What is an electromagnet?

• An electromagnet can be made by sending an electric current through a coil of wire wound around an iron core.

Magnetic field

• Determine the direction of magnetic field around a current- carrying wire current-

Plan View of the Magnetic Field

1. Straight wire,
• A magnetic field will be generated when a current flows through a wire. • The magnetic field forms by straight wire are concentric circles around the wire.

Strength of the Magnetic Field
The strength of the magnetic field form by a current carrying conductor depends on: 1. the magnitude of the current. A stronger current will produce a stronger magnetic field around the wire. 2. the distance from the wire. The strength of the field decreases as you move further out.

2. Coil
• Grip the wire at one side of the coil with your right hand, with thumb pointing along the direction of the current. • Your other fingers will be pointing in the direction of the field.

Factors affecting the strength
There are 2 ways to increase the strength of the magnetic field: • increase the current and • increase the number of turns of the coil.

3. Solenoid
• A solenoid is a long coil made up of a numbers of turns of wire.

Strength of the Magnetic Field
The strength of the magnetic field can be increased by • Increasing the current, • Increasing the number of turns per unit length of the solenoid, • Using a soft-iron core within the solenoid.

Application of Electromagnet

Electric Bell
• When the bell push is pressed, a current flows in the coils of the electromagnet, causing it to be magnetized. • The magnetized electromagnet attracts the soft-iron armature, causing the hammer to strike the gong. • The movement of the armature breaks the contact and causes the electromagnet to lose it magnetism. The light spring pulls the armature back, remaking the contact and completing the circuit again.

Magnetic Relay
• A relay has at least two circuits. One circuit can be used to control another circuit. The 1st circuit (input circuit) supplies current to the electromagnet. The electromagnet is magnetised and attracts one end of the iron armature. • The armature is then closes the contacts (2nd switch) and allows current flows in the second circuit. When the 1st switch is open again, the current to the electromagnet is cut, the electromagnet loses its magnetism and the 2nd switch is opened. Thus current stop to flow in the 2nd circuit.

Circuit Breaker
• Acts as an automatic switch that breaks open a circuit when the current becomes too large. • In a household circuit, the current may become excessive when there is a short circuit or an overload. • The strength of the magnetic field of the electromagnet increases suddenly. • The soft iron armature is pulled towards the electromagnet. This results in the spring pulling apart the contacts. The circuit is broken and the current flow stops immediately. • The reset button is pushed to switch on the supply again

Telephone Earpiece
• When you speak to a friend through the telephone, your sound will be converted into electric current by the mouthpiece of the telephone. • The current produced is a varying current and the frequency of the current will be the same as the frequency of your sound. The current will be sent to the earpiece of the telephone of your friend.

Force on a Current-carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field

Catapult Force
• When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the interaction between the two magnetic fields will produce a force on the conductor which called a catapult conductor, force.

Fleming's Left Hand Rule (Motor Rule)
• The fore finger, middle finger and the thumb are perpendicularly to each other. • The forefinger points along the direction of the magnetic field, • middle finger points in the current direction. • the thumb points along the direction of the force force.

Strength of the Catapult Force
The strength of the force can be increased by: • Increase the current • Using a stronger magnet

Force between 2 current carrying conductor
• When 2 current carrying conductors are placed close to each other, a force will be generated between them. • If the current in both conductors flow in the same direction, they will attract each other, • whereas if the currents are in opposite direction, they will repel each other.

Turning Effect of a Current-carrying Coil in a Magnetic Field
• If a current carrying coil is placed in a magnetic field, a pair of forces will be produced on the coil. • This is due to the interaction of the magnetic field of the permanent magnet and the magnetic filed of the current carrying coil.

Electric motor

Electric motor
• Electrical energy mechanical energy • Types of motor: 1. Alternating current motor ( a.c motor) ~ work on an alternating current supply 2. Direct current motor (d. c motor) ~ work on an direct current supply

Direct Current Motor
• The function of the commutator is to change the direction of the current in the coil and hence change the direction of the couple (the 2 forces in opposite direction) in every half revolution. • This is to make sure that the coil can rotate continuously.

Direct current motor ( D.C. Motor)

• Determine the direction of motion of the conduct AB .

Horizontal position

• The direction of force/ motion can be determined by using Fleming’s Left-hand Rule.

• What will happen to the direction of the rotation if the direction of the current flow is reversed?

Moving coil meter

Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic Induction
• When a magnet is moved into and out of the solenoid, magnetic flux is being cut by the coil. • The cutting of magnetic flux by the wire coil induces an e.m.f in the wire. • When the solenoid is connected to a closed circuit, the induced current will flow through the circuit.

Faraday's Law
• Faraday's Law states that the magnitude of the induced e.m.f is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux through a coil or alternatively the rate of the magnetic flux being cut.

Lenz's Law
• Lenz's Law states that the induced current always flows in the direction that opposes the change in magnetic flux.

Fleming's Right Hand Rule (Generator Rule) • Fleming's Right-Hand Rule is used to determine the direction of the induced current that flows from the wire when there is relative motion with respect to the magnetic field

Direct Current Generator
• A simple d.c generator essentially the converse of a d.c. motor with its battery removed.

DC Generator - Display of the Voltage in a CRO
• Initially the armature is vertical. No cutting of magnetic flux occurs and hence induced current does not exist. After rotating by 90°, the armature is in the horizontal position. The change in magnetic flux is maximum and hence the maximum induced e.m.f is produced. At the 180° position, there is no change in flux hence no induced current exists. The induced current is achieves its maximum value again when the armature is at 270°. After rotating 360°, the armature returns to its original position. The current in the external circuit always flows in one direction. This unidirectional current is known as direct current.

• •

A.C generator
• Generator can be modified to an a.c generator by replacing its commutators with two (separate) slip rings. • The two slip rings rotate in tandem with the armature. Carbon brushes connect the armature to the external circuit.

AC Generator - Display of the Voltage in a CRO
• • The armature is initially at the vertical position. No magnetic flux is cut and hence no induced current exists. When the armature rotates, the change in magnetic flux increases and the induced current increases until its maximum value at the horizontal position. As the armature continues on its rotation, the change in magnetic flux decreases until at the vertical position, no induced current exists. Subsequently upon reaching the horizontal position again, the induced current is maximum, but the direction of the induced current flowing through the external circuit is reversed. The direction of the induced current (which flows through the external circuit) keeps on changing depending on the orientation of the armature. This induced current is also known as alternating current. The current is positive (+) in one direction and negative in the other (-). The slip rings play a critical role in the generation of alternating current.

Differences between DC and AC generator

D.C and A.C Current

Direct Current
• Direct current is uniform current flowing in one fixed direction in a circuit. • The magnitude of a direct current can be either uniform or varying with time. • Direct current (d.c) is usually supplied by acidbased batteries or dry cells.

Alternating Current
• Alternating current is a current which changes its direction periodically in a circuit. • Alternating current (a.c) is generated from alternating current generators such as hydroelectric power generators. Its magnitude also changes with time.

Root Mean Square Voltage
• The effective potential difference for an a.c is equal to the potential difference of a alternating current if both results in the same heating effect. • The effective potential difference for a.c is known as the root mean square voltage (r.m.s) of the a.c. and is given y the following equation:

Direct Current and Alternating Current with Capacitor

• A direct current (d.c.) cannot flows through a capacitor. • An alternating current (a.c.) can flows through a capacitor Therefore : • A direct current (d.c.) causing no effect on the moving coil loudspeaker. • An alternating current (a.c.) can cause a moving coil loudspeaker functioning properly.

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