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© Pearson EducatJoo limrted 1000

All rights reserved; no par! of this pubhcaooo may be rep rod uced , stored in a retrieval system, or transrnrtted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recordinq or otherwise, without the prior written perrnrsston of the copyright holders.

First published 2000 Fifth impression 2004

Set in ITC Officina Sans 10.5/12.5pt

ISBN 0 582 773164

Printed in Spain by Mateu Cromo, SA Pinto (Madrid)

Acknowledgements

Illustrated by Chris Paveley (Paveley Arts).

The authors and publishers would like to thank the following people for their help in the development of this course:

Argentina: Graciela Maria Cervera, M6nica Cetola de Simez, Elsa Pomi, M6nica Chiappero, Alejandra Lameiro, Charlie Lopez, Leonor Corradi, Marcela Grillo, Susana Rodriguez Ferreiro, Carmen Baroni, Carlassare Jorgelina, Diana Calleja, Ana Marla Prini, Gabriela Monetta; Colombia: M6nica Perdomo, Gina Francesconni, Lina Manzur, Santiago Gonzalez; Croatia: Nina Babic, Daska Domljan; Czech Republic: Nina Babakova, Jana Jllkova, Zdenka Kindlova, Nadezda Muzikova; Hungary: Feher Endre, Heitzmann Judit, MOOis Laszlone, Molnar Erzsebet, Paisz Szuzsanna, Simovrts Agnes, Urban Agnes; Lithuania: Manja Kleckovska, Daiva Oss, Rita Stoskiene, Regina Tamasiuniene; Poland: Anna Binek-Glabinska, lofia !3tonska, Aleksandra Duraj, Beata Filar, Wojciech GICl_binski, Ewa Komorowska, Anna Palugniok; Romania: Vera Elek; Russia: Natalia Evgenievna Golunova, Elena Yurievna Golubenkova, Julia Vladimirovna Serova, Natalia Viclorovna Majorova, Irina Vladimirovna Danilova, Valentina Vladimirovna Astapova, Irina Vladimirovna lharova; Slovakia: Jan Bobor, Darina Cesnekova, Elena Duqovicova, Maria GajdoSova, Dagmar Hrubantova, Jana Machajdikova, Marta Mackova, Eniko Tilkova, Marla Zelena; Turkey: Hulya Akaslan; UK: Christina Ruse, Claire Thacker; Ukraine: Irinia Dmimyeva, Nadezhda Dzuba, Yelena Gutsulak, Irina Lisovets, Nick Morris, Yelena Mosina.

Cover photograph: Tony Stone

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of those pages marked 'photocopiable' according to the following conditions. Individual purchasers may make copies for their own use or for use by classes they teach. School purchasers may make copies for use by their staff and students, but this permission does not extend to additional schools or branches.

Under nocircumstances may any part of this book be pbotocopled for fe5oaJe.

Opportunities

Pre-I ntermed iate

Teacher's Book

Michael Harris David Mower Anna Sikorzynska

Contents

What's in a Module? Key Features Teaching Help

Students' Book Contents Teacher's Notes:

Learning to Learn 1 Lifestyles

2 Heroes

3 Celebration 4 Money

5 Cyberspace 6 The Sea

7 Rhythm

8 Design Literature Spots

Assessment Guide Tests (photocopiable)

Notes on photocopiable materials Photocopiable materials Language Powerbook Answer Key Tests Answer Key

2 4 10 13

16 19 31 45 57 71 83 97

109 123 127 130 138 141 155 160

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••• ....

Longman

What's in a Modulp?

Module opening page introduces topic and motivates students.

Module objectives tell students what they are going to do.

Warm-up activities get students thinking about the topic.

Key Words present and activate vocabulary for the topic.

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Presentation exercises help students discover how language is used.

5 Local H~ro~s

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2

In the Skills Focus pages, Before you start prepares students for reading and listening.

23 Going Ov~rs~as

Writing and Speaking

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Comparing Cultures gives a mini focus on a cultural aspect of the topic.

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Review pages revise grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation.

3

K~y f~atur~s

1 Topic-based modules

Opportunities is a five-level course that has been specially designed for the secondary school language learning context. The basic premise of the course is that secondary students learn English best when they are dealing with interesting and meaningful content. Thematic input provides a context for language and communication and supplies a series of cognitive 'anchors' for learning which are crucial in a monolinguallearning environment.

The course is organised into eight topic-based modules. Within each module there are different sub-topics, which provide variety and at the same time explore the module theme in . depth (e.g. Module 6: overall topic - the sea; sub-topics - sea stories, at the seaside, going overseas, the undersea world).

Each topic offers opportunities to explore three kinds of content:

i) Topics related to the student's own world

Within each topic in Opportunities Pre-Intermediate, there are opportunities to explore concerns and interests that are directly related to teenagers and young adults:

free time (Module 1); sports stars (Module 2); parties (Module 3); shopping (Module 4); going out/travel (Module 5); holidays (Module 6); music and dance (Module 7); fashion (Module 8).

ii) Cross-curricular themes

However, there is always a serious slant and strong crosscurricular and extra-curricular elements. It is important to remember that secondary students are in a serious educational environment and there is an obligation to help them learn about the world:

Science - information technology/ the history of the Internet! the effect of technology on our lives (Module 5: Cyberspace); different kinds of marine life (Module 6: The Sea).

The Arts - different kinds of music and dance (Module 7:

Rhythm); painting and architecture (Module B: Design).

Business - dealing with money/awareness of consumerism and the importance of moral values/advertising (Module 4:

Money).

Social Studies - serious social issues such as homelessness (Module 1: Lifestyles), disability and racism (Module 2:

Heroes), immigration and emigration (Module 6: The Sea).

iii) Cultural input

Culture provides the third strand of thematic input. Some of this is about different cultures around the world (e.g. Indonesian weddingsllndian festivals: Module 3). However, most of the input in the book is on English-speaking cultures:

British TV programmes (Module 1); great campaigners such as Martin Luther King (Module 2); festivals in Britain and the US (Module 3); shopping and shops in Britain (Module 4): input about Auckland (Module 5); a British aquarium (Module 6); nightclubs in Britain (Module 7); buildings in Britain and the US (Module 8).

4

There is also a focus on English literature. Firstly, there are literary texts in the modules: Edgar Allan Poe (Moduie 6); and Sandra Cisneros (Module 8). There are also four Literature Spots which look at classics from English literature: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight by an anonymous fourteenth-century poet; A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens; The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde; The Pearl by John Steinbeck.

2 Clear objectives, clear outcomes

One of the key advantages of Opportunities is that, throughout the course, there is a clear direction for learning. Modules, lessons and tasks all have carefully worked-out stages and all lead up to clear communicative outcomes.

a) The modules

Stage 1 - Warm-up Each warm-up page introduces students to the module topic. It prepares them by focusing on key lexical areas and involves them through listening and personalisation activities. The module objective boxes give students clear signposts as to what they will be studying in the module.

Stage 2 - Four main input lessons Two of these are Grammar Focus lessons which provide grammatical input within the context of the theme. The remaining two are Skills Focus lessons, which develop all four skills and provide students with strategies for dealing with communication. They also provide students with explicit lexical and functional input.

Stage 3 - Performance Each module builds up to a Communication Workshop. These include writing and speaking tasks which enable students to use the strategies and language they have acquired throughout the module.

Stage 4 - Review/reflection The Review lesson contains revision of the main language from the module. It is backed up in the Language Powerbook by 'test yourself' activities and a module diary, which enables students to reflect on what they have learnt in each module.

b) The lessons

The structure of the lessons mirrors the module structure by following the same basic stages of leaming.

Stage 1 - Before you start in this section of each lesson there are warm-up activities which introduce the lesson sub-topic and help to prepare students in terms of Iexis. In Grammar Focus lessons, the Before you start phase includes reading and listening tasks which provide the context for target language items.

Stage 2 - Main input Skills Focus lessons contain skills development activities (listening and reading) followed by a focus on vocabulary or lexis. Grammar Focus lessons have an

explicit presentation stage, in which students work out rules of form and usage.

Stage J - Main performance All lessons lead up to a productive stage. In skills lessons, this involves writing and speaking activities related to the topic of the lesson- In grammar lessons, students take part in freer written or oral grammar practice, which is again related to the topic of the lesson.

c) The tasks

The tasks in the Communication Workshop are all staged in the following way.

Before you start In this stage, students are prepared for doing the task. In the Writing Workshop, there is a model text plus work on style, linking and organisation. In the Speaking Workshop, the input phase includes a Function File, a short pronunciation exercise and work on communication strategies.

Stage 1 - Preparation One or more stages of each workshop involve students preparing their performance: brainstorming ideas; writing paragraph plans; planning what they are going to say; rehearsing useful words and expressions.

Stage 2 - Performance Students use their notes and ideas from the preparation stage either to perform the speaking task (e.g. ro!eplayfdiscussion) or to write a draft of their composition.

Stage J - Reflection In the Writing Workshop, when students have finished writing, they are encouraged to check their work and improve it, before giving it to their partners. Then, in the Talkback stage, students think about what they have written, react to what their partners have written or assess their own performance; and sometimes they act out a follow-up dialogue.

This clarity of direction in Opportunities is not only confidencebuilding and motivating for students, but also helps to foster independent learning (see Section 10, Learner Development on page 9). This approach enables the teachers to plan interesting and rounded lessons, manage the class more effectively and assess the communicative performance of their students.

3 Process approach to skills

The development of all four skills requires a clear and explicit focus on the actual process of communication. This focus helps students deal with cornrnunlcatlon in English and, at the same time, increases their awareness of communication in their own language.

i) Strategies - Strategies boxes contain communication strategies which can help students to deal with and overcome communication problems. Strategies are systematically developed and recycled throughout the five levels of Opportunities (see Section 4, Skills Development). Strategies boxes focus explicitly on different stages or aspects of communication and provide students with step-by-step procedures for dealing with them. After that, students have opportunities to carry out the strategies while doing a communicative task.

INTRODUCTION

ii) Staging - Communication activities are clearly staged. This not only helps task achievement and builds confidence, but also develops students' awareness of communication itself.

iii) Integration of skills - Skills are closely integrated so that students can use the information or ideas from one skllls activity while doing another.

Example: In the Writing Workshop (Module 4) students produce an advertisement for a gadget that they have chosen or invented. In the Speaking Workshop they then have to 'sell' their gadget to their partners.

4 Comprehensive skills development

Skills development throughout the five levels of Opportunities is systematic and all important areas of each skill are covered comprehensively.

a) Reading

There is plenty of reading in Opportunities. Each module has one main reading focus lesson and there are also shorter reading texts in both the Grammar Focus lessons. Most of the Writing Workshops have model texts and extra reading practice is provided in the four Culture Corners and the four Literature Spots.

There is a wide variety of different text types: magazine profiles; magazine articles and interviews; literature extracts; websites; questionnaires; advertisements; letters; reports; brochures; encyclopedia extracts; reviews.

There is also a varied selection of reading task types: checking predictions: responding to open answer questions; answering true/false questions; matching headings or topics with paragraphs; sequencing pictures or texts; finding mistakes or discrepancies in texts; completing gapped texts with sentences; note and table completion; expressing personal reactions to texts; working out the meaning of words (through context/using dictionaries); focusing on linking words or other elements of text cohesion.

Reading Strategies include the following: prediction; working out meaning of words in context; doing multiple-choice questions; identifying facts and opinions; matching topics and paragraphs; sequencing; gapped sentences; self-assessment.

Literature Spots give students opportunities for more extensive reading and to develop some basic critical awareness. Background information about the period and/or the writer is also provided.

b) Listening

Each module has between four and seven listening texts. The Warm-up to each module has short monologues that help to introduce the module topic. The oral skills lesson has one main input text, which contains information relevant to the lesson topic. It is followed by a text (usually a dialogue) which contains functional language and which is focused on in the Function File. There are also some listening texts in the Comparing Culture sections. Speaking Workshops also often have dialogues which present language and there are five Listening Workshop tasks, all of which focus on a song. One short task is

INTRODUCTION

given in the Coursebook, but extra ideas for exploiting the song are supplied in the Teacher's Book.

Listening text types include the following: radio programmes and documentaries; interviews; short monologues; descriptions; dialogues in a variety of contexts; lectures and talks; songs. Listening texts at this level mainly include standard British English, but some contain American and slightly non-standard English accents.

The following task types are used: checking predictions; identifying speakers/contexts; matching speakers/texts; multiple-choice questions; listing; open answer questions; text and table completion; 'who said what?'; evaluating difficulty; reactions to texts; identifying important words; note-taking.

Listening Strategies include the following: prediction; true/false questions; getting the general idea; focus on important words; listening for specific information; multiple-choice questions; self-assessment.

c) Writing

Each module has one major writing task in the Writing Workshop. However, there are suggestions for extra writing in the Teacher's Book, and the Language Powerbook includes a gUided writing activity in each module.

The following text types are focused on in main writing tasks: a personal letter (Module 1); a story (Module 2); a description of an event (Module 3); an advertisement (Module 4); an Internet page or brochure (Module 5); a report (Module 6); a concert review (Module 7); a description of a place (Module 8)

Strategies for the different stages of writing are focused on systematically in the Writing Workshops, but there are no explicit Strategies boxes. Strategies are integrated into the stages of the Writing Workshops. Extra ideas and language are also given in the Writing Help section at the end of the book. In Opportunities Pre-Intermediate, the following strategies are looked at: brainstorming ideas (using questions/timelines/ networks); audience awareness; paragraph planning (USing diagrams); drafting (using useful vocabulary and linking words); checking (contenUgrammar/spelling); self and peer assessment.

Writing Workshops are carefully staged (see Section 2 of this introduction on page 5). In addition to this, in the Talkback stage, students have a chance to read, use and react to each other's writing. Exploiting students' own writing can be very important, as it helps students to see writing as a real communicative activity, not simply the production of a 'composition' for the teacher.

There are model texts in all modules and these are usually in the Writing Workshop. The following aspects of writing texts are focused on: layout and paragraph organisation: style; use of linking words and expressions.

The following linking areas are looked at in Opportunities Pre-Intermediate: informal linking words (anyway, well, etc); time linking words (when, after that, etc); linking words of addition (also, plus, in addition to, etc); linking words of contrast (however, although, etc); purpose (so that).

The Writing Help provides students with guidance and help at every stage and is an important aid to learner independence. Each Help has the following sections:

Layout Gives students a model paragraph plan.

Useful Vocabulary Provides students with vocabulary useful to carry out the task.

Linking Gives examples of useful linking words which have been looked at either in the model text or a previous reading text.

Checking Has questions to help students revise their first drafts in terms of content, grammar, lexis and spelling. To further help students with checking, there is a Common Mistakes Checklist on page 112 of the Language Powerbook. This is a list of common grammatical mistakes that students make, especially when writing. Students can use this ust to check their composition for mistakes before giving it to the teacher. They can also add their common mistakes to the list.

The Language Powerbook also has a section on writing in each module. This includes more work on linking, systematic development of punctuation (capital letters, full stops, commas, apostrophes), work on problem spelling and guided writing activities.

d) Speaking

There are speaking activities in every lesson of Opportunities Pre-Intermediate. Within the course there is also a variety of whole class, pairwork and groupwork activities.

The Warm-up page has short personalisation exercises (usually pairwork activities) which encourage students to relate their own personal experiences to the topic that is being introduced.

The Grammar Focus lessons have guided drills which lead on to more open oral practice.

The written skills lessons finish with a staged speaking activity related to the topic of the lesson (e.g. inventing and finding out about someone's routine - Module 1). The oral skills lessons have guided practice of the functions which appear i,., ~he Function File and more open speaking activities (especiau r roleplays and opinion gap activities). based on the topic and situations covered in the lesson.

The following functions are focused on in the oral s,as lessons: expressing likes and dislikes (Module 1); expressing opinions/agreeing and disagreeing (Module 2); giving advice/congratulations/showing surprise (Module 31; shopping and bargaining (Module 4); making suggestions/telephoning (Module 5); interacting with your interlocutor/giving opinions (Module 6); asking for, giving and refusing permission (Module 7); describing places (Module 8)

The Speaking Workshops have the following tasks: a class survey (Module 1); discussing famous people (Module 2); a party roleplay (Module 3); a selling game (Module 4); a holiday problem solving activity (Module 5); a pubic debate (Module 6); a group roleplay (Module 7); pairwork discussion of a painting (Module 8)

Speaking Strategies are looked at either in the ora! skills lesson or in the Speaking Workshops. The following strategies are looked at either in Strategies boxes or in the Function Files working in groups; preparation for speaking; asking for repetition; bargaining; dealing with mistakes; interacting; ways of expressing yourself fluently.

The Language Powerbook provides additional practice of the functions presented in the oral skills lesson.

5 Discovery approach to grammar

cooonuoues uses an inductive approach to learning grammar, in which students can discover grammar themselves and work out rules of form and usage before comparing them with those in the Grammar Summary at the end of the coursebook.

Grammar Focus lessons alternate with Skills Focus lessons in each module and a total of sixteen major grammar areas are dealt with. Opportunities Pre·lntermediate both revises structures that students w!1 have seen at elementary levels and presents new grammar. The main grammar areas are as

follows: Present Simple and Present Continuous; Present Perfect (1); Past Simple and Past Continuous; Past Simple and Present Perfect (2); modals (must/mustn't/have to/don't have tofcanlcon'tlshouldlshouldn't); the Passive (present/past); determiners and qualifiers (some/any/no/a fotof/many/much/ aillnonefbothl neither/the other/another); 'will' and 'going to'; First and Second Conditionals; Present Perfect (3); comparison of adjectives; future arrangements and intentions; spontaneous decisions/time clauses; prepositions of place/direction/time; relative clauses (3). The approach to grammar is clearly staged.

The grammar syllabus has been developed to take account of students' particular difficulties. The Present Perfect, a difficult tense for many learners, is looked at In three different places in the Student's Book: Present Perfect to describe results in the present (Module 1); Present Perfect to talk about the indefinite past (Module 2); Present Perfect to talk about states (Module 6).

a) Before you start

Students :irst do tasks on reading and listening texts which develop the module topic and introduce a new sub-topic. The texts are semi-authentic and contain clear examples of the target structure However, at this stage students only concentrate on the meaning of the text.

b) Presentation

In this stage, students' attention is focused on the target grammar items in the text. Firstly, they are directed to the form of the new grammatical structure (often involving table completion]. Then, students use the isolated examples of grammar and the context provided by the text to work out and formulate rules of usage in a guided way. Finally, they are referred to the Grammar Summary at the back of the book, where there are explanations of the rules and further examples.

c) Practice

Practice activities are carefully graded and get students to apply the rules that they have just discovered. Initial activities get students to discriminate receptively between different usages They are often followed by activities in w ich students use the target structure in a very guided woy [often through

gap-fills). Then, students move on to doing p o ive but

guided written and oral practice activities. F - ey do freer

written and oral practice. At the same time as Il<WIg grammar practice exercises. students are usually deve " 1'e tnerne of the lesson and of the module.

Further consolidation of target grammar in ea ~ IS provided in the Review lesson. Also, each lesson • :::-12

Language Powerbook is closely linked to a Cou =s.scn

and contains graded grammar tasks at three Ie e: 0:::... ~y

(*I**f***) Finally, at the end of each module in th:el.~

INTRODUCTION

Powerbook there is a Check Your Grammar section, which tests the grammar in the module and a Check Your Progress, which tests all the grammar done so far in the book.

The approach to grammar in the Coursebook contains contrastive elements and focuses on areas of particular difficulty for speakers of different languages. This contrastive approach is developed further in the Language ProblemSolving sections, which come after every two modules. These pages focus on particularly difficult areas for many students: articles; modals; the Present Perfect; question tags.

Students are provided with plenty of back-up grammar reference. In the Coursebook, the Grammar Summary provides a list of rules and examples. In the Language Powerbook, there is the Mini-grammar, which is a highly comprehensive grammar resource for students and teachers to use both in and out of class.

6 A three-dimensional approach to vocabulary

ThiS course provides a comprehensive approach to vocabulary learning on three levels: firstly, it helps students to deal with lexical items in context; secondly, students have the chance to build up their own personal lexicon; thirdly, there are plenty of opportunities for students to actually use vocabulary in context.

a) Dealing with vocabulary in context

Students always encounter new lexis in their language learning experience and often develop strategies that can be negative (e.g. trying to understand every word or looking up every word in the dictionary). In Opportunities, a lot of attention is given to the development of Reading Strategies which help students deal with words: working out the meaning of words from the context; looking at the part of speech; looking for words that are similar in their own language; using dictionaries. Similarly, Listening Strategies help students to focus on important words (or content) when they are listening and help them to guess when they are not sure.

When texts (particularly listening texts) contain a large load of new vocabulary, important items are also pre-taught through Key Word boxes.

A bilingual or monolingual Mini-dictionary also comes with Opportunities. The Mini-dictionary includes all words used in the Course book and the Language Powerbook that are preintermediate. It is organised in the same way as most good ELT dictionaries to get students used to and confident in using dictionaries. The particular choice of examples in the Minidictionary shows students vocabulary in a different context to extend their knowledge of language and draws students' attention to typical collocations so that they are immediately aware of words that go together. The Mini-dictionary also contains a pronunciation chart and list of phonetic symbols. The Mini-dictionary plays an important role as it gives students much greater confidence when approaching new texts and increases their independence when reading in or out of class. It is a good idea to encourage your students to use their minidictionaires in every lesson.

7

INTRODUCTION

b) Learning vocabulary in context

The topic and sub-topics of each module provide cohesion for the learning of new lexis. Students can link new items into a thematic context, thus 'anchoring' the items more firmly in their memories.

Key lexical areas are presented to students explicitly through Key Word boxes. In the Warm-up section of each module, important vocabulary relevant to the topic is revised and presented. Throughout the module, Key Word exercises help to build up topic related vocabulary. Further new vocabulary is presented in reading texts.

Lexical features are illustrated systematically, thus helping students to systematise their vocabulary learning. The major features covered in the Vocabulary section of the written skills lessons throughout the book are as follows: cognates; multi-part verbs; collocation; adjectives - ed/ing; collocationdo and make; wordbuilding; compound words; British and American words. Other lexical features are looked at after texts and are also revised and consolidated in Review lessons. In addition, there is more consolidation in the Language Powerbook.

Students are encouraged to have vocabulary books (Module 0 -learning to Learn) and the Language Powerbook helps them to build up their own personal lexicon. Grammar Focus lessons in the Language Powerbook have Word Corners, short exercises which recycle vocabulary from the lesson. Both Communication lessons have important Vocabulary sections. These concentrate on key lexical sets and lexical features introduced in the lessons. After the last core lesson there is a Key Word Bank, which provides an organised lexical and functional reference for the module vocabulary. Short exercises go with this, getting students to add to the list and focus on features of pronunciation. Finally, the Word Power section revises and recycles lexis from the module and includes a word game. It is accompanied by a Word Tip which suggests strategies for organising and remembering new lexis.

c) Using vocabulary in context

Students build up vocabulary as they work through a module so that when they get to the Communication Workshop at the end of each module, they have enough vocabulary to use it productively to write on the theme.

Example:

Module 8:

Warm-up: paintings - style/content etc. Lesson 29: descriptive adjectives in text Lesson 30: house and architecture words Lesson 31: fashion words/physical description Lesson 32: house words

Communication workshop: write a description of a house; discuss a painting.

Key Word boxes provide students with useful vocabulary that they can use when doing the communicative tasks. Writing Workshops are supported by the Writing Help, which has a section on useful vocabulary and on useful linking words and expressions.

7 Pronunciation

Pronunciation is dealt with systematically in Opportunities Pre-Intermediate, both at the level of individual sounds and at a

supra segmental level (dealing with features of extended speech). Two main areas are looked at: features related to specific language areas and communicative functions; those sounds which are difficult for students due to interference from other languages.

In oral skills lessons, the following features are covered in Pronunciation exercises: intonation for hesitation; intonation for questions; intonation for showing surprise and interest; interest for politeness; prominence - stressed and unstresseo words in extended speech.

In Review lessons, Sounds exercises deal with the following problem sounds:

/1l]/ln/; /s//al IJlltJI; lrel lei; Ir/; la:l 1;,:113:1; IdJ 1£1; III Ii:!

Word stress patterns are also presented. Finally, In the Key Word Bank section of the Language Powerbook students revise the sounds, word stress patterns and intonation looked a[ in the module.

At this level, students are not expected to know the phonetic symbols (these will be introduced explicitly at Opportunities Intermediate). However, phonetic symbols are given in Review lessons and the Mini-dictionary contains phonetic transcriptions plus a reference list of the symbols.

8 Recycling

Language (grammar, vocabulary, functions, linking words) is thoroughly recycled in Opportunities:

a) across levels

The language syllabuses in Opportunities Pre-In[errrJediate build on what students may have done in Opportun.t.es Elementary and extends their experience of the language Grammar items are particularly revised in the Coursebook and in the Remember section of the Language Powerbook. In the Remember sections of the Language Powerbook smaller but important grammar points are revised and practised. The areas looked at are: Module 1 - the form of the Present Simple and Continuous and time adverbials (e.g. at seven o'clock); Module 2 - irregular verbs and questions in the Past Simple; Module 3- can for ability and permission; Module 4 - how much and how many and there is and it is; Module 5 - pronouns and possessive adjectives and 'zero' conditionals; Module 6 - position of adjectives and adjectives + too and enough;

Module 7 - question forms with different tenses; Module 8- adjectives with prepositions and common multi-part verbs.

b) across modules

Lexical and functional items are recycled careiully across modules. Grammar Focus lessons also build closely on w at has been done earlier in the book.

c) across lessons

Because of the thematic nature of modules, vocabulary and functional language is constantly recycled within a module. The same is true with grammar. Grammar items are often previewed or practised in Skills Focus lessons and students have more opportunities to use the target grammar in the Communication Workshop.

9 Culture

Input about English-speaking cultures appears frequently in lessons. This IS supplemented by the Comparing Cultures spots in the Skills Focus lessons. Here students reflect on the differences between the target cultures and their own. Some spots also provide extra cultural input in the form of short listening tasks (e.g. Lesson 6 - task on British campaigners).

Quote ... Unquote spots, which appear throughout the coursebook, also provide interesting cultural insights. Background information on the quotes is provided in the Teacher's Book, plus suggestions for exploitation.

More cultural input is provided in the Culture Corners which appear every two modules. These consist of factfiles and magazine articles plus accompanying tasks. In Opportunities Pre-Intermediate, the following subjects are looked at: Food in Britain; Edinburgh; New Zealand; London. Finally, the Literature Spots help students learn about important stories and writers from English literature at the same time as developing their extensive reading skills.

Cultural aspects of oral communication are examined in Function Files: formal and informal agreeing and disagreeing (Module 2); social interaction at parties (Module 3); shopping and bargaining (Module 4); telephoning (Module 5); interacting in conversation (Module 6); formal vs. informal requests for permission (Module 7); polite discussion (Module 8).

Cultural elements in written language are focused on in Writing Workshops and backed up by information in Writing Help. In Opportunities Pre-Intermediate these areas are looked at: informal style; expressing facts and opinions; style in reports; structure of different kinds of texts.

10 Learner development

Learner development is an important feature in Opportunities. Over the four levels of the course, students are encouraged to develop as independent and active learners of English. These skills and habits will make them better students throughout their educational lives. The Coursebook and Language Powerbook provide activities to encourage learner independence.

Before Module 1, there are three introductory 'Learning to Learn' lessons. These prepare students for using the course by making them aware of the different components available to them. It also develops students' awareness of different learning styles and, through self-assessment, awareness of their individual grammatical knowledge. They develop learner independence by helping students to use the Mini-dictionary, by organising their vocabulary books and by setting up their grammar notes.

Opportunities recognises the fact that students in the same class often come from different experiences of language learning in primary school (or lower secondary school) and therefore are at different levels in the same class. Opportunities provides many chances for students with less knowledge/ experience of the language to build up their knowledge and do extra practice (e.g. the Language Powerbook mixed level exercises and extra suggestions in the Teacher's Book). At the same time, teachers can give more proficient students additional reading, etc to maintain their interest and enthusiasm for Interacting with the language. Workshops give students a chance to work together, bring different skills to the

INTRODUCTION

tasks and help one another with ideas. There are also elements in the course that cater for mixed level or mixed ability classes by giving students different options such as the Literature Spots and Culture Corners.

The graded grammar activities in the Language Powerbook are important in mixed level or ability classes. One star activities are more simple (based on form). Two star activities are a little more complex (often with a focus on use in context and contrasting different structures). Three star activities contrast structures in context or involve less guided exercises. Weaker students can thus be encouraged to concentrate on one and two star activities, while stronger students can be expected to finish all of the Language Powerbook exercises.

Many of the components of the course create an 'infrastructure' for learning that, in practical terms, means that students can work on their own as well as with help from the teacher.

Each module begins with clear module objectives (In this module you wilL) which give students a clear idea of what they will be studying. Throughout the lessons, the Strategies boxes add to students' repertoires of communication strategies, thus developing their ability to handle communication on their own. When doing reading and vocabulary tasks students can always refer to the Minidictionary. When doing Grammar Focus lessons they can refer to the Grammar Summary and then the Mini-grammar sections for extra explanations. Finally, the Writing Help section gives students extra help and guidance when doing the task in the Writing Workshop.

At the end of each module, in the Language Powerbook, students have opportunities to analyse and reflect on their learning from the module. The Check Your Grammar and Check Your Progress sections allow students to check their learning of grammatical structures and identify any problem areas. The Module Diary gets them to reflect on their learning in the module, referring students back to the module objectives at the beginning of the module and to the Mini-grammar to review any aspects of grammar that need clarifying or further work.

The following elements in the Coursebook and the Language Powerbook help students become better learners:

Coursebook:

Module Objective boxes (at the start of each module) Strategies boxes (communication strategies in Skills Focus lessons)

Writing Help (back-up for Writing Workshops)

Grammar Summary (rules and examples of grammatical structures in the Coursebook)

Mini-dictionary (dictionary that goes with the Coursebook)

Language Powerbook:

Grammar Index (a list of structures explained in the Minigrammar)

Mini-grammar (detailed grammar reference)

The Language Powerbook also has a series of elements that facilitate learner independence:

graded grammar practice exercises;

clear signposting of exercises;

Key Word Bank (lexical reference);

Word Corners and Vocabulary Tips (exercises and tips that help students remember vocabulary);

Check Your Grammar and Check Your Progress (self-test sections);

Module Diary.

INTRODUCTION

43 Encourage individual practice. In the preparation stage of a speaking activity, it is useful for students to rehearse the phrases and expressions out loud. If they find it very difficult to pronounce a word or expression, offer them an alternative phrase.

44 Always reward effort and participation In speaking activities. Remember that shy students need extra praise and support.

45 Give marks for oral performance to emphasise the importance of speaking practice. (See assessment of speaking in the Assessment Guide, page 127.)

46 Only correct afterwards, not during oral communication activities. Write down the mistakes and afterwards put them up on the board and get students to correct them.

47 Get students to make a list of words they find difficult to pronounce. Then practise some of the sounds that appear.

Learner development

48 Learner development is Investment. Time spent at the start of a course organising vocabulary books, getting students used to the self-study features of the Coursebook or increasing student awareness of reading or writing will pay dividends throughout the year as learners become more effective students.

49 Self-study features. Remind students of all the self-study features in Opportunities and encourage them to use the Grammar Summary; Mini-grammar; Grammar Index; Writing Help; Mini-dictionary.

50 Encourage students to keep learner diaries. Give students five minutes at the end of each week to think about what they have done and complete the Module Diary at the end of each module in the Language Powerbook.

51 Use the module objectives at the start of each module. Ask students to think about which of the objectives will be most important for their individual learning.

52 Time for reflection. Use the Module Diary in the Language Powerbook to reflect on the module and their results in the Check Your Grammar and Check Your Progress sections of the Language Powerbook. Ask students to tell you what they have learnt from the module in terms of content.

53 Link self-assessment with your own assessment. See ideas in the Assessment Guide (page 129) for integrating self-assessment with test results and your own assessment. If we get students to do self-assessment it is important for us to listen to them.

12

Stud~nts' Book (ont~nts

LEARNING TO LEARN

A Starting Off (p. 4)

Leamer questionnaire: What Kind of Learner Are You)' Book contents/Features of the Book

B Words (p.5)

Reading: 'Language'

Reading Strategies: using dictionaries Organising vocabulary books

C Grammar (p. 6)

Self-test of basic grammar/Organising grammar notes: tables, lists, time lines, translations

I 1 LIFESTYLES
LESSON I LANGUAGE SKILLS
Warm-up Ip. 7) I Vocabulary: lifestyle adjectives (boring, busy, etc); listening: monologues
jobs (police officer, shepherd, etc)
1 A Perfect Day?! Vocabulary: TV programmes (soap opera, documentary, Reading: magazine profile - 'A Couch Potato'
(pp.8-9) etc) I
Grammar: Present Simple and Present Continuous I
Present Simple: activities that are repeated regularlyl
present states, feelings or opinions
Present Continuous: activities happening now or a present
activity that happens regularly over a short period of time
I 2 Relaxing Function: preferences (I can't stand doing ... 11 enjoy Listening: radiO programme (interview)
(pp.1O-11) doing ... , etc) Listening Strategies: prediction
Pronunciation: hesitatron (mmiwelllyou know) Speaking: likes and dislikes
3 Eccentrics Grammar: Present Perfect (1) Reading: dialogue
(pp.12-13) To talk about actions that happened in the past and have
clear consequences in the present (The parrot has escaped.)
Vocabulary: feelings
4 Going Vocabulary: 'good friends' and 'false friends' Reading: magazine articles - 'Underground in
Underground New York' and 'Escape from the Big City'
(pp.14-15) Reading Strategies: prediction
Speaking: routines
Comparing Cultures: City vs Country
Communication I Writing: personal letter: informal syle - contractions, informal linking (anyway/wetn
Workshop Speaking: a class survey Key Words: leisure
(pp.I6-17) Speaking Strategies: group work Pronunciation: questions
! Review (p. 18) Grammar and vocabulary revision Pronunciation: IIfj//mf
i 2 HEROES
I Warm-up (p. 19) Vocabulary: adjectives - personality Igenerous, kind, etc) 1 Listening: character descriptions from films
mood (calm)
,-'-"--_.- I Grammar: Past Simpie and Past Continuous Reading: magazine article - 'True Life Drama' --
I 5 Local Heroes
(pp.20-21) I We were driving along when a car drove past us.
When we got there we saw three people trapped inside.
I 6 Campaigners i Function: expressing opinions (In my opinion/l thinkl Listening: radio programme - 'Martin Luther King'
I fpp·22-23) I I agree/l don't agree) Listening Strategies: listening to cassettes
Pronunciation: stressed words Speaking: discussion
Vocabulary: causes Comparing Cultures: British campaigners
I 7 Sports Stars I Vocabulary: adjectives - opinions. Reading: magazine article - 'The Williams Sisters'
(pp.24-2S) Positive (brilliant, etc), negative (awful, etc)
Grammar: Present Perfect (2) and Past Simple
Present Perfect for indefinite past with yet and already
I 8 Superhero Vocabulary: multi-part verbs (come to, give up, etc) Reading: magazine interview - Christopher Reeve
I (pp_ 26-27) Reading Strategies: working out meaning of words
Speaking: interviewing partners
Communication I Speaking: discussion - agreeing and disagreeing (Oh, come off it.)
Workshop Speaking Strategy: preparation for discussions Listening: song ('James Dean' by the Eagles)
:pp.28-29) Writing: a story - planning paragraphs Time Linkers: suddenly, in the end, etc.
I Review Ip. 30) I Grammar and vocabulary revision Pronunciation: /9/ mllf/Ilfl
Culture Corner 1 (p.31) Eating in Britain Language Problem-Solving 1 (p.32) articles 13

STUDENTS' BOOK CONTENTS

-- rr. .~~.:n :t:~·: 1! HI i ;.: ~\.:i ,1 ")' If m Fn~\h~ _I_) ,-j tl/ ,
3 CELEBRATION ,
LESSON LANGUAGE SKILLS
Warm-up (p. 33) Vocabulary: celebrations (christening, carnival, etc) Listening: identifying celebrations
Speaking: recent celebrations
9 Christmas Vocabulary: collocation - verbs and nouns (have tea, Reading: autobiography extract - 'Memories of Christmas'
(pp.34-35) play the piano, etc) Reading Strategies: multiple-choice questions
Speaking: childhood memories
Comparing Cultures: celebrations I
-~- ~"--
10 Weddings Grammar: have to, not have to, can, can't, should, Reading: internet page - 'Living in Indonesia' I
(pp.36-37) shouldn't
-_.
11 Parties Function: giving advice (You should/shouldn't ... ); Listening: dialogues
(pp.38-39) congratulations (Well done') Listening Strategies: understanding the general idea
Speaking: giving advice; congratulations
12 Seasonal Grammar: Passives I Reading: information on British festivals
Festivals Children are given sweets.
(pp.40-41) Halloween was begun by the Celts.
Communication Speaking: party roleplay ~
Workshop Function: showing surprise (Really?); asking for repetition (I'm sorry') I
(pp.42-43) Writing: party description - diagrams for planning I
Time linking: while, after that, etc
I -- I Pronunciation: word stress !
Review (p. 44) Grammar and vocabulary revision
---_----- .. ---. _.,---- 4 MONEY
Warm-up (p. 45) Vocabulary: verbs to do with money (borrow, lend, etc) I Listening: identifying people
I-- Grammar: some/any/no; a lot of/many/much I Reading: profile of ex-millionaire - 'Charles Gray'
13 A Material I
World
(pp.46-47)
--'-'--- - . Function: shopping and bargaining ('It's not worth I
14 The Right .'j Listening: radio interview; market dialogue
Price Pronunciation: intonation for politeness Speaking: shopping
(pp. 48--49) Vocabulary: shopping Comparing Cultures: bargaining
15 Your Money Grammar: al/lnone, both/neither; I Reading: questionnaire - 'How Careful Are You With I
(pp.SO-S1) another/other/the other/the second Money?' I
16 Adverts Vocabulary: opinion adjectives (reliable, useful, etc); I Reading: advertisements I
(pp.52-53) adjective endings (ed vs. ing) Reading Strategies: facts and opinions
Linking: addition (also, either, too) Speaking: describing gadgets
Communication Writing: an advertisement - planning I
Workshop Speaking: selling game (modifying adverbs)
(pp.54-55) listening: song - 'Money, Money, Money' by Abba
Review (p. 56) Grammar and vocabulary revision c~unciat~on: /re/le/
Culture Corner 2 (p.57) Scotland - a place to celebrate Language Problem-Solving 2 (p. 58) musttmustn'tlneedn'tt; I
have/can't/don't to have to [ ~--'~--'-'-----_ ._ ·1." .. J
5 CYBERSPACE
Warm-up (p. 59) Vocabulary: science, science fiction, the environment I Listening: predictions l
17 Tomorrow's Vocabulary: Internet words (the Net, e-mail, etc) Reading: magazine article - 'The Purure of Cyberspace'
World Grammar: Predictions will and going to
(pp.6G-61)
18 Websltes Function: telephoning/suggestions (Do you fancy?) Listening: radio programme - 'The History of the Internet'l
(pp.62-63) Pronunciation: important words dialogue
Listening Strategies: important words I
Speaking: going out
19 Virtual Grammar: First and Second Conditionals Reading: websites; dialogues
Reality If it's good, we'll go camping. i
(pp.64-65) ti we had virtual reality holidays, we wouldn't have any
problems with the weather.
20 Virtual Vocabulary: collocation (do and make) I Reading: tourist website - 'Auckland'
Tourism linking: addition (as well as, etc) Reading Strategies: matching topics and paragraphs
(pp.66-67) I Speaking: planning a weekend
Comparing Cultures: New Zealand
-COmmunication Writing: an Internet page - planning/note-taking
Workshop Speaking: planning a holiday resort
(pp.68-69) Speaking Strategies: dealing with mistakes
Listening: song - 'The Telephone Cali' by Kraftwerk
Review (p. 70) I Grammar and vocabulary revision I Pronunciation: Itt 14

STUDENTS' BOOK CONTENTS

6 THE SEA ~" '., . ~J r~.) ,\ r:~ F~~ .. f ';J_ ,1 r.( ',- C:-<J r1
~ ,~
I LESSON LANGUAGE SKILLS
Listening: identifying activities _-
Warm-up (p.71) Vocabulary: leisure activities; adjectives
-
21 Sea Stories Vocabulary: wordbuilding (e.g. sofe/sofety/unsofe/sofely) Reading: short story - 'The Maelstrom' by Edgar Allen Poe
(pp.72-73) Linking: time linkers (afterwords, etc) Reading Strategies: sequencing
Speaking: disaster situations
22 At the Vocabulary: holiday activities Reading: a personal letter
Seaside Grammar: Present Perfect (3) to describe something
(pp.74-75) that started in the past and continues in the present
(We've been here for two weeks.)
23 Going Function: interaction (You know what ( mean') Listening: radio programme - 'Emigration'
Overseas Pronunciation: showing interest (Yes?) listening Strategies: listening for specific information
(pp.76-77) Comparing Cultures: British emigration and immigration
24 Undersea Vocabulary: marine animals (crab, squid, etc); Reading: a brochure - 'Penryn Undersea World'
World adjectives (hairy, common, etc)
(pp.78-79) Grammar: Comparison of adjectives bigger than/
more intelligent than/less interesting thon/(not) as big as
Communication I Writing: a report - thlnking of pros and cons Linking: a contrast (on the one hand/on the other hand, etc)
Workshop Speaking: a public debate Function: giving opinions (10m totally against the pion)
(pp.80-81) i Listening: song - 'I Am Sailing' Vocabulary: the environment
f----
Review (p.82) Grammar and vocabulary revision Pronunciation: /0:/ /~:/ /3:/
Culture Corner 3 (p.83) New Zealand Language Problem-Solving 3 (p. 84) Present Perfect and Past Simple I 7 RHYTHM , .. ·i . _~"iI:,'., ",.:".,~"-::' -_.
.,
Warm-up [p. 85) I Vocabulary: dances (tonga, woltz, etc); I Listening: identifying dances
kinds of music (heavy metal, etc)
25 Let's Dance Vocabulary: compound words (weI/-known, Reading: CD encyclopedia extract - 'Dance'
(pp.86-87] rock music, etc) Reading Strategies: gapped sentences
Speaking: questionnaire
Comparing Cultures: folk dances in the British Isles
26 On Tour Grammar: Future arrangements and intentions Listening: interview with rock star
(pp.88-89) On the 15th we ploy at Wembley Stadium.
I'm getting married in June We are going to Arizona.
27 Cool Function: permission (Is it all right if 1) Listening: documentary - 'British Night Life'
Britannia? Pronunciation: unstressed words Listening Strategies: multiple-choice questions
(pp.90-91) Speaking: asking for permission
28 Performance Vocabulary: concert words (lighting, special effects, etc); Reading: concert review - 'Alanis Morissette'
(pp. 92-93) adjectives (disappointing, poor, etc)
Grammar: will for spontaneous decisions/time clauses
I'll go and pic.i( them up as soan as school finishes.
Communication Writing: a concert review Linking: although
Workshop Speaking: group roleplay Speaking Strategies: avoiding translation
(pp 94-95) Listening: song - 'Don't Say You love Me' by the Corrs
Review (p 96) Grammar and vocabulary revision Pronunciation: /dJ ill 8 DESIGN t>~·;R.,P.:~ 'Pf"'ofs
Warm-up (p. 97) I Vocabulary: art; painting words (abstract, landscape) Listening: identifying paintings
29 A Matter of Vocabulary: adjectives - opposites (light/dark) Reading: art exhibition brochure - 'Japanese Prints'
Taste Grammar: Prepositions of place/direction/time
(pp.98-99)
I 30 Great I Vocabulary: architecture words !period, features, etc) Listening: documentary - 'My Favourite Buildings'
Buildings Function: describing places (It looks as if it's in the water) Listening Strategies: self-assessment
(pp. 100-101) Pronunciation: speed direction Speaking: describing a building
31 Style Vocabulary: hair and clothes (curly, t-srurt, etc) Reading: fashion magazine article - 'All Change'
Ipp. 102-103) Grammar: Relative Clauses
( wear clothes which match my hair.
I 32 Dream Vocabulary: houses (flat, etc); rooms (sitting room) Reading: short story - 'The House on Mango Street' by
Houses Vocabulary: British and American words Sandra Cisneros
(pp. 104-105) (rubbish vs. garbage, etc) Reading Strategies: self-assessment
Speaking: describing rooms
I I Comparing Cultures: a British house
I Communication I Writing: describing a house Linking: so that
Workshop Speaking: discussing a painting - 'Metropolis' by George Grosz Function: discussion (in the background, etc)
(pp.l06-107) Speaking Strategies: expressing yourself fluently (e.g. using your hands) listening: song 'Our House' by Graham Nash
I Review (p. 108) I Grammar and vocabulary revision Pronunciation: iI//i:/
I Culture Corner 4 (p. 109) London Language Problem-Solving 4 (p.ll0) Question Tags Literature Spot 1 'Sir Gawain and the Green Knight' (pp. 112-1 i 3) Literature Spot 2 'A Christmas Carol', by Charles Dickens

(pp 114-115)

Literature Spot 3 'The Pearl', by John Steinbeck (pp. 116-117) Literature spot 4 'The Picture of Dorian Gray', by Oscar Wilde (pp.118-119)

Irregular Verb List lp. 111)

Writing Help (pp. 120-1231

G1"ammar Summary (pp. 124-128)

15

L~arning to L~arn

A Starting off

Objectives

• To provide familiarity with the new coursebook and arouse interest.

• To increase students' awareness of different learning strategies.

• To revise and practise grammar, vocabulary and reading skills.

• To encourage record-keeping of new vocabulary and grammar.

Resources used

Students' Book, Mini-dictionary.

Possible problems

Some students may have problems in the grammar section and will need extra practice either in class or as homework.

Background

Research into how students learn foreign languages has shown a range of different learning styles and strategies. Reassure your students that there is no single 'right' way of learning but encourage them to experiment with different strategies to find out which are most helpful.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of class time, give some of the grammar exercises for homework.

o If you have time, develop the dictionary work in Exercise 3 (page 5), getting students to find other words with several meanings, e.g. can, tip, show.

Exercise 1

Useful vocabulary: alone, partner, nervous, relaxed, remember, phrases, grammar.

You can elicit or present these words during the activity suggested below (before doing the exercise).

• Before students look at the exercise, ask them what they have most liked and what they have least liked in their previous English classes. You may like to give them examples from your own memories of learning English at school.

• Get students to discuss this first in pairs, then in groups of four (formed of two pairs), to see if they share any opinions.

• Students read the questionnaire and think about their answers working individually. Encourage students to ask you for help if they need it. Reassure them that there is no one correct answer.

Exercise 2

• Students work in pairs reporting their answers from

Exercise 1 and finding out which preferences they do and don't share.

• Students may be interested to produce a class chart to find out what are the most popular preferences. Encourage students to exchange views about how they learn English and what works best for them.

Exercise 3

Useful vocabulary: aquarium, surfing the Internet, virtual reality, hero/heroine, festivals, eccentrics, stress, millionaire, nightlife.

Don't pre-teach all these words, but encourage students to guess the meanings as they do the exercise and look through the book.

This exercise trains students in skimming through a book to locate general topics.

• Students work individually, then compare their answers in pairs before you check answers as a class.

• When students have checked their answers, ask them which topics they think they will find most interesting and why.

Answers

Cyberspace - Module 5 Heroes - Module 2 Design - Module 8 Celebration - Module 3 Lifestyles - Module 1 Money - Module 4 Rhythm - Module 7

Exercise 4

Useful vocabulary: problem-solving, culture, literature, spot, summary, composition, reference, focus, areas, article.

This exercise trains students in reading to identify the purpose of a text.

• Read through items 1-5 with the class and pre-teach the words in these items.

• Students then work in pairs reading items a-e and looking through the book to find the relevant sections.

• As you check students' answers, ask them to give a page number for each feature.

I Answers

· 1 d 2 e 3 a 4 c 5 b

Exercise 5

• Students work in pairs looking more closely through the book and asking each other questions about the pictures and the sections of a module.

• Students then close their books. The parrs take turns to make a statement about what is in the book.

8 Words

Exercise 1

Useful vocabulary: communicate, dolphin, bee, chimpanzee, sign language, copy, discover

• Don't pre-teach the new vocabulary in the text. IExercise 2 asks students how they coped with the vocabulary in this text.)

• Read the text with the students and then read through the questions. (POint CJt that the numbers 1-3 in the text are used later In Exercise 3.)

• Students can work in pairs answering the questions. Explain that they can use the Vini-dictionary to look up the meanings of words but they should also try to guess the meaning of new words from the context. They will probably be surprised at how many meanings they can guess.

Answers

1 dolphins/bees.

2 They use language for fun.

3 They use sign language to copy language. 4 between 50,000 and 40,000 years ago

5 probably more than 5,000

Exercise 2

• Students work individually reading through the text again and listing the new words under the three headings: didn't have to understand, guessed the meaning, used a dictionary.

• Students can then feedback to the class. Stress that individuals may have ci:'ferent answers and that students' knowledge of vocabulary and ways of learning it vary.

• Students read the Reading Strategies. Check that they remember what is a noun, a verb and an adjective by asking them to find examples in the text.

• Students discuss the advantages of using the Reading Strategies and say whether they use them in their mother tongue when reading difficult texts.

Exercise 3

• Students find the examples of like in the text (numbered 1-3) and ide'ltify the part of speech (1 preposition, 2 verb,

3 preposition).

• Students look at the two examples of like as a preposition and match them to the definitions (1 b, 3a)

• Students may remember using like as a plural noun in sentences such as 'I wrote about my likes and dislikes'.

Answers

1 b 2c 3a

Exercise 4

• Discuss how students prefer to keep their vocabulary - in a book, on cards, on computer disk, and how they arrange the words (e.g, alphabetically, in topics).

• Students look at the example for 'hunt' and discuss the advantages of recording the part of speech and an example sentence as well as the definition.

LEARNING TO LEARN

• Give students time in class to start recording the new words for the first two lessons so that you can check their work. They can then finish the exercise at home.

• If you have time, check students' vocabulary books regularly through the course and encourage them to test each other on vocabulary from their books.

17

LEARNING TO LEARN

( Grammar

Exercise 1

• Students complete the sentences working individually.

• Check answers by having individual students read the sentences aloud.

Answers

1 use 2 went 3 are 4 are learning 5 lIimportant 6 can

Exercise 2

• Students work in pairs matching the words with their grammatical terms.

Answers

use/Present Simple went/Past Simple are/the verb 'to be'

are learning/Present Continuous IIpersonal pronoun

important/adjective can/modal verb

• Elicit why it is useful to know these terms. (They are used in dictionaries and grammar reference books.)

• Do not introduce alternative terms unless students ask about them. For example, the Present Continuous is also referred to as the Present Progressive, the verb 'be' is sometimes known as the copula.

• Elicit any other grammatical terms students know and ask them to give examples, e.g. adverb (quickly), noun (the boy)

Exercise 3

• Students use the box to give their answers about using the grammar structures.

• Students may like to create a class survey by writing their findings in a table on the board. They can then see if there are any general problems which they share.

• If there are some shared difficulties and if you have time, you may like to revise the problem grammatical point and give extra practice at this stage.

Exercise 4

• Students look at the four ways of organising grammar notes and discuss the advantages (and any disadvantages) of each one, saying which they prefer to use.

• Students choose a grammar area from Exercise 2 and make their own grammar notes.

• Have some students write their notes on the board for each grammar area so that the class can discuss and compare them.

• Students can then look at the Grammar Summary in the coursebook and the Mini-grammar in the Language Powerbook to see how grammar points are presented there.

Options

Practice - Grammar

• In pairs, students make up seven sentences, one for each of the grammatical terms in Exercise 1 in Section C, Grammar. They must use different words from the ones in Exercise 1, for example using is or am, not are as an example of the verb 'to be'.

• They can then read their sentences aloud in groups of four

18

Extension

Students look back at the reading text in Section S, Words, and discuss points they find interesting e.g Have some animals got a language system) What other commvnrcation systems do animals use) How do humans use language for fun? (Encourage students to give examples from their mother tongue.) Are [here any other features that are unique to human language, eg a writing system, regional accents'

Module objectives Draw students' attention to the module objectives at the top of the page (In this module you will ... ). This is a regular feature on the first page of each module. Encourage each student to think about which is the most important for them.

Resource used Cassette.

Warm-up

Exercise 1

KEY WORDS

boring, busy, creative, dangerous, active, easy, lazy, exciting, free, interesting, peaceful, relaxing, stressful

• Students look at the photos and the Key Words. Check students' understanding of the Key Words, e.g. by asking them to translate them.

• Point out that all the important words can be found in the Mini-dictionary section of the Students' Book.

• Draw students' attention to the sentence structure 'I think ... but .. ' to express first a positive view and then a negative idea. Students write sentences Similar to the example sentence about each of the photos, using the key words and other words if they wish.

• Elicit and check answers. Some sentences could have been said by different people. Allow all possible answers.

Answers

1 Shepherd's life: lazy/free/dangerous

2 Rock star's life: interesting/exciting/stressful 3 Financial dealer's life: busy/exciting/boring 4 Student's hfe interesting/creative/stressful

Exercise 2

Useful vocabulary: famous, cheer, team, training, outdoors, responsibility, amount.

This exercise trains gist listening i.e. the student understands the main point in the text but is not required to understand every word.

• Srudents look at the photos as they listen to the cassette and note down who is speaking.

• Students can compare answers with a partner before listening to the cassette a second time.

\ An.swers

1 a rock star 2 a student 3 a shepherd 4 a finanCial dealer

Japescript

1 Rock star: Being famous isn't easy, you know. I travel a lot - I have concerts in different countries. But my job is creative and, er, exciting, very exciting! I love the concerts, the music, the lights, the people cheering, know what I mean?

2 Student: My dad says these are the best days of my life - but I'm not so sure! You know, I've got lots of work to do and there's not much time really. I also play football for the school team and we have to do training three nights a week.

3 Shepherd: I love the animals and I love being outdoors, alone with my thoughts. It's peaceful, and there's no one to tell me what to do. But it's not so good when the weather's bad!

4 Dealer: I'm very busy, and I don't have time to see my husband and children. Mmmm and my life is very stressful, I suppose. I mean, I've got responsibility for big amounts of money. But I find it really exciting.

• In pairs, students tell each other which of these four lifestyles they would like and which they would definitely not like, giving reasons.

Exercise 3

• Read the texts about Mary and Mick with the whole class.

• Students use the Mini·dictionary as they work in pairs talking about the lifestyles of Mary and Mick.

• In groups of four, students can share their ideas about the lifestyles.

Exercise 4

• Demonstrate the activity first if you think it would be helpful. Example: 'I'm an artist. I live in Milan. I like painting because it is creative and relaxing. My work is never boring. I love painting outdoors and being alone all day.'

• Individually, students write five sentences about their ideal lifestyle.

• In groups (or to the whole class) students read out their sentences, but not saying what their job is. The other students have to guess the job.

Options

Practice

• Write the sentence pattern from Exercise 1 on the board with some jobs that have not already been included in the lesson: waiter, pilot, nurse, secretary, teacher, scientist, gardener, dancer.

I think a ... 's life is ... and ... but maybe it's ... sometimes.

• In groups or as a whole class, students ask and answer questions, using the words on the board and any other jobs they know. Example:

Student A: What do you think a gardener's life is like? Student B: I think a gardener's life is healthy and creative but

maybe it's sometimes tiring.

This can be done as a team game with points awarded for correct, 'sensible' answers.

19

I A P~rf~(t Day?

Objectives

• To discuss favourite TV programmes.

• To revise Present Simple and Present Continuous.

• To read a text in order to check predictions.

• To read a text for specific information.

Resource used

Grammar Summary 1, TV guide from the previous week.

Possible problems

• Students may still omit the's' from the third person singular Present Simple, e.g. 'He sit .. .'.

• Students may omit the auxiliary in the Present Continuous, e.g. 'He watching.'

• Students may confuse the different functions of each tense and use the wrong one, e.g. 'I'm watching TV every evening.' instead of 'I watch TV every evening.'

Background

The reading text, A Couch Potato, is based on a real person from Edinburgh.

There are two BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) television channels (BBC1 and BBC2) and three commercial TV channels in the UK (lTV, Channel 4 and ChannelS). Many families also watch cable and satellite TV.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit Exercise 1 and Exercise 11.

o If you have time, students can report back to the class after doing Exercise 12, telling the class about their partners. Encourage each student to say four or five sentences about their partner.

Language Powerbook na~P5 2-3

iVllnr \-;' (1mr"V dl 1 1 1 1'" 1 "3

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Bring in a TV guide for the previous week's programmes on national television. Ask students which programmes they watched.

• Ask students to look at the Key Words as you read out the names of some of the programmes from the TV guide. Students match the programmes with the key words.

! KEY WORDS

sports programmes, plays, the news, soap operas, documentaries, quizzes, game shows, chl1dren's programmes, films

20

GRAMMAR Focus

• Students then discuss their favourite kinds of TV programmes and their least favourite kinds.

• Students work out how many hours of TV they watched last week, then report back to the class so that a survey can be made.

Language Powerbook t'l' IYe'l r 'n . n",,' "'0'" Co 1 '. \ (,\iahui()(v

Exercise 2

• Elicit words to describe the lifestyle of the man in the picture. Encourage students to try and remember suitable words and only to look back if they have to.

Useful vocabulary: couch, sofa, telly, do exercise, portable, circle.

• Use the picture to elicit or present: couch, sofa. The meaning of the other words can be guessed from the text.

Possible answers

relaxing boring easy lazy peaceful

Exercise 3

• Give students one minute to read the text quickly and see If they guessed his lifestyle correctly.

• Students then read the text more carefully and answer the questions.

Answers

1 16/17 hours a day

2 children'S programmes, old movies, the news and films

3 he doesn't get up early/he watches TV while his dog walks in a circle/he doesn't work but his wife works and she makes his meals

4 someone who sits on the couch or sofa all the time and IS not a very interesting person

PRESENT SIMPLE AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Exercise 4

• Ask students to look at the text and find examples of the Present Simple and Present Continuous iorms.

• Students work in pairs completing the tables.

Answers

1 works 2 Do 3 work 4 don't 5 doesn't 6 's

7 working 8 Am 9 Are 10 'rn not 11 5"", 12 aren't

Exercise 5

• Students read the text again, noting down three answers and the tense used.

• Check answers by having students read out their expressions.

Answers

There are a lot of examples in the text (e.g. 'I turn on the television.' 'I get up'), all in the Present Simple.

• Elicit why the Present Simple tense is used (activities that happen every day)

• Ask students to think of three or four things they do every day. Students talk in pairs telling each other what they do.

Exercise 6

• Read through the sentences and rules with the class and ask students which sentence goes with which rule.

Answers

1 a) Irepeated activity). There are a lot of examples in the text, e.g. 'I watch', 'I Sit', 'I switch over'

2b) (stater,eeling/opinionl. e.g. 'we are happy'

----------------_._---

• Students then read through the text and find more examples of each.

• Check answers by asking students to read out all their sentences for 1 a; then all their sentences for 2b.

Exercise 7

• Students identify the tense (Present Continuous) and explain why it is used (because the action is happening now).

• Students make up sentences to describe what they are doing at this moment, e.g. 'I'm reading about Brian Blakey', 'I'm thinking about my holiday', 'I'm writing in my book'.

Exercise 8

• Students work in pairs, matching the sentences and completing the rule.

I Answers

1 a 2 b Continuous

Ask students what 'at the moment' means in sentence 2: - at the time of speaking or

- during that period of time.

Make sure students understand the difference, as in English, 'at the moment' can have both meanings.

Grammar Summary

• Eacn Grammar Summary is positioned after the presentation and explains the grammar form more fully.

• Students should read the Grammar Summary for homework and then raise any questions in the next lesson.

• Point out that the position of the time adverbials is

normally before the Present Simple verb, e.g. 'I always/usually/ regularlyioften/occasionally/rarely/seldam/hardly ever/never watch TV' Longer expressions are placed after the verb, e.g. 'I watch TV every morning/from time to timeltwice a week/once a month.'

• Students can practise using some of the adverbials by saying what they always/regularly/often/occasionally/rarely/never do.

LIFESTYLES

• With the Present Continuous, just is placed after the auxiliary (e.g. 'I'm just watching TV') and other time adverbials are placed after the verb (e.g. 'I'm watching TV nawlat the moment/at present').

Exercise 9

• Students work in pairs matching the sentences and the speakers.

Answers

1 a/journalist 1 b/Brian Blakey 2 a/student 2 b/waiter 3 alpilot 3 b/student

Students can then make the questions for each of the answers, e.g. 1 a 'What programmes do you watch?' 1 b 'What are you watching"

Exercise 10

• Students do the exercise in pairs.

• They then read it aloud in their pairs before you check the answers as a class.

Answers

1 'm trying 2 are you reading 3 works 4 is interviewing 5 'm watching 6 drives 7 doesn't like 8 are having

9 'm cooking 10 're burning

Exercise 11

• Students can do the exercise and the sentence about themselves for homework, then check it in class.

Answers

1 Cathy works at the police station. She's visiting schools. 2 Geoff plays the guitar. He's learning to play the piano.

Exercise 12

• Read through the Key Words with the class and check students' understanding.

• Students work in pairs asking and answering questions. Each student then decrees if his/her partner is a couch potato or an active person.

Options

Practice - Pronunciation

Students listen to the cassette, focusing on the endings of the words, and identify the three Present Simple third person singular endings: Izl, IIz/, lsI.

a) does b) washes c) talks

Write the three endings on the board (numbered 1-3) then have students listen to the tape and identify the endings.

Answers

1 cuts lsi 2 teaches II'zJ 3 runs IZ) 4 catches tiz) 5 hits lsi 6 gets lsi 7 knows IZ) 8 chooses lIz) 9 goes IZ)

Practice - Vocabulary

In pairs, students write down the daily routine of a famous person of their choice or of somebody who has an unusual job (e.g. a deep sea diver, a zoo keeper). Put some prompts on the board to help them, e.g. get up, eat, drink, travel, start work, go to bed, usually, never, sometimes, always.

Students then exchange papers with other pairs and try to guess who the person is or what the job is.

21

2 R~laxing

Objectives

• To practise listening for specific information.

• To use strategies to predict answers before listening to a text.

• To practise expressing preferences.

• To become aware of hesitation techniques.

• To learn about ways of dealing with stress in everyday life.

Resource used

Cassette.

Possible problems

Students may panic when faced with listening activities. See Introduction, page 11-12, for ideas on how to overcome this problem.

Background

The quote is by Ingrid Bergman, a famous Hollywood actress. She was born in Sweden in 1913 but later moved to the USA and made her Hollywood debut in 1939. During her long film career she won three Oscars (for the films Gaslight, Anastasia and Murder on the Orient Express).

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit Exercise 6.

o If you have time or if the class is very motivated, develop Exercise 11 into a class discussion.

o If you have two lessons for this unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 6.

Language Powerbook pages 4-5

Before you start

Exercise 1

~----------------------------~~

KEY WORDS

very relaxing, quite relaxing-;--a little stressful. very-stressfu

Useful vocabulary: lying, results.

It is not necessary to pre-teach these words because students can guess their meanings from the text. Check that students have understood them when discussing the activities.

• Write the Key Words on the board. Ask students which word means the most stressful (very) and which the least stressful (a little). Draw students' attention to the fact that 'a little' is not used in the Key Words with 'relaxing' (a positive activity) but is used with negative emotions or activities (a little unhappy, a little worried).

• Students then work individually reading through the situations and noting how relaxing or stressful they find each one.

22

SKILLS Focus

Exercise 2

• In pairs, students talk about the activities they find relaxmg or stressful.

Exercise 3

• Read through the Strategies with the class and see if they use any of these Strategies already.

Exercise 4

Useful vocabulary: factor, free time, reduce.

• Elicit the meanings of these words or pre-teach them before doing the exercise.

• In pairs, students read the questions and try to predict answers. Point out that more than one answer is possible.

• Students then exchange ideas to find out if they have made the same predictions. If they have made different predictions, ask students to justify their opinions.

Listening

Exercise 5

Useful vocabulary: cause, pressure, social, health, organise, diet.

This exercise trains students in listening for specific inforr:latior' in order to check predictions.

• Students listen to the cassette and check their answers from Exercise 4. Play the cassette without pausing the first time.

• When replaying the cassette, pause it after each section to give students time to check their answers.

I Answers

1 abcd 2 bc 3 acd

Tapescript

Presenter: Good afternoon and welcome to Lifestyles. Today we're going to look at stress - what causes it and what we can do to relax and prevent it. We have in the studio Dr Klinsmann, an expert on stress. Good morning, Dr Klinsmann.

Doctor: Good morning.

Presenter: Dr Klinsmann ... er .. what kinds of people aC'Cually suffer from stress'

Doctor: Well, anybody can suffer from stress. ~here are certain jobs that are very stressful, like some jobs In business or the police. But, probably everyone suffers from stress at some time in their life - students, doctors, factory workers - anybody

Presenter: But, what really causes it!

Doctor: There are different factors. One is time and pressures of work and study. At school, for example, students can become very stressed when they have a lot of homework to do and they feel they haven't got enough time to do it aii Other factors can be social - if you have a problem with your family or friends or a, school. And it depends on the person - if you re shy, social occasions like parties can be very stressful.

Presenter. And what can you do to stop stress and worry) Because stress is very bad for you, Isn't itJ

Doctor. Yes, it can cause a lot of health problems. But to answer your question, there are lots of things j'OU can do to reduce stress. You can organise your work or studies. For example, you can make a list and do all the important things first. You must eat well- have a good diet - and of course do exercise regularly. Finally; you can talk to people about your problems - talk to a fnend, someone in your family or, if you're studying, talk to a teacher. You can also do relaxation exercises.

Presenter. Can you describe some of these ..

Exercise 6

• Students read through the questions. Encourage them to say If they can remember any of the answers.

• Students listen to the cassette again and answer the questions.

Answers

1 when they have a lot of homework to do and they feel they haven't got much time to do it all

2 parties

I 3 Make a list and do all the important things first. <l a friend, someone in the family, a teacher

5 relalration exercises

Exercise 7

• Students copy the table into their notebooks and then listen to the cassette and complete the table.

• When students have checked their answers, ask them what advice they would give to Mark to help him be less nervous before exams and before going to parties.

Answers

Stressiu! activities - doing exams, gOing to parties, talking in front 01 the class in French lessons

Relaxing activities - talkmg to friends, listening to music, reading, sitting and doing nothing

Tapescript

Marie Things I find stressful. Well, I really hate .. mm .. doing exams. Mm,1 get very nervous the night before, you know. And I can't sleep, you know what I mean? I'm also shy and I don't like going to parries very much. I prefer meeting people in small groups, you know. Ah, there's another thing - in French lessons I can't stand talking in front of the class, er, I get nervous and mm, make lots of mistakes. Things I find relaxing? Well, mm, I like a lot of things. I love talking to my friends. And when I'm tired and want to relax I erucy listening to music and I also like reading. Ah, and! quite like Sitting and doing nothing I

Exercise 8

• Students look at the Function File activity and see if they can remember or can guess any of the missing verbs.

• Students listen to the cassette again and complete the sentences in the Function File.

Answers

hale 2 can't stand 3 don't like 4 prefer 5 enjoy 6 like 7 quite like 8 love

liFESTYLES

• Ask individual students to read the sentences aloud, trying to put the same expression in their voices as Mark does.

• Students then copy example sentences for expressing preferences into their notebooks or in the section for Functions in their vocabulary books.

Exercise 9

• Students write eight sentences about themselves using the verbs in the Function File.

• In pairs, students read out their sentences to each other, with as much expression as possible.

Pronunciation: Hesitation

Exercise 10

• Ask students how speakers can hesitate or 'fill in' a pause in their mother tongue.

• Students listen to the cassette. After each sentence, pause the cassette so that students can repeat the hesitation device.

Answers

1 mm 2 mm ... you know 3 you know what I mean 4 er .. mm 5 well, mm

Tapescript

Mark: 1 Well, I really hate ... mm ... doing exams.

2 Mm, I get very nervous the night before, you know. 3 And I can't sleep, you know what I mean?

4 Er ... I get nervous and, mrn, make lots of mistakes. 5 Things I find relaxing) Well, mrn, I like a lot of things.

Speaking

Exercise 11

• Before starting their talks, students can look at the sentences they wrote in Exercise 9.

• Students then put the exercise away and talk to their group Without any notes, using as many hesitation words as possible.

qUOTE ... U~qUOTE

• Students read the quote. Write on the board: good, bad, a lot, not many, much.

• In groups, students make two or three similar sentences using the pattern:

Happiness is ... and ..

• The groups read out their sentences to the class who can vote for the best quote.

Option

Practice - Speaking

In pairs students act out a roleplay in which one person is not sure what to say and so uses a lot of hesitation words. Give some examples of Situations which students could use, e.g. You borrowed your friend's favourite CD last week. Now she asks you for it back but you can't find it.

23

3 [(((~ntri(s

Objectives

• To link information in photos and texts.

• To check a written dialogue by listening to it on tape.

• To revise present participles.

• To use the Present Perfect for resultative events.

Resources used

Grammar Summary 2, cassette, objects for Exercise 3 (e.g. broken pencil).

Possible problems

• Students need to make a conscious effort to remember the irregular present participles.

• Students may be confused about the use of Present Perfect and Past Simple.

Background

• It is common for families in the UK to keep pets. Young children often have hamsters, guinea pigs and even mice. The most popular pets are cats and dogs.

• Channel 4 (ExerCise 8) is one of the UK commercial terrestrial television channels.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit Exercise 10.

o If you have time or if the class is very motivated, students can act out the dialogue in Exercise 2.

o If you have two lessons for this unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 5.

Language Powerbook pages 0-7 Mlnl'grammar 11 7

Before you start

• Students look at the picture. Revise vocabulary from the previous unit by asking students if they think this is a relaxing or stressful situation. Ask them what the man is thinking, using 'can't stand', 'hate', 'prefer'.

• Elicit or present the names of the animals.

• Students describe where the animals are (using prepositions of place) and describe the man and the boy - appearance, possible feelings.

Exercise 1

• Students read the description.

• Elicit what sort of things eccentric people might do, e.g. clothes they wear, food they eat, their homes, their habits. Ask students for other words to describe people who are 'different' but perhaps not 'eccentric', e.g. strange, odd, unusual.

• Students then discuss if they think Sally is eccentric.

• In pairs, students talk about any eccentric people they know. Then share their ideas with the whole class.

24

GRAMMAR Focus

Exercise 2

Useful vocabulary: alligator, elephant, python I 'paIEQnJ, parrot, iguana /r'qwa.nc/, cage, disaster, mess, goldfish bowl.

Don't pre-teach the words but encourage students to guess the meanings by using information from the picture and the text.

• Practise the pronunciation of the names of the animals with the class, focusing particularly on word stress.

• In pairs, students complete the dialogue.

• When students have checked their answers, they can read the dialogue aloud in groups of three.

Answers

1 parrot 2 python 3 alligator 4 iguanas 5 elephant

• Ask students if they have had/have any pets? What domestiC animals do/don't they like?

Language Powerbook the Word Corner on page 7 revises animal vocabulary

PRESENT PERFECT (1)

Exercise 3

• Students complete the table, working individually, then check their answers as a class.

Answers ::J

1 have ('ve) 2 has ('5) 3 Have 4 Has 5 have not (haven't)

6 has not (hasn't)

• Students find the regular (walked, escaped, cleaned) forms and the irregular (fed) form.

• In pairs, students look back at the dialogue to find more third forms of verbs. Students then write down the third forms with their infinitives.

• Check answers by having some students write their verbs on the board.

Answers

regular: walked escaped cleaned

irregular: fed eaten/eat broken/break drunk/drink

• Demonstrate some examples (using objects or mime) of actions which happened in the past and have an effect on the present and elicit sentences from the students, e.g. Hold up a broken pencil ('You've broken your pencil')/Show your watch two hours slow ('Your watch has stopped')/Show the class a half-eaten apple ('You've eaten some of your apple').

Exercise 4

• Do the first two examples with the class. Students then work individually completing the table.

• Students compare their answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.

Answers

The python has eaten his football.

The alligator has put his head through the TV. Kevin and Nigel haven't cleaned up

The iguanas have walked over them.

Nigel hasn't fed them.

The elephant has drunk the water.

Exercise 5

• Students look at the Situation column In Exercise 4 and deciae if the situations describe the present or the past (Answer the present). Draw students' attention to the use of verbs In the Present Simple and the Present Continuous.

• Students then look at the Why? column in Exercise 4 and decide if the actions are in the present or the past (past).

• Give the students another example using the classroom situation e.g. 'Maria isn't here. She has gone to the hospital.' 'Peter IS happy. He has passed his exam.'

• Students then complete the rule.

I Answers J

happened in the pastJpresent

----

Exercise 6

• Students work in pairs writing down the infinitives.

• Check answers (and pronunciation) by having students say both the infinitive and the present participle.

i Answers

break drink eat feed make have meet spend build do come win lose leave be go

Exercise 7

• Students write sentences using the prompts.

Answers

1 She has cleaned her teeth. 2 He hasn't made the/his bed. 3 He has eaten his dinner.

4 They have broken the window 5 She hasn't washed the dishes. 6 They have lost tile game.

Exercise 8

Useful vocabulary: robot, automatic, feeder.

• Students read through the dialogue before they listen to the cassette and see if they can predict any of the missing words.

• They then listen to the dialogue and fill in the missing words.

• Students check their answers.

Answers

1 I've (invented) 2 I've built 3 it's (started)

4 Has (something terrible) happened 5 (No, it) hasn't 6 has Ifin ished)

• Play the tape again and ask students further questions, e.g. 'Is Mr Baxter eccentric?' 'Does everybody think his inventions are good?'

LIFESTYLES

Tapescrlpt

Journalist: On tonight's programme we have John Baxter. John: Good evening.

Journalist: Mr Baxter. A lot of people consider you eccentric.

Why'

John: Well, as you can see, I've invented a lot of things. Some people think they're strange.

Journalist: What's that?

John: Well, you see, I've built a domestic robot. That noise means it's started cleaning.

Journalist: Has something terrible happened?

John: No, it hasn't. It's only my automatic cat feeder. It means my cat Sheba has finished her dinner.

Exercise 9

Useful vocabulary: incredible, patriotic, control.

• Students work in pairs completing the dialogue.

• Have some of the pairs read the dialogue aloud before students listen to it on the cassette. They can then check the verbs and also their own intonation and stress patterns with the dialogue on the cassette.

Answers

1 have come on 2 has turned 3 have now switched 4 have closed 5 have painted 6 have invented

7 has Just come 8 has been

• Check that students understand why John says red, white and blue are patriotic (colours of the UK flag).

• Ask students if they know of any other unusual inventions and what they think would be a useful invention.

Exercise 10

• Look at the Key Words with the students.

feelings - happy, sad, angry, excited, worried, pleased, tired reasons - pass exams, win the lottery, break the video, fail exams, receive bad news, lose tennis match, go to a party, have an argument with a friend, lose wallet, sleep badly, buy new clothes

• Have some students read the example dialogue aloud and focus on intonation patterns.

• Students work in pairs making their own dialogues.

• Have some of the pairs say their dialogues for the class.

• Students then change partners and make more dialogues. Encourage them to think of other reasons and feelings (e.g. hungry, thirsty, ill, hot, terrible).

Option

Practice - Team game

Put students into teams of five or six. Each team in turn has three seconds to say the past participle or the infinitive of the verb you say, e.g.

Teacher: have made Team A: make

Teacher: meet Team B: have met

Verbs to use from this lesson: pass, lose, win, break, fail, receive, go, have, meet, sleep, buy, watch, clean, eat, wash, break, come, invent, feed, escape, spend, build, leave, be.

4 Going Undprground

Objectives

• To use prediction strategies when reading.

• To read for gist to get the general meaning of a text.

• To match topics and paragraphs.

• To increase knowledge of lexical 'good' and 'false' friends.

• To express opinions orally and give reasons for them.

• To speak and write about routines.

Resources used

Cassette, headlines from recent national newspapers.

Possible problems

Some students may lack confidence or feel reluctant to read for gisUgeneral meaning and feel that they should always understand every word in a text.

Background

In 1998, there were 106,000 homeless people in London; 110,000 in New York.

Routes through the material

I:> If you are short of time, omit Exercise 8 and Comparing Cultures.

I:> If you have time, develop the work on good and false friends.

I:> If you have two lessons for this unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 5.

Language Powerbook pages 8-9

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Before looking at the texts, show students some newspaper headlines and ask them to predict what the articles are about. Discuss how useful the strategy of prediction is when we want to know what a text is about and if we are going to be interested in it.

• Read the Reading Strategies section with the class and ask students to guess what the two articles are about. Don't give them the correct answers at this stage but encourage them to express their own ideas, with reasons.

Reading

Exercise 2

Useful vocabulary: increase, mole, tunnel, inhabitant, self-sufficient, beg, recycling plant, cave, ideal, chemicals.

Don't pre-teach the vocabulary, but check students' understanding in Exercise 4 when they are reading the texts

26

SKILLS Focus

closely. By this stage, students will be able to guess the meaning of most of the words from the contexts.

• Give students two minutes to read both texts and check their guesses.

I Answer

I people living underground

• Remind students of the theme of the last lesson (eccentric people). Ask students if they think these people are eccentric.

Exercise 3

• Students work in pairs, reading the texts and matching the paragraphs with the titles.

• When checking the answers, ask students to justify their choices by referring back to the texts and reading out relevant sections.

Answers

Freedom Tunnel 2 Self·sufficiency 3 Homeless Again? 4 Ideal Homes 5 A Healthy Lifestyle

Exercise 4

• Students read the texts more carefully.

• Students check their answers in pairs before you check the answers as a class.

• When checking the answers, check students' understanding of other useful vocabulary in the texts.

Answers

lover twenty years

2 They go above ground to make a living, e.g. by collecting tins for recycling.

3 because the city council wants to develop the public transport system and use the railway tunnels again

4 to get away from the noise and pollution of modern cities

• Ask the class what they know about homeless ness in the USA or the UK. What do they think are the reasons for homelessness? How can the problem be solved?

Exercise 5

• Ask the class what they think are the advantages and disadvantages of living in a cave. Write their ideas on the board for students to refer to in the next stage.

• If you wish, give the students an example to listen to by giving them your opinion, e.g. 'I'd like/wouldn't like to live in a cave because ... '

• Students can then work individually or in pairs working out their arguments for or against living in a cave.

• Each student then tells the class what he/she thinks, giving two or three reasons for his/her opinion.

• The students may like to see if the majority of the class would or would not like to live in caves.

language Powerbook· t:xercse 1 , p,)~~e 9, pr d l tr Sb the I,rthr:~ we·ds oro b,j{ ,y,1j because. It 15 llelpfu,1 to C'd\'.' s([,dellts' dHent;(J/I ,.~ tr~C' \,'.l: III DflCI .ind but In the first two ~e!llenLe5 "1 Text 1.

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"rie peopie ""<l'y have tel move out of the rUflnf'l., because

the l J'y luuncil wants to develop the public transport svstern'

Vocabulary: 'good friends' and 'faLse friends'

Exercise 6

• Students work in groups discussing and writing down any more 'good friends' they know. If you wish, students can use dictionaries to check their ideas,

• Write their suggestions on the board.

• Students can then list these words in their vocabulary book, In a separate section headed 'good friends'.

Exercise 7

• Students then discuss and make a separate list of 'false friends'

• Check that students understand the different meanings of the words in English,

• Students can then note these in their vocabulary books in a section headed 'false friends'.

Exercise 8

• Students write down each word. Then they write down a similar word from their own language if there is one, giving the meanings of both.

Exercise 9

• In pairs, students read through the second text, noting down any words that are similar in their own language,

Writing and Speaking

Exercise 10

• Before students work individually, elicit ideas from the class about each of the places and the activities and lifestyles of the people

• Students choose one of the places and make notes about their routine. Suggest that students have 8-10 times in the day when they note down an activity,

Exercise 11

• In pairs, students ask and answer questions about their routines and guess where they are living.

• Some of the students can then tell the class about their partner's routine, e.g. 'He/She gets up at ..'. the rest of the class guess where the student is living.

LIFESTYLES

• Elicit some ideas from the class about city and village life (both positive and negative aspects).

• Students then write sentences about places in their country either in class or at home,

• Students then work in groups reading each other's sentences and helping to correct any mistakes.

• Some of the students can read out their sentences to the class who can guess where the place is and say if they agree with the speaker's opinions,

Options

Practice - Team game

Each team writes down six words which are either good friends or false friends. Each team in turn asks another team to make two sentences (one in English and one in the mother tongue) using one of the words.

Practice - Roleplay

Students look at the two texts again and work out the questions that the reporter asked to get the information. In pairs, students roleplay the interview either with a person living underground in New York or with a person living in a cave in Cappadocia. Some of the pairs can then act out their interviews for the class.

ExtenSion

Students look back at the phrases in Exercise 3 (self-sufficiency, a healthy lifestyle, ideal homes). In groups of three or four, students choose one topic to discuss. One student takes notes and then reports back to the class on the group's ideas.

27

Communication Workshop

Objectives

• To read a personal letter and match paragraphs and topics.

• To write a personal letter, using informal expressions.

• To listen for information to complete a table.

• To recognise and produce correct intonation of questions.

• To speak about leisure and free time.

Resources used

Cassette, Writing Help 1.

Possible problems

• Some students may be less imaginative and so have fewer original ideas for the writing task.

• In the speaking tasks, some students may naturally be more reticent and so speak less than others in the group.

Background

The informal features found in the letter here are commonly used in personal letters. Even more formal business correspondence is becoming more informalised.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit the Talkback stage of the writing and speaking workshops.

o If you have time, choose one of the Options activities to do.

o If you have two lessons for this unit, a suitable natural break is after the Writing page.

Language Powerbook pages 10-11

Writ;ng: A PersonaL Letter

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Ask students how often they write letters and who to. Do they find it easy to think of things to write about? When did they last receive a letter and what was it about? Do they write to penfriends in English?

• Students look at the photograph and discuss how old the children are and where they are.

• Remind students of the exercise they did in the previous lesson where they matched paragraphs to topics. Here they do the same thing with the letter.

• Students work in pairs, reading the letter and matching the paragraphs.

~Answers

La) 4 b) 2 c) 3 d) 1

28

• Students close their books. Have a class brainstorming to see how much information they can remember about Ruth and Laura. Students will probably be surprised at what they have retained even when they were not focused on the task of remembering.

Exercise 2

Elicit what sort of 'style' students use when writing informal letters to friends in their mother tongue. Explain that the three features here are used in informal letters in English.

• Revise the names of punctuation marks with the class by writing the marks on the board and eliciting their names:

. full stop ,comma ? question mark I exclamation mark - dash

• Students work in pairs reading through the letter to find examples of contractions, punctuation and informal words.

• Check answers by reading through the letter with the class, pausing to identify each feature. The informal words are:

Remember me? Right? Anyway, guess what! Well.

Stages 1-3

• Read through the three stages with the class so that students understand exactly what to do.

• Refer students to Writing Help 1, page 120, and look at the page with the class if you feel it will be helpful.

• You may decide that it will be better for some of the weaker students to do the task in pairs rather than individually. If the class has not had much practice in letter writing, it may be helpful to build up a letter on the board with the class so that students have another model to follow.

• Students go through Stages 1 and 2 making notes, before they write their letter in Stage 3.

• Students can write the letter in class or as homework.

• When marking their letters, pay particular attention to the use of contractions, punctuation and informal phrases.

Talkback

• Students work in pairs, reading each other's letters to find out two things that have changed.

• The pairs then report back to the class.

Speakinqt A CLass Survey

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Students read the Strategies and discuss in small groups which two they think are most important and why.

• Students then feedback to the class and see if there is any general agreement.

• Ask students how they can interrupt politely in English ('Excuse me/Do you mind if/I'm sorry to interrupt but ..').

Exercise 2

• Students copy the table into their notebooks.

• Students listen to the cassette and complete the table.

• Play the cassette again, pausing for students to check their answers.

Answers

Favourite TV programme - nature programme Favourite music - dance, techno, pop Favourite clothes - T-shirt and jeans

Tapescript

Girl 1: Hey, Debbie, can you answer some questions for this

survey, please!

Girl 2: OK.

Girl 1: 00 you watch much TV? Girl 2: Er, not really.

Girl 1 : How many hours a week do you watch! Girl 2: Well, about three or four, I suppose

Girl 1 : What are your favourite kinds of programmes! Girl 2: I really like nature programmes.

Girl 1 : 00 you like heavy metal music!

Girl 2: No, definitely not: I can't stand it.

Girl 1: What sort of music do you like?

Girl 2: Er, I love dance music, techno, pop .. Girl 1: What are your favourite clothes!

Girl 2: Er, T-shirts and jeans. I don't like formal clothes. Girl 1: Do you ever wear mini-skirts!

Girl 2: Mm, sometimes, but not a lot.

Girl 1: Thanks a lot.

Exercise 3

• Play the cassette again, pausing after each question for students to write the question down.

• When students have written the questions, play the cassette again so they can mark the intonation up or down.

Answers

The Intonation goes up with Yes/No questions and down with Wh- questions.

• Play the cassette again, pausing after each question for students to repeat the question with the correct intonation pattern.

Stage 1

• Look at the Key Words with the class and then read through the instructions for Stage 1.

, KEY WORDS

hobbies: collect (stamps/badges/coins), paint/draw, make (models/clothes), play (chess/computer games), take photos sport: play (tennis/football), go (cycling/swimming), do (gymtaStics/judo)

IMUic: play (the piano/the electric guitar), favourite singers/groups, favourite styles (rap/techno/classical) television: favourite programmes (sports/nature programmes), TV personalities/actors/actresses

going out: cates, fast food restaurants, cinema, theatre, coscerts

clethes _ fasllien: favourite clothes, favourite colours, buying clothes, shopping

LIFESTYLES

• In groups of three or four, students choose one of the areas from the Key Words and work out three questions. Each student writes down the three questions.

Stage 2

• Students form new groups.

• Each student asks his/her questions to every member of the group and records the answers in a table.

Stage 3

• When all the groups have finished asking their questions and recording the answers, the students go back to their original groups.

• Students compare their results in their original groups and produce a graph.

Talkback

• Students show their graphs to the class and describe the results.

• The class discusses whether any of the results were surprising and votes for the most interesting survey.

Options

Practice

Students look back at Speaking, Exercise 3 - the questions they wrote down from the cassette. In pairs, students ask and answer the questions, giving their own information about TV, music and clothes.

ExtenSion

Each student chooses one of the young people in the picture on page 17 and prepares a short one-minute talk about that person's hobbies and favourite clothes. Tell the students to give their character a name.

The students then give their talk to the class, beginning 'I'm going to talk about (Pete). His hobbies are .. .'. At the end of the talk, the rest of the class guesses which character in the picture it is.

R~vi~w

Objectives

• To check and consolidate grammar and vocabulary presented in the module.

• To practise pronunciation of hrjl and hnl .

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, some of the Review exercises can be given for homework.

Language Powerbook pages 12-13

Grammar

Exercise 1

• Students do the exercise working individually.

• Check answers by having some students read the sentences aloud.

• Students then guess the job. (a builder)

Answers

1 does 2 enjoys 3 works 4 is working 5 is building 6 comes 7 goes 8 misses 9 wants 10 saves

Exercise 2

• Students work individually, thinking of a Job and writing about it. Weaker students can work in pairs.

• Tell students to write 5-8 sentences about the job.

Exercise 3

Students work in pairs or groups, reading out their descriptions and guessing the jobs.

Exercise 4

• Students can do this exercise at home or in class. Tell them that there may be more than one possible answer.

Suggested answers

1 has drunk it 2 haven't washed them 3 have failed it 4 has finished 5 haven't eaten 6 have lost it

VocabuLary

Exercise 5

• Check answers by asking students to read out the text.

Answers

1 wake up 2 get up 3 turn on 4 switch over 5 going out with 6 switch off

30

Exercise 6

• Allow students to look back in the module to find the words if they wish.

• Check spelling and pronunciation as you check students' answers.

Answers

2 eccentric 3 energetic 4 exciting 5 famous 6 happy 7 healthy 8 homely 9 interesting 10 lazy 11 peaceful 12 relaxing 13 stressful 14 surprising

Exercise 7

• Do the first item with the class. Encourage students to look at the picture and guess what sort of tie a 'bow tie' is and what sort of hat a 'bowler hat' is.

Answers

1 eccentric 2 exciting/interesting, boring/lazy 3 lazy 4 famous, stressful/exciting 5 peaceful, relaxing

Exercise 8

• Students match the words and check the answers before writing the expressions in their vocabulary books.

I Answers

1f 2b 3c 4h 5d 6a 7e 8g

• When students have written the expressions in their vocabulary books, ask them to make sentences using the expressions. They can then write the sentences in their books showing how the expressions are used in context.

Pronunciation: /IlJ/, /m/

Exercise 9

• Students listen to 'reading' and 'in' on the cassette.

• Write on the board: a) reading b) in

• Tell students to write a) if they hear the sound as in 'reading' and b) if they hear the sound as in 'in'

• Check students' answers before they listen again and repeat the words after the tape.

I

I' Answers

1 a 2 a 3 a 4 b 5 a 6 b 7 a 8 b 9 b 10 a

Tapescript

a) reading b) in

1 England 2 boring 3 planning 4 inflatable 5 watching 6 inhabitant 7 feeling 8 interest 9 tin 10 relaxing

Play the cassette again and ask students to write down the words they hear. Check spelling as you check answers.

l\foduJ'e objectives

Draw students' attention to the module objectives at the top of this page. Point out that the objectives include reading, speaking, listening and writing. Ask students to think about which of these skills is their strongest and which is their weakest and to decide which objective is most ,important for them at this stage.

Resource used Cassette.

Background The photos are movie stills from Alien IV starring Sigourney Weaver and Shakespeare in Love starring Gwyneth Paltrow and Joseph Fiennes. Sigourney Weaver has starred in all four 'Alien' films, playing the role of a brave, dynamic ana intelligent heroine.

Ronaldo is a Brazilian footballer.

Mother Teresa was a nun from Skopje in FYROM who devoted all her life to helping the poor and sick in Calcutta. Hamlet is the sensitive and indecisive hero of Shakespeare's play.

Warm-up

Let students look at the pictures and ask them whether they have seen the films and, if so, have them give their opinions of them.

Exercise 1

• Look at the three examples of heroes and heroines and elicit the qualities of each.

• Ask students which one they would vote for as their favourite hero or heroine.

• Students then work in pairs, writing down the names of different kinds of heroes and heroines.

• Students feedback the names of heroes and heroines to the class. Write some of the names on the board.

• Students then look at the Key Words and claSSify them into positive and negative.

KEY WORDS

aggressive, arrogant, brave, calm, cruel, dishonest, generous, honest, intelligent, kind, romantic, sensitive, violent

Answers

positive - brave calm generous honest intelligent kind romantic sensitive

I negative - aggressive arrogant cruel dishonest violent

• Check pronunciation of Key Words, especially word stress on first syllable (arrogant, generous, honest, sensitive, violent) or second syllable (aggressive, dishonest, intelligent, romantic).

• Elicit more positive and negative adjectives to describe character, e.g. the opposite of brave (cowardly), generous (mean), intelligent (stupid), kind (cruel).

• Have students use some of the positive words to describe the heroes and heroines whose names are on the board. Then ask students to use some of the negative words to describe villains or anti-heroes in books or real life.

Exercise 2

• Each student writes down five or six sentences about film heroes, hero.nes and villains.

• In groups, students read out their sentences and the rest of the group agrees or disagrees with the statements.

Exercise 3

• Students look at the pairs of adjectives and predict who the film characters could be. They then listen to the cassette to see if their predictions were right.

[Answers

1 a 2 c 3 b

• When students have checked their answers, replay the cassette, pausing it so that students can justify their answers, e.g. Tom Hanks is brave because he never runs away from dangerous situations.

-- .. --_._.---------- --------,

Tapescript

1 Tom Hanks is a group commander in Saving Private Ryan. He is often frightened but he never runs away from dangerous situations. He always listens to the opinions of the others in his group.

2 Jack Nicholson is the villain in the first Batman film. He's an absolutely horrible character! He never tells the truth and spends his time thinking of clever ways to trap Batman.

3 Sigourney Weaver in the first A/ien film finds herself alone on a spaceship with an extremely dangerous alien. She stays calm and uses her powers of logic to finally kill the monster.

Options

Practice - Writing

In groups, students write a character description of a wellknown film or television actor without saying who he/she is. Students then exchange their description with another group and try to guess who is being described.

Practice - Speaking

Students discuss the idea of the 'unsung' hero or heroine who is an ordinary person who regularly does heroic things but will never become famous, e.g. lifeboat crews, fire fighters, mountain rescue teams.

5 Local H~ro~s

Objectives

• To practise extensive reading in order to understand the main idea of each paragraph and intensive reading in order to guess the meaning of new words from the context.

• To give personal reactions to a story and opinions about the characters in the story.

• To use time linkers, especially adverbs and conjunctions.

• To revise the use of Past Simple and Past Continuous.

• To talk about recent events (last night, this morning).

Resources used

Grammar Summary 3, pictures/drawings of people doing actions for use in Past Continuous practice in Exercise 6, local/national newspaper cuttings of 'true life drama' stories.

Possible problems

• The distinction between Past Simple and Past Continuous is generally not a problem but students may overuse the Past Continuous to talk about past habits, e.g. 'I was playing football every day last summer'.

• Students may have forgotten the past forms of some irregular verbs.

Background

The text is taken from a so-called women's magazine. It is a sensationalist story very typical of such publications, a true life drama written in the first person and full of emotional and colourful words and expressions (e.g. out of control). Readers of these magazines are encouraged to send in their own experiences and they get a prize if they get published.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit Exercise 9 and set some of the exercises for homework.

o If you have time, students can work in groups. Each group writes a text and two or three questions about it, similar to the ones in Exercise 10. The groups can then exchange texts and answer the accompanying questions.

o If you have two lessons for this unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 5.

Language Powerbook pages 14-15 Mini grclmmal I 1 If I 1 ') I 1 (,

Before you start

Exercise 1

Useful vocabulary: ruin, out of control, incredibly, unconscious, a state of shock.

Pre-teach the meaning of ruin (paragraph title b) but encourage students to guess the meanings of the other words from the context.

• Have students look at the picture and predict what the story is about.

GRAMMAR Focus

• Read through the paragraph titles with the class. Then students read the text working individually, matching the paragraphs to the titles.

• Students compare their answers in pairs before checking the answers as a class.

J

l Answers

~_~_~ c 3 d 4 a 5 e

• Students read the text again to find words which show the time sequence. Write the words on the board: after that, first, when, then, meanwhile, in the end.

• Students close their books and retell the story using the words on the board.

Exercise 2

• Students discuss Liz Pursey's friend, Neil- what sort of person is he) How would he tell the story? What does he think of Liz?

• Ask students if they know anybody who has become a local or national hero or heroine - what did they do)

• If possible, bring a current newspaper cutting from the local or national press about a brave act carried out by an ordinary person. Students tell the story in English.

• Ask students if they have ever been in a situation where they had to act immediately. Have they ever been in a situation where they couldn't immediately remember their name, address, telephone number, date of birth)

Language Powerbook the Word Corner on oage 15 9IV'OS further practice In words that go together

PAST SIMPLE AND PAST CONTINUOUS

Exercise 3

• Ask students to read the first two sentences of the text in Exercise 1 and find the verbs in the Past Simple (went, left, offered). Elicit which verb is regular (offered) and which are irregular (went, left). Elicit other irregular verbs which students remember.

• Ask students to find the Past Continuous form in the first paragraph (were driving) and elicit why this verb is in the Past Continuous, not the Past Simple form.

• Students then complete the table.

Answers

1 called 2 call 3 left 4 Did 5 leave 6 didn't 7 Was 8 Were 9 wasn't 10 weren't

• Ask questions about the text in Exercise 1. Students answer using the Past Simple or the Past Continuous, e.g. 'Was Neil driving?' 'How many people were in the car)' 'Who did Liz and Neil get out first?' 'Who was watching them?' 'Who called the emergency services?'

Exercise 4

• Students look at the sentence and complete the time lines (Past Continuous, Past Simple).

• Students look back at the text and find another sentence with the same structure (Past Continuous/when/Past Simple). The first sentence of the fourth paragraph has the same structure.

Exercise 5

• Students work in small groups studying the two sentences and discussing the meaning of when.

Answers 1 a 2 b

• Students match the sentences with the time lines.

Answers J

1 b 2 a

~.~~-.

• Give students an example of another pair of sentences: 'Everyone was leaving the party when I arrived.' 'Everyone left the party when I arrived'

Students work in small groups making Similar pairs of sentences.

• Students can refer to Grammar Summary 3 for further help. Have them read the Grammar Summary for homework and bring any queries to the next lesson.

Exercise 6

• Students work in pairs, reading the text again and taking turns to ask and answer the questions.

• Check students' answers by having them say both the questions and answers.

• Ask students what they were doing when you came into the classroom at the beginning of the lesson, e.g. 'What were you/they doing when I came into the room today?' 'What was X doing)' 'Was Y -in:iO

• For further practice of the Past Continuous, show students a series of pictures of people doing actions (e.g. swimming, playing football, running, having a bath) or draw pictures on the board. Tell students these pictures happened yesterday at

3 o'clock. Students ask and answer questions about the pictures, e.g. 'What was he/were they doing at 3 o'clock yesterday)' 'They were swimming.'

Exercise 7

• Have students spell the past forms as you write them on the board. Then check pronunciation of the words.

Answers

went walked read worked began sat ran heard saw watched came cleaned wrote cut talked

• If further practice is needed, put the class in teams. Each team writes down the Present Simple and Past Simple forms of ten verbs. Then in turn each team says the Present Simple form of a verb (e.g. swim) and the other team responds with the Past Simple (swam).

Exercise 8

• This exercise can be given for homework if you Wish.

HEROES

• When you have checked students' answers, have them read the story aloud with as much expression as possible.

Answers :=

1 was walking 2 saw 3 was running 4 sat down

5 opened 6 was reading 7 heard 8 was drowning

9 was calling 10 jumped 11 looked 12 were watching _

Exercise 9

• This exercise can be given for homework if you wish.

Answers

1 We met an old friend when we were staying in Prague.

2 She ran into a tree when she was talking on the mobile phone. 3 He was shopping when he lost his wallet.

4 I was washing the dishes when I broke a glass.

5 She was having a bath when the telephone rang.

6 They were driving home when they ran out of petrol.

• Write parts of sentences on the board and ask students to complete them, e.g.

'We were sitting in the classroom when .. .' 'The doorbell rang when .. .'

'I was watching TV when .. .'

'He took our photograph when .. .'

Exercise 10

• Students work in pairs reading the texts and asking and answering the questions.

Answers

1 a She was drying her hair.

1 b She called an ambulance.

2a She was baking/cooking/making a cake. 2b He was climbing into a lorry.

2c She took the boy out of the lorry.

• In groups, students write one or two similar short texts with accompanying questions. The groups then exchange papers and answer the questions.

Exercise 11

• Students ask and answer the questions working in groups. If you wish, a group secretary can note down the answers for question 1 and then feedback to the whole class to find out what the majority of the class were doing at 8 o'clock last night.

Options

Practice

Students look back at the text in Exercise 1 and write the story from the point of view of the driver of the car that crashed or one of the passengers.

Extension

Students roleplay the conversation between Liz Pursey and the policeman, starting with the policeman asking her her name and address and then asking what happened and what she did.

Extension

Students prepare and then make the speech of the policeman who presented Liz and Neil with their bravery certificates.

6 Campaigners

Objectives

• To practise listening for gist and for specific information.

• To express opinions and to agree or disagree with other people's opinions.

• To practise sentence stress.

• To use vocabulary connected with campaigning and similar issues.

Resources used

Cassette, library/reference sources on famous campaigners.

Possible problems

• Students may panic when listening to the tape the first time and try to understand every word. Emphasise that this is not necessary to complete the exercise successfully and remind them that they often listen for gist in their language.

• Some students may find it difficult to hear the stresses in a sentence or a word. Regular exercises and ear training will help and will also raise awareness of stressed words in sentences in their own language.

Background

Vaclav Havel (born 1939) is a Czech statesman, playwright and essayist. He was prevented from studying drama because of his anti-communist background, but went on to write absurdist plays. His plays were banned and he was imprisoned for dissident activities from 1979-83 and again in 1989. After the fall of communism, he was elected President of Czechoslovakia and then the new Czech Republic in 1993.

Mary Robinson (born 1944) is a barrister by profession and was appointed Professor of Criminal Law in Trinity College Dublin when she was 25. With her husband, Nicholas (married 1970), she founded the Irish Centre for European Law in 1988. In 1990, she became President of Ireland. She resigned in 1997 to take up an appointment as United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Martin Luther King - information is on the tape (Exercise 4). Mother Teresa - see information in the Background section on page 31 (Teacher's Book).

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some exercises for homework and omit Exercise 8.

o If you have time, students can do more research about famous campaigners (Exercise 7) and give short talks about one of the campaigners.

o If you have two lessons for this unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 5.

Language Powerbook pages 16-1 7

34

SKILLS Focus

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Before students start this exercise, ask them to look at the title of this lesson (Campaigners) and of the previous lesson (Local Heroes) and discuss what the differences and similarities are between heroes and campaigners.

• Students then look at the pictures and see if they can name the people and match them to the captions.

I Answers lD2A3C4B

• Ask students to say what they know about any of these people and what their opinions of them are.

Listening

Exercise 2

Useful vocabulary: promote.

Don't pre-teach this. Students can guess the meaning of 'promote' by reading again the caption about Vaclav Havel in Exercise 1.

• Play the cassette for students to listen first, before looking at the Function File. See how much students can remember from this first listening.

• Students listen again and complete the Function File.

Answers

1 think 2 don't agree 3 In my opinion 4 you're right 5 agree 6 personally

Tapescript

Student 1: Well, I think Mary Robinson is very important. She has worked for peace in Ireland and for human rights allover the world.

Student 2: I'm sorry, but I don't agree. In my opinion, Mother Teresa is more important, because she spent her whole life working with poor and homeless people.

Student 1: Yes, you're right, but I think Vaclav Havel is important, too. He has done a lot of good work to promote democracy in Europe.

Student 2: Yes, I agree with you, but personally, I think Martin Luther King is the most important, because he fought against racism and his actions changed society.

• In small groups, students discuss the people in the photos to decide which one they would nominate as 'the person we most admire'. Encourage students to use the expressions in the Function File as they give their opinions and agree or disagree with each other.

Exercise 3

KEY WORDS

experience, inferior, equal. influence, peaceful protest, boycott, extremist, victory, violence, march, peaceful demonstration

• Students look at the Key Words and see if they can guess the meaning of some of the words from their knowledge of other words in English, e.g. peace, extreme. Students can use the Mini-<lictionary to check their guesses and find out the meaning of all the Key Words.

• Ask students to pronounce the Key Words. They can then check if their pronunciation was correct as they listen to the tape in Exercise 4.

Exercise 4

• Read through the Listening Strategies with the students and ask them if they agree with them and if they use any of these strategies already.

• Encourage students to say what sort of listening texts and tasks they find difficult or easy and how they tackle them.

• Elicit what students think they will hear in the radio programme about Martin Luther King and what they hope to find out.

• Play the cassette through once without pausing it. Then, encourage students to pool what they have understood on the cassette.

Exercise 5

• Students read through the sentences and predict what the answers are.

• Students listen to the cassette and see if their predictions are correct.

• As you check students' answers, ask them to correct the false sentences and make them true.

Answers

1 T 2 F 3 T 4 T 5 F 6 F 7 T 8 T 9 F 10 T

Tapescript: see Teacher's Book, page 39.

Pronunciation: Stress

Exercise 6

• Before listening to the cassette, ask students to listen and identify the stresses in two or three sentences you say in their mother tongue. Then say a sentence in English, e.g. 'This lesson started at ten o'clock' and ask students to identify the stresses. Write the sentences on the board if necessary and underline the stressed syllables/words. Ask students which type of words are stressed (words that give important or new information such as nouns and verbs).

• Students read the four sentences and predict where the stresses will occur in sentences 2-4. They then listen to the cassette and see if they were correct.

• Play the cassette again for students to repeat the sentences.

HEROES

Answers

2 Martin liked Gandhi's ideas about ~ protest. 3 He organised a march to Washington.

4 A white extremist killed him.

• If students ask whether the stress can be different, explain that this is the normal stress pattern in these sentences.

Speaking

Exercise 7

for - animal rights, freedom of speech, human rights, independence, peace, women's rights, children's rights against - racism, slavery, violence, war, pollution

_____ - .....

• Students look at the Key Words and use the Mini-dictionary to check their meanings.

• In pairs students choose some famous campaigners and make notes about their causes. Students may wish to use reference books in the library or at home to research their campaigners. If so, set some preparation as homework.

Exercise 8

• Students work in groups discussing their opinions about the famous campaigners they chose in Exercise 7.

• The groups can then have a class discussion about who are the three most important campaigners of the twentieth century.

guon .,. u~guon

• Students read the quote and see if they can remember anything else that Martin Luther King said in this speech.

• Students work in pairs writing down a speech beginning 'I have a dream'. Students can choose if their grandparents, parents or they, themselves, make their speech.

• The pairs can read out their speeches in groups of four or six or to the whole class.

(;m.Apari,&Ctt/~

• Students look at the three names and see if they know any of them and what he/she fought for.

• Students listen to the cassette and match the people with the causes.

Answers

Emmeline Pankhurst 3 William Wilberforce 2 Jane Goodall 1

I Tapescript: see Teacher's Book, page 43.

J

• Divide the class into three groups. Each group listens carefully to the information on the cassette about one of the people. Play the cassette again and then see how much information each group has remembered.

Option

ExtenSion

Students discuss which campaign(s) they support and which one they think is the most important campaign at the present time.

35

7 SportsStars

Objectives

• To read a text for specific information.

• To provide a title appropriate for a whole text.

• To use the Present Perfect and Past Simple tenses appropriately.

• To practise using positive and negative opinion adjectives.

Resources used

Grammar Summary 4, pictures of international and national sports stars (ask students to bring pictures of their favourite sports stars).

Possible problems

• Students may have problems with the use of Present Perfect (indefinite past) and use the Past Simple instead.

• Students may confuse go and be when using the Present Perfect and may say 'Have you ever gone abroad?' instead of 'Have you ever been abroad?'

• Students may have some difficulty with the use and position of time adverbials with the Present Perfe~t (before, ever, never, already, yet).

Background

Venus and Serena Williams are the two youngest of five sisters. The others are Yetunde, Isha, and Lyndrea. Their father started teaching them tennis when they were four years old. Venus and Serena play tennis professionally - a sport in which very few people of African descent are involved. Venus's first singles title was the IGA Tennis Classic in 1998.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 11.

o If you have time, students can give short talks about the star they have chosen in Exercise 13.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 7.

Language Powerbook pilges 18-19 Mini grammar 11 7. 11 7d. 11 8

Before you start

Exercise 1

KEY WORDS

positive: bnlliant, fast, intelligent, sldlful, strong negative: awful, boring, over-rated, slow, terrible, useless, weak

• If any major sporting event is in the news or has been in the news recently, use this to introduce the theme. Ask students what they think of the sports people involved.

GRAMMAR Focus

• Elicit names of sporting heroes from the class and write them on the board. Then look at the Key Words.

• Demonstrate one or two example dialogues.

• Students then work in pairs making similar dialogues about their sporting heroes.

Exercise 2

Useful vocabulary: come a long way, look back.

• Read through the questions with the class so students know what information to look out for when reading the text.

• Students then read the text and answer the questions.

Answers

1 They played each other in the final of a tennis tournament

2 a poor backgroundlThey lived in a poor area of California, full of violence and drugs.

3 their father, Richard

4 They get on well.

L-- ~ ~ __ c.

Exercise 3

• Students discuss titles for the article in small groups. Each group selects its best title and presents this to the class, giving reasons for the title. The class votes for the best title.

• Students add new information about the two sisters. Write the new facts on the board. Students discuss whether the new information can go into the existing paragraphs or whether new paragraphs are needed.

Language Powerbook tr'~ \"l rOI C .1 "e' ,1'1 .lO\C· 1 C " ." 'v.' r-r pr-n t (~ ,rr r!(lS.l ve dncj n(·gd 10' dd ('~lI"eo

PRESENT PERFECT (2) AND PAST SIMPLE

Exercise 4

• Remind students of the use of the Present Perfect in

Lesson 3 ('The parrot has escaped') for a past action which has a present result.

• Write on the board:

Last week, the sisters played each other in the final of a tennis tournament.

2 The sisters have played each other in the final of a tennis

tournament.

• Elicit the difference between the two sentences (whether we know exactly when they played each other).

• Students complete the table using the Present Perfect and the Past Simple.

Answers

1 have/looked 2 Has/caused 3 have played 4 moved 5 started 6 played

Exercise 5

• Students look at the sentences in the table and also the sentences in the text and discuss when we use each tense.

• They also discuss the questions about the sentence 'Serena has moved to ninth in the world' which does have results in the present.

I Answers

aj Past Simple b) Present Perfect

Exercise 6

• Encourage students to think of example sentences for each of the uses (1-4) e.g number l 'He phoned me yesterday.'

2: 'He hasn't phoned me.'

Answers

1 Past Simple 2 Present Perfect 3 Present Perfect 4 Past Simple

• Students can practise using these tenses by talking about Venus and Serena Williams saying what they can remember from the text and what other information they know about them.

Exercise 7

• Have two students read the dialogue aloud while the class focuses on the use of already and yet.

• Students complete the rules, and refer to Grammar Summary 4.

Answers

c' already b) yet

• In pairs, students write a similar dialogue about sports teams or people they support at school, local or national level, e.g. the school football team. Some of the pairs can then read the;y dialogues to the class.

Exercise 8

• Students discuss the answers in pairs.

I Answers I 1 b 2 a

• Ask students to look at the second example again and to say what situation would fit the question 'Did you visit Venice" (You are talking to a friend who has just come back from a holiday in !taly).

• Write these prompts on the board and ask students to write down the three replies.

Teacher: Have you done your homework?

Reply 1: (No/yet) ... (No, I haven't done it yet.)

qeply 2: (Yes/already) (yes, I've already done lt.)

Reply 3: (yes/last night) (yes, I did it last rugnt.)

Exercise 9

• This exercise can be set as homework if you wish.

• Check students' answers by having them read the dialogue aloud with as much expression as possible.

I Answers sd l

1 played 2 Did you like 3 didn't enjoy 4 have you scored

! 5 haven't played 6 have joined 7 bought

HEROES

Exercise 10

• This exercise can be given for homework if you wish.

Answers

1 already 2 yet 3 ever 4 never 5 yet 6 ever/never

• Students then write four sentences of their own using a/ready, ever, never, yet.

• In pairs, students then check each other's sentences, referring to you if they have a query.

Exercise 11

• Read the example dialogue with the class and point out that 'have been' is the Present Perfect form of the verb to go. Students may make the mistake of saying 'Have you ever gone' instead of the correct form 'Have you ever been .. .'.

• Students work in pairs, asking and answering the questions.

Answers

1 Have you ever broken your leg? 2 Have you ever played rugby?

3 Have you ever swum in the ocean? 4 Have you ever had an accident?

5 Have you ever watched a chess tournament? 6 Have you ever ridden a horse?

Exercise 12

• Students ask and answer questions about their own experiences. Point out that if they answer 'No I haven't' to the first question, they cannot go on to ask the second question.

• Check students' answers by having some of the pairs say their dialogues again.

Answers

1 Have you ever eaten Chinese food? Was it very hot?

2 Have you ever travelled by plane? Were you frightened? 3 Have you ever been to a football game? Did you enjoy it?

4 Have you ever seen Titanic? Did you like the special effects? 5 Have you ever acted in a play? What role did you play/have? 6 Have you ever met a famous person? Who did you meet?

• Write some more verbs on the board and ask students to make Similar dialogues in their pairs: touch, write, ride, buy, sing, make.

Exercise 13

• Students can work individually or in pairs if they wish. If students want to do some research about their star, give some of the preparation as homework.

Exercise 14

• Read through the example dialogue first so that students have a model to follow.

• Students work in pairs or groups of four, asking and answering questions to try and guess their partner's star.

Option

Practice

Students look again at the dialogue in Exercise 9. In pairs, they make up similar interviews with the stars from Exercise 13.

8 Sup~rh~ro

Objectives

• To develop strategies for working out meaning when reading.

• To develop word attack skills to cope with new vocabulary and multi-part verbs.

• To practise asking for and giving personal information.

Possible problems

Students may be reluctant to guess the meanings of unknown words. Show them how to use the clues proposed in the Reading Strategies.

Background

Christopher Reeve is an American actor who became famous as Superman in three very popular films. He broke his spine in a horse riding accident and became paralysed. Since then, he has shown incredible strength of character in recovering psychologically and physically and also promoting research into spinal cord injuries.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, have students read the text for homework.

o If you have time, use the Options activity or develop Exercises 8 and 9 into short talks in which each student reports the changes in his/her partner's life.

o If you have two lessons for this unit, a suitable natural break is after ExerCise 4.

Language Powerbook pages 20-21

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Students look at the pictures and say what they know about Christopher Reeve and answer the questions. At this stage do not correct their answers because they will find the answers as they do Exercise 2.

• Ask students' opinions of the Superman films.

Reading

Exercise 2

Note that in this unit, new useful vocabulary is dealt with in Exercise 5. Don't pre-teach any vocabulary before students read the text because they need to work on the vocabulary later in the unit.

• Ask students to read the text quickly (give them a time limit if you wish of 90 seconds) to find out if their answers to Exercise 1 are correct.

SKILLS Focus

Answers to Exercise 1 1 Superman

2 He fell off his horse and broke his back.

3 He is raising money for the American Paralysis Organisation.

Exercise 3

• Students work in pairs, reading the text again and matching the topics to parts of the article.

I Answers

a2 bS c4 dl e6 f8 g7 h3

• Students cover the text and look at the topics. In groups, students talk about each topic, seeing how much they can remember from the text.

• Encourage students to exchange ideas about how they tackled the task - did they read the whole text again from the beginning? what clues did they use, e.g. the questions in bold in the text? the first sentence of a paragraph in sections 1, 2 and 3? Ask students what strategies they would use for a similar talk with a text in their mother tongue.

Exercise 4

• Students discuss the questions in pairs, then open up the discussion to the whole class. Encourage students to use the character vocabulary they have met in this module and to practise the language of expressing opinions, agreeing and disagreeing.

Exercise 5

• Read the Reading Strategies with the class and ask students if they use any of these strategies. Encourage students to share with the class any tips they have found helpful when trying to work out new vocabulary.

• Students work in pairs choosing the correct meaning for each word. When checking answers, ask students how they made their choice and what strategies they used.

I Answers

1 b 2 b 3 a 4 a 5 a 6 a

• Students may like to look up the words in the Mini-dictionary to prove that they have worked out the correct meanings.

• Ask students to use some of these words in sentences of their own. Students make up their sentences in pairs, then read them out to the class.

Exercise 6

• Students use the same strategies to choose the correct meaning of the multi-part verbs.

I Answers

1 b 2~_b_4_a ~

• Each student then writes four sentences using each of the multi-part verbs.

Exercise 7

come from, wake up, get up, go out get on/off (e.g. a bus), get to (arrive), come back (return)

• Look at the Key Words with the class and elicit a sentence for each of the multi-part verbs.

• Students then write sentences for all the verbs about their own lives.

• In groups of three or four, students read out their sentences and, if necessary, the group corrects any errors.

Writing and Speaking

Exercise 8

• Read the three example questions with the class and elicit other questions which they could ask about changes in someone's life in the last three years, e.g. 'Have you moved house)' 'Do you still play (football)?' 'Do you still want to be (a doctor)?' 'Have you learnt a new (language/sport/musical instrument)?'

• Students work individually writing down their questions.

Exercise 9

• Students work in pairs, asking and answering their questions.

• Some of their pairs can then report back to the class about their partners.

guCffE ." U~gUOTE

Chesterton (1874-1936) was an English essayist, novelist and poet.

• Students read the quote. Elicit the two meanings of 'great':

i) an important person ii) a good feeling.

• In groups, students discuss what sort of person makes them feel good and what sort of person they like as a friend.

• Groups report back to the class. The class then decides what are the five most important qualities a friend should have.

Options

Practice

Students use the answers from their interviews in Exercise 9 to write an account of the changes in their partner's life over the last three years.

Extension

In pairs, students prepare an interview with Dana Reeve about rer husband's accident, her feelings and her life now. Some of the pairs can then roleplay the interview for the class.

HEROES

Tapescript: Lesson 6, Exercises 4 and 5

Presenter: Our series on 'Campaigners' continues tonight with Carol Dean talking about the life of Martin Luther King.

Reader: Martin Luther King was born on the 15th of January, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia, in the deep South. He lived with his parents, grandmother, brother and sister. He was an intelligent boy. When he was young, Martin often went to church because his family was very religious.

Reader: Martin's first experience of racism was when a white woman told him not to play with her little boys. But Martin didn't think he was inferior, because his parents always told him that black and white people were equal.

At the age of fifteen, he made an excellent speech at school and won a prize. On the way home from school, the bus was full and the driver told Martin and his teacher (who was also black) to give their seats to two white passengers. Martin didn't want to and the driver insulted him. In the end, Martin stood up, but he never forgot the experience.

When he was at college he read a lot and the person who influenced him most was the Indian leader, Mahatma Gandhi. Martin liked his ideas about peaceful protest.

In 1965, Martin started to organise a boycott of buses. Black people stopped using the buses because they had to give up their seats to whites. White extremists attacked black people and bombed Martin's house. In the end, blacks and whites were able to sit together on buses. It was Martin Luther King's first victory. In the 1960s, there was terrible racial violence between blacks and whites in the USA. Martin organised marches and peaceful demonstrations. He went to prison seventeen times. In 1963 he organised a march to Washington and a quarter of a million people came to the meeting. This is where he made his most famous speech.

Martin Luther King: I have a dream that my four little children will one dav live in a nation where thev will not be ~ud~ed bv the colour of their skin, but by the content of their character ... all God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of that old negro spiritual 'Free at last! Free at last. Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!'

Reader: In 1964, Martin Luther King received the Nobel Peace Prize. But there were more problems and more marches. In 1968, a white extremist killed him.

Communication Workshop

Objectives

• To prepare for a discussion by making notes.

• To participate in a discussion, expressing opinions, agreeing and disagreeing.

• To listen for expressions of agreement and disagreement in a conversation.

• To write a narrative in three paragraphs.

• To develop self-assessment of speaking and writing skills.

Resources used

Cassette, Writing Help 2.

Possible problems

• Students, if friends, may agree with each other in group discussion and so not practise disagreeing. Grouping students In different groups may prevent this happening.

• Students' ability to assess their own language skills will vary.

Background

James Dean (1931-55) was an American actor whose moody performances and early death made him a symbol of youthful rebellion. He made only three films (Rebel Without a Cause, East of Eden and Giant) before dying in a car crash. John Lennon (1940-80) was an English songwriter and member of The Beatles. Along with Paul McCartney, he wrote some of the most popular songs of the late twentieth century. He was shot outside his home in New York.

George Clooney, an American actor, was born in 1961 and first became famous in the TV series ER.

Alanis Morissette, the Canadian rock singer, has won Grammy awards for Best Rock Song and Best Rock Performance.

Kate Winslet, an English actress, is famous for her role in the film Titanic.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit the Talkback stage of the speaking and writing workshops.

o If you have two lessons for this unit, a SUitable natural break is after the Speaking discussion.

Language Powerbook pages 27 -23

Speaking: Discussion

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Students read the introduction to the exercise and look at the photos. Ask them to guess who the mother likes and who the daughter likes.

• Play the cassette (twice if necessary) so that students can check their guesses.

l

Answers

Fiona (daughter) likes Alanis Morissette, George Clooney. Monica (mother) likes John Lennon, Marilyn Monroe. Both like James Dean, Kate Winslet.

Tapescript

Interviewer: Welcome to this week's edition of 'Generation Choice' Today we have the writer, Monica Allen, and her daughter, Fiona. Well, let's begin with music. Who are your heroes in the world of music?

Fiona: Shall I start' Well, you know, I really like Alanis Morissette, her songs, the way she looks, everything

Monica: Oh, come off it. There are lots of singers as good as her; her last album wasn't very good, was it'

Fiona: Well, I think she's a really good singer.

Monica: , don't think so. If you want a real music hero, it has to be John Lennon. He really changed pop music. and did something to change the world.

Fiona: OK, but he's ancient. Who wants to listen to his music nowadays'

Interviewer: And what about films? Actors and actresses. Monica: For my generation, I think, er, James Dean and Manlyn

Monroe.

Fiona: Mm, you're dead right about James Dean. He was brilliant. Monica: Absolutely.

Fiona: But there are other really good actors and actresses

around today. For example, er, Kate Winslet.

Monica: That's true. You've got a point there. Fiona: And George Clooney. He's absolutely great

Monica: I suppose he is good-looking, but is he a bril,iant actor? In my opinion.

Exercise 2

• Students read the expressions in the Function File and predict which show strong agreement, limited agreement or disagreement.

• Play the cassette so that students can hear the stress and intonation in the voices and mark the expressions (++), (+), (-).

Answers

(++) You're dead right. Absolutely. That's true.

(+) OK, but ... You've got a point there. I suppose ... but ... (-) Oh, come off it.

• Play the cassette again, pausing after each expression so that students can repeat it with appropriate stress and intonation.

Stage 1

• Each student chooses a hero or heroine from films, music or sport to talk about. Students can work in pairs, if you prefer.

• Read the Strategies with the students. Ask them if they follow similar procedures when they have discussions in other school subjects.

• Give students time to make notes and to practise expressions for giving opinions, agreeing and disagreeing.

Stage 2

• Students work in groups of three or four, discussing their heroes/heroines. Each group might like to appoint a secretary to note down their agreements and report back to the class in the next stage. As the groups are working, go round and monitor their language but don't interrupt the discussion. Any general mistakes can be brought to their attention at the end of the discussion and remedial practice given, if necessary.

Stage 3

• The groups report back to the class on their agreements (and disagreements, if you wish).

Talkback

• Students answer the questions about their own performance in the speaking activity.

• Have an open discussion about the mistakes students remember they made and use this opportunity to draw their attention to any common mistakes you noticed.

Listening

Exercise 1

• Students discuss what they know of James Dean, his life and his films.

E.xercise 2

• Students read the lyrics and predict where the missing words might fit.

• Students listen to the song, complete the lyrics and see if their predictions were correct.

Answers

1 mean 2 clean 3 screen 4 was 5 cause 6 fast 7 young

Tapescript

James Dean, James Dean,

I know Just what you mean.

James Dean, you said it all so clean. And I know my life would look all right If I could see It on the silver screen.

You were the lowdown rebel If there ever was Even if you had no cause.

James Dean, you said it all so clean. And I know my life would look all right If I could see it on the silver screen.

We'll talk about a low-down bad refrigerator, You were just too cool for school,

Sock hop, soda pop, basketball and auto shop,

I The only thing that got you off was breakin' all the rules. James Dean, James Dean,

I So hungry and so lean.

James Dean, you said it a/l so clean. And I know my life would look a/l right '-I could see it on the silver screen. Little James Dean, up on the screen wond'nrr who he might be,

HEROES

Along came a Spyder and picked up a rider And took him down the road to eternity.

James Dean, James Dean, you bought it sight unseen. You were too fast to live, too young to die, bye-bye. You were too fast to live, too young to die, bye-bye. Bye-bye, Bye-bye, Bye-bye, Bye, bye.

Exercise 3

• Students discuss which of the feelings the Singer has towards James Dean. Ask them to refer back to the words in the song to support their point of view.

I Answers

· Students can probably find support for both b) and c) but not a).

Writing: A Story

Before you start

• Students look back at the article in Lesson 5 and match the paragraphs with the story sections. Explain that section b) will have more than one paragraph.

Answers

b) paragraphs 2-4 c) paragraph 5.

• Remind students of the linking words that establish a time sequence and elicit examples from the text in Lesson 5.

Stage 1

• Students can work in pairs or individually.

• Students may like to write brief notes at this stage to act as prompts when they are writing their stories. Remind students that they should think of a story of bravery.

Stage 2

• Explain the meaning of the timeline and show students the temporal order of events in the example. You may wish to revise what linking word can be used before the description of each event. Encourage students to think of new linking words.

Stage 3

• Students should refer to Writing Help 2 before writing their paragraphs. You may wish to spend some time in class looking at the Writing Help with the students and then have them write their stories as homework.

Stage 4

• Refer students to Writing Help 2 for the assessment criteria.

Talkback

In groups, students read each other's stories and decide which one describes the bravest actions. Monitor the activity and make sure nobody gets embarrassed. One student per group reports to the rest of the class. Do not interrupt the reports to correct mistakes, but rather wait until the end.

R~vi~w

Objectives

• To check and consolidate grammar studied in this module: Past Simple, Past Continuous, Present Perfect.

• To revise key vocabulary (character adjectives, multi-part verbs, nouns from adjectives).

II To practise the pronunciation of 18/, 101, III and ItII.

Routes through the material

If you are short of time, some of the Review exercises can be given for homework.

Language Powerbook pages 24-25 .

Grammar

Exercise 1

• Before doing the exercise, ask students what they know about the story of Shakespeare's play, Hamlet.

• Students do the exercise individually.

• Check students' answers by having some of them read the text aloud.

Answers

1 was 2 died 3 became 4 married 5 was studying 6 received 7 said 8 killed 9 phoned 10 came

11 were arguing 12 heard 13 was listening 14 killed

15 was 16 found 17 drowned 18 was sitting 19 came in 20 was carrying

Exercise 2

• Advise students to read through the whole text quickly before writing in the verbs so they get an overview of the content.

Answers

1 has become 2 began j spent 4 did not enjoy 5 went 6 has been 7 has made 8 has performed

Exercise 3

• Read the rubric with the students so they understand that they either have to put in a verb or already, yet, never.

Answers _j'

1 has moved 2 never 3. arrived 4 ha. ve int.roduced

5 already 6 yet ...

42

VocabuLary

Exercise 4

• When students have written their three sentences, they can exchange papers and see if their partner thinks the statements are true. If not, the partner can suggest another sentence.

Exercise 5

• Students can compare their answers with their partner before checking them as a class.

I Answers

1 back 2 off 3 to 4 up 5 out 6 to

• When students have checked their answers, get them in pairs to tell the story in their own words, without looking at the book.

Exercise 6

• Have students read the sentences aloud to check their answers so that you can check their pronunciation.

Answers I

1 honesty 2 ambition 3 decision 4 violence 5 intelligence

• Take one or two of the sentences and discuss the underlying issues, e.g.

Sentence 1 - is it always a good thing to tell the (whole) truth? Sentence 4 - is there too much violence on TV? Does it have a bad effect on people?

Sentence 5 - are we born with a certain level of intelligence or do we acquire it?

Pronunciation: 18/, 101, I II, ItII

Exercise 7

• Look at the four groups of sounds with the students and practise the pronunciation of the four example words (think, there, crash, watch)

• Play the tape several times, pausing it, so that students can group the sounds.

Answers

Group 1 (think) anything through three Group 2 (there) other breathe together Group 3 (crash) issue relationship situation Group 4 (watch) achievement research

Ask students what they know about British food - what food do they think is typical of Britain? What are the girls in the picture drinking and eating? Have they heard of any specific English, Welsh, Scottish or Irish dishes?

Exercise 1

KEY WORDS

cook, dish, food, lunch, meal. recipe, cuny

• Look at the Key Words with the students and see if students already know some of them. Do not pre-teach any new words but encourage students to guess their meanings as they read the text.

• Students read the text to find the Key Words. Then they can match them with their definitions.

Answers

1 food 2 meal 3 recipe 4 cook 5 lunch 6 curry 7 dish

• In pairs, students choose four of the Key Words and make sentences using them.

• Students can read some of their sentences to the class to check that they have used the words appropriately.

Exercise 2

• Students read the article more carefully and note three good changes and three bad changes in British eating habits.

• Students discuss their answers with their partners before checking answers as a class.

Answers

Good changes - eat less meat, more fresh fruit and vegetables, children have sugar-free sweets.

Bad changes - eating more fast food, microwave meals, meals are not family occasions.

• Ask students if they are surprised by anything in this article. Is there anything else they would like to know about eating habits in Britain?

Exercise 3

• Students work in groups listing differences between eating habits in Britain and their country.

• The groups then exchange views and see if they all agree.

Exercise 4

• Elicit some of the topics which students may want to include ;1 their description of food and eating habits in their country, e.g. changes from past habits, most popular foods, times of meals, good changes, bad changes.

• In groups, students write a description of food and eating habits in their country for a foreign visitor. Ask the group also

to discuss what picture they would put with the text to illustrate eating habits in their country.

Option

Extension

In groups, students plan meals for one day for a foreign visitor who wants to sample their national dishes and typical food.

Tapescript: Lesson 6, Comparing Cultures

Reader: The history of every country has people who have campaigned to change society.

A good example of a person like this is William Wilberforce. He was a member of Parliament from 1780 to 1825 and he organised a campaign in Parliament to stop the slave trade and then to free all the slaves in the British Empire. The slave trade was stopped in 1807 and all the slaves were freed the month after his death.

In the second half of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth century Emmeline Pankhurst was another important crusader. She fought for the rights of women, especially the right to vote. She organised strikes and demonstrations and was put in prison several times. Finally, women in Britain over thirty were given the vote in 1918 and in 1928, eight years after Emmeline Pankhurst's death, women and men became politically equal.

A modern campaigner is Jane Goodall, who has spent nearly forty years studying chimpanzees in the national park of Gombe in Tanzania. For years she's campaigned to protect chimpanzees and to change our views on the environment. She's also been an important figure in the campaign for animal rights.

43

bl@m-Sol~ing I

a, an, the

There are notes on the use of a and the on page 128 of the Students' Book. You may wish to direct students to the notes while they are doing the exercises or for reference at the end.

Mini wammar 3 1

Exercise 1

• Students work in pairs studying the dialogues and marking the statements true or false.

• Check students' answers and then elicit the important difference between the two situations. (Pete doesn't know which key Jack is talking about, whereas John and Adam know which key they are talking about).

I Answers

· 1 T 2 F 3 F 4 T 5 F 6 T

Exercise 2

• Students complete the rules: a) the b) a

• Give students some examples of the use of a to 'describe something or someone as an example of that group', e.g. I bought a new coat yesterdayfThere's a good film on television tonight.

Exercise 3

• Students discuss the situations in small groups.

• When checking answers, ask students to explain why the alternative sentence is wrong.

I Answers

· 1 a 2 b 3 a 4 a

Exercise 4

• Point out to students that they should think of their own classroom. Answers may vary according to the design of the classroom, e.g. some classrooms may have only one window; others may have several.

Suggested answers I

1 the window 2 the headmaster 3 the staff-room

4 correct 5 the blackboard 6 the cupboard 7 the door 8 the teacher's desk

Exercise 5

• Discuss the differences between the sentences as a whole class.

44

I Answers

1 The person has either one bag or several bags.

2 There is either one armchair in the room or several.

3 They have just decided to look for a house to buy or they have decided to buy the particular house they have already seen.

Exercise 6

• When checking answers, ask students to put the phrase into a sentence (e.g. 1 'What time do you have breakfast?')

Answers

1 have breakfast 2 have a bath 3 play the piano

4 go to work 5 at home 6 at the station 7 to the cinema 8 in France 9 in the United States 10 go by train

11 in the evening 12 on the Nile

Exercise 7

When students have done the exercise and checked their answers, they can write a similar paragraph about themselves and their daily routine.

Answers

1 - 2 the 3 the 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 the 11 the 12 a 13 the 14 - 15 a 16 - 17 the 18-

19 the 20-

Module objectives

Draw students' attention to the module objectlves at the top of this page. Ask students which of these actlvities they have practised before in English and which are new. For example, they may have read a Ifterature extract but not an Internet page or they may have listened to dialogues but not to radio programmes.

Resource used Cassette.

Background

A christening, or baptism, is the ceremony in which the person is made a member of a Christian church and is usually given a name.

carol services take place in churches and secular places before Christmas as well as on Christmas Day.

The Carnival in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil is probably the biggest street party in the world. It is based on the Christian celebration of the end of lent.

In most western countries, brides at traditional weddings wear a white dress symbolising purity and innocence. This custom dates from the nineteeth century. Other cultures have their own traditions. Hindu brides wear a red dress and Japanese brides wear a brightly coloured kimono. Jewish couples do not eat or drink on their wedding day until the ceremony is over. Indian couples tie their clothes together and walk seven times round a fire. In Egypt, the bride's father signs the wedding contract while the bride sits in a separate room. It was the Romans who began the tradition of giving pieces of wedding cake to guests.

Warm-up

Exercise 1

KEY WORDS

a christening, a birthday, carnival, Christmas, passing an exam, a retirement, a sporting victory, the New Year,

a wedding

• Look at the Key Words with the students and check their understanding by asking them for examples or translations.

• Students look at the pictures. Ask them to describe the people's appearance, what they are wearing, what they are doing and what they are celebrating.

Answers

A camval in Rio B British Christmas C Romanian wedding

Exercise 2

• Students look at the Key Words as they listen to the cassette and identify the celebrations. Check answers by replaying the

cassette, pausing after each of the six sounds for students to answer.

Answers

1 Christmas 2 a christening 3 a sporting victory 4 a birthday 5 a wedding 6 the New Year

• Students discuss what sounds they would record i~ they were representing these six celebrations as typical of their own country.

Exercise 3

• Give the students a minute or two to think about a recent celebration and make some notes if they wish. Remind students that the time linkers they practised in the previous module will be useful if they are going to describe a sequence

of events. • .

• Students can then work in groups or as a whole class, telling each other about their recent celebrations.

9 Christmas

Objectives

• To read a narrative text and understand the story.

• To build up an area of vocabulary associated with Christmas.

• To develop reading strategies to answer multiple-choice questions.

• To practise collocations with have, do and play.

• To talk about childhood memories.

Resources used

Pictures/photos you have showing Christmas activities in the UK and any Christmas cards you have received from English-speaking friends.

Possible problems

Students may find some of the vocabulary in the text a little difficult and be unwilling to read it quickly the first time, when they are only required to extract the Christmas vocabulary.

Background

A traditional British Christmas includes: in the morning looking into the stockings hung the night before to find out what presents Father Christmas has left; at lunchtime a big meal with turkey, Christmas pudding (a heavy, sweet pudding containing a lot of dried fruit and often covered with burning brandy or brandy butter) served hot. Paper crackers containing paper hats, novelties and jokes are pulled after the meal. Most families decorate the house with paper garlands, balloons, holly and mistletoe and have a real or artificial fir tree decorated with lights.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 1.

o If you have time, students can develop Exercise 7 into a letter to an English friend describing a typical Christmas in their country.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 4.

Language Powerbook pages 26-27

Before you start

Exercise 1

KEY WORDS

balloons, Christmas cracker, Christmas pudding, Christmas tree, snow, snowman, Christmas stocking, presents

-----...;

• Students read the Key Words and find the objects in the pictures.

46

SKILLS Focus

• Students then discuss which of these things they have at Christmas and what different things they have.

Reading

Exercise 2

Useful vocabulary: advent calendar, brandy (butter), (play) cards, chimney, carol service, Christmas Eve, decorations, exhausted, igloo, jokes, mince pies, nativity play, polar bears, sixpence, solemnly, speech, tangerine, windy.

Pre-teach tangerine (a small sweet orange) and sixpence (a small silver coin, used in Britain until 1971 ). Encourage students to guess the meaning of the other words when they have done Exercise 3.

• If you Wish, divide the class into groups and ask each group to read one paragraph and note down the Christmas words.

• The groups then report back to the class and all the students read the whole text and find the Christmas words. If students include words associated with winter (e.g. snow, igloo) rather than Christmas specifically, discuss with the students if these should be included in the Christmas words.

Answers

Father Christmas advent calendar Christmas cards

nativity play Christmas lights carol service Christmas tree decorations balloons brandy mince pies stockings presents sweets a chocolate sixpence a tangerine

roast turkey Christmas pudding brandy butter crackers paper hats Queen's speech Christmas cake

Exercise 3

• Students read the whole text carefully matching the people and the actions.

• When you have checked the answers, ask students to cover the text and retell the story, using these seven expressions (a-g) but adding more details between the sentences.

I Answers

.ld 2a 3e 4b 5f 6c 7g

-~~~

Exercise 4

• Ask students if they like doing multiple-choice questions - how do they tackle them? What do they find difficult about them?

• Read the Strategies with the students. Ask students if this is what they do. If not, do they think it is a good strategy?

• Ask them to use this strategy to answer the multiple-choice questions in this exercise.

• Students do the exercise individually, then compare answers with their partner before checking answers as a class.

• When checking answers, ask students to read out the section of the text which contains the answers and to say why the other two answers must be wrong.

Answers

1 b 2 a 3 b 4 c 5 c

Vocabulary: Words that go together

Exercise 5

• Students complete the table by writing the words in the correct column.

• As you check answers, ask students to make a sentence using each expression (e.g, Do you always do your homework?)

Answers

have - tea a shower a (snowball) fight a party lunch do - YCJr r:omework the washing-up the shopping play - tne piano cards

• Draw three columns (headed have, do, play) on the board. In groups, students then add more nouns to each column. The groups report back and add their nouns to the columns. Other nouns are:

have (any meal, drink), a rest, a holiday, a lesson.

do a favour, the cooking, the cleaning, exercises, my hair. play (any musical instrument, any sport), a CD, a tune.

Exercise 6

• Advise students to quickly read through the whole text before completing the sentences with the verbs.

• Check students' answers by having them read the story aloud.

Answers

1 made 2 put up 3 blew up 4 put on 5 had 6 went to 7 had 8 pulled

• In pairs, students can tell each other what they did last Christmas morning, using the Past Simple tense of some of these verbs and some expressions with have, do and play, if possible.

Writing and Speaking

Exercise 7

• Prepare the activity by eliciting the names of important festivals and presenting essential vocabulary to talk about these festivals.

• If you wish, give the students an example by talking about your own childhood memories of a festival, following the six headings that are given.

• Students make their own notes under the SIX headings. As they are working, go round and help with any vocabulary problems

Exercise 8

• Students work in pairs, telling each other about their memories.

• Some of the pairs can then report back to the class about their partner's memories.

CELEBRATION

• As a whole class, students pool their ideas about what they have learned about a typical Christmas in Britain. Encourage them to contribute other information they know, e.g. from films, TV, magazines, penfriends.

• In groups, students list their similarities and differences between Christmas in Britain and in their own country.

• The groups then exchange ideas and see if there is general agreement

• Finally, ask the class if there is anything from the British Christmas traditions which they would like to adopt and which of their traditions they think would improve the British Christmas

Options

Practice

In groups, students prepare a dialogue between themselves and a person from the UK who is asking about Christmas in the students' country. If you wish, elicit some questions from the class to start the conversation, e.g. 'Do you give presents/send cards in your country?' 'What do you do on Christmas Eve?' 'What do you eat at Christmas?' Go round and help the groups with vocabulary, if necessary.

Some of the groups can then read out their dialogues to the class.

Extension

Students discuss how Christmas traditions in their country have changed since their grandparents' time - Have any of the old traditions disappeared? Which have continued? Are there any new customs) What do they think Christmas will be like in the future)

10 W~ddings

Objectives

• To read a text for specific information.

• To read a text for new information.

• To practise using modals : have to/not have to, can/can't, should/shouldn't.

• To state school rules and discuss them.

• To write an account of a typical wedding.

Resource used

Grammar Summary 5.

Possible problems

Students may make mistakes with the use of the infinitive with or without to.

Background

The text about Living in Indonesia has been adapted from a website giving advice to English-speaking people working in Indonesia.

Indonesia is the world's biggest island chain. It has more than 17,000 islands. The large population (180 million) is mainly Muslim.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 6.

o If you have time, ask students to bring in photos of weddings they have attended or articles/pictures of weddings in other cultures to talk about after doing Exercise 10.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 5.

Language Powerbook pages 28-29 Mini grammar Ij 1, Ij 2, '1 4, Ii 5, 4 7

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Encourage students to talk (either in groups or as a class) about weddings they have been to. Use the opportunity to elicit or present useful vocabulary for the topic, e.g. reception, bride, groom, ceremony.

Exercise 2

• Ask students if they have tried to find information about customs (not necessarily weddings) in other countries on the Internet - if so, what did they find out'

• Students read the statements first and predict what the answers will be.

• Then they read the text and find out if their predictions were correct.

48

GRAMMAR Focus

• When checking students' answers, ask them to read out the section of text that gives the information and to correct the false statements.

I Answers

~ F 2 F 3 T 4 T

• In pairs, students study the text again and write down three 'true/false' statements of their own. All the students then close their books and, in turn, say one of their statements and the rest of the class says whether it is true or false.

have to/not have to, can/can't, should/shouldn't

Exercise 3

• Present the modals by talking about topics the students are familiar with, e.g. 'You have to/don't have to have a passport when you travel to ... '/'Children have to go to school at the age of ... '/,You can get married at the age of ... but you can't get married earlier.'f'You should look after your clothes.'/'You shouldn't walk alone at night.'

• Students look back at the text and complete the sentences.

Answers I

1 can 2 don't have to 3 shouldn't 4 have to 5 can't 6 should

- .... -

Exercise 4

• Students work in pairs, asking and answering the questions.

I Answers

1 yes 2 no 3 yes 4 no 5 yes 6 no

Exercise 5

• Students match the verbs to their meanings

• Then, working in pairs, they make four sentences using the verbs to talk about weddings in Indonesia.

I Answers lb2a3d4c5f6e

Refer students to Grammar Summary 5 for further explanation and examples.

Language Powerbook the word Corner In oage 29 gives fUi ther vocabulary practice

Exercise 6

• Students look at the picture and describe what the people are wearing and what they are doing. Students guess what is happening in the picture. Ask students if they know anything about traditional Chinese weddings.

• Students read the whole text before filling in any of the gaps.

• When students have completed the text, they can compare answers with their partners before checking answers as a tjass

An.swers

·1 have to 2 can 3 can't 4 don't have to 5 have to 6 have to 7 can't

• Ask students to speculate about what sort of presents the bride's family send back. Have students ever received birthday or Christmas presents they didn't like? What did they do?

Exercise 7

KEY WORDS

change your shoes, smoke, wear a uniform, kiss, eat during lessons, use notes during tests, play music during breaks, be late for lessons, go on class excursions, wear make-up, tie long hair, organise discos, wear jeans, listen to music during lessons

• Students work in pairs writing a sentence for each of the Key Words.

• Encourage students to add more words relating to their school if they can and to write sentences for them, e.g. do homework, go home, play sports.

• Students then read out their sentences and the rest of the class decide if they agree with them.

• The students then discuss their school rules and how tolerant the school is.

• Ask students if they think any of the school rules are unr-ecessarv or if any new rules are needed.

Exercise 8

• First, have a class discussion about the eight topics suggested (clothes, reception, etc) and elicit or present useful vocabulary (wedding dress, suit, headdress, bouquet, toast, honeymoon).

• St.udents then select some of the topics and write a short article for an English magazine about 'Weddings in my country'. Remind students to organise their writing in paragraphs.

• Students can then exchange papers and read each other's a-:'cies. Encourage peer correction of mistakes.

• If appropriate for your class, widen the discussion to elicit students' ideas on religious versus civil weddings, their views on divorce and their predictions about the future of marriage as an institution in Western society.

Exercise 9

• In pairs, students write eight sentences giving advice to a foreigner who is attending a wedding in their country.

• Studnets then ask for and give advice in their pairs. They should take turns to give advice.

• Have some of the pairs say their dialogues for the class.

CELEBRATION

Options

Practice

In groups, students exchange information about the rules and behaviour expected in any clubs or societies they belong to, e.g. sports groups, drama clubs. In groups, students make a list of rules for an English club at their school.

Extension

As a research project, using library facilities or the Internet, students find out about customs of another country, e.g. weddings in Japan, New Year's Eve in Scotland, Thanksgiving in the USA.

II Partips

Objectives

• To listen for gist, using important words and phrases to aid comprehension.

• To practise interacting in social situations, giving advice, expressing surprise, asking for repetition and congratulating people.

• To practise using modals: must, should/shouldn't, don't have to.

• To revise areas of vocabulary connected with food and drink.

Resource used Cassette.

Possible problems

Students may confuse the meaning of must and should.

Background

Dress code and behaviour at parties have become more informal in the UK so it is always sensible to check with the host or hostess how formal their celebration will be.

The quote is by Jules Feiffer who is a cartoonist (winner of the Pulitzer Prize) and also an author, children's book writer, screenwriter and playwright.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework or omit Exercise 8.

o If you have time, students can make dialogues for the people in the party scenes in Exercise 1.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 4.

Language Powerbook pages 30-31

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Ask two or three students when they last went to a party - What sort of party was it? How many people were there? What did they wear? What time did it start/finish? What did people do? Did they enjoy it? Students can then work in groups, talking about the last party they went to.

• In groups, students look at the photos and discuss what is happening and what sort of party it is.

• The groups report back to the class. At this stage, present some of the Key Words that are relevant e.g. barbecue,

clese friends.

• Students discuss what sort of party they prefer.

SKILLS Focus

Exercise 2

KEY WORDS

alcohol, barbecue, close friends, dancing, family, snacks, music, present, reception, sit-down meal, soft drinks, speech

• If you have presented some of the Key Words in Exercise 1, elicit the meaning of the rest from the students.

• Students complete the sentences. Check answers by having students read the sentences aloud.

Answers

1 close friends/family/speech/present 2 reception/sit·down meal

3 barbecue

4 alcohol/soft drinks/snacks 5 music/dancing

• Students write a short paragraph beginning 'At our parties ... ' and describe what happens at their own family parties (e.g. birthday, Christmas parties). In small groups, students can read each other's papers and discuss the similarities and differences between the parties.

Listening

Exercise 3

• Read the Listening Strategies with the students. Ask them if they always need to hear and understand every word when they listen in their own language (e.g. if they are listening to a play or story or a friend is telling them about their holiday).

• Students listen to the cassette twice and note down why each person is celebrating.

I Answers

1 passing his driving test 2 getting a job

3 winning a scholarship 4 retirement

Tapescript

1 Dave: I never thought I'd do it. I mean, I've had so many driving lessons, and as you know, I've failed twice. I feel just great! Today I drove my mum to the supermarket. And she says I can borrow

the car this weekend ...

2 Mike: I was very lucky to get it! There were twenty other applicants, and I was interviewed by three people! The salary is good but I'll have to travel over forty miles to get to work every day

3 Ewa: It's a terrific opportunity - one year at one of the best schools in California. And the best thing is that my English will be excellent after one year in America.

4 Lisa: I'd just like to say how much I've enjoyed working with you

all. It's a sad time for me, but also a happy one. I've got plenty to do at home, ali the things I never had time to do before. I want to take art classes and I'm looking forward to seeing more of my family, and, of course, I'll come to see you from time to time. Thank you very much for this lovely watch, I'll .

• If you wish, play the tape again for more intensive listening. Then ask students what else they remember about Lisa, Mike, Dave and Ewa. Students will probably be surprised at how much they understood.

Exercise 4

• Elicit from students the difference in meaning between must and should by using examples relating to school behaviour, e.g. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 must go to school. Children should always be polite to their teachers.

• Students read through the advice, trying to complete the sentences and predicting what the answers will be.

• Play the cassette for students to check their answers.

Answers

1 should 2 don't have to 3 shouldn't 4 should 5 shouldn't 6 shouldn't 7 must

Tapescript

Interviewer: Our theme on 'Culture Corner' this week is 'Parties', and we have a couple of teenagers from Britain in the studio. Jenny and Carl, thank you for coming.

Girl and boy: You're welcome. Thanks for inviting us' Interviewer. So could you, perhaps, give some advice to our listeners about what to do, and what not to do, at parties in the UIQ

Girl: Well, obviously it depends on what kind of party it is. You know, if it's very formal, you should dress smartly.

Boy: Yes, but nowadays you don't have to be too formal. I mean, I never wear a tie, except at weddings maybe.

Girl: Right.

Interviewer: Are there any special things you should do when you are invited to someone's house)

Girl: Again, it depends. You shouldn't arrive late to a dinner party - the dinner could be ruined! You should be on time'

Boy: Mm, and you should take something with you, maybe a bottle of wine, or a box of chocolates.

Girl: Yeah, or flowers, maybe.

Interviewer. What about the sort of parties teenagers like yourselves go to)

Girl: Ah, well, they're not so formal'

Boy: No, we don't really have any rules. But, you shouldn't drink too much at parties ...

Girl: ... and you shouldn't accept a lift home from a person you don't know.

Boy: Yeah, you must be careful.

Interviewer: What about the stories you sometimes hear ..

• Play the cassette again and ask students to listen to the last line (What about the stories you sometimes hear ... ). Ask students how they think the speaker continued.

CELEBRATION

Speaking

Exercise 5

• In groups, students prepare the advice about the different celebrations. If you are short of time, ask each group to think about one of the celebrations. Otherwise, each group can prepare the advice for the three types of celebration.

• The groups feedback to the whole class to see if their advice is the same or if there are any differences.

Exercise 6

• Read the example dialogue aloud with one of the students. Ask the class to mark the words that are stressed in each sentence. Have some of the students read the dialogue aloud, paying attention to stressing the important words in each sentence.

• Students work in pairs asking and giving advice about the three situations in Exercise 5. Students take turns to be the foreign visitor who is asking the questions. Encourage students to think of other questions to ask, e.g. Should I write and thank the host afterwards? What should I do if I don't like the food? Is it all right if I take my friend with me?

• Have some of the pairs say their dialogues for the class.

Exercise 7

• Students repeat the expressions in the Function File after you. Encourage them to speak with expression and the correct stress and intonation.

• Students match the expressions with the situations.

I Answers

a) 3 b) 5 c) 2 d) 1 e) 6 0 4

Exercise 8

• Students work in pairs, using examples from the Function File and other examples of their own, telling their partner of their good news and giving congratulations.

• Have some of the pairs say their dialogues for the class.

gU011. ... U~gU011.

• Students read the quote and say whether they agree with it. What sort of parties do they like? What sort of parties don't they like?

Options

Practice

Students work in pairs roleplaying a situation in which Student A invites Student B to her/his brother's twenty-first birthday party. Student B wants to know what to wear, who is gOing to be there, what to buy as a present, etc.

Students make up dialogues for the people in the photographs in Exercise 1 .

Extension

Students listen again to the radio programme in Exercise 4. Then, in groups of three or four, make a similar 'Culture Corner' programme on the theme of 'parties' in their own country. If possible, the groups can record their programmes and then play them back for the class to hear.

IZ S~asonal f~stivals

Objectives

• To use pictures to help understand new words and to use the Mini-dictionary to check meanings.

• To read a text quickly to find specific information.

• To practise the Present Simple Passive and Past Simple Passive.

Resource used Grammar Summary 6.

Possible problems

Some students may have problems remembering the third forms.

Students should be encouraged to use the Passive. It is used more in English than in many other languages.

Background

Communal celebrations mark events such as changing seasons, religious days or political events; music, dance or costume are usually involved.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 7.

o If you have time, use one of the Options ideas.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 4.

Language Powerbook pages 32 33 Mini grammar 6

Before you start

Exercise 1

bonfire, costume, flowers, ghost, lantern, mask, top hat, witch

• Students look at the pictures and guess what is happening and what is being celebrated. Ask them to describe what they can see and elicit or present the Key Words. Students use the Mini-dictionary to check the meanings of the words.

• Students discuss which of the items in the Key Words are used in celebrations in their country.

Exercise 2

• Students look at the three titles (Summer, Spring, Winter) and suggest which festivals in their country are associated with these three seasons (and are there any associated with autumn?)

52

GRAMMAR Focus

• Students read the questions, then find the answers in the texts by reading the texts quickly.

Answers

1 Cornish, an old Celtic language 2 sweets 3 flowers

• For more intensive reading practice, divide the class into three groups. Each group reads one section of the text carefuUy and writes four or five questions about it. Then give the class three or four minutes to read the whole text again. Students close their books, and in turn each group asks its questions for the rest of the class to answer.

Language Powerbook the Word Corner on page 33 S"Jes fur ther practice In vocaoularv Iclothesl

THE PASSIVE

Exercise 3

• Ask students if they remember what happens in Britain at Christmas - tell them 'letters are written to Father Christmas, presents are given, decorations are put up in the house, Christmas pudding is eaten, crackers are pulled'. Write one or two sentences on the board and point out the Passive form.

• Students then do the exercise, finding the sentences in the text and completing the verbs.

Answers

1 isn't 2 given 3 encouraged 4 wasn't

• Write a sentence from A and one from B on the board and elicit the tenses (Present Simple Passive and Past Simple Passive).

Exercise 4

• Students find other examples of the Passive in the texts and read them out.

• Students then complete the rule.

Answers

The Present Perfect; am or is or are + the third form of the verb (past participle).

The Past Passive; was or were + the third form of the verb (past participle).

• For further practice, ask students to answer questions about their school (or town), e.g. 'When are school examinations held? When are school reports written? Where is football played? When are bells rung? Where are textbooks kept? When was this classroom cleaned) When was this school budt?'

Refer students to Grammar Summary 6 for more explanation.

Exercise 5

• Ask students if they have heard of the festivals of Cocuk Bayrami or Diwali. Students read the text to find out about these festivals and to complete the verbs.

Answers

1 IS celebrated 2 was started 3 are worn 4 are invited 5 are not celebrated 6 were given 7 are sent

8 are prepared 9 are placed 10 are organised

• Have students close their books and ask them to say what they can remember about these two festivals.

Exercise 6

• Students write the questions, then, when checking answers, ask students to answer the questions as well.

Answers

2 lNIlen are Christmas presents given in your country)

3 How are houses decorated for Easter in your country) 4 Where is Halloween celebrated?

5 What are given to children at Halloween)

6 What food is eaten during Easter in your country)

Exercise 7

• Ask students what they know about Thanksgiving in the USA - When is itt Why is it celebrated? What is eaten?

• Students then do the exercise to see if they are right and if they learn anything new about Thanksgiving.

r Answers

I 1 Thanksgiving is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. I 2 The first American colonists were given food by native American

Indians in 1620.

3 They were shown how to grow their own food by native American Indians.

4 In 1621, the first Thanksgiving festival was celebrated by the colonists.

5 It was made a holiday by President Lincoln in 1864.

6 Now turkey and pumpkin pie are eaten in family dinners.

Exercise 8

• Students work in groups, writing out the questions in Exercise 8 and adding more of their own questions using the Passive. Tell students they must know the answers to their questions. If you wish, they can finish the questions for homework and use reference sources to check their answers. Each group should have between 10-15 questions.

Answers

i Where is the 'ourth of July celebrated) 2 where is gou.ash eaten)

3 When is Boxing Day celebrated)

4 Who was the telephone invented by)

5 Who was Romeo and Juliet written by) 6 Where are BMW cars made)

Exercise 9

• The groups then ask and answer their questions, starting with the questions in Exercise 8 and continuing with their own questions.

CELEBRATION

Answers to Exercise 8

2 Hungary 3 26th December 4 Alexander Bell 5 Shakespeare 6 Germany

Options

Practice

In groups, students prepare a written description of one of the seasonal festivals in their country in summer, winter or spring. Tell students they are writing for English-speaking readers who have not visited their country. Students can follow the structure of the texts in the coursebook and, if possible, illustrate their text with a suitable drawing or photograph. When the groups have finished, they can exchange papers for others to read.

Extension

Students, working individually or in pairs, carry out a research project (using reference books or the Internet) to find out about a seasonal festival in another country. Students then prepare a short talk about this festival to give to the class.

53

Communication Workshop

Objectives

• To listen to a ~Iogue to identify intonation patterns of expressing surprlsa and asking for repetition.

, .

• To practise intera'cting in social situations, expressing

surprise and asking for repetition.

• To revise greeting~ and asking for and giving personal

information. I ..

• To write a description of an event usmg appropriate

linking words. /

• To develop ski)t~ of self-correction and peer-help.

,,/

Resources.used Cassette, Writing Help 3.

Possible problems

_So~e students may find it more difficult than others to

/' distinguish intonation patterns. When required to produce intonation patterns expressing surprise and asking for repetition, students may feel embarrassed.

Background

The twenty-fifth wedding anniversary is called the Silver Wedding Anniversary and people often buy the couple items made of Silver.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit the Talkback stage of the speaking and writing workshops.

o If you have time, students can do the Options activities.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, the natural break is after the Speaking activity.

Language Powerbook pages 34-35

Speaking: Roleplay

Before you start

• Students listen and read the dialogue and mark the expressions R or S. Play the cassette two or three times if necessary.

Answers

Really? (5) I'm sorry? (R) No! (5) She isn't! (5)

I don't believe it. (5) An .. ? (R) You're joking. (5)

• When students have checked their answers, play the cassette again, this time pausing it so students can repeat the expressions.

• Students then cover the text. Ask students:

- why Jamie and Katrina are surprised at times in the dialogue.

- what is unusual about them.

- what else they can remember of the content of the dialogue.

54

Stage 1

• Read the example (Aristotle Chang) with the class. Then elicrt suggestions of other unusual characters (and names) - perhaps they are unusual because of their job, their hobby, where they live, what they wear, what they eat. Write some of the suggestions on the board for students to use if they wish.

• Students then make notes of their own choice of unusual person, following the headings in the example. Go round and help any students who need ideas.

Stage 2

• Read through the instructions with the class and revise language of greetings, introductions and party small talk.

• If possible, students should stand up and move around the classroom for the group work. Students work in groups of four or six so that all have sufficient opportunities to speak. Tell students they should try to speak to as many people as possible within the time allowed.

Talkback

• Students report back to the class about the most unusual person in their group. If you wish, students can rate the 'unusualness' on a band of 1 -10 (10 = most unusual).

• Ask students if they had any language difficulties when they were acting out the party scene. Was there anything they wanted to say but didn't know how to say?

Writing: Describing an Event

Before you start

Exercise 1

Useful vocabulary: wedding anniversary, cousin.

• There is no need to pre-teach wedding anniversary because students should be able to guess the meaning from the context.

• Tell students not to worry about the gaps in the text as they read it for the first time. (The gaps are part of Exercise 2) Students read the text the first time in order to match the topics with the paragraphs. Before reading the text, ask students to look at the topics and predict the order they will be in. Students then do the exercise and see if their predictions were right.

~wers

I (A)b (B) c (e) d (D) a

CELEBRATION

Exercise 2

• Students fill in the gaps in the text with the time linking words.

I ~nF:e~ Then 3 After that 4. while 5 in the end. _j

• Write the time linking words on the board and ask students in groups to describe an everyday event using all the linkers, e.g. getting up in the morning and coming to school, cooking a meal, painting a picture.

Stage 1

• Tell students that they can describe a real party they have been to or they can invent things that happened at a party.

• Read through the diagram with the class and elicit ideas for each stage of the party description. Present any vocabulary which students need.

• Students make notes for each of the four sections.

Stage 2

• Refer students to Writing Help 3 (guidance on layout, useful vocabulary and linking words).

• Students use their notes to write four paragraphs describing their party.

Stage 3

• Refer students to Writing Help 3 (checking) for guidance about checking their own writing. If students are checking their writing in class, go round and if necessary, indicate where an error occurs but don't provide the correction. Encourage students to correct their own mistakes if they can.

Talkback

• In groups, students read each other's descriptions and make constructive suggestions on how to improve or correct them. Each group then decides which party sounds the best

Options

Practice

Students make notes for a talk on the topic of 'The most unusual person I know'. When they have planned their talk, they can take turns giving their talk in small groups. At the end of each talk, each of the other students in the group has to ask a question to find out more about this unusual person.

Extension

In groups, students choose one of the following party situations and plan the ideal party: your parents' wedding anniversary, a friend's birthday party, a 'leaving school' party, your grandmother's 70th birthday party.

R~vi~w

Objectives

• To check and consolidate grammar studied in this module - Simple Present and Simple Past Passive, modals (have to, must, should)

• To practise collocations with take, go, make, have, meet.

• To revise vocabulary associated with Christmas.

• To revise prepositions.

• To practise word stress patterns.

Resource used

Cassette.

Routes through the material

If you are short of time, some of the Review exercises can be given for homework.

Language Powerbook pages 36-37

Grammar

Exercise 1

Useful vocabulary: harvest, sculptures, hurricane, cemeteries. • Do not pre-teach the vocabulary, but read aloud the text (pausing for the gaps where the students will have to fill in the verb) and see if students can guess the meanings of the words.

• Students do the exercise individually, then compare answers with their partners before checking answers as a class.

Answers

1 are decorated 2 is marked 3 are burned 4 IS held 5 are decorated 6 are lit 7 are taken

• Ask students if they know more about any of these festivals and to tell the class what they know.

Exercise 2

Answers

1 don't have to/should 2 have to 3 shouldn't 4 should 5 can't/must 6 should

VocabuLary

Exercise 3

• Check students' answers by having them read out the text with expression.

Answers

1 beautiful 2 snowman 3 chimney 4 tree 5 presents 6 turkey 7 pudding

56

Exercise 4

• Check students' answers after they have matched the verbs and nouns.

• Then students can write one sentence for each expression. After they have written their sentences, students can read them to each other in small groups.

Answers

make the bed make a speech meet a person have a good time take photos have/go to a party make/have a cup of tea take/have some medicine

Exercise 5

I Answers

1 at 2 for 3 in 4 at 5 to

Pronunciation: Word Stress

Exercise 6

• Students work in pairs saying the words and putting them into groups.

• The groups then feedback to the whole class and see if there are any disagreements.

• Students listen to the cassette and check their answers.

Answers

Group 1 - carnival

Group 2 - retirement important Group 3 - birthday fireworks Group 4 - exam Japan

Group 5 - traditional spectacular Group 6 - invitation decoration

• Students then repeat the words after the cassette.

• Other words for students to group are: tangerine (1), Thanksgiving (2), exploded (2), harvest (3), autumn (3), awake (4), European (6).

Options

Practice

Working in pairs, students choose five or six of the words in Exercise 6 and make sentences containing the words. The pairs then read their sentences aloud in groups for other students to check that the word stress is correct.

Extension

In groups, students create a Festival Factfile (similar to the one in Exercise 1) for their own country, giving brief descriptions of five or six festivals.

Module objectives

Draw students' attention to the module objectives at the top of the page. Ask them which of the activities they do most often In their L 1 and which least often. Do they have any problems with any of these activities in the L 1? (Some students may feel less confident when writing an advert, complaining, bargaining,)

Resource used

Cassette.

Warm-up

Exercise 1

• Students look at the title of the module and think of any sayings in their L 1 that refer to money. Then tell them some English sayings, e.g. 'The love of money is the root of all evil'/ 'Money makes the world go round'l'Look after the pennies and the pounds will take care of themselves'I'Neither a borrower nor a lender be'. Students discuss whether they think these sayings are true.

• Students read the list and choose what is most important for them as individuals. Students then tell the class the most important thing for them, giving reasons. The class then decides which is the most important thing for the majority. Students discuss whether they want to add anything else which is important for them to the list.

• In groups students then rank all the items from the most important (number 1)' to the least important thing (number 8). The groups can then compare their rankings.

Exercise 2

• Students look at the people in the photos and at the list in Exercise 1 and suggest what each one thinks is the most important thing, justilfying their choices.

• Students then listen to the cassette and identify which people are speaking.

• Play the cassette again, pausing after each speaker for students to support their choice by referring back to what the person says.

1 Answers

I 1 B 2 C 3 A 4 D

Tapescript

1 Mm, well, I've got a good job. I work very hard and I earn a good salary. I'll be honest -Ilike spending money, especially on clothes. Why not? I've earned it, haven't I?

2 Well, I think people are obsessed with money - they think money brings you happiness. But you don't need money that much ... I think the most important thing is to try to help other people. I mean people who really need help. I am in two charities. we collect money for children in poor countries ...

3 I've been out of work for five years now. It's very difficult to get a job at my age, you know. And I've had a lot of personal problems. I don't like asking for money, but I have to. I think a lot of people don't know how easy it is to get into my situation.

4 Personally, I think it's important to give money to charity, especially to charities for children. I mean most of us have some extra money, don't we? I'm not very rich, but I try to give as

much money as I can. ___j

Exercise 3

KEY WORDS

borrow, collect. earn, tend, lose, make, need, save, spend, win

• Ask students to read the Key Words and find three pairs of 'near-opposites' (borrow/lend, save/spend, lose/win). Remind students of the work they did on word stress in the previous module and ask them where the stress comes in borrow and collect.

• Students complete the sentences.

Answers

1 win/lose 2 need/lend/borrow 3 makes/earns 4 spend/saves 5 is collecting

• Students work in pairs making new sentences using each of the Key Words. Some of the pairs can then read out their sentences to the class.

• Students discuss issues introduced in the sentences, e.g. What do they think of gambling? Do they find it easy to save money? What charities do they support?

Option

Extension

• Students look back at the list in Exercise 1 and divide the values into 'material' (e.g. having a big car) and 'non-material' values, e.g. (having friends). Write these in two columns on the board and elicit more suggestions of material and non-materia! values to add to the columns.

In groups, students choose three material values and three non-material values that are important for everybody. The groups then exchange ideas, justifying their dectslons.

13 A Mat~rial World

Objectives

• To read a text to find out specific facts.

• To practise using countable and uncountable nouns.

• To practise the use of multi-part verbs with give, go and drop.

• To practise using quantity words and expressions.

Resource used

Grammar Summary 7.

Possible problems

Students will probably need extra practice with the use of there is and there are.

The use of different quantifiers with countable and uncountable nouns may cause some confusion, as may some common uncountable nouns such as money, information, advice, furniture.

Background

Charles Gray is a real person from the USA. Years ago he was a university professor and a millionaire. However, he grew disillusioned with the wealthy and comfortable lifestyle he was leading and started to give all his money away. He decided it was unfair for some people to have so many of the world's resources, when so many people in the world were living in poverty. He lives on what is called the WEB - the world equity budget. This is calculated by dividing up

the world's annual income by the number of people on the planet.

Angus Deayton is a famous British TV personality who has appeared in many comedy shows.

Charity shops are shops that sell secondhand things which people don't want or have got tired of, e.g. clothes, shoes, toys, furniture. The profits go to the charity.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 9.

o If you have time, do one of the Options activities.

o If you have a tape of the song 'Who wants to be a millionaire?', students will probably enjoy listening to this.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 7.

Language Powerbook pages 38-39

,\I\lnl grammar 3 t. 3 8, 3 9. 3 \ 1 3 1-1 3 16 320. 5 12

Exercise 1

• Students read the title of the text and, in groups, discuss whether they would like to be a millionaire and the reasons for their deciSion.

• Then, as a whole class, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of being a millionaire. Elicit different ways someone can become a millionaire (born into a rich family,

58

GRAMMAR Focus

successful business, win the lottery, marry a rich person, invent something that everybody wants).

• Ask students to tell the class about any millionaires they know about or people who have suddenly become rich.

Exercise 2

Useful vocabulary: charity shops, drop out.

• Students should be able to guess the meaning of the words from the text.

• Students read the text and answer the questions. They can check their answers with their partners before checking answers as a class. When checking answers, ask students to read out the part of the text that gives the answer for the True statements and to correct the False statements.

I Answers J

1 F 2 NI 3 T 4 T 5 NI 6 F

• Students cover the text. Ask them what else they remember and to pool their ideas.

Exercise 3

• Students refer to the text and match the verbs with their meanings.

• After checking answers, ask students to use the verbs in sentences of their own.

I Answers

1 d 2 c 3 b 4 a

Language Powerbook tile word Corner on page 39 practrses vocabulary from the text

some/any/no; a lot of/many/much

Exercise 4

• Note that some grammar books use the terms mass nouns and unit or count nouns for uncountable and countable nouns.

• Use classroom objects to present the concepts of countable and uncountable e.g. books, pens, students, desks, paper, chalk, money, water.

• Students then complete the table with the words from the text, marking which are plural and which are singular.

• In pairs, students then add more words to the columns.

• When checking answers, check both the words from the text and students' additional nouns.

Answers

uncountable (singular) - money fun happiness

countable (plural) - dollars houses caravans areas worr.es

Exercise 5

• Draw students' attention to the fact that the three sentences are about uncountable nouns. Students can refer back to the text and their table in Exercise 4 when working out the rules.

Answers

1 cannot 2 can 3 cannot

• Write the following rules on the board and ask students to make rules for countable nouns, e.g.

4 We (can) use a with countable nouns.

5 We (can) use the with countable nouns. 6 Countable nouns (can) be plural.

• Ask students to make sentences to demonstrate rules 2, 4, 5 and 6.

Exercise 6

• Students work in pairs, referring back to the text to complete the chart.

• When checking answers, ask students to make sentences containing the expressions.

lAnswers

dollars - some any no a lot of many a few money - some any a lot of much a little

- -~- - -

• Students refer to their lists and complete the rules.

_-=

Answers

a) some any no a lot of

b) much a little

c) many a few

• Revise the uses of some and any by asking students which word is used with questions and negatives (any) and which with positive statements (some)

Exercise 7

• Students translate the sentences into their own language and discuss the differences between English and their language.

• Give extra practice in the use of there is and there are by asking students to describe their classroom in as much detail as possible as if for a blind person. This can be done with each student adding a sentence to the previous one as the description is built up by the whole class, e.g. 'There is one door' 'There are three windows.' 'There is some paper in the cupboard.'

Refer students to Grammar Summary 7.

Exercise 8

• Students do the exercise individually, then practise reading the dialogue aloud in pairs.

Answers

1 many 2 many 3 a few 4 any 5 some 6 some

7 much 8 no 9 a lot of 10 Some 11 a little 12 a lot of

• Students discuss the journalist's question 'Do you think people with a lot of money are happier than poor people?'

MONEY

Exercise 9

• Students look at the picture and use their own ideas about Charles Gray's caravan.

• In groups students read out their sentences and exchange ideas.

• Students then use the same seven prompts to make seven sentences about a room in their house.

• Students read their sentences to the group who have to guess which room they are describing.

Exercise 10

• Read the example sentence, pointing out the use of and now to link and contrast the two ideas. Elicit other ways of expressing contrasting ideas, e.g. two sentences, the second starting with However; one sentence joined by but now.

• Students read out their sentences to the class.

Exercise 11

• Elicit some questions from the class and check that students are using much and many correctly. Then give students a few minutes to write their questions and add some of their own questions to the list.

• In pairs, students ask and answer questions.

• As a whole class, ask students which of their partner's answers surprised them.

Options

Practice

In pairs, students look back at the text in Exercise 2 and write the questions that Angus Deayton asked Charles Gray. Then In groups, the pairs take turns to ask and answer their questions and see if they get all the information in their answers.

Extension

Students discuss the concept of 'dropping out' (e.g. dropping out of college, dropping out of society) - What sort of people drop out? Why? What are the advantages/disadvantages if you drop out? What do students think of people who drop out?

59

14 Th~ Right Prio

Objectives

• To practise intensive listening skills.

• To practise the language of shopping and bargaining.

• To recognise and practise the polite rise in intonation.

Resources used

Cassette, up-to-date exchange rate into British pounds.

Possible problems

Students may need to revise how to say amounts in British currency.

Background

Most British people would only bargain when buying a house or perhaps a car. Bargaining is not acceptable in shops, but is more acceptable in street markets, charity shops and car boot sales. There are several organisations in the UK which look after consumer's rights and customers are more willing nowadays to complain about poor service and goods.

The quote is by Gordon Selfridge, who was the founder of the first important department store in Britain, Selfridges, which is in London. Mr Selfridge was a successful businessman but in the later years of his life he lost all his money and died in poverty. His quote reflects the attitude to service that he wanted in his store.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 8.

o If you have time, do the Option activity.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 5.

Language Powerbook pages 40-41

Before you start

Exercise 1

a bargain, to bargain, cash, discount, price

• Give students an example using the words so that they hear them in context, e.g. 'Susan went shopping last week and she got a bargain. She saw a really good cassette recorder in a shop. The price was £200 but there was a discount of ten percent (10%) if you paid cash. So she paid the money and got ten percent off the price.'

• Students match the words and definitions and then check the answers in the Mini-dictionary.

SKILLS Focus

Exercise 2

• Read the example and elicit other ways of estimating how much something is, e.g. 'It's probably .. .11 think it's perhaps ..

• In pairs, students guess the price of the objects using their own currency. Then exchange views in class and see if their estimates agree.

• Tell students the current rate of exchange into British pounds and have them work out the prices in pounds.

Listening

Exercise 3

• Students read the questions. Tell them that these are not multiple-choice questions - there may be more than one item mentioned in the answer.

• Students listen to the first part of the interview and answer the questions.

Answers

1 a d 2 a 3 all the things in the photographs

Tapescript

Presenter: Hello and welcome to 'The Shopping Programme'.

Today we're going to talk about bargains. In the studio we have Helen Cooper, a journalist, and a very enthusiastiC shopper Helen: Hello.

Presenter: Most people in Britain don't bargain for things, you know, argue about the price of something. We pay the full price in the shop. The only time we probably bargain IS when we buy a house or maybe when we buy a car. But what about you, Helen? Which of these things here would you bargain for - the motorbike, the earrings, the holiday, the old record.

Helen: We", it depends where you are. You can't usually bargain in a supermarket, but sometimes you can bargain in shops and markets. For example, if you pay cash or buy a lot of things, you can often get a discount. But let's see. We", I'd definitely bargain for a new motorbike. Mm, jewellery, lovely earrings, yes, why not? Holidays, yes, sure. You can get good offers if you bargain, especially for winter holidays. Old records. Yes, you can certainly bargain for these, but you need to know if the record is valuable!

• Ask students which of the things in the photos they would bargain for.

Exercise 4

• Students read the five strategies and discuss which they would advise if someone wanted to bargain for something. They may like to add other strategies to the list.

• Students listen to Part 2 of the interview to find out which strategies Helen uses.

Answers

1 price 2 a bargain 3 discount 4 to bargain 5 cash

I I :nsbwe_~ ~ __

L_ __ ~ ~

60

Tapescript

Presenter: So, how do you bargain, Helen'

Helen: Well, it's very important to be friendly. Friendly, but firm at the same time. It's also important to have confidence, to believe that you can get what you want, but don't be aggressive. It's Important not to be aggressive.

Presenter: So what do you say'

Helen: Well, it's Important to say some good things about the product, before talking about the bad things.

Presenter: And how do you reduce the price?

Helen: Well, the best thing is to say that you haven't got much money. WhiCh might be true!

Presenter: What do you do if the person says no?

Helen: Er, I say it's a pity, very politely, and that I'll try somewhere else.

Presenter: Thank you very much, Helen. I'll try some of your ideas next time I'm shopping. And now.

Exercise 5

• Students read the dialogue in the Function File and guess what Helen is buying.

• Students listen to the cassette and complete the sentences. Tell students that the sentences in the Function File are only part of the dialogue on the tape, so they need to listen carefully.

Answers

1 good quality 2 I'll give you 3 worth 4 Come on

5 I'll take 6 offer 7 fair 8 cash 9 that's it 10 I'll take

• Ask students how much Helen gets off the price (£4).

• Students listen again and identify what Helen says and what the stall holder says, then students read the dialogue in pairs.

Tapescript

Female: Morning. (rising intonation). Can I help you? Ipolite rise) Helen: No thanks, I'm just looking. (falling intonation)

Helen: Excuse me' Ipolite rise) Er, how much are those earrings,

please? (rise)

Female: They're twenty pounds. (fain

Helen: Can I have a look at them, please' (rise) Female: Sure. {fain

Helen: Mm, they're quite pretty, and they're silver. But they aren't very good quality. Good quality silver, I mean. I'll give you ten pounds

I Female: I'm sorry Those earrings are worth at least twenty pounds.

Helen: They're very nice, I agree. But they're not really worth more than twelve pounds. Come on, you're not selling much tooday. And anyway, I haven't got much more money on me.

Female: I'll take seventeen.

Helen: OK, one last offer. Fifteen pounds. That's fair. Female: Sixteen pounds, cash. And that's it.

Helen: OK, I'll take them.

Exercise 6

• Explain how important intonation is to convey meaning and how the wrong intonation can completely change the meaning of a message or make you appear impolite. If possible give the class an example from their own language to illustrate this. Tell students that the rising intonation is typical of direct questions, but that it also signals a polite attitude when greeting people, asking for attention or permission, etc.

• Students listen to the first part of the cassette again, paying particular attention to the rising intonation pattern.

MONEY

• Students listen again and repeat the phrases after the cassette.

• Elicit or point out that 'morning' signals a polite greeting, 'Excuse me' is used to attract attention in a polite way, and 'please' to mark a polite request. Give students a few situations for them to attract attention or make a polite request, e.g. You ask someone to close the window/You are in a restaurant and want the menulYou are in a shop and want to tryon a coat/rou are in a train and the woman opposite is getting off but has left her bag on the seat.

Speaking

Exercise 7

KEY WORDS

a silver bracelet (£15). a CD (£12). a pair of trainers (£50). a leather jacket (£90). a pair of jeans (£30). a T-shirt (£7)

• Students read the Key Words and the price of the objects.

• In pairs, they make dialogues bargaining for the object. Tell the pairs to make a note of the prices at which the objects were sold. Students take turns to be the customer and the seller.

• The pairs report the final prices of the objects. The pair that sold each object for its lowest price acts out their dialogue for the class to hear.

Exercise 8

• Students can price their objects in their Own currency or in English pounds if they wish.

• Demonstrate the dialogue with one of the students, ther: have two students do the dialogue for the class to follow before students work in pairs.

• In groups, students discuss the two questions, then feedback to the whole class. Ask students if they think conventions about bargaining have cr.anged over the years. OJ they behave differently from their parents and grandparents when they go shopping?

• Ask students in which countries they think hargaining happens most.

gUOTE ... UNgUOTE

Students read the quote and discuss whether or not they agree with this. If any of the students know people who work in shops, ask them what the problems are for the shop assistants - what sort of customers do they like and what sort don't they like?

Option

Extension

Tell students they are going to write and roleplay two dialogues to train people in bargaining in a market. One of the dialogues (Dialogue A) will demonstrate the wrong way to do it and the other (Dialogue B) will show the right way. In groups, students write the two dialogues.

61

I~ Your Mon~y

Objectives

• To practise the use of determiners: all, none, both, neither, another, other, the other, the second.

• To ask and answer questions for a questionnaire.

Resources used

Cassette, Grammar Summaries 8 and 9.

Possible problems

Students may have problems with the distinction between another/the other and the second. Students should be referred to Grammar Summary 9.

Background

The same shop chains are found in most High Streets of British towns and cities. There are a range of clothes shops, catering for different age groups and price ranges. These include Marks and Spencer, British Home Stores and for younger customers New Look, Next, Miss Selfridge.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercises 11 and 12. If you have time, extend discussion of the questionnaire results and their interpretation and do the Options activities.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 6.

Language Powerbook pages 42-43 Mlnl)lldnlnlclr 32.33.35.315 317,318,319

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Read the title of this unit with the students. Ask them if they and their friends often talk about their own money. Tell them that in Britain, most older people don't discuss their own money with other people (e.g. how much they earn, how much they paid for their house or their car). Younger people in the UK talk about their own finances more freely.

• In groups, students discuss the questions, then report back to the class.

Exercise 2

• Read the questionnaire with the class and give students time to think about their answers.

Exercise 3

• Students work in pairs asking and answering the questions. Tell students to keep a record of the answers.

• As a class, find out which students gave mostly a) answers and which gave mostly b), c) or d) answers.

• Read the Answer Key and see if students agree with the

GRAMMAR Focus

characterisation of the al. b), c) and d) groups. Ask students to rewrite any of the characterisations they disagree with.

all/none, both/neither

Exercise 4

• Students work in pairs, reading the sentences and ticking the boxes in the chart.

Answers

all and none - ticks in both columns.

both and neither - tick only in countable column.

• If students ask about the verb form with none and neither, explain that in contemporary English both singular and plural forms are acceptable, e.g. 'None of them is here.'I'None of them are here.'

• Give some sentences using the classroom situation before asking students to complete the rules, e.g. 'None of us are English.lAIl of us are students.lBoth A and B have got brown hair. Neither of these books are/ls mine. All my money is in my bag. None of the paper has been used.'

• Students then look at the replies in Exercise 4 and complete the rules.

I Answers

I 1 both/neither 2 all/none 3 neither/none

Refer students to Grammar Summary 8.

Exercise 5

• When checking the exercise, ask students to explain why the other answer is wrong and to suggest what the other person could say.

I Answers

1 b 2 a 3 a 4 b

• Ask students to make more sentences for the millionaire and the poor person about their food, their friends, their money, their shoes.

Exercise 6

• Acvise students to read the whole text first before filling In the gaps.

• Check answers by having students read the text aloud.

Answers

1 all 2 none 3 Both 4 neither 5 All 6 none

• In pairs, students talk about themselves and their attitudes to money, using some of the sentence patterns from the text, e.g. 'I'm very careful with money .. '

Exercise 7

• Students work individually writing their sentences

• Then, they read their sentences to their partner and check if their partner agrees with what they have written.

Exercise 8

• Students work individually writing sentences about the class.

• Some of the sentences are read out and the rest of the class listens and checks if the sentences are true.

another, other, the other, the second

Exercise 9

• First, ask students to listen to the dialogue without looking at the text. Ask them general questions to see if they have understood the gist of it, e.g. Where are the speakers? What are they talking about! What happens at the end of the dialogue?

• Students then follow the text as they listen, twice if necessary, and fill in the gaps.

Answers

1 jacket 2 colour 3 green 4 small 5 big

Exercise 10

• Students translate the words.

Refer students to Grammar Summary 9.

Language Powerbook the Word Corner on page 43 gives further practice In multi part verbs

Exercise 11

• Students can compare their answers with a partner before checking answers as a class.

Answers

1 other 2 another 3 the other 4 another 5 the second 6 other 7 another 8 the other

• Check students' understanding by asking questions, e.g.

January is the first month of the year. Name the second. Name another month.

2 Put one hand up. Now put the other up.lLook to the right.

Now look the other way.

Exercise 12

• Students do the exercise in pairs, then practise reading aloud the questions and answers in their pairs.

I Answers Ib2d3f4a5e6c

MONEY

Options

Practice

Ask students to think of the money they have spent in the last week and what they have spent it on. Each student then writes sentences using some of the expressions they have practised in the unit. If you wish, give them an example:

'Last week, I spent quite a lot of money and I only saved a little. I bought a lot of food with most of the money because I had a party at the weekend. All my friends came to the party. Some of them sat in the garden, talking, and others were dancing in the sitting room.'

Extension

In groups, students prepare another questionnaire. Give them a choice of topics. They can continue the questionnaire in the book ('How careful are you with money?') and add more questions, or they can choose a new topic e.g. 'How careful are you with your health? How generous are you with your money? How good a friend are you?' Remind students to do an Answer Key for their questionnaire so that the results can be interpreted.

When the groups have written their questionnaires they can exchange them for other students to complete.

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Answers

, 1 Pocket calculators are small and convenient. They are useful for homework, too

2 Electric toothbrushes are expensive. They are also not very practical.

3 Mobile phones are small and useful. Plus they are cheaper than before.

4 Laptop computers are very expensive. They are not very reliable either.

5 Radio alarm clocks are useful to get up in the morning. They are very cheap, too.

Vocabulary: Adjectives

Exercise 6

• Students read the texts and complete the table.

Answers

-ed - advanced tired bored satisfied worried

-ing - relaxing exciting tinng boring

• Write the sentences for one of the pairs on the board:

When are you bored at a party) Do you find housework boring)

• Elicit the difference between bored and boring in this pair of sentences:

'He is bored. He is boring.'

Exercise 7

• Check students' answers by having them read the sentences aloud.

Answers

1 boring/bored 2 tired/tiring 3 interested/interesting 4 exciting/excited

Speaking

Exercise 8

• Read the example with the class and elicit more 'Yes/No' questions that students can ask.

• Demonstrate the activity by selecting something from the list yourself and students ask you ten questions to find out what it is.

• Students then work in groups, taking turns to choose something for the list or any other product from the module.

gUOTE . _. UXgUOTE

Read the quote and discuss with the students what effects different types of advertisement have on them - Do they buy something new that has been advertised) Do they buy something new if a friend recommends it?

MONEY

Option

Practice

Bring In some gadgets of your own or ask students to bring in their gadgets. In groups, students take turns to demonstrate a gadget and try to persuade the rest of the group to buy one. The demonstrator should try to mix opinion and fact. The other students can ask questions about the gadget.

Communication Workshop

Objectives

• To read an advertisement and extract the main facts.

• To write an advertisement.

• To use qualifying adverbs.

• To roleplay a selling situation, persuading people to buy a gadget.

• To listen to a song and understand it.

Resources used

Cassette, Writing Help 4, advertisements from magazines, newspapers.

Possible problems

Students may need help with ideas for their gadget. Some students may be more confident than others in the roleplay situation of selling a gadget.

Background

The 'Dogwalker' advertisement is an invention in the spirit of Chindogu.

Abba was a pop group from Sweden that was incredibly popular in the early 1970s. Abba sung in English and they were the first non-native speakers to achieve international success with songs like 'Waterloo'. Recently there has been an Abba revival and a musical in London based on their music.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit the Talkback stage of the speaking workshop.

o If you have time, students can do the Option activity.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, the natural break is after the writing activity.

Language Powerbook pages 46-47

Writing: An Advert

Before you start

• Students do the exercise in pairs, reading the text and completing the information.

Answers

1 K9 Dogwalker 2 to exercise your dog 3 at home 4 plastic 5 light, easy and convenient to take on holiday, not expensive

6 £39.99 7 Cantek Products

• Students read the text again and find the adjectives that give opinion rather than fact. Ask students what techniques the writer uses to get the reader's attention and persuade the reader to continue reading (starts with questions, offers the

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solution to problems, says the gadget will help the owner as well as the dog). These are techniques for the students to remember when writing their own advertisements.

• Show students advertisements from magazines and newspapers in their L 1 and see if any of the same techniques are used in those.

Stage 1

• Students can write their advertisement individually or working in pairs.

• Elicit ideas of serious or humorous gadgets to start students thinking, e.g. a gadget to turn the pages of a book you are reading, a gadget to spread butter on bread.

• Students then make notes about their gadgets, including all the information in the table in Exercise 1 Also encourage them to note down any adjectives which they can use to make the gadget seem even better

Stage 2

Refer students to Writing Help 4 before they write their advertisements.

Stage 3

• Students refer to Writing Help 4 as they check their advertisements and assess how well they have done.

• Students can also read each other's advertisements and help to check the language used.

Speaking: Selling your Gadget

Before you start

KEY WORDS

adverbs: extremely. incredibly. not very. quite. really. very

• Students read the adverbs in the box and say which mean more than 'very' (extremely, incredibly) and which mean iess than 'very' (not very, quite, real/y).

• Students listen to the cassette and complete the dialogue .

Answers

1 really 2 very 3 not very 4 extremely 5 quite 6 incredibly

• Students listen to the dialogue again, this time paying attention to intonation, stress and expression in the voices.

• Students then read the dialogue in pairs with as much expression as possible.

• Ask students what useful expressions in the dialogue they can use when they want to self their own gadgets, e.g. the opening ('Have you heard about .. ?')

Stage 1

• Give students time to prepare and rehearse what they are going to say Less confident students may prefer to help each other sell their gadget.

Stage 2

• Read the example dialogue and see if students can continue it and bring it to a conclusion (Does B buy it or not?)

• Students move round the classroom trYing to sell their gadgets to each other and asking questions about the other gadgets before deciding whether to buy them or not.

Talkback

• Students discuss which gadgets they liked best and which they would like to buy.

• Ask students what qualities make a good salesperson and who was good at selling his/her gadget. Students can use the phrases given and add more of their own, e.g. polite.

Listening

• Students read the questions first and try to predict the answers.

• They then listen to the cassette and see if their predictions were right.

Tapescript

I work all night, I work all day, To pay the bills I have to pay. Ain't it sad)

And still there never seems to be A single penny left for me,

That's too bad.

Ire my dreams I have a plan, If i got me a wealthy man,

I wouldn't have to work at all.

I'd fool around and have a ball.

Money, money, money must be funny In the rich man's world.

Money, money, money, always sunny I., ~he rich man's world.

Ah, ah, all the things I could do

If I had a little money.

It's a rich man's world.

It's a rich man's world.

A man like that is hard to find. But I can't get him off my mind. Ain't it sad?

Ar,d if he happens to be free, I bet he wouldn't fancy me. That's too bad.

So I must leave, I'll have to go To Las Vegas or Monaco,

And win a fortune in a game, My life will never be the same

Money, money, money .

MONEY

Answers

1 to pay the bills

2 She wouldn't have to work. She'd fool around and have a ball. 3 funny, sunny

4 to Las Vegas or Monaco 5 to win fortune in a game

• Play the cassette again, pausing it just before the final word of a rhyming line (e.g, line 2 before pay, line 5 before me) and see if students can say the correct rhyming word.

Option

Extension

• In groups, students write a four to eight-line song lyric or poem with rhyming couplets, i.e. lines 1 and 2 rhyme, lines 3 and 4 rhyme etc. and a regular stress pattern.

• Write the first two lines of the song on the board and ask students how many stressed syllables there are in each line (four in each line - as underlined):

I work all night, I work all Q.Qy To Q.QY the .llill2 I have to Q.QY

• Elicit some rhyming words that students heard in the song (day/pay, sad/bad) and ask students for rhyming words to go with: friend (lend, mend, send) tomorrow (sorrow, borrow).

• Students can then read out their lyrics to the class.

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Objectives

• To check and consolidate grammar studied in this module - determiners, adjective formation, qualifying adverbs.

• To revise vocabulary associated with money.

• To practise the pronunciation of /re/ and let.

Resources used

Cassette.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, some of the Review exercises can be given for homework.

Language Powerbook pages 48-49

Grammar

Exercise 1

• Read the instructions with the students and check that they understand the rules of the 'auction' of sentences. In pairs they have to bid for correct sentences, and the sentence goes to the highest bidder.

• Give students time to read through the sentences and to identify the five incorrect sentences.

• Then read out each sentence and sell it to the highest bidder. If students bid for an incorrect sentence, sell the sentence to them and they will correct the sentence at the end.

• When you have read out all the sentences, say which ones are correct.

• Students then correct the five wrong sentences.

Answers

3 Another way 5 I haven't got any./I've got none. 8 There isn't enough money. 9 the other

10 one hundred thousand pounds

Vocabulary

Exercise 2

• Students complete the table.

• When they have checked their answers, ask them to make sentences using some of the adjectives.

Answers

2 satisfying/satisfied 3 practical 4 attractive 5 worried/worrying 6 useful 7 tired/tiring

8 amazing/amazed

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Exercise 3

• When students have done the exercise, check their answers by having them read their sentences aloud.

Answers

1 expensive 2 reliable 3 satisfied 4 surprising 5 careful

Exercise 4

• Advise students to read the whole text before filling in the gaps.

Answers

1 quite 2 really 3 very 4 extremely 5 incredibly 6 not very

• Ask students to talk about two more shops - one is extremely good and the other is extremely bad.

Exercise 5

• Students can compare their answers with their partners before checking the answers as a class.

Answers

1 won, spends 2 make 3 earns, is saving 4 lend, borrowed

Pronunciation: lrel, leI

Exercise 6

• Students repeat the words man, men after the cassette.

• The students repeat the pairs of words.

• When students have repeated the pairs of words, write some of the pairs on the board and tell students to make a sentence containing both words (e.g. 'She said she was sad'). Pairs of words: said/sad, mat/met, end/and.

Tapescrlpt and Answers 1 sad/said alb

2 pen/pan b/a

3 head/had b/a

4 than/then alb

5 lend/land b/a

6 beg/bag b/a

7 end/and b/a

8 bad/bed alb

9 set/sat b/a

10 mat/met alb 11 bat/bet afb 12 ten/tan b/a

• Students look through the module and find ten words, five for each sound, e.g. second, hand, bank, twenty, electric, laptop, fantastic, headphones.

Background

Robert Burns (1759-96) was a Scottish poet. His first poems published in 1786 were at once successful and he bought a small farm. The farm failed but he had a post as exciseman and he continued writing. Among his best known poems are 'Comin' through the Rye', 'The Banks of Doon' and 'Auld Lang Syne' I,J:ld lrel) 'zain/ which is Scottish English for 'good times long ago'. It is usually sung at Hogmanay f'hogm;;melf - at midnight on New Year's Eve.

Warm-up

Ask students what they know about Scotland - encourage them to say as much as they can.

Exercise 1

• Students read the information in the Factfile and, in pairs, answer the questions.

I Answers

,IT 2F 3T 4T SF 6F

• Students discuss what is not true in the false statements.

Exercise 2

• Students work in groups reading the texts. Tell students not to worry about new vocabulary - most of the new words they can guess from the context (e.g. bagpipes, haggis, first fooVng), and other words are explained in the text (e.g. tossing the caben.

• Students discuss which of the events would best suit the four people and prepare to give reasons for their choices.

Answers

The most likely answers are:

1 Edinburgh Festival 2 Highland Games 3 Hogmanay I 4 Burns Night

Exercise 3

• Students individually decide which of the celebrations they would like to attend and think about their reasons. The students then exchange views in groups and see how many have chosen the same event.

• Write the names of the four celebrations on the board. Ask students to close their books and to say as much as possible about each of the celebrations, pooling their ideas and seeing how much they can remember.

Exercise 4

• Students work in pairs writing about two celebrations, saying when they take place, where they are held and what happens at them.

• Encourage students to correct their own work.

• The groups then exchange papers and read each other's accounts of the celebrations.

• Students discuss what would be the best celebrations for an English visitor to see.

must/mustn't/needn't and have to/can't/don't have to

There are notes on the use of must/mustn't/needn't and

have to/can't/don't have to on page 128 of the Students' Book. You may wish to direct students to the notes while they are doing the exercises or for reference at the end.

IVllnl-grammar 42, t1 4, 4 5

Exercise 1

This exercise focuses on the difference between must and have to by emphasising who the decision-maker is in each situation.

Answers

top cartoon: person speaking bottom cartoon: another person

Exercise 2

• Check that students understand the meaning of 'obligation' and 'prohibition' by asking them for examples from school life or their homes.

• Students work through this exercise in pairs, reading the dialogues aloud and discussing the meaning conveyed by the verbs.

Answers

1 obligation 2 obligation 3 prohibition 4 prohibition 5 lack of obligation 6 lack of obligation

Exercise 3

• When studying the table, advise students to look back at the uses of the verbs in the previous exercises:

Exercise 1 for the difference between must and have to. The dialogue between Host and Guest (Exercise 2) for the difference between needn't and don't have to.

The dialogue between Doctor and Patient (Exercise 2) for the difference between mustn't and can't.

Answers

a) ~ must, mustn't, needn't

b) ~ have to, can't, don't/doesn't have to

• Students make statements using these verbs about:

a) behaviour in a science laboratory,

b) behaviour during a school examination.

Exercise 4

• Students read and discuss the situations in pairs, deciding which is the most appropriate verb.

• Check students' answers by having them read the statements aloud.

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Answers

1 must 2 needn't 3 have to 4 have to/can't 5 must 6 must/mustn't 7 needn't 8 mustn't/must

Exercise 5

• Look at the example (needn't) with the class and ask students if there is another possibility for the first sentence. Both must and have to are possible, depending on who has made the decision.

• Students work in pairs completing the exercise and agreeing reasons for the choice of verbs. Tell students that more than one verb is possible in some sentences so the most important thing is the reason for choosing the verb.

suggested answers

2 have to 3 must 4 have to/needn't/can't 5 must 6 mustn't 7 have to/needn't/don't have to

8 have to/needn't/don't have to

• Students write sentences about next week/the weekend/the school holidays, saying what they have to/needn't/can't/must do.

• They then read out their sentences in groups and the group assesses the accuracy of the sentences.

Module objectives

Draw students' attention to the module objectives at the top of the page. Ask them if they have written an e-mail message, read or written Internet pages and, if so, to discuss what they did and if they had any problems. Ask students to think about which of the module objectives they expect to find easier and which they expect to find more difficult. At the end of the module, students can see if· their predictions were correct.

Resource used Cassette.

Background

Mary Shelley (1797-1851) was the daughter of the anarchist political thinker, William Godwin and the early feminist, Mary Wollstonecraft. She married the poet Percy Sysshe Shelley. Frankenstein is her best-known book, a modern version of Prometheus. She started writing the story on holiday in Switzerland, with her husband and the poet lord Byron. They all took part in a ghost story competition.

H.G. (Herbert George) Wells (1866-1947) was a British novelist who wrote science fiction stories such as The War of the Worlds.

Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) was interested in science and philosophy and developed a very personal style that makes his novels difficult to classify. Brave New World is his most popular novel and a good reflection of his scientific and philosophical interests.

George Orwell (1903-50) was a very politically conscious writer, a democratic SOCialist who hated totalitarianism. He is best known for his two political satires: Animal Form (1945) and 1984 (1949). In 1984 he describes a bleak future where society is controlled by 'Big Brother'.

Warm-up

Exercise 1

• Ask students to read the texts and the pictures and to say if they have heard of any of the writers, seen any of the films or read any of the books - and, if 50, to tell the class what they know and give their opinions.

• Students work in groups discussing which predictions have already come true and which they think will come true in their lifetime. The groups then report back to the class and see if there is general agreement.

• The class then discuss any other predictions from science fiction books or films that have come true.

Exercise 2

KEY WORDS

alien, android, cyberspace, genetic engineering, global warming, science fiction, time travel, virtual reality, virus, world flooding

• Students look at the Key Words and say which are similar to words in their own language. Students then guess the meaning of the other words and use the Mini-dictionary to check their answers.

• Students match the definition with a Key Word (cyberspace).

Exercise 3

• Play the cassette and ask students to make notes about the predictions.

Answers

1 making androids (artificial humans) 2 flooding In different countries

3 time travel

4 a virus develops which we have no power to stop

Tapescript

1 Well, that's a very interesting question. It is already possible to make artificial organs and parts of the body - but it won't be possible for a very long time to make artificial humans, known as androids. that can think or feel in the same way as we do.

2 We know that the planet's climate is changing. The Earth's atmosphere is gradually getting warmer. There is a real danger that the sea level will go up and there will be flooding in different countries in the world. This is already happening in countries like Bangladesh and some parts of Europe, for example, Britain.

3 Well, it may sound surprising. Imagine the situation of two twins - a brother and sister. The sister goes into space and travels at the speed of light for ten years - when she comes back to Earth she is thirty years older than her twin brother!

4 Unfortunately, this is a very real danger for the planet. A new virus could develop that we have no power to stop. It Is something we really should be worried about.

Options

Practice

Students develop the definition practice in Exercise 2. In groups, they write definitions for two more Key Words. The groups then read their definitions to the rest of the class who have to guess the words.

Extension

• Ask students to recall science fiction books or films. They should write down sentences about the predictions made in them and decide whether they have already come true, whether they may come true during their lifetime or whether they will never come true.

• Write three columns on the board: have come true, will soon come true, will never come true. Have students read their ' sentences aloud and have a class discussion on where to place each prediction.

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17 Tomorrow's World

Objectives

• To use the title of a text to predict the content.

• To practise using vocabulary of cyberspace.

• To practise using will and going to to talk and write about the future.

Resource used

Grammar Summary 10.

Possible problems

Students tend to overuse will to express the future. The Language Powerbook gives practice in the use of will and going to separately as well as contrasting them.

Some students may have more knowledge than others of cyberspace, the Internet and e-mail.

Background

Both people quoted in the text are real. Cyberio is a leading magazine dealing with issues related to cyberspace. Peter Wojciechowski is a leading Australian expert in the field of virtual reality.

Virtual reality is a development of computer technology in which, through headsets and special gloves and suits equipped with sensors, the user can directly interact with a 3-D computer programme by moving 'inside' it. Some of its most popular applications are flight simulators and a variety of arcade games.

The tapescript in Lesson 18 gives the history of the web.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 6.

o If you have time, do the Options activities.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 5.

language Powerbook pages 50 51 Mini grdrnmar 1 1 10d 1 1 lOb

Before you start

Exercise 1

• As a class, students discuss life in the next twenty years and the effects of technology. Draw students' attention to the use of will in the question and example answer and encourage them to use similar structures. If you wish, elicit topics and write them on the board to start students thinking, e.g.

travel, education, communication, food, personal relationships, work, hobbies, sport, money, government, health, homes, agriculture.

GRAMMAR Focus

~xercise 2

• Ask students how useful it is to read the title of a text or a newspaper headline. In pairs, students discuss which topics will be in this text, 'The Future of Cyberspace'. Ask students if they would include any other topics if they were writing the article.

• Students read the text quickly and check their guesses.

IAnswers

I the Internet virtual reality

Exercise 3

cybercriminal. hacker, cybertenorists, the Net (Internet), virtual (world), e-mail

• Students read the text again, finding the Key Words and working out the definitions.

• Check answers by having students read out the sentences in the text containing the Key Word and then substitute the definition in the sentence.

Answers

1 cybercriminal 2 e-mail 3 virtual 4 cyberterrorist 5 the Net 6 hacker

• Ask students to make sentences of their own using some of the Key Words.

• Students look back at the text and discuss whether they agree with any of the predictions made in the text.

language Powerbook tne Word Corner on page 51 g,vec further practice In computer vocabulary

PREDICTIONS will and going to

Exercise 4

• Students study the sentences and underline the verbs referring to the future.

• When checking answers, ask students what time period the other verb forms refer to: Present Perfect (past linked to present), present time.

Answers

1 is going to continue 2 are going to see 3 will get/will disappear 4 will become

Exercise 5

• Students work in pairs, finding the sentences in the text and discussing the uses of the two forms.

Answers 11 b 2 a

Refer students to Grammar Summary 10 for further explanation and examples.

• Ask students to give their opinion about how students will learn in the future (using wi/n, e.g. Where will they learn) What subjects will they study? How will they learn (teachers/books/ computers)? What age will they start/finish school) What will universities be like?

• Ask students to guess what the people are going to do, e.g. 'Peter is going into the bank.' (He's going to get some money) 'Anna is going into the Sports Centre.' (She's going to play tennis.)

Other places - restaurant, library, hospital, church, station, post office, park.

Exercise 6

• Students do the exercise individually and then compare answers with their partners.

• When checking answers, ask students to think of a situation in which the alternative comment would be better.

Answers

1 a 2 b 3 a

• Draw students' attention to the use of expressions such as I think!! hopelJ believe that before will to express personal opinion.

Exercise 7

• Check students' answers by having them read the text aloud.

I Answers

1 is going to 2 are going to 3 are going to 4 will 5 will

• In pairs students make similar pairs of statements beginning: 'We have clear evidence that in the next few years .... I think

Exercise 8

• Students look at the pictures and write statements.

Answers

J The cars are going to crash. 2 She's going to have a baby.

3 He's going to walk into the bus stop. 4 The house is going to fall into the sea.

• Write prompts on the board. Ask students to think of situations in which the statements would be appropriate:

It's going to rain/fall down/break. We're going to be late/win.

He's going to faint/be angry/be surprised.

Exercise 9

• Take some of the topics and elicit both optimistic and pessimistic predictions about them, e.g. 'I think there will be no newspapers.' 'I think all newspapers will be in colour.'

• Students write one optimistic and one pessimistic prediction about each of the topics.

CYBERSPACE

Exercise 10

• Students work in pairs, exchanging predictions and taking turns to be an optimist and a pessimist.

• Then, in small groups, students select three or four of the topics (or other topics of their own choice) and discuss them in more depth.

• The groups report back to the class and see if their views are shared by the rest of the class.

Options

Practice

Give students some suggestions of topics to make predictions about, e.g. the future of learning, the future of medicine, the future of the planet.

Each student chooses one topic to make predictions about and writes three paragraphs using these expressions from the text to start each paragraph:

In the last thirty years, ... Some experts ... However many people ...

Extension

Students look back at the Key Words (cybercriminal, hacker, cyberterrorist) and discuss examples they have heard of or read of concerning these activities. Students discuss how these activities can be stopped.

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18 W~bsit~s

Objectives

• To practise extensive and intensive listening skills.

• To find information from a website.

• To focus on prominently stressed words as an aid to understanding - the key content words in every sentence that are stressed.

• To practise making plans and suggestions over the telephone.

Resources used

Cassette, information about local events during the next week and weekend e.g. from local newspapers.

Possible problems

Students may panic when faced with the listening task (Exercise 3). If it is helpful, play the cassette several times and pause the tape after each question to give students time to answer.

Background

This lesson g~Sfme of the history of the Internet and shows sorne'ct the· possible uses. Commerce on the Internet has grown dramatically in the last few years, but the USA is way ahead of Europe with important e-commerce businesses like Amazon.com, the most successful virtual bookstore.

The quote is from Pablo Picasso (1881-1973). Spanish painter and sculptor. He was the most influential of twentieth century artists and also one of the most prolific.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework.

o If you have time, have some of the students give a short talk about 'What I know about the Internet'.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 4.

Language Powerbook pages 52-53

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Students work in pairs, asking and answering the questions.

• Have some of the pairs then report back to the class.

Listening

Exercise 2

• Students read through the questions and note down what they think are the answers.

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SKILLS Focus

Exercise 3

Useful vocabulary: military, nuclear war, network.

Do not pre-teach these words. Students will probably be able to guess the meanings from the context. After students have checked their answers to the exercise, you can play the tape again for more intenstve comprehension and check the meaning of these words at that stage.

• Play the tape two or three times if necessary, pausing for students to mark their answers.

~ers .

~ b 3 a 4 b

Tapescript

Presenter: Welcome to 'Future Now'. Today we are going to discuss the Internet with Dr Jennifer May from Manchester University. Dr May, how did the Internet begin)

Dr May: Well, it's strange but the Internet was started by tile military. In the 1960s the Pentagon were worried about communications after a nuclear war. And in 1969 they thought (;1 linking computers into a network so that if one part of the network was destroyed, other parts could continue working.

Presenter: And then scientists started to use the network, righU Dr May: Yes, people in universities all over the world began to use the network to share ideas. They used it for work and for fun. In the 1980s, people started calling it the Internet.

Presenter: Then it was in the mid·1990s that the Internet really began to grow fast.

Dr May: Yes, now the Internet is important for entertainment, e·mail, playing games and getting information.

• After checking the answers, play the tape again, pausing to check new vocabulary and to ask more detailed comprehension questions, e.g. What worried the Pentagon in the 196057 What did people in universities use the network fort

Exercise 4

Useful vocabulary: ancient, archaeological sites, boutique, mindblowing.

When students have completed the exercise, see if they can guess the meaning of these words.

• Students work in pairs, matching the uses in the list with the website texts.

Answers

a3 bl c6 d2 e5 f4

• Students then look at some of the texts in more detail, checking vocabulary and reading some of them aloud (e.g texts 1,3,5).

Exercise 5

• Read the rubric with the class. Elicit which text the people are probably looking at (number 3, the one about Brighton).

• Students then look at the Internet page and listen for the one item of information (which thing the two people decide to do).

Answers

Go to the cinema on Friday evening to see Richard Bailey's new film, Virtual Planet.

Tapescript

Mother: Hello. 973273.

Mandy: Helio, Mrs Turner. This is Mandy. Mother: Ah, hello Mandy. How are yOU!

Mandy: Fine thanks. Can I speak to Lucy, please! Mother: Yes, just hang on a second, I'll get her. Mandy: Thanks.

Mother: tshouts away from the telephone) Luuucv' Lucy: Hello.

Mandy: Hi, Lucy. This is Mandy. What are you up to this weekend! lucy: Me, nothing. I'm not doing anything this weekend. Why! Mandy: Let's do something. I've printed out the Internet page Lucy: What's on!

Mandy: Just hang on a second .

Mandy: On Friday there's a fashion show Lucy: Sorry!

Mandy: There's a fashion show this weekend.

Lucy: Oh, good. Why don't we go on Saturday morning?

Mandy: Well, I can't '" mm .. I've got a music lesson on Saturday morning. Do you fancy doing something on Friday night?

Lucy: Mmmm. Maybe.

Mandy: Well, there's that new Richard Bailey film on at the .. er

the Colosseum. Would you like to go?

Lucy: Yeah, great. I'd love to. Richard's my hero you know. Mandy: Yeah, and mine.

Lucy: Mmm. Well, I'd better go now. I've got homework to do. Mandy: OK. Let's meet at 6.30, outside the cinema.

Lucy: Right. See you tomorrow

Mandy: See you.

Exercise 6

• Students read the phrases and look at the telephone conversation in the Function File. Ask them to guess some of the missing phrases in the dialogue.

• Students then listen to the tape and complete the dialogue.

Answers

1 973273 2 This is 3 please 4 hang on 5 are you up to

6 Sorry? 7 Why don't we 8 Do you fancy 9 Would you like i ° I can't 11 I'd love to 12 I'd better 13 Let's 14 See you

• When students have checked their answers, have them read the sentences aloud.

Pronunciation

Exercise 7

• Read the Strategies box with the class. Ask students if the same strategies apply in their own language (e.g. when listening to announcements at stations or airports, when listening to TV or radio, when listening to someone telling them about their holiday).

• Students listen to the seven sentences on the cassette. Pause after each sentence for students to identify the stressed words.

• Then play the cassette for students to repeat the sentences.

CYBERSPACE

Answers and tapescript

The stressed words are underlined. 1 Hello, Mrs Turner. This is MamJy:. 2 What are you .IJQ..1Q this weekend!

3 Oh good. I[{by don't we go on Saturday morning?

4 Well, I can't '" mm ... I've got a music lesson on Saturday

morning.

S Do you f9..n£y doing something on Friday night? 6 Well, I'd better go now.

7 Let's meet at Q,lQ, ~ the cinema.

Speaking

Exercise 8

• If you have information about what is happening in your area the following week or weekend, bring it so that students can include it in the things they would like to do.

• Read through the examples with the class and elicit more things to do.

• Each student makes notes of what he/she would like to do from Friday afternoon to Sunday afternoon.

Exercise 9

• Before students do the pairwork, revise telephone language by looking back at the Function File and having students say the expressions aloud.

• Students then work in pairs phoning each other, making suggestions of what to do at the weekend, accepting or rejecting the suggestions and finally agreeing what to do and making arrangements.

• The pairs tell the rest of the class what they decided to do.

• Some of the pairs can say their conversations again for the rest of the class to hear.

guOTE ." UflgUO'fE

• Ask students what they know of Pablo Picasso. Do they like his paintings? (Why/Why not?) Which of his paintings have they seen?

• Read the quote and ask students what Picasso meant - Why did he think giving answers was useless? What is more important? Ask students if they agree that computers can only give answers.

Options

Practice

Students look back at the Whot's on in Brighton text and make further telephone conversations about what to do at the weekend.

Extension

Those students who have access to the Internet may like to bring in a copy of a page giving information about Brighton or about one of the latest English language films.

75

19 Virtual R~ality

Objectives

• To practise using first and second conditionals.

• To assess whether websites are real.

Resources used

Grammar Summaries 11 and 12.

Possible problems

• Students may use will after if in conditional sentences.

• Students may need to revise zero conditionals (If plus imperative). There are revision exercises in the Language Powerbook.

Background

The London Science Museum has an excellent interactive website.

Virtual holidays are still something from science fiction but will soon be technically possible.

Lesson 17 has notes on virtual reality.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercises 13 and 14.

o If you have time, do the Option activity.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 6.

Language Powerbook pages 5;J-·55 Mini );r,1rlll tl.lr )

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Ask students to look back at Lesson 17 and find the definition of virtual reality (Exercise 3, definition 3). Students then discuss which of the uses are possible at present (All except virtual holidays).

Exercise 2

• Students look at the two websites and decide which is the real one (The Science Museum).

• Students then discuss questions 2-4 in groups before reporting back to the class. When reporting back to the class, students should give reasons for question 3, e.g. Why did they chose a particular virtual reality holiday?

Exercise 3

• Tell students the dialogue is completed in Exercise 7.

• Students read the two questions, then read the dialogue to find the answers.

GRAMMAR Focus

Answers

1 She has to finish her project.

2 He'll go camping if the weather is good.

• Remind students that the important words in a sentence are stressed. Then have them read the dialogue aloud in pairs, stressing the important words in each sentence.

FIRST CONDITIONAL

Exercise 4

You may wish to remind students of the zero conditional (see Language Powerbook for exercises) before practising the first and second conditionals.

Note that other terms may be used for conditional clauses in some grammar reference books, e.g. real/open conditions (1 st conditional) and unreal/hypothetical conditions (2nd and 3rd conditionals).

• Students read the sentences in italics in the dialogue and decide which situations are being talked about (b).

• Students then complete the table.

Answers

if + Present Simple tense will + infinitive

• Refer students to Grammar Summary 11.

• Students look back at the conditional sentences in the dialogue and read them aloud. Write the beginnings of some of the sentences on the board and add more prompts, e.g.

If I don't finish my homework, ... If the weather's good, ...

If it rains, ...

If you/I go to ... ,

If I pass the examination,

• Students then complete the conditional sentences talking about themselves.

Exercise 5

• Check answers by asking students to read the sentences aloud.

Answers

2 Will you go out with me on Saturday night if you finish the project?

3 If you go to that website, you'll find some interesting

information

4 Will you go to that concert if it rains!

S She'll buy a computer if she gets that job.

6 I'll give you the information if you telephone me tomorrow. 7 What will you do if the weather isn't good tomorrow!

8 My sister won't go to London if she doesn't pass her exams.

• Ask students to look at the sentences again and note where the comma comes (after the if clause).

Exercise 6

• Students work in pairs making the chains of conditional sentences.

• The pairs can then work in groups, reading their chains. Each group then votes for the best chains to be read aloud to the class.

Language Powerbook the Word Corner on page 55 gives further practice n vocaoula. y (rnachmes)

SECOND CONDITIONAL

Exercise 7

• Read the questions with the class. Students then read the dialogue and answer the questions.

I Answers

, j no 2 no 3 no 4 yes

• Students then read the dialogue aloud in pairs, remembering to stress the important words.

Exercise 8

• Read the example sentences and ask students what'd stands for in the second example (would).

• Students complete the table.

I Answers

if + Past Simple would + infinitive

Exercise 9

• Students read the sentences again and discuss what the people are expressing.

Answer c

Refer students to Grammar Summary 12.

• Write prompts on the board for students to complete:

If we had a holiday from school tomorrow/next week, If I had a lot of money, ".

If I lived in England, ".

If I had a holiday in the USA, ".

Exercise 10

• Students work in pairs reading the sentences and deciding who could say them.

• When checking answers, ask students if they can suggest what the other person would say.

Answers 1 a 2 b

• Point out to students that we can say If I were ... or If I

was .... Ask students to make sentences using If I were/was a millionaire, .

CYBERSPACE

Exercise 11

• When checking students' answers, also check the use of the comma.

Answers

1 If I won the lottery, I would buy a new computer.

2 If I played computer games all the time, I would be a bad

student.

3 I would go to Tibet if I had enough money.

4 If I were/was a computer expert, I would earn a lot of money. 5 I would make new friends if I used the Internet.

L ._~j

• Ask students to make more sentences using I would make more friends if ".

Exercise 12

• Elicit suggestions for places students would like to visit and ask them for their reasons. Find out which are the most popular places.

• Students then look at the places listed in the exercise and suggest things to do and see in each of them.

• Students work individually writing a conditional sentence for each of the places listed and for another three places of their own choice.

• Students work in groups, reading out their sentences.

Exercise 13

• Elicit other topics to add to the list for the future, e.g. money, holidays, hobbies, friends.

• This exercise can be given for homework, if you wish, so that students have sufficient time to think about their answers.

• Encourage students to check their own writing and, if appropriate, have small groups of students read through their texts and check them.

Exercise 14

• Students work in pairs, discussing their ideal futures.

• The pairs can then work in groups of four, talking about the futures.

Option

Practice

Develop Exercises 13 and 14 and have individual students give short talks to the class about their ideal future.

77

ZO Virtual Tourism

Objectives

• To practise intensive and extensive reading skills (anticipating meaning, scanning).

• To develop strategies to match topics with paragraphs.

• To identify important words in a text.

• To practise using linking words (addition) - a/so, as well as, too.

• To practise collocations with do and make.

• To listen to a talk to find out main facts.

Resources used

Cassette, wall map of New Zealand.

Possible problems

Some students may know less than others about New Zealand and so feel at a disadvantage.

Background

Auckland is the largest city in New Zealand. Background information on New Zealand is in the Comparing Cultures tapescript.

An Internet page has text and graphics or photographs. Some of the words on the page are blue, and when the cursor passes over them, it changes shape and becomes a hand. These blue words are the links to hypertext and if you click on them with the mouse, they open up new pages of information which, in turn, may have more blue words to take you further away from the initial information into more specific areas.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 8.

o If you have time, do the Options Activities.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 5.

Language Powerbook pages 56-57

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Ask students to cover the text and look just at the photographs and guess four things about Auckland. Encourage students to talk about the photographs as much as possible, and to contribute other information they know about Auckland.

78

SKILLS Focus

Reading

Exercise 2

• Students read the text quickly (give them a time limit of two minutes if you wish) to check their guesses.

Answers

1 Auckland is a big and modern town, a business centre. 2 There is an influence from the Maori /'rnauri/ culture.

3 There is a beautiful park.

4 Auckland is next to the sea.

• If you have a wall map of New Zealand, put it up and encourage students to say what they know about New Zealand and life there.

Exercise 3

• Read the Reading Strategies with the class.

• Ask students to look back at the text 'The Future of Cyberspace' in Lesson 17. Ask students to read aloud the first sentence of each paragraph. Discuss how the first sentence predicts the content of the rest of the paragraph.

• Students then look at the text in Lesson 20. In pairs, students read each paragraph and underline 3-5 important words in the paragraph. Students then report back to the class and see if they agree about the important words. There will be some differences but students should have chosen many of tne same words, e.g. in paragraph 1 -largest city, North Island, seaport, business, multicultural.

Exercise 4

• Students follow the last two strategies from Exercise 3 and match the topics with the paragraphs.

• When checking answers, have students read out the first sentence of the paragraph to show how it relates to the topic.

I Answers

a2 b5 c3 d- e4 f1

• In groups, students discuss what would attract them personally if they went to Auckland, using the structure: If I went to Auckland, I'd Ijke to ..

Exercise 5

• Students locate the words in blue in the text. Ask students how these 'hot words' (or 'hypertext') work on a real Internet page.

• Students work in pairs, matching the information with the words.

Answers

1 business and industry 2 Maoris 3 Wellington 4 Auckland Harbour Bridge 5 nuclear free zone

Exercise 6

• Ask students to find the words in the paragraphs in the text and to read aloud the sentences containing the linking words. Ask students what these linking words do (add more Information) Ask students to translate them into their mother tongue.

• Students complete the exercise, then compare their answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.

Answers

I I too 2 as well as 3 also

• In groups, students write a similar paragraph using the linking words about their own town or region. The groups can then read their paragraphs to the rest of the class.

• Recommend that students organise all linking words they come across into groups according to their function and to keep track of them in a special section of their vocabulary books. They can label this particular group of words 'words used to add more information or to reinforce the information already given'

Vocabulary

Exercise 7

• Students read the sentences and write make a trip and do watersports in the correct columns.

• III pairs, students complete the table with the other nouns.

Answers

(NOte that we can say make or do your bed)

do: the shopping an exam very well at English the dishes make: a phone call a suggestion a prediction a mistake your bed a noise a cup of tea friends

• Students then write five sentences using expressions from the table. Students read their sentences to their partners.

Speaking

Exercise 8

• Students work individually choosing what they would like to see and do during their weekend in Auckland. Ask students to fill their diary from Friday evening until Sunday afternoon.

• Have students read out the example dialogue and elicit expressions for agreeing, disagreeing and making suggestions.

• Students then work in pairs, exchanging ideas and deciding what to do and see during the weekend.

• The pairs then report back to the whole class.

CYBERSPACE

• Read through the topics with the students before they listen to the cassette and ask students to guess the answers.

• Students then listen and note down the information about the topics and see if their guesses were correct.

I Answers and Tapescript

Female: New Zealand is a country in the South Pacific, to the south-east of Australia. It has over 270,000 square kilometres but has a small population - about three and a half million people in all. The capital of the country is Wellington, but the largest city is Auckland. The main language is English but Maori is also an official language. 83% of the people are of European descent, mainly of British origin. Only 9% of the population are MaoriS, the first settlers, who came to New Zealand in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The South Island is cooler and wetter and the North Island is warmer and sunnier.

• In groups, students write a similar text about their own country.

• The groups then read out their texts to the rest of the class.

Options

Practice

If possible, record the talks about their own country which students prepare in Comparing Cultures. Students can then replay their talks and self-assess them.

ExtenSion

Students look back at Exercise 4. Ask them which topic was not included in the text (nightlife in Auckland). In groups, students discuss what they think is the perfect nightlife and then write a paragraph about 'nightlife in Auckland', beginning 'Nightlife in Auckland is ... .' . The groups then read their paragraphs to the class.

79

Communication Workshop

Objectives

• To make notes from information on an Internet page.

• To write an Internet page with the help of a model and instructions.

• To listen to a song and extract important words.

• To listen to a documentary for main facts.

• To discuss and plan a lunar holiday resort and give a talk about it.

Resources used Cassette, Writing Help 5.

Possible problems

Some students may have fewer imaginative ideas than others and so careful grouping is needed.

Background

Writing: Vancouver is the capital of British Columbia, the Canadian province on the Pacific.

Listening: Kraftwerk are a German group and were the first group to start producing 'techno' music in the 1970s, using synthesisers and computers.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit the Talkback stage of the writing and speaking workshops.

o If you have time, students can do the Options activities.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, the natural break is after the writing activity.

Language Powerbook pages 58-59

Writing: An Internet Page

Before you start

• Ask students what they already know about Vancouver - encourage them to say as much as possible.

• Students work in pairs reading the text and completing it with the extra information.

• Check students' answers by having them read out the complete text.

Answers

1 Pacific coast/over SOO,OOO/original name - Gas Town 2 Gallery of Tribal ArUVancouver Aquarium

3 skiing/ice hockey

• In pairs, students choose one of the sections of the text and give the information in full sentences as if in a talk, e.g. 'There are a lot of interesting things to see when you visit Vancouver

80

Stage 1

• Refer students to Writing Help 5 to help them as they work through the four stages.

• Remind students that the first stage of writing is always planning.

• You may wish to let students prepare some of this project for homework if they wish to find out information from reference sources.

• Students make notes for the three paragraphs about History, Things to see, Things to do. Monitor the activity, assisting students if necessary.

Stage 2

• Remind students that the first sentence of a paragraph is usually the key sentence because it gives the tOPIC for the rest of the paragraph.

• Students write their key sentences.

Stage 3

• Students write their texts. Refer them to Writing Help 5 and remind them of the linking words they have practised.

• Students underline the 'hot words' in their texts which someone could click on to get more information about the topic.

Stage 4

• In pairs, students read their texts and check language used, using Writing Help 5 (checking).

• Encourage students to improve their own and their partner's texts.

Talkback

• Form small groups and read the example exchange with the class.

• Students read their texts and ask for more information about the underlined words.

• Groups should ensure that all the group members' texts are read and discussed. Move around and monitor the activity but do not interrupt.

• Comment on any important mistakes you hear and try to get the class to suggest corrections.

Listening

• Ask students what words they would expect in a song called 'The Telephone Call'

• Students read the seven sentences and guess what the missing words might be.

• Play the tape for students to complete the sentences.

Answers

1 number 2 time 3 telephone 4 so far 5 nighUday 6 time 7 voice

• Students discuss why the singer is always phoning. If students have different opinions, ask them to give reasons for their opinion

Tapescript

The number you have reached has been disconnected. The number you have reached has been disconnected. I give you my affection and I give you my time.

TrYing to get a connection on the telephone line. You're so close, but far away,

I can you up ail night and day.

I call you up from time to time

To hear your voice on the telephone line.

The number you have reached has been disconnected.

Speaking: PLanning a HoLiday Resort

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Students look at and talk about the picture. Revise relevant vocabulary, ego space shuttle.

• Students read the questions and, in pairs, discuss what they think the answers are.

Exercise 2

• Students listen to the cassette and answer the questions in Exercise 1

Tapescrlpt

Male: Scientists have recently discovered large amounts of ice near the two poles of the Moon. This is extremely important, because it means that it will soon be possible to live on the Moon. The new NASA space shuttle, the Venture Star, will make it much easier to take materials and people to the Moon. In fact, from the year 2012 ordinarv passenger flights to the Moon will probably begin. Private companies are also interested in lunar travel. One of the most interesting Ideas is to build a holiday resort on the Moon. The hotel chain, Hilton, is already planning to build an enormous 5,000-room Lunar Hilton. A Japanese company is planning a super golf course on the Moon. Another Japanese company, the Obayashi Corporation, is planning an enormous dome for 10,000 people to live in. The dome will have houses, parks, gardens - everything that you need. One of the problems of human life on the Moon can now be solved - it will be possible to use the ice on the poles to get oxygen to breathe. Other practical problems are even easier to solve. Already a phone company has promised that you will be able to use your mobile phone on the Moon. Imagine the situation now You have just arrived on the shuttle for a two week adventure holiday on the Moon. You .

Answers

1 b 2 c 3 b 4 a 5 b 6 a 7 c 8 a

CYBERSPACE

• Play the cassette again, pausing it to ask more detailed questions, e.g. Where is the ice on the moon? (near to the two poles of the Moon). Who made Venture Star? (NASA), etc.

Stage 1

• Students look at the picture and the costs of everything. Elicit what students think would be essential to have in the lunar holiday resort - ask them to give reasons. What do they think would not be essential?

• Students choose what to buy with their $30 billion and write notes with reasons for their choices.

Stage 2

• Elicit the language of agreeing, disagreeing and making suggestions.

• In pairs, students discuss what they have each got on their lists and agree what they should put in their lunar holiday resort. Remind students to note the price of everything to ensure they do not exceed their limit.

Stage 3

• In pairs, students prepare notes for their talk to the class. Encourage them to speak from notes rather than reading a complete text.

• When the talk has finished the other students can ask questions if they Wish.

• The class can then find out what each group has decided in common and what is different in their lists.

Talkback

• Students discuss the problems they had when giving their talks. Also, encourage them to say what they felt was better this time than in previous talks and which parts of their talk they felt most comfortable with.

Options

Practice

In groups, students write an Internet page for their school. Elicit what information is appropriate, e.g. location, history, building, number of pupils and staff, subjects.

Students write their pages and underline the 'hot words'. The groups can then show their pages to the class and the other students can ask for more information about the 'hot words'.

Extension

Students discuss whether they think holidays on the Moon will be possible. Would they like to have such a holiday? (WhylWhy notr) How have holidays changed over the last fifty years? How do students think holidays will change in the future?

R~vi~w

Objectives

• To check and consolidate grammar studied in this module - going to, will, first and second conditionals.

• To revise compound words related to cyberspace.

• To practise the use of get as a multipart verb.

• To practise pronunciation of words with the letter r.

Resource used

Cassette.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, some of the Review exercises can be given for homework.

Language Powerbook pages 60-61

Grammar

Exercise 1

• Ask students if they read their horoscopes. Do they believe them?

• Ask students to look at the zodiac names and to say which is their sign. Are any of the students Sagittarians?

• Have students say the names of the signs after you: Aries /'e'dri:z/, Taurus I't~:rds/, Gemini I'd3em'dnaI/, Cancer /'krenSd/, Leo I'li:'du/, Virgo I'v3:g'dU/, Libra l'Ii:brd/, Scorpio I'sb:pi'du/, Sagittarius /,sred3;;,'te'dri;;,s/, Capricorn /' keepriko.n/, Aquarius /;;,'kwe'dri'ds/, Pisces I'paIsi:zI.

• Students read the horoscope and say if it is going to be a good or bad week. When checking answers, ask students to read out the part of the text which supports their point of view.

[;;e:~ will start badly but end well.

• Draw students' attention to the verb forms used to express the future (going to in the first sentence and will in the rest of the text). Ask what sort of topics most horoscopes includeromance, money, health, work/studies, family/friends.

• Students choose another star sign and write a horoscope.

Exercise 2

• In groups, students read each other's horoscopes and say which they think are the best ones.

Exercise 3

Answers

1 studied/would pass 2 wililearn/do 3 is/will come

4 would you do/won/did/would buy 5 could/would you like 6 continues/will be 7 would panic/saw/would run

8 will send/give

82

VocabuLary

Exercise 4

• When checking answers, ask students to use the compound words in sentences.

Answers

cyberspace genetic engineering computer programme website e-mail science fiction space shuttle

Exercise 5

• Ask students to read the eight sentences aloud.

I Answers

I 1 to have a good relationship 2 to contact 3 to manage

4 to become 5 to improve 6 to continue doing something 7 to receive 8 to possess

Pronunctatioru Irl

Exercise 6

• Read the examples with the students and elicit when we sound the r (before a vowel or y) and when we don't sound it (before a consonant or at the end of a word) Students discuss whether this is the same in their language.

• Ask students what effect the r has before a consonant in words like warming, learn, world (It changes the sound of the preceding vowel).

• Students listen to the cassette and repeat the words.

Tapescript

I 1 rain/dramatic/worry/astronauUvirus/arrow/reality/history 2 warming/learn/world/worklperform/virtual/worse/search 3 computer/tour/hacker/frontier/nuclearlsolar/power

Options

Extension

• Students look again at the star signs. Write on the board what characteristics each of the signs is associated with. Probably some students will know more about this than others and they should be encouraged to tell the rest of the class what they know.

• Each student says what sign he/she was born under and their names are written on the board by their signs.

• Students then discuss whether they think the charactenstics associated with each sign are shared by these students. If

the group of students born under a particular sign disagree, they can suggest different characteristiCS.

Module objectives

Draw students' attention to the module objectives at the top of the page. Ask students to think about which are the most important for them.

Resource used

Cassette.

Warm-up

Exercise 1

• Ask students what sounds they associate with the sea.

• Students look at and talk about the photos, predicting what sounds they might hear on the cassette.

• Students listen to the cassette and match the sounds with the photos.

I Answers

· 1 B 2 C 3 A 4 D

Exercise 2

KEY WORDS

fishing, speedboat racing, sailing, scuba diving, sunbathing, surfing, swimming, water skiing, windsurfing, jet skiing, body surfing

• Students read the Key Words and discuss which activities they know, which they can guess and which they need to look up in the Mini-dictionary.

• In pairs, students discuss which activities they do and which they would like to do (or would not like to do) and where they could do them.

• The pairs report back to the class about what they would like to do and where. Students see if there are any activities that nobody in the class has done.

Exercise 3

• Tell students to listen to find out which activity each person is talking about and not to worry about understanding every word.

• Students listen to the cassette, twice if necessary.

Answers

1 scuba diving 2 windsurfing 3 sailing 4 fishing

Tapescript

I lOne of the things I like is that it's so Silent. It's like another world down there, 20 metres below. And, you know, you can see some really colourful fish. They're beautiful and if you're lucky, you can see strange creatures like octopus.

2 It's great fun, really exciting. I can sometimes go quite fast when there is a good wind. I go to the beach in my home town in England, and the only problem is that the water's freezing! I've been to Turkey twice, and there you can do it all day.

3 My family's got a yacht and we often go out at the weekends, and in the summer. It's a lot of work and you get very cold and wet, but I love It. You're free, you know, you just forget about everything when you're out at sea, you know what I mean? But it can be frightening.

i 4 I started when I was a kid. Sometimes I don't catch anything but it doesn't matter. It's really relaxing, just being there. You forget about all your worries. And when you feel something on the end of the line, well, it's great.

Exercise 4

KEY WORDS

beautiful, cold, colourful, exciting, free, freezing, frightening, great, relaxing, silent, wet, calm, strange

• Students read the Key Words and then listen again to the cassette. Pause the cassette after each speaker to give students time to note the adjectives used.

Answers

Speaker 1 - silent colourful beautiful strange Speaker 2 - great exciting freezing

Speaker 3 - cold wet free frightening Speaker 4 - relaxing great

Options

Practice

Ask students to think of a sporting activity they do and to choose some adjectives to describe how it feels. Students then discuss their activities in pairs.

Extension

Students who have done one of the water sports (sailing, scuba diving, etc.) work together to prepare a short talk for the rest of the class, saying what skills, training, equipment are needed, where they do the sport and how it feels. The group then gives the talk and the rest of the class listens and asks questions.

83

Zl Spa Storips

Objectives

• To read sections of a story and sequence them using prediction strategies and linking words.

• To use linking expressions related to time and sequencing.

• To use wordbuilding techniques to form nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs.

• To talk about and give opinions of films seen.

• To practise using the second conditional for speculation.

Possible problems

Students may be unfamiliar with activities in which they have to sequence texts. If so, they can work in pairs.

Background

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-49) was an American poet and short story writer. He wrote famous horror stories like The Fall of the House of Usher. He wrote the first ever detective story, The Murders in the Rue Morgue. The Maelstrom is set in the Norwegian fjords and 'maelstrom' is another word for 'whirlpool' in English.

The quote is by T. S. (Thomas Stearns) Eliot (1888-1965). He was born in the USA and became a British subject in 1927. He was a Nobel prize winner in 1948. His poems include The Waste Land and Four Quartets and his verse dramas are Murder in the Cathedral and The Family Reunion. The musical Cats is based on his poems.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 10.

o If you have time, extend the discussion (Exercise 1) of films that students have seen.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 5.

Language Powerbook pages 62-6:3

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Students discuss the films listed, saying what they are about and giving their opinions of them.

• Students then discuss any other films in which the sea is important. You may wish to extend this to include TV programmes in which the sea is important.

Exercise 2

84

SKILLS Focus

• Students work in pairs finding the Key Words in the pictures. Students can check their answers by using the Mini-dictionary.

• Ask students to make sentences of their own using cloud, moon, horizon, wave.

Reading

Exercise 3

• Read the Reading Strategies with the class.

• Students discuss the possible order of the pictures.

• In pairs, they quickly read the paragraphs, noting the linking words.

• The pairs then order the paragraphs and read them through to make sure the order is correct.

[ Answers B A C

___ I

Exercise 4

Useful vocabulary: soul, overboard, survive, edge, float, dive, violent, exhausted.

Students should be able to guess the meanings of these words as they read the story more closely.

• Read through the questions with the class. Students then read the story again to find the answers.

• When checking students' answers, ask them to read out the section of the story which gives the answer.

Answers

1 An enormous wave washed him overboard. 2 The wind and waves were taking it there.

3 Heavier objects went down into the whirlpool quickly. The barrel was lighter.

4 He was terrified.

5 Because his hair was white, not black.

• For more intensive comprehension practice, ask students in groups to write four or five more questions about the story.

• The groups then ask and answer questions, without looking at the text.

Exercise 5

• Students discuss whether they think the story is true or not, giving reasons.

• Ask students if they know of any other strange stories involving the sea, either from real-life or fiction. If they do, ask them to tell the class the story.

Exercise 6

• Read the words to the class and ask them what function these words have. (They all give information about time or sequencing.)

• Students work individually completing the text. They can then compare answers with their partner before checking answers as a class.

Answers

lOne day 2 when 3 Suddenly 4 then 5 Afterwards 6 in the end

VocabuLary: WordbuiLd'ing

Exercise 7

• If you wish, divide the class into three groups. Each group studies one section of the story to find words describing feelings.

• The groups then report back to the class and the words are written on the board.

Answers

terrified homfyins calmer exhausted

• Ask students to make sentences about what makes them feel calm, terrified or horrified.

Exercise 8

• Students study the table and see if they can guess what the other forms of the word are.

• They can then read the text and see if their guesses are right.

Answers _J

terror (n) terrified/terrible (adj)

to save (v) safe (adJi

~to_c_le_a_r_(v_) __ C_le_a_r_(a_dl_) __ C_le_ar_ly_(_ad_v_) ._

Exercise 9

• Students use their Mini-dictionary to look up the correct form of the word they have to use.

• Check spelling when checking students' answers.

Answers

2 uncommon 3 mysterious 4 length 5 fortunately 6 dead 7 unsafe 8 unclear 9 SCientists 10 identify

• When students have checked their answers, go through the text again, asking them to identify the part of speech of each word, e.g. 1 terrifying - adjective.

Speaking

Exercise 10

• Remtnd students of the second conditional form which they practised in Module 5.

• As a whole class, discuss ideas for each of the four situations, eliciting as many suggestions as possible.

• In pairs, students then discuss their answers, using the second conditional form where appropriate.

• The pairs can then report back to the class and students can decide which IS the best action for each of the situations.

THE SEA

guon .,. u~guon

Students read the quote. What do they think Eliot means by 'the river within us' and 'the sea all about us') Ask them what feelings they have about the sea. Ask students if they can think of expressions to describe the sea and people's relationship to the sea.

Options

Practice

In groups, students think of three more situations like those in Exercise 10. The groups then ask each other what they would do in the situations.

Extension

Write on the board: one day, then, suddenly, when, afterwards, in the end.

In groups, students write a story containing all these linking expressions. The groups then read out their stories to the class.

Objectives

• To use the Present Perfect with for and since to talk about things that started in the past and continue up until now.

• To read and write an informal letter to a friend.

• To use vocabulary connected with the seaside and holidays.

• To talk about holidays.

Resources used

Grammar Summary 13, picture postcards of holiday places in the students' own country.

Possible problems

Students may confuse the use of the Present Perfect and the Present Simple forms and have problems with the use of for and since.

Background

The 'seaside' is a concept that developed in the nineteenth century when trains began to take the urban masses to coastal resorts in Britain, e.g. people in London went to Brighton, South end and Margate. Nowadays, as reflected in this lesson, many Britons take their holidays in the Mediterranean. Turkey is a destination growing in popularity.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 12.

o If you have time, do the Option activity.

o If you have two lessons for this unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 6.

language Powerbook pages 64-65 Mlnl'grammar 11 7

Before you start

Exercise 1

KEY WORDS

doing water sports, eating seafood, going out at night, playing games on the beach, staying in an apartment or hotel, sunbathing, swimming, reading books

• Read the Key Words with the students and ask students which of these things they like to do on holiday. Ask them what else they like to do and revise some of the water sports vocabulary from the module warm-up page.

• Students then work in pairs, asking and answering the questions.

• Some of the pairs then report back to the class and students find out which is the most popular place for holidays.

86

GRAMMAR Focus

Exercise 2

• Students read the letter to find out why Helen is enjoying herself.

Answers

She is having a long holiday in the Mediterranean - the weather is great; she has been on two terrific excursions; she is learning to windsurf; she is getting a good sun tan.

• Give students one or two minutes to study the letter again. Then have them cover the text and answer some more questions, e.g. (Who is on holiday with her? Why is her brother happy))

Language Powerbook the Word Cal ner on page 65 gives further practice of holidav vocabulary

PRESENT PERFECT (3)

Exercise 3

• Read the two sentences aloud for the students and ask them which time period the sentences are talking about

I Answers

~both the present and the past

----------------------------~

• Ask students if the (underlined) time expressions refer to a point in time or a period of time.

Answers

since - a point in time for - a period of time

• If some of the students are unclear about the answer, it may help to draw a time line on the board, showing that the action started at a particular point and has continued until now.

Exercise 4

• Students work in pairs reading the sentences from the letter and matching them with their uses.

r-~rs ~b 3a

--------------------------------------~

Refer students to Grammar Summary 13 to study at home.

Exercise 5

• When students have completed the dialogue, have them read it aloud in pairs, paying attention to appropriate stress and intonation patterns.

Answers

have been 2 have been 3 has had 4 have always known 5 Have you seen 6 haven't seen 7 have had 8 haven't met

Exercise 6

• Students work in pairs matching the examples in Exercise 5 with the three uses listed in Exercise 4.

I Answers

1 c 2 c 3 c 4 c 5 a 6 c 7 c 8 a

• For further practice, show students some picture postcards of places in their country where people go on holiday. In groups, students write a postcard from the place of their choice, answering these questions: 'How long have you been here) What IS the weather like) What have you seen/done so far on your holiday)' This shorter writing exercise will prepare for the letter-wntmg task in Exercise 11.

Exercise 7

• Check students' answers by having them read the sentences aloud.

I Answers

1 since 2 for 3 for 4 since 5 since 6 for

Exercise 8

• Students write their sentences and then, in groups, read out their sentences. The groups can see how many students have the same likes and hates.

Exercise 9

• Students write the questions.

• Check this exercise before moving on to Exercise 10.

Answers

a) How long have you lived in your present flat/house?

b) How long have you been a student?

c) How long have you known your best friend)

d) How long have you had this book)

Exercise 10

• Students work in pairs, asking and answering the questions from Exercise 9.

• Go round and monitor students as they are working. Go over any general problems at the end of the activity.

Exercise 11

• Read the instructions and the cues with the class. If you wish, build up the beginning of the letter on the board, by eliciting sentences from the class. Students then continue the letter themselves.

• Students check their letters themselves or read the letters in pairs and peer-correct.

Exercise 12

• Read the example with the class. Go through the prompts and elicit questions to ask about the holiday.

• Students then do the telephone conversation In pairs, each taking a turn to ask the questions.

• Some of the pairs can then roleplay their conversation for the class.

THE SEA

Option

Practice

In pairs, students imagine they are somewhere else, but not on holiday. Give them some examples, e.g. in hospital/prison/a zoo/in a cinema/a parkla restaurant. The pairs write six sentences to answer the questions: 'How long have you been there? What have you done? What have you seen? Are you happy (why/why not?)? What do you like about this place? What don't you like about this place?'

Each pair then reads its sentences to the class, without saying where they are. The class can ask up to four more questions to guess what the place is.

87

Z3 Going Ov~rs~as

Objectives

• To practise listening for specific information.

• To practise showing that you are following what the other person is saying.

• To practise showing interest when listening to another speaker in a conversation.

• To practise involving the person who is listening to you.

Resource used

Cassette.

Possible problems

• The topic of emigration and immigration may be a sensitive area for some students.

• Some students may be less sAful and confident interacting in their own language than other students and so may feel self-conscious w~en interacting in English.

I

Background

The tapescript of the Oomparing Cultures spot gives background information on British emigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

The quote is by Bob Dylan (born 1941 Robert Allen Zimmerman), a prolific US singer and songwriter who became famous in the 1960s for protest songs. The quote comes from the album 'Highway 61 revisited'. Bob Dylan has gone through a whole range of styles from folk to hard rock. He won a Grammy award in 1998.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit Comparing Cultures.

o If you have time, do the Option activity.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 4.

Language Powerbook pages 66-67

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Begin the discussion by telling students of people you know (real or imaginary) who have emigrated. Tell them where/when/ why they emigrated and about their new life.

• Then ask students if they know anybody who has emigrated. Encourage them to say as much as they can about the people and where they went to.

Exercise 2

KEY WORDS

family, earthquakes, floods, drought. volcano, political problems, taxes, work, war, education

88

SKILLS Focus

• Check students' understanding of words they know and let them look up new words in the Mini-dictionary.

• Ask students to make sentences of their own using some of the Key Words.

• Ask students which countries suffer from floods, drought /draut/, volcanoes.

• Ask students to give examples of family reasons for emigrating, work reasons and educational reasons.

Ustening

Exercise 3

• Read the instruction with the class and point out that they need to listen for the reasons that are not mentioned.

• Play the cassette two or three times if necessary

Answers

family drought volcano political problems

Tapescript

Presenter: Why do people decide to leave the country of their birth? In this week's programme on emigration, we'll hear about the real experiences of some emigrants. But first. let's look at some reasons why people leave their homes to start a new Ifie in a different country.

There are many reasons why people emigrate. Some people want to learn about different ways of life. Living and working in another country is the best way to do this. Very rich people, like sports stars, sometimes live in another country because they don't want to pay high taxes.

For the majority of people, however, emigration is not a free choice. Probably the most common reason for emigrating is to look for work in a richer country. This is because of high unemployment in their own country.

Another reason people have to emigrate is often after a natural disaster, such as an earthquake or flood. Finally, some people have to emigrate to escape from a dangerous Situation, such as war. These emigrants have to leave their homes to save their lives.

Exercise 4

• Read the Listening Strategies with the class.

• Elicit situations in real life in which people listen for a specific piece of information, e.g. listening to the weather forecast, listening to announcements at stations and airports.

• Elicit some of the abbreviations students use when taking notes in their mother tongue. Draw students' attention to the technique of using the first few letters of a word demonstrated in the Strategies box (econ. sit. fam.). Ask students how they would abbreviate other words (e.g, politics, religion, education, England) using the same technique.

• Students listen to Part Two of the programme and compiete as much of the table as they can during the first listening.

• Students see what information they still need to complete their table and listen for this information as the cassette is played again.

Speaker 2 - political reFlasons Speaker 2 - fishing boat

Speaker 2 - no one else J

Answers

Reasons Speaker 1 - work

How

Who 'l/ffil Speaker 1 - brother

Tapescript Interview 1

Presenter. Some people are prepared to risk their lives to escape from their country. I spoke to two 'boat people' who escaped across the sea. The first speaker found an unusual way to escape.

Speaker 1: Welt, it seems a bit silly now, but my brother and I escaped on a little pedal boat, you know what I mean?

Presenter: Yes, mm, right.

Speaker 1: It was only a few kilometres across the sea, and so, er, we just hired a pedal boat and went across!

Presenter. Really)

Speaker 1: Yes. Er, it was all quite easy. The sea was calm so we didn't have any problems.

Presenter. No)

Speaker 1: But, er, when we arrived we were picked up by the police, and now, well, I suppose they'll send us back.

Presenter: Mm. Maybe. Why did you do it?

Speaker 1: You know, we're a family offarmers. There's been no rain In our country for years and years, which means there's no work. No food for our children. Nothing.

Presenter. How terrible!

Speaker 1: We just want to work and send money back to our family. That's not wrong, is it?

Presenter: No, I suppose it isn't. Well thank you very much.

Interview 2

Presenter. The second person I spoke to was a woman who left her country for political reasons.

Speaker 2: Yeah. You see, I don't agree with my government, and I know they will put me in prison if I go back.

Presenter. Mm, how did you leave)

Speaker 2: I paid a lot of money to some fishermen, and they took me in their boat. When I arrived, I lived with some friends for a while, secretly, and, er, illegally, but now the police know about me. I'm trying to get a work permit to stay here, but I'm worned that they may send me back.

Presenter. And if that happens)

Speaker 2: If they do that, I don't know what will happen to me, realiy.

• Play the two interviews again and ask students to give their opinions about the different reasons for emigrating. What reasons do students think are the best reasons for emigrating?

Exercise 5

• Read the Function File with the students and see if they can guess the missing expressions.

• Students then listen to the cassette and see if their guesses are correct.

I Answers

1 you know what I mean 2 right 3 Really 4 No 5 Maybe i 6 How terrible 7 is it 8 I suppose it isn't

--------------------~

• Students listen to the conversation again, paying attention to the intonation patterns of the interested responses.

THE SEA

Pronunciation: Showing interest

Exercise 6

• Students listen to the conversation and make a note of whether the listener is interested or not.

• Check answers by playing the cassette again, pausing after each item. If some students have got an incorrect answer, play the item again. Ask students why the listener was not interested in some parts of the conversation.

Answers

1 interested 2 interested 3 interested 4 not interested

5 not interested 6 not interested 7 interested 8 interested

-------------~

Tapescrlpt: see Teacher's Book, page 95.

Writing and Speaking

Exercise 7

• Ask students if they would like to study for a year in the USA. What would be the advantages (any disadvantages?)? Where would they like to go?

• Read through the prompts and elicit suggestions for each of them so that all the students have some ideas to start with.

• Students then write notes about each of the topics.

Exercise 8

• Read through the example dialogue with the class, drawing attention to both the question forms and the responses.

• Students then take turns to interview each other.

• They then tell the class some of the most interesting things about their partner's imaginary stay in the United States.

• Students read the two questions and guess the answers.

• Students listen to the cassette to find the answers.

Answers

1 Australia New Zealand Canada South Africa 2 West Indies India Pakistan China

I Tapescript: see Teacher's Book, page 95.

gUOTE ." UNgUOTE

Students read the quote. Do they think the expressions 'a complete unknown' and 'a rolling stone' are good for describing how it feels to be without a home? Ask students if they can think of any more adjectives or expressions to describe this feeling.

Option ()

Practice

As a class, students discuss which countries they would like to live in if they didn't live in their own country. Then, working individually, students prepare a short talk explaining why they would choose a particular country and what they think life is like there.

ft{odu(e oj ,

Z4 Und~rs~a World

~I.'~"'~

IIIiiIiI

Objectives

• To practise extensive and intensive reading skills (skimming the text to get the gist and scanning to extract specific information) with a brochure from an aquarium.

• To practise using animal vocabulary.

• To practise using comparative and superlative structures.

Resource used Grammar Summary 14.

Possible problems

Some students may confuse comparative structures using than and as.

Background

Aquariums are growing in popularity in Britain. As well as offering spectacular exhibits, like sharks, they offer 'hands-on' exhibits for children.

Penrhyn is a Welsh name.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 4.

o If you have time, do one of the Options activities.

Language Powerbook pages 68-69 Mini grammar 1

Before you start

Exercise 1

crab, dolphin, polar bear, penguin, squid, seal, shark, starfish, tropical fish, ray

------------~----------------~

• Have students say the Key Words aloud and check pronunciation.

• Students work in pairs looking at the pictures and identifying the fish and animals.

Answers

starfish crab penguin ray dolphin shark

• Check students' comprehension of the other Key Words by asking them to translate the words into their mother tongue.

• Ask if any of the students keep tropical fish - if they do, encourage them to tell the class about their hobby.

90

GRAMMAR Focus

Exercise 2

Useful vocabulary: iceberg, acrobatic, coral, exotic, spectacular, fin.

Students will probably be able to guess the meaning of these words from the context.

• Elicit the title of each section of the brochure from the students and ask them which sections they think will be most interesting for them.

• Students then skim the brochure quickly concentrating on the sections that appeal to them.

• In groups, students discuss which part of the 'Undersea World' they would like to visit and why.

• Ask students if they have ever been to a similar aquarium or sealife centre - if so, encourage them to tell the class what ': was like.

Exercise 3

• Students read the text again. When checking answers, ask students to read out the section of the text that gives the information.

Answers

1 anglerfish 2 toad fish 3 rays 4 crabs, starfish 5 goby fish

Exercise 4

• Read aloud the first example with as much expression as possible.

• Students then read the other comments and match them to the areas of the aquarium.

• When checking answers, have students read the comments aloud with expression. Remind them to stress the important words.

Answers

2 Polar World 3 Discovery Pool 4 Virtual Reality Voyage

• Ask students to look at the text again. Elicit the linking words used to contrast different ideas or opinions (but/on the one hand/on the other hand/however) and ask students to translate them into their L 1.

• Read the first comment to the class again. Ask students what they think of performing dolphins. If students are interested in the topic, extend the discussion to include other performing animals, e.g in circuses.

Language Powerbook the Word Corner on page 69 g .es further practice of animal vocabularv and adjectives

COMPARISON

Exercise 5

• Read through the table with students and ask them to suggest other examples of short adjectives and long adjectives.

• Students copy the table. With the whole class, read the Polar World text and elicit the adjectives (less athletic, friendly). Students write the comparatives and superlatives of these adjectives in their table (e.g. less/least athletic, friendlier/ friendliest) .

• Working in pairs, students continue to read the text and complete the table.

Answers

short adjectives - friendlier/friendliest younger/youngest stranger/strangest louderiloudest noisier/noisiest bigger/biggest tinier/tiniest deadlier/deadliest

long adjectives -less athletic most beautiful most exotic less colourful most intelligent most spectacular

most up-to-date

irregular adjectives - better/best

Exercise 6

• Read the uses (a-c) with the students.

• Students then read the sentences (1-4) and match them with the uses.

I Answers

1 a 2 b 3 c 4 c

Refer students to Grammar Summary 14 for study at home.

Exercise 7

• Students write the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives.

• When checking answers, also check spelling.

Answers

friendlier/friendliest more athleticJmost athletic

more exciting/most exciting more spectacular/most spectacular louder/loudest crueller/cruellest colder/coldest

better/best younger/youngest smaller/smallest

• Have students make five sentences of their own using some of these comparatives and superlatives. Students can then say their sentences to their partners.

Exercise 8

• Students can compare answers with their partners before checking answers as a class.

I Answers

I 1 smaller 2 the most intelligent 3 The biggest

4 the fnendliest 5 better 6 the easiest 7 the most popular

Exercise 9

• Students work in pairs, using the adjectives to compare the two boats and then comparing the two men.

• Students then read out their sentences and check the answers.

THE SEA

Possible answers

1 a This boat is more expensive/faster/more comfortable. 1 b This boat is smaller/more economical.

2a This man is younger/handsomer/heavier/stronger/more experienced.

2b This man is taller/slimmer.

Exercise 10

• Do this as an oral exercise, with students asking and answering the questions. Be careful not to embarrass any student.

• After talking about themselves, students may like to ask a similar series of questions about the teachers in their school, or members of a famous pop group or sports team.

Exercise 11

intelligent, hairy, fast, slow, common, friendly, dangerous, big, small, colourful, beautiful, ugly, exotic, noisy, heavy

• Go through the Key Words with the class, asking students to suggest an animal that demonstrates each quality.

• Read the example with the class.

• Each student then thinks of an animal and writes down some notes to help when describing it.

• In pairs, students take turns to describe their animals, using comparative structures.

Options

Practice

Students work in groups, writing a paragraph comparing two places in their town or area, e.g. two restaurants/cinemas/ schools/football teams/parks/sports centres/supermarkets. The groups then read out their paragraphs and see if the rest of the class agree with them.

Extension

Students look back at the comments in Exercise 4. In pairs, students prepare a dialogue, commenting on one of the areas in the Undersea World - the comments can be positive, negative or a mixture of both. The pairs then say their dialogues tor the rest of the class to guess which area they are talking about.

(ommuni(ation Workshop

Objectives

• To write a report about a tourist attraction.

• To practise using linking words of contrast.

• To prepare for and take part in a public debate.

• To practise giving opinions.

• To listen to a song and understand it.

• To practise using vocabulary concerning the environment.

Resources used

Cassette, Writing Help 6, leaflets of tourist attractions in the area.

Possible problems

Some students will be more comfortable with the public debate activity than others. Try to ensure that all students have a role that they can manage successfully.

Background

The model report shows the style of reports in British English: use of formal language, use of numbers and letters to outline the main and subsidiary points, clear structure with a statement of things in favour, a statement of things against and a conclusion.

Gavin Sutherland wrote the song 'I am sailing' and it became popular when the Scottish singer, Rod Stewart, sang it. Dolwyn Bay is an invented place.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, omit the Talkback stage of the writing and speaking workshops.

o If you have time, students can do the Options activities.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, the natural break is after the writing activity.

Language Powerbook pages 70-71

Writing: A Report

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Go through the first example with the students.

• Students then work in pairs, making comments about the aquarium.

• Students can then make similar comments about their town or their school.

Exercise 2

• Read the instructions and make sure students understand the task. Explain that students do not have to understand every word to carry out the task.

92

• Students read the report and match the paragraphs with the headings.

• Check students' answers.

Answers

1 general description 2 list of good points 3 list of bad points 4 conclusion

• Point out the heading of the report: What information does it give? How is this heading different from that of a formal letter? Make students aware of how clearly the information is recorded. A good report should have a very clear structure ana use very clear language.

Stage 1

• If you have any leaflets about tourist attractions in the area, bring them to class and use them to elicit a list of tourist attractions. Write them on the board.

• In groups, students discuss which of the attractions they like best. Tell them to consider the sort of people who like the attraction (adults? children? families?), the best time of year to visit the attraction, etc.

• Each member of the group chooses one attraction to write about. Tell students that they can invent an attraction if they wish

Stage 2

• Read the list of good and bad points about the aquarium with the class.

• Students work individually, listing the good and bad points of the attraction they have chosen. Tell students they need not have an equal number of good and bad points. Go round and assist with ideas or new vocabulary if necessary.

Stage 3

• Refer students to Writing Help 6 for advice on layout, vocabulary and linking.

• Students plan the four paragraphs of the report.

• Students then write the heading and the first draft of the report.

Stage 4

• Students check their drafts. Refer them to Writing Help 6 (checking). They should also use their own writing checklist based on the mistakes they have made in previous writing tasks.

Talkback

• In groups, students read each other's reports and discuss whether they agree with the opinions and conclusions in the reports.

• Read the example of how to report the conclusion to the rest of the class.

• One member of each group reports some of the group's conclusions.

Speaking: PubLic Debate

Be/ore you start

Exercise 1

Useful vocabulary: coastal, wildlife park, oil refinery.

Students should be able to guess the general meaning of these words from the context.

• Students read the text about Dolwyn Bay.

• Check students' understanding of the useful vocabulary and ask some comprehension questions, e.g. How many people live there) (8,000) Are there a lot of young people there? (no) What new industry will there be in Dolwyn Bay in the future? (oil industry).

Exercise 2

• To start students thinking, you may wish to elicit one or two pros and cons of building a big oil refinery in Dolwyn Bay before students work in pairs.

• In pairs, students discuss and list the pros and cons of the plans to build a big oil refinery in Dolwyn Bay.

• The pairs then report back to the class and see whether, overall, there are more pros or more cons.

Exercise 3

• Students read through the list of people and then listen to the cassette.

Answer

the owner of a fishing boat

Tapescript

Speaker: I'm totally against the plan. I think it will be a disaster for the local area. For one thing, it will be terrible for fishing in the area. The oil refinery will pollute the sea and we won't be able to fish. It's difficult now, but this will be the end of the fishing Industry. It would be much better if we put more money into the fishing industry. For example, we need money to build new fishing boats.

• Play the cassette again, pausing it to check students' understanding of disaster, pollute the sea.

Stage 1

: KEY WORDS

busineIs. development, environment, fishing industry, jobs, marine 6fe, noise, eil refinety, pollution, traffic, (un)employJDeQt, wildlife

• Go through the Key Words with the class, asking students to translate them or put them into a sentence in English.

• Look at the notes for the local shopkeeper with the class and see if students can add any more points to support his point of view.

• In groups, each student chooses a role from the list in Exercise 3 and writes notes about his/her opinions of the plans.

Stage 2

• Read the Function File with the class, drawing students'

THE SEA

attention to the use of stress to give emphasis to your opinion, e.g. I am totally against the plan.

• Students practise on their own, giving their opinions and stating their case.

Stage 3

• Read through the example with the class and point out how one speaker states his/her case before the next speaker agrees or disagrees and then goes on to state his/her case.

• Remind students that this is a 'public debate', not an informal conversation among friends. Each person is allowed to finish what they want to say before the next person speaks. If you wish, each group can appoint a chairperson to control the debate. (The chairperson then gives his/her opinions as a member of the community at the very beginning of the debate).

• In groups, students take turns to give their opinions. When everyone in the group has spoken, the group has a general discussion and tries to reach agreement about the plans for Dolwyn Bay.

Talkback

• Each group reports back to the class, saying what plans they agreed on.

Listening

• Students read through the text and guess the missing words.

• Then they listen to the song and complete the text.

Answers and Tapescript

I am sailing, I am sailing, home again, across the sea.

I am sailing, stormy waters, to be near you, to be free. I am flying, I am flying, like a bird, across the sky.

I am flying, passing high clouds, to be with you, to be free.

Can you hear me' Can you hear me? Through the dark night, far away. I am dying, forever crying, to be with you, who can say?

We are sailing, we are sailing, home again, across the sea.

We are sailing, stormy waters, to be near you, to be free.

• Play the song again and ask further questions: 'What is the situation in the song? Where is the person going? Who is he going to see? Is the person really sailing?'

• In pairs, students discuss what images are used to express the idea of 'returnrng' (sailing/flying like a bird), 'feeling unhappy' (crying/dying), 'having difficulties' (stormy waters).

• Students then discuss any other songs they know about the sea - are these songs usually slow or fast? sad or happy?

Options

Practice

In groups, students prepare a report about the plans to build a big oil refinery in Dolwyn Bay. Tell the students the report is for the local government authority and is written after the public debate they have just had.

Extension

If there are any development plans currently affecting the students' own region or country, the pros and cons of these plans can be discussed in class.

R~vi~w

Objectives

• To check and consolidate grammar studied in this module - Present Perfect, comparatives and superlatives.

• To revise vocabulary associated with the environment and the sea.

• To practise the pronunciation of 10:/, 1:J:1 and 13:1.

Resource used

Cassette.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, some of the Review exercises can be given for homework.

Language Powerbook pages 72-73

Grammar

Exercise 1

• Students look at and talk about the picture - where is the yacht? What's the weather like? How does the person feel?

• Do the first two items in the exercise with the class. Then, students continue reading the questions and writing answers.

Exercise 2

• Students work in pairs, asking and answering the questions.

• Some of the pairs can then read out their answers to the class.

Answers

There are no set answers. The most important point is that students should use the Present Perfect and Past Simple tenses correctly in their answers.

• Ask students if any of them sail - if so, have they had any frightening experiences?

Exercise 3

• When students have completed the text working individually, they can compare their answers in pairs and discuss what the animal is.

Answers

1 oldest 2 bigger 3 fast 4 better 5 strongest 6 the most dangerous 7 the deadliest

Animal- the great white shark.

Exercise 4

• Read through the text in Exercise 3 again with the students. Elicit the main points about a marine animal that need to go into the description e.g. appearance, special qualities, films! books it has been in, where it is found.

94

• Students write their descriptions. Suggest they write between six and eight sentences.

• In pairs, students read each other's texts and guess the marine animal.

• Some of the descriptions can then be read to the class to guess the animal.

Vocabulary

Exercise 5

• Check students' answers by having them read the sentences aloud.

Answers

1 pollution/dramatically 2 length

3 dangerous/safety/freedom 4 educational 5 colourful 6 beautiful/clearly 7 terrified 8 noisy

Exercise 6

• Students work in pairs, matching the words and the definitions.

I Answers

1 c 2 e 3 a 4 f 5 b 6 h 7 d 8 g

• Ask students to choose five of the words and put them into sentences.

Pronunciation: /0:/, /:J:/, /3:/

Exercise 7

• Students listen to the three words.

• Have students repeat the words and isolate the vowel sound for repetition if necessary.

• Students then listen and identify the vowel sound (a, b or cl which they hear.

.--- .. -- ... _-_

Answers

1 c 2 b 3 b 4 a 5 c 6 a 7 c 8 a 9 b 10 b 11 b 12 c

Tapescript

a) car b) small cl bird

1 girl 2 fall 3 caught 4 fast 5 learn 6 calm

7 burn 8 shark 9 door 10 all 11 war 12 turn

• Students then listen and repeat the words.

• If you wish, play the tape for students to Write down the words. Check their spelling, then ask them to make sentences using as many of the words as possible.

• Students then read out their sentences to the class.

Exercise'

• Ask students what they know about New Zealand - encourage them to say as much as possible.

• Students look at the table in Exercise 1 and guess what some of the answers are.

• Students then read the Factfile and complete the table.

Answers

Location - in the South Pacific Population - 3.6 million

Languages - English and Maori Weather - North Island/warm climate

South Islandfcooler with higher rainfall

Exercise 2

• Students work In pairs reading the text and answering the questions.

Answers

, 1 It was the first country to give the vote to women. 2 agriculture

3 It was cut off from the rest of the land on Earth for 80 million years.

4 an outdoor lifestyle S beautiful landscapes

• Check students' understanding of democratic, parliament, British Commonwealth, head of state, vote, old age pension, era, hot spring.

Exercise 3

• Students work individually finding the names in the text.

Answers

1 the All Blacks 2 Kiwis 3 Mount Cook 4 the weta S MaoriS

• Ask if any of the students like rugby. Have they seen the All Blacks (on TV)7 What do they think of them) Do they know any ot er New Zealand sports people?

Exercise 4

• Elicit the section headings in the text and write them on the board (e.g. government, geography).

• Students work in groups, using the headings to think of differences between New Zealand and their own country

• The groups report back to the whole class and see if there is agreement about the differences. The class decides which five differences are the most important.

Exercise 5

• Using the information from Exercise 4 and the same headings as the New Zealand Factfile, students write a similar factfile for their own country.

Tapescript: Lesson 23, Exercise 6

1 Female: I had a fantastic holiday in Egypt.

Male: Yes? (showing interest)

2 Female: The hotel was really fantastic. There were two swimming pools, a huge lake with windsurfing, tennis courts

Male: Mm, were there) (interested)

3 Female: I went on a boat with a glass bottom looking at the amazing multi-coloured fish.

Male: Mm, did you really? (interested)

4 Female: Here is a photo of my family outside the hotel.

Male: Mm. (not interested)

5 Female: And this is a photo from our bedroom window.

Male: Yes? (totally uninterested)

6 Female: This is me by the swimming pool Male: Really? (bored)

7 Female: This is a photo of our boat trip. There's a shark.

Male: Mm7 (mild interest)

8 Female: And this is when one of the passengers fell into the water and almost drowned.

Male: Mm. (very interested)

Tapescript: Lesson 23, Comparing Cultures

Reader: Britain has always been a multicultural society - with a mixture of cultural influences - Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian, Norman, French ... In the 1800s and 1900s, as the British Empire grew, more cultural connections were made with almost all parts of the world. Many British people emigrated to Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa.

People also emigrated to Britain. After the Second World War, the British government invited people from the West Indies, India and Pakistan to come to Britain because there were so many jobs. There's also a strong Chinese community in many British cities.

PRESENT PERFECT, PRESENT SIMPLE AND PAST SIMPLE

There are notes on the use of the Present Perfect, Present Simple and Past Simple on page 128 of the Students' Book. You may wish to direct students to the notes while they are doing the exercises or for reference at the end.

Exercise 1

• Students look at the pictures and say what is happening.

• Students then match the sentences with the drawings.

Exercise 2

• Students work in pairs, translating the sentences.

• Check the translations and discuss the differences in the verb tenses used in English and the students' own language.

Exercise 3

• Check students' answers by having them read the sentences aloud. When either verb tense is possible, have students explain the difference in meaning.

Answers

1 Haven't you fed 2 worked 3 has written 4 has worked 5 wrote 6 have you put

Exercise 4

• The person is thinking of the past in the sentence: I've always liked sweets.

Exercise 5

• Students can compare answers with their partner before checking answers as a class.

Answers

1 know 2 have had 3 have known 4 has been 5 am 6 have

• Ask students to write two similar sentences about themselves using the prompts:

(Xl is my best friend. We .

I can't work anymore. I .

Exercise 6

• Students work in pairs, matching the sentences with the people.

I A,.sw.ers

1 b 2c 3a

1c 2b 3a

• In pairs, students write three or four more sentences for one of the people, e.g. the retired millionaire. Tell students they can write about the past, present or future for this person.

• The pairs then read out their sentences and the rest of the class guess which person it is.

Exercise 7

• Check students' answers by having them read out the question and the answer.

I Answers

· 1 no 2 no 3 yes

Exercise 8

• Students can check their answers with their partner before checking answers as a class.

Answers

1 has always been 2 bought 3 has had 4 has lived 5 opened 6 have already visited 7 swim

8 do not understand 9 never have 10 know 11 attack 12 tried 13 hit

Module objectives

Draw students' att.ention to the module objectives at the top of the page. Ask them which they expect to find most difficult and which they expect to find the easiest. At the end of the module, students can see if their predictions were correct.

Resource used Cassette.

Background

The 'jive' was danced to rock'n' roll music in the 1950s. Couples performed acrobatic moves, with the man spinning his partner through the air.

'Disco' dancing became popular after the film Saturday Night Fever, starring John Travolta, came out in 1977. All-night dance parties in the 19905 were called 'raves'. Many 'rave' clubs came equipped with 'chill-out' rooms where dancers could take a break and drink water to stop them becoming dehydrated. 'Rave' clubs had a reputation for being places where young people experimented with drugs such as 'ecstasy'.

Warm-up

Exercise 1

, KEY WORDS

music: house, techno, jazz, rap, reggae, rock 'n' roll dances: disco, flamenco, jig, jive, samba

Those students who are keen on music and dance can explain any words that others in the class may not know.

• Students look at the photos and Key Words and identify rock 'n' roll, disco dancing, and rave.

• In groups, students discuss other kinds of music and dance and add words to the Key Words.

Exercise 2

• Students look at the photos and listen to the cassette.

Answers

1 disco dancing 2 raving 3 jive

Tapescript

1 It was very romantic. In the early 70s my girlfriend and I, we went to the disco every Saturday night and danced for hours. Saturday Night Fever was really popular, you know, John Travolta and the Bee Gees. Their music was really good for dancing.

2 I really like house music. I go to clubs on both Friday and Saturday night and I come home really late. On Sunday I sleep all day. My mum gets angry with me, but, well, they did the same when they were young, didn't they?

3 It seems like yesterday, but I suppose it's over forty years ago.

We danced to music by Elvis Presley - real music, rock 'n' roll, much better than this techno noise today! I was a good dancer. My boyfriend and I won a competition once. You needed a lot of energy to do that dance, you know. I couldn't do it today.

• Divide the class into three groups and ask each group to listen carefully to one of the interviews as you play the cassette again. Then, see how much information each group can remember about 'their' person.

Exercise 3

• Students listen to the seven extracts on the cassette and grade them for dancing.

• Students then exchange views and see if they share the same opinions.

• Play the cassette again and pause after each extract to have a show of hands for those who rated it 5-star *****.

Exercise 4

• Students work in pairs talking about their favourite music to listen to and to dance to.

Options

Practice

Students carry out a class survey to find out the most popular kinds of music and most popular groups and singers.

Extension

In groups, students discuss and decide what music to play, and in what order, at a friend's birthday party.

l~ L~t's Dan(~

Objectives

• To practise reading a text quickly to identify the type! genre.

• To read a text with gapped sentences and be able to complete the gaps using topic, linking and reference clues.

• To practise vocabulary related to music and dancing.

• To talk about preferences about music and dancing.

Resources used

Pictures of traditional dances of the students' own country (and, if possible, a cassette of the music for these dances).

Possible problems

Some students may be less interested in music and dance than others.

Background

The invention of CD ROMs has revolutionised access to encyclopedias. Microsoft's Encarta, for example, contains over 30 volumes of material, and by simply clicking on the computer mouse you can rapidly skip around from volume to volume.

The quote is by Fred Astaire (1899-1987), an American dancer and film star. He starred in many musicals with his partner, Ginger Rogers.

Routes through the material

o If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Comparing Cultures.

o If you have time, do one of the Options activities.

o If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 4.

Language Powerbook pages 74-75

Before you start

Exercise 1

KEY WORDS

breakdance, the Charleston, classical ballet, flamenco, Irish jig, rock 'n' roll, the twist, waltz

--------------------------~

• Students read the Key Words and explain or translate them.

• Then they listen to the musical extracts on the cassette and identify the dances.

Answers

1 Irish jig 2 rock 'n' roll 3 classical ballet 4 flamenco 5 twist 6 waltz 7 breakdance 8 Charleston

98

SKILLS Focus

Reading

Exercise 2

• Ask students to look at the text quickly and decide where it is from.

• Ask students for their answers and ask them to give reasons.

Answer

a CD ROM encyclopedia

• Ask students how difficult they think the text will be and why.

• Ask students how it would be different if it was in a newspaper, a traditional encyclopedia or aSunday magazine.

Exercise 3

Useful vocabulary: Renaissance, art form, community, generation, palaces, aristocrats, ballroom.

Students should be able to understand the general meaning of these words from the context.

• Read the Reading Strategies box with the class, studying the example given of Paragraph 1 and sentence d.

• Students then follow the stages in the Strategies:

1 - read the text to get a general idea of the content 2 - look at the missing sentences and gaps

3 - think about the sentence topics and paragraph topics and match them

4 - check that sentences fit the text by focusing on linking words and pronouns.

• Students can compare their answers in pairs before checking answers as a class.

I Answers

· 1 d 2 c 3 b 4 e 5 a

Exercise 4

• Read through the questions with the class.

• Students work in pairs answering the questions.

Answers

1 Rudolf von Laban and Isadora Duncan

2 popular dances are usually popular for only a short time 3 waltz and polka

4 the mixing of immigrant cultures produced new forms of dance 5 breakdancing

VocabuLary: Compound Words

Exercise 5

• Students work in pairs, matching the words to make compound nouns.

• When c'lecking answers, also check that students have used the hyphen correctly. Point out that some compound words remain two separate words, e.g. folk donee; some, especially compounds with adjectives, are joined with hyphens, e.g. well-known, some form one word, e.g. ballroom.

Answers

ballroom rock music art form well-known mid-1980s folk dance

• Students choose four of the words and make sentences of their own uSing these words.

Exercise 6

• Students match the words with their definitions.

Answers

1 well-known 2 folk dance 3 ballroom 4 mid-1980s

• In pairs, students choose one of the other words from Exercise 5 and write a definition, giving the part of speech.

• Tne pairs then read out their definitions to the class who have to guess the word.

Speaking

Exercise 7

• Read through the questionnaire with the class. Check that students understand 'wanna' ('want to' spoken with an American accent)

• Students work individually thinking about their answers.

• In pairs, students tell each other their answers to the questionnaire The listener can make notes if he/she wishes.

• The students then report back to the class about their partner

• Read through the vocabulary for donees and places with the students

• Students then listen to the cassette and match the dances and places.

Answers

jig/Ireland morris dance/England line dance and sword dance/Scotland

Tapescript

1 There are various folk dances in the British Isles. One folk dance that is still very popular is the Irish jig. In this dance, the dancers move with extremely fast steps. It is great fun to do but difficult to learn

2 One of the strangest kinds of dance is morris dancing from England. People dress up in white clothes covered in flowers and ribbons. They have bells on their legs which make a noise when they move and sometimes they carry sticks.

3 In Scotland there are lots of different folk dances. There are reels or line dances. Dancers hold hands and move around the dance floor very fast. It's not very difficult to learn and is great exercise I 4 A other Scottish dance is sword dancing. Dancers put two swords on the ground and then dance between them with small steps.

RHYTHM

• Play the cassette again pausing after the description of each dance for students to say how the dance is done.

• Elicit the names of traditional dances in the students' own country. If you have pictures of them or music for the dances, bring these into class to show and play. Students discuss whether these dances are Similar to any of the dances described in the text.

• In groups, students write a description of one of their traditional dances for inclusion in the CD ROM encyclopedia.

gUO'fE .,. UNgUO'fE

• Read the quote with the class and ask students if they have heard of Fred Astaire and know anything about him. Explain that he was one of the greatest popular dancers of his day and although the quote sounds very simple, he did extraordinary things with his feet. Ask students to make similar 'Simple' quotes for other people who do things extremely well, e.g. a good cook, tennis player, footballer, poet, singer, artist.

Options

Practice

Students look back at the text Dance and read it again carefully. In groups, students prepare four or five more comprehension questions about the text.

The groups then ask and answer their questions.

Extension

In groups, students write instructions about how to dance a traditional dance of their country or a modern dance. Tell them to write very precise instructions.

The groups then take turns to read their instructions to the class and the other students guess which dance they are describing.

99

26 On Tour

Objectives

• To listen for specific facts.

• To give opinions about music.

• To talk about future arrangements and intentions, using the Present Simple, the Present Continuous and going to.

Resources used

Grammar Summary 15, wall map of the UK.

Possible problems

Students may confuse the uses of the different verb tenses for future time.

Background

The Corrs are an Irish pop group who became famous worldwide in the late 1990s and whose albums sold millions.

Routes through the material

C> If you are short of time, set some of the exercises for homework and omit Exercise 10.

C> If you have time, do the Options activities.

C> If you have two lessons for a unit, a suitable natural break is after Exercise 4.

Language Powerbook cages 76-77 i\~lnl t' , 11" ,,' 1 i 1 Cr l' 10c 1 IOu

Before you start

Exercise 1

• Students listen to the extract from the song. Tell students they will hear the song again in the Communication Workshop in the module.

• Students discuss what kind of music it is (pop song) and their reactions to it - do they like it (why/why not?).

Tapescript

See tapescript in Communication Workshop, page 107.

• Students look at the UK Tour information. If you have a wall map of the UK, bring it in and have students find the places on the map. Ask students what they know about any of the places - some students may know about the football teams.

Exercise 2

• Students read through the sentences first, then listen to the cassette and complete the sentences.

• Check answers by having students read the sentences aloud.

Answers

2 Nigeria 3 April 4 May 5 15th May 6 May 7 the summer 8 Arizona

100

GRAMMAR Focus

Tapescript

Interviewer: So that's 'Dog Rocker' from your second album. OK, now what are your plans for the future, Roy)

Singer: Mmmmm well, there's a lot of things happening. Next month, errr ... we're recording our new album. You know, we're doing the recordings in Nigeria - yeah. And we're getting local musicians to play with us, mrnrn. We're going to have a great time in Nigeria.

Interviewer: Sounds interesting Roy.

Singer: Mmm, well, we get back to Europe at the end of April. and after that in May we're doing a rruni-tour of the UK. We visit Glasgow first, then Leeds and Manchester ... I think it's Manchester. Maybe it's Liverpool. Our last concert is in London. On the 15th of May we play at Wembley Stadium. We're going to give our best concert ever. After the 15th, we finish touring for a while.

Interviewer: I know you don't like answering questions about your personal life, Roy, but can you tell us something about your personal plans.

Singer. Well, at the end of May I'm going to change my lifestyle radically. I'm getting married to Judy in the summer, you know, in June.

Interviewer: Is it your fourth or your fifth time) Singer: Fourth.

Interviewer: Mmm.

Singer: And then we're going to settle down and have a quiet life, you know what I mean) - no more concerts, no more touring. We're going to move to Arizona in the States and we're gonna ...

• Play the cassette again and ask students to give their reactions to the rock star - What do they think he looks like) What sort of personality has he got? What sort of VOice has he got?

LangUiage Powerbook the Word Corner on oa?e 17 21'.es Lrther pr,« til (' of rOlk rruSIC vccabu.arv

FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS AND INTENTIONS

Exercise 3

• Students study the three sentences and identify the verb forms being used.

l

Answers

1 we ploy - Present Simple

2 I'm getting - Present Continuous

3 We're going to move - 'going to' + infinitive

• Students then work in pairs, matching the sentences with the uses (a-c).

Answers

a) I'm getting b) we play c) We're going to move

• Students listen again to the interview and find more examoles of each use.

• Play the cassette a second time, pausing it to give students time to identify the verb tenses being used.

Refer students to Grammar Summary 15 for study at home.

Exercise 4

• Students read the sentences and decide who could say them.

• When checking answers, also check that students understand why the Present Simple is used, i.e. these are official arrangements that cannot be changed

[ Answers 1 a 2 b

• Students then discuss what the other person would say. Elicit that this would be a personal arrangement and 50 the Present Continuous is used (We're meeting/We're going).

Exercise 5

• Students read the tour programme and write sentences using the Present Simple.

• Students can then read their sentences aloud in pairs before checking them as a class.

Suggeste<l answers

You get to the hotel in Budapest at 5 p.rn. On the 9th of June, you have free time from 1 a a.m. to 12 noon. At 1 p.m. you have lunch at a restaurant in Buda which serves local Hungarian specialities. You rest at [he hotel from 2 p.rn. to 5 p.rn. At 6 p.m. you have an interview with a music magazine. At 8 p.rn. you give your concert in Budapest, on Students' Island. On the 1 ath of June, you have breakfast at the hotel at 1 a a.rn. and the bus leaves for the airport at 11 a.m.

Exercise 6

• Students look at the pictures and describe what the people are going to do.

I. ~::eg~ing to play the guitar.

[ ~ He IS going to change the tyre. 3 She is going to dance

4 They are going to have a party.

• Ask students to describe pictures 2 and 4 and revise party and car vocabulary.

Exercise 7

• Students work individually thinking about the cues and what they are going to do.

Exercise 8

• Read the example with the class, and pomt out the use of short answers

• In pairs, students ask and answer questions about the cues in Exercise 7

RHYTHM

Exercise 9

• EliCit examples of arrangements students might have after school, e.g. music lessons, playing sports, shopping, visitingl meeting a friend, going to the doctor/dentist.

• Students write sentences about the arrangements they've got after school- tell them they can invent arrangements if they wish.

Exercise 10

• Read the example dialogue with the class.

• Students work in groups, trying to find a time when they are all free to arrange a time to do something together.

• The groups can then report back to the class, saying if it was easy or difficult to find a time when everyone was free and what they arranged to do.

Options

Practice

Students make notes about what they are going to do when they are older. Give them some prompts on the board, e.g. study, work, live, wear, drink, eat, have.

In groups, students then discuss what they are going to do when they are older.

Extension

In groups, students prepare a tour programme for one of their favourite groups or singers visiting their own country. Tell the students the tour is a 3-day tour and they have to decide the venues, hotels and the timetable.

Each group writes out its programme and then tells the rest of the class about the planned tour.

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