'Q

~~'. !L . --D III.~,·_·, _" A&~. Ml._ g. _. .' .. II.1L a,.. ~: ~",. '. 41, IJ.-J.l- a·.. .m.~II,:U'[II';:) I,

A;s.cenain~g tbat its virtues overcome Us' eY.ns,~, m.arriag:e· becomes, oblii.,g,atory, and vise ~r8a:.,

~ Treabneot 'between 'Cou.ples

A''', 'l:101.·~· the ·W"Q.·ITI'':1I]"l ... :t...:;, 'i!h':~1ild' 1 ·p.·-"'~I;!.a.s,s, ·c· .. -"'"'"· ... Im··· 1 quafities

~ '. . Ul . .' u_~., j)J.J,.... 'IiI\ . ....,,1.11 _ . 'U'~""""". _ . .II!,;JI.II,d. ~ Ii.""'i]!

whef\eby a mumal good treatmem wUh. her husband is· secured, Th"'!!'~' are

... ., ..... !iii, .. "

[; Sb,e. shu-uld be ,I r-dig:ious woman, The Prophet (pe'ace' and bless:ings of Allah be upon biro) said,

7ry to ,marry there:ligw,us woman. "'I

(Reported 'by MusUm)

If she bappens. to' be lrrel:igiou;s", she win undermine his reflglon, If being 'm!adlly j,ealo'Us, she will spoil his life.

2,.. Sb.e should be weU-dis:posed.~ odlerw'ise she 'will be s£rOngly

h- ,a·~4;·~1 _ . )1, .llUiUJ'!II

3- She should be sa'risfactorilly beautiful in order m, fo.rd:fy her hu:sbawJJ. Tberefore, we have been c·mt!lmanded to ~ook at the 'wolllld~be: wife. However, somepersons nave djsreg,arrded tb.is point, Ima.m Ahmad is said 10 bave chosen a one.-e~ye.d woman 'JiJi'I' 'IIL,~-r' - "i'l..ao-· a:' ·ftI",·~-,~,·t·I··~··l :n'IrIe·· - T'- bj-- "'iii! j"" ni!U·.'e·t ~.:"'!lIi~i!Ii!_

~[_. Ult"; UII_ '= . ~._- __ lU!!!l V.lJ._ '''!' " ~ 110 ',.' _," - '~"\i-!tp.:1!

~, The woman's dower should be reasonable. Sa,'id Um Al,Musaib accepted only two dj,rltmnsas a dower for his daughter. .. Umar ibn. Al-Khattab (may ,Allah 'bep:lea:sed w'hh him) said, "do notexcessively raise your dl!11ghte"rs~ dowers." Likew]se,!:m,an, is ~equlred not to covel for his wlie''is pI'overly. ,Atb-Thslwri :slid, "'if a Silllhorr asks 'what'dme woman 'possesses, mow dJat he is 8, robber. "

5- She: should, be a virgin, A virgin is more, lnnmate 'wid! her husband than a non-virgin, People naruraUy become deeply affected by' the first attachment

6- She should be fertile,

1- She should 'belong '~O a righteous famHy.

8 S"'L - .' h' , '1...:1 - .,' b 'f··'1!..- 4':'- ...•. J '"

- .~ ,~le S ;.,ou u nor ee 0 .uIS ~,aml'Y.

The same crheriaapply to 'the man. The gi:rl.'s guardian should. ascenaln these norms in the 'wQul,dJ...be husband of his

...4 .. ,-...:1 .... "'" .

ue;penUdJd.

A~S, for thehusban.d~ he is requiredm Justly observe' these ,manners,

1- Prepariag a banquet for his wedding.

2e Treating bis wife kindly bearing her badbebavior 'if any .

The Prophel (peaoe and blessings of AU:ab be upon him) said,.

81

(Repolned by Muslim)

However, 'ttfe'atin.g: 'One's wife kindly doesn 't mean not harming her, but rather to 'bear hers generously following tile e,;tample of 'the P.r0pihet (peace ,and ble,ssmgs of AUaIl, be' upon

;a,.,: ') "'U ( An"","" 'be 1 A ",.:1.. 'h') Id

mmr, ,mar Imay;',II~I~'~ pieasec wnn ,1~iIDl' SI1,

"'T't.;o, p. 'r"lnh'. es ~S'" UI:tiV;'o,1" 1,·t-!ed', ~n .()!"'o.l' .• "" W' l':t',~1' h~;;m" fl~~'

J: ,",r;, 'r Vr" _ . " I'lIF," _" ~aJl ~I i1_.' "v' w-JI'.o iJ.CJ~ ."" .,.rt- :' 1'1 "'._ Iu.:f~

desert himjrom, day 10 night"

fD . ed b· A' 'II B' 1..: ....... ,') \~epo:rte. '. ,'Y , I~, : U.N.ktlil .'

J ... ,H,eshould flirt and banter with her, The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be. upon brim) raced with his wilfe '~ A ~'i5hah, (,may Allah be pleased with her) and used to jo~e with his wives. },abir ibn '", Abd.uUah reports, that tbe Pronhet

= ~r

(peace' and ble'ssings, of Allah 'be upon him) said 'to him,

"'Why didn"t you marry (J' virgin; so' ,that you ntight play u~ith her ,and she 'With. you, land' y.ou mlght amuse her and she' amuse you. fI'

(Reported by Al-Bukhari)

4-- He sb,Quld banter whh his wife in a moderate way so that he should DOE' lose Ilis respect and prestige before her,

S- Belngmodest 01 jea,rousy ~ that is to say tbat he should not overlook. such matters as, leadlng tc har,mful results, However', stich jeaJlousy should not cause mistrust The Prophet (peace and 'ble.ssiQ,gs of Allah be upon him) has higbJfgbred that,.

~A, man should' not return to his w:Ue fr01H traveling at night. ~

(Reported by AI- Bukbari) 82

6~ He shouldmadera'rely expend on. his household,

7~ He shonld be well~info'rmed a!bout woman's pri vate maners and. her periods, and how' to- approach her during these times, He is requ:~[ed to teach her the W!I1'1ect articles of faith, He should refute all. mnovauons she might have .. He should also teach. her how '(0 PTa,)" 3Dd how to cleanse herself after 'her periods; informing: her that. if her period ends before the.' sunset as 'much as 'One performs one .Rak",ah~, she should make up for the Zuhr ,and "As" Prayers, The' same applies to FaiT' Prayer. In fact, women. hardly observe such rulinga,

8- Having more ·than 'wife, be should. treat them jusdy in ,aiJ] aspects rather than love and Intercourse due to their being out of one's control, If he travels and wishes to lake one of his wives widl him, h.e sh:ouldl dr,iw lots between dlem~

9 .. If the wife violates her marital duties" he should ,admonish her tUI she ftl1I1Dsdtem." His admonition should range from counsel In reprimand aind warning. Being futile, be should desert hel for not more :th.ao. three days, If useless" he should ligbdy beat her arv,oidiDg her 'face and bleedblg.

10 .. Going into his wife, man has, 'to ad()pt, certain manners, Firsl., be sbould mendon ·the Name o:f ,Allah and ,avoid ·tbe di.rec®iorm. of 'the ,Qibiah. He and his 'wife should be wrapped Father being loaUy UlJlde., 'Hie shou1d. 'begin 'with some sort: of flirting and joking., kissing and bugging. In lntercourse, g'eItlimg satis,fied., be should afford he'( armple time to .get satisfied too" In addition" des,jrin;g to go m'£o his wife once more, a man ~fu.01iIld first cleanse his. p,riv.ak pans and do ab.lution,. Mm lihould not eut .hils hair or his nails until be gets washed. As for man's coitus, mterrupts ~ il is pemUss:~ble hi 1m not pre:f.erable.

83

Ll-Jf g,.,iIA;ed: with !Jil [c'1I.l~d'- m "1'!I11I'II, ,i::, .... ould not feel haonier '~'f-;t:rt..·e

. " ) •.•. 1"' ..... , ., IIJI.l ~ '. H!tli 1< _ wu .-:r.IW ,. , " J.'_'?...,,~ U.drrJi·Ji I.. ILn "

newbornwas ,3 mal_e baby rather than a €e:male. since none knows where goodness lies odIer than Allah. On. irs, deliv,ery" the father shouiJd reiterate the no:rmati call of prayers in itts. ears and choose a good name for jt; the Prophet (peace' and blessings of Allah be upon hi'm) said,

(ij:''''A' z;...ln'~L. __ ,..I "'.41LA·A! ,D.~I., " , " ',' '

, ',' ,uuU"tW', ww nYU ,nr-rt,w,man are tile best

names [in the' .:sight of Allah. ~

(Reported by M:u-sJim)

12-A :fatlter isn't allowed. tOI give his cbildrea ommous names.

The Prophet (peace [andblessmgs of .Allah 'he upon :bim) changed simi.IH' names, of some of his Companions. (may Allah be pleased with them. all.) Furthermore, a father should offe'r a ban,q]ue'lL .. A child sJIotOd 'be citrumc.ised ..

D',' 'I 't·v· 0- ~D,

,',' .-.' ......... "-',

Th01llJ,gh 'permitted, 'by Allah, divorce is ·!the most detestable ;I1C£ to Him. A husband should nor divorce his wife' SllIddenly", She [mould not ahoenlorce him to divorce her. Seeking ~o divoroe a wife, a husband shou:~d. observe fOIllff 'Ilbin,gs"

1- He: should divoroe her :in ;an lnterval between 'her menstruations, where no s-e~ual mtercourse- wirth his wife has taken place.

2 .. He should also divorce her one time in order to be able [0 revoke her.

3- He should make up her injury by giving her' a satisfactory pa:y,memt~ Once' Al .. Hasan di:,roroed his w.ife and gav,e her ten

~.t.. ,~,-.:I ""'"-1..... '0 ."ih. ' d .... A· '~. 'III

wOlllS:ruw ,~t.i:/Wms jo W) -ere'lllptJll sne cOIn-mente " - - .dtDe' pay

from -I '!'Ii ,Al,:",,,,_ deserter ':!!II

u. ,g ~ _"_i:)!i!i'.lt.-_'!l1

84

4-, A, man :should nol disclose his wi(e:is, secrets. The Prophet

(neace "I1rI'd- ·tbll~I!"S.llifj1!O\·, . fc A· .]']· ,L be" .' ' .. ' -- h,·nt- ,), : !'d"

I;.J.A-c ... ~ 'RILl! . .I,""",,~S 0. .' ii:ILI .." upon I . .' sal"

J.jThe'most wicked amon;g the people in the ~e'oj

Al'I""r.. ". th' n,~,.,-Fl"·'·""· .. ' 0, , ·oi-L· ... " •• '.it...... .

,WTl on I, e ~'wJ' .o.,uugme.m cs ,M1,(f! man . "'tw' goes

to his. wife and she ,comes to him~ ,and' then he di:vuJges her secret. ""

C'om,plelDeDtary Madoers

A husband commands v,try gre-at rights over 'his, wife so mnt'll '!hat she .~;S. required to obey bLm wUUngly and blppily. Such rights range 'between two importanr factors" namely.,

1 ~ Ch.asti_'~~l and.prurection of his honor.

2- Contentment.

E!'.l1i'1y" M'·'·. uslim -I 't'l!o"men ab' "'ll"de-'d" by' '!h.,;o.i!1,ji, two no' 'nn- . -,S' 'Wh·' .'. ;DIIi'I, '!;II

UJtI. . .' _' !ill " p" "_'".' _"', . __ . ~ .. 'r:," ~ I ... · .' ::., If! . __ ~.I.J. a.

husband, left his house 00 eam livin,g.t his wife would say, ~Lo1 Beware of 'illegal, ga:i1l's,;. we can bear hunger rather durn torrur-e m. the Hellfire .. 18 .A 'wife should not 'Squander her man's property, If she spends ,it 'D'Y his leave she shares. the Iewud. 'Otherwise" she is ,gui1*Y' w.hil1e he alone r-eceives, ·the reward. Her parents should inculcate such manne·" in he]" loo:g before

- .

she gets married. A woman should not leave; her 'house

e:spedaUy when her husband is absenl. A wife also exerts her unnest '£0 please her husband. She should 'befaithfid 10 her husband :in aU aspects of her Ufe. She sIlould not admi.t any one intO' her busband,'s bouse if be hates him. Her household ,and i([8 prosperi~y should be her first priority.

,85

·UI·. Ear ··m·, "'nu' L"''1u'c,ll''b· .... -:.J1 'am'" d. ·S··:'ubs,:'is··ta'rI!\c .. -. ,Ii .., .. ~. I, ~;JI _uuu. . '-.' ..... . . ~ee

Out of His, Wisdom" the Almight.y Allah has created this world 'for man ·to seek subsistence either for his Ufe in mis, world or that to come, Here, we will deal with manners pertain:mg to e'amin:s UvilDg through various crafts,

Merits -o:f Eamin,g Living

Allah says in dle Glorious Qur~W11'

111 ' . .1. ,;,t., . n..-n" r: .' .,,~i!' .,r.,. "~to ).

rre maae me L.'W)' as means ,q, ,muSlS ence.. .

(Au·,Naba': 1:0

H,e.11'e" the ,Almighty enumerates His fa V-OfS· amongst which is subsistence, Allah also says"

Indlis verse the Almighty c]e'ad.y- states. that people should

Ih k H'· £ thi 'f,'

.. ., ······1· ., .......•

atllL , 1m .. OF ' .. ~s,avor •

Elsewhere He says,

:/1 is' nocrime In yo,u if you seek of the bounty 0/ ,yom' Lord. t

(Al-Baqarsh: 198)

Likewi.se" the Prophet, (peace and blessings be upon him) said,

" A,llah, loves the'craftsman. jj

(Reptuled by-AI, .. Tlibarani)

He (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) also said,

"No one has lever eaten somethi'ng better- limn what he 1ws earned; verily~ prophet Dawud used to' ,eat from whal' he earned. c~

(Reporte-d by Al-Bukhari)

Jn another report, he (peace and blessiags of Allah, be upon hi m)....·!'.iI·ii.4;

.!I.W, , ~ [",g.,~,U'!1

(~Zatn,riy'ah (p'(!,'{Jce llJ2'd blessitlgso! Allall be upon, him)14\'7:S la. carpenter. ~

(Reporled by Muslim)

Ibn .. Abbas said,

... "~ "I..,..,..., u:r.n''i'' a fi 'iii'm' -~'r ~:ri',jif,,,,...· '''''a rpen ter 1>10:1[' (J

f.I~f~ i~'~f.~, -~_ :"._ 'at" I':~· -,f' ,.fVH,-, I.... ~I_" ':.' J~~<I~' tr, iW'~iJ "(.'

tailor, Ibr;ahim and Lu: farmers .• Salih a trader, Dawud a .s:mith~ MusaJ .shu '''layO' and Muhamm:ad (peace and blessi'ngs ,olAlloh be' upo,n :them) t;ended the sheep .. ,,,,

It is, also reported 'that Laqman told .his :SOD!

~Son.! Subsist 00 lawful means, (or in cas! 0-1 poverty, nUl!Jl '5 :religion could. be weakened, Mid his intellect and honor 'O;ta~y be undermined, The worst is people' s drlsdaillfOr bim i, 'ft

Imam Ahmad was once asked about a person confining himself ar home or in 'me: mosque saying, ~~ I wouldn' t do anythlng tiU I receive my subsistence [from, AllaIJ]'?'''' 'He r-epUed ~ "He is ignorant. Hasn't he listened, to 'dlePriophef s saymg~

~'Ve~ilyJ Allah has put .my subsistence' under my sp,ear. H

(Reponed, by A] .. Bllkhari) 81

,AI so 't be (peace oodblessiogs of ,Allah be upon him) 'referred to birds, as,

i"'Goins' h~gry in ,them'Qrning ancl' re'lurning satiated in-the ajt:emoqn. Jj

1(Rf!'p(l(r~ed b~l A t-Tirmidhi)

The Propnet's 'Companions, feflowed all lawful roads seeking slllibsisrence~ ,Abu Sulayman A,~D,anmi sajjd,,'~Inmy v iew " worship doesn't mean performiug prayers while others support you. One should. secure his food then observe acts of' 'worship" If argued, Abu Ad-Darda' seid, "I observed 'both trade ,amid worship but (b_ey didln"'t come together, thus I: preferred the lattee. In fact" trade is undertakento achieve se~:f-, content" supporting one's fami]y and ghring charity. If wealtlll is so~,e:l,Y' sought: mereby, it is abominable."

A·' ',.~, -'t shoul d fu 1- £'::u &: I --.... Id" it-~ -' -. [ -·- .... 1 ,.

, con~, Q;C _ ,",,~dJ. ,_ ,_ I b.~ I,our COD h~lo_ns ~n_arn", y,

- -) 'V-' ~II'-di' 'ty

,a,.lic.· " ..

It should be 'il,alid i For example if it is a sale connaet, H has, to have 'three aspects; contracting parties, object and werding.

1-- The: CODb:a,ctil1g parties: A merchandiser should mot conclude any contract with an insane person, or a slave: 'Unless his master gives permission, a depe,n.d.I~ unless his guardian allows him to do so. However Imam Asb,..s.hafi"i 'excludes dependants'; and dle'bnnds~ ,contr.ac'ts",But 'the' laner rransactions are tmly valid. A trader should, deal only with pious people who earn their property 'dlrough lawful means"

,2 .. The, obj'ecl: ,Dogs are forbidde:n goods due to 'their impurity. The same. rule applies. ,to insects", lutes, wood-

. ,88

wind, and statues. A seller sbould .. possess tb.e good so much dIat he is able to dellver to the: purchase/F.'. If not, SUiC"h as 'birds 'flying or ,2 fleeing slave, he can't sell it.

3,~ Wording 0:1 a. mmr,au, i.e., proposal 00 one side and. aeeeptanee on the otaer: According '£0 some SC'no:[a'f's11 proposal -shouJd come n:rst ,tben acceptance, be it in die p,ast tense or in the present. one. Abu Ya "Ia confines this ruling to limited cases". where the c-omlDodhy ism 't expensive, In fact, both aspects should be affected 10 avoid "the possibili ty of dispute, Usury has 'been s!tro.:m.,gly condemned. and prohibned in the Q1!lT~m, !therefore; it must be shunned. People shoutd be well .. jnfonned about its ruling and. its, vile outcomes, .. AU ruling pertaining to other' transacnons should be m.ade. known, to people.

b no.. .. ~.I d" "din·,.. ",,

. ~ '. ma ,JU~uce an . avut_ .g lOequlty'

The second aspect I.S doing justice from. bod! parties and. avoiding 'inequity 'wi.th Us two types, general and spe.c:ific,

1.- The former' refers to monopoly. It is forbidden since it leads to anincr,ease of prices and tigbtenin:g the grip of living over' people. Monopoly signifies hoarding goods, and selling

+.... .., f ,.. H 'f

mem 'in nme 0 pnce tnerease. owever, 1. a person

h - .. "',.' ""1' " ..... , '.". -' . ." .e-,.., .' hlsowi .~ .'I..:!I ' ''''d'··",· . '.' '"'iI' 'L.~!

. arves,ts· a, certam c.rnp .!.rom. .. lIS own, !I. ~e.li.~. ,an _ s!!oore,s, h., I.IIC

is n()t~ a, monopolist. Generally speaking, people ~ s :fooc1 sheuld net be made a commodity,

2- The. lauer stands for falsely praising a certain good or rather conceal its defect; thus harm.ing a would-be 'buyer i The Prophet (peace and blessingsof Allah. be upon him) said"

'·"Whoever cheau us doesn 't belong to' US;§ (Reported by Muslim)

89

Cheadng is forbidden. in aU, aspects, of human U:fe. Imam Ahmad was once asked about darning ropes whereupon he replied,

Scaille should also be jusdy fulfiUed" Mixing food wi,(h dust 'then w,eighing ill 'is 'totalLy Hamm. Bargaining over other buyers to increase a good's price is also condemned"

,e) Good Treatm__ent:

The Alml.gbty has commended us. to be just and treat others 'in good tefI11;S. In selling, a seller' shou~d be: moderate w,ardmg off defraud. A buyer Dlay offel' an excessive price' for acertain good due to his dire need for it, in that case the seDer should not be opportunist, Read:miin,g 'nhe payment duet be should ask for his money mode:r,alely., He may also alleviate 'the debt in case of adversity.

d)' Trader"s concern about hi's religion

A trader shouki be, well-concemed about his religion and avoid being wl10fly preoceupled with worldly ,affairs,. This is achieved through fulfilling six criteria,

J- 0000, [ll,roodolrn.. He sbould seek thereby- to acWev,e se~f .. contem, free himself :from covetousness and support his family"

2,-, He' should seek thereby 'fulfllUing a commenal obligation. If trade: is nat practiced, by any one, people's lives w,ould be undermined, However, some crafts are' more ~mpona11t in order so fiU a gap :(0 the communitY'i ,A teac:he,r of the Qur'an should not, receive any paymen~ f"Of teaching the Qur'an,

90'

3,- JI'e should not be totally disttacred by 'the worldly gaieties; dIus leading him to fOir,get all about tbe Hereafter. He should, devote his life to the JiJe '10 come wbile~ undertaking his trade Hartly Muslim traders dedicated their whole lives to the Hereafser while observing their works. Therefore" he should keep 'players in the~iI' due times,

,4- He: should continually remember 'the A.I,m.igh.y in, die market,

s- He should not be greed SOl much mat he r-eaches the market the first and leave lit 'Ute. last one.

6- 'He should also SlhUD suspici.ous transactions i, He: should romsu[t his, heart In ,all cases in order to avoid miscldef.,

'IV,. The 'Lawful and lite Prohibited

Bveryene should know' 1llat Seekm_g for '£he Lawfttl is ~)ibligato,ry. However" many ignorant persons, assume "that there is nolhing, law"tTu]. They look sus.piciously aut every tbing. This is sheer ignor,ance" 'The PFop,bet: (peace and 'bl,essings. of Allah be upon :him) said,

," ....

"'B' ...... ;!t. lid "II 1" '.ls,· b . d' .

1,~Vm "ega:· ana r,:egiu fiiln;gs are: O'.>'VtOUS~ ana 111

.r..!:"::~·"'~~'DDn "'(..A_ (I' _ (,. ~i"~'PI'i ... ious) d ..... ,.l..tJj,,,r _~+t-8:t1f' ~' lII:.~fiY'II;.r.~ ... ~ ""·;J~[.·,r~ l.'.'l~ .,";'l~;., ,..~.v.~.:. ~~'l~" "~I'\J~Il~!Il

(Reported 'by A~,=Bukllari.)

:Seing au msi(Uous. :ianovatiO.Dl, i.t bas been greatly harmful and dangerous.ly Ullde:nninmg people' s rehgion, Hence ~ ill' should be refuted darlfym,g me difference between tbe lawful, fue doubtful and 'OJ,e illegal maaers.

Vb1ues of tbe Lawftul and, Evils, of the Pn),bibited,

'("0'-: '·~·~"U' .1~'~'~""e··Itt!OD."·P" En···· ,Irm 'a·,ll'it.'l,.;:n' C1i'[~ ', ......... ,.In' ... """

. '.' yo"" 1lt'lJ!tSX~ .• ,,,o,Ii-,,jJ'., '. OJ' ..... .r II'L,. i ,1,1';"' ~,6jJ1' ,"t1.1(1t4. w.',"

P,-.Ii.J'J"~D Fi' .... ;, ';1 J.PI,,. 1;', r;g"t.t''''''{)'~ 'US'YI'8''',,, fi'nr" I nm· · .linen:;.,

,a~q~i;;;d ~;h'(all;;~;~YO,;~d~,,)' v,. ' w~, ", 'W'.,'

(A: 1i":M, ,; 'I'll 'm 1!:·lf1IUin., 1:, 'j ')'.' .

. 1. y _ " ,lJ.'W !I J! .II.

He ,~I,n'~1 say i.1 ;,_,~ d..IMJ ~g.:': .. ~.,

\A_nd do not fiat up your property among yourselves

for vantti:es.) .

(:AJ- Baqarah:' 1. 88)

The Prophet (peace aDd, 'b1.essin,gs, of Allah, be upon, bim) said~

"0 people', Allah is Good and He therefore, aCf:eplS

" 'ihl' "1.,,,,,,;,. ,L".ciL1S GOO'" ,d' A" "d'" A' :r:r ...... z.. .. " ,", maed "L ....

{):II..r;j ,j;-ru,u W,dC" L' 6' _" ,i II. ~f~1 ct:m'1l1'lanue, ~,~

b.. t" H' ..... ..,j,I d ,,;,1. II "'tn" ,i(! .. ~·,even: as . e c(JlmmaiKJe .. ' me i.rieSS,e1lg,ers ,6:;-

sayin8~' 0' Mess,engers~ eat 'Q/ .the good things, and

A.~ . ,. ,_~A . ..I .... nJ.. .. .. -u« / ... ' , .. ,. ...,£ ,.l.,... ..J .... \.

,lID' govu U'C'~H.f.;' verhY . !Q.m aware q, 'Wn'at you ,aU,

[(As-Sa,jdah.: 5.1),. And He ,s;aid~ (0 those who believe~ eat oj tl1tt good things that We gaMe ,y~u}.

tAil iDl. ,. h,' l' 72-- 'Il JbT tl.·.. ....... .... 11 -, ,- . ',c.'-~ .. 'l~' ',,' V1,.'-:o,uqar;o . .- i rc), '~e a:,en r',w-!yJe' a men'tron OJ' a

person, who travels wiaeJ,y" .his hair dlsheMfl.ed' and' covered' with dust. He lifts ,his hand ,towartM th;e sky 'and thus makes the' sri,",niication) .. "'0 Lord 0'

tl .'. . .-." .. '...' '"lr,t..-, , . '. . ...... "~,, ... , -".~ .

Lordj. IJ' wh£reas his die:t is: ,unlmvful~ hi's drink is

.-'M..thJ'! .... -,j his Ji"!. " ,.1. ,-. ,- , '- ..... ,,n,;,;j·li\jif ,;i'j''''' J hi' , ", U{,Uu.rIYJ!I+', ana .. ~.~ J;_.,_()t,,,es are u",uu~'~':'JH-oI: ' .... '"' <.S

no,wisJiment is. unlawfUl" - Haw can then hi:s

.. : ,- ,~'" .' ';I" be .. ," "f-,.A~"l'

$UPP'dCtldOn oe aecepteai

(Reponed 'by Muslim)

S,a"d ibn A'bi Wa,qqas (may AUah 'be pleased withbi:m) once asked the Pr.ophet (peace and blessings of AUaib be' upon him) .how to' have his supplications, answered by Allah, Most Hi.gb.. T.he Prophet (peace and 'blessings o:f Allah be upon him) Slid"

"""Po'" r. .... ild,R "·0··1f.... ~rn'P' ': tica . tio '-',:11 .l"tJf\1i j?"U ~O;P!Od·' "\}\Oif~r·' F..o·' od .J.. 'I' LiW"Ii"-~ J' _: 'K' !J1"rJ.· :"L. "1, ·r.·I~ U~~ [!f"~.lf ~I.:· ',_ ~.1' UN" JL'Vt. '_: ,

i;. i! J: i....... I' ,'hZ'~}.

S'liO'U"U uc: 'm1J~ .

Abu BUr (may AJlall be 'p,leased wUih him) once ate something. [)oubtimg: its. TegalUy. he fo'ooibly vomited it at. once,

Degrees, of the· LawIW. and the Probib,ited

All -the lawful 'ilings are: good but same are bener than others, The same applies, ,to-the prohibited. .. [It ranges, from - bad .. (0 worse and the W·OfSt. in accordance widlthe: gravi.ty of 'the

sln, F'or' eu.mrpl~.e. mldng something through an invalid contract is. forbidden whereas extortion is extremely forbidden and ,enta:Us 3! sever :punisbment since It involves .h.ar:ming odlefs and

. I" basi I l' I'· Tn 1il"

vto atmg ,i2lS1.C S~lamlC ru nilgs. - ... :.e same Ipp.~lesmo

appropriating am orphan's property o.rtna·t of a poor or a. righteoas person,

Dearees of Pietu,"

Ie'''' '&;:1

Pi.ety has fbur degrees, namely,

1... Disregarding all prehiblted 'th.ing:s.

2 .. Warding, off all doubtfni matters. The Prophet (peace and blessiags of AUah be upon him) said,

(!I!·~,,""'·fl.ve ,-rJu.' :~{)"'" .·U~ matters i'-f1' .C", e rtain ,0'" nes 71 ~u:. _ ".I m, ,UlU . K+L !;.·f ... ! ~Iif '. . ~'~nll! . ,r .. ~.",' ,.

(Re·poned. by At- Tirmldhi)

3- [Giving UPI some lawful 'means lestmey should lead 00 unla w:fulooes·.

4 .. 'Giving up aU WOrldly-related affairs and s:titkill.g to divine.

ORes. Tbis g:tate: is entertained by the righteous. "Yahy.aAn .. NaySalburi once' dosed himself wi.th me(lic:fme·,. then his, wife asked him to '[DOVe around so 'd1at medicine. wouldpenetrate into bls 'body and be efIectiv.e. He n::pil~ed., ~I don't know SllllCh a. kind of movement AC1lJaUy.~ r have been ,oonsiCier.bl;g my aetions .fo([' thirty ye~us. ,1' Hie declined a single move since be d.idinjt lntend there'byto, strengthen his f~i;t1I. In fact, piety has a s.mrwlg poiut and ·am, end" In between lie degrees, of caution ,. The degree of eaunon 'IDle. follows determines man's movement 00. the Snrai,gb.t Pad!. on the. Day of JUldg,enrent.

. 94

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