You are on page 1of 44

PROGRAM SAMPLE

1-888-KAPLAN8 • www.KaplanK12.com
Contributors
Darcy Galane, Rachel Kay, Colleen O’Donnell,
Sarah Kramer, Christine Defenbaugh

Art and Design


Pamela Beaulieu, Alisa Caratozzolo, Erika Quiroz-Heineman
Anne Hanson, David Whitfield

Associate Directors of Curriculum


Darcy Galane, Michael Bitz

Executive Director of Curriculum


Marcy Bullmaster

Copyright © by Kaplan, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted


in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission
of the Publisher, except where permitted by law.
SAT Advantage | TEACHER EDITION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TEACHER’S NOTES
Teacher’s Introduction

Unit 1 Introduction to Math


Unit 2 Strategies for Regular Math
Unit 3 Backdoor Strategies
Unit 4 Strategies for Quantitative Comparisons
Unit 5 Strategies for Grid-Ins
Unit 6 Math Traps
Unit 7 Test Practice

Appendix
Additional Notes for Teachers of
Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students

© Kaplan, Inc.

i
TEACHER EDITION | SAT Advantage

TEACHER’S INTRODUCTION
TEACHER’S NOTES

SAT ADVANTAGE
Welcome to Kaplan’s Advantage course for SAT Math. In this course, your students
will learn effective strategies to help them perform their best on the SAT, an
important college entrance requirement. In this introduction, we will explain the
philosophy behind the strategies you will be teaching. We will also describe the
structure and design of the course.

COURSE PHILOSOPHY
The purpose of teaching test-taking strategies is not to replace traditional
classroom instruction. Rather, test-taking strategies build on the core mathematics
skills that you teach your students every day. This course is centered around
familiarizing students with SAT Math and showing them strategies they can use to
maximize their scores. Students will learn systematic methods and alternative
approaches that complement their traditional instruction. In essence, the strategies
presented in this course are the bridge between your curriculum and the SAT.

In Kaplan’s test preparation courses, we teach students that there are three things
they need to know to succeed on test day:

1 Know the Content.


Understanding the content that appears on the test is essential. The Math
component of the SAT tests a variety of skills. Without a doubt, the better that
students can perform in these content areas, the higher their scores will be on the
SAT.

2 Know the Test.


Familiarity with the test format leads to confidence on test day. When students
understand the format and structure of the test, they know what to expect and can
concentrate on demonstrating their skills.

3 Know the Strategies.


To maximize their scores on the SAT, students need to have flexible and systematic
strategies. Step-by-step methods show students how to approach each question
type in an efficient, focused manner. Alternative strategies show students how to
use everything they know to do their best—even on questions where they are
stumped.
© Kaplan, Inc.

ii
SAT Advantage | TEACHER EDITION

COURSE STRUCTURE
This course is divided into 8 hours of classroom instruction: 7 hours of test-taking

TEACHER’S NOTES
strategies and practice, and 1 hour of sample test practice. Each hour-long unit
focuses on strategies that address a particular challenge students will face on SAT
Math.

Each hour-long unit is divided into three 20-minute sections: one 20-minute
Strategy Instruction section, one 20-minute Guided and Independent Practice
section, and one 20-minute Test Practice section. These times are meant as
guidelines, but you should determine the appropriate pace for your students. You
may wish to take more time with some units than others, depending on the needs
of your students.

Each of the units is presented as a packet that you will hand out to your students.
Having the units in this form gives your students several small and attainable goals,
leading to a sense of achievement and confidence. When your students have
completed a unit, you may wish to send it home as a way to keep families involved
on a regular basis.

STRATEGY INSTRUCTION
Each Strategy Instruction section introduces students to test-taking strategies for a
specific question or passage type. This entire section is teacher-led—an active
dialogue between teacher and students on overcoming the challenges of the SAT.
Here are some key components of the Strategy Instruction section:

1 Strategies
Test-taking strategies are mapped for students in step-by-step flowcharts. Students
learn the strategies one piece at a time. They apply the steps on test questions
throughout the unit.

2 Exercises
Students’ understanding of the strategies is made concrete through a series of
exercises. These exercises help students internalize what they learn in the unit.

3 Sidebars
Every Strategy Instruction page includes a sidebar that students should read before
they go on to the next page. The sidebars provide helpful hints and tips that keep
students focused on the strategies. They are designed to be funny, memorable, and
useful for students to review.
© Kaplan, Inc.

iii
TEACHER EDITION | SAT Advantage

GUIDED AND INDEPENDENT PRACTICE SECTIONS


Following each Strategy Instruction section, there is a Guided and Independent
TEACHER’S NOTES
Practice section.

Guided Practice, like the Strategy Instruction section, is teacher-led; you help your
students apply the unit’s strategies to test questions. On each Guided Practice page,
test questions are presented. Beneath the test questions, the steps of the strategies
are displayed, and students are presented with hints and tips that guide them
through the process of answering the questions.

Independent Practice allows students to independently apply


the strategies that they have learned. This section is conducted without any teacher
assistance, but hints are provided on the student pages to help students recall the
appropriate strategies.

TEST PRACTICE SECTIONS


In the Test Practice section for each unit, students are given the opportunity to
apply test-taking strategies to questions under test conditions. Students should
work independently, and hints are not provided in the student books. However, in
the Teacher’s Edition there are hints that you can offer to students who are having
difficulty. The Test Practice section should be timed to give students a sense of test-
day conditions. Afterwards, review the answers to highlight how strategies are
applied to each question.

SAMPLE TEST
The Sample Test (Unit 7) represents an actual SAT Math section. Unlike the actual
SAT, though, all three question types are presented in this practice test so students
will get familiar with the SAT as a whole. This unit provides students with the ability
to practice all the strategies they learned throughout the course. The Sample Test
section should be administered under test-like conditions. However, leave plenty of
time to review the correct answers and explanations. This section should be given
to students close to the administration date of the SAT.
© Kaplan, Inc.

iv
SAT Advantage | TEACHER EDITION

STRATEGIES FOR LIMITED ENGLISH


PROFICIENT (LEP) STUDENTS

TEACHER’S NOTES
In your Teacher’s Edition, the appendix presents information on how the strategies
in the course can be applied by LEP students. Because the SAT is a significant
measure of performance for many colleges and universities, LEP students will need
to face the particular challenges of SAT Math questions. The appendix will give you
additional strategies or modifications to the existing strategies that LEP students
can use to raise their scores on the SAT.

tts@kaplan.com
Kaplan is committed to providing ongoing support for your efforts. Therefore, we
have provided you with a direct email address exclusively for teachers who are
using the SAT Advantage course. Do not hesitate to send any questions or
comments about the strategies, structure, or implementation of this course. You will
receive a response within 24 hours (Monday-Friday) from our experienced team of
curriculum developers and test analysts.

© Kaplan, Inc.

v
TEACHER EDITION | SAT Advantage

FACTS ABOUT THE SAT


The SAT consists of seven sections taken over a total of approximately three hours.
TEACHER’S NOTES
The test is offered seven times per year, generally in the following months: October,
November, December, January, March, May, and June.

Sections # Timing Question Types Scoring

Verbal 3 Two 30-minute 40 Critical Reading 200-800


sections and one 19 Analogies
15-minute section 19 Sentence
Completions

Math 3 Two 30-minute 35 Regular Math 200-800


sections and one 15 Quantitative
15-minute section Comparisons
10 Grid-Ins

Experimental 1 One 30-minute Math or Verbal Not Scored


section

Total 7 3 hours 138 scored 400-1600


questions

SAT SCORING
Each student receives a Verbal score and a Math score, which are often combined in
answer to the question,“What did you get on your SATs?”

To determine the Verbal or Math scaled score of 200-800, a student’s raw score is
measured by totaling the number of points earned by answering questions
correctly, and then subtracting the number of points for answering questions
incorrectly.

Type Wrong
Correct Blank Wrong Wrong QC
of Answer Grid-In

Raw Points 1 point 0 points – 14 point – 13 point 0 points

A penalty is deducted for a wrong answer, not for guessing, though this is
commonly referred to as a “guessing penalty.”

The number of raw points are then converted to a scaled score by a conversion
© Kaplan, Inc.

chart set for that particular administration of the test. Each conversion chart is a
little different, depending upon how students sitting for that particular exam
performed.

vi
Sample Teacher’s Edition Page
SAT Advantage TEACHER EDITION

TEACHER’S NOTES
SAT Advantage
• This page begins the introduction to the SAT Math question
SAT Math Question Types types. The first question type is called Regular Math (the
So what exactly do the question types look like? What is a Grid-In? What subject of Unit 2). Regular Math is the most straightforward
does Quantitative Comparison mean? Let’s break it down.
Math question type. A question is followed by five answer
Regular Math choices. The student’s task is to choose the correct answer
By far, the most common question type is the Regular Math multiple- from among the five.
choice question. It may be a short equation, or it may be a long and ugly
word problem with weird symbols or funny diagrams. What • When answering Regular Math questions, students often fall
distinguishes Regular Math questions are the five answer choices
Strategizing for into the trap of jumping into calculations without taking a
labeled A through E. Success
Throughout this course, few seconds to think about the problem. This course will help
a+5 you will learn a variety of
1 If 
2
is an odd integer, then 3a must be students avoid that mistake by providing them with a step-
strategies for answering
(A) an even integer all types of SAT questions. by-step method for Regular Math.
(B) a multiple of 6
(C) a multiple of 5
(D) an odd integer
(E) a prime number Sample Question
A very basic strategy for making abstract problems concrete on Regular 1 (D)
Math questions is to pick numbers and eliminate answer choices
accordingly. You will learn more about this strategy in future units. This is a typical Regular Math question — a question stem and
five answer choices. As the student page says, a great strategy
for Regular Math with variables is to pick numbers. In this case,
students must pick a number for a that makes the expression
1+5
equal an odd integer. For example,   will work, and 3 • 1 = 3
2
(an odd integer). 3 also happens to be a prime number. So we
do not yet know that (D) is correct, or if (E) is correct. We must
pick another number to determine the answer. The next
5+5
number we could pick for a is a 5.   = 5, which is odd.
2
3 • 5 = 15, which is odd, but is not prime. Now we know that (D)
must be correct.
© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 7

Math Unit 1 7
Student’s Page
Teacher’s Page
UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION TO MATH

SAMPLE UNIT ON THE FOLLOWING PAGES


SAT Advantage

UNIT 1
INTRODUCTION TO MATH
Objectives
In this unit, you will learn how

• this SAT Advantage Math course works.

• the Math sections of the SAT are organized.

• to approach SAT Math to earn maximum points.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 1
SAT Advantage

Welcome to SAT Advantage Math


Hello and welcome! Chances are you have been hearing about this
ominous test called the SAT for years now. You know you need to take it
before you apply to college. You know it seems like a really big deal, and
maybe you are nervous. Well, don’t be. SAT Advantage, the core of
Kaplan’s SAT program, will tell you everything you need to know about
the SAT— including how to test your best.

In this unit, you are going to learn how this course works, how the
Math sections of the SAT are organized, and what skills you will need
Doing Your Part to do your best on test day.
While this course will help
you excel on the SAT, you
have to be an active agent On Your Mark, Get Set, Prep!
in your studies. The more
What is this SAT Advantage course? Simply put, it is the heart of a
effort you put in, the more
rewards you will reap. Kaplan SAT course, taught in your school by your teachers. In the Math
units, you will learn how to
• use the skills you already have.
• employ some strategies to help you increase your score.
• recognize and understand all of the question types.
• get the correct answer, even when you think you don’t have a clue.

Each unit will take you through different question types and strategies,
and the whole course will finish with a section-length practice test.
Remember, though, you will only get as much from this material as you
put into it. If you practice what you learn in these units on your own, you
will be in great shape for test day.
© Kaplan, Inc.

2 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

How Predictable
Why do people call the SAT a standardized test? Well, it’s very simple,
really. Even though the individual questions vary from test to test, the
basic concepts, format, and kinds of questions stay basically the same.
Why is that so, and what does it mean for you?

A Common Yardstick
The SAT is standardized so that it can be used to compare students’
performances regardless of where they are from or where they went to
Plan Ahead
school. The SAT must be made according to very specific guidelines, so
Expect to spend
that people can compare scores from state to state or year to year. approximately 1 minute
This actually works to your advantage. You don’t have to guess and on each regular math
question, 45 seconds
worry what the test will look like, what kind of questions you will see, or
on each Quantitative
how to best prepare for them. You can rest assured that your SAT will Comparison, and 1 12
look remarkably like previous administrations of the test. That means minutes on each Grid-In.
that you can really get yourself ready to test your best.

Facts about the SAT


• The test is 3.5 hours long, divided into Math and Verbal sections.

• The Math component has two 30-minute sections and one


15-minute section.

• There is one 30-minute experimental section on each test—it can be


either a Math or a Verbal section—which is not scored.

• The Math and Verbal sections are each scored on a 200-800 point scale.

• The Math sections consist mostly of multiple-choice questions with


five answer choices. There are also 10 Grid-In questions.

• You will be allowed to use a calculator during the exam. © Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 3
SAT Advantage

The SAT Math Sections


There are three scored Math sections on the SAT:
• One 30-minute section with 25 Regular Math questions
• One 30-minute section with 10 Grid-In questions and 15 Quantitative
Comparisons
• One 15-minute section with 10 Regular Math questions

Know What to Expect


25 10 10
You won’t find any Regular Math Grid-Ins Regular Math
15
surprises in the structure Questions Quantitative Questions
of the SAT. This means Comparisons
that you can prepare for
what you know you’ll see.

Approximately half of your Math questions will be Regular Math, with


the remainder of the questions split between Grid-Ins and Quantitative
Comparisons.
© Kaplan, Inc.

4 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

What You Need to Know: Content


As with any Math test you take in school, it is important to know what
will be tested on the SAT. Here is some good news: The mathematical
content covered by the SAT is relatively limited.

The concepts that are tested on the SAT all appear in Math in a Nutshell
on Pages 14 to 28 of this unit. You should review this material well
before the test and know it cold by test day. This will ensure that you
perform to the best of your abilities on the Math sections.

Content in Context
Exercise Knowing the content is
important. However, even
Draw an arrow from each item in the middle to the appropriate column if you know all the content
on the left or right. tested on the SAT, you
could still get stumped by
Math tested on the SAT Math not tested on the SAT some question formats.
differential equations
arithmetic
topology
fractional exponents
elementary algebra
the quadratic formula
L’Hôpital’s rule
derivatives
logarithmic functions
mean, median, and mode
trigonometry
lines and angles
Taylor series
ratios, proportions, and rates
long and tedious computations
imaginary numbers
simple coordinate geometry
formal geometric proofs
triangles, circles, and quadrilaterals
ellipses, hyperbolas, and parabolas
Planck’s constant
© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 5
SAT Advantage

What You Need to Know: Format


There are a number of things you should know about the format of SAT
Math. The more familiar you are with these things, the more comfortable
you will feel on the day of the test.

At the start of each Math section, you will find the following information:

Notes:
(1) Calculator use is permitted.
Same Old Story (2) All numbers used are real numbers.
The format of the SAT will (3) Figures are provided for some problems. All figures are drawn to scale and
be the same each time you lie in a plane UNLESS otherwise indicated.
take it. Therefore, you can
get ahead of the game by
knowing the directions, • Note (2) means you won’t have to deal with imaginary numbers, such
structure, and layout. as i (the square root of –1).
• Note (3) means that geometry diagrams are drawn to scale unless
you are told otherwise. You can use the figures provided to estimate
measurements, unless you see the label “Note: figure not drawn
to scale.”

The SAT will also provide you with some reference information:

r
2x 2s r
h c 60˚ s h h
a 45˚
x w
b 30˚  w
45˚ A= πr2 
1 b V = πr2h
A =  bh 3x s V = wh A = w
C = 2πr
2 c2 = a2 + b2 Special Right Triangles
The sum of the degree measures of the angles of a triangle is 180.
The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360.
A straight angle has a degree measure of 180.

The math information that you are given includes many basic
geometry formulas. By the day of the test, it is best to have these
formulas memorized. However, it is nice to know that you can find
them in the directions if you forget one at the last minute.
© Kaplan, Inc.

6 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

SAT Math Question Types


So what exactly do the question types look like? What is a Grid-In? What
does Quantitative Comparison mean? Let’s break it down.

Regular Math
By far, the most common question type is the Regular Math multiple-
choice question. It may be a short equation, or it may be a long and ugly
word problem with weird symbols or funny diagrams. What
distinguishes Regular Math questions are the five answer choices
Strategizing for
labeled A through E. Success
Throughout this course,
a+5 you will learn a variety of
1 If 
2
is an odd integer, then 3a must be
strategies for answering
(A) an even integer all types of SAT questions.
(B) a multiple of 6
(C) a multiple of 5
(D) an odd integer
(E) a prime number

A very basic strategy for making abstract problems concrete on Regular


Math questions is to pick numbers and eliminate answer choices
accordingly. You will learn more about this strategy in future units.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 7
SAT Advantage

Quantitative Comparisons
At first, Quantitative Comparisons (or QC’s) may seem a bit strange, but
eventually you will be spending less time on these questions than any
other question type. Your job is simply to compare the two quantities to
determine whether Column A is greater, Column B is greater, the two
columns are equal, or the relationship cannot be determined. The
answer choices will always be the same:

Answer:
A if Column A is greater;
Never an E in QC
B if Column B is greater;
On QC’s, never choose
answer choice E. C if the two columns are equal;
D if more information is needed to determine the relationship.

Column A Column B
y is a positive integer.
y+1
1.0 < 
y
< 1.2

2
y 5

The question above provides some information that will help you
determine the relationship of Columns A and B. Be sure to pay attention
to this kind of data whenever it is supplied for you on a QC.
© Kaplan, Inc.

8 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

Grid-Ins
The 10 questions following the QCs will not contain multiple-choice
responses. Grid-Ins simulate a more natural math test-taking experience.
On Grid-Ins, you need to come up with your own response.

3 How many of the first hundred positive integers are multiples of


8 but not multiples of 6?

. . . .
0 0 0 Calculator News
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 Proper calculator use
4
3 3
4
3
4
3
4
will benefit you most
5 5 5 5 on Grid-Ins.
6 6 6 6
7 7 7 7
8 8 8 8
9 9 9 9

There are a number of things that you will learn in future units about
Grid-Ins. For now, just become familiar with how they differ from the
other question types.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 9
SAT Advantage

How to Approach SAT Math


You will learn a lot more about how to tackle each of the question types
as the course progresses. For now, here are a few basic things to keep
in mind.

Pacing
On the SAT you can only work on one section at a time and must spend
only the allocated amount of time on each section. You may find this
frustrating at first, but it’s actually a great safeguard for you. You won’t
A Point Is a Point
accidentally find yourself having wasted 45 minutes on a tough algebra
Remember, you earn the
same number of points for question.
an easy question as you do
for a tough one. Spend Skipping
your time gaining as many
points as you can, and The questions on SAT Math are all arranged in order of difficulty. Use
only tackle the real brain- that knowledge to your advantage. Always attack the early questions in
benders if you have time. each section first, as they will tend to be easier. Also, go with your first
guessing instinct on early questions—it will probably be right.
Conversely, be wary of your guessing instincts later in each section, as
harder questions tend to seem easier than they are.

In the practice sections of this course, you will see three icons,
which represent 1) the difficulty level, and 2) where in the section
this question would appear.

= easy; appears in the beginning of the section

= moderate; appears in the middle of the section

= difficult; appears in the end of the section


© Kaplan, Inc.

10 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

Guessing
You may have heard of something called the guessing penalty on the
SAT. Do you really get penalized for guessing, even if you get the right
answer? The answer to that question, of course, is no. But you do get
penalized for wrong answers. Let’s take a look at how it works.

Type of Answer Raw Points


correct 1
blank 0 No Harm , No Foul
wrong – 1 There is no guessing
4
penalty on the SAT! The
wrong QC – 13 wrong answer penalty
wrong Grid-In 0 works against random
guessing but strategic
guessing will get you
What does this mean for you on test day? The way the wrong answer points on the SAT.
penalty (that’s really what it is) works is that it’s not worth it to guess
totally randomly. The odds of getting the answer right are counter-
balanced by the penalty if you get it wrong, except for Grid-Ins, on
which you should always guess. For the other question types, you
should guess if you can eliminate at least one answer choice. Doing so
greatly shifts the odds in your favor and makes the guess worth the risk.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 11
SAT Advantage

Getting Started
We just discussed some skills that will help you master the SAT. There
are some other things you can do now to help you get ready for test
day. Pages 14 through 28 of this unit present Math in a Nutshell. This is
the basic math information and content that you should know for the
SAT. Go through the concepts one at a time, so that by the time test day
comes around, you will be familiar with the material on the test.

In addition, you should take some time to get familiar with the layout
of the SAT. Spend some time looking at the directions, the format, the
Practice Makes Peace answer grid, and anything else that may be intimidating to you. The last
Preparing yourself thing you want on test day is any surprise. By taking the time now to
thoroughly won’t just familiarize yourself with the intricacies of the test, you will have much
increase your skills; it will less to worry about when you take the SAT.
also reduce your stress
level. Because the SAT is so
predictable, if you get to
know it well ahead of
time, you’ll be able to
seriously reduce your test
day anxiety.
© Kaplan, Inc.

12 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

UNIT 1 REKAP
Look back at what you learned about the SAT in this unit. Then fill
in the spaces below to show what you have learned.

• All Math questions are arranged in order of


______________________.

• One thing I can do on my own to get better prepared for the Math
section of the SAT is to ______________________.

• Even though the individual questions vary from one SAT to


another, the basic structure and content tested
______________________, making the SAT ______________________.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 13
SAT Advantage

SAT MATH IN A NUTSHELL


The math on the SAT covers a lot of ground—from arithmetic to algebra
to geometry.

Don’t let yourself be intimidated. We’ve highlighted the 100 most


important concepts that you’ll need for SAT Math and listed them in this
section.

You’ve probably been taught most of these in school already, so this list
is a great way to refresh your memory.

A Math Study Plan


Use this list to remind yourself of the key areas you’ll need to know. Do
four concepts a day, and you’ll be ready within a month. If a concept
continually causes you trouble, circle it and refer back to it as you try to
do the questions.

Refer back to Math in a Nutshell often. It’s a mathematical guide that


you can use throughout the course. Concentrate on the subjects that
you find most difficult.
© Kaplan, Inc.

14 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

5. PEMDAS
Number Properties
When performing multiple operations, remember
1. Integer/Noninteger PEMDAS, which means Parentheses first, then
Integers are whole numbers; they include negative Exponents, then Multiplication and Division (left
whole numbers and zero. to right), and lastly, Addition and Subtraction (left
to right). In the expression 9 – 2 × (5 – 3)2 + 6 ÷ 3,
2. Rational/Irrational Numbers begin with the parentheses: (5 – 3) = 2. Then do the
A rational number is a number that can be expressed exponent: 22 = 4. Now the expression is:
9 – 2 × 4 + 6 ÷ 3. Next do the multiplication and
as a ratio of two integers. Irrational numbers are
division to get: 9 – 8 + 2, which equals 3. If you have
real numbers—they have locations on the number difficulty remembering PEMDAS, use this sentence to
line; they just can’t be expressed precisely as recall it: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally.
fractions or decimals. For the purposes of the SAT,
6. Counting Consecutive Integers
the most important irrational numbers are  2,
3 , and π. To count consecutive integers, subtract the smallest
from the largest and add 1. To count the integers from
3. Adding/Subtracting Signed Numbers 13 through 31, subtract: 31 – 13 = 18. Then add 1:
To add a positive and a negative, first ignore the 18 + 1 = 19.
signs and find the positive difference between the
number parts. Then attach the sign of the original Divisibility
number with the larger number part. For example, to
add 23 and –34, first we ignore the minus sign and 7. Factor/Multiple
find the positive difference between 23 and 34—that’s The factors of integer n are the positive integers that
11. Then we attach the sign of the number with the divide into n with no remainder. The multiples of n
larger number part—in this case it’s the minus sign are the integers that n divides into with no
from the –34. So, 23 + (–34) = –11. remainder. For example, 6 is a factor of 12, and 24 is
a multiple of 12. 12 is both a factor and a multiple of
Make subtraction situations simpler by turning them itself, since 12  1 = 12 and 12  1 = 12.
into addition. For example, think of –17 – (–21) as
–17 + (+21). 8. Prime Factorization

To add or subtract a string of positives and To find the prime factorization of an integer, just keep
negatives, first turn everything into addition. Then breaking it up into factors until all the factors are
combine the positives and negatives so that the string prime. To find the prime factorization of 36, for
is reduced to the sum of a single positive number and example, you could begin by breaking it into 4  9:
a single negative number. 36 = 4  9 = 2  2  3  3.

4. Multiplying/Dividing Signed Numbers 9. Relative Primes

To multiply and/or divide positives and negatives, Relative primes are integers that have no common
treat the number parts as usual and attach a minus factor other than 1. To determine whether two
sign if there were originally an odd number of integers are relative primes, break them both down to
negatives. For example, to multiply –2, –3, and –5, their prime factorizations. For example: 35 = 5  7,
first multiply the number parts: 2  3  5 = 30. and 54 = 2  3  3  3. They have no prime
Then go back and note that there were three—an odd factors in common, so 35 and 54 are relative primes.
number—negatives, so the product is negative:
(–2)  (–3)  (–5) = –30.
© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 15
SAT Advantage

10. Common Multiple 16. Multiples of 5 and 10


A common multiple is a number that is a multiple of An integer is divisible by 5 if the last digit is 5 or 0.
two or more integers. You can always get a common An integer is divisible by 10 if the last digit is 0. The
multiple of two integers by multiplying them, but, last digit of 665 is 5, so 665 is a multiple of 5 but not
unless the two numbers are relative primes, the a multiple of 10.
product will not be the least common multiple. For
example, to find a common multiple for 12 and 15, 17. Remainders
you could just multiply: 12  15 = 180. The remainder is the whole number left over after
division. 487 is 2 more than 485, which is a multiple of
11. Least Common Multiple (LCM) 5, so when 487 is divided by 5, the remainder will be 2.
To find the least common multiple, check out the
multiples of the larger integer until you find one Fractions and Decimals
that’s also a multiple of the smaller. To find the LCM
of 12 and 15, begin by taking the multiples of 15: 15 18. Reducing Fractions
is not divisible by 12; 30 is not; nor is 45. But the next To reduce a fraction to lowest terms, factor out and
multiple of 15, 60, is divisible by 12, so it’s the LCM. cancel all factors the numerator and denominator
12. Greatest Common Factor (GCF) have in common.
28 4 × 7 7
To find the greatest common factor, break down  =  = 
36 4 × 9 9
both integers into their prime factorizations and
multiply all the prime factors they have in common. 19. Adding/Subtracting Fractions
36 = 2  2  3  3, and 48 = 2  2  2  To add or subtract fractions, first find a common
2  3. What they have in common is two 2s and one denominator, then add or subtract the numerators.
3, so the GCF is 2  2  3 = 12. 2 3 4 9 13
 +  =  +  = 
13. Even/Odd 15 10 30 30 30
20. Multiplying Fractions
To predict whether a sum, difference, or product will
be even or odd, just take simple numbers such as 3 To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators and
and 2 and see what happens. There are rules—“odd multiply the denominators.
times even is even,” for example—but there’s no need 5 3 5 × 3 15
 ×  =  = 
to memorize them. What happens with one set of 7 4 7 × 4 28
numbers generally happens with all similar sets. 21. Dividing Fractions
14. Multiples of 2 and 4 To divide fractions, invert the second one and
multiply.
An integer is divisible by 2 (which is even) if the last
1 3 1 5 1×5 5
digit is even. An integer is divisible by 4 if the last  ÷  =  ×  =  = 
2 5 2 3 2×3 6
two digits form a multiple of 4. The last digit of 562
is 2, which is even, so 562 is a multiple of 2. The last 22. Converting a Mixed Number to an Improper
two digits form 62, which is not divisible by 4, so 562 Fraction
is not a multiple of 4. The integer 512, however, is
divisible by four because the last two digits form 12, To convert a mixed number to an improper fraction,
which is a multiple of 4. multiply the whole number part by the denominator,

15. Multiples of 3 and 9 then add the numerator. The result is the new

An integer is divisible by 3 if the sum of its digits is numerator (over the same denominator). To convert
1
© Kaplan, Inc.

divisible by 3. An integer is divisible by 9 if the sum 7, first multiply 7 by 3, then add 1, to get the new
3
of its digits is divisible by 9. The sum of the digits in
numerator of 22. Put that over the same
957 is 21, which is divisible by 3 but not by 9, so 957
22
is divisible by 3 but not by 9. denominator, 3, to get .
3

16 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

23. Converting an Improper Fraction to a Mixed 27. Converting Decimals to Fractions


Number
To convert a decimal to a fraction, set the
To convert an improper fraction to a mixed number,
decimal over 1 and multiply the numerator and
divide the denominator into the numerator to get a
denominator by ten raised to the number of digits
whole number quotient with a remainder. The
to the right of the decimal point. For instance, to
quotient becomes the whole number part of the 0.625
convert 0.625 to a fraction, you would multiply 
1
mixed number, and the remainder becomes the new 103 1 0 0 0 6 2 5 5 × 125 5
by 3 , or . Then simplify:  =  = .
10 1000 1000 8 × 125 8
numerator—with the same denominator. For
108 28. Repeating Decimal
example, to convert , first divide 5 into 108,
5
which yields 21 with a remainder of 3. Therefore, To find a particular digit in a repeating decimal, note
108 3 the number of digits in the cluster that repeats. If
 = 21 .
5 5
there are 2 digits in that cluster, then every second
24. Reciprocal
digit is the same. If there are three digits in that
To find the reciprocal of a fraction, switch the
cluster, then every third digit is the same. And so on.
3
numerator and the denominator. The reciprocal of  1
7 For example, the decimal equivalent of  is
27
7 1
is . The reciprocal of 5 is . The product of .037037037..., which is best written .037. There are
3 5
reciprocals is 1. three digits in the repeating cluster, so every third

25. Comparing Fractions digit is the same: 7. To find the 50th digit, look for

the multiple of three just less than 50—that’s 48. The


One way to compare fractions is to re-express them
3 21 5 20 48th digit is 7, and with the 49th digit the pattern
with a common denominator.  =  and  = .
4 28 7 28
repeats with 0. The 50th digit is 3.
21 20 3 5
 is greater than , so  is greater than . Another
28 28 4 7
29. Identifying the Parts and the Whole
way to compare fractions is to convert them both to
The key to solving most fractions and percents story
3 5 problems is to identify the part and the whole. Usually
decimals.  converts to 0.75 , and  converts to
4 7
you’ll find the part associated with the verb is/are and
approximately 0.714. the whole associated with the word of. In the
sentence, “Half of the boys are blonds,” the whole is
26. Converting Fractions to Decimals the boys (“of the boys”), and the part is the blonds
(“are blonds”).
To convert a fraction to a decimal, divide the bottom
5
into the top. To convert , divide 8 into 5, yielding
8
0.625.
© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 17
SAT Advantage

Percents Ratios, Proportions, and Rates


30. Percent Formula 34. Setting up a Ratio
Whether you need to find the part, the whole, or the To find a ratio, put the number associated with the
percent, use the same formula:
word of on top and the quantity associated with the
Part = Percent × Whole
word to on the bottom and reduce. The ratio of 20
Example: What is 12% of 25? 20 5
oranges to 12 apples is , which reduces to .
Setup: Part = 0.12 × 25 12 3

Example: 15 is 3% of what number? 35. Part-to-Part Ratios and Part-to-Whole Ratios


Setup: 15 = 0.03 × Whole
If the parts add up to the whole, a part-to-part ratio
Example: 45 is what percent of 9?
Setup: 45 = Percent × 9 can be turned into two part-to-whole ratios by

31. Percent Increase and Decrease putting each number in the original ratio over the
To increase a number by a percent, add the percent sum of the numbers. If the ratio of males to females
to 100 percent, convert to a decimal, and multiply. To
1 1
increase 40 by 25 percent, add 25 percent to 100 is 1 to 2, then the males-to-people ratio is  = 
1+2 3
percent, convert 125 percent to 1.25, and multiply by
2
40. 1.25 × 40 = 50. and the females-to-people ratio is  = 2. In other
1+2 3

32. Finding the Original Whole words, 23 of all the people are female.

To find the original whole before a percent increase 36. Solving a Proportion
or decrease, set up an equation. Think of the result
To solve a proportion, cross-multiply:
of a 15 percent increase over x as 1.15x.
x 3
 = 
5 4
Example: After a 5 percent increase, the
4x = 3 × 5
population was 59,346. What was the 15
population before the increase? x =  = 3.75
4
Setup: 1.05x = 59,346 37. Rate
33. Combined Percent Increase and Decrease To solve a rates problem, use the units to keep things
straight.
To determine the combined effect of multiple percent
Example: If snow is falling at the rate of one foot
increases and/or decreases, start with 100 and see
every four hours, how many inches of
what happens. snow will fall in seven hours?
Example: A price went up 10 percent one year, 1 foot x inches
Setup:  = 
and the new price went up 20 percent 4 hours 7 hours
12 inches x inches
the next year. What was the combined  = 
4 hours 7 hours
percent increase?
4x = 12 × 7
Setup: First year: 100 + (10 percent of 100) = x = 21
110. Second year: 110 + (20 percent of
© Kaplan, Inc.

110) = 132. That’s a combined 32


percent increase.

18 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

38. Average Rate 43. Median


Average rate is not simply the average of the rates. The median of a set of numbers is the value that falls
Total A in the middle of the set. If you have five test scores,
Average A per B = 
Total B and they are 88, 86, 57, 94, and 73, you must first list
Total distance the scores in increasing or decreasing order: 57, 73,
Average Speed = 
Total time
86, 88, 94.
To find the average speed for 120 miles at 40 mph
The median is the middle number, or 86. If there is
and 120 miles at 60 mph, don’t just average the two
an even number of values in a set (six test scores, for
speeds. First figure out the total distance and the instance), simply take the average of the two middle
total time. The total distance is 120 + 120 = 240 numbers.

miles. The times are two hours for the first leg and 44. Mode
three hours for the second leg, or five hours total. The mode of a set of numbers is the value that
240 appears most often. If your test scores were 88, 57,
The average speed, then, is  = 48 miles per hour.
5 68, 85, 99, 93, 93, 84, and 81, the mode of the scores
would be 93 because it appears more often than any
Averages other score. If there is a tie for the most common
value in a set, the set has more than one mode.
39. Average Formula
To find the average of a set of numbers, add them up
and divide by the number of numbers.
Possibilities and Probability
Sum of the ter ms 45. Counting the Possibilities
Average =  
Number of terms
The fundamental counting principle: If there are m
To find the average of the five numbers 12, 15, 23, 40, ways one event can happen and n ways a second
and 40, first add them: 12 + 15 + 23 + 40 + 40 = 130. event can happen, then there are m × n ways for the
Then divide the sum by 5: 130 ÷ 5 = 26. two events to happen. For example, with five shirts
40. Average of Evenly Spaced Numbers and seven pairs of pants to choose from, you can put
together 5 × 7 = 35 different outfits.
To find the average of evenly spaced numbers, just
average the smallest and the largest. The average of 46. Probability
all the integers from 13 through 77 is the same as the Favorable outcomes
Probability = 
average of 13 and 77: Total possible outcomes

13 + 77 90 For example, if you have 12 shirts in a drawer and


 =  = 45
2 2
nine of them are white, the probability of picking a
41. Using the Average to Find the Sum 9 3
white shirt at random is  = . This probability can
12 4
Sum = (Average) × (Number of terms)
also be expressed as 0.75 or 75 percent.
If the average of ten numbers is 50, then they add up
to 10 × 50, or 500.

42. Finding the Missing Number


To find a missing number when you’re given the
average, use the sum. If the average of four numbers
is 7, then the sum of those four numbers is 4 × 7, or
28. Suppose that three of the numbers are 3, 5, and 8.
© Kaplan, Inc.

These three numbers add up to 16 of that 28, which


leaves 12 for the fourth number.

Math Unit 1 19
SAT Advantage

Powers and Roots Algebraic Expressions


47. Multiplying and Dividing Powers 52. Evaluating an Expression
To multiply powers with the same base, add the To evaluate an algebraic expression, plug in the given
exponents and keep the same base: values for the unknowns and calculate according to
PEMDAS. To find the value of x 2 + 5x – 6 when
x3 × x4 = x3 + 4 = x7
x = –2, plug in –2 for x:
To divide powers with the same base, subtract the
(–2)2 + 5(–2) – 6 = 4 – 10 –6 = –12.
exponents and keep the same base:
y13 ÷ y8 = y13 – 8 = y5 53. Adding and Subtracting Monomials
To combine like terms, keep the variable part
48. Raising Powers to Powers
unchanged while adding or subtracting the
To raise a power to a power, multiply the exponents: coefficients:
(x3)4 = x3 × 4 = x12 2a + 3a = (2 + 3)a = 5a

49. Simplifying Square Roots 54. Adding and Subtracting Polynomials


To simplify a square root, factor out the perfect To add or subtract polynomials, combine like terms.
squares under the radical, unsquare them and put
(3x2 + 5x – 7) – (x2 + 12) =
the result in front.
(3x2 – x2) + 5x + (–7 – 12) =
12 = 4×3 = 4 × 3 = 23 2x2 + 5x – 19

50. Adding and Subtracting Roots 55. Multiplying Monomials

You can add or subtract radical expressions when the To multiply monomials, multiply the coefficients and
part under the radicals is the same: the variables separately:
2a × 3a = (2 × 3)(a × a) = 6a2
23 + 33 = 53
56. Multiplying Binomials—FOIL
Don’t try to add or subtract when the radical parts
are different. There’s not much you can do with an To multiply binomials, use FOIL. To multiply (x + 3)
expression like: by (x + 4), first multiply the First terms: x  x = x2.
Next the Outer terms: x  4 = 4x. Then the Inner
35 + 37 terms: 3  x = 3x. And finally the Last terms:
3  4 = 12. Then add and combine like terms:
51. Multiplying and Dividing Roots
x2 + 4x + 3x + 12 = x2 + 7x + 12
The product of square roots is equal to the square
root of the product: 57. Multiplying Other Polynomials

3 × 5 = 3×5 = 15 FOIL works only when you want to multiply two
binomials. If you want to multiply polynomials with
The quotient of square roots is equal to the square more than two terms, make sure you multiply each
root of the quotient: term in the first polynomial by each term in the
second.
6
=
3 63 = 2 (x2 + 3x + 4)(x + 5) =
x2(x + 5) + 3x(x + 5) + 4(x + 5) =
x3 + 5x2 + 3x2 + 15x + 4x + 20 =
© Kaplan, Inc.

x3 + 8x2 + 19x + 20

20 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

x2 –x –12
After multiplying two polynomials together, the For example, to simplify  , first factor the
x2 –9
number of terms in your expression before
numerator and denominator:
simplifying should equal the number of terms in
one polynomial multiplied by the number of terms x2 – x – 12 (x – 4)(x + 3)
  
in the second. In the example above, you should have x2 – 9 = (x – 3)(x + 3)
3 × 2 = 6 terms in the product before you simplify
Canceling x + 3 from the numerator and
like terms.
x–4
denominator leaves you with .
x–3
Factoring Algebraic Expressions
Solving Equations
58. Factoring out a Common Divisor
A factor common to all terms of a polynomial can be 63. Solving a Linear Equation
factored out. Each of the three terms in the To solve an equation, do whatever is necessary to
polynomial 3x3 + 12x2 – 6x contains a factor of 3x. both sides to isolate the variable. To solve the
Pulling out the common factor yields 3x(x2 + 4x – 2). equation 5x – 12 = –2x + 9, first get all the xs on one
side by adding 2x to both sides: 7x – 12 = 9. Then
59. Factoring the Difference of Squares add 12 to both sides: 7x = 21. Then divide both sides
One of the test maker’s favorite factorables is the by 7: x = 3.
difference of squares.
64. Solving “in Terms of ”
a2 – b2 = (a – b) (a + b)
To solve an equation for one variable in terms of
x2 – 9, for example, factors to (x – 3)(x + 3). another means to isolate the one variable on one
side of the equation, leaving an expression
60. Factoring the Square of a Binomial
containing the other variable on the other side of the
Learn to recognize polynomials that are squares of equation. To solve the equation 3x – 10y = –5x + 6y
binomials: for x in terms of y, isolate x:
a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2
3x – 10y = –5x + 6y
a2 – 2ab + b2 = (a – b)2
3x + 5x = 6y + 10y
For example, 4x2 + 12x + 9 factors to (2x + 3)2, and
8x = 16y
n2 – 10n + 25 factors to (n – 5)2.
x = 2y
61. Factoring Other Polynomials—FOIL in Reverse
65. Translating from English into Algebra
To factor a quadratic expression, think about what
binomials you could use FOIL on to get that To translate from English into algebra, look for the key
quadratic expression. To factor x2 – 5x + 6, think words and systematically turn phrases into algebraic
about what First terms will produce x2, what Last expressions and sentences into equations. Be careful
terms will produce +6, and what Outer and Inner about order, especially when subtraction is called for.
terms will produce –5x. Some common sense—and a Example: The charge for a phone call is r cents for
little trial and error—lead you to (x – 2)(x – 3). the first three minutes and s cents for
each minute thereafter. What is the cost,
62. Simplifying an Algebraic Fraction
in cents, of a phone call lasting exactly t
Simplifying an algebraic fraction is a lot like minutes? (t > 3)
simplifying a numerical fraction. The general idea is
Setup: The charge begins with r, and then
to find factors common to the numerator and
something more is added, depending on
© Kaplan, Inc.

denominator and cancel them. Thus, simplifying an


the length of the call. The amount
algebraic fraction begins with factoring.
added is s times the number of minutes
past three minutes. If the total number
of minutes is t, then the number of
minutes past three is t – 3. So the charge
is r + s(t – 3).
Math Unit 1 21
SAT Advantage

66. Solving a Quadratic Equation


To solve a quadratic equation, put it in the
“ax2 + bx + c = 0” form, factor the left side (if you
can), and set each factor equal to 0 separately to get
the two solutions. To solve x2 + 12 = 7x, first rewrite
it as x2 – 7x + 12 = 0. Then factor the left side:
(x – 3)(x – 4) = 0
x – 3 = 0 or x – 4 = 0
x = 3 or 4

67. Solving a System of Equations


In the figure above, PQ is the hypotenuse of a 3-4-5
You can solve for two variables only if you have two triangle, so PQ = 5.
distinct equations. Two forms of the same equation
will not be adequate. Combine the equations in such You can also use the distance formula:
a way that one of the variables cancels out. To solve
the two equations 4x + 3y = 8 and x + y = 3, multiply d = (x
–
2 
x1)+
2 y
( 2 –y
1)
2

both sides of the second equation by –3 to get: To find the distance between R(5, –2) and S(3, 6):
–3x – 3y = –9. Now add the two equations; the 3y d = (3
 –)
52
+6
[––
(2)
]2
and the –3y cancel out, leaving: x = –1. Plug that back
= (–
2)
+
2 8)
(2
into either one of the original equations and you’ll
find that y = 4. = 68 = 217
68. Solving an Inequality 70. Using Two Points to Find the Slope
To solve an inequality, do whatever is necessary to Change in y Rise
Slope =  = 
both sides to isolate the variable. Just remember that Change in x Run
when you multiply or divide both sides by a The slope of the line that contains the points A(0, –1)
negative number, you must reverse the sign. To and B(2, 3) is:
solve –5x + 7 < –3, subtract 7 from both sides to get: y –y 3 – (–1) 4
–5x < –10. Now divide both sides by –5,  2
 1
=  =  = 2
x2 – x1 2–0 2
remembering to reverse the sign: x > 2.
71. Using an Equation to Find the Slope
Coordinate Geometry To find the slope of a line from an equation, put the
equation into the slope-intercept form:
69. Finding the Distance Between Two Points
y = mx + b
To find the distance between points, use the
Pythagorean theorem or special right triangles. The The slope is m. To find the slope of the equation
difference between the xs is one leg and the difference 3x + 2y = 4, rearrange it:
between the ys is the other. 3x + 2y = 4
2y = –3x + 4
3
y = – x + 2
2
3
The slope is – .
2
© Kaplan, Inc.

22 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

72. Using an Equation to Find an Intercept


Triangles—General
To find the y-intercept, you can either put the
equation into y = mx + b (slope-intercept) form—in 75. Interior Angles of a Triangle
which case b is the y-intercept—or you can just plug The three angles of any triangle add up to 180°.
x = 0 into the equation and solve for y. To find the x-
intercept, plug
y = 0 into the equation and solve for x.

Lines and Angles


73. Intersecting Lines
In the figure above, x + 50 + 100 = 180, so x = 30.
When two lines intersect, adjacent angles are
supplementary and vertical angles are equal. 76. Exterior Angles of a Triangle
An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of
the remote interior angles.

In the figure above, the angles marked a° and b° are


adjacent and supplementary, so a + b = 180.
Furthermore, the angles marked a˚ and 60˚ are
In the figure above, the exterior angle labeled x° is
vertical and equal, so a = 60.
equal to the sum of the remote angles: x = 50 + 100 = 150.
74. Parallel Lines and Transversals
The three exterior angles of a triangle add up to 360°.
A transversal across parallel lines forms four equal
acute angles and four equal obtuse angles.

In the figure above, a + b + c = 360.

In the figure above, line 1 is parallel to line 2. Angles


a, c, e, and g are obtuse, so they are all equal. Angles
b, d, f, and h are acute, so they are all equal.

Furthermore, any of the acute angles is


supplementary to any of the obtuse angles. Angles a
and h are supplementary, as are b and e, c and f, and
so on.
© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 23
SAT Advantage

77. Similar Triangles 79. Triangle Inequality Theorem


Similar triangles have the same shape; corresponding The length of one side of a triangle must be greater
angles are equal and corresponding sides are than the difference and less than the sum of the
proportional. lengths of the other two sides. For example, if it is
given that the length of one side is 3 and the length
of another side is 7, then you know that the length of
the third side must be greater than 7 – 3 = 4 and less
than 7 + 3 = 10.

80. Isosceles Triangles


An isosceles triangle is a triangle that has two equal
sides. Not only are two sides equal, but the angles
opposite the equal sides, called base angles, are also
The triangles above are similar because they have the equal.
same angles. The 3 corresponds to the 4 and the 6
corresponds to the s. 81. Equilateral Triangles
3 6
 =  Equilateral triangles are triangles in which all three
4 s
sides are equal. Since all the sides are equal, all the
3s = 24 angles are also equal. All three angles in an equilateral
s=8 triangle measure 60 degrees, regardless of the lengths of
sides.
78. Area of a Triangle
1
Area of Triangle = (base)(height)
2
The height is the perpendicular distance between the
Right Triangles
side that’s chosen as the base and the opposite vertex. 82. Pythagorean Theorem
For all right triangles:

(leg1)2 + (leg2)2 = (hypotenuse)2

If one leg is 2 and the other leg is 3, then:


In the triangle above, 4 is the height when the 7 is
22 + 32 = c2
chosen as the base. c2 = 4 + 9
1 1
Area = bh = (7)(4) = 14 c = 1 3
2 2
© Kaplan, Inc.

24 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

83. The 3-4-5 Triangle If the hypotenuse is 6, then the shorter leg is half
If a right triangle’s leg-to-leg ratio is 3:4, or if the leg- that, or 3; and then the longer leg is equal to the
to-hypotenuse ratio is 3:5 or 4:5, it’s a 3-4-5 triangle short leg times 3, or 33.
and you don’t need to use the Pythagorean theorem to
86. The 45-45-90 Triangle
find the third side. Just figure out what multiple of 3-
4-5 it is. The sides of a 45-45-90 triangle are in a ratio of
x : x : x2.

In the right triangle shown, one leg is 30 and


the hypotenuse is 50. This is 10 times 3-4-5. If one leg is 3, then the other leg is also 3, and the
The other leg is 40. hypotenuse is equal to a leg times 2, or 32.
84. The 5-12-13 Triangle
If a right triangle’s leg-to-leg ratio is 5:12, or if the Other Polygons
leg-to-hypotenuse ratio is 5:13 or 12:13, then it’s a
5-12-13 triangle. You don’t need to use the 87. Characteristics of a Rectangle
Pythagorean theorem to find the third side. Just A rectangle is a four-sided figure with four right
figure out what multiple of 5-12-13 it is.
angles. Opposite sides are equal. Diagonals are equal.

Here one leg is 36 and the hypotenuse is 39. This is 3


times 5-12-13. The other leg is 15.
Quadrilateral ABCD above is shown to have three
85. The 30-60-90 Triangle right angles. The fourth angle therefore also measures
The sides of a 30-60-90 triangle are in a ratio of 90°, and ABCD is a rectangle. The perimeter of a
x : x3 : 2x; the Pythagorean theorem is not rectangle is equal to the sum of the lengths of the
necessary. four sides, which is equivalent to 2(length + width).
© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 25
SAT Advantage

88. Area of a Rectangle 91. Characteristics of a Square


Area of Rectangle = Length × Width A square is a rectangle with four equal sides.

The area of a 7-by-3 rectangle is 7 × 3 = 21. If PQRS is a square, all sides are the same length as
QR. The perimeter of a square is equal to four times
89. Characteristics of a Parallelogram
the length of one side.
A parallelogram has two pairs of parallel sides.
Opposite sides are equal. Opposite angles are equal. 92. Area of a Square
Consecutive angles add up to 180˚.
Area of Square = (Side)2

The square above, with sides of length 5, has an area


In the figure above, s is the length of the side opposite of 52 = 25.
the 3, so s = 3.
93. Interior Angles of a Polygon
90. Area of a Parallelogram The sum of the measures of the interior angles of a
Area of Parallelogram = base × height polygon = (n – 2) × 180, where n is the number of
sides.
Sum of the Angles = (n – 2) × 180

The eight angles of an octagon, for example, add up


to (8 – 2) × 180 = 1,080.

In parallelogram KLMN above, 4 is the height when


LM or KN is used as the base. Base × height = 6 × 4 = 24.
© Kaplan, Inc.

26 Math Unit 1
SAT Advantage

97. Area of a Sector


Circles
A sector is a piece of the area of a circle. If n is the
94. Circumference of a Circle degree measure of the sector’s central angle, then the
Circumference = 2πr formula is:

 360 
n
Area of a Sector =  (πr2)

In the circle above, the radius is 3, and so the


circumference is 2π(3) = 6π.

95. Length of an Arc


In the figure above, the radius is 6 and the measure of
An arc is a piece of the circumference. If n is the 30
the sector’s central angle is 30˚. The sector has  or
degree measure of the arc’s central angle, then the 360
1
formula is:  of the area of the circle:
12

( 3n60 )( ) 360(π)(6 ) = 12 (36π) = 3π


3 1
Length of an Arc =  2πr 2

Solids
98. Surface Area of a Rectangular Solid
The surface of a rectangular solid consists of three
pairs of identical faces. To find the surface area, find
the area of each face and add them up. If the length is
In the figure above, the radius is 5 and the measure of l, the width is w, and the height is h, the formula is:
72 1
the central angle is 72˚. The arc length is  or  of Surface Area = 2lw + 2wh + 2lh
360 5
the circumference:

360 (2π)(5) = 5(10π) = 2π


72 1

96. Area of a Circle


Area of a Circle = πr2

The surface area of the box above is: 2  7  3 + 2 


3  4 + 2  7  4 = 42 + 24 + 56 = 122
© Kaplan, Inc.

The area of the circle is π(4)2 = 16π.

Math Unit 1 27
SAT Advantage

99. Volume of a Rectangular Solid 100. Volume of a Cylinder


Volume of a Rectangular Solid = lwh Volume of a Cylinder = πr2h

The volume of a 4-by-5-by-6 box is


In the cylinder above, r = 2, h = 5, so:
4 × 5 × 6 = 120
Volume = π(22)(5) = 20π
A cube is a rectangular solid with length, width, and
height all equal. If e is the length of an edge of a
cube, the volume formula is:
Volume of a Cube = e3

The volume of this cube is 23 = 8.


© Kaplan, Inc.

28 Math Unit 1
1-888-KAPLAN8 (1-888-527-5268) or visit us at www.KaplanK12.com

XX5225A