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FABRIC FILTERS IN FILTRATION PROCESS
R.Senthil Kumar, Senior lecturer, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore-06, email@example.com.
1.0 Introduction: There is hardly a human activity, industrial, commercial or domestic, that is not affected by filtration. The general importance of environmental protection justifies mention of the topic here – because filtration has a major role to play in many of the schemes trying to achieve this protection. The market forces exerted by the imposition of environmental legislation are an important driver for the filtration market. This paper gives a broad outlook about the application of textile materials as filter media in the solid liquid filtration process and their structure and property relationships. 2.0 Filtration – Market Share: The usage of filtration and similar separation equipment is quite evenly spread throughout the economy, with the two largest end-use sectors being those in which the largest number of individual filters is found. The domestic and commercial sector with its many water filters (and coffee filters, and suction cleaner filters) is one; and the transport system sector with its huge number of engine filters for intake air, fuels and coolants, is the other. The sector shares of the 10 largest end user sectors are given in the below table.
Table.1 – Filtration Market Share
3.0 Filtration – Definition: Basically, filtration means the capture and retention of small particles from a moving stream of either gas or liquid, with minimum resistant to flow. Filtration conditions vary widely and also the equipment for filtration and type of filter used. 3.1 Filtration – Terms and Definition: 3.1.1 Pressure Drop Δp: Pressure drop through a filter is defined by the following expression: Δp = P1 – P2 Where P1 is the pressure before the filtration and P2 is the pressure after the filtration. 3.1.2 Filter Efficiency E: The filter efficiency is defined as a ratio between the quantity of particles retained in the filter and the number of dispersed particles found in the suspension. 3.1.3 Filter Penetration P: This parameter related to the previous one through the following expression: E+P=1 and represents the number of particles that manage to pass through the filter, in the relation to those existing in the suspension before getting through the filter. 3.1.4 Filter Capacity Q: Filter capacity is defined by the amount of particles deposited in it [expressed in g or kg] and that accumulated before a drop in pressure begins. The capacity of a filter must be specified for each particles size. 3.1.5 Cleaning Efficiency: It is the ratio of dust retained by fabric after cleaning to total dust deposited expressed in percentage. 3.1.6 Degree of Filtration: This parameter defines the ratio between a certain size particles that enters the filter and the particles of the same size that leave the filter.
3.1.7 Porosity: It is the ratio of the volume of voids to the volume of fabric Porosity = (Volume of fabric – Volume of fiber) x 100 Volume of fabric Porosity = 1 - Fabric density x 100 Fibre density 4.0 Filtration – Principle of particle retention: Filtration of particles relies on any one or more of the following principles: 1. Impaction 2. Diffusion 3. Straining 4. Electrostatics 5. Sedimentation 6. Interception Particles can be influenced by any one of these principles, or all of them simultaneously. 4.1 Impaction: As large particles move along with an air stream, their inertias prevent them from making abrupt changes in direction. If an obstruction such as a series of water droplets or fibers (glass, foam rubber, cloth, etc.) is placed randomly across the air stream path, there is a certain probability that a given particle will collide with the obstruction. As particle size and the number of particles increase, so does the probability of collision.
2 – Particle Retention by Diffusion When particles become very small. . This principle of filtration is most commonly found in fiber filters and certain wet collectors. fiber size and the number of fibers. they themselves become part of the filter media.Fig. should they collide with any air molecules. system pressure drop increases. the higher the pressure drop). 4.1 – Particle Retention by Impaction Thus the efficiency of removing particles from an air stream by impaction is a function of particle size. the higher the efficiency. This motion is commonly referred to as Brownian movement. this diffusion movement will in turn cause random collisions with fiber or droplets in the way of the airflow. is increasing. as the dust particles collect. the equivalent filter depth. thereby increasing efficiency by adding to the number of possible collisions for other suspended particles. The greater the number of fibers (thus the deeper the bed. As the collected particles build up on the filter. usually a good indication that the path through the filter. In turn.2. their mass is so low that. Diffusion: Fig. just the random motion of the air molecules will cause them to rebound randomly. If the velocity of the air stream is low.
Hence. As with impaction.3. then the particle will be stopped and held. Key factors are fiber size.3 –Particle Retention by Straining If the width of a passage is smaller than that of the particle suspended in the air stream. as more and more particles collect. probabilities can be developed for collisions due to this diffusion. Straining Fig. Small particles pass through it but bugs cannot pass through. Very small particles are seldom collected using this method which is primarily used only for specialized laboratory experiments. Electrostatics Fig. the probability of collision (efficiency) for other particles is enhanced. Such charges can be generated and imparted to particles in an air stream in much the same way as static charges develop during the . 4.3 – Particle Retention by Electrostatic attraction If a charged particle passes through an electrostatic field it is attracted to an oppositely charged body. as each particle plugs a hole. Standard house screens are typical of this filter type. 4. fiber quantity and air stream velocity. but with an associated increase in pressure drop.4. much like impaction. air resistance increases. However.
Interception: If the suspended particle radius is greater than the distance between the flow streamline which contains the particle and the collecting media grain. Charges may be purposely induced onto air stream particles by applying energy to a special configuration of wires and plates stretched across the air stream. This effect can occur inside such filtering devices as fiber beds which operate primarily on the principles of impaction and diffusion but have their efficiencies enhanced by electrostatic effects.4-Particle Retention by Sedimentation When the fluid flow is directed downwards through a filter. form a special category of air filtration. they can be valuable tools in increasing air cleaning effectiveness. Electrons are stripped from large quantities of molecules with the net effect that particles of dirt not otherwise collected might be charged by friction as they pass through.combing of one's hair or just walking across a rug.6. then the . gravitational sedimentation effects will cause particles to settle vertically through the flow streamlines. 4.5. as the latter distort around the collector. called electrostatic precipitators. These devices. Whether particle charges are induced by applying energy to a dirty air stream or occur naturally. Sedimentation: Fig. 4. then collected as they attach themselves to oppositely charged bodies.
6 . .Capture efficiency as a function of particle size in a deep bed filter The graph relating deep-bed filtration efficiency and the size of suspended particles can be explained in terms of the relative importance of diffusion.5 – Particle Retention by Interception suspended particle will contact the target.Fig. inertia and straining. Eventually straining. or sieving. as particle size increases inertial impaction becomes more relevant and efficiency increases again with size. becomes the dominant mechanism.7 Filtration . At low particle diameter removal efficiency is mainly due to diffusion. This effect becomes less relevant at higher diameters. However. 4.Collection Efficiency: Fig. in the absence of any repulsive mechanisms.
through the clean filter medium is proportional to the pressure differential ∆P imposed over the medium.1 Filtration Resistances: There are several resistances to permeate flow during membrane filtration. The most well known resistance is that of “concentration polarization”. particle penetration into cloth or membrane pores leads to an increase in the resistance of the medium to the flow of filtrate. Generally. the velocity is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the flowing liquid µ and the resistance of the medium. from free filtering sand-like particulates to high resistance sewage sludges. This process can ensue to the level of total blockage of the system such difficulties can be avoided. These relationships may be expressed mathematically as: Filter cake resistances vary over a wide range. A large proportion of industrial-scale process difficulties relate to the interaction between the impinging particles and the pores in the filter medium.0 Filtration Fundamentals: A successful selection procedure is closely linked to the proper choice of the medium to be used in the separation. the smaller the particle. . where all separated particles are retained on the surface of a medium is often not realized.5. The ideal circumstance. The filtrate velocity V. 5. if the pores in the medium are all smaller than the smallest particulate in the mixture processed. If the membrane is successful in retaining the suspended material at its surface there must be a concentration gradient between that surface and the bulk flow of feed suspension. the higher will be the cake resistance.
Any further increase in pressure does not increase the concentration but may increase the depth of the deposit at the membrane surface. as implied by permeability expressions. Hence resistance to permeate flow increases when any effect that increases the concentration at the membrane surface occurs. During filtration suspended matter might become attached to the pore channel of the membrane thereby reducing the flow channel dimension. suspended solids do form filter cakes that may have similar properties to the gel layer resistance. but with the possibility of variable deposit depth. Hence. or . This resistance is often called that of the “gel layer”.Filtration resistances during microfiltration and ultrafiltration Resistance to permeate flow increases with suspended solids content. The membrane. usually as transmembrane pressure is increased.7 . However. The concentration at the membrane surface may reach a maximum or limiting value. there is an additional resistance to concentration polarization owing to the constant-concentration layer at the membrane surface. This term is more applicable to ultra filtration rather than micro filtration as polymers and very fine species are more prone to formation of deposits of roughly constant concentration at low solid concentrations. even in the absence of any suspended material will have a natural flow resistance that may be determined during a clean liquid flow test.Fig.
i. 5. and this is defined below. usually. The amount of solids inside the bed is clearly important.2 Fluid Flow through Porous Media The fundamental relation between the pressure drop and the flow rate of liquid passing through a packed bed of solids. such as that shown in below figure. the greater this is the larger will be the surface over which liquid flows and. therefore. some penetration of the membrane takes place and the effective membrane resistance has to be deduced in situ. These last two effects lead to resistance terms that are due to adsorption and pore blocking which also provide a substantial resistance due to deposit formation. As it flows over the surface of the solid packing frictional losses lead to a pressure drop. If the membrane acts as a true surface filter then the membrane resistance will remain constant but. The liquid passes through the open space between the particles.8 .pores may become blocked off altogether.e. Fig.Schematic diagram of porous media . the higher the pressure drop will be as a result of friction. the pores or voids within the bed. was first reported by Darcy in 1856. The volume available for fluid flow is called the porosity or voidage.
and a stable suspension results – which may then need decontaminating. This relationship is strictly true only for spherical particles falling while isolated from one another by some distance. 5. terminal velocity by a particle falling freely through a fluid. whose value. porosity is the void volume fraction so these two fractions sum to unity. Non-spherical particles are accounted for by the use of an effective diameter (often determined by the reverse process of measuring a terminal velocity and calculating back to the diameter). is given by: 1. Stokes law holds well enough in the case of fluids with a low solids concentration such as concerns a study of contaminant removal. This is because of the development of a constant. is: ● directly proportional to the square of the particle diameter ● directly proportional to the difference between particle and fluid densities ● indirectly proportional to fluid viscosity. then the particle effectively does not settle out. in terms of its size and its relative density. This is usually the volume fraction of solids present within the bed C.In many solid-liquid separations the use of solid concentration is often preferred to porosity. .8 x 10-5 x d2 metres per minute where d is the particle diameter. Hence solid volume fraction concentration is: C=1-ε Darcy discovered that the pressure loss was directly proportional to the flow rate of the fluid. The settling velocity in air of a spherical particle.3 Particle settlement: The critical factor in the creation and maintenance of dust-laden air or particle contaminated water is the nature of the particle. If the particle size is small enough so that the terminal velocity is very low. whose specific gravity is 1. expressed in µm. or if there are random movements in the fluid at velocities in excess of this terminal figure. as demonstrated by Stokes law.
Continuous Filtration: Here the continuous Filtration is carried out of solutions. High Concentration Filtration: Here the solid content in the solution is greater than 10%.9 – Classification of Filtration 6. In wet filtration free flow of liquid through media is not restricted but solid particles are easily stopped through the textile used. .0 Classification of Filtration based on application: Fig. 6.2 Classification of Wet Filtration: Low Concentration Filtration: Here the solid content in the solution is less than 10%.6.1 Wet Filtration: Filter fabrics used for separation of solid particles from liquids in the form of cake are known as wet filtration.
6.0 Filter Media: Fig. The filtration efficiency of various filter media are given below: .10 – Particle Transmission by various Filter Media The successful performance of a filter is largely dependent on the selection of a suitable filter medium. 7.3 Dry Filtration In Dry Filtration. Discontinuous filtration: Here a fixed volume of solutions is filtered as a batch wise process. impinging particles should be larger than the pores in the medium. Thus in “cake” filtration. The filtration mechanisms invoked in separations using such media will depend mainly on the mode of separation. Large numbers of nonwoven or woven bags are used and by the means of fan pure air is filtered out. ideally. the dusts are removed by using bag filters.
its abrasion resistance. the fabric performs very little of actual filtering. low penetration of dust in the fabric and cost. As far as fabric is concerned.2. low pressure collection efficiency. . low pressure drop.Table. tensile strength and permeability should be considered.1 Factors Considered For Filter medium Selection: The following factors relating to the filtration medium must be considered in the selection of textile filter: Composition Temperature Nature of Particulate Matter Fineness of Particulate Matter Concentration of Particulate Matter Loading on the Filter Surface The fabric should process greatest possible collection efficiency.Filtration efficiency of various filter media 7. So the fabric should be able to permit the development of a loose and porous cake on its surface and also to release the cake during cleaning. it provides substratum or matrix for the primary dust cake to form. In the case of fabric filters. which in turns collects the particulate and allows air to flow through the fabric. small filtering area. chemical resistance.
Aromatic polyamides (aramid) have gained some importance in the production of non woven filter materials with their high heat resistance.2 Fibres Used in Dry and Wet Filtration Media: The selection of the type and fineness of the fibre is largely governed by the following circumstances prevailing in filtration: Temperature Humidity Chemical conditions Composition and size distribution of dust particles If the operation temperature does not exceed 150°C polyester is generally used.3 – Properties of various Fabric Filters Polypropylene with its low thermal resistance is little used. If the resistance to hydrolysis of polyester is inadequate then acrylic is used.7. Table. Wool fabrics are more resistant to acid than cotton and are used in the collection of the . Cotton fabrics are used extensively where gas temperature is below 80°C and acid gases are absent.
but at the same time sensitive to alkaline slurries. etc. The most widely used fibre in dry filter media is polyester (approx. has a maximum service temperature of 280°C. PTFE (polytetrafluoroethyelene) is virtually resistant to chemicals. Polypropylene is more used for wet filtration but is. Polyamides yarns exhibit good abrasion resistance but are sensitive to acid particulate. The excellent mechanical.70%).metallurgical fumes and for fine abrasive dust such as cement.Limiting Factors of Fibres used in filtration . Aliphatic polyamides are of only major importance as polyester performs equally well at lower cost.4 . nitric acid. 7. It has been stated that polyester is reasonably resistant to acid condition. physical and chemical properties of synthetic fibres offer high performance characteristics in the filtration process itself.3 Limiting Factors of Fibres used in filtration: Table. sensitive to oxidizing agents such as chlorine.
8.0 Fabric Structure used in Dry and Wet Filtration: 8.1 Woven Cloth as Filter Media: Fabrics make up the largest component of filter media materials. Better resistant to effects of elevated temperature and moisture. . following types of woven fabrics are used. and are characterized by being relatively soft or floppy. Full resistance to rot during the out of operation of the filtering system. Monofilament fabric. More efficient rinsing of the filter cloth in the filtering systems and washing in the washing machines.The use of filter cloth made of synthetic fibres brings the following advantages: Greater filtrate purity and improved hygiene condition of filtration process. Easier and more rapid drying. Reduced fabric weight owing to the higher strength of constituent materials. They are made from fibres or filaments of natural or synthetic materials.11 – Woven Fabric Filter In this. such that they would normally need some kind of support before they can be used as a filter medium. lacking the rigidity of dry paper. Fig.
one-over pattern.2 Woven Filter Cloth from Monofilament and in weaving. and water filtration and screening.). Combination of spun & multifilament woven fabric. The plain-weave monofilament cloth has been produced by warp and weft yarns of the same diameter. Fig. e. polyester. polyamide.g.1. Cloths of different patterns are produced on the loom by varying the manner in which the warp and weft yarns are woven together. 8. woven together in a simple one-under. The structure of woven filter cloths depends on the type of yarn used same. Spun yarn woven fabric. in oil. staple fibre and mixtures of the Multifilament: The yarns in these cloths are composed of solid polymeric material (polypropylene. Yarns are available in several forms: monofilament. Multi filament fabric.Types of Weaves in Woven Fabric Filter These cloths are available in a wide range of pore sizes from 5000 to about 30 µm. the lower limit being determined by the size of fibre available for the weaving process. etc. paint. These cloths are characterized by pores of an open type which create little flow resistance and many applications are found in areas where high flows are required.12. Such . multifilament.
reduce pore size. possess very smooth surfaces which are optimal for cake release. The underside layer of coarser fibres provides support. is involves heat treatment and calendaring in order to flatten the surface.cloths are readily cleaned by back-flushing. but preserve the construction by way of reducing any tendency to shrink or stretch in service. have little influence on overall productivity-at least in the range 1x108<Rm<1x101. Thus the advantages of high throughput and ease of cleaning must be weighed against the fragile nature of the medium. these fabrics are light in weight and would be easily damaged if used directly in pressure filters. 8. Thus a partially blinded medium may still function quite satisfactorily in a system controlled by α.1 Filter permeability: The permeability is the reciprocal of the resistance to flow offered by the filter thus. unused medium 2) The particle-stopping power of the medium 3) The permeability (or resistance) of the used.2 Criteria to Evaluate Filter Media: Three criteria by which a medium may be judged are: 1) The permeability (or. high permeability represents a low resistance and vice versa. 8. e. Unfortunately. which is directly . changes in the weave are available to alter the size (and shape) of the cloth pores. Modern trends are to produce composite weaves from fine and coarse monofilaments in the production of a surface layer with good release properties and non-blinding characteristics.g. The surface of the fabric can be modified by finishing.g. Permeability is usually expressed in terms of a permeability coefficient. e.At high levels of α. sateen weaves. assist drainage and promote attachment or caulking of the cloth onto the filter platform. inversely the resistance) of the clean. Cloth of this type.2. In order to produce apertures finer than mentioned above. greater than lx1012m/kg (characteristic of sludge-like material) changes in Rm. or deposited medium The filtration process involves two principal resistances: (a) the resistance of the filter cake “α” and (b) the resistance of the medium “Rm”.
filtration area) ● fluid temperature. A separate series of pressure drop curves can be set up with respect to: ● filter size (i. Fig.proportional to the product of flow rate. an increase in filter area will reduce the pressure drop across the filter.e. fluid viscosity and filter medium thickness. Fig. and inversely proportional to the product of filter area and fluid density.13 – Effect of Filter Size on Flow rate and Pressure Drop For a given flow rate. and so a lower pressure drop will be . which gives the permeability coefficient the dimension of a length.Effect of Fluid Temperature on Flow rate and Pressure Drop The operating temperature of the fluid will affect the pressure drop across the filter because the fluid viscosity will change.e. and ● filtration time (i. because the amount of fluid flowing per unit of filtration area is decreased (pressure drop is inversely proportional to filter area).14 . A less viscous fluid will experience less resistance to flow through the medium. degree of contamination of the medium).
with a decrease in temperature causing a rise in pressure drop.15 – Effect of Filtration Time The effect of prolonged filtration time is to produce a cumulative build-up of collected solids on or in the filter medium.2. the latter is directly related to the porosity (free space per unit volume of fabric) of the medium. pressure drop is inversely proportional to temperature. thus reducing permeability (and increasing flow resistance) in direct proportion to the amount of solid collected. Fig.Typical values of air permeability of fabrics Most manufacturers report the permeability of their fabric measured by the flow of air as a measure of particle retention.5 inch w. Thus the flow (ft3 min-l or m3 s-1) per unit area (ft2 or m2) under a constant pressure differential (0. As a result.g. .needed to drive it. or 1693 Pa) is taken as a measure of the permeability. 8.5 .2 Typical values of air permeability of fabrics: Table.
it may be shown that: where B is the overall permeability of the cloth and dy is the yarn diameter. .2. i. monofilament. If we define B0.Fig. 8.e.16 . low particle retentivity. fluid flow may occur through or around the permeable yarns. A monofilament cloth will have a coefficient of unity since A high Ω value points to a large percentage of flow passing through the yarn. The Ω index has been shown to vary in the range 1 < Ω < 20 within the order of accuracy of the experimental measurements necessary for the determination of B and B0. as the permeability of the porous yarns. in turn.Retention characteristics of Woven Media Thus a high permeability is taken as an indication of high porosity and. and B1 as the permeability of the cloth if the yarn were solid.3 Multifilament Cloth Permeability: In multifilament cloths.
6 . In these cases. 8. cotton. etc.2. the smooth character of the so-called continuous filament (CF) is replaced by the hairy random staple fibre (SF).4 Monofilament Cloth Permeability In the monofilament area much more success in correlating permeability with cloth structure has followed the suggestions of Pedersen .Table. who adopted orifice-type formulae to correlate pressure-drop-flow information for various weave patterns. .Typical Multifilament media properties The problem of correlation of the permeability of multifilament materials is aggravated in media made from natural materials such as wool.
the effective fraction open area of the pore is: a = A0 (ec) (pc) in which (ec) = warp yarns per centimetre (pc) = weft yams per centimetre A0 = effective area of orifice The discharge coefficient was anticipated to be a function of the Reynolds number within the fabric.7 .Monofilament Cloth Properties .Fig.17 – Monofilament fabric Permeability A discharge coefficient was defined as: where a. Table.
8. 8.2 Effect of yarn type and weave pattern: In view of the wide range of process variables involved in the filtration process. and the shape of the particle causes it to become firmly lodged in the pore. C) Inter-yarn plugging by fine solids. These contrasts with the inevitable non-plug filling of inter yarn pores which are created by the weave pattern used. When such solids are carried into the yarn they become trapped and are difficult to remove by back-flushing. These sites become areas of retention of smaller. slimy materials which normally would bleed through the medium.3. Fig.1 Loading of yarns with pores: The space between filaments in multifilament media will become filled with solids if the particle size involved is commensurate with the pore sizes in the fabric.3 Operational aspects of Woven media in filtration process: 8.3.A) Blinded multifilament cloth: B) After cleaning. back-flushing can remove the deposits. D) Inter yarn pore plugging by larger solids The pore plugging effect of commensurately sized particles is depicted in the above figure. it is virtually impossible to select a filter medium that will satisfy all process .18. Unless these pores are firmly plugged with relatively larger material.
filtrate clarity) may have to be relaxed.9 -Effect of Yarn type on Filtration property . one particular requirement (e.Weave to meet filtration requirement In this respect.e. if other specifications (e. i.requirements and the usual limited time scale available for cloth selection is used to find an acceptable medium. one that will satisfy most.g. if not all of the requirements. filtrate rate.g. absence of blinding) are to be maximized. Table.8 . Table.
The effects of twist on the percentage of fluid flow through the yarns and the reduction in cloth life by permanent blinding is given in below table These data apply to 60/70 denier yarns. plain.. elongated shape. 8. In these cases. despite the tendency to bleed. promoted an interest in high-twist multifilament cloths woven in such a way as to ameliorate the associated problems of cake release. depend on the weave pattern. sateen. Again. This trend was reported in mining operations where cloth replacement was dramatically improved with monofilament cloths. Swelling of fabrics can change the nature of flow in that closure of the cloth pores can force an increasing amount of flow through the yarns.3 Effect of Fabric Construction: The relative amount of flow through and around the yams in such cloths will depend on the degree of twist imparted to the yam and the size of the apertures between yams. high initial filtrate velocities can produce a permanent plugging of the pore.3.. twill. monofilament characteristics are not without problems. but may have poor particle retention. The latter will improve in the order monofilament < multifilament < staple fibre.10 – Effect of Weave pattern on Filtration Property Thus the more open weave fabrics will be superior in nonblinding characteristics.Table. At the same time. caused by penetration of solids into the fabric led to the adoption of monofilaments. filtrate clarity was not a major requirement. In circumstances where coarse solid exactly fits the pores in the monofilament or high-twist yarn. particularly by particles of a nonspherical. . etc. in turn. where the denier is the mass in grams of 9000 m of yarn. The early blinding difficulties experienced with plastic yams. The aperture size will. the relatively poor mechanical properties of monofilaments such as stretching wrinkling or tearing.
11 –Effect of Twist of Yarn on Particle Flow The number of yarn turns necessary to produce an impervious yarn diminishes with increase in yarn denier. multifilament high twist cloths are usually returned to the original porosity (permeability) by back-flushing.Table. Table.0 Factors Influencing Filter Cloth selection and performance: 9. 9. This simulates monofilament behavior. which just fit the cloth pores.12 – Effect of yarn denier on cleaning cycle and cloth life High-twist yams are advantageous if compressed air is used for cake discharge.1 Filter size The size of a filter needs to be selected with regard to the acceptable pressure drop and the cycle time required between successive cleaning or element . In the absence of plugging by large solids.
At the same time. In the majority of cases this is not a severe problem.e. Thus an oil bath filter. This may or may not be a critical factor. however. It must also be free from fibre migration. In conditions of heavy contamination.2 Compatibility Other essential requirements for the filter element are complete compatibility with the fluid and the relating system. 9. due to its large dust-holding capacity. Larger or heavier particles are deposited in the oil bath on entry.4 Cloth Shrinkage Shrinkage of the cloth can produce severe problems particularly with plate and frames and the larger recessed plates. as even paper elements may be impregnated or treated so as to be compatible with a very wide range of fluids. particularly for polyamides. 9. Repeated cloth washing/drying cycles aggravate the shrinkage problems. a chemically compatible element. whilst the scrubbing of the air by the large area of oil-wetted surfaces removes the remaining dust. 9. i. It is sometimes recommended not to dry out cloths. Compatibility with the fluid means freedom from degradation or chemical attack. storing wet if possible. mechanical compatibility is also necessary to ensure that the element is strong enough for the duty involved.3 Contamination levels The level of contamination in the fluid may also affect the type of filter chosen for a particular duty. so that clogging is slowed down. after washing. for example. This is closely bound up with the type of element and filter medium employed. may be preferred to a dry element in a particularly dust-laden atmosphere. .replacement. a filter element with high retention properties may clog too quickly for economic use. or alternatively a different type of element with better collecting properties. such as an internal combustion engine operating under desert conditions. calling for a much larger size than normal.
which may involve discharge of a relatively thin cake by peeling apart the cloth and solids. The latter may absorb up to 4% by weight. All these considerations call for cloths of great strength whilst retaining high-level filtration characteristics. breaking load figures of 900 N/cm (warp) and 350 N/cm (weft). Thus the cloth may be subjected to as much stress in days. etc… c) Oven treatment of relaxed cloth or mild tension feeding through the oven The shrinkage process has to be carefully controlled.Preshrinkage of fabrics is. say. with serious consequences for closely fitted plates. discharge and cloth washing may be short (5-6 minutes) in the modem autovariable chamber unit. This will maintain the original levels of cloth porosity. These figures may be compared with cloths of the same size in mechanized units: 1800 N/cm (warp) and 1600 N/cm (weft). therefore. this may be compared with 0. in view of the large structural changes of up to 15% shrinkage which can ensue in relaxed conditions. usually also involves high-pressure squeezing during the dewatering cycle. This is particularly true for those yarns with poor absorption characteristics (nylon). 9. . Automation. respectively. widely practiced in order to retain dimensional stability in service. The increase in fibre diameter and length causes dimensional change in the cloth. permeability. air blowing. pressing. Spun staple yarns are reported to shrink less than comparable fabric woven from filament yarns. a traditional strong polyester fabric suitable for use on large plates (40x40 in) in slow or manual systems would have. For example. with fabric under tension in warp and weft direction. in modem units. compared with months in manually operated systems.5 Cloth Stretching Absorption of liquids causes swelling of fibres and yam. Preshrinkage can be effected in a number of ways: a) Use of hot (boiling) water with medium in a relaxed state b) Heat setting in an oven. The complete cycle of filling.4% for terylene.
The effectiveness of discharge will depend on: 1) The strength of the bond between the cake and cloth. The adhesion of particles dispersed in liquids is mainly the result of electrostatic and vander waals interactions.19 –Bridge formation between solid surfaces The adhesion force created by liquid bridges has received attention. On the other hand. . this is influenced by cake: stickiness and yarn/weave characteristics. An understanding of the failure of the release mechanism follows consideration of the balance between the forces causing adhesion of the cake to the medium and the discharge forces. Fig. in maintaining a low down-time in the overall ‘batch’ time.9. chemical bonding also plays in important role. The bonding force depends on the mode of deposition of the first layer. When a liquid bridge is extended by increasing the distance between the solids. particle separation and volume of liquor. these studies show how the liquid bridge force changes with drying. the ratio of adhesion force F to surface tension y is related to particle size. the bridge becomes unstable and breaks at a particular separation.6 Filter Cake Release: Adequate cake release is a fundamental pre-requisite in efficient pressing operations.
If the cohesion of the latter is less than the adhesion to the cloth. Melt Blown media are one of the most versatile nonwovens for liquid filtration.20 – Dry laid Filter Media Dry laid process is a technology in which fibres are uniformly dispersed in air. deposited and transported onto a continuous moving fine mesh screen and then made to form a mat as a result of filtration. The first method is dry laid processes. 3) The applied discharge force (e. which is generally done on a paper machine.2) The internal strength of the cake. Each process produces a media with unique properties that have advantages in different applications.g. They can be classified into two distinct types based on their method of formation. needled. Melt blown media is generally composed of a continuous network of . Dry laid processes generally produce media with nominal ratings that are low cost and have high dirt holding capacities.0 Non-woven fabrics as Filtration Media: The Nonwoven fabric media vary by materials of construction. processing method and performance characteristics. gravity discharge from a vertical surface).1 Dry Laid Media: Fig. 10. spunbond and melt blown media. the cake will fail internally and leave solids on the cloth. which includes carded. The moisture content will vary across the depth of the cake. The second process uses a wet laid formation. 10.
one to the other.Wet Laid Media Wet laid Nonwovens technology involves uniformly dispersing short cut fibres in water. The resulting media has a uniform porosity. and then forming a mat as a result of the removal of water. does not shed fibers and contains no binders. transporting the slurry onto a continuous moving fine mesh screen called the wire. Bonding can be effected .3 Characteristics of Nonwoven Filter media: The high porosity of nonwovens is an advantage in producing a high retention capacity for depth filters..21.self-bonded polypropylene. 10. Melt blown media have nominal ratings from 1μm to 50μm. can be improved by sealing the fibres. to produce a rigid network.2 Wet Laid Media: Fig. 10. The web then undergoes further water elimination through drying. Thus the wet strength and overall resistance to fibre shedding. adhesives or surfactants. A major objective of wet laid nonwoven manufacturing in filtration is to produce structures with known pore size and filtration characteristics. etc. polyester or nylon microfibers produced with a controlled fiber uniformity and density. These filters usually contain bonded fibres.
iv) 0. The air permeability decreased with the increase in fabric weight due to more number of fibers per unit area.3 dtex). Generally speaking. ii) 40 µm Polypropylene (13.by the inclusion of adhesives or by heat setting.4. The fibre mixture may include a small proportion of low melting point material. 10.03-8 µm Glass (100% glass media used in laboratory liquid separation and in gas filtration). A medium which as been heavily calendared on both sides will possess the lowest porosity. Surface treatments and/or use of laminations of different porosities are aimed at improving cake filtration performance and cake release.1 Effect of Fabric Weight Fabric weight which is generally measured in gm/m2 play an important role on performance of non woven filter fabric. Both the permeability and filtration characteristics of nonwovens are dependent on the felt porosity and fibre diameter.3 dtex where the latter unit is the weight in grams at 10 000 m of fibre). A wide variation in fibre diameter exists. Also due to increased fabric density the resistance to air flow increases.4 Factors Influencing the Air Permeability of Non Woven Filter: 10. . other factors being the same. random array. the filtration efficiency at a particular particle size is inversely proportional to the fibre diameter. The latter is inherent in spunbonded fabrics. With increase in fabric weight the pressure drop increases thus improving the filtration efficiency. iii) 30 µm Cellulose (may be fibrillated to produce fine fibre attachments or fibrils). These involve the extrusion of molten polymer into cylindrical filaments which are dispersed by hot gas flow into a tortuous. Examples are: i) 10 µm Polyester (1.
4.3 Effect of Synthetic and Cellulosic Fibers Blend: This figure shows the particle retention of the different media types using AC test dust. The coarse particle retention does show a trend of improving as the synthetic content in the media increased. . The abrasion resistance of the fabric increases with the increase in fabric weight due to the increase in compactness and density of fabric. The cellulose/synthetic blends and the 100% synthetic media have similar particle retention and the synthetic composite media is slightly lower but the cellulose media had poor particle retention. The density had a more significant influence on air permeability than either thickness or fibre size. Thus causing less freedom of fibre movement and greater frictional resistance. 10. This is due to the increase in no. The bursting strength also increases with the increase in fabric weight due to the increase number of fibres which play an important role in resisting the bursting pressure. leading to increase in no. Air resistance increased with fabric thickness and fabric weight per unit area. But the breaking elongation decreases gradually in both bias and cross direction with the increase in fabric weight. There can be no general correlation between porosity and permeability because the permeability of a material is influenced by the capillary pressure curves.The tenacity at break increased with the fabric weight in both bias and cross direction. of fibres in the web. of vertical loops and density and entanglement.4.2 Effect of Fabric Density and Thickness The air permeability decreases non-linearly as thickness or fabric density increases. There are no clear trends with the fine particle retention. 10. but decrease with fibre fineness.
felt and woven cloth. there will. 11. 11. nevertheless.22 – Particle retention capacity of various fibres in nonwoven Filter Media The dirt holding capacity performed as expected based on the standard paper airflow or resistance testing. Figure shows the increasing dirt holding capacity with increasing synthetic content. There are many different methods in which performance may be specified in this way. The cut-off point thus refers to the diameter. be a particle size cut-off point above which no particle should be able to pass through the filter. and quantitative information as to filter performance must always be associated with the corresponding test methods used. Some types of filter media. and so do not have an absolute rating.0 Filter Ratings: Filters are rated according to their ability to remove particles of a specific size from a fluid suspension. have a variable pore size.Fig. If the filter medium has an exact and consistent pore size or opening. usually expressed in micrometres (µm). then this cut-off point can be termed an absolute rating.1 Absolute Rating: Given that a filter may not be able to remove all of a suspended solid. The effective cut-off is . The dirt holding capacity improves with the addition of 15% synthetic fiber to a cellulose based media. such as paper.
largely determined by the random arrangement of pores and the thickness of the medium. Figures typically quoted are at the level of 90. 11. 11. The filter efficiency at this particle size can then be determined from the beta ratio: Ex = 100(ßx . the more particles of the specified size.2 Nominal rating A nominal rating is an arbitrary value for the performance of a filter. determined by the filter manufacturer.3 Mean filter rating A mean filter rating is a measurement of the mean pore size of a filter element. It also represents a nominal efficiency figure for the filter. or greater. and expressed in terms of percentage retention of a specified contaminant (usually spherical glass beads) of a given size. 11. Nu is the number of particles per unit volume larger then x μm upstream. 95 or 98% retention of the specified particle size. more realistic than an absolute rating. in the case of filter elements with varying pore sizes. It follows that the higher the value of the beta ratio. but the lack of uniformity and reproducibility has caused this measure to fall into disfavour.4 Beta ratio The beta ratio is a rating system introduced with the object of giving both filter manufacturer and filter user an accurate and representative comparison among various filter media. The beta ratio is then: ßx = Nu / Nd where: ßx is the beta ratio for particles larger than x μm. It is the ratio between the number of particles per unit volume above a specific size in the suspension upstream of the filter to the same parameter in the flow downstream of the filter.1) / ßx . Many filter manufacturers use such tests. and. It is far more meaningful than a nominal filter rating. are retained on the filter. Nd is the number of particles per unit volume larger then x μm downstream.
it can be calculated from the beta ratio.The beta ratio and the corresponding efficiency are illustrated in given Table in a test where the filter was challenged with 1 million particles per unit volume. .Beta ratio and Efficiency 11.13 .6% or better relative to a particle size of x µm. thus a beta ratio ßx > 75 specifies a filter efficiency of 98. with a rating expressed as a beta ratio. The classic method of determining filter efficiency is by the bead challenge test.5 Filter efficiency: The nominal rating of a filter can be expressed by means of this efficiency figure. Given as a percentage. or directly from the particle number count: Ex = 100 (Nu-Nd)/Nu specific to a particular particle size. Table.
. This driver affects the filter medium more than the filter itself. Textile filter media play a major role among those filter medium.0 Conclusion: Due to the ever increasing demand on pollution control and contamination free process.0 Applications of Filter Fabrics: Table.11. whose increasingly precise businesses continually demand finer and finer degrees of filtration.13 – Applications of Fabric Filters 12. yarn and fabric parameters are needed to satisfy the precise customer’s technical and economical considerations. The constructive and in-depth research on textile filter media in terms of fibre. Another major driving force for change in the filtration business comes from the end-users. fabric filters plays a major role in the filtration process.