A CASE STUDY REPORT ON ACUTE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

Submitted To: Name Post Hospital Name Hospital Address

Submitted By: Name Level and year of study Hospital Name Hospital Address

Date:

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CASE STUDY ............................................................................................................................... 1 HISTORY ........................................................................................................................... 1 a. Bio-data........................................................................................................................... 1 b. Present Health History ................................................................................................... 1 c. Past History .................................................................................................................... 2 d. Family History ................................................................................................................ 2 e. Socio-economic Status .................................................................................................... 2 f. Environmental Status ...................................................................................................... 2 2. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION ............................................................................................ 3 a. General Inspection .......................................................................................................... 3 b. Measurement ................................................................................................................... 3 c. Examination of Head, Face and Neck ............................................................................ 3 d. Examination of Breast..................................................................................................... 5 e. Examination of Chest ...................................................................................................... 5 f. Examination of Abdomen ................................................................................................ 5 g. Examination of Limbs ..................................................................................................... 6 h. Examination of Back ....................................................................................................... 6 i. Examination of Female Genitalia ................................................................................... 6 3. ACUTE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS ................................................................................. 7 a. Pathophysiology.............................................................................................................. 7 b. Etiology ........................................................................................................................... 7 c. Sign and Symptom ........................................................................................................... 8 d. Investigation.................................................................................................................... 8 e. Blood Test Finding.......................................................................................................... 9 f. Urine Test...................................................................................................................... 10 g. Radiological Test .......................................................................................................... 10 h. Medication .................................................................................................................... 11 i. Treatment ...................................................................................................................... 11 j. Nursing Management .................................................................................................... 12 k. Daily Progress Report .................................................................................................. 12 l. Summary of Daily Progress Report .............................................................................. 13 m. References ..................................................................................................................... 13 1.

TABLE 1 BLOOD TEST FINDING ........................................................................................................ 9 TABLE 2 URINE TEST ..................................................................................................................... 10 i

CASE STUDY 1. HISTORY a. Bio-data • Name: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Age: Sex: Occupation: Marital Status: Religious: Educational Status: Address: Date of admission: Date of discharge: Inpatient number: Hospital: Ward: Bed No: Attending Doctor: Diagnosis: Glomerulonephritis

b. Present Health History Chief complain • Fatigue • Less urine output • Edema 1

• Coughing • Joint pain c. Past History • Accident: No, any accident had been occurred • • • • Hospitalization: She was hospitalized in Baglung due to coughing, joint pain, less urine output, edema. Operation: No any operation being carried out Allergy to drugs/food/others/: No any allergy Immunization: All doses were taken.

d. Family History Family Tree

Family Medical History • No any disease in family

e. Socio-economic Status • Good relation with family and friends. • Economic status is good (Middle Class Family)

f. Environmental Status • Refuse disposal: Dumping/compost manure • Drainage system: Safety Tank 2

• •

Ventilation: Proper ventilated Fuel used for cooking: Fire wood & LPG

2. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
a. General Inspection • State of consciousness: Alert • • • • • • Gait: Balanced Posture: Nutritional status: Well nourished General build: Good Facial expression: Fair Hygienic status: Fair

b. Measurement • Height: 5 ft 3 inches • • • • • Weight: 57 kg Body Temperature: 97·4°F Pulse: 80/m Respiration: 24/m Blood Pressure: 110/80 mm of Hg

c. Examination of Head, Face and Neck Head • • • • Color and texture of hair: Black hair Cleanliness: Clean hair Pediculosis: No Abrasions/Injurious/Other: No

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Eye • • • • • • Ear • • • • Nose • • • • • Mouth • • • • • Color of lips/mucous membrane: Pink, moist mucous membrane Sores/cracks/swelling/bleeding pain of gums, tongue: No Dental carries/missing teeth, denture: White teeth, no carries and missing teeth. Cracks lips: No Enlargement of tonsils: Small tonsils 4 Discharge: No Blockage: No Bleeding: No Septal defect: No septal defect, located centrally Problem with smelling: No Appearance: Top of the pinna meets the eye occiput line Discharge/Pain: No discharge or pain Wax/redness of external auditory canals Hearing problems: No Swelling of eyelinds: Swollen Discharge: No Color of sclera/conjunctiva: White/Pink Corneal/lens/reaction to light: Yes Eye movement: Both eyes move together while following the object Vision problem: No

Oral hygiene: Good

Inspect neck for • Mobility: Full and smooth range of movement, no stiffness or tenderness

Palpate neck for • • • Enlarged lymph nodes: No Enlarged thyroid gland: No Enlarged neck veins: No

d. Examination of Breast Inspect breast for • • Condition of nipples: Good Discharge from nipples: No

Palpate breast for • Abnormal masses/lymph: No

e. Examination of Chest Inspect chest for • • • • Shape of the chest: Normal Equal movement of chest during breathing: Yes Difficulty in breathing: No any difficulty, respiration was normal and regular Chest percussion: Deep resonant sound over the lungs

Auscultate the chest for • • Breathing sounds (front and black): Breath sounds are heard in all areas of the lungs Heart sounds (4 areas): Clear and regular heart beats, no heart murmur

f. Examination of Abdomen Inspect abdomen for 5

• •

Shape: Rounded or uniform shape, scar was present Enlarged veins: No

Auscultate for • • Bowels sound: Bowel sound is present in all areas Abdominal percussion: Tympanic and dullness

Palpate the abdominal for • • • • Enlarged liver: No Enlarged spleen: No Tenderness: No Masses: No

g. Examination of Limbs Inspect/Palpate limbs for • • • Joint mobility/tenderness/redness/swelling: Good joint mobility and edema of legs and of the hand Texture of skin: Dryness Color of nails: Pinkish

Palpate axillae/groins for • Enlarged lymph nodes: Absent

h. Examination of Back Inspect back for • • Position of spine/movement: Spine is in the midline Condition of skin/prone to bedsore: No

i. Examination of Female Genitalia Inspect the female genitalia for • Swelling of labia: No 6

• • •

Sores: No Discharge from vaginal orifice: No Hygiene: Good hygiene was maintained

3. ACUTE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
Acute glomerulonephritis is a disease of kidney in which there is an inflammation of the glomerular capillaries. It is most common in child and young adults but all age groups can be affected. a. Pathophysiology Antigen antibody reaction with glomerular tissue produces swelling and death of capillary cells. Antigen antibody reaction activates the complement pathway Results in release of enzymes that attack the glomerular basement membrane Responses in the membrane increase glomerulus cells. Causing increase membrane porosity with proteinuria and haematuria Renal function is depressed by scaring and obstruction of the circulation through the glomerulus.

b. Etiology According to book • • • 5 – 21 days after an infection of the pharynx or skin by beta-hemolytic streptococci. Antigen antibody complexes are deposited in the glomerule and activated compliment. Compliment activated causes an inflammatory reaction to the injury.

According to patient • Acute Post Sterptococcal Glomerulo Nephritits (APSGN) results deposition of antigen antibody in the glomerular capillary membrane causing inflammatory damage and impending glomerular function. 7

c. Sign and Symptom According to book • • • • • • • • • General APGN begins with 1 to 3 weeks after untreated pharyngitis. Mild to moderate edema especially on the face and periorbital area Patient may have fever, headache, weakness and fatigue. Laboratory findings Azotaemia in blood (BUN and creatinine both up) Hematuria Oliguria Mild to severe hypertension may result from either sodium or water retention (caused by decreased glomerular filtration rate) Congestive heart failure due to hyperkalaemia (as a result of NA+ and water retention) leads to symptoms of pulmonary edema, shortness of breath, dyspnea and orthopnea.

According to patient • • • • • • • • Generalised body edema Oliguria Hematuria Proteinuria Periorbital edema Ascitis or peripheral edema in the legs Respiratory Joint pain tract infection

d. Investigation According to book History 8

• • •

Past and present illness Medication Health status

Physical Examination Lab Test • • • • • • Urinalysis Serum BUN Urine creatinine Clearance test ESR Renal biopsy

According to patient History Physcial Examination Lab test • • Blood test: TCDC, Blood urea, serum, Na+, K+ Urine test: Urine R/E

Radiological test • USG

e. Blood Test Finding
Table 1 Blood Test Finding

Blood Test WBC Neutrophil

Result 88000 59 9

Normal Value 4000 – 10000mm3 45 – 75%

Remark

Lymphocyte Eosinophil Monocyte Basophil

37 02 02 0

20 – 45% 1 – 6% 2 – 10% 0 – 1%

Blood Urea: 29·0 (N/v 15 – 40mg/dl) S.creatinine: 1·0 (N/v 0·4 – 1·4 mg/dl)

f. Urine Test
Table 2 Urine Test

Color Reaction A/b Sugar

Light Yellow Acidic Nil Nil

Transparency RBC Puscells Crystal (Cal-oxalate) Cast Epithelial cells

Clear Plenty/HPF 2 – 3/ HPF Nil/ HPF Nil/HPF Nil/HPF

g. Radiological Test USG • • • • There was a 28mm cyst in left adnexal area. Mode rate amount of free fluid was seen in the peritoneal cavity. Minimal fluid was seen in the right pleural cavity. Mild hepatomegally, ascities, very minimal right sided pleural effusion.

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h. Medication • Injection Taxim 500mg IV ˟ TID (A third generation cephalosporin antibiotic having a broad spectrum of activity used to treat intra-abdominal infection, bone and joint infection, Gonorrhea and other infection including Penicnillinase) • • • • Tab. Laxis 40mg 1˟morning, 1˟day Pentid 8 lac p/o 1˟6 hourly Injection Lasix IV ½ amp stat Tab Ofloxacin 200 mg 1˟BD

i. Treatment According to book • • • • • • • • • Penicillin for residual streptococcal infection Diuretics and anti hypertensive agents Corticosteroids and immune-suppressants for rapidly progressing disease. Plasma exchange and treatment with immune suppressant, corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs to reduce inflammatory response in rapid progressive disease. Dialysis occasionally necessary. Dietary protein restricted with renal insufficiency and elevated BUN. Sodium restricted with hypertension, edema and congestive heart failure. Carbohydrates for energy and to reduce protein catabolism. Fluids according to fluid losses and daily body weight and intake and output.

According to patient • • • • Complete rest was given Vitals was monitored timely Intake output was maintained strictly Edema was treated by restricting sodium and fluid intake and by administering diuretics (Laxis) 11

• • •

Protein intake was restricted. Persistent infection was treated. Antibiotics were given.

4. Nursing Management
According to book • • • • Review fluid and diet restrictions measure and record intake and output. Instruct patient to schedule follow up evaluations of blood pressure, urinalysis for protein and BUN and creatine studies to determine if disease has worsened. Instruct patient to notify physician if infection or symptoms of renal failure occur: fatigue, nausea, and vomiting, diminishing urinary output. Refer to home care nurse as indicated for assessment and detection of early symptoms and follow-up evaluations.

According to patient • • • • • • • • • Vital sign was monitored timely and was recorded in TPP chart. An electrolyte value was monitored. Renal function was assessed Intake and output chart was strictly maintained. Acute renal failure was monitored. Oliguria Azotaemia (Increased blood urea) Acidosis and hyperkalemia (K+ increased) Health education was provided about the nature of illness, diet, and medicines.

5. Daily Progress Report
2067-1-12 (Admission Day) Patient was admitted in medical ward from OPD on 2067-1-12th. Patient was conscious and her general condition was fair. Patient was kept in comfortable position. Her vitals 12

was stable and her vein was opened. All the prescribed medicines were given timely. Intake and output chart was maintained strictly. 2067-1-13th (1st Day) Patient general condition was fair. Her vital sign was stable. She was on low position diet. All the prescribed medicines was given timely. Intake and output chart was maintained strictly. 2067-1-14th (2nd Day) Patient general condition was worst than first day. She was referred to Western Regional Hospital (WRH) immediately.

6. Summary of Daily Progress Report

Patient was admitted in Medical ward from OPD on 2067-1-12th. Patient was conscious and her general condition was fair. Her vital was stable. Investigation was carried out. All the prescribed medicine was given timely. Intake and output was maintained strictly. She was on low protein diet. On the 2nd day her general condition was worse than that of first day so she was immediately referred to WRH. • • • • • • • Patient Visitors Investigation Doctor and Staffs Young J, Johnson, Brunner, Sudderth. Textbook of Medical and Surgical Nursing. 11th ed. p. 386-8. HLMC Textbook of Adult Nursing 1st ed; 2009. p. 192-3. Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, Hinkle SL, Cheever KH, Brunner, Sudderth. Text book of Medical Surgical Nursing. 11th ed. p. 1517-8.

7. References

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