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SC - Physics Formulas

SC - Physics Formulas

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PhysicsForm 8.

0 4/15/03 12:16 PM Page 1

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Acceleration due to gravity

ELECTROMAGNETIC CONSTANTS
WAVELENGTHS OF LIGHT IN A VACUUM (m)
23

g

9.8 m/s

2

Avogadro’s number

NA

6.022 × 10

molecules /mol

Red

Coulomb’s constant

k

9 × 109 N·m2 /C2

Orange 5.9 – 6.5 × 10−7

6.5 – 7.0 × 10−7

ƒ = frequency (in Hz)
108 109 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019
1020

Yellow

Gravitational constant

G

6.67 × 10−11 N·m2 /kg 2

Green

5.7 – 5.9 × 10−7

radio waves

microwaves
10-3

infrared
10-4 10-5 10-6

ultraviolet
10-7 10-8 10-9

X rays
10-10
V

gamma rays
10-11 10-12

Planck’s constant

h

6.63 × 10

−34

J·s

Blue

4.9 – 5.7 × 10−7

Ideal gas constant

R

8.314 J/(mol·K) = 0.082 atm ·L/(mol·K)

Violet

4.2 – 4.9 × 10−7

1 10-1 10-2 = wavelength (in m)

R O Y G B I

4.0 – 4.2 × 10−7

= 780 nm visible light

360 nm

INDICES OF REFRACTION FOR COMMON SUBSTANCES ( l = 5.9 X 10 –7 m)
Air

Permittivity of free space

ε0

8.8541 × 10−12 C/(V·m)

1.00

Alcohol

1.36

Permeability of free space

µ0

4π × 10−7 Wb/(A·m)

Corn oil

Glycerol

1.47 1.47

Diamond

Water

2.42 1.33

Speed of sound at STP

331 m/s

Speed of light in a vacuum

c

3.00 × 108 m/s

OPTICS
REFLECTION AND REFRACTION
Law of Reflection
J

Electron charge

e

1.60 × 10

−19

C

Electron volt

eV

1.6022 × 10

−19

Index of refraction

Atomic mass unit

u

1.6606 × 10 kg = 931.5 MeV/c2
−27

θinciden t = θreflected c n= (v is the speed of light in the medium) v

incident ray angle of incidence angle of reflection

01 0'

02

normal angle of refraction

Snell’s Law

Rest mass of electron

me

9.11 × 10−31 kg = 0.000549 u = 0.511 MeV/c2

Critical angle

LENSES AND CURVED MIRRORS
1 1 1 + = f q p

n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 � � θc = sin −1 n2 n1

refracted ray
reflected ray

...of proton

mp

1.6726 × 10−27 kg = 1.00728 u = 938.3 MeV/c2

q image size =− p object size

…of neutron

1.6750 × 10−27 kg = 1.008665 u = 939.6 MeV/c2

Optical instrument Lens: Concave Convex Mirror: Convex Concave

Focal distance f negative positive

Image distance q negative (same side) negative (same side) positive (opposite side) negative (opposite side)

Type of image virtual, erect 1 virtual, erect 2 real, inverted 3 virtual, erect
4
6
p

p<f p>f

h F

Mass of Earth

5.976 × 1024 kg

V

Radius of Earth

6.378 × 10 m
6

negative positive p<f p>f

q

DYNAMICS
NEWTON’S LAWS
1. First Law: An object remains in its state of rest or motion with constant velocity unless acted upon by a net external force. dp F = 2. Second Law: Fnet = ma dt 3. Third Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Weight
h

negative (opposite side) positive (same side)

virtual, erect 5 real, inverted 6

h
F p V V

h
p
F

F
p

V
F

q

h

V

F q

h
F

V

F q

1

q

2

q

p

p

3

4

5

Fw = mg

WORK, ENERGY, POWER
Work

KINEMATICS
Average velocity vavg = ∆s ∆t
DISTANCE
s (m)

Normal force

FN = mg cos θ (θ is the angle to the horizontal)

FRICTION
Static friction fs, max = µs FN Kinetic friction fk = µk FN

W = F · s = F s cos θ � W = F · ds

Kinetic energy

KE =

p2 1 mv 2 = 2m 2

µs is the coefficient of static friction. µk is the coefficient of kinetic friction. For a pair of materials, µk < µs .

Work-Energy Theorem W = ∆KE

(for conservative forces)
Potential energy

Instantaneous ds v= velocity dt

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
$5.95 CAN

∆U = −W

Displacement ∆s =

v2 Centripetal acceleration ac = r

mv 2 Centripetal force Fc = r

Gravitational potential energy

Ug = mgh

v dt

t (s)

$3.95

VECTOR FORMULAS
Notation

Total mechanical energy

Average acceleration

aavg =

E = KE + U

∆v ∆t

VELOCITY
v (m/s)

ˆ a = axˆ + ayˆ + az k i i

Average power

Pavg =

∆W ∆t

Instantaneous dv a= acceleration dt

+

Magnitude

a = |a| =

Dot product

(θ is the angle between a and b)

a · b = ax bx + ay by + az yz = ab cos θ
axb a
a b

a2 + a2 + a2 x y z

Instantaneous power

P =F·v
p = mv

Change in velocity

t (s)

∆v =

MOMENTUM AND IMPULSE
Linear momentum

CONSTANT ACCELERATION
vf = v0 + at 1 vavg = (v0 + vf ) 2

a dt


ACCELERATION
a (m/s2)

|a × b| = ab sin θ a × b points in the direction given by the right-hand rule:
Cross product

Impulse

COLLISIONS
b

J = � = ∆p Ft J= F dt = ∆p

+

s = s0 + v0 t +

All collisions

� � m 1 v1 + m 2 v2 = m 1 v1 + m 2 v2

1 at 2

a × b = (ay bz � � ax � = � ax � � ˆ i

ˆ − az by ) ˆ + (az bx − ax bz) ˆ + (ax by − ay bx ) k i j � ay az � � ay bz � � ˆ k� ˆ j

Elastic collisions

1 1 1 1 � 2 � 2 2 2 m1 v1 + m2 v2 = m1 (v1 ) + m2 (v2 ) 2 2 2 2

= s0 − vf t +

1 at 2

t (s)

= s0 + vavg t
2 vf

v1 − v2 =

� − (v1

� v2 )

=

2 v0

+ 2a(sf − s0 )
CONTINUED ON OTHER SIDE

This downloadable PDF copyright © 2004 by SparkNotes LLC.

SPARKCHARTS™ Physics Formulas page 1 of 2

PhysicsForm 8.0 4/15/03 12:16 PM Page 2

WAVES
Amplitude A Frequency f T =
Wave speed v = f λ
Wave equation � �x y(x, t) = A sin(kx − ωt) = A sin 2π λ −
Length L
v= �
FT µ

ELECTRICITY
Wavelength λ Period T
ω = 2πf =

Angular frequency ω
2π T

ELECTROSTATICS
Coulomb’s Law

1 2π = f ω

F =k

1 q1 q2 q1 q2 = 4πε0 r 2 r2

Electric field

E=

Fon q q

F = Eq

T

WAVE ON STRING
Tension in string FT
Speed of standing wave

Mass density µ =

mass length

CIRCUITS
Current

I=

∆Q ∆t

Resistance

R=ρ

L A

Wavelength of standing wave

λn =

2L n

Ohm’s Law

I=

V R

SOUND WAVES
Beat frequency fbeat = |f1 − f2 |
Motion of source Stationary

Power dissipated by resistor

P = V I = I 2R

Heat energy dissipated by resistor

W = P t = I 2 Rt
R1 R2 R3

DOPPLER EFFECT
Motion of observer

Toward observer at vs

Away from observer at vs

Series circuits Ieq = I1 = I2 = I3 = . . . Veq = V1 + V2 + V3 + · · · Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + · · · Parallel circuits Ieq = I1 + I2 + I3 + · · · Veq = V1 = V2 = V3 = . . . 1 1 1 1 + ··· + + = R2 R2 R1 Req

Stationary

v λ

f
Towards source at vo

Away from source at vo veff = v − vo

veff = v + vo λeff = λ � � feff = f v+vo v

veff = v � � λeff = λ v−vs � v � v feff = f v−vs

λeff = λ � � feff = f v−vo v

veff = v ± vo � � λeff = λ v±vs v � � feff = f v±vo v±vs

veff = v � � λeff = λ v+vs � v � v feff = f v+vs

R1 R2 R3

KIRCHHOFF’S RULES
Loop rule: The sum of all the (signed) potential differences around any closed loop is zero. Node rule: The total current entering a juncture must equal the total current leaving the juncture.

MAGNETISM
Magnetic force on moving charge

ROTATIONAL MOTION
Angular position

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
s r

F = qvB sin θ

F = q (v × B)

Magnetic force on current-carrying wire

F = BI� sin θ

F = I (� × B)

θ=

PENDULUM
Velocity at equilibrium position

MAGNETIC FIELD PRODUCED BY…
Magnetic field due to a moving charge

B=
B=

Angular velocity

ω=

ωavg =

∆θ ∆t

ω=

0
T

Angular acceleration

α=

Period

Magnetic field produced by a solenoid

B = µ0 nI

αavg =

∆ω ∆t

T = 2π

α=

� g

Biort-Savart Law
mg sin 0

dB =

r µ0 I (d� × ˆ) r2 4π

ωf = ω0 + αt

ωavg

1 = (ω0 + ωf ) 2

mg cos 0

= θ0 + ωavg t
2 2 ωf = ω0 + 2α(θf − θ0 )

MOMENTS OF INERTIA (I ) � I= r 2 dm Moment of inertia
particle
sphere
1 MR 2 2
R

Faraday’s Law

c

s

Elastic potential energy
1 ML2 12

MR 2
R

R

R

Period
2 MR 2 5
L

MR 2
ring disk

1 k(∆x)2 2 � m T = 2π k Ue =

Ampere’s Law Ampere-Maxwell Law

�c

B · ds = µ0 Ienclosed B · ds = µ0 Ienclosed + µ0 ε0 ∂ ∂t

c

s

E · dA

rod

Equation of motion

x = A sin(ωt)
k m

GRAVITY
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

TORQUE AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM
Torque

where ω =

2π T

=

τ =

dL dt

τ = F r sin θ τ =r×F τ = Iα

and A = (∆x)max is the amplitude.

is the angular frequency

F =G

m1 m2 r2

THERMODYNAMICS
1. First Law ∆ (Internal Energy) = ∆Q + ∆W 2. Second Law: All systems tend spontaneously toward maximum entropy. ∆Qout Alternatively, the efficiency e = 1 − ∆Qin of any heat engine always satisfies 0 ≤ e < 1.
Boyle’s Law

Acceleration due to gravity

a=

GM Earth 2 rEarth

Gravitational potential

Angular momentum

L = pr sin θ L = Iω

U (r) = −

L=r×p

Escape velocity

vescap e

Rotational KE rot = 1 Iω 2 2 kinetic energy

GM m r � GM = r

KEPLER’S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION
1. Planets revolve around the Sun in an elliptical path with the Sun at one focus. 2. The imaginary segment connecting the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal time. 3. The square of the period of revolution is directly proportional to the cube of the length of the semimajor axis of revolution: T 2 is constant. a3

GAS LAWS
Universal Gas Law

P V = nRT

P1 V1 = P2 V2

Combined Gas Law

P2 V2 P1 V1 = T2 T1

Charles’s Law

P2 P1 = T2 T1

This downloadable PDF copyright © 2004 by SparkNotes LLC.

SPARKCHARTS™ Physics Formulas page 2 of 2

7

20593 36340

E · ds = −

∂ ∂ΦB =− ∂t ∂t

B · dA

Report errors at www.sparknotes.com/errors

F = −k(∆)x ∆x is the distance the spring is stretched or compressed from the equilibrium position, and k is the spring constant.
Restoring force

�s

4

MASS-SPRING SYSTEM

Gauss’s Law for magnetic fields

�s

B · dA = 0

$3.95

θ = θ0 + ω 0 t +

1 αt 2

v=0 U = max KE = 0

v = max U = min KE = max

v=0 U = max KE = 0

equilibrium position

MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS �
Gauss’s Law

E · dA =

Qenclosed ε0

$5.95 CAN

CONSTANT

a

mg

Lenz’s Law and Faraday’s Law

ε=−

dΦB dt

Contributors: Bernell K. Downer, Anna Medvedovsky Design: Dan O. Williams Illustration: Dan O. Williams, Matt Daniels Series Editors: Sarah Friedberg, Justin Kestler

v r dθ dt at r dω dt

r µ0 qv × ˆ 4π r2
µ0 I 2π r

v=

2g� (1 − cos θmax )

Magnetic field produced by a current-carrying wire

SPARKCHARTS

�� t

Potential difference

TM

W ∆V = q

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