PREFACE

In the name of Allah, the most gracious, the most merciful, we have started this project of compiling different themes of Surah Hujrat by a research work on them. Main source of our information is undoubtedly the internet but we have gone through several books to proceed with our task. Our sole purpose is to get a firm grip on this Surah of Holy Quran by acquiring a full understanding on it. It’s an assurity that the whole document is written in our own words. This is a pure copy of our own research work, exempting any type of copying. Copied material is referenced accordingly.

Authors

Acknowledgement
First of all we would be thankful to Allah Almighty without whose blessing and mercies we were never ever able to complete this project. Projects are the team work. This project is refined from splendid efforts of many people who contributed regardless of any reward. We thank them from the core of our hearts. May Allah give them success by leaps and bounds. We can’t forget the guidance’s and knowledge which our kind teacher have provided us. We were lucky to have such a kind teacher who taught us and with such devotion and zest, which we could not forget. We thank him from the core of our hearts.

In the end we would like to thank to all those people who provided us with useful suggestions, useful data and facility of composing.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Initialization ……………………………………………………………… 1
Introduction ………………………………………………… 1 Brief history and overview………………………………… 1 Verse 1………………………………………………………………......... 2 Priority of Allah’s command and will……………………… 2 Verse 2………………………………………………………………......... 4 Manners to interact with prophet…………………………. 4 Penalty of ‘disrespect to Prophet’……………………….... 5 Verse 3……………………………………………………………….......... 5 Rewards promised by Allah……………………………….. 5 Verse 4,5……………………………………………………………….......6 Etiquettes of calling the Prophet………………………….. 6 Verse 6……………………………………………………………….......... 8 Verification of a certain news or report…………………... 8 Verse 7,8……………………………………………………………….......12 Challenging Prophet’s decision……………………………12 Verse 9………………………………………………………………...........14 Peace and Equity……………………………………………14 Verse 10……………………………………………………………….........16 Unity and brotherhood………………………………………16 Make peace and reconciliation between Muslims.............19 Verse 11………………………………………………………………......... 23 Islam against mockery and calling out names.................. 23 Verse 12………………………………………………………………..........28 Spying and backbiting……………………………………… 28 Backbiting…………………………………………………… 32 Repentance from Backbiting……………………………… 34 Verse 13……………………………………………………………….......... 35 Islam forbids discrimination……………………………….. 35 Universal Brotherhood……………………………………... 36 TAQWA(piety) …………………………………………….... 37 Verse 14, 15………………………………………………………………..... 39 Show off faith………………………………………………… 39 Obedience of Allah and His messenger………………….. 40 True Believers……………………………………………….. 41 Verse 16,17,18……………………………………………………………… 43 Conclusion……………………………………………………. 44

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Introduction
This is a research work on the main themes of “Surah Hujrat”. We have proceeded in detail by focusing on one verse at a time. Through various references and books, our research has been brought into compilation. This is the 49th chapter of Holy Quran comprising of eighteen verses. The surah takes its name from the 4th verse in which the word “Hujurat” has been used. This Surah is the collection of commandments sent on different occasions, which have been put together due to the relevancy of theme. A brief history and significance of this Surah is as follows:

Brief history and overview
The Surah was revealed in the 9th year of the Hijrah, after the fall of Mecca. With the Fall of Mecca, Islam became a great political power and large masses of people entered its fold. It was the need of hour that the newly converted Muslims should be taught good manners and morals. The Surah teaches Muslims those good manners and morals. It also deals with some social evils which find their way into a materially-advanced and wealthy society (the Muslims had become such a society after the conquest of Arabia) and speaks of the accession to Islam of great political power and material wealth. Naturally, and quite appropriately, it embodies regulations for the settlement of international disputes. It opens with strict injunctions to Muslims to show full regard and respect to the Holy Prophet which befits his status as a great Divine Messenger. They are further enjoined not only to anticipate his decisions but also to give unquestioning obedience to him. They should not raise their voices above his voice; this not only constitutes bad manners but also shows lack of proper respect for the Leader. The Surah, then, warns Muslims to be on their guard against giving credence to false rumours, as such rumours are calculated to land Muslims into very awkward situations and lays down, in brief words, rules on which a League of Nations, or a United Nations Organization, can be built on sound and solid foundations. Surah emphasizes the significance of universal brotherhood among Muslims. Next, it mentions some social evils which, if not guarded against and effectively checked in time, are calculated to eat into the vitals of a community and undermine its whole social structure. Of these social evils the common ones are suspicion, false accusation, spying, and backbiting; and most pronounced and far reaching in their evil consequences are conceit and pride born of a false sense of racial superiority. The Qur'an recognizes no basis of superiority but of piety and righteous conduct.

In this section, the main themes of eighteen verses of “Surah Hujrat” are brought into focus. Verses are chronologically ordered.

O ye who believe! be not forward in the presence of Allah and His Messenger, but fear Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing

PRIORITY OF ALLAH’S COMMAND AND WILL
This is the foremost and basic demand of faith. If the person who regards Allah as Lord and accepts Allah‟s messenger as his guide and leader, can never have the attitude of giving his own opinion and viewing precedence over the decision of Allah and His messenger. That is why it has been said, “O believers do not go „in advance‟ of Allah and His Messenger”. That is to say, „donot go ahead of them or donot precede them‟. This command is not confined only to individual matters of the Muslims but it also applies to their collective affairs. This is in fact fundamental article of Islamic law, which can neither be set aside nor ignored by a Muslim government, nor by a Muslim court, nor by a any parliament. An instance has been related by chain of transmitters, saying that when the holy prophet was sending Hazrat Mua’dh bin Jabal to Yemen as a judge, He (PBUH) asked him: “By what will you decide the matters?” He submitted: “By the book of Allah.” The Holy Prophet said: “if you do not find the command concerning the matter in the Book of Allah, what will you turn to?” He replied: “To the sunnah of Allah‟s Messenger.” The Holy Prophet asked: “If this also fails you?” He replied: “Then I shall exert and find out the solution myself.” There upon the Holy Prophet placed his hand on Hazrat Mua‟dh‟s chest and said: “Thank God Who has helped His \messenger‟s deputy to adopt the way that is approved by His Messenger.” [1] On some other instances, related by Hazrat Aufii (R.A): “It‟s forbidden to say something in front of Prophet‟s message”. Related by Hazrat Muja hid (R.A): “Until the Prophet himself speaks on a specific matter, remain quiet.” [2]
[1] Abu Da’ud, Kitab ul Kuz’a), Thirmizi, Kitab ul Ahkaam [2] Al- Bukhari, Kitab Tafseer

This giving of precedence to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger over one‟s own exercise to find out the solution and to turn to them first to obtain guidance is the thing that marks the distinction between a Muslim judge and a non-Muslim judge. Likewise, in the matter of legislation also there is absolute consensus that the first and foremost source of the law is the Divine Book and after it the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah. Even the consensus of the entire Ummah cannot go against or remain independent of them, not to speak of the individual reasoning and endeavour to interpret law. And those who will adopt this attitude will have to deal with God and pay the consequences.

O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the Prophet’s voice, nor speak to him loud as you speak loud to one another lest all your works be rendered void, while you do not know.

MANNERS TO INTERACT WITH PROPHET
This verse of Holy Quran teaches etiquettes to the people who sat among the audience of the Holy Prophet or came to visit him. Its intention was that the believers should treat the Holy Prophet with the highest respect and reverence when visiting him and talking to him. Nobody should raise his voice louder than his: the people should not be unmindful of the fact that they are addressing the Messenger of Allah, and not the common man, or a person of equal rank. Therefore, there should be a marked difference between one‟s tone of conversation with the common people and one‟s tone with the Prophet, and no on e should talk to him in a voice louder than his. Prophet‟s companions, who already were so respectful to him, became more alert after the revelation of this verse. Its related in an instance: There was once a sahabi Hazrat Thabith ibn Qais(R.A), whose voice was naturally very loud. After the revelation of this verse he became very upset and became to weep with deep misery. The Prophet called for him and asked the cause of his misery. He said: ‚O prophet, my voice is loud, i am afraid this verse is revealed for me. And according to it I am ruined.‛ The prophet consoled him and gave him ‚basharat‛ of leading an exemplary life, dying a martyr and entering Jannah (Heaven). [1] Although this etiquette was taught for sitting in the Holy Prophet‟s assembly, the later people should also observe the same respect and reverence on the occasion when Holy Prophet‟s name is mentioned, or a command of his is stated. Besides, this verse also points out what attitude people should adopt when talking to people of higher rank and status.
[1] Rooh Al Ma’ani

PENALITY OF ‘DISRESPECT TO PROPHET’
This verse shows what high position the person of the Holy Prophet occupies in Islam. No one besides the prophet, whatsoever his rank and status maybe, has a position that he behaves unmannerly towards him. Person committing this act deserves the same punishment in the sight of Allah, which is in fact the punishment of disbelief. In the case of ordinary people, it is at the most a rude act or an uncivilized conduct, but in respect of Holy Prophet a little lack of reverence is such a grave sin that can destroy all the services of one‟s lifetime. For the reverence of Holy Prophet is indeed the reverence of God who has sent him as His Messenger.

Those who lower their voices in the presence of Messenger of God, are infact those whose hearts, Allah has disposed to piety. For them are forgiveness and a great reward.

REWARDS PROMISED BY ALLAH ALMIGHTY
Only those people give due reverence to the Messenger of Allah who have passed successfully through the tests and trials set by Allah and proved by their steadfastness that their hearts indeed possess TAQWA(piety). From this it automatically follows that the heart which is devoid of reverence for the Prophet is in fact devoid of piety, and the person raising his voice louder than prophet‟s is not only an uncivilized but it is also a sign of the absence of taqva from his heart. In this verse God says that people, who will respect my messenger, will be bestowed with three things. Firstly; we will fill their hearts with piety. Secondly; will forgive their past sins. Thirdly; they will be greatly rewarded.

O Prophet, those who call out to you from outside the apartments, most of them have no sense.

If only they had patience until you came out to them, it would be better for them. Allah is All-Forgiving, All-Merciful.

ETTIQUETTES OF CALLING THE PROPHET
The people who in the blessed time of the holy Prophet had received training in Islamic etiquettes and manners under the Holy Prophet, had a full regard for Prophet. They fully realized how busy he remained in performing the mission entrusted to him by Allah; they also understood well that during those tiresome activities, he must necessarily have some time for rest and also time for attending to his domestic affairs. Therefore, they would come to visit him only at the time when he was available outside his house. And if ever they did not find him outside his living quarters, they would sit and wait his emergence and would avoid giving him trouble of coming out of his house unless there was a special need for it. But many times it also happened that the people from far flung areas would come to visit the holy Prophet with the idea that the one who invited others to Allah and was working for the reformation of the people had no right to rest at any time. They had the right to visit him any time they pleased in the day or night, and it was his duty that whenever they happened to arrive he should be ready to receive them. Some of these people were so uncouth and impolite that they would not take the trouble to inform him of their arrival through some attendant, but would start shouting from outside the apartments of his wives to call him out. This sort of behavior troubled him much, but he was tolerant. At last Allah had to intervene Who reproved the people of their uncivilized manner and gave this instruction: whenever they come to see the Prophet and do not find him, they should wait for him patiently until he come out to them himself, instead of shouting to call him out from the house. It‟s related that: Once a man called the Prophet by his name, O Muhammad! O Muhammad! But Prophet did not reply. So he said that: ‚My praising is cause of

greatness while my condemning is cause of humiliation.‛ Prophet replied, ‚This existence/attribute is of Allah alone.‛ [1] fifth verse continues to relate that whatever had happened until then will be overlooked and forgiven by Allah and He will not hold those people accountable for the trouble they had been causing to His Messenger on account of His mercy and kindness. But they should not repeat such behavior is future.

[1] Masnad Ahmad 477; vol 3, but this hadith lies in category of zaeef

O ye who believe! if an unrighteous person brings you any news, ascertain the correctness of the report fully, lest you harm others in ignorance, and then become repentant for what you have done.

Verification of a certain news or report
It is not right to believe in every news blindly and to act according to it, without due thought. If information is received about a person, a group or a community, it should be seen carefully whether the means of the information is reliable or not. If the means is not reliable, it should be tested and examined to see whether the news is authentic or not before taking any action on it. ALLAH (S.W.T) ordered investigating the news that sinners and the wicked bring, to make sure of its authenticity. Otherwise, if the sinner's word is taken for granted and a decision is based on it, regardless of whether the information is true or not, the authorities will be taking the lead of the sinners. Allah (the Exalted and Most Honored) forbade taking the path of the corrupted and sinners. This is why groups of the scholars of Hadith refuse to accept narrations from narrators whose reliability is unknown, for they might be from among the wicked people, in reality. Based on this ruling scholars have taken great pains in verifying any religious information, including the ahaadeeth, by means of attesting the chain of narrators, their good character and righteousness. History relates that Banu Mustaliq was plotting against the Prophet (pbuh). It was because of this that the Prophet (pbuh) took the initiative to invade first. A portion of the tribe was killed in the battle, while the majorities were taken as captives. The members of the tribe were divided and given to the Muslims as slaves. Juwairaiya (R.A), the daughter of the chief, Al-Haarith, was married to the Prophet (pbuh). The companions felt ashamed of keeping her people as slaves, while she was married to the Prophet (pbuh), therefore all of her people were freed. It is said there was no women who did her people a greater favor than Juwairaiya(R.A) because of this. Muhammad (pbuh) gave dawah to Al-Haarith and he accepted Islam. He then told Al-Haarith to invite the rest of his tribe to Islam, and to collect zakah from them. Al-Haarith agreed and asked the Prophet (pbuh) to send him a messenger to collect the zakah. A date was set when the Prophet (pbuh) would send a messenger to collect it. The time arrived and no one arrived to Al-Haarith, so he thought that the Prophet was displeased with him and his tribe. He sent a group of people to meet the Prophet (pbuh). In the meanwhile, Al-Waleed bin Uqbah (R.A) was sent by the Prophet to collect the zakah

from Al-Haarith. On his way, he heard that Banu Mustaliq were armed and on their way to the Rasul. Upon hearing this, he assumed they were on their way to kill him. He went back to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him that Banu Mustaliq refused to give zakah. The Prophet (pbuh) became infuriated with this. He dispatched an army to go and fight Banu Mustaliq. The Prophet (pbuh) himself did not go out. The two groups met in between and were about to engage in a battle, but Banu Mustaliq surrendered. They asked the army why the Prophet (pbuh) was not pleased with them. They were informed it was due to their rejecting to pay the zakah. The two groups returned to the Prophet (pbuh) and saw the Prophet was upset. The Prophet (pbuh) asked Al-Haarith why he refused to pay zakah and tried to kill the messenger sent to him. Al-Haarith replied, ‚By the one who sent you the truth, I did not see him nor did he come to me, and the only reason I came was because I feared that your reason for not contacting me was due to Allah’s displeasure with us.‛ Al-Waleed ibn Uqbah was asked about this, and he admitted to the truth. Immediately Allah revealed this ayat to reprimand the Prophet (pbuh), and confirmed Al-Haarith and his people‟s intention. Everyone was blamed in this ayat; the person who made an assumption, the person who invented the story and the people around the Prophet (pbuh) including himself. Allah informed them they should not have reacted in the way they did, rather the information should have been verified first. Any news that comes to you, you can do one of the three things:    accept it reject it verify it

Don‟t reject the news instantly, before verifying it. If it is rejected by our shar‟iah, you reject it, if it is not, then accept it. But if it comes from the People of the Book, don‟t accept nor reject unless you can verify it. Elements of news:    Information itself; writer, who they are attributing to; source must be credible. Information needs to make sense Information must have principle of shar’iah

There are two concerns for the faasiqeen (transgressors)   The person may be wicked, having a bad agenda. Immediately what they say is rejected. The person may not be wicked, but the person has a problem in their accuracy. That is why ahl alHadith when looking at a narrator narrating a hadith, not only question the faith of the person, but also the level of his accuracy.

If not sure what to do, use istikhara for your decisions.

Two things that ALLAH (S.W.T) loves: 1. Forbearance 2. Deliberation Authenticating and confirming the news is the responsibility of the person who receives it. If a person is going to act upon it or make decision because of it, then the news must be investigated first. This can take on many levels:   The most critical of all is the level of the society and leadership Is the judge. A Judge in Islam cannot rule based on a testimony

When a person is called upon to judge between two, he must listen to both sides before issuing an answer. This can be seen in the following story of Dawood (pbuh).

When they entered the presence of David, and he was terrified of them, they said: "Fear not: we are two disputants, one of whom has wronged the other: Decide now between us with truth, and treat us not with injustice, but guide us to the even Path........."This man is my brother: He has nine and ninety ewes, and I have (but) one: Yet he says, 'commit her to my care,' and is (moreover) harsh to me in speech.".........(David) said: "He has undoubtedly wronged thee in demanding thy (single) ewe to be added to his (flock of) ewes: truly many are the partners (in business) who wrong each other: Not so do those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and how few are they?"...and David gathered that We had tried him: he asked forgiveness of his Lord, fell down, bowing (in prostration), and turned (to Allah in repentance). [1] [1] surah sa’ad(38), verse 22,23,24

Allah sent Dawoud two people, who were actually angels in the forms of human beings. After only listening to one side, Dawud realized that this was a test from Allah and he made sujood right away. His mistake was that he did not listen to the other party involved. One of the rights of a Muslim is if they have asked for your advice, go and research and give them advice. Anytime anyone relays good news to another, it does not have to be verified (if it comes from someone known to be trustworthy). On the other hand, when someone conveys something negative, then he must come with evidence, supporting his claim. It is from the believer‟s good character to keep him from doubtful matters or situations that may raise some suspicion about him. Human are prone to pass judgment. That is why it is not allowed to pass judgment about others, but rather all news must be verified first.

Know it well that the Messenger of Allah is among you. If he were to obey you in most affairs, you would certainly be in trouble. But Allah has endeared the faith to you and made it seem fair in your hearts and made disbelief, wrongdoing and disobedience abhorrent to you.

Such are those who are rightly guided through Allah’s grace and Allah is All-knowing, All-wise.

CHALLENGING PROPHET’S DECISION AND LEADERSHIP
This verse of Holy Quran directs us to an instance. This is evident from the context that Holy Prophet was hesitant to take any military action against the Bani al-Mustaliq on the report given by Walid bin Uqbah in their case, but some of the people insisted that they should be attacked at once. At this, those people were warned that they should not forget that the holy Prophet was present among them, who understood them better than they did. Therefore, their thinking that the prophet should act according to their counsel in important matters was undue boldness. For, if he started acting according to their counsel in important matters was undue boldness. For if he started acting according to what they counseled, it would generally lead to blunders for which they themselves would have to suffer. That is the reason Allah says in Holy Quran:

“If anyone contends with the Messenger even after guidance has been plainly conveyed to him, and follows a path other than that becoming to men of faith, We

shall leave him on the path he has chosen, and consign him to Hell, what an evil refuge!‛ [1] This verse clarifies that the whole community has not committed the error that was committed by those few people who wanted the holy prophet to act as they wished. The believing community‟s remaining steadfast on the right path was due to the reason that Allah by His bounty and grace had endeared to them the path of faith and made unbelief, wrongdoings and disobedience abhorrent to them. The addressees in the two parts of this verse are two separate groups. From this it cannot be concluded that those who had insisted on their own opinions were devoid of the love of the Faith, but what becomes obvious from this is that they had become forgetful of this demand of the Faith because of which they made the error of insisting on their own opinion in the presence of the Holy Prophet. Therefore Allah warned them of their error, then of its evil consequences, and finally stated that the right attitude for the believer was the one that had been adopted by the generality of the companions. Its related that once Holy Prophet said: “Islam is present but Faith is inside the heart.” Then he directed towards his chest three times and said: “TAQWA is here, piety‟s place is here.”[2] In the Last ayat, Allah says that He doesn‟t bestow His bounty and favour blindly, but He grants this great blessing to whomever He grants on the basis of wisdom and His knowledge.

[1] Surah an-Nisa, verse 115 [2] Masnad Ahmad 134-135, vol 3. For more reference see verse 13, under taqwa (piety).

And if two parties of the believers quarrel, make peace between them; but if one of them acts wrongfully towards the other, fight that which acts wrongfully until it returns to Allah's command; then if it returns, make peace between them with justice and act equitably; surely Allah loves those who act equitably.

Peace and Equity
This verse tells, how we should act if a violent fight occurs between groups of Muslims. We should do our best to bring peace between the two groups, regardless of blame, and if there is a peace, to negotiate fairly between them, without blaming either of the two parties. If, however, one of them continues to fight, we should fight the warring party until it surrenders, and then negotiate a just peace between them. A hadees narrated by Hazrat Anss bin malik (R.A) ; Prophet (pbuh) said: ‚Help your brother, whether he is an oppressor or he is oppressed.‛ I asked: ‚O Allah’s Messenger! It is right that I help him if he is oppressed, but how should I help him if he is an oppressor?‛ Prophet replied: ‚By preventing him from oppressing others; this is how you help him in this case.‛ [1] And, noble, indeed is the act of making peace and reconciling between two arguing parties. In fact, it is superior to voluntary and Sunnah and nafl prayer.

[1] Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 3, #623

The Prophet (pbuh) said: O ye, Shall I not tell you of something that is better than fasting, prayer and charity? They said: Yes. He said:‛ That is Reconciling between two people, for the corruption of that which is between the hearts is the shaver (destroyer). It is the shaver, and I do not say that it shaves hair; rather that it shaves religious commitment. ‛ [1] In fact, it is so important that, although lying is haraam in and of it, yet, Allah has permitted even lying in order to reconcile between people and to remove discord and conflict. This is because of the great negative consequences conflicts and arguments have, on the religious commitment of individuals as well as communities. Umm Kalthoom said that she heard the Prophet (pbuh ) say: He is not a liar who reconciles between people, conveying good messages and saying good things. [2] She also said: "I did not hear him (pbuh) grant any concession concerning anything that the people say of lies except in three cases:    Reconciling between people War What a man says (appreciation) to his wife, or a woman says to her husband. (Muslim)

However, while making peace between disputing parties, do remember that Islam has a particular methodology and approach to this issue. It is not a matter of simple "conflict resolution". We cannot simply negotiate and compromise until we reach something agreeable to both of them because it may very well be unjust or not in accordance to Islam. As Muslims, we add Allah into the equation. Instead of evaluating the two positions in relation to each other, we have to examine each of them in relation to what pleases ALLAH (S.W.T). So when two Muslims or two groups of Muslims disagree or fight, it is upon us to call all of them to what Allah says in that matter.

[1] Al-Tirmidhi- hasan, tafseer ibn e kathir [2] Al-Bukhaari ,riyad as saliheen page 1156.Also reported by muslim

Anas(R.A) said: "Whoever made peace between two, Allah gives him for every word the [reward of] freeing a slave." Abu Umama said: "Walk a mile to visit a sick person and walk two miles to visit your brother for the sake of Allah and walk three miles to make peace between two." [1] A Muslim should avoid division and difference completely. Avoidance, hatred, rejection and envy all destroy the Muslim community and render it vulnerable to all forms of fitna. If, however, someone does get into such situations of dispute, then they have a maximum of three days after which they should solve the dispute and end the bad feeling between them. Abu hurayra reported that: The Prophet (pbuh) said: "Do not boycott one another, do not turn away from one another, do not hate one another and do not envy one another. Be slaves of Allah, brothers. And it is not allowed for a Muslim to avoid another for more than three days." [2] And further; And: Whoever forsakes his brother for a year, it is as if he has shed his blood. [3] Sa`id bin Jubayr said that tribes of Aws and Khazraj once got in a scuffle using date tree branches and slippers. Allah revealed this honorable Ayah commanding them to make peace between them. As-Suddi said, "A man from Al-Ansar, whose name was `Imran, had a wife called umm Zayd. She wanted to visit her family, but her husband prevented her from visiting them by locking her in an upper room. So, none of her family could visit or see her. She sent someone to her family. They came, took her down from the room and wanted to take her away. Her husband was absent at the time, so his family called on their people. Their cousins came to help prevent the wife from going with her family. A push and shove situation occurred that led to them fighting using slippers. This Ayah was then revealed in their case, and the Messenger (pbuh) of Allah sent someone to bring peace between them, and they both agreed to resort to the decision of Allah the Exalted.''[4]

[1] Both of them reported in tafseer ibne katir on behalf of two Sahis. [2] Al-muwatta, vol 2, hadith 907. Reported by Abu dawud and two sahis [3] Extension in previous, Abu dawud-sahee by a-baani [4] Tafseer ibn e kathir.

The Believers are but a single Brotherhood: So make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear Allah, that ye may receive Mercy.

Unity and Brotherhood
The importance of brotherhood in Islam cannot be over stressed. There are many hadiths relating to the fact the Muslims are a single united body, each part responsible for the other. Accordingly if one of the parts is injured or hurt then the rest of the body immediately feels that pain and is certainly uncomfortable at the situation until it is rectified without delay. The brotherhood of Muslims is a very deep and wide concept that guarantees the safety and well being of the Society at large. The meaning of brotherhood as we intend it is a brotherhood based on faith and respect. It is a brotherhood that exists between a large number of people who share the same beliefs and religious identity. This verse means that they became brothers by virtue of their Islam and loved one another and were united through the greatness of Allah, so they cooperated in acts of righteousness and piety.

Why did Islam establish brotherhood on the basis of faith and not on the basis of relationship or race?
The reason why Islam did not build its concept of brotherhood on blood relationship or race is because these two things have their basis in material considerations. Consequently, they cannot bring about a strong and united community that can resist the disagreements and conflicts that might tear it apart. This is especially true if the differences are ideological in nature or are based on beliefs and methodology. It has repeatedly been seen that blood brothers can be brought to kill one another when their beliefs or interests differ (e.g: Cain and Abel). In contrast, people who share the same faith or belief system can work together even though they come from different countries, speak different languages, or have different racial backgrounds. God, however, completely forbids racism. In God's sight the only superiority is a person's character, his avoiding all types of sin and rebellion, degeneracy and deviation, and the superior morality deriving from his piety. Apart from his piety no human can have any superiority to any other deriving from any of his features. God reveals this in a verse:

Mankind! We created you from a male and female, and made you into peoples and tribes so that you might come to know each other. The noblest among you in God's sight is the one with the most piety (who best performs his duty to God). God is AllKnowing, All-Aware. [1] Abu Hurayra narrates: ‚It is not lawful for a Muslim to forsake his Muslim brother beyond three days; and whoever does so for more than three days, and then dies, will certainly entre the Hell.‛ *2+ In another hadith: "All of a Muslim is sacred to the Muslim, his wealth, honor and his blood. It is evil enough for someone to belittle his Muslim brother." [3]

Allah says in holy Quran

And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favor on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, ye became brethren; and ye were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make His Signs clear to you: That ye may be guided. [4] Imam Muslim recorded the following traditions,

[1] Surat al-Hujurat: 13 [2] Abu dawud Riyad as saliheen 1595 p1191 [3] [Hadith reported by Abu dawud 5:195] [4]Surah Al-imran , verse 103

Abu Musa reported Allah's Messenger (May peace be upon him) as saying: A believer is like a brick for another believer, the one supporting the other. [1] Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Verily, Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, would say on the Day of Resurrection: O son of Adam, I was sick but you did not visit Me. He would say: O my Lord; how could I visit Thee whereas Thou art the Lord of the worlds? Thereupon He would say: Didn't you know that such and such servant of Mine was sick but you did not visit him and were you not aware of this that if you had visited him, you would have found Me by him? O son of Adam, I asked food from you but you did not feed Me. He would say: My Lord, how could I feed Thee whereas Thou art the Lord of the worlds? He said: Didn't you know that such and such servant of mine asked food from you but you did not feed him, and were you not aware that if you had fed him you would have found him by My side? (The Lord would again say) O son of Adam, I asked drink from you but you did not provide me. He would say: My Lord, how could I provide Thee whereas Thou art the Lord of the worlds? Thereupon He would say: Such and such of servant of Mine asked you for a drink but you did not provide him, and had you provided him drink you would have found him near Me. [2]

Make peace and reconciliation between Muslims
There are several forms of mutual fighting between Muslims and each has its own separate injunctions: (a) When both the fighting groups may be the subjects of a Muslim government: In this case it is the duty of the government to make peace between them, or to decide as to who is the aggressor between them, and to compel him by use of force to revert to the truth. (b) When the parties may be two powerful groups, or two Muslim governments, and both may be fighting for the sake of the world: In this case, the believers should absolutely refrain from taking part in the fitnah and should exhort the parties concerned to fear God and desist from fighting. (c) When one of the belligerent parties as mentioned under (b) above may be in the right and the other the aggressor, who may not be listening to counsel nor be inclined to make peace: In this case believers should side with and support the party that is in the right against the aggressor.
[1] Book 032, Number 6257) [2] (Book 32, Number 6232

(d) When one of the parties may be the subjects, who may have revolted against the government, i.e. the Muslim government: The jurists use the term "baghi"(rebel) for this very party which is guilty of rebelling. In this case believers should side with and support the party that is in the right against the aggressor. A Muslim's faith is dependent upon his attitude towards other Muslims. If one who professes to be a Muslim does not wish for his Islamic brother what he wishes for himself, he does not have true faith. It is an evil deed for one Muslim to abuse his brother in the faith. It is unbelief in Allah (s.w.t), Muhammad (pbuh), and the Last Day for one Muslim to murder a fellow Muslim.

In order to prevent discord between the Muslims brothers following things should be kept in mind:
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If a Muslim is incorrect in his words or actions, do not embarrass or degrade him in correction; instead, kindly guide him to the Truth. Your brother's reaction to the truth is of no concern and should not stop you from speaking the truth in an appropriate manner. It is not kindness to withhold the truth from someone, but it is not kindness to dispute over a non-fundamental issue either, once the facts have been presented. And if you don't have facts to back up what you're saying, don‟t say it, or you will likely be the cause of fitnah! Look at each difference as a learning opportunity and be sure to have your proof and facts together before challenging a Muslim, especially one whom you have no reason to believe to be non-trustworthy (such as if he is an established person of bid'a, or an established liar and has not told enough lies to re-establish himself as a truth-teller). To avoid quarrels, sincerely ask questions to seek the Truth, just as the Muslim reverts does before accepting Islam. The pious Muslim may dispute the facts and have no desire to tear apart the person with whom they disagree, but rather, rush to hide any sins of their fellow Muslim and stick to discussing the relevant evidence in Quran and Sunnah. Stop thinking you have to force your views on others, as though this is love. It is love to tell them, but what they choose to do with Truth is up to them. But surely Allah, swt, has already decided who will choose guidance and who will choose misguidance. Be humble. Stop talking about it, actually be it. This not only applies to the person who realizes their views were weak, but also to the person who presents the truth Repent to Allah (s.w.t) for any fitnah you have created when speaking without having facts to back you up

Ans bin malik relates a hadith: Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said, ‚Help your brother, whether he is an oppressor or he is oppressed.‛ ‚I asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! It is right that I help him if he is oppressed, but how should I help him if he is an oppressor? He said:

‚By preventing him from oppressing others; this is how you help him in this case.‛ [1] It is important to relate here that making peace between Muslims is of such a great importance that false hood and lying is permissible in case of making conciliation. Umm kalthum narrates, Messenger (pbuh) of Allah said ‚A liar is not the one who tries to bring about a reconciliation between the people a nd speaks good to avert dispute or to convey good‛ [2]

It is important to relate here how Hazrat Ali (R.A) made reconciliation among the two muslim groups. After the demise of holy prophet (pbuh) ,some of the Muslims were gathering at a place, called "Saqifat Bani-Sa'idah" to select a new leader. The Muslim community of Madina, the capital of the Muslim state, was comprised of the natives of Madina and those who immigrated to Madina. Most of those immigrants (who are called Muhajireen) were from Mecca. The natives of Madina were composed of two tribes, namely "Khazraj" and "Ous". These natives were called "Al-Ansar" (the Helpers). There was some rivalry between the immigrants and the natives of Madina. There was, also, a rivalry between the two Madinite tribes. The conferees who were gathering to select a successor were mostly Madinites, and they were aiming at choosing one of them for the high office. Sa'ad Ben Abadah (R.A), the chief of the Khazrajites was the hopeful one. The news of the conference reached Abu-Bakr (R.A), Omar (R.A), and others from the immigrants. They hurriedly went to the conference to prevent the Madinites from implementing their scheme. In debating with the Madinites, they offered the following argument: The Prophet was a Meccan, and the Meccans are his relatives. Therefore, only a Meccan should succeed him. By virtue of the mutual jealousy among the Madinites, the Ousites deserted Sa'ad Ben Abadah and leaned towards the Meccans. Abu-Bakr was nominated immediately and the majority of the conferees pledged to him their loyalty. And so did most of the Muslims, immigrants and Madinites. Thus, Abu-Bakr became the first "Khalifa" (successor) in the history of Islam. By this, the issue between the Madinites and the immigrants was settled forever; and since then no one from the Madinites ever contended for the right of succession. But the issue was far from being settled among the Meccans themselves.
[1] Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 3, #623 [2] Al bukhari.,. riyad as saliheen , vol 2, page 1156

Ali (R.A), as we advanced, was preoccupied with the funeral of the Prophet. He was not consulted in this important matter. He and many others believed that he was not only the proper one to succeed the Prophet, but also the Prophet's nominee and appointee. Abu-Bakr (R.A) and his group had defeated the Madinites by arguing that the Meccans are the relatives of the Prophet. If relationship to the Prophet should entitle any Meccan to succeed him, Ali should be the first one to be offered the job. He is the Prophet's first cousin and son-in-law. Ali refused to join the supporters of Abu-Bakr and held out for several months. He finally joined the majority and pledged his loyalty to the new government. The situation of the Muslim State was too serious to allow a man, such as Ali, to cause any division in the Muslim community. Most of the Muslims outside Madina and Mecca rose in rebellion against the Madinite government, and a good portion of them disjoined themselves from Islam. The very existence of Islam was in danger. He, therefore, not only joined the supporters of Abu-Bakr but also took an active part in defending the state against the attacks of the rebellious elements. When Ali (R.A) gave up his claim and supported the government, the division among the Muslims disappeared.

O ye who believe! Let not some men among you laugh at others: It may be that the (latter) are better than the (former): Nor let some women laugh at others: It may be that the (latter are better than the (former): Nor defame nor be sarcastic to each other, nor call each other by (offensive) nicknames; evil is a bad name after faith, and whoever does not turn, these it is that are the unjust.

Islam against mockery and calling out of offensive names
Allah mentioned in the Qur‟an that mockery is an indecent morality and a sin and thus, believers should avoid such depravity. It is forbidden to accuse someone who is innocent; to utter lies; to slander and backbite; to call people by offensive nicknames; to spread gossip and malicious slander; to make fun of the Muslims; to boast about one‟s status; to shed doubts on a person‟s lineage; to utter slander, insults and obscenities; to speak in an indecent or rude manner; or to utter evil in public, except by one who has been wronged. Mocking does not only imply mocking with the tongue but it also includes mimicking somebody, making pointed references to him, laughing at his words, or his works, or his appearance, or his dress, or calling the people's attention to some defect or blemish in him so that others also may laugh at him. All this is included in mocking. What is actually forbidden is that one should make fun of and ridicule another, for under such ridiculing there always lie feelings of one's own superiority and the other's abasement and contempt, which are morally unworthy of a gentleman. Moreover, it hurts the other person, which causes mischief to spread in society. That is why it has been forbidden, to make mention of the men and the women separately does not mean that it is lawful for the men to mock the women or the women to mock the men. The actual reason for making a separate mention of the two sexes is that Islam does not at all believe in mixed society. Ridiculing each other generally takes place in mixed gatherings and Islam does not permit that, non-mahram males and females should meet in such gatherings and make fun of each other. Therefore, in a Muslim society it is inconceivable that the men would mock a woman, or the women would mock a man in an assembly. Moving towards giving offensive names, This Command requires that a person should not be called by a name or a title which may cause him humiliation, e.g. calling somebody a sinner or a hypocrite, or calling someone a lame or blind one, or one-eyed, or giving him a

nickname containing a reference to some defect or blemish in him, or in his parents, or in his family, or calling a person a Jew or a Christian even after his conversion to Islam, or giving such a nickname to a person, or a family, or a community, or a group, which may bring condemnation or disgrace on it. Only those nicknames have been made an exception from this Command, which though apparently offensive, are not intended to condemn the persons concerned, but they rather serve as a mark of recognition for them. All people were created from Adam and Eve. All people, black or white, Arab or non-Arab, rich or poor, are their descendants. The most unnatural idea of all is that Allah would create all people from one common source and yet their ultimate destinies and purposes would be completely different.

There are different reasons why a person would want to insult, make fun of and ridicule other community members: Firstly; they have weak Iman (faith) and their fear of Allah is poor. This is one of the major reasons. Secondly; they spend a lot of their time in gatherings that bring no benefit. Thirdly; they themselves may want others to praise them. Fourthly; they forget the punishment for those who make fun of others. Imam Al-Bayhaqi narrates in Shu'ab al-Eman, that Prophet (pbuh) said: ‚Verily, those people that make fun of people, for them a gate of Jannah will be opened. It will be said to them, come (and enter). That person will come with all their anguish and depression, but when he gets close, the gate will be closed in his face. Then another gate (to Jannah) will be opened and it will be said, Come (and enter).So that person will come with all his anguish and depression. But when he gets close, the gate will be closed in his face. This will keep happening to him until it will get to the point where it will be said, Come (and enter), and he will not come from the despair of ever entering paradise.‛ Fifthly; those that make fun of others may do so out of love for the kuffar and a love to imitate them.

How many times do we see the comedians mocking people and everyone laughing?
Indeed, mocking others and insulting them is a characteristic of jaahiliyyah and kuffar, and it is never a characteristic of a believer. Allah ta'ala shows us in Surah Al-Mutaffifeen how this characteristic of laughing at others is a characteristic of the kuffar:

Indeed, those who committed crimes used to laugh at those who believed. [1] The seriousness of this sin varies in accordance to the subject being insulted. On the highest level of seriousness is to make fun of Allah, His aayaat, or His Messenger (pbuh) A group of munafiqeen started joking one day about sahaba ( i.e. the Companions of Allah's Messenger). They described, in ridiculing terms, that they were large in stomachs, having lying tongues and being cowardly. Allah ta'ala tells us in the Qur'an:

‚And if you ask them, they will surely say, we were only conversing and playing. Say, Is it Allah and His verses and His Messenger that you were mocking? Make no excuse; you have disbelieved (i.e. rejected faith) after your belief. If we pardon one faction of you, We will punish another faction because they were criminals‛ [2] After Allah, His aayaat, or His Messenger (pbuh), it is most serious to ridicule and make fun of the Sahaabaa. In the incident just mentioned, the comment of the munaafiqeen was actually directed at the Sahaba and the Qur'an shows us that this was a direct ridicule of Allah, His verses, and His Messenger.

From Anas (R.A) who said the Messenger (pbuh) said when he was taken up to heavens (miraaj Mubarak): “I passed by people who had copper claws tearing at their faces and chests. I asked: Who are they O Jibraeel?” He said: “They are those who ate the flesh of the people and insulted their honors”. [3] As reported in Tafseer at-Tabaree, the munaafiqeen were once sitting back watching the charity that the believers were giving.

[1] Surah Al-Mutaffifeen, verse 29 [2] Surah At-Tauba, verse 65-66 [3] Ahmad and Abu Dawud… riyad as saliheen vol 2 page 1131

To those that gave much, like AbdurRahmaan ibn Awf (R.A), they said, He only gave it to show off. For those that gave little, they said, Verily, Allah has no need for his petty offering. And so Allah ta'ala revealed in Surah At-Tauba:

Those who criticize the contributors among the believers concerning their charities and (criticize) the ones who find nothing (to spend) except their effort, Allah will ridicule them and they will have a painful punishment. [1] In addition to all the specific people mentioned, it is also most serious to ridicule humans in general. This applies to the God-fearing and the fusaaq. A believer should not humiliate people and/or use derogatory nicknames for them, nor should they ridicule their creation. Abu Musa (R.A) said: “I asked Allah's Messenger, „who out of the Muslims is the best?' He replied: „Those whom the other Muslims are safe from his tongue and hands‟” [2]

The question that begs to be asked is: What is the cure for this disease of the tongue?

It can be answered in seven ways:-

One: We should know that it is a major sin. In fact, a person may make a single statement by not paying any heed to it by which he may slip into Hellfire. Two: We should follow what our tongues are saying and not allow ourselves to stoop to vain talk. Three: We should distance ourselves from those long useless gatherings where nothing is done for hours except laughing and chatting. Instead, we should replace our gatherings with the remembrance of Allah and good speech. Four: We must glorify this deed and make enormous in our hearts the commandments of Allah ta'aala. If Allah says do not make fun of one another, our reply should be nothing more than, we hear and we obey.
[1] Surah At-Tauba, verse79 [2] Agreed upon. Riyad as saliheen vol 1 chapter.. prohibited acts

Five: We should warn others of the sin of insulting other people and making fun of them. Let us not allow ourselves to be as a silent Shaytaan listening to others being insulted. Let us speak up and say it clearly that this is not something loved by Allah (s.w.t) and His Messenger (pbuh). Proclaim that if Allah and His Messenger hate it, then so do you. Six: If you feel that you just have to insult someone, ask Allah to protect you from the Shaytaan and this satanic act. As Allah says:

And, if an evil suggestion comes to you from Satan, then seek refuge in Allah. Indeed, He is Hearing and Knowing. [1]). Seven: If anyone of us should fall into this sin, we should be swift in turning back to Allah for tauba. Say „astaghfir Allah wa atoobo ilayhi’, ‘O Allah, I ask You to forgive me and I return to You’.

Allah says in the Qur'an: And whoever does not repent then it is those who are the Zaalimoon (the wrongdoers). [2]

[1]Surah Al-Araf , verse 200 [2] Surah Al-Hujurat, verse 11

O you, who have believed, avoid much suspicion; for some suspicions are sins. Do not spy, nor should any one backbite the other. Is there any among you who would like to eat the flesh of his dead brother?' Nay, you yourselves abhor it. Fear Allah, for Allah is Acceptor of repentance and All-Merciful.

SPYING AND BACKBITING TERMED AS A GREAT SIN IN ISLAM
We need to distance ourselves from spying other people‟s faults and exposing them to others. Rasulullah (saw) said: ‚Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the worst of false tails; don’t spy on one another; donot look for others faults; don’t be jealous of one another; don’t envy one another; don’t hate one another; and do not shun one another. And O Allah’s servants! Be brothers!‛ [1] Thus, we need to guard and conceal our fellow Muslim‟s faults and should never expose and spread it to others. Allah says:

“Those who love (to see) scandal published broadcast among the Believers, will have a grievous Penalty in this life and in the Hereafter: Allah knows, and ye know not. ‛ [2]

[1] (Al-muwatta 2:907)Reported by Abu hurayra.(Two sahis and abu dawud) [2] Surah An-Nur verse 19

Abu musa al ashari(R.A) reported: I asked the messenger of Allah: “who is most excellent Among the Muslims?” he said, “one from whose tongue and hands the other Muslims are secure.” [1] A person who likes to gather knowledge of other people‟s faults, and to speak of it or to expose it to others is a Hypocrite (Munafiq). When a Muslim comes to know of another Muslim‟s fault, he should conceal it from others. Then, he should privately offer advice (naseeha) in a nice subtle way. Meaning of a hadith is: "All of a Muslim is sacred to the Muslim, his wealth, honor and his blood. It is evil enough for someone to belittle his Muslim brother." [2] ibn umar reported: if any one covers up a muslim(his sins) Allah will cover him up on the resurrection day‛ [3] Islam aims at establishing its society on clearness of conscience and mutual trust, not on doubts, suspicions, accusations and mistrust. The kind of suspicion which is a sin is the ascribing of evil motives, and it is not permissible for a Muslim to impute such motives to his brother Muslim without justification and clear evidence. Because the basic assumption concerning people is that they are innocent, a mere suspicion should not be allowed to result in the accusation of an innocent person. Human weakness is such that no one is free of suspicion and wrong thoughts especially concerning those with whom relationships are not good. However, one must not give in to such thoughts nor go beyond thoughts to action. It is important to relate here an incident: In the Arabic language this incident is called „Haadithatul Ifk‟ (the incident of the slander). It occurred after the Battle of Ahzaab in the 6th year after the hijrah, during a small expedition in which the Prophet (PBUH) participated, known as Ghazwatu Bani Al-Mustaliq, which was also referred to as „Ghazwatu Al-Muraythee‟. Imam Al-Bukhari narrated it in great detail, from none other than Aisha (R.A) herself. Aisha (R.A) narrates “After the expedition had finished and we were returning to Madinah, the Prophet (pbuh) gave orders to camp the night outside of Madinah.” Aisha (R.A) then continues to relate: “When the orders were given to encamp, I stood up and walked away from the army to relieve myself.

[1] bukhari,muslim. Riyad us saliheen p 1123 [2] Hadith reported by abu dawud vol 5, no 195 [3] Bukhari and muslim , riyad as,,, vol 1 ,244, p 240)

When I returned, I felt my chest and lo and behold my onyx necklace had broken [and fallen] so I returned to where I had been [to search for it]. I was delayed in searching for it and in the meantime the people that were assigned to carry my hawdaj had already placed it on top of the camel, presuming that I was [back] in it.” She continues: “By the time I returned to the caravan camping ground, there was not a soul in sight. So I stayed in my place and I presumed that they would discover that I was missing, and they would return for me. While I was waiting in my place, sleep got the better of me so I fell asleep. ‘Safwan ibn Mu’aqqal as Sulami’ (R.A) (one of the companions) was lagging behind the army. For some reason he was late so he was not up with the army and he walked up to my place. He saw the shape of a person sleeping, and when he saw me he recognized me for he had seen me before the revelation of the verses of the hijab. I was woken up by his exclamation of la hawla wa la quwwatta ila billaah when he recognized me, so I covered my face with my outer garment.” She then continues: “And I swear by Allah we did not speak a word to each other nor did I hear any statement from him except la hawla wa la quwwatta illaa billaah”. He lowered his camel such that I could ride on it and when I mounted the camel he guided it until we caught up with the caravan while they were encamped. That is where the rumors started spreading and the people that spread the rumors were destroyed; the leader of them was „Abdullaah ibn ‘Ubay ibn Salul.” Aisha(R.A) continues: “So we arrived in Madinah but I fell ill with a fever for a whole month. The inhabitants of Madinah were all talking about the slander, but I did not know anything about it. However, I was hurt by the fact that I did not see the tenderness I used to see from the Prophet sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam while I was sick. He would enter upon us and ask all of us, “How are all of you doing?” then he would leave. So I was doubtful but I did not realize evil was afoot.” This is indicative of both Aisha‟s (R.A) innocence, as well as the confusion experienced by the Prophet(PBUH), when the people were talking about his wife. What was he to do? He knew his wife, but the people were spreading rumors and so he became confused. But due to his nobleness, seeing that Aisha was ill at the time, he did not discuss the matter. He must have wanted to ask her, but because she was ill, he didn‟t bring it up, and visited her regularly, as per his normal pattern. Aisha informs us that the Prophet (PBUH) called Ali bin Abe Talib (R.A) and Osama bin Zed (R.A) and asked them about her. Osama testified what he knew about the Prophet‟s family, and said that they were free of this charge. Osama said, “They cannot be guilty! They must be innocent. They are your wives and we know nothing but good about them.” As for Ali, he said, “Ya RasulAllah, Allah has not restricted matters upon you and there are plenty of women beside her. Ask her maidservant; she will confirm what she knows about her.” So the Prophet (pbuh) called Aisha‟s maid servant, Barira, and asked, “Ya Barira, have you ever seen anything from Aisha that will cause you to have doubts about her?

Barira said, “By Him who has sent you with the truth, I have not seen anything from her what so ever that will cause me to have doubts about her except one thing. Except that she is a young girl who sometimes falls asleep when she is kneading the dough. And when she falls asleep, the lamb comes, eats the dough and goes away. So this is the crime that I know she does.” We learn from the above the permissibility of turning to witnesses and trustworthy people for advice. Aisha(PBUH) continues: “While we were in that state, the Prophet (pbuh) entered upon us, said salam, and sat down.. The Prophet (R.A) praised Allah after he sat and he said, „Amma ba‟d, I have heard about you such and such. So if you are innocent, then Allah will clear you of this charge, and if you have slipped into a sin then seek Allah‟s forgiveness and repent to Him, for whenever a servant does a sin, admits to it, and repents, Allah accepts his repentance from him.‟” Here we are of course reminded of the importance of repentance; no matter how severe the sin, repentance is our way out. Aisha narrates: “I was still a young girl at that time and had not memorized much of the Qur‟an, so I could not remember the name of the father of Yusuf.” So she said, “I know by Allah that you have heard these rumors, and that these rumors have settled in your heart and soul and you have believed it already. So if I were to tell you that I‟m not guilty, you wouldn‟t believe me. And if I were to admit to a crime that I did not commit, then you will believe me and think that I did it. So all I can say to you is what the father of Yusuf said. „Patience is beautiful.‟ And Allah‟s help is sought concerning what you describe.” In fact, twenty verses of the Qur‟an were revealed about her. She says: “When the revelation finished, the Prophet started laughing out of happiness.” Finally, after a whole month of torture and rumors and spreading of tales, the verses were revealed. The first words RasulAllah sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam said to her were, “Ya Aisha, verily Allah has declared your innocence.” These verses are verses 11 to 31 of Surah An-Noor. Allah says:

Indeed those who came with a falsehood amongst you are a group among you. Do not think that this was bad for you. Rather it was good for you. For every person amongst them is what punishment he has earned from this sin, and he who took upon himself the greater portion thereof, for him is the great punishment of the fire of Hell / Why when you heard it for the first time did not the mu’minoon and the mu’minaat think good of one another and say, ‚This is an obvious falsehood?‛ Why did they not bring four witnesses / And when they do not produce the witnesses then it is they in the sight of Allah who are the liars. [1] “And the man they had accused (Safwan ibn Mu‟aqqil) – when the rumors were going on he would say, „Subhan Allah, by Him in Whose hands is my soul, I have never raised the veil of any woman in my life (for at that time he had not yet been married.‟” He was later martyred.

Backbiting
Reported by abu dawud , Abu hurayra said, “it was asked‟ O Allah‟s messenger! What is backbiting? He said “Mentioning your brother in a manner that he dislikes.” He said, “what if my brother was as I mentioned? He said “If he was as you mentioned, you will have committed back biting. But if he was not as you say about him, you will have falsely accused him.[2] Gheebat (back-biting) has been defined thus: "It is saying on the back of a person something which would hurt him if he came to know of it.” This tradition make it plain that uttering a false accusation against a person in his absence is calumny and describing a real defect in him is Gheebat; whether this is done in express words or by reference and allusion, in every case it is forbidden. Likewise, whether this is done in the lifetime of a person, or after his death, it is forbidden in both cases. According to Abu Da'ud, When Ma`iz bin Malik Aslami had been stoned to death for committing adultery, the Holy Prophet (pbuh) on his way back heard a man saying to his companion: "Look at this man: Allah had concealed his secret, but he did not leave himself alone till he was killed like a dog!" A little further on the way there was the dead body of a donkey lying rotting. The Holy Prophet stopped, called the two men and said: "Come down and eat this dead donkey." They submitted: "Who will eat it, O Messenger of Allah?" The Holy Prophet said: "A little before this you were attacking the honor of your brother: that was much worse than eating this dead donkey."[3]
[1] Surah An-Noor, verse 11-13 [2] Abu dawud ch 5 , no 191 [3] Abu Da'ud.. no 4428 . Also musnad ya’la ch 6 , no 524

From Anas (Ra) who said the Messenger (saw) said when he was taken up to heavens: “ I passed by people who had copper claws tearing at their faces and chests. I asked: Who are they O Jibraeel?” He said: “They are those who ate the flesh of the people and insulted their honour”. [1]

The only exceptions to this prohibition are the cases, in which there may be a genuine need of speaking in of a person on his back, or after his death, and this may not be fulfilled without resort to backbiting, and if it was not resorted to, a greater evil might result than backbiting itself. The Holy Prophet has described this exception as a principle, thus: "The worst excess is to attack the honour of a Muslim unjustly." [2]

In this saying, the condition of "unjustly" points out that doing so "with justice" is permissible. Then, in the practice of the Holy Prophet himself we find some precedents which show what is implied by "justice" and in what conditions and cases backbiting may be lawful to the extent as necessary. Once two Companions, Hadrat Mu`awiyah and Hadrat Abu Jahm, sent the proposal of marriage to a lady, Fatimah bint Qais. She came to the Holy Prophet and asked for his advice. He said: "Mu`awiyah is a poor man and Abu Jahm beats his wives much." [3] In this case, as there was the question of the lady's future and she had consulted the Holy Prophet for his advice, he deemed it necessary to inform her of the two men's weaknesses. Hazra Aysha said: Hind bint 'Utbah, wife of Hadrat Abu Sufyan, came to the Holy Prophet and said: "Abu Sufyan is a miserly person: he does not provide enough for me and my children's needs.” [4] Although this complaint from the wife in the absence of the husband was backbiting, the Holy Prophet permitted it, for the oppressed has a right that he or she may take the complaint of injustice to a person who has the power to get it removed. From these precedents of the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet, the jurists and traditionists have deduced this principle: 'Gheebat (backbiting) is permissible only in case it is needed for a real and genuine (genuine from the Shari'ah point of view) necessity and the necessity may not be satisfied without having resort to it".

[1] Ahmad, Abu Dawud… riyad as saliheen p 1131) [2] Abu dawud, tafheem ul quran. Quran English.com [3] Bukhari, Muslim). (riyad as saliheeen 1533 , p:1138) [4] (Bukhari, Muslim, Riyadh as saliheen 1535, page 1140).

Then on the basis of the same principle the scholars have declared that Gheebat is permissible in the following cases:

   

  

Complaining by an oppressed person against the oppressor before every such person who he thinks can do something to save him from the injustice. To make mention of the evils of a person (or persons) with the intention of reform before those who can do expected to help remove the evils. To state the facts of a case before a legal expert for the purpose of seeking a religious or legal ruling regarding an unlawful act committed by a person. To warn the people of the mischiefs of a person (or persons) so that they may ward off the evil, e g. it is not only permissible but obligatory to mention the weaknesses of the reporters, witnesses and writers, for without it, it is not possible to safeguard the Shariah against the propagation of false reports, the courts against injustices and the common people or the students against errors and misunderstandings. To raise voice against and criticise the evils of the people who may be spreading sin and immorality and error, or corrupting the people's faith and persecuting them. To use nicknames for the people who may have become well known by those names, but this should be done for the purpose of their recognition and not with a view to condemn them. Apart from these exceptions it is absolutely forbidden to speak ill of a person behind his back. If what is spoken is true, it is Gheebat; if it is false, it is calumny; and if it is meant to make two persons quarrel, it is slander. The Shari'ah has declared all these as forbidden Abud-darda said: The prophet said, ‚He who defends the honor of his Muslim brother, Allah will secure his face against the fire on the day of resurrection.‛ [1]

Repentance from backbiting
As for the backbiter, as soon as he realizes that he is committing this sin, or has committed it, his first duty is to offer repentance before Allah and restrain himself from this forbidden act. His second duty is that he should compensate for it as far as possible. If he has backbitten a dead person, he should ask Allah's forgiveness for the person as often as he can. If he has backbitten a living person, and what he said was also false, he should refute it before the people before whom he had made the calumny. And if what he said was true, he should never speak ill of him in future, and should ask pardon of the person whom he had backbitten. A section of the scholars has expressed the opinion that pardon should be asked only in case the other person has come to know of it; otherwise one should only offer repentance, for if the person concerned is unaware and the backbiter in order to ask pardon goes and tells him that he had backbitten him, he would certainly feel hurt.

[1] At-tirmidhi, riyad as Saliheen: 1528, p1133

O you men! surely We have created you of a male and a female, and made you tribes and families that you may know each other; Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things).

Islam forbids Discrimination
All people were created from Adam and Eve. All people, black or white, Arab or non-Arab, rich or poor, are their descendants. The most unnatural idea of all is that Allah would create all people from one common source and yet their ultimate destinies and purposes would be completely different. All human beings, however, are created the same. Human beings carry the soul God breathed into them. Every human being, with no racial difference, thinks, feels, loves, suffers, feels excitement, and knows love, affection, and compassion. And every human being also knows tyranny, contempt, and difficulty. For this reason, all though history, those who believe people of other races to be semi-developed animals and mistreat them, those who offend, oppress, exploit even one person, and those who support these practices with the false evidence and theories they produced, have committed a great sin in their ignorance. This Verse of the Glorious Qur‟an says that… ‘O humankind, We have created you from a single pair of male and female’ that means the whole human race originates from a single pair of male and female. All the human beings in the world – they have a common grandparent. And Allah (swt) says that We have divided the human race into nations and tribes, so that they shall recognize each other, not that they shall despise and fight amongst themselves.‟ And the criteria for judgment, in the sight of Allah (swt) as this verse say: „Does not depend on sex, caste, color, creed or wealth, but it depends, on Taqwa that is God consciousness that is piety that is righteousness. Anyone who is more righteous, who is more pious, who is more God-conscious, is honored in the sight of Allah (swt) – and Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted with all things.

As related in Holy Quran: Allah (swt), Almighty God, has honored the children of Adam. (Surah israa, verse70) Allah here does not say that He has honored only the Arabs or the Americans or a particular race but Almighty God has honored all the children of Adam, irrespective of race, caste, color, creed or sex .And there are many faiths, there are many religions, who believe that the humankind has originated from a single pair – that is Adam and Eve (peace be upon them). But there are some faiths which say, that it is because of the sin of the woman, that is Eve (May Allah be pleased with her), that the human beings are born in sin – And they put the blame only on the woman, that is Eve, for the downfall of human beings. In fact the Qur‟an speaks about the story of Adam and Eve (peace be upon them) in several places. But in all the places, the blame is equally put on both of them. They were addressed more than a dozen of times‟. And the Qur‟an says that: Both of them disobeyed Allah (swt), both of them repented, and both were forgiven‟. Both are equally blamed for the mistake. There is not a single verse in the Glorious Qur‟an, which puts the blame only on Eve (May Allah be pleased with her).

Universal BROTHERHOOD in Islam
Brotherhood in Islam does not only mean that the same sexes are equal. The „Universal Brotherhood‟ in Islam means, that besides race, caste, and creed, even the sex is overall equal. Men and women are equal in Islam – but in some aspects, the men have a degree of advantage. The beloved Prophet said ‚Before starting the Salah, straighten your rows, stand shoulder to shoulder, and do not leave any gap or opening, for the devil.‛ The Prophet (pbuh) said< ‘Stand close to each other during Salah, and do not leave any opening for the devil.’ [1] The Prophet was not referring to the devil which you see televisions or elsewhere. The Prophet was referring to that devil of Racism, of Caste, of Colour and of Wealth. Irrespective whether rich or poor, whether king or pauper, when you stand for prayer; when we stand for Salah, stand shoulder to shoulder, so that the brotherhood increases – The devil of Racism, of Caste, of Color, of Creed, of Wealth, does not came in between us. Hajj is the biggest annual gathering of the world. Two and a half million people gather every year – and the person standing next to you – You cannot make out whether he is a King or a pauper. Irrespective whether you are rich or poor, black or white – from whichever part of the world you are coming, you are dressed in the same attire.

[1] Sunnan Abu Dawood, Volume No. 1, in the Book of Salah Ch. No.245, H. No.666,

And our beloved Prophet Mohammed (SAW) said in the speech of his farewell pilgrimage as he said that… „There is only one God, and no Arab is superior to a Non-Arab; nor is a Non-Arab superior to an Arab; a White is not superior to a Black, nor a Black is over the White. The only criteria for superiority is taqwa… it is righteousness, it is piety, it is God consciousness.

TAQWA (PIETY)
Taqwa is an Arabic word which is explained as a shield against wrongdoing and further expounded as to be “conscious of Allah” or to have “fear of Allah” or to be “cautiously aware of Allah”. The origin of the word Taqwa is from the Arabic root letters wa’ ka’ ya (meaning shield) and its verb is from the word “Ittaki”. Ittaki means to be careful or to be protected or to be cautious. Taqwa is an internal compass on the path that leads towards Allah. The broader meaning and character of Taqwa is to develop one‟s behavior, so as to be cautiously aware in the worship of Allah and attain nearness to Him and in so doing, perfect oneself. The messenger of Allah said in a Hadith, reported in the Sahih Muslim that, “Taqwa is here”, and he pointed to his chest. [1] Taqwa is profoundly explained in a discussion between 'Umar (R.A) and Ka'b (R.A)who were companions of the prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him: 'Umar asked Ka'b the meaning of 'taqwa,' as Ka'b was renowned for his deep understanding of the Qur'an Al Kareem. Kaab (R) then inquired from Umar (R), whether he had walked through a thorny bush path with his cloak. Umar (R) replied that he had done so on numerous occasions. Kaab (R) asked Umar (R) to describe his movements through this thorny path. Umar (R) replied that he moved very cautiously, so as not to tear his clothing. Kaab (R) said that was the description and the meaning of Taqwa. Possessors of Tawqa are called Al-Muttaqun or Muttaqeen. In the early days of Islam, one of the greatest honours was to call Muslims to prayer, or to be the Muezzin (one who calls for prayer). Muhammed Ibn Abdullah (R.A) gave this honour to Bilal in Mecca, who was a freed Negro slave. Some proud Arabs said to this, "Oh, this black Negro slave, woe to him. He stands on the roof of the Holy Kaaba to call for prayer." To this, the Prophet delivered this sermon:

[1] Muslim (16/120, 121) in al-Birr...And at-Tirmidhi (8/115) in al-Birr and Ahmad (2/277)

"God is to be praised and thanked for ridding us of the vices and pride of the days of ignorance. O people! Note that all men are divided in two categories only:  The pious and God-fearing who are esteem able in God‟s reckoning, 
The transgressors and hard-hearted, who are lowly and contemptible in the eye of God."

When giving commands regarding the Islamic Brotherhood, the Qur‟an uses a beautiful Style with a profound message. Instead of saying, "greet each other" it says, "greet yourself." [An-Nur 24:61]. Instead of saying, "do not defame each other," it says, "do not defame yourself." [AlHujurat 49:11]. Instead of saying, "do not kill each other," it says, "do not kill yourself." [An-Nisaa 4:29].

The message is clear: Whatever is happening to others in the Brotherhood is actually happening to you. Any aggression against any part of the Brotherhood is an aggression against all of it.

The Bedouins say, "We have believed." Say, "You have not [yet] believed; but say [instead], 'We have submitted,' for faith has not yet entered your hearts. And if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not deprive you from your deeds of anything. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful." ‚The believers are only those who have believed in Allah and His Messenger and then, have never doubted and have struggled with their possession and their persons in the way of Allah. It is they who are truthful.’’

Show off faith
This does not apply on all the deserts Arab but to only a few groups who had become Muslims, seeing the increasing power of Muslims that in this way they will be protected and also gain materially from the Muslims. These people had not embraced Islam heartily but had embraced Islam for only to be counted in Muslims. Their inner state became exposed when they come to Prophet (PBUH) with different source of demands and mention their rights as if they had done Him (PBUH) a great favor. Traditions mention several of such tribal groups, e.g. Aslam, Ashja Khuzairmah and Sa’id bin Jubair (Raziallah anhum) have stated that once they (Bedouins) came to Madina and making a demand for financial help. They said to Prophet (PBUH): “We became Muslims without any conflict; we did not fight against you as other tribes have fought against you”.

But from this they clearly point out that they have embraced Islam as favor and for which they had not been rewarded by the Prophet (PBUH) and by the Muslims. In these verses these Bedouins (living around Madina) have been commented.

Obedience of ALLAH (S.W.T) and His Messenger (PBUH)
Obedience of Allah should come from heart and with full commitment. The person should acknowledge that messenger is righteous and absolute. Obedience is a sure sign of one's faith in God and his total willingness to be a servant to Him. Allah says,

"O you who believe! Give your response to God and His Messenger, when He calls you to that which will give you life. And know that Allah comes in between a person and his heart (i.e. He prevents an evil person to decide anything). And verily to Him you shall (all) be gathered.‛ [1] Also,

"I will show mercy to those.......who follow the messenger, the Ummi whom they find mentioned in their own (scriptures),- in the law and the Gospel;- for he commands them to do what is just and forbids them to do what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); he releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honour him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him, who will prosper." [2]

[1] Surah al Anfal, verse 24 [2] Surah al-Araf, verse 15

True believers
In this verse definition of believers is interpreted. According to Allah only those are Momin who are true in their faith. Believers are those who believe in God in His messenger, and have not doubted. They are not uncertain of their faith. They strive with their wealth and their souls for the cause of Allah and they are true Muslims. Allah (s.w.t ) has also said in Quran,

Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with God: of them some have been true to their vows to the very end, and some still await their end: but they have never changed (their determination) in the least. [1] Allah then explained the traits of those who are true in their faith. The true believers are sincere in their faith. They only believe in Allah and His messenger and afterward doubt not in their faith. They but strive with their wealth and their lives for the cause of Allah and in obedience to Allah.

"The people who truly do believe in Our Signs are those who fall to the ground prostrating when they are reminded of them, and glorify their Lord with praise, and are not arrogant" [2] We also get meaning of loyalty to Allah and His Prophet. Quran gives us the complete account of human nature. The attributes of obedient believers oft-returning to God, and into whom God breathed His Spirit, are what make up an exalted standard of character. Surely, such a high standard of moral values pertaining to believers is in sharp contrast to that of unbelievers. Sincerity and trustworthiness throw into sharp relief the insincere and hypocritical nature of the unbelievers. Likewise, the generous, brave and modest attitude of believers is very different from the arrogant, ruthless and selfish behaviours of unbelievers.

[1] Surah al-Azhab, verse 23 [2] Surah as-Sajda, verse 15

Any how true believers have a totally different attitude. The criteria they apply to their deeds and lives plainly manifest themselves in the verse. Saying:

"Truly, my prayer and my devotions, my life and my death, are (all) for God, the Cherisher of the Worlds." [1] This means that do not inform Allah what is in your heart. He knows all the things in heavens and earth. No single grain of sand or a living thing can ever escape from Him.

[1] Surah al-An’am, verse 162

Say: "Will you inform Allah about your religion? While Allah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, and Allah is AllAware of everything.

They regard as favour upon you (O Muhammad) that they have embraced Islâm. Say: "Count not your Islâm as a favour upon me. Nay, but Allâh has conferred a favour upon you, that He has guided you to the Faith, if you indeed are true.

"Verily Allah knows the secrets of the heavens and the earth: and Allah Sees well all that ye do."
Al Hafiz Au Bakar Al-Bazzar recorded that ibn „Abbas said, Bannu Asad came to Prophet (PBHU) and said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! We embrace Islam and before that the Arbs fought against you, yet they do not fight against you, Prophet quoted this Ayah. [1] They regard as a favour upon you (Prophet (SAW) that they have embraced Islam. Tell them that Islam is a favour to them. Allah has given a favour to you and guided you to the faith Allah reminds that He has complete knowledge of all creations and that He sees them. No single thing can escape from Him. He is the seer of the entire things you do. These three ayahs continues the themes discussed in previous ayahs.

[1] Surah Al-Hujurat, verse 17

Conclusion
Thus we conclude our research for the major themes of Surah Hujrat. We tried our best to cover all the major themes, and hope it turns out to be satisfactory. I hope this research of ours bears fruit and make us strive to know what more is written in the Holy Quran.

Bibliography
1. The meaning of Quran (English) by Abu-Al-A’ala Maudodi Volume 5, published 2002. Islamic publications (pvt) limited. 2. Tafseer Zia-ul-Quran (Urdu) by Peer Muhammad Karam Shah Al-azhari. Volume 3, published 1981. Zia-ul-Quran publications. 3. Tafheem-ul-Quran (Urdu) by Abu-Al-A’ala Maudodi Volume 1-6, published 2000. Idara tarjuman-ul-Quran, Lahore. 4. Riyad-us-saliheen (English) by Al-imam Abu zakariya yahya bin sharaf an-nawawi ad-dimishqi. Volume 1 & 2. Published june 1999. Darrusalam publishers and distributors. 5. Tafseer ibn-e-kathir, abridged (English). Volume 9, published September 2000. Darrusalam publishers. 6. Sahih Al-Bukhari(English) by Muhammad Mohsin khan(translated by) Volume 9, published 1987, kitab bhavan (new dehli) 7. Articles by Haroon Yahya. http://www.harunyahya.com 8. Articles by Dr. Zakir naik. http://www.institutealislam.com 9. For Arabic text and translation, http://www.ahadees.com/arabic-surah49-18.html & http://scholaris.com/quranicindex/surah049.htm 10. Al Raheeq- Al makhtum (The sealed nectar) by Saifur-ur-rehman AlMubarakpuri. Jamia salafia, Maktaba darrus-salam publishers 11. Sahi Al-Bukhari, volume 3, book 43 http://myanmarwind.blogspot.com/2010/04/sahih-al-bukhari-vol3book-43.html

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