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Gravity Dam

Gravity Dam

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Published by Muhammad Farooq Zia
It is a presentation about the gravity dams in civil engineering. It demonstarates how to solve a gravity dam problem.
It is a presentation about the gravity dams in civil engineering. It demonstarates how to solve a gravity dam problem.

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Published by: Muhammad Farooq Zia on Jun 26, 2010
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GRAVITY DAMS GRAVITY DAMS

What is a DAM? What is a DAM?
A dam is a hydraulic structure constructed A dam is a hydraulic structure constructed
across a river or a stream to retain the water. across a river or a stream to retain the water.
It prevents the flow of water and accumulates It prevents the flow of water and accumulates
it in a deep storage reservoir. it in a deep storage reservoir.
Types of Dams Types of Dams
w.r.t materials: w.r.t materials:
‡ ‡ Earth dam Earth dam
‡ ‡ Concrete dam Concrete dam
‡ ‡ Steel dam Steel dam
‡ ‡ Timber dam Timber dam
w.r.t structural w.r.t structural
behavior: behavior:
‡ ‡ Gravity dam Gravity dam
‡ ‡ Arch dam Arch dam
‡ ‡ Buttress dam Buttress dam
‡ ‡ Embankment dam Embankment dam
w.r.t hydraulic w.r.t hydraulic
behavior: behavior:
‡ ‡ Over flow dam Over flow dam
‡ ‡ Non over flow dam Non over flow dam
w.r.t function: w.r.t function:
‡ ‡ Storage dam Storage dam
‡ ‡ Diversion dam Diversion dam
‡ ‡ Coffer dam Coffer dam
‡ ‡ Power generation Power generation
dam dam
Concrete Concrete
Gravity Dam Gravity Dam
Gravity dams are solid concrete structures that Gravity dams are solid concrete structures that
maintain their stability against design loads maintain their stability against design loads
from the geometric shape and the mass and from the geometric shape and the mass and
strength of the concrete. strength of the concrete.
Gravity dam is so proportioned that its own Gravity dam is so proportioned that its own
weight resists the forces acting upon it. weight resists the forces acting upon it.
Forces acting Forces acting
on a on a
Gravity Dam Gravity Dam
Following are forces acting on a Following are forces acting on a
gravity dam. gravity dam.
1) 1) Water pressure Water pressure
2) 2) Weight of the dam Weight of the dam
3) 3) Uplift pressure Uplift pressure
4) 4) Ice pressure Ice pressure
5) 5) Wave pressure Wave pressure
6) 6) Silt pressure Silt pressure
7) 7) Wind pressure Wind pressure
8) 8) Pressure due to earthquake Pressure due to earthquake
1) Water Pressure 1) Water Pressure
It is the major external force acting on a dam. It is the major external force acting on a dam.
The intensity of the pressure varies The intensity of the pressure varies
triangularly, with a zero intensity at the water triangularly, with a zero intensity at the water
surface, to a value ³wh´ at any depth h below surface, to a value ³wh´ at any depth h below
the water surface. the water surface.
‡ ‡ Force due to water pressure, Force due to water pressure,
P = w h² / 2 P = w h² / 2
‡ ‡ w = unit weight of the water = 1000 kg/m w = unit weight of the water = 1000 kg/m33
‡ ‡ This acts at a height of h/3 from base of the This acts at a height of h/3 from base of the
dam. dam.
2) Weight of the Dam 2) Weight of the Dam
Weight of the dam is the major resisting force. Weight of the dam is the major resisting force.
Unit length of the dam is considered. Unit length of the dam is considered.
Total weight of the dam acts at the centre of Total weight of the dam acts at the centre of
gravity of its section. gravity of its section.
W = W1 + W2 + W3 W = W1 + W2 + W3
3) Uplift Pressure 3) Uplift Pressure
Uplift pressure is the upward pressure exerted Uplift pressure is the upward pressure exerted
by water as it seeps through the body of the by water as it seeps through the body of the
dam or its foundation. dam or its foundation.
Seeping water exerts pressure on the base of Seeping water exerts pressure on the base of
the dam and it depends upon water head. the dam and it depends upon water head.
MODES OF MODES OF
FAILURE FAILURE
STABILITY STABILITY
REQIREMENTS REQIREMENTS
1) Overturning 1) Overturning
If the resultant force cuts the base within the If the resultant force cuts the base within the
body of dam there will be no overturning. body of dam there will be no overturning.
For safety against overturning For safety against overturning
F.O.S = F.O.S = ™ Resisting moments ™ Resisting moments
™ Overturning moments ™ Overturning moments
F.O.S • 1.5 F.O.S • 1.5
2) Sliding 2) Sliding
A dam may fail in sliding at its base. A dam may fail in sliding at its base.
For safety against sliding For safety against sliding
F.O.S = F.O.S = µ µ ×י V ™ V > 1 > 1
™ H ™ H
Where µ = coefficient of static earth pressure Where µ = coefficient of static earth pressure
= 0.65 to 0.75 = 0.65 to 0.75
3) Normal stress 3) Normal stress
Let Let
H = horizontal force H = horizontal force
V = vertical force V = vertical force
R = resultant force cutting the base at an R = resultant force cutting the base at an
eccentricity e from the centre of base of width eccentricity e from the centre of base of width
bb
Normal stress distribution under the Normal stress distribution under the
base of dam base of dam
The normal stress is given as The normal stress is given as
pn pn = ™V / b (1 = ™V / b (1 ±± 6e / b) 6e / b)
For normal stress at toe use +ive sign For normal stress at toe use +ive sign
For normal stress at heel use For normal stress at heel use - -ive sign ive sign
Principal stresses Principal stresses
The principal stress at the toe of the dam is The principal stress at the toe of the dam is
given as given as
ı ı = = pn sec² ȕ pn sec² ȕ
and at the heel is and at the heel is
ı ı = = pn sec² Į pn sec² Į ±± p tan² Į p tan² Į
Where p = intensity of water pressure Where p = intensity of water pressure
= wh = wh
Shear stresses Shear stresses
The shear stress at the toe of the dam is given as The shear stress at the toe of the dam is given as
IJ = pn tan IJ = pn tan ȕ ȕ
and shear stress at the heel is and shear stress at the heel is
IJ = IJ = - - (pn (pn- -p) tan Į p) tan Į
Flow chart Flow chart
for the Analysis of for the Analysis of
Gravity Dam Gravity Dam
1) Consider unit length of the dam. 1) Consider unit length of the dam.
2) Calculate the vertical forces: 2) Calculate the vertical forces:
weight of the dam, weight of the dam,
weight of water acting on inclined faces, weight of water acting on inclined faces,
uplift force. uplift force.
find sum of these vertical forces ( ™V ) find sum of these vertical forces ( ™V )
3) Find out the sum of horizontal forces: 3) Find out the sum of horizontal forces:
horizontal component of the water pressure horizontal component of the water pressure
is P = w h² / 2 is P = w h² / 2
On both U/S and D/S side On both U/S and D/S side
Moment due to various forces at the toe Moment due to various forces at the toe
4) Calculate 4) Calculate
Overturning moments (taken as Overturning moments (taken as - -ive) ive)
and and
Resisting moments (taken as +ive) Resisting moments (taken as +ive)
and also find their algebraic sum and also find their algebraic sum
™M = ™Mr ™M = ™Mr - - ™Mo ™Mo
Calculation of the factor of safety Calculation of the factor of safety
5) Check safety against overturning 5) Check safety against overturning
F.O.S = F.O.S = ™Mr ™Mr • 1.5 • 1.5
™Mo ™Mo
6) Check safety against sliding 6) Check safety against sliding
F.O.S = F.O.S = µ µ ×י V ™ V > 1 > 1
™ H ™ H
7) Calculate the shear friction factor. 7) Calculate the shear friction factor.
In large dams, shear strength of joint should In large dams, shear strength of joint should
also be considered. Factor of safety in that case also be considered. Factor of safety in that case
is known as shear friction factor (S.F.F). is known as shear friction factor (S.F.F).
S.F.F = S.F.F = µ™V + bq µ™V + bq
™H ™H
b = width of the joint b = width of the joint
q = shear strength of the joint (14 kg/cm ) q = shear strength of the joint (14 kg/cm )
Calculation of stresses Calculation of stresses
8) Find out the location (i.e. distance x) of resultant 8) Find out the location (i.e. distance x) of resultant
force from the toe. force from the toe.
x = x = ™ M ™ M
™ V ™ V
9) Find out eccentricity e of the resultant from the 9) Find out eccentricity e of the resultant from the
centre. centre.
e = b/2 e = b/2 xx
where b = base width of the dam where b = base width of the dam
10) Find the normal stress at the toe. 10) Find the normal stress at the toe.
pn pn = ™V/b (1+ 6e/b) = ™V/b (1+ 6e/b)
(compressive stress is taken as positive) (compressive stress is taken as positive)
11) Find the normal stress at the heel. 11) Find the normal stress at the heel.
pn pn = ™V/b ( 1 = ™V/b ( 1- - 6e/b) 6e/b)
12) Find out principal stress at 12) Find out principal stress at
the toe the toe
ı ı = = pn sec² ȕ pn sec² ȕ
13) Find out principal stress at 13) Find out principal stress at
the heel the heel
ı ı = = pn sec² Į pn sec² Į ±± p tan² Į p tan² Į
pp = intensity of water pressure = intensity of water pressure
14) Find out shear stress at toe 14) Find out shear stress at toe
IJ = pn tan ȕ IJ = pn tan ȕ
15) Find out shear stress at the heel 15) Find out shear stress at the heel
IJ = IJ = - - (pn (pn- -p) tan Į p) tan Į
Examples Examples
Question # 01: A masonry dam 10m high is Question # 01: A masonry dam 10m high is
trapezoidal section with a top width of 1m and trapezoidal section with a top width of 1m and
a bottom width of 8.25m. The face exposed to a bottom width of 8.25m. The face exposed to
the water has a batter of 1:10. Test the stability the water has a batter of 1:10. Test the stability
of the dam. Find out the principal stresses at of the dam. Find out the principal stresses at
the toe and heel of the dam. Assume unit the toe and heel of the dam. Assume unit
weight of masonry as 2240 Kg/m , w for water weight of masonry as 2240 Kg/m , w for water
= 1000 Kg/m and permissible shear stress of = 1000 Kg/m and permissible shear stress of
joint = 14 Kg/cm . joint = 14 Kg/cm .
Solution Solution
1) consider unit length of the dam i.e. 1) consider unit length of the dam i.e.
1m 1m
2) vertical forces: 2) vertical forces:
a) self weight of the dam a) self weight of the dam
= [( ½ = [( ½ ×× 11×× 10) + ( ½ 10) + ( ½×× 6.25 6.25 ×× 10 ) + 10 ) +
(1 (1×× 10)] 10)] ×× 2240 2240
= 103600 kg = 103600 kg
b) weight of water in column AA¶B b) weight of water in column AA¶B
= (½ = (½ ×× 1 1 ×× 10) 10) ×× 1 1 ×× 1000 1000
= 5000 kg = 5000 kg
c) Uplift pressure = ½ c) Uplift pressure = ½ ×× 8.25 8.25 ×× (10 (10××1000) 1000)
= 41250 kg = 41250 kg
™V = 103600 + 5000 ™V = 103600 + 5000 41250 41250
= 67350 kg = 67350 kg
4) Horizontal water pressure 4) Horizontal water pressure
™H = wh²/2 = 1000 ™H = wh²/2 = 1000 ×× 100 / 2 100 / 2
= 50,000 kg = 50,000 kg
Moment due to various forces at the toe Moment due to various forces at the toe
4) Moment calculation about toe 4) Moment calculation about toe
a) Due to self weight of the dam a) Due to self weight of the dam
= {( ½ = {( ½ ××11××10 10××2240) (1+6.25+1/3)} + 2240) (1+6.25+1/3)} +
{( 1 {( 1××10 10××2240) (6.25+0.5)} + 2240) (6.25+0.5)} +
{( ½ {( ½××6.25 6.25××10 10××2240) (2/3 2240) (2/3××6.25)} 6.25)}
= 527800 kg = 527800 kg- -m (+ ive) m (+ ive)
b) Due to column of water in AA¶B b) Due to column of water in AA¶B
= ½ (10 = ½ (10××11××1000) (8.25 1000) (8.25 1/3) 1/3)
= 39583 kg = 39583 kg- -m (+ ive) ] m (+ ive) ]
c) Due to uplift force c) Due to uplift force
= 41250 = 41250××2/3 2/3××8.25 8.25
= 226875 kg = 226875 kg- -m ( m (- - ive) ive)
d) Due to horizontal water pressure d) Due to horizontal water pressure
= 50,000 = 50,000 × × 10/3 10/3
= 166,700 kg = 166,700 kg- -m ( m (- - ive) ive)
™M = 527800+ 39583+ 226875 + 166,700 ™M = 527800+ 39583+ 226875 + 166,700
= 567383 = 567383 339575 339575
= 227808 kg = 227808 kg- -mm
Calculation of the factor of safety Calculation of the factor of safety
5) Factor of safety against overturning 5) Factor of safety against overturning
= = ™Mr ™Mr = = 567383 567383
™Mo 339575 ™Mo 339575
= 1.67 > 1.5 «..(O.K) = 1.67 > 1.5 «..(O.K)
6) Factor of safety against sliding 6) Factor of safety against sliding
F.O.S = F.O.S = µ µ ×י V ™ V = = 0.75 0.75××67350 67350
™ H 50,000 ™ H 50,000
= 1.01 > 1 ««.(O.K) = 1.01 > 1 ««.(O.K)
7) Shear friction factor 7) Shear friction factor
S.F.F = S.F.F = µ™V + bq µ™V + bq
™H ™H
= = 0.75 0.75××67350+8.25 67350+8.25××14 14××10^4 10^4
50,000 50,000
= 24.11 = 24.11
Calculation of stresses Calculation of stresses
8) The resultant acts at a distance x from toe 8) The resultant acts at a distance x from toe
x = x = ™ M ™ M = = 227808 227808
™ V 67350 ™ V 67350
= 3.38 = 3.38
9) Its distance from the centre is 9) Its distance from the centre is
e = b/2 e = b/2 x = 8.25/2 x = 8.25/2 3.38 = 0.74 3.38 = 0.74
10) 10) Compressive stress at the toe Compressive stress at the toe
pn pn = ™V/b (1+ 6e/b) = ™V/b (1+ 6e/b)
= 67350 / 8.25 {1 + (6 = 67350 / 8.25 {1 + (6××0.74)/8.25} 0.74)/8.25}
= 12560 kg/m² = 12560 kg/m²
11) Compressive stress at the heel 11) Compressive stress at the heel
pn pn = ™V/b (1 = ™V/b (1- - 6e/b) 6e/b)
= 67350 / 8.25 {1 = 67350 / 8.25 {1 - - (6 (6××0.74)/8.25} 0.74)/8.25}
= 3770 kg/m² = 3770 kg/m²
12) 12) principle stress at the toe principle stress at the toe
= = pn sec² ȕ pn sec² ȕ
:. sec :. sec ȕ ȕ = 1 / (10 / 11.792) = 1 / (10 / 11.792)
= 1.179 = 1.179
= 12560 = 12560 × × (1.179)^2 (1.179)^2
= 17460 kg/m² = 17460 kg/m²
13) principle stress at the heel 13) principle stress at the heel
= = pn sec² Į pn sec² Į ±± p tan² Į p tan² Į
:.tan :.tan ĮĮ = 1 / 10 = 0.1 = 1 / 10 = 0.1
:. Sec Į = 1/( 10/10.05) :. Sec Į = 1/( 10/10.05)
= 3770 = 3770××1.01 1.01- - (1000 (1000××10) 10) ××0.1^2 0.1^2
= 3707.7 kg/m² = 3707.7 kg/m²
14) shear stress at the toe 14) shear stress at the toe
IJ = pn tan ȕ IJ = pn tan ȕ
:. tan ȕ = 6.25 / 10 = 0.625 :. tan ȕ = 6.25 / 10 = 0.625
= 12560 = 12560 ×× 0.625 0.625
= 7850 kg/m² = 7850 kg/m²
15) shear stress at the heel 15) shear stress at the heel
IJ = IJ = - - (pn (pn- -p) tan Į p) tan Į
= = - - (3770 (3770 - - 1000 1000××10) 10) ×× 0.1 0.1
= 623 kg/m² = 623 kg/m²
Question # 02 : A gravity dam has the following Question # 02 : A gravity dam has the following
dimensions: dimensions:
Height of dam = 100 m Height of dam = 100 m
Free board = 1 m Free board = 1 m
Slope of upstream face = 0.15 : 1 Slope of upstream face = 0.15 : 1
Taking Taking ĮĮ = 0.1 = 0.1
Determine Determine
(i) hydrodynamic earthquake pressure and (i) hydrodynamic earthquake pressure and
(ii) its moment at joint situated 50 m below (ii) its moment at joint situated 50 m below
maximum water surface. maximum water surface.
SOLUTION: SOLUTION:
If If ø is the angle that upstream slope makes ø is the angle that upstream slope makes
with the vertical, we have with the vertical, we have
ø = tan-¹ (0.15/1) = 8.5º ø = tan-¹ (0.15/1) = 8.5º
Hence Hence ș ș = 90º = 90º - - ø = 81.5º ø = 81.5º
Cm = 0.735 Cm = 0.735 ×× ș / ș / 90º 90º
= 0.735 = 0.735 ×× ( 81.5º / 90º ) ( 81.5º / 90º )
= 0.666 = 0.666
Cm = maximum value of pressure coefficient Cm = maximum value of pressure coefficient
for a given slope for a given slope
Here h = 100 m and y = 50 m Here h = 100 m and y = 50 m
Cv = Cm/2 [y/h(2 Cv = Cm/2 [y/h(2- -y/h) + {y/h(2 y/h) + {y/h(2- -h/y) } h/y) }½] ½]
= 0.666/2 [0.5(2 = 0.666/2 [0.5(2- -0.5)+ {0.5(2 0.5)+ {0.5(2- -0.5)}½] 0.5)}½]
= 0.538 = 0.538
Cv = pressure coefficient Cv = pressure coefficient
The hydrodynamic pressure intensity at a depth y¶ The hydrodynamic pressure intensity at a depth y¶
below the maximum water level is given as below the maximum water level is given as
pev = Cv pev = Cv ×× ĮĮ ×× w w ×× h h
= 0.538 = 0.538 ×× 0.1 0.1 ×× 1000 1000 ×× 100 100
= 5380 kg/cm² = 5380 kg/cm²
:. :. ĮĮ = acceleration coefficient = acceleration coefficient
Pey = 0.726 Pey = 0.726 ×× pev pev ×× yy
=0.726 =0.726 ×× 5380 5380 ×× 50 50
=1.95 =1.95 ×× 10^5 kg 10^5 kg
Mey = 0.299 Mey = 0.299 ×× pey pey ×× y² y²
= 0.299 = 0.299 ×× 5380 5380 ×× (50) (50)²²
= 4.02 = 4.02 ×× 10^6 kg 10^6 kg- -mm
The End The End
Question # 03 : Considering earthquake forces, Question # 03 : Considering earthquake forces,
in addition to the hydrostatic pressure and in addition to the hydrostatic pressure and
uplift pressure, determine the base width of the uplift pressure, determine the base width of the
elementary profile of gravity dam so that elementary profile of gravity dam so that
resultant passes through the outer third points. resultant passes through the outer third points.
SOLUTION: SOLUTION:
Let Let
b= base width of the elementary dam ABC b= base width of the elementary dam ABC
The various forces acting on the dam are shown The various forces acting on the dam are shown
in figure. in figure.
(a) (a) VERTICAL FORCES VERTICAL FORCES
1. Force due to self 1. Force due to self- -weight of dam weight of dam
= W = ½ b h w ȡ = W = ½ b h w ȡ
2. Force due to vertical acceleration of 2. Force due to vertical acceleration of
earthquake earthquake
==
3. Force due to uplift = 3. Force due to uplift = U = U = 1/2 b h w 1/2 b h w
= ½ b h w [(1 = ½ b h w [(1- -Į)ȡ Į)ȡ- -1] 1]
Where w = unit weight of water, Where w = unit weight of water,
ȡ = specific weight of concrete and ȡ = specific weight of concrete and
Į = coefficient of earthquake acceleration. Į = coefficient of earthquake acceleration.
(b) (b) HORIZONTAL FORCES HORIZONTAL FORCES
1. 1. Force due to water pressure P = ½ w h² Force due to water pressure P = ½ w h²
2. 2. Force due to hydrodynamic pressure of Force due to hydrodynamic pressure of
water at base: water at base:
Cm= 0.735 Cm= 0.735
Pe = Cm Į w h = 0.735 Įwh Pe = Cm Į w h = 0.735 Įwh
Pe = 0.725 pe.h Pe = 0.725 pe.h
Me = 0.299 pe.h² = 0.299 * 0.735 Į w h Me = 0.299 pe.h² = 0.299 * 0.735 Į w h
= 0.2205 Į w h . = 0.2205 Į w h .
3. 3. INERTIA FORCE ( horizontal) = ĮW = ½ Į b h w INERTIA FORCE ( horizontal) = ĮW = ½ Į b h w
pp
The resultant of all forces has to pass through the outer The resultant of all forces has to pass through the outer
third point M2. Moment of all these forces at this third point M2. Moment of all these forces at this
point must be zero. point must be zero.
b²[ ( 1 b²[ ( 1 - - Į )p Į )p- -1 ] 1 ] - - bh²wĮp/6 bh²wĮp/6 - - wh²/6 [ 1 +Į (1.323) ] = wh²/6 [ 1 +Į (1.323) ] =
00
b = h( ) b = h( )
it is required expression. it is required expression.
Putting Į= 0 when no earthquake acts, the value of b Putting Į= 0 when no earthquake acts, the value of b
reduces to reduces to
b = b =

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