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# DESIGN OF CURVED BEAMS

Introduction.

## Straight Beam: - A beam is a straight structural member

subjected to a system of external forces acting at right
angles to its axis. They are classified by the type of
supports.
1. If a member is
fixed or built in
one end while its
other end is free,
the member is
called cantilever
beam.

## 2. If the ends of the

freely rest on
supports the
beam is called a
freely or simply
supported beam.

3. If abeam is fixed
at both its, it is
called as built-in
or fixed beam.
4. A beam which is
provided with
more than two
supports is called
as continuous
beam.

## A beam is said to be statically determinate beam, if its

reaction components can be determined by using
equations of static equilibrium only. Commonly
encountered statically determinate beams are cantilever
beams, SS beam and over hanging beams.
Beams are subjected to transverse loads such
as concentrated load, UDL, UVL & applied moments.
Beam transfer applied load to supports, the beam develop
resistance to moments & transverse shear forces at all its
cross-sections.

CURVED BEAMS

## A beam in which the neutral axis in the

beam is originally curved before applying the bending
moment, are termed as “Curved Beams”.

## Applications of Curved Beams.

Curved beams find applications in many machine
members such as c – clampers , crane hooks, frames of
Differences between Straight Beams & Curved Beams.
Sl.no Straight Beams Curved Beams
1. Neutral axis of the Neutral axis does not co
cross-section passes – incide with the cross-
through the centroid of section, but is shifted
the section. towards the centre of
curvature of the beam.
2. The variation of The distribution of the
bending stress is linear, stress in the case of
magnitude being curved beam is non-
proportional to the linear (Hyper- bolic)
distance of a fiber from because of the neutral
the neutral axis. axis is initially curved.
Note:- In all the machine members, the line of action the load
does not pass through the centroid of the section over which the
stress is to be found out. Due to this, the total stress over section
of the member will be the algebraic sum of direct stress &
bending stress.

## Q) Discuss the stress distribution pattern in curved beams

when compared to straight beam with sketches.
[VTU /Feb 2002](4)
Curved beam Hyperbolic stress Distribution [non-
linear]
►The neutral
axis of the
cross section
does not
coincide with
the centroidal
axis but is
shifted
towards the
center of
curvature of
the beam.
►Bending
stress in
curved beams
donot follow
linear
variation
because of the
variation of
arc length.
Straight beam Linear variation of stress
►Neutral axis
coincides with
the centroidal
axis.
►Variation of
normal stress
due to
bending
across its
section is
linear.
►The stress
is proportional
to the distance
of the fiber
from the
neutral axis.
Q) Derive the expression for the normal stress due to
bending at the extreme fibers of a curved beam.
[VTU/Jan-Feb/2002](8)
OR
State the assumptions & derive the stress equation in
case of a curved beam. [VTU/Jan/Feb/2003]
(8)

Assumptions:-

## 1. The beam is subjected to pure bending.

2. Material of the beam is isotropic & homogeneous
& obeys hook’s law.
3. Plane sections perpendicular to the axis of the beam
remain plane even after bending.
4. The stress induced do not exceed elastic limit.
5. Each layer of the beam is free to expand OR
contract, independent of the layer above or below it.
6. Young’s modulus is same in tension &compression.

Let
M =Applied bending moment, N –mm
e = distance from the centroidal axis to the neutral
axis, measured towards centre of curvature, mm
Ci = distance from neutral axis to inner fiber
Co = distance from neutral axis to outer
Ri = inner radius of curvature, mm
Ro = outer radius of curvature, mm
Rn = Radius of neutral axis, mm
R (Rc) = Radius of centroidal axis, mm
A = area of section, mm2
σi = Stress in the inner fiber, N/mm2
σo = Stress in the outer fiber, N/mm2

## Consider a part of the curved beam between two radial

planes ab & cd subtending an angle ‘θ’ at the centre of
curvature when the beam is subjected to bending moment
‘M’ as shown in fig, the plane ‘cd’ rotates with respect to
‘ab’ through an angle ‘θ’ & takes new position ‘fg’. The
outer fiber are shantered due to compression and inner
fibre are elongated due to tension. Now, consider a fiber
of depth ‘dy’ & cross- sectional area ‘dA’ at a distance
‘y’ from the neutral axis. The original length of strip at a
distance ‘y’ from the neutral axis is (Rn + y)θ. It is
shortened by an amount ydθ.
The strain across cross section dA would be
Є= +yθ .
(Rn+ y )θ

## Stress in the fibre is given by σ α Є within elastic limit

or σ=EЄ E- Young’s modulus
σ = + E y dθ (1)
(Rn + y)θ

Load on the strip having the thickness ‘dy’ & the cross-
section dA is given by
σ = dF or dF = σ dA
dA
i.e., dF = + E y dθ . dA
(Rn + y)θ
Now applying the condition of equilibrium (i.e.,
summation of forces over the whole cross-section is
zero).
i.e.,

∫dF = 0

## ∫ +Ed θ y dA=0 Or +Ed θ ydA =0

(RN+y) θ θ (RN+y)

θ
∫ y dA =0
(Rn + y)

## Mb = +∫y dF substitute the value of dF

Mb = Ed θ ∫ y2 .dA
θ (y + RN)
0
= Edθ ∫ y – y RN dA from (2)
θ y + RN

Mb = Edθ ∫ y dA
θ
Since ∫y.dA represents the moment of area, it may be
replaced by A.e, i.e., the product it may be reduced by
A.e , i.e., the product of total area A and the distance ‘e’
from the centroidal axis to the neutral axis.
Mb = E dθ .A.e (3)
θ
Or E dθ/θ = Mb/Ae from eqn (1)
Edθ = +σ (RN+y)
θ
On comparing we get,
Mb = +σ (RN+y)
Ae y
Or
σ = +Mb.y Eqn 10.1/pg 132
(RN+y)Ae
This is the general equation for the stress in a fiber at a
distance ‘y’ from the neutral axis.

## At the outer fiber, y=+Co;

Bending stress σb = - MbCo (compressive)
(RN+Co)Ae
Or

## σbo = - MbCo [RN + Co = Ro]

A e Ro
At inner fibre, y = + Ci
Bending stress σbi = MbCi
(RN - Ci)Ae

A e Ri
Problems:-

## 1) The section of a crane hook is rectangular in

shape whose width is 30mm & depth is 60mm.
The centre of curvature of the section is at a
distance of 125mm from the inside section & the
load line is 100mm from the same point. Find the
capacity of the hook if the allowable stress in
tension is 75 N/mm2.
Soln:-

75N/mm2

σRi = F + MbCi
A A e Ri

## Inner radius = Ri = 125mm

Outer radius = Ro = 125 + 60 = 185mm
Radius of = Rc = 125 + 60/2 = 155mm
Centroidal axis
Radius of = RN = h --- table
10.1/pg 134
Neutral axis ln((R + c)/(R - c))
But R = Rc,
R + C2 = Ro,
R - C 1 = Ri
RN = h
ln(Ro/Ri)

RN = 60 = 153.045mm
Ln(185/125)

## Distance of centroidal axis from neutral axis = e = Rc –

RN = 155- 153.045
e = 1.955mm

= 153.045-125
= 28.045mm

= 185-153.045
= 31.955mm

## Distance from centroidal axis to force = l = Rc – 25

= 155-25 = 130mm
Bending moment about the centroidal axis = Mb = F × l
= 130.F N-mm
Combined stress at the inner fiber
σRi = F + Mb Ci
A AeRi

## Solving for ‘F’ we get

F = 8480.4N -------- Capacity for the hook.

## 2) A crane hook of trapezoidal cross-section has an

inner fiber width = 120mm, depth = 100mm &
inner radius = 120mm. Calculate the width if
stresses are numerically equal at inner & outer
fibres. Also determine the capacity of the hook,
if the permissinble stress is 100MPa.
soln:-
Given data:- for stress to be numerically equal,
MCi = MCO
AeRi AeRO

⇒ Ci = CO
Ri RO

But Ci = RN – Ri & CO = RO – RN

R N – R i = RO - R N
Ri RN

RN -1 = 1 - RN
Ri RO

RN [ 1/Ri + 1/RO ] = 2

⇒ R N = 2 Ri R O
R i + RO

## But Ri = 120; RO = 220mm;

RN = 2 × 120 × 220 = 155.29mm
120 + 220
But RN = A
B1(R + c2) – b(R – C1) ln (R + C2) - (b1 - b)
h (R – C1)
table 10.1/pg 135
But R + C2 = RO & R – C1 = Ri

But RN = A
B1RO – bRi ln RO - (b1 - b)
h Ri
Substituting the values,
155.29 = 50(120 + b)
120 × 220 – 120b ln 220 - (120 - b)
100 120
On solving, we get
b = 27.6mm ≈ 28mm

## σRi = F/A + MbCi/AeRi

100 = F + F × 220 ×

## (3) A crane hook shown in figure below is made of

30mm diameter steel rod. The distance between the
centroidal axis of the rod & the centre of curvature of
the hook is 50mm. Determine the load ‘F’ so that the
maximum stress in the rod is not to exceed 40 N/mm2.]

soln:-
Given data:- d = 30mm; Rc = 50mm; σRi = 40 N/mm2
From the figure; Ri = Rc – (d/2) = 50 - 15 =35mm
RO = Rc + (d/2) = 50 + 15 =65mm
C1 = C2 = d/2 = 15 mm.
From DDHB; table 10.1/pg 134; for circular c/s
RN = ½ C2 = ½ (152)
R – √ R2 – C 2 50 – √ 502 – 152
RN = 48.85mm
e = Rc – RN = 50 – 48.85 = 1.15mm
Ci = C1 – e = 15 – 1.15 = 13.85mm
CO = C2 + e = 15 + 1.15 = 16.15mm
Area of cross-section: A = π d2/4 = π302/4 = 707.14mm2
Bending moment : M = F × Rc = f × 50 = 50F N-mm
Total stress = Direct stress + Bending stress at inner fiber
= F/A + MbCi/AeRi
40 = F/707.14 + 50F × 13.85/707.14 × 1.15× 35
On solving for ‘F’ we get F = 1556.42 N

## 4) A section of frame for a punch press is shown in

figure below. Determine the capacity of the press if
the maximum tensile stresses in the frame is not to
exceed 60MPa.
Soln:-
Given data:-
σRi = 60 N/mm2 ;
Ri = 80 mm ;
RO = 80 + 40+ 100 = 220mm.

To find RN;-
From table 10.1 /pg 136
RN = A
B ln R + d – C1 + a ln R + C2
R – C1 R + d + C2

## C1 = aH2 + bd2 & C2 = H – C1

2(aH + bd)
where a = 40mm,
H= 140 mm,
b = 40mm,
d = 40mm.
C1 = 40(140)2 + 40(40)2 = 58.88mm
2(40 × 140 + 40 × 40)

## IIIly C2 = 140 – 58.88 = 81.12mm.

Again RN = A
B ln Ri– C1 + a ln RO
Ri RO + d
Because R – C1 = Ri & R + C2 = RO
A = area of cross-section = 80 × 40 + 100 × 40
= 7200mm2

RN = 7200
80 ln 80 + 40 + 40 ln 220
80 80 + 40

RN = 127.02mm
e = RC – RN = 138.88 – 127.02 = 11.85mm
Bending moment : Mb = F × (Rc + l) = F(138.88 + 200)
Mb = 338.88F
Total stress = σRi =F/A + MbCi/AeRi
Ci = C1 – e = 58.88 – 11.85 = 47.03mm
60 = F + 338.88 × 47.03
7200 7200 × 11.85 × 80

## F = 24253.32N capacity of the frame.

STRESS IN CLOSED RINGS:-

## A closed ring is an example of a Curved beam with

restrained ends. Load is acting at section B-B & sectiona
A-A is 90o away from the point of application of load.
Let the ring be subjected to a central load shown in the
figure. The bending moment at any cross-section of the
ring is given by

## BM = Mb = F.R [ 2/π - sinθ]/2

At section A –A:-
θ = 0;
MbA = 0.318FR eqn 10.5/pg 133

At section B-B :-
MbB = -0.182FR eqn 10.6/pg 133
here -ve sign is considered as tensile.
Direct stress at any cross section ‘DD’ at an angle θ with
vertical is given.
σd = F.sinθ/2A
Problem :-
1) Detrermine the stress induced in a circular ring of
circular c/s of 25mm diameter subjected to a
tensile load of 6500N. The inner ring diameter is
60mm.
Soln:-
Given data:-
Ri = 30mm
RO = 30 + 25 = 55mm
RC = 30 + 25/2 = 42.5mm
RN = ( √RO + √Ri ) 2 /4 ---- for circular c/s
= ( √55 + √30 )2 /4 = 41.51mm
e = Rc – RN = 42.5 – 41.51 = 0.99mm
Ci = RN – Ri = 41.51 – 30 = 11.51mm
CO = RO + RN = 55 – 41.51 = 13.49mm
A = π × d2/4 = 491.07mm2

## Consider section A-A; θ = 0o

Direct stress = σd = F sinθ/2A = 0 (because sin 0 = 0)

Bending moment:
Mb = 0.318 F RC
= 0.318 × 6500 × 42.5
= 87847.5 N – mm

## Max stress at inner fiber ; σRi = σd + σb

= 0 + Mb.Ci/(A.e.Ri)
= 87847.5 × 11.51
491.07 × 0.99 × 30
= 69.32 N/mm2 (tensile)

## Max stress at outer fiber ; σRo = σd - σb

= 0 - Mb.CO/(A.e.RO)
= 87847.5 × 13.49
491.07 × 0.99 × 55
σRo = -44.32 N/mm2

## Consider section B-B; θ = 90o ( w.r.t horizontal)

Direct stress = σd = F sinθ/2A = 6500 × sin90
2 × 491.07
= 6.618 N/mm2
Bending moment:
Mb = -0.182 F RC
= -0.182 × 6500 × 42.5
= - 50277.5 N – mm

## Max stress at inner fiber ; σRi = σd + σb

= 6.618 + Mb.Ci/(A.e.Ri)
= 6.618 + (- 50277.5) × 11.51
491.07 × 0.99 × 30
σRi = -33.052 N/mm2 (compressive)

## Max stress at outer fiber ; σRo = σd - σb

= 6.618 - Mb.Ci/(A.e.Ri)
= 6.618 - (- 50277.5) × 11.51
491.07 × 0.99 × 30
σRo = 31.98 N/mm2
SPRINGS
Introduction
A spring is defined as an elastic body, whose function is to distort when loaded and to recover its
original shape when the load is removed.
Applications
1) To absorb or control energy due to either shock or vibratgion as in automotives, railways,
aircrafts, landing gears and vibration dampers etc.
2) To apply forces, as in brakes, clutches and spring loaded valves.
3) To control motion by maintaining control between two elements as in CAMS & followers.
4) To measure forces as in spring balances and engine indicators.
5) To store energy as in watches, toys etc.
TYPES OF SPRINGS
1).HELICALSPRINGS

Helical springs are made of wire coiled in the form of helix and are primarily intended for
compressive or tensile loads. The cross-section of the wire from which the spring is made may be
circular, square or rectangular. The two forms of helical springs are compression helical spring and
tension helical spring as shown in figure.
o
Helical springs are said to be closely coiled, when the helix angle is very small (< 10 ), where
as in open coil helical spring the helix angle is large.
a) These springs are easy to manufacture.
b) They are available in wide range.
c) They are highly reliable.
d) They have constant spring rates.
e) Their performance can be predicted more accurately.
f) There characteristics can be varied by changing dimensions.
2). Conical and Volute springs.

The conical and volute spring shown in the figure are used in special applications where the
spring rate increases in increase in load. Another feature of these types of springs is the decreasing
number of coils results in an increasing spring rate. This characteristic is some times utilized in
vibrations problems where springs are used to support to body that have varying mass.
3). Torsion springs.
These springs may be of helical or spiral type as shown in figure. Helical types of springs are
used where the load tends to wind up the springs and are used in electrical mechanisms. Spiral type
is used where the loads tends to increase the number of coils and are used in watches and clocks.
4). Laminated or Leaf springs.

The laminated or leaf spring (also known as flat spring) consists of a number of flat plates
(known as leaves) of varying lengths held together by means of clamps and bolts. These types of
springs are most used in automobiles.
5). Disc springs.

These springs consists of a number of conical discs held together by a central bolt or tube as
shown in figure. These springs are used in applications where high spring rates and compact spring
units are required.
Terms used in compression springs
1. Solid length: -

When the springs are compressed until the coils come in contact
with each other, then the spring is said to be solid. The solid length of a spring is the product of
total number of coils & the diameter of the wire. Mathematically,
l
Solid length- Ls = n .d
l
Where n - no of coils
d - dia of the coils
2. Free length:-

## Free length of a compression spring is the length of

the spring in the free or unloaded condition & is equal to the solid length plus the maximum
deflection or compression of the spring & the clearance between the adjacent coils.
Mathematically,
Free length - Lf = solid length + max. def + clearance between adjacent
coils.
l
Lf = n .d + δmax + 0.15 δmax
3. Spring index: - It is defined as the ratio of the man diameter of the coil to the diameter of the
wire.
Spring index = C = D/d
4. Spring Rate: - spring rate (stiffness/spring constant) is the defined as the load required per unit
deflection of the spring.
Spring Rate, K= F/ δ F- load, N
δ - Defection, mm
5. Pitch: - Pitch of the coils is defined as the axial distance between adjacent coils in un compressed
state.
l
Pitch of the coil, p = ( LF – Ls)/n + d
where, LF - Free length
Ls - Solid length
l
n - Total number of coils
d - diameter of coil.
Stress in helical spring and circular wire.
Consider a helical compression spring made of circular wire & subjected to an axial load F, as
shown in figure.
Let,
D = Mean diameter of the coil
d = Diameter of the spring wire,
n = number of active coils,
G = Modulus of Rigidity for the spring material,
F = Axial load on the spring,
τ = Max. Shear stress induced in the wire,
C = spring index = D/d
p = pitch of the coils &
δ = deflection of the spring.
Consider a point of the spring shown in fig (b). The load ‘F’ tends to rotate the wire & as a result
twisting moment (T) is developed in the wire, & thus torsional shear stress is induced in the wire.
Let us consider that part of spring is in equilibrium under the action of two forces ‘F’ & twisting
‘T’.
3 n
Therefore, T = F × D/2 = π × τ1 × d eq 3.1/pg 142
16
Therefore τ1 = 8.F.D
3
π.d
In addition to the torsional shear stress (τ1) induced in the wire, the following stresses also act on
the wire.
1. Direct stress due to the load. F, &
2. Stress due to curvature of wire.
Direct stress due to load F
τ2 = Load = F = 4F
2 2
c/s Area π × d /4 πd
τ2 = 4F
2
πd
Now, the resultant shear stress induced in the wire
τ = τ1 ± τ2 = 8FD ± 4F
3 2
πd πd
Positive sign is used for the inner edge of the wire &
Negative sign is used for the outer edge of the wire.
Since the stress is maximum at the inner edge of the wire,
Therefore,
Max shear stress = Torsional shear stress + Direct shear stress
induced in the wire
= 8FD + 4F
3 2
πd πd
= 8FD 1 + d (but C = D/d)
3
πd 2D
= 8FD 1 + 1
3
πd 2C
n
Therefore τ = 8FD .K eq 11.1a/pg 139
3
πd
Where K = 4C - 1 + 0.615 Wahl stress Conc. Factor
n
4C - 4 C eq 11.26/pg 139
Stress distribution diagram.
Deflection of helical springs of circular wire.
Let l = total active length of wire = πD × n
θ = Angular deflection of the wire due to Torque t.
Therefore, Axial deflection of the spring δ = θ × D/2 ----------- (1)
Also, T = τ = Gθ
J R l

OR T = τ = Gθ ⇒ θ = T .l
J D/2 l J.G
4
But J = πd /32 & G – Modulus of Rigidity.
Substituting the values of l & J, we have,
2 n
θ = T .l= (F × D/2) (πDn ) = 16FD n eq 11.3/pg139
4 4
J.G π × d × G/32 G×d
n
Substituting eq (2) in (1) for ‘θ’
2 2 3
δ = 16.F.D .n × D = 8.F.D .n = 8.F.C .n (b’coz C = D/d)
4 4
G.d 2 G.d G.d
3 3 n
Therefore δ = 8FD n = 8FC n eq 11.5a/pg139
4
Gd G.d
Where n – number of active coils.
Design Procedure for Helical Springs.
1/3
1. Diameter of the wire: d = ((8FDK)/πτ)
2. Mean diameter of the coil: D = cd
(a) Outer diameter of the coil: Do = D + d
(b) Inner diameter of the coil: Di = D – d
4 n
3. Number of coils: I = yGd eq 11.6/ pg139
3
8FD
n
4. Free length: lo ≥ (i + 2) d + y + a eq 11.20a/ pg142
n
5. Stiffness or Spring Rate: Fo = F/y eq 11.7a/ pg139
6. Pitch: p = (lo - 2d)/i ------------ table 11.7 / pg 152
PROBLEMS
(1) Design a helical compression spring to support an axial load of N. The deflection under load is
limited to 60 mm. The spring index is 6. The spring is made of chrome-vanadium steel &
FOS = 2.
n
Sol : - Given data; - F = 3000N
y = 60mm
c=6
FOS = 2
Mat - Chrome - Vanadium Steel
From table 11.8/pg 153, for Chrome-Vanadium steel,
3 2
τy = 690N/mm & G = 0.07485 × 10 N/mm = 78.45 × 10 N/mm
2
τ = τy/ FOS = 690/2 = 345 N/mm
1. Diameter of wire
n
τ = 8FDK --------- eq 11.1a/ pg139
3
πd
1/3 n
d= 8FDK --------- eq 11.1b/ pg139
πτ
But K =4C - 1 + 0.615
4C - 4 C
C = 6 therefore, k = 4×6 – 1 + 0.615 = 1.2525
4×6 – 4 6

## Also c = D/d ⇒ 6 = D/d or D =6d.

Therefore 345 = 8×3000×6d×1.2525
3
π×d
Solving, d = 12.89mm
Select standard diameter of the wire from table 11.3a/pg 150.
Standard diameter size = d = 13mm

## 2. Diameter of the coil:-

C =D/d
6 = D/13
D = 78mm --- Mean diameter of the coil.
Outer dia: Do = D + d = 78 + 13 = 91mm
Inner dia : Di = D - d = 78 - 13 = 65mm

## 3. Number of coils or turns:

4 n
i = yGd eq 11.6 / pg 139
3
8FD
3 4
= 60×78.45×10 ×13 = 11.8
3
8×3000×78
i = 12
4. Free length:-
n
lo ≥ (i + 2)d + y +a eq 11.20a / pg 142
a = 25% of max. deflection = 25×60/100 = 15mm
lo ≥(12 + 2)13 + 60 +15
lo ≥257mm
5. Pitch:- Assuming square and ground end
P = (lo – 2d)i = (257 – 2×13)/12 = 19.25mm
6. Stiffness/spring rate:-
Fo = F/y = 3000/60 = 50 N/mm
Spring specifications
(i) Wire dia - 13mm
(ii) Mean dia - 78mm
(iii) Free length - 257mm
l
(iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 12 + 2 = 14coils
(v) Style of ends = squared & ground
(vi) Pitch - p – 19.25mm
(vii)Spring rate – Fo = 50N/mm
(2) Design a helical compression spring for a max. load of 1000N for a deflection of 25mm using
2
the spring index as 5. the max permissible shear stress for spring wire is 420 N/mm & G =
3 2
84×10 N/mm
n
Sol : - Given data; - F = 1000N
y = 25mm
c=5
3
G =84 × 10 N/mm
2
τ = 420N/mm
1. Diameter of wire
n
τ = 8FDK --------- eq 11.1a/ pg139
3
πd
1/3 n
d= 8FDK --------- eq 11.1b/ pg139
πτ
But K =4C - 1 + 0.615
4C - 4 C
C = 5 therefore, k = 4×5 – 1 + 0.615 = 1.31
4×5 – 4 5

## Also c = D/d ⇒ 5 = D/d or D =5d.

Therefore 420 = 8×3000×5d×131
3
π×d
Solving, d = 6.3mm
Select standard diameter of the wire from table 11.3a/pg 150.

## 4. Diameter of the coil:-

C =D/d
5 = D/6.3
D = 31.5mm --- Mean diameter of the coil.
Outer dia: Do = D + d = 37.8mm
Inner dia: Di = D - d = 25.2mm
5. Number of coils or turns:
4 n
i = yGd eq 11.6 / pg 139
3
8FD
3 4
= 25×84×10 ×6.3 ≈ 14
3
8×1000×31.5
i = 14
4. Free length:-
n
lo ≥ (i + 2)d + y +a eq 11.20a / pg 142
a = 25% of max. Deflection = 25×25/100 = 6.25mm
lo ≥ (14 + 2)6.3 + 25 +6.25
lo ≥ 131.2mm
5. Pitch:- Assuming square and ground end
P = (lo – 2d)i = (131.2 – 2×6.3)/14 = 8.75mm
6. Stiffness/spring rate:-
Fo = F/y = 1000/25 = 40 N/mm
Spring specifications
(i) Wire dia – 6.3mm
(ii) Mean dia – 31.5mm
(iii) Free length – 131.2mm
l
(iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 14 + 2 = 16coils
(v) Style of ends = squared & ground
(vi) Pitch - p – 8.75mm
(vii)Spring rate – Fo = 40N/mm
(3) A railway carriage weighing 40KN & moving at 8km/hr is to be brought to rest by 2 buffer
springs. The compression between the coils must be twice the wire diameter. Assume spring index
as 8. And allowable shear stress for the spring material = 450N/mm. Take G = 0.8 * 10 N/mm.
Design the spring?
n
Sol : - Given data:-
w- Weight of the carriage - 40 * 10 N
v - Velocity - 8km/hr = /3600) m/s = 2.22m/sec
n - Number of springs = 2
y = 500mm = 0.5 m
Clearance = a = 2d
τ = 450N/mm; G = 0.80 * 10 N/mm
c=8
K.E imported on the two springs due to the impact
2 2
U = 0.5mv = 0.5wv /g
3 2
= 0.5 ×40 × 10 × 2.22 /9.81
= 10047.7N-m

## K.E on the each spring = 10047.70/2 = 5023.85 N-m

If 'F' is the gradually applied force which would defect the spring by 0.5m, then energy stored
U = F × y/2
i.e., 5023.85 = F × 0.5/2

F = 20095.4N ≈ 20.09KN
(i). Wire diameter
C =8 (given)
Therefore K = 4C – 1 + 0.615 = 4 × 8 - 1 + 0.615 = 1.184
4C – 4 C 4 ×8 - 4 8
w.k.t. τ = 8FDK = 8FCK (b’coz D/d = c)
3 2
πd πd
550 =8×2489×6×1.12525
2
πd

## ⇒ d = 9.306mm ≈ 9.5mm (standard value)

(ii) Mean diameter
D = c.d
D = 6 × 9.5 = 57mm
Outside dia = Do = D +d = 57 + 6 = 66.5mm
Inside dia = Di = D – d = 57 – 6 = 47.5mm
(iii) Number of coils
4 n
i = Gd y eq 11.5a/ pg139
3
8FD
3 4
i = 3.5×84×10 ×9.5 = 9.73 ≈ 10
3
8×166×57
(iv) Free length: lo
n
lo ≥ (i + 2)d +y + a eq 11.20a/ pg152
a = 0.25y = 0.25×3.5 = 0.875mm
lo ≥ (10 + 2)9.5 + 3.5 + 0.875
lo ≥ 118.375mm
(v)Pitch: - Assume Square & Ground ends
P = (lo – 2d)/i
P = (118.375 – 2 × 9.5)/10
P = 9.9375mm
n
(vi)Spring Rate: - Fo =F/y eq 11.7a/ pg139
Fo = 166 /3.5 = 47.42N/mm
Spring specifications
(i) Wire dia - 33mm
(ii) Mean dia - 264mm
(iii) Free length - 1160mm
l
(iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 16 + 2 = 18coils
(v) Style of ends = squared & ground
(vi) Pitch - p - 68.375mm
(vii)Spring rate - F = 40.18N/mm
(4)A load of 2KN is dropped axially on a helical spring from a height of 250mm. the spring has 20
turns, & it is made of 25mm diameter wire. The spring index is 8. Find the max. Shear stress
induced in the spring 7 the amount of compression produced. Take G = 82.7GN/mm
n
Sol : - Given data: W = 2KN = 2000N; h= 250mm
i = 20 turns; d = 25mm; c = 8
τ = ? y =? G = 82.7GN/m
3
= 82.7 × 10 N/mm
Potential energy of falling weight = U = W (h + y)
= 2000(250 + y)
Energy absorbed by spring = U = Fy/2
Equating the above two equations:
Fy/2 = 2000(250 + y)
Fy = 4000(250 + y)
6
Fy = 4000y + 10 ------------ (1)
3 3
Now, Deflection: y = 8FD i = 8FC i
4
Gd Gd
3
y = 8×F×8 ×20
3
82.7×10 ×25
y =0.03962 F ------------- (2)
Substituting eqn (2) in (1) for ‘y’
2 6
0.03962F – 4000(0.03962F)- 10 = 0
2 6
0.03962F – 158.48F – 10 = 0
F = 7407.37N
Now, K = 4C – 1 + 0.615 but c = 8
4C – 4 C
K = 4×8 – 1 + 0.615
4×8 – 4 8
K = 1.184
Shear stress = τ = 8FDK = 8FCK
3 2
πd πd
τ = 8×7407.37×8×1.184
2
π × 25
2
τ = 285.876N/mm
Therefore y = 0.03962F
= 0.03962×7407.37

y = 293.47 ≈ 293.5mm
5). Design a helical spring for a spring loaded safety valve for the following
conditions:
(i) Diameter of the valve = 65mm
2
(ii)Operating pressure = 0.7N/mm
2
(iii) Max. Pressure on = 0.75N/mm
the valve
(iv) Max. lift of the valve when pressure = 3.5mm
2
rises from 0.7 to 0.75 N/mm
(v) Max. Allowable stress = 550MPa
(vi) Spring index =6
----------------- VTU/August-2005
n
Sol :-
Given data:-
Let D1 = dia of the valve = 65mm
2
P1 = Operating pressure = 0.7N/mm
2
P2 = Max. Pressure = 0.75N/mm
y = Max. Deflection = 3.5mm
2
τ = allowable shear stress = 550N/mm
3 2
G = 84×10 N/mm
C=6
Let ‘F1’ be the initial force due to operating pressure & ‘F2’ be the force at Max. Pressure.
Therefore F1 = P1 × A
2
= 0.7 ×π × 65 /4

F1 = 2322.8 ≈ 2323N
ly 2
III F2 = P2 = 0.75× π×65 /4 = 2489N
Therefore, Force which produces deflection of 3.5mmis
F = F2 – F1
= 2489 – 2323
= 166N
Note:- Always design the springs for maximum load & maximum deflection.
Maximum force = F2 = 2489N
(i). Wire diameter
C =6
Therefore K = 4C – 1 + 0.615 = 4 × 6 - 1 + 0.615 = 1.2525
4C – 4 C 4 ×6 - 4 6
w.k.t. τ = 8FDK = 8FCK ( b’coz D/d = c)
3 2
πd πd
3
450 =8×20.09×10 ×8×1.184
2
πd

⇒ d = 32.81mm ≈ 33mm
(ii) Mean diameter
D = c.d
D = 8 × 33 = 264mm
Outside dia = Do = D +d = 264 + 8 = 272mm
Inside dia = Di = D – d = 264 – 8 = 256mm
(iii) Number of coils
3 n
y = 8FD i eq 11.5a/ pg139
4
Gd
3 3
500 = 8×20.09×10 ×264 ×i.
5 4
0.8×10 ×33

i = 16.04 ≈ 16
(iv) Free length: lo
n
lo ≥ (i + 2)d +y + a eq 11.20a/ pg152
lo ≥ (16 + 2)33 + 500 + 2 × 33 (given a = 2d)
lo ≥ 1160mm
(v)Pitch: - Assume Square & Ground ends
P = (lo – 2d)/i
P = (1160 – 2 × 33)/16
P = 68.375mm
n
(vi)Spring Rate: - Fo =F/y eq 11.7a/ pg139
3
Fo = 20.09 × 10 /500 = 40.18 N/mm
Spring specifications
(i) Wire dia – 9.5mm
(ii) Mean dia - 57mm
(iii) Free length – 118.375mm
l
(iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 10 + 2 = 12coils
(v) Style of ends = squared & ground
(vi) Pitch - p – 9.9375mm
(vii)Spring rate - F = 47.42N/mm
6). The valve spring of an I.C Engine is 40mm long, when the valve is open & 48mm long when
the valve is closed . The spring loads are 250N when the valve is closed & 400n when the valve is
open. The inside diameter of the spring is not to be less than 25mm & take FOS = 2. Assume
3 2
spring index to be 6 &G = 79.34×10 MPa & τy = 690N/mm . Design the spring.
n
Sol :-
Given data:- F1 = 250N; F2 = 400N; Di = 25mm; FOS = 2; C = 6;
3 2
G = 79.34×10 N/mm ;
2 2
τy = 690N/mm ⇒ τall = 690/2 = 345N/mm
l l
Let y be the deflection of the spring between opening & closing of the valve. Therefore, y = 48 –
40 = 8mm
Now Max. Deflection is given by
l
y2 = (F2y )/ (F2 – F1) = 21.33mm ----- refer fig 11.2a / pg156
Design the spring for max. Load & max. Deflection.
(i). Wire diameter
C =6
Therefore K = 4C – 1 + 0.615 = 4 × 6 - 1 + 0.615 = 1.2525
4C – 4 C 4 ×6 - 4 6
w.k.t. τ = 8FDK = 8FCK (b’coz D/d = c)
3 2
πd πd
345 =8×400×6×1. 2525
2
πd

⇒ d = 4.710m ≈ 5.00mm
(ii) Mean diameter
D = c.d
D = 6 × 5 = 30mm
Outside dia = Do = D +d = 30 + 5 = 35mm
Inside dia = Di = D – d = 30 – 5 = 25mm
(iii) Number of coils
3 n
y = 8FD i eq 11.5a/ pg139
4
Gd
3
21.33 = 8×400×30 ×i.
5 4
0.79×10 ×5

i = 12.24 ≈ 13
(iv) Free length: lo
n
lo ≥ (i + 2) d +y + a eq 11.20a/ pg152
lo ≥ (13 + 2)5 + 21.33 + 0.25 × 21.33
lo ≥ 101.66mm
(v)Pitch: - Assume Square & Ground ends
P = (lo – 2d)/i
P = (101.66 – 2 × 5)/13
P = 7.05mm
n
(vi)Spring Rate: - Fo =F/y eq 11.7a/ pg139
Fo = 400/21.33 = 18.75 N/mm
Spring specifications
(i) Wire dia – 5mm
(ii) Mean dia - 30mm
(iii) Free length – 101.66mm
l
(iv) Total no of coils – i = i+2 = 13 + 2 = 15coils
(v) Style of ends = squared & ground
(vi) Pitch - p – 7.05mm
(vii)Spring rate - F = 18.75N/mm
2
(viii) Allowable shear stress = 345N/mm
Assignment:-
(1) A helical spring made from 6.3mm diameter steel wire has an outside diameter of 57.3mm with
squared & ground ends and has 12 coils. The allowable shear stress is 827MPa. Determine the
following
(i) Spring rate
(ii) Free length
(iii) Pitch
(2) The following data refers to the valve of a petrol engine
Length of the spring when the valve is open – 40mm
Length of the spring when the valve is closed – 48mm
Spring load when the valve is closed – 350N
Spring load when the valve is open – 220N
Spring index – 6.8
(3) The maximum shear stress allowed is 150MPa & the modulus of rigidity is 84GPa. The ends
are squared & ground and the gap between the adjacent coils is 0.1 times the wire diameter.
Determine the following
(i) Wire dia
(ii)Mean dia
(iii) Number of coils
(iv) Free length
(v) Pitch