This is book which is useful for mathematic.

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This is book which is useful for mathematic.

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1-888-KAPLAN8 • www.KaplanK12.com

Contributors

Darcy Galane, Rachel Kay, Colleen O’Donnell,

Sarah Kramer, Christine Defenbaugh

Pamela Beaulieu, Alisa Caratozzolo, Erika Quiroz-Heineman

Anne Hanson, David Whitfield

Darcy Galane, Michael Bitz

Marcy Bullmaster

in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,

or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission

of the Publisher, except where permitted by law.

SAT Advantage | TEACHER EDITION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TEACHER’S NOTES

Teacher’s Introduction

Unit 2 Strategies for Regular Math

Unit 3 Backdoor Strategies

Unit 4 Strategies for Quantitative Comparisons

Unit 5 Strategies for Grid-Ins

Unit 6 Math Traps

Unit 7 Test Practice

Appendix

Additional Notes for Teachers of

Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students

© Kaplan, Inc.

i

TEACHER EDITION | SAT Advantage

TEACHER’S INTRODUCTION

TEACHER’S NOTES

SAT ADVANTAGE

Welcome to Kaplan’s Advantage course for SAT Math. In this course, your students

will learn effective strategies to help them perform their best on the SAT, an

important college entrance requirement. In this introduction, we will explain the

philosophy behind the strategies you will be teaching. We will also describe the

structure and design of the course.

COURSE PHILOSOPHY

The purpose of teaching test-taking strategies is not to replace traditional

classroom instruction. Rather, test-taking strategies build on the core mathematics

skills that you teach your students every day. This course is centered around

familiarizing students with SAT Math and showing them strategies they can use to

maximize their scores. Students will learn systematic methods and alternative

approaches that complement their traditional instruction. In essence, the strategies

presented in this course are the bridge between your curriculum and the SAT.

In Kaplan’s test preparation courses, we teach students that there are three things

they need to know to succeed on test day:

Understanding the content that appears on the test is essential. The Math

component of the SAT tests a variety of skills. Without a doubt, the better that

students can perform in these content areas, the higher their scores will be on the

SAT.

Familiarity with the test format leads to confidence on test day. When students

understand the format and structure of the test, they know what to expect and can

concentrate on demonstrating their skills.

To maximize their scores on the SAT, students need to have flexible and systematic

strategies. Step-by-step methods show students how to approach each question

type in an efficient, focused manner. Alternative strategies show students how to

use everything they know to do their best—even on questions where they are

stumped.

© Kaplan, Inc.

ii

SAT Advantage | TEACHER EDITION

COURSE STRUCTURE

This course is divided into 8 hours of classroom instruction: 7 hours of test-taking

TEACHER’S NOTES

strategies and practice, and 1 hour of sample test practice. Each hour-long unit

focuses on strategies that address a particular challenge students will face on SAT

Math.

Each hour-long unit is divided into three 20-minute sections: one 20-minute

Strategy Instruction section, one 20-minute Guided and Independent Practice

section, and one 20-minute Test Practice section. These times are meant as

guidelines, but you should determine the appropriate pace for your students. You

may wish to take more time with some units than others, depending on the needs

of your students.

Each of the units is presented as a packet that you will hand out to your students.

Having the units in this form gives your students several small and attainable goals,

leading to a sense of achievement and confidence. When your students have

completed a unit, you may wish to send it home as a way to keep families involved

on a regular basis.

STRATEGY INSTRUCTION

Each Strategy Instruction section introduces students to test-taking strategies for a

specific question or passage type. This entire section is teacher-led—an active

dialogue between teacher and students on overcoming the challenges of the SAT.

Here are some key components of the Strategy Instruction section:

1 Strategies

Test-taking strategies are mapped for students in step-by-step flowcharts. Students

learn the strategies one piece at a time. They apply the steps on test questions

throughout the unit.

2 Exercises

Students’ understanding of the strategies is made concrete through a series of

exercises. These exercises help students internalize what they learn in the unit.

3 Sidebars

Every Strategy Instruction page includes a sidebar that students should read before

they go on to the next page. The sidebars provide helpful hints and tips that keep

students focused on the strategies. They are designed to be funny, memorable, and

useful for students to review.

© Kaplan, Inc.

iii

TEACHER EDITION | SAT Advantage

Following each Strategy Instruction section, there is a Guided and Independent

TEACHER’S NOTES

Practice section.

Guided Practice, like the Strategy Instruction section, is teacher-led; you help your

students apply the unit’s strategies to test questions. On each Guided Practice page,

test questions are presented. Beneath the test questions, the steps of the strategies

are displayed, and students are presented with hints and tips that guide them

through the process of answering the questions.

the strategies that they have learned. This section is conducted without any teacher

assistance, but hints are provided on the student pages to help students recall the

appropriate strategies.

In the Test Practice section for each unit, students are given the opportunity to

apply test-taking strategies to questions under test conditions. Students should

work independently, and hints are not provided in the student books. However, in

the Teacher’s Edition there are hints that you can offer to students who are having

difficulty. The Test Practice section should be timed to give students a sense of test-

day conditions. Afterwards, review the answers to highlight how strategies are

applied to each question.

SAMPLE TEST

The Sample Test (Unit 7) represents an actual SAT Math section. Unlike the actual

SAT, though, all three question types are presented in this practice test so students

will get familiar with the SAT as a whole. This unit provides students with the ability

to practice all the strategies they learned throughout the course. The Sample Test

section should be administered under test-like conditions. However, leave plenty of

time to review the correct answers and explanations. This section should be given

to students close to the administration date of the SAT.

© Kaplan, Inc.

iv

SAT Advantage | TEACHER EDITION

PROFICIENT (LEP) STUDENTS

TEACHER’S NOTES

In your Teacher’s Edition, the appendix presents information on how the strategies

in the course can be applied by LEP students. Because the SAT is a significant

measure of performance for many colleges and universities, LEP students will need

to face the particular challenges of SAT Math questions. The appendix will give you

additional strategies or modifications to the existing strategies that LEP students

can use to raise their scores on the SAT.

tts@kaplan.com

Kaplan is committed to providing ongoing support for your efforts. Therefore, we

have provided you with a direct email address exclusively for teachers who are

using the SAT Advantage course. Do not hesitate to send any questions or

comments about the strategies, structure, or implementation of this course. You will

receive a response within 24 hours (Monday-Friday) from our experienced team of

curriculum developers and test analysts.

© Kaplan, Inc.

v

TEACHER EDITION | SAT Advantage

The SAT consists of seven sections taken over a total of approximately three hours.

TEACHER’S NOTES

The test is offered seven times per year, generally in the following months: October,

November, December, January, March, May, and June.

sections and one 19 Analogies

15-minute section 19 Sentence

Completions

sections and one 15 Quantitative

15-minute section Comparisons

10 Grid-Ins

section

questions

SAT SCORING

Each student receives a Verbal score and a Math score, which are often combined in

answer to the question,“What did you get on your SATs?”

To determine the Verbal or Math scaled score of 200-800, a student’s raw score is

measured by totaling the number of points earned by answering questions

correctly, and then subtracting the number of points for answering questions

incorrectly.

Type Wrong

Correct Blank Wrong Wrong QC

of Answer Grid-In

A penalty is deducted for a wrong answer, not for guessing, though this is

commonly referred to as a “guessing penalty.”

The number of raw points are then converted to a scaled score by a conversion

© Kaplan, Inc.

chart set for that particular administration of the test. Each conversion chart is a

little different, depending upon how students sitting for that particular exam

performed.

vi

Sample Teacher’s Edition Page

SAT Advantage TEACHER EDITION

TEACHER’S NOTES

SAT Advantage

• This page begins the introduction to the SAT Math question

SAT Math Question Types types. The first question type is called Regular Math (the

So what exactly do the question types look like? What is a Grid-In? What subject of Unit 2). Regular Math is the most straightforward

does Quantitative Comparison mean? Let’s break it down.

Math question type. A question is followed by five answer

Regular Math choices. The student’s task is to choose the correct answer

By far, the most common question type is the Regular Math multiple- from among the five.

choice question. It may be a short equation, or it may be a long and ugly

word problem with weird symbols or funny diagrams. What • When answering Regular Math questions, students often fall

distinguishes Regular Math questions are the five answer choices

Strategizing for into the trap of jumping into calculations without taking a

labeled A through E. Success

Throughout this course, few seconds to think about the problem. This course will help

a+5 you will learn a variety of

1 If

2

is an odd integer, then 3a must be students avoid that mistake by providing them with a step-

strategies for answering

(A) an even integer all types of SAT questions. by-step method for Regular Math.

(B) a multiple of 6

(C) a multiple of 5

(D) an odd integer

(E) a prime number Sample Question

A very basic strategy for making abstract problems concrete on Regular 1 (D)

Math questions is to pick numbers and eliminate answer choices

accordingly. You will learn more about this strategy in future units. This is a typical Regular Math question — a question stem and

five answer choices. As the student page says, a great strategy

for Regular Math with variables is to pick numbers. In this case,

students must pick a number for a that makes the expression

1+5

equal an odd integer. For example, will work, and 3 • 1 = 3

2

(an odd integer). 3 also happens to be a prime number. So we

do not yet know that (D) is correct, or if (E) is correct. We must

pick another number to determine the answer. The next

5+5

number we could pick for a is a 5. = 5, which is odd.

2

3 • 5 = 15, which is odd, but is not prime. Now we know that (D)

must be correct.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 7

Math Unit 1 7

Student’s Page

Teacher’s Page

UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION TO MATH

SAT Advantage

UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION TO MATH

Objectives

In this unit, you will learn how

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 1

SAT Advantage

Hello and welcome! Chances are you have been hearing about this

ominous test called the SAT for years now. You know you need to take it

before you apply to college. You know it seems like a really big deal, and

maybe you are nervous. Well, don’t be. SAT Advantage, the core of

Kaplan’s SAT program, will tell you everything you need to know about

the SAT— including how to test your best.

In this unit, you are going to learn how this course works, how the

Math sections of the SAT are organized, and what skills you will need

Doing Your Part to do your best on test day.

While this course will help

you excel on the SAT, you

have to be an active agent On Your Mark, Get Set, Prep!

in your studies. The more

What is this SAT Advantage course? Simply put, it is the heart of a

effort you put in, the more

rewards you will reap. Kaplan SAT course, taught in your school by your teachers. In the Math

units, you will learn how to

• use the skills you already have.

• employ some strategies to help you increase your score.

• recognize and understand all of the question types.

• get the correct answer, even when you think you don’t have a clue.

Each unit will take you through different question types and strategies,

and the whole course will finish with a section-length practice test.

Remember, though, you will only get as much from this material as you

put into it. If you practice what you learn in these units on your own, you

will be in great shape for test day.

© Kaplan, Inc.

2 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

How Predictable

Why do people call the SAT a standardized test? Well, it’s very simple,

really. Even though the individual questions vary from test to test, the

basic concepts, format, and kinds of questions stay basically the same.

Why is that so, and what does it mean for you?

A Common Yardstick

The SAT is standardized so that it can be used to compare students’

performances regardless of where they are from or where they went to

Plan Ahead

school. The SAT must be made according to very specific guidelines, so

Expect to spend

that people can compare scores from state to state or year to year. approximately 1 minute

This actually works to your advantage. You don’t have to guess and on each regular math

question, 45 seconds

worry what the test will look like, what kind of questions you will see, or

on each Quantitative

how to best prepare for them. You can rest assured that your SAT will Comparison, and 1 12

look remarkably like previous administrations of the test. That means minutes on each Grid-In.

that you can really get yourself ready to test your best.

• The test is 3.5 hours long, divided into Math and Verbal sections.

15-minute section.

either a Math or a Verbal section—which is not scored.

• The Math and Verbal sections are each scored on a 200-800 point scale.

five answer choices. There are also 10 Grid-In questions.

• You will be allowed to use a calculator during the exam. © Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 3

SAT Advantage

There are three scored Math sections on the SAT:

• One 30-minute section with 25 Regular Math questions

• One 30-minute section with 10 Grid-In questions and 15 Quantitative

Comparisons

• One 15-minute section with 10 Regular Math questions

25 10 10

You won’t find any Regular Math Grid-Ins Regular Math

15

surprises in the structure Questions Quantitative Questions

of the SAT. This means Comparisons

that you can prepare for

what you know you’ll see.

the remainder of the questions split between Grid-Ins and Quantitative

Comparisons.

© Kaplan, Inc.

4 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

As with any Math test you take in school, it is important to know what

will be tested on the SAT. Here is some good news: The mathematical

content covered by the SAT is relatively limited.

The concepts that are tested on the SAT all appear in Math in a Nutshell

on Pages 14 to 28 of this unit. You should review this material well

before the test and know it cold by test day. This will ensure that you

perform to the best of your abilities on the Math sections.

Content in Context

Exercise Knowing the content is

important. However, even

Draw an arrow from each item in the middle to the appropriate column if you know all the content

on the left or right. tested on the SAT, you

could still get stumped by

Math tested on the SAT Math not tested on the SAT some question formats.

differential equations

arithmetic

topology

fractional exponents

elementary algebra

the quadratic formula

L’Hôpital’s rule

derivatives

logarithmic functions

mean, median, and mode

trigonometry

lines and angles

Taylor series

ratios, proportions, and rates

long and tedious computations

imaginary numbers

simple coordinate geometry

formal geometric proofs

triangles, circles, and quadrilaterals

ellipses, hyperbolas, and parabolas

Planck’s constant

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 5

SAT Advantage

There are a number of things you should know about the format of SAT

Math. The more familiar you are with these things, the more comfortable

you will feel on the day of the test.

At the start of each Math section, you will find the following information:

Notes:

(1) Calculator use is permitted.

Same Old Story (2) All numbers used are real numbers.

The format of the SAT will (3) Figures are provided for some problems. All figures are drawn to scale and

be the same each time you lie in a plane UNLESS otherwise indicated.

take it. Therefore, you can

get ahead of the game by

knowing the directions, • Note (2) means you won’t have to deal with imaginary numbers, such

structure, and layout. as i (the square root of –1).

• Note (3) means that geometry diagrams are drawn to scale unless

you are told otherwise. You can use the figures provided to estimate

measurements, unless you see the label “Note: figure not drawn

to scale.”

The SAT will also provide you with some reference information:

r

2x 2s r

h c 60˚ s h h

a 45˚

x w

b 30˚ w

45˚ A= πr2

1 b V = πr2h

A = bh 3x s V = wh A = w

C = 2πr

2 c2 = a2 + b2 Special Right Triangles

The sum of the degree measures of the angles of a triangle is 180.

The number of degrees of arc in a circle is 360.

A straight angle has a degree measure of 180.

The math information that you are given includes many basic

geometry formulas. By the day of the test, it is best to have these

formulas memorized. However, it is nice to know that you can find

them in the directions if you forget one at the last minute.

© Kaplan, Inc.

6 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

So what exactly do the question types look like? What is a Grid-In? What

does Quantitative Comparison mean? Let’s break it down.

Regular Math

By far, the most common question type is the Regular Math multiple-

choice question. It may be a short equation, or it may be a long and ugly

word problem with weird symbols or funny diagrams. What

distinguishes Regular Math questions are the five answer choices

Strategizing for

labeled A through E. Success

Throughout this course,

a+5 you will learn a variety of

1 If

2

is an odd integer, then 3a must be

strategies for answering

(A) an even integer all types of SAT questions.

(B) a multiple of 6

(C) a multiple of 5

(D) an odd integer

(E) a prime number

Math questions is to pick numbers and eliminate answer choices

accordingly. You will learn more about this strategy in future units.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 7

SAT Advantage

Quantitative Comparisons

At first, Quantitative Comparisons (or QC’s) may seem a bit strange, but

eventually you will be spending less time on these questions than any

other question type. Your job is simply to compare the two quantities to

determine whether Column A is greater, Column B is greater, the two

columns are equal, or the relationship cannot be determined. The

answer choices will always be the same:

Answer:

A if Column A is greater;

Never an E in QC

B if Column B is greater;

On QC’s, never choose

answer choice E. C if the two columns are equal;

D if more information is needed to determine the relationship.

Column A Column B

y is a positive integer.

y+1

1.0 <

y

< 1.2

2

y 5

The question above provides some information that will help you

determine the relationship of Columns A and B. Be sure to pay attention

to this kind of data whenever it is supplied for you on a QC.

© Kaplan, Inc.

8 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

Grid-Ins

The 10 questions following the QCs will not contain multiple-choice

responses. Grid-Ins simulate a more natural math test-taking experience.

On Grid-Ins, you need to come up with your own response.

8 but not multiples of 6?

. . . .

0 0 0 Calculator News

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 Proper calculator use

4

3 3

4

3

4

3

4

will benefit you most

5 5 5 5 on Grid-Ins.

6 6 6 6

7 7 7 7

8 8 8 8

9 9 9 9

There are a number of things that you will learn in future units about

Grid-Ins. For now, just become familiar with how they differ from the

other question types.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 9

SAT Advantage

You will learn a lot more about how to tackle each of the question types

as the course progresses. For now, here are a few basic things to keep

in mind.

Pacing

On the SAT you can only work on one section at a time and must spend

only the allocated amount of time on each section. You may find this

frustrating at first, but it’s actually a great safeguard for you. You won’t

A Point Is a Point

accidentally find yourself having wasted 45 minutes on a tough algebra

Remember, you earn the

same number of points for question.

an easy question as you do

for a tough one. Spend Skipping

your time gaining as many

points as you can, and The questions on SAT Math are all arranged in order of difficulty. Use

only tackle the real brain- that knowledge to your advantage. Always attack the early questions in

benders if you have time. each section first, as they will tend to be easier. Also, go with your first

guessing instinct on early questions—it will probably be right.

Conversely, be wary of your guessing instincts later in each section, as

harder questions tend to seem easier than they are.

In the practice sections of this course, you will see three icons,

which represent 1) the difficulty level, and 2) where in the section

this question would appear.

© Kaplan, Inc.

10 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

Guessing

You may have heard of something called the guessing penalty on the

SAT. Do you really get penalized for guessing, even if you get the right

answer? The answer to that question, of course, is no. But you do get

penalized for wrong answers. Let’s take a look at how it works.

correct 1

blank 0 No Harm , No Foul

wrong – 1 There is no guessing

4

penalty on the SAT! The

wrong QC – 13 wrong answer penalty

wrong Grid-In 0 works against random

guessing but strategic

guessing will get you

What does this mean for you on test day? The way the wrong answer points on the SAT.

penalty (that’s really what it is) works is that it’s not worth it to guess

totally randomly. The odds of getting the answer right are counter-

balanced by the penalty if you get it wrong, except for Grid-Ins, on

which you should always guess. For the other question types, you

should guess if you can eliminate at least one answer choice. Doing so

greatly shifts the odds in your favor and makes the guess worth the risk.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 11

SAT Advantage

Getting Started

We just discussed some skills that will help you master the SAT. There

are some other things you can do now to help you get ready for test

day. Pages 14 through 28 of this unit present Math in a Nutshell. This is

the basic math information and content that you should know for the

SAT. Go through the concepts one at a time, so that by the time test day

comes around, you will be familiar with the material on the test.

In addition, you should take some time to get familiar with the layout

of the SAT. Spend some time looking at the directions, the format, the

Practice Makes Peace answer grid, and anything else that may be intimidating to you. The last

Preparing yourself thing you want on test day is any surprise. By taking the time now to

thoroughly won’t just familiarize yourself with the intricacies of the test, you will have much

increase your skills; it will less to worry about when you take the SAT.

also reduce your stress

level. Because the SAT is so

predictable, if you get to

know it well ahead of

time, you’ll be able to

seriously reduce your test

day anxiety.

© Kaplan, Inc.

12 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

UNIT 1 REKAP

Look back at what you learned about the SAT in this unit. Then fill

in the spaces below to show what you have learned.

______________________.

• One thing I can do on my own to get better prepared for the Math

section of the SAT is to ______________________.

another, the basic structure and content tested

______________________, making the SAT ______________________.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 13

SAT Advantage

The math on the SAT covers a lot of ground—from arithmetic to algebra

to geometry.

important concepts that you’ll need for SAT Math and listed them in this

section.

You’ve probably been taught most of these in school already, so this list

is a great way to refresh your memory.

Use this list to remind yourself of the key areas you’ll need to know. Do

four concepts a day, and you’ll be ready within a month. If a concept

continually causes you trouble, circle it and refer back to it as you try to

do the questions.

you can use throughout the course. Concentrate on the subjects that

you find most difficult.

© Kaplan, Inc.

14 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

5. PEMDAS

Number Properties

When performing multiple operations, remember

1. Integer/Noninteger PEMDAS, which means Parentheses first, then

Integers are whole numbers; they include negative Exponents, then Multiplication and Division (left

whole numbers and zero. to right), and lastly, Addition and Subtraction (left

to right). In the expression 9 – 2 × (5 – 3)2 + 6 ÷ 3,

2. Rational/Irrational Numbers begin with the parentheses: (5 – 3) = 2. Then do the

A rational number is a number that can be expressed exponent: 22 = 4. Now the expression is:

9 – 2 × 4 + 6 ÷ 3. Next do the multiplication and

as a ratio of two integers. Irrational numbers are

division to get: 9 – 8 + 2, which equals 3. If you have

real numbers—they have locations on the number difficulty remembering PEMDAS, use this sentence to

line; they just can’t be expressed precisely as recall it: Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally.

fractions or decimals. For the purposes of the SAT,

6. Counting Consecutive Integers

the most important irrational numbers are 2,

3 , and π. To count consecutive integers, subtract the smallest

from the largest and add 1. To count the integers from

3. Adding/Subtracting Signed Numbers 13 through 31, subtract: 31 – 13 = 18. Then add 1:

To add a positive and a negative, first ignore the 18 + 1 = 19.

signs and find the positive difference between the

number parts. Then attach the sign of the original Divisibility

number with the larger number part. For example, to

add 23 and –34, first we ignore the minus sign and 7. Factor/Multiple

find the positive difference between 23 and 34—that’s The factors of integer n are the positive integers that

11. Then we attach the sign of the number with the divide into n with no remainder. The multiples of n

larger number part—in this case it’s the minus sign are the integers that n divides into with no

from the –34. So, 23 + (–34) = –11. remainder. For example, 6 is a factor of 12, and 24 is

a multiple of 12. 12 is both a factor and a multiple of

Make subtraction situations simpler by turning them itself, since 12 1 = 12 and 12 1 = 12.

into addition. For example, think of –17 – (–21) as

–17 + (+21). 8. Prime Factorization

To add or subtract a string of positives and To find the prime factorization of an integer, just keep

negatives, first turn everything into addition. Then breaking it up into factors until all the factors are

combine the positives and negatives so that the string prime. To find the prime factorization of 36, for

is reduced to the sum of a single positive number and example, you could begin by breaking it into 4 9:

a single negative number. 36 = 4 9 = 2 2 3 3.

To multiply and/or divide positives and negatives, Relative primes are integers that have no common

treat the number parts as usual and attach a minus factor other than 1. To determine whether two

sign if there were originally an odd number of integers are relative primes, break them both down to

negatives. For example, to multiply –2, –3, and –5, their prime factorizations. For example: 35 = 5 7,

first multiply the number parts: 2 3 5 = 30. and 54 = 2 3 3 3. They have no prime

Then go back and note that there were three—an odd factors in common, so 35 and 54 are relative primes.

number—negatives, so the product is negative:

(–2) (–3) (–5) = –30.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 15

SAT Advantage

A common multiple is a number that is a multiple of An integer is divisible by 5 if the last digit is 5 or 0.

two or more integers. You can always get a common An integer is divisible by 10 if the last digit is 0. The

multiple of two integers by multiplying them, but, last digit of 665 is 5, so 665 is a multiple of 5 but not

unless the two numbers are relative primes, the a multiple of 10.

product will not be the least common multiple. For

example, to find a common multiple for 12 and 15, 17. Remainders

you could just multiply: 12 15 = 180. The remainder is the whole number left over after

division. 487 is 2 more than 485, which is a multiple of

11. Least Common Multiple (LCM) 5, so when 487 is divided by 5, the remainder will be 2.

To find the least common multiple, check out the

multiples of the larger integer until you find one Fractions and Decimals

that’s also a multiple of the smaller. To find the LCM

of 12 and 15, begin by taking the multiples of 15: 15 18. Reducing Fractions

is not divisible by 12; 30 is not; nor is 45. But the next To reduce a fraction to lowest terms, factor out and

multiple of 15, 60, is divisible by 12, so it’s the LCM. cancel all factors the numerator and denominator

12. Greatest Common Factor (GCF) have in common.

28 4 × 7 7

To find the greatest common factor, break down = =

36 4 × 9 9

both integers into their prime factorizations and

multiply all the prime factors they have in common. 19. Adding/Subtracting Fractions

36 = 2 2 3 3, and 48 = 2 2 2 To add or subtract fractions, first find a common

2 3. What they have in common is two 2s and one denominator, then add or subtract the numerators.

3, so the GCF is 2 2 3 = 12. 2 3 4 9 13

+ = + =

13. Even/Odd 15 10 30 30 30

20. Multiplying Fractions

To predict whether a sum, difference, or product will

be even or odd, just take simple numbers such as 3 To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators and

and 2 and see what happens. There are rules—“odd multiply the denominators.

times even is even,” for example—but there’s no need 5 3 5 × 3 15

× = =

to memorize them. What happens with one set of 7 4 7 × 4 28

numbers generally happens with all similar sets. 21. Dividing Fractions

14. Multiples of 2 and 4 To divide fractions, invert the second one and

multiply.

An integer is divisible by 2 (which is even) if the last

1 3 1 5 1×5 5

digit is even. An integer is divisible by 4 if the last ÷ = × = =

2 5 2 3 2×3 6

two digits form a multiple of 4. The last digit of 562

is 2, which is even, so 562 is a multiple of 2. The last 22. Converting a Mixed Number to an Improper

two digits form 62, which is not divisible by 4, so 562 Fraction

is not a multiple of 4. The integer 512, however, is

divisible by four because the last two digits form 12, To convert a mixed number to an improper fraction,

which is a multiple of 4. multiply the whole number part by the denominator,

15. Multiples of 3 and 9 then add the numerator. The result is the new

An integer is divisible by 3 if the sum of its digits is numerator (over the same denominator). To convert

1

© Kaplan, Inc.

divisible by 3. An integer is divisible by 9 if the sum 7, first multiply 7 by 3, then add 1, to get the new

3

of its digits is divisible by 9. The sum of the digits in

numerator of 22. Put that over the same

957 is 21, which is divisible by 3 but not by 9, so 957

22

is divisible by 3 but not by 9. denominator, 3, to get .

3

16 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

Number

To convert a decimal to a fraction, set the

To convert an improper fraction to a mixed number,

decimal over 1 and multiply the numerator and

divide the denominator into the numerator to get a

denominator by ten raised to the number of digits

whole number quotient with a remainder. The

to the right of the decimal point. For instance, to

quotient becomes the whole number part of the 0.625

convert 0.625 to a fraction, you would multiply

1

mixed number, and the remainder becomes the new 103 1 0 0 0 6 2 5 5 × 125 5

by 3 , or . Then simplify: = = .

10 1000 1000 8 × 125 8

numerator—with the same denominator. For

108 28. Repeating Decimal

example, to convert , first divide 5 into 108,

5

which yields 21 with a remainder of 3. Therefore, To find a particular digit in a repeating decimal, note

108 3 the number of digits in the cluster that repeats. If

= 21 .

5 5

there are 2 digits in that cluster, then every second

24. Reciprocal

digit is the same. If there are three digits in that

To find the reciprocal of a fraction, switch the

cluster, then every third digit is the same. And so on.

3

numerator and the denominator. The reciprocal of 1

7 For example, the decimal equivalent of is

27

7 1

is . The reciprocal of 5 is . The product of .037037037..., which is best written .037. There are

3 5

reciprocals is 1. three digits in the repeating cluster, so every third

25. Comparing Fractions digit is the same: 7. To find the 50th digit, look for

One way to compare fractions is to re-express them

3 21 5 20 48th digit is 7, and with the 49th digit the pattern

with a common denominator. = and = .

4 28 7 28

repeats with 0. The 50th digit is 3.

21 20 3 5

is greater than , so is greater than . Another

28 28 4 7

29. Identifying the Parts and the Whole

way to compare fractions is to convert them both to

The key to solving most fractions and percents story

3 5 problems is to identify the part and the whole. Usually

decimals. converts to 0.75 , and converts to

4 7

you’ll find the part associated with the verb is/are and

approximately 0.714. the whole associated with the word of. In the

sentence, “Half of the boys are blonds,” the whole is

26. Converting Fractions to Decimals the boys (“of the boys”), and the part is the blonds

(“are blonds”).

To convert a fraction to a decimal, divide the bottom

5

into the top. To convert , divide 8 into 5, yielding

8

0.625.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 17

SAT Advantage

30. Percent Formula 34. Setting up a Ratio

Whether you need to find the part, the whole, or the To find a ratio, put the number associated with the

percent, use the same formula:

word of on top and the quantity associated with the

Part = Percent × Whole

word to on the bottom and reduce. The ratio of 20

Example: What is 12% of 25? 20 5

oranges to 12 apples is , which reduces to .

Setup: Part = 0.12 × 25 12 3

Setup: 15 = 0.03 × Whole

If the parts add up to the whole, a part-to-part ratio

Example: 45 is what percent of 9?

Setup: 45 = Percent × 9 can be turned into two part-to-whole ratios by

31. Percent Increase and Decrease putting each number in the original ratio over the

To increase a number by a percent, add the percent sum of the numbers. If the ratio of males to females

to 100 percent, convert to a decimal, and multiply. To

1 1

increase 40 by 25 percent, add 25 percent to 100 is 1 to 2, then the males-to-people ratio is =

1+2 3

percent, convert 125 percent to 1.25, and multiply by

2

40. 1.25 × 40 = 50. and the females-to-people ratio is = 2. In other

1+2 3

32. Finding the Original Whole words, 23 of all the people are female.

To find the original whole before a percent increase 36. Solving a Proportion

or decrease, set up an equation. Think of the result

To solve a proportion, cross-multiply:

of a 15 percent increase over x as 1.15x.

x 3

=

5 4

Example: After a 5 percent increase, the

4x = 3 × 5

population was 59,346. What was the 15

population before the increase? x = = 3.75

4

Setup: 1.05x = 59,346 37. Rate

33. Combined Percent Increase and Decrease To solve a rates problem, use the units to keep things

straight.

To determine the combined effect of multiple percent

Example: If snow is falling at the rate of one foot

increases and/or decreases, start with 100 and see

every four hours, how many inches of

what happens. snow will fall in seven hours?

Example: A price went up 10 percent one year, 1 foot x inches

Setup: =

and the new price went up 20 percent 4 hours 7 hours

12 inches x inches

the next year. What was the combined =

4 hours 7 hours

percent increase?

4x = 12 × 7

Setup: First year: 100 + (10 percent of 100) = x = 21

110. Second year: 110 + (20 percent of

© Kaplan, Inc.

percent increase.

18 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

Average rate is not simply the average of the rates. The median of a set of numbers is the value that falls

Total A in the middle of the set. If you have five test scores,

Average A per B =

Total B and they are 88, 86, 57, 94, and 73, you must first list

Total distance the scores in increasing or decreasing order: 57, 73,

Average Speed =

Total time

86, 88, 94.

To find the average speed for 120 miles at 40 mph

The median is the middle number, or 86. If there is

and 120 miles at 60 mph, don’t just average the two

an even number of values in a set (six test scores, for

speeds. First figure out the total distance and the instance), simply take the average of the two middle

total time. The total distance is 120 + 120 = 240 numbers.

miles. The times are two hours for the first leg and 44. Mode

three hours for the second leg, or five hours total. The mode of a set of numbers is the value that

240 appears most often. If your test scores were 88, 57,

The average speed, then, is = 48 miles per hour.

5 68, 85, 99, 93, 93, 84, and 81, the mode of the scores

would be 93 because it appears more often than any

Averages other score. If there is a tie for the most common

value in a set, the set has more than one mode.

39. Average Formula

To find the average of a set of numbers, add them up

and divide by the number of numbers.

Possibilities and Probability

Sum of the ter ms 45. Counting the Possibilities

Average =

Number of terms

The fundamental counting principle: If there are m

To find the average of the five numbers 12, 15, 23, 40, ways one event can happen and n ways a second

and 40, first add them: 12 + 15 + 23 + 40 + 40 = 130. event can happen, then there are m × n ways for the

Then divide the sum by 5: 130 ÷ 5 = 26. two events to happen. For example, with five shirts

40. Average of Evenly Spaced Numbers and seven pairs of pants to choose from, you can put

together 5 × 7 = 35 different outfits.

To find the average of evenly spaced numbers, just

average the smallest and the largest. The average of 46. Probability

all the integers from 13 through 77 is the same as the Favorable outcomes

Probability =

average of 13 and 77: Total possible outcomes

= = 45

2 2

nine of them are white, the probability of picking a

41. Using the Average to Find the Sum 9 3

white shirt at random is = . This probability can

12 4

Sum = (Average) × (Number of terms)

also be expressed as 0.75 or 75 percent.

If the average of ten numbers is 50, then they add up

to 10 × 50, or 500.

To find a missing number when you’re given the

average, use the sum. If the average of four numbers

is 7, then the sum of those four numbers is 4 × 7, or

28. Suppose that three of the numbers are 3, 5, and 8.

© Kaplan, Inc.

leaves 12 for the fourth number.

Math Unit 1 19

SAT Advantage

47. Multiplying and Dividing Powers 52. Evaluating an Expression

To multiply powers with the same base, add the To evaluate an algebraic expression, plug in the given

exponents and keep the same base: values for the unknowns and calculate according to

PEMDAS. To find the value of x 2 + 5x – 6 when

x3 × x4 = x3 + 4 = x7

x = –2, plug in –2 for x:

To divide powers with the same base, subtract the

(–2)2 + 5(–2) – 6 = 4 – 10 –6 = –12.

exponents and keep the same base:

y13 ÷ y8 = y13 – 8 = y5 53. Adding and Subtracting Monomials

To combine like terms, keep the variable part

48. Raising Powers to Powers

unchanged while adding or subtracting the

To raise a power to a power, multiply the exponents: coefficients:

(x3)4 = x3 × 4 = x12 2a + 3a = (2 + 3)a = 5a

To simplify a square root, factor out the perfect To add or subtract polynomials, combine like terms.

squares under the radical, unsquare them and put

(3x2 + 5x – 7) – (x2 + 12) =

the result in front.

(3x2 – x2) + 5x + (–7 – 12) =

12 = 4×3 = 4 × 3 = 23 2x2 + 5x – 19

You can add or subtract radical expressions when the To multiply monomials, multiply the coefficients and

part under the radicals is the same: the variables separately:

2a × 3a = (2 × 3)(a × a) = 6a2

23 + 33 = 53

56. Multiplying Binomials—FOIL

Don’t try to add or subtract when the radical parts

are different. There’s not much you can do with an To multiply binomials, use FOIL. To multiply (x + 3)

expression like: by (x + 4), first multiply the First terms: x x = x2.

Next the Outer terms: x 4 = 4x. Then the Inner

35 + 37 terms: 3 x = 3x. And finally the Last terms:

3 4 = 12. Then add and combine like terms:

51. Multiplying and Dividing Roots

x2 + 4x + 3x + 12 = x2 + 7x + 12

The product of square roots is equal to the square

root of the product: 57. Multiplying Other Polynomials

3 × 5 = 3×5 = 15 FOIL works only when you want to multiply two

binomials. If you want to multiply polynomials with

The quotient of square roots is equal to the square more than two terms, make sure you multiply each

root of the quotient: term in the first polynomial by each term in the

second.

6

=

3 63 = 2 (x2 + 3x + 4)(x + 5) =

x2(x + 5) + 3x(x + 5) + 4(x + 5) =

x3 + 5x2 + 3x2 + 15x + 4x + 20 =

© Kaplan, Inc.

x3 + 8x2 + 19x + 20

20 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

x2 –x –12

After multiplying two polynomials together, the For example, to simplify , first factor the

x2 –9

number of terms in your expression before

numerator and denominator:

simplifying should equal the number of terms in

one polynomial multiplied by the number of terms x2 – x – 12 (x – 4)(x + 3)

in the second. In the example above, you should have x2 – 9 = (x – 3)(x + 3)

3 × 2 = 6 terms in the product before you simplify

Canceling x + 3 from the numerator and

like terms.

x–4

denominator leaves you with .

x–3

Factoring Algebraic Expressions

Solving Equations

58. Factoring out a Common Divisor

A factor common to all terms of a polynomial can be 63. Solving a Linear Equation

factored out. Each of the three terms in the To solve an equation, do whatever is necessary to

polynomial 3x3 + 12x2 – 6x contains a factor of 3x. both sides to isolate the variable. To solve the

Pulling out the common factor yields 3x(x2 + 4x – 2). equation 5x – 12 = –2x + 9, first get all the xs on one

side by adding 2x to both sides: 7x – 12 = 9. Then

59. Factoring the Difference of Squares add 12 to both sides: 7x = 21. Then divide both sides

One of the test maker’s favorite factorables is the by 7: x = 3.

difference of squares.

64. Solving “in Terms of ”

a2 – b2 = (a – b) (a + b)

To solve an equation for one variable in terms of

x2 – 9, for example, factors to (x – 3)(x + 3). another means to isolate the one variable on one

side of the equation, leaving an expression

60. Factoring the Square of a Binomial

containing the other variable on the other side of the

Learn to recognize polynomials that are squares of equation. To solve the equation 3x – 10y = –5x + 6y

binomials: for x in terms of y, isolate x:

a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2

3x – 10y = –5x + 6y

a2 – 2ab + b2 = (a – b)2

3x + 5x = 6y + 10y

For example, 4x2 + 12x + 9 factors to (2x + 3)2, and

8x = 16y

n2 – 10n + 25 factors to (n – 5)2.

x = 2y

61. Factoring Other Polynomials—FOIL in Reverse

65. Translating from English into Algebra

To factor a quadratic expression, think about what

binomials you could use FOIL on to get that To translate from English into algebra, look for the key

quadratic expression. To factor x2 – 5x + 6, think words and systematically turn phrases into algebraic

about what First terms will produce x2, what Last expressions and sentences into equations. Be careful

terms will produce +6, and what Outer and Inner about order, especially when subtraction is called for.

terms will produce –5x. Some common sense—and a Example: The charge for a phone call is r cents for

little trial and error—lead you to (x – 2)(x – 3). the first three minutes and s cents for

each minute thereafter. What is the cost,

62. Simplifying an Algebraic Fraction

in cents, of a phone call lasting exactly t

Simplifying an algebraic fraction is a lot like minutes? (t > 3)

simplifying a numerical fraction. The general idea is

Setup: The charge begins with r, and then

to find factors common to the numerator and

something more is added, depending on

© Kaplan, Inc.

the length of the call. The amount

algebraic fraction begins with factoring.

added is s times the number of minutes

past three minutes. If the total number

of minutes is t, then the number of

minutes past three is t – 3. So the charge

is r + s(t – 3).

Math Unit 1 21

SAT Advantage

To solve a quadratic equation, put it in the

“ax2 + bx + c = 0” form, factor the left side (if you

can), and set each factor equal to 0 separately to get

the two solutions. To solve x2 + 12 = 7x, first rewrite

it as x2 – 7x + 12 = 0. Then factor the left side:

(x – 3)(x – 4) = 0

x – 3 = 0 or x – 4 = 0

x = 3 or 4

In the figure above, PQ is the hypotenuse of a 3-4-5

You can solve for two variables only if you have two triangle, so PQ = 5.

distinct equations. Two forms of the same equation

will not be adequate. Combine the equations in such You can also use the distance formula:

a way that one of the variables cancels out. To solve

the two equations 4x + 3y = 8 and x + y = 3, multiply d = (x

–

2

x1)+

2 y

( 2 –y

1)

2

both sides of the second equation by –3 to get: To find the distance between R(5, –2) and S(3, 6):

–3x – 3y = –9. Now add the two equations; the 3y d = (3

–)

52

+6

[––

(2)

]2

and the –3y cancel out, leaving: x = –1. Plug that back

= (–

2)

+

2 8)

(2

into either one of the original equations and you’ll

find that y = 4. = 68 = 217

68. Solving an Inequality 70. Using Two Points to Find the Slope

To solve an inequality, do whatever is necessary to Change in y Rise

Slope = =

both sides to isolate the variable. Just remember that Change in x Run

when you multiply or divide both sides by a The slope of the line that contains the points A(0, –1)

negative number, you must reverse the sign. To and B(2, 3) is:

solve –5x + 7 < –3, subtract 7 from both sides to get: y –y 3 – (–1) 4

–5x < –10. Now divide both sides by –5, 2

1

= = = 2

x2 – x1 2–0 2

remembering to reverse the sign: x > 2.

71. Using an Equation to Find the Slope

Coordinate Geometry To find the slope of a line from an equation, put the

equation into the slope-intercept form:

69. Finding the Distance Between Two Points

y = mx + b

To find the distance between points, use the

Pythagorean theorem or special right triangles. The The slope is m. To find the slope of the equation

difference between the xs is one leg and the difference 3x + 2y = 4, rearrange it:

between the ys is the other. 3x + 2y = 4

2y = –3x + 4

3

y = – x + 2

2

3

The slope is – .

2

© Kaplan, Inc.

22 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

Triangles—General

To find the y-intercept, you can either put the

equation into y = mx + b (slope-intercept) form—in 75. Interior Angles of a Triangle

which case b is the y-intercept—or you can just plug The three angles of any triangle add up to 180°.

x = 0 into the equation and solve for y. To find the x-

intercept, plug

y = 0 into the equation and solve for x.

73. Intersecting Lines

In the figure above, x + 50 + 100 = 180, so x = 30.

When two lines intersect, adjacent angles are

supplementary and vertical angles are equal. 76. Exterior Angles of a Triangle

An exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of

the remote interior angles.

adjacent and supplementary, so a + b = 180.

Furthermore, the angles marked a˚ and 60˚ are

In the figure above, the exterior angle labeled x° is

vertical and equal, so a = 60.

equal to the sum of the remote angles: x = 50 + 100 = 150.

74. Parallel Lines and Transversals

The three exterior angles of a triangle add up to 360°.

A transversal across parallel lines forms four equal

acute angles and four equal obtuse angles.

a, c, e, and g are obtuse, so they are all equal. Angles

b, d, f, and h are acute, so they are all equal.

supplementary to any of the obtuse angles. Angles a

and h are supplementary, as are b and e, c and f, and

so on.

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 23

SAT Advantage

Similar triangles have the same shape; corresponding The length of one side of a triangle must be greater

angles are equal and corresponding sides are than the difference and less than the sum of the

proportional. lengths of the other two sides. For example, if it is

given that the length of one side is 3 and the length

of another side is 7, then you know that the length of

the third side must be greater than 7 – 3 = 4 and less

than 7 + 3 = 10.

An isosceles triangle is a triangle that has two equal

sides. Not only are two sides equal, but the angles

opposite the equal sides, called base angles, are also

The triangles above are similar because they have the equal.

same angles. The 3 corresponds to the 4 and the 6

corresponds to the s. 81. Equilateral Triangles

3 6

= Equilateral triangles are triangles in which all three

4 s

sides are equal. Since all the sides are equal, all the

3s = 24 angles are also equal. All three angles in an equilateral

s=8 triangle measure 60 degrees, regardless of the lengths of

sides.

78. Area of a Triangle

1

Area of Triangle = (base)(height)

2

The height is the perpendicular distance between the

Right Triangles

side that’s chosen as the base and the opposite vertex. 82. Pythagorean Theorem

For all right triangles:

In the triangle above, 4 is the height when the 7 is

22 + 32 = c2

chosen as the base. c2 = 4 + 9

1 1

Area = bh = (7)(4) = 14 c = 1 3

2 2

© Kaplan, Inc.

24 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

83. The 3-4-5 Triangle If the hypotenuse is 6, then the shorter leg is half

If a right triangle’s leg-to-leg ratio is 3:4, or if the leg- that, or 3; and then the longer leg is equal to the

to-hypotenuse ratio is 3:5 or 4:5, it’s a 3-4-5 triangle short leg times 3, or 33.

and you don’t need to use the Pythagorean theorem to

86. The 45-45-90 Triangle

find the third side. Just figure out what multiple of 3-

4-5 it is. The sides of a 45-45-90 triangle are in a ratio of

x : x : x2.

the hypotenuse is 50. This is 10 times 3-4-5. If one leg is 3, then the other leg is also 3, and the

The other leg is 40. hypotenuse is equal to a leg times 2, or 32.

84. The 5-12-13 Triangle

If a right triangle’s leg-to-leg ratio is 5:12, or if the Other Polygons

leg-to-hypotenuse ratio is 5:13 or 12:13, then it’s a

5-12-13 triangle. You don’t need to use the 87. Characteristics of a Rectangle

Pythagorean theorem to find the third side. Just A rectangle is a four-sided figure with four right

figure out what multiple of 5-12-13 it is.

angles. Opposite sides are equal. Diagonals are equal.

times 5-12-13. The other leg is 15.

Quadrilateral ABCD above is shown to have three

85. The 30-60-90 Triangle right angles. The fourth angle therefore also measures

The sides of a 30-60-90 triangle are in a ratio of 90°, and ABCD is a rectangle. The perimeter of a

x : x3 : 2x; the Pythagorean theorem is not rectangle is equal to the sum of the lengths of the

necessary. four sides, which is equivalent to 2(length + width).

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 25

SAT Advantage

Area of Rectangle = Length × Width A square is a rectangle with four equal sides.

The area of a 7-by-3 rectangle is 7 × 3 = 21. If PQRS is a square, all sides are the same length as

QR. The perimeter of a square is equal to four times

89. Characteristics of a Parallelogram

the length of one side.

A parallelogram has two pairs of parallel sides.

Opposite sides are equal. Opposite angles are equal. 92. Area of a Square

Consecutive angles add up to 180˚.

Area of Square = (Side)2

In the figure above, s is the length of the side opposite of 52 = 25.

the 3, so s = 3.

93. Interior Angles of a Polygon

90. Area of a Parallelogram The sum of the measures of the interior angles of a

Area of Parallelogram = base × height polygon = (n – 2) × 180, where n is the number of

sides.

Sum of the Angles = (n – 2) × 180

to (8 – 2) × 180 = 1,080.

LM or KN is used as the base. Base × height = 6 × 4 = 24.

© Kaplan, Inc.

26 Math Unit 1

SAT Advantage

Circles

A sector is a piece of the area of a circle. If n is the

94. Circumference of a Circle degree measure of the sector’s central angle, then the

Circumference = 2πr formula is:

360

n

Area of a Sector = (πr2)

circumference is 2π(3) = 6π.

In the figure above, the radius is 6 and the measure of

An arc is a piece of the circumference. If n is the 30

the sector’s central angle is 30˚. The sector has or

degree measure of the arc’s central angle, then the 360

1

formula is: of the area of the circle:

12

3 1

Length of an Arc = 2πr 2

Solids

98. Surface Area of a Rectangular Solid

The surface of a rectangular solid consists of three

pairs of identical faces. To find the surface area, find

the area of each face and add them up. If the length is

In the figure above, the radius is 5 and the measure of l, the width is w, and the height is h, the formula is:

72 1

the central angle is 72˚. The arc length is or of Surface Area = 2lw + 2wh + 2lh

360 5

the circumference:

72 1

Area of a Circle = πr2

3 4 + 2 7 4 = 42 + 24 + 56 = 122

© Kaplan, Inc.

Math Unit 1 27

SAT Advantage

Volume of a Rectangular Solid = lwh Volume of a Cylinder = πr2h

In the cylinder above, r = 2, h = 5, so:

4 × 5 × 6 = 120

Volume = π(22)(5) = 20π

A cube is a rectangular solid with length, width, and

height all equal. If e is the length of an edge of a

cube, the volume formula is:

Volume of a Cube = e3

© Kaplan, Inc.

28 Math Unit 1

1-888-KAPLAN8 (1-888-527-5268) or visit us at www.KaplanK12.com

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