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A

SEMINAR
ON
DISTILATION COLUMN
PIPING & STRESS
ANALYSIS
PREPARED BY

AMEYA P. KASTURE
Piping Stress Group
Mott MacDonald Consultants India Ltd,
Andheri - (W)

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


LET US DISCUSS ….
 Distillation Process
 Significance.
 Distillation Column Means To :-
1) Process Department
2) Mechanical Department
3) Piping Department
 Types Of Distillation Columns
1) Absorption & Stripping
2) Fractionation
 Distillation Column Piping Study.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

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DISTILLATION
 The Distillation is a Process of seperation of
constituents of a Liquid Mixture & separate
Recovery of Vapour Residue.

 Various Kinds of devices Called Plates or Trays


are used to bring the two phases in intimate
contact. The trays are stacked one above other
& enclosed in a Cylindrical Shell To Form An
Equipment what we call as

“ Distillation Column ”

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


TERMS USED IN DISTILLATION
PROCESS

 FEED :
• Feed is a Material which is to be separated into
fractions.

• It is Introduced at One or more Points Along the


Column Shell

• Due to Difference on the Gravity between


Liquid Phase & Vapor Phases, the Liquid Runs
Down the column Cascading From tray to Tray
while the vapour goes up the Column,
Contacting the Liquid at each tray.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


TERMS USED IN DISTILLATION
PROCESS
 ABSORPTION &
STRIPPING
• Many operations in
Petrochemical Plants require
the Absorption of component
of gas streams into lean oils or
Solvent.
• The resultant rich oil is then
stripped or Denuded of the
Absorbed Materials. The
Greatest use of this operation
utilizes Hydro carbon
materials but the Principles
are applicable to other systems
provided adequate equilibrium
data is available.
MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS
TERMS USED IN DISTILLATION
PROCESS
 FRACTIONATION
• Fractionation Column is a
type of still.

• Crude oil is a typical feed for


such a Fractionation column
& from it, the column can
form simultaneously several
distillates such as Wax
distillate, Gas oil, Heating
oil, Naphta,
Naphta, & Fuel gas.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


TERMS USED IN DISTILLATION
PROCESS
 FRACTIONATION
• The feed is heated in the
furnace before it enters
the Column .
• As the feed enters in the
Column, quantities of
vapour are given off by
flashing due to release of
of pressure of the feed.
• As the vapour rise up
the column, they come in
intimate contact with
down flowing Liquid.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


TERMS USED IN DISTILLATION
PROCESS
 FRACTIONATION
• During this contact, some of
the higher componets of the
vapour are condensed & some
of the higher componets of the
down flowing liquids are
vaporised.
vaporised.
• This process is termed as
REFLUXING

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


TERMS USED IN DISTILLATION
PROCESS

 REBOILER

• The reboiler can be thought of as a pot


sitting on Heating surface of a Stove top

• In order to create & sustain two phases


Needed for the separation, Heat
exchanger must be regulated to the
Column.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


TERMS USED IN DISTILLATION
PROCESS
 REBOILER
• The Reboiler is a large heat transfer
unit that is Generally located
outside of the column shell of the
distillation column.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


DISTILLATION COLUMN INTERNALS
• Column internals are based
on the internal details i.e.
1) Plate Type.
In Plate type the lighter
hydrocarbons vapourise &
flow up through the holes
in the tray type making
the
1) Packed Column.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR PIPING

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR PIPING

A TYPICAL CROSS SECTTION OF A PIPE RACK


RUNNING THROUGH THE TOWER OF A
REFINARY PLANT
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INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR PIPING

A TYPICAL PLAN OF EQUIPMENTS LOCATED IN THE


REFINARY TYPE OF PLANTS HIGHLIGHTING
MAINTENANCE ACCESS
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GENERAL PIPING ARRANGEMENT OF
COLUMN PIPING

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF COLUMN PIPING


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SEQUENCE OF COLUMN PIPING STUDY

All the available information/ data from equipment


specification & P&I D will be written on the
elevation view of the column
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SEQUENCE OF COLUMN PIPING STUDY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


SEQUENCE OF COLUMN PIPING STUDY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


SEQUENCE OF COLUMN PIPING STUDY

STEP –
IX TO

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SEQUENCE OF COLUMN PIPING STUDY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


SEQUENCE OF COLUMN PIPING STUDY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


SEQUENCE OF COLUMN PIPING STUDY
OTHER LAYOUT
CONSIDERATIONS :-
:-
Tall Column (Here after called “
TOWERS ”) requires large
Transportation access through the
Unit facilities for lifting after
adjacent structures are Erected.
Check the foundation clearance when
locating the towers adjacent to
structures & between towers.
If additional supports are required for
the overhead vapour lines, consider
extending the structure column to
assist.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


SEQUENCE OF COLUMN PIPING
STUDY
OTHER LAYOUT
CONSIDERATIONS :-

•Where
Where possible link the Platforms &
ladders to adjacent structure, Providing the
additional access & escape Routes.
Check with stress section for Piping
Flexibility & Reboiler supports.

• Also check the Pump NPSH


Requirement while going for the Bottom
pump Piping

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


NOZZLE ORIENTATION COLUMN
PIPING STUDY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


NOZZLE ORIENTATION COLUMN
PIPING STUDY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


NOZZLE ORIENTATION COLUMN
PIPING STUDY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


NOZZLE ORIENTATION COLUMN
PIPING STUDY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


NOZZLE ORIENTATION COLUMN
PIPING STUDY

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ACCESS & MAINTENANCE FACILITY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


ACCESS & MAINTENANCE FACILITY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


ACCESS & MAINTENANCE FACILITY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


ACCESS & MAINTENANCE FACILITY

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PLATFORM & LADERS

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PLATFORM & LADERS

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PLATFORM & LADERS

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PLATFORM & LADERS

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PLATFORM & LADERS

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PLATFORM & LADERS

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PLATFORM & LADERS

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PLATFORM & LADERS

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PLATFORM & LADERS

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PLATFORM & LADERS

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PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS IN
DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING.

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PICTURES

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PICTURES

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


PICTURES

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS


CONCLUSION.
Distillation
Distillation Column is very
important from Refinery point
of view.

ItIt helps to distillate the


Petroleum Products from Crude
oil.

Thank
Thank You .

MONDAY, 24/03/2008 DISTILLATION COLUMN PIPING & STRESS ANALYSIS