ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual

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The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. The software described in this document is furnished under license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or distributed in any way without prior written agreement with Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. ©Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. 2000. Printed in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. This electronic book is being displayed using DynaText software produced by Inso Corporation. DynaText is a registered trademark of Inso Corporation. ABAQUS is a registered trademark of Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. The following are trademarks of Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.: ABAQUS/ADAMS; ABAQUS/Aqua; ABAQUS/CAE; ABAQUS/CAT; ABAQUS/C-MOLD; ABAQUS/Design; ABAQUS/Explicit; ABAQUS/Post; ABAQUS/Safe; ABAQUS/Standard; ABAQUS/USA; ABAQUS/Viewer; and the Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. logo. This release of ABAQUS may contain a capability licensed under U.S. Patent 5,920,491. Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. may also have other patents or pending patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to the patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. ADAMS is a registered United States trademark of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. ADAMS/Flex and ADAMS/View are trademarks of Mechanical Dynamics, Inc. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systémes. C-MOLD is a registered trademark of Advanced CAE Technology, Inc., doing business as C-MOLD. Compaq Alpha is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. FE-SAFE is a trademark of Safe Technology, Ltd. Fujitsu, UXP, and VPP are registered trademarks of Fujitsu Limited. Hewlett-Packard, HP-GL, and HP-GL/2 are registered trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Co.

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Hitachi is a registered trademark of Hitachi, Ltd. IBM RS/6000 is a trademark of IBM. Intel is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation. NEC is a trademark of the NEC Corporation. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. Silicon Graphics is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics, Inc. SUN is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.
TEX is a trademark of the American Mathematical Society.

UNIX and Motif are registered trademarks and X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group in the U.S. and other countries. Windows NT is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. ABAQUS/CAE incorporates portions of the ACIS software by SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. ACIS is a registered trademark of SPATIAL TECHNOLOGY INC. This release of ABAQUS on Windows NT includes the diff program obtained from the Free Software Foundation. You may freely distribute the diff program and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA. This release of ABAQUS/CAE includes lp_solve, a simplex-based code for linear and integer programming problems by Michel Berkelaar of Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. Python, copyright 1991-1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. All Rights Reserved. Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute the Python software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the names of Stichting Mathematisch Centrum or CWI or Corporation for National Research Initiatives or CNRI not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. All other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies or organizations.

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General conversion factors (to five significant digits) Quantity U.S. unit SI equivalent Length 1 in 0.025400 m 1 ft 0.30480 m 1 mile 1609.3 m 2 Area 1 in 0.64516 ´ 10-3 m2 1 ft2 0.092903 m 2 1 acre 4046.9 m2 Volume 1 in3 0.016387 ´ 10-3 m3 3 1 ft 0.028317 m 3 1 US gallon 3.7854 ´ 10-3 m3 Quantity Density Energy Force Mass Power Pressure, Stress Conversion factors for stress analysis U.S. unit SI equivalent 1 slug/ft3 = 1 lbf s2/ft4 515.38 kg/m3 1 lbf s2/in4 10.687 ´ 106 kg/m3 1 ft lbf 1.3558 J (N m) 1 lbf 4.4482 N (kg m/s2) 2 1 slug = 1 lbf s /ft 14.594 kg (N s2/m) 175.13 kg 1 lbf s2/in 1 ft lbf/s 1.3558 W (N m/s) 2) 1 psi (lbf/in 6894.8 Pa (N/m2)

Conversion factors for heat transfer analysis Quantity U.S. unit SI equivalent Conductivity 1 Btu/ft hr °F 1.7307 W/m °C 1 Btu/in hr °F 20.769 W/m °C Density 1 lbm/in3 27680. kg/m3 Energy 1 Btu 1055.1 J Heat flux density 1 Btu/in 2 hr 454.26 W/m2 Power 1 Btu/hr 0.29307 W Specific heat 1 Btu/lbm °F 4186.8 J/kg °C Temperature 1 °F 5/9 °C Temp °F 9/5 ´ Temp °C + 32° 9/5 ´ Temp °K - 459.67° Constant Absolute zero Acceleration of gravity Atmospheric pressure Stefan-Boltzmann constant Important constants U.S. unit -459.67 °F 32.174 ft/s 2 14.694 psi 0.1714 ´ 10-8 Btu/hr ft2 °R4 where °R = °F + 459.67 SI unit -273.15 °C 9.8066 m/s2 0.10132 ´ 106 Pa 5.669 ´ 10-8 W/m2 °K4 where °K = °C + 273.15

Approximate properties of mild steel at room temperature Quantity U.S. unit SI unit Conductivity 28.9 Btu/ft hr °F 50 W/m °C 2.4 Btu/in hr °F Density 15.13 slug/ft3 (lbf s2/ft4) 7800 kg/m3 0.730 ´ 10-3 lbf s2/in4

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Elastic modulus Specific heat Yield stress

0.282 lbm/in 3 30 ´ 106 psi 0.11 Btu/lbm °F 30 ´ 103 psi

207 ´ 109 Pa 460 J/kg °C 207 ´ 106 Pa

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UNITED STATES Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. 1080 Main Street Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847 Tel: 401 727 4200 Fax: 401 727 4208 E-mail: info@abaqus.com, support@abaqus.com http://www.abaqus.com Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen (West), Inc. 39221 Paseo Padre Parkway, Suite F Fremont, CA 94538-1611 Tel: 510 794 5891 Fax: 510 794 1194 E-mail: hkswest@abaqus.com AC Engineering, Inc. 1440 Innovation Place West Lafayette, IN 47906-1000 Tel: 765 497 1373 Fax: 765 497 4444 E-mail: info@aceng.com ARGENTINA KB Engineering S. R. L. Florida 274, Of. 37 (1005) Buenos Aires, Argentina Tel: +54 11 4393 8444 Fax: +54 11 4326 2424 E-mail: sanchezsarmiento@arnet.com.ar

Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen (Michigan), Inc. 14500 Sheldon Road, Suite 160 Plymouth, MI 48170-2408 Tel: 734 451 0217 Fax: 734 451 0458 E-mail: hksmi@abaqus.com

ABAQUS Solutions Northeast, LLC Summit Office Park, West Building 300 Centerville Road, Suite 209W Warwick, RI 02886-0201 Tel: 401 739 3637 Fax: 401 739 3302 E-mail: support@abaqus-sn.com

AUSTRIA VOEST-ALPINE STAHL LINZ GmbH Department WFE Postfach 3 A-4031 Linz Tel: 0732 6585 9919 Fax: 0732 6980 4338 E-mail: edwin.till@voest.co.at CHINA Advanced Finite Element Services Department of Engineering Mechanics Tsinghua University Beijing 100084, P. R. China Tel: 010 62783986

AUSTRALIA Compumod Pty. Ltd. Level 13, 309 Pitt Street Sydney 2000 P.O. Box A807 Sydney South 1235 Tel: 02 9283 2577 Fax: 02 9283 2585 E-mail: support@compumod.com.au http://www.compumod.com.au BENELUX ABAQUS Benelux BV Huizermaatweg 576 1276 LN Huizen The Netherlands Tel: +31 35 52 58 424 Fax: +31 35 52 44 257 E-mail: support@abaqus.nl CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAK REPUBLIC ASATTE Technická 4, 166 07 Praha 6 Czech Republic Tel: 420 2 24352654 Fax: 420 2 33322482

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Fax: 010 62771163 E-mail: zhuangz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn FRANCE ABAQUS Software, s.a.r.l. 7, rue de la Patte d'Oie 78000 Versailles Tel: 01 39 24 15 40 Fax: 01 39 24 15 45 E-mail: support@abaqus.fr ITALY Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen Italia, s.r.l. Viale Certosa, 1 20149 Milano Tel: 02 39211211 Fax: 02 39211210 E-mail: infohks@abaqus.it

E-mail: asatte@biomed.fsid.cvut.cz GERMANY ABACOM Software GmbH Theaterstraße 30-32 D-52062 Aachen Tel: 0241 474010 Fax: 0241 4090963 E-mail: abacom@abacom.de JAPAN Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

3rd Floor, Akasaka Nihon Building 5-24, Akasaka 9-chome Minato-ku Tokyo, 107-0052 Tel: 03 5474 5817 Fax: 03 5474 5818 E-mail: hksj@hksj.co.jp KOREA MALAYSIA Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen Korea, Inc. Compumod Sdn Bhd Suite 306, Sambo Building #33.03 Menara Lion 13-2 Yoido-Dong, Youngdeungpo-ku 165 Jalan Ampang Seoul, 150-010 50450 Kuala Lumpur Tel: 02 785 6707/8 Tel: 3 466 2122 Fax: 02 785 6709 Fax: 3 466 2123 E-mail: hotline@abaqus.co.kr E-mail: hotline@compumod.com.my NEW ZEALAND POLAND Matrix Applied Computing Ltd. BudSoft Sp. z o.o. P.O. Box 56-316, Auckland 61-807 Pozna Courier: Unit 2-5, 72 Dominion Road, Sw. Marcin 58/64 Mt Eden, Auckland Tel: 61 852 31 19 Tel: +64 9 623 1223 Fax: 61 852 31 19 Fax: +64 9 623 1134 E-mail: budsoft@man.poznan.pl E-mail: hks-support@matrix.co.nz SINGAPORE SOUTH AFRICA Compumod (Singapore) Pte Ltd Finite Element Analysis Services (Pty) Ltd. #17-05 Asia Chambers Suite 20-303C, The Waverley 20 McCallum Street Wyecroft Road Singapore 069046 Mowbray 7700 Tel: 223 2996 Tel: 021 448 7608 Fax: 226 0336 Fax: 021 448 7679 E-mail: E-mail: abaqus@feas.co.za compumod@mbox2.singnet.com.sg SPAIN SWEDEN Principia Ingenieros Consultores, S.A. FEM-Tech AB Velázquez, 94 Pilgatan 8 28006 Madrid SE-721 30 Västerås

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Tel: 91 209 1482 Fax: 91 575 1026 E-mail: abaqus@principia.es TAIWAN APIC 7th Fl., 131 Sung Chiang Road Taipei, 10428 Tel: 02 25083066 Fax: 02 25077185 E-mail: cae@apic.com.tw

Tel: 021 12 64 10 Fax: 021 18 12 44 E-mail: femtech@femtech.se UNITED KINGDOM Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen (UK) Ltd. The Genesis Centre Science Park South, Birchwood Warrington, Cheshire WA3 7BH Tel: 01925 810166 Fax: 01925 810178 E-mail: hotline@hks.co.uk

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This section lists various resources that are available for help with using ABAQUS, including technical and systems support, training seminars, and documentation.

Support
HKS offers both technical (engineering) support and systems support for ABAQUS. Technical and systems support are provided through the nearest local support office. You can contact our offices by telephone, fax, electronic mail, or regular mail. Information on how to contact each office is listed in the front of each ABAQUS manual. Support information is also available by visiting the ABAQUS Home Page on the World Wide Web (details are given below). When contacting your local support office, please specify whether you would like technical support (you have encountered problems performing an ABAQUS analysis) or systems support (ABAQUS will not install correctly, licensing does not work correctly, or other hardware-related issues have arisen). We welcome any suggestions for improvements to the support program or documentation. We will ensure that any enhancement requests you make are considered for future releases. If you wish to file a complaint about the service or products provided by HKS, refer to the ABAQUS Home Page.

Technical support
HKS technical support engineers can assist in clarifying ABAQUS features and checking errors by giving both general information on using ABAQUS and information on its application to specific analyses. If you have concerns about an analysis, we suggest that you contact us at an early stage, since it is usually easier to solve problems at the beginning of a project rather than trying to correct an analysis at the end. Please have the following information ready before calling the technical support hotline, and include it in any written contacts: · The version of ABAQUS that are you using. - The version numbers for ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit are given at the top of the data (.dat) file. - The version numbers for ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS/Viewer can be found by selecting Help->On version from the main menu bar. - The version number for ABAQUS/CAT is given at the top of the input ( .inp) file as well as the data file. - The version numbers for ABAQUS/ADAMS and ABAQUS/C-MOLD are output to the screen. - The version number for ABAQUS/Safe is given under the ABAQUS logo in the main window. · The type of computer on which you are running ABAQUS.

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· The symptoms of any problems, including the exact error messages, if any. · Workarounds or tests that you have already tried. When calling for support about a specific problem, any available ABAQUS output files may be helpful in answering questions that the support engineer may ask you. The support engineer will try to diagnose your problem from the model description and a description of the difficulties you are having. Frequently, the support engineer will need model sketches, which can be faxed to HKS or sent in the mail. Plots of the final results or the results near the point that the analysis terminated may also be needed to understand what may have caused the problem. If the support engineer cannot diagnose your problem from this information, you may be asked to send the input data. The data can be sent by means of e-mail, tape, or disk. Please check the ABAQUS Home Page at www.abaqus.com for the media formats that are currently accepted. All support calls are logged into a database, which enables us to monitor the progress of a particular problem and to check that we are resolving support issues efficiently. If you would like to know the log number of your particular call for future reference, please ask the support engineer. If you are calling to discuss an existing support problem and you know the log number, please mention it so that we can consult the database to see what the latest action has been and, thus, avoid duplication of effort. In addition, please give the receptionist the support engineer's name (or include it at the top of any e-mail correspondence).

Systems support
HKS systems support engineers can help you resolve issues related to the installation and running of ABAQUS, including licensing difficulties, that are not covered by technical support. You should install ABAQUS by carefully following the instructions in the ABAQUS Site Guide. If you encounter problems with the installation or licensing, first review the instructions in the ABAQUS Site Guide to ensure that they have been followed correctly. If this does not resolve the problems, look on the ABAQUS Home Page under Technical Support for information about known installation problems. If this does not address your situation, please contact your local support office. Send whatever information is available to define the problem: error messages from an aborted analysis or a detailed explanation of the problems encountered. Whenever possible, please send the output from the abaqus info=env and abaqus info=sys commands.

ABAQUS Web server
For users connected to the Internet, many questions can be answered by visiting the ABAQUS Home Page on the World Wide Web at
http://www.abaqus.com

The information available on the ABAQUS Home Page includes: · Frequently asked questions · ABAQUS systems information and machine requirements

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· Benchmark timing documents · Error status reports · ABAQUS documentation price list · Training seminar schedule · Newsletters

Anonymous ftp site
For users connected to the Internet, HKS maintains useful documents on an anonymous ftp account on the computer ftp.abaqus.com. Simply ftp to ftp.abaqus.com. Login as user anonymous, and type your e-mail address as your password. Directions will come up automatically upon login.

Writing to technical support
Address of HKS Headquarters: Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc. 1080 Main Street Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847, USA Attention: Technical Support Addresses for other offices and representatives are listed in the front of each manual.

Support for academic institutions
Under the terms of the Academic License Agreement we do not provide support to users at academic institutions unless the institution has also purchased technical support. Please see the ABAQUS Home Page, or contact us for more information.

Training
All HKS offices offer regularly scheduled public training classes. The Introduction to ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit seminar covers basic usage and nonlinear applications, such as large deformation, plasticity, contact, and dynamics. Workshops provide as much practical experience with ABAQUS as possible. The Introduction to ABAQUS/CAE seminar discusses modeling, managing simulations, and viewing results with ABAQUS/CAE. "Hands-on" workshops are complemented by lectures. Advanced seminars cover topics of interest to customers with experience using ABAQUS, such as engine analysis, metal forming, fracture mechanics, and heat transfer. We also provide training seminars at customer sites. On-site training seminars can be one or more days in duration, depending on customer requirements. The training topics can include a combination of material from our introductory and advanced seminars. Workshops allow customers to exercise ABAQUS on their own computers.

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For a schedule of seminars see the ABAQUS Home Page, or call HKS or your local HKS representative.

Documentation
The following documentation and publications are available from HKS, unless otherwise specified, in printed form and through our online documentation server. For more information on accessing the online books, refer to the discussion of execution procedures in the user's manuals. In addition to the documentation listed below, HKS publishes two newsletters on a regular schedule: ABAQUS/News and ABAQUS/Answers. ABAQUS/News includes topical information about program releases, training seminars, etc. ABAQUS/Answers includes technical articles on particular topics related to ABAQUS usage. These newsletters are distributed at no cost to users who wish to subscribe. Please contact your local ABAQUS support office if you wish to be added to the mailing list for these publications. They are also archived in the Reference Shelf on the ABAQUS Home Page.

Training Manuals
Getting Started with ABAQUS/Standard: This document is a self-paced tutorial designed to help new users become familiar with using ABAQUS/Standard for static and dynamic stress analysis simulations. It contains a number of fully worked examples that provide practical guidelines for performing structural analyses with ABAQUS. Getting Started with ABAQUS/Explicit: This document is a self-paced tutorial designed to help new users become familiar with using ABAQUS/Explicit. It begins with the basics of modeling in ABAQUS, so no prior knowledge of ABAQUS is required. A number of fully worked examples provide practical guidelines for performing explicit dynamic analyses, such as drop tests and metal forming simulations, with ABAQUS/Explicit. Lecture Notes: These notes are available on many topics to which ABAQUS is applied. They are used in the technical seminars that HKS presents to help users improve their understanding and usage of ABAQUS (see the "Training" section above for more information about these seminars). While not intended as stand-alone tutorial material, they are sufficiently comprehensive that they can usually be used in that mode. The list of available lecture notes is included in the Documentation Price List.

User's Manuals
ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual: This volume contains a complete description of the elements, material models, procedures, input specifications, etc. It is the basic reference document for ABAQUS/Standard. ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual: This volume contains a complete description of the elements, material models, procedures, input specifications, etc. It is the basic reference document for ABAQUS/Explicit.

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ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual: This reference document for ABAQUS/CAE includes three comprehensive tutorials as well as detailed descriptions of how to use ABAQUS/CAE for model generation, analysis, and results evaluation. ABAQUS/Viewer User's Manual: This basic reference document for ABAQUS/Viewer includes an introductory tutorial as well as a complete description of how to use ABAQUS/Viewer to display your model and results. ABAQUS/ADAMS User's Manual: This document describes how to install and how to use ABAQUS/ADAMS, an interface program that creates ABAQUS models of ADAMS components and converts the ABAQUS results into an ADAMS modal neutral file that can be used by the ADAMS/Flex program. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS/ADAMS program. ABAQUS/CAT User's Manual: This document describes how to install and how to use ABAQUS/CAT, an interface program that creates an ABAQUS input file from a CATIA model and postprocesses the analysis results in CATIA. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS/CAT program. ABAQUS/C-MOLD User's Manual: This document describes how to install and how to use ABAQUS/C-MOLD, an interface program that translates finite element mesh, material property, and initial stress data from a C-MOLD analysis to an ABAQUS input file. ABAQUS/Safe User's Manual: This document describes how to install and how to use ABAQUS/Safe, an interface program that calculates fatigue lives and fatigue strength reserve factors from finite element models. It is the basic reference document for the ABAQUS/Safe program. The theoretical background to fatigue analysis is contained in the Modern Metal Fatigue Analysis manual (available only in print). Using ABAQUS Online Documentation: This online manual contains instructions on using the ABAQUS online documentation server to read the manuals that are available online. ABAQUS Release Notes: This document contains brief descriptions of the new features available in the latest release of the ABAQUS product line. ABAQUS Site Guide: This document describes how to install ABAQUS and how to configure the installation for particular circumstances. Some of this information, of most relevance to users, is also provided in the user's manuals.

Examples Manuals
ABAQUS Example Problems Manual: This volume contains more than 75 detailed examples designed to illustrate the approaches and decisions needed to perform meaningful linear and nonlinear analysis. Typical cases are large motion of an elastic-plastic pipe hitting a rigid wall; inelastic buckling collapse of a thin-walled elbow; explosive loading of an elastic, viscoplastic thin ring; consolidation under a footing; buckling of a composite shell with a hole; and deep drawing of a metal sheet. It is generally useful to look for relevant examples in this manual and to review them when embarking on a new class of problem.

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ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual: This volume (available online and, if requested, in print) contains over 200 benchmark problems and standard analyses used to evaluate the performance of ABAQUS; the tests are multiple element tests of simple geometries or simplified versions of real problems. The NAFEMS benchmark problems are included in this manual. ABAQUS Verification Manual: This online-only volume contains more than 5000 basic test cases, providing verification of each individual program feature (procedures, output options, MPCs, etc.) against exact calculations and other published results. It may be useful to run these problems when learning to use a new capability. In addition, the supplied input data files provide good starting points to check the behavior of elements, materials, etc.

Reference Manuals
ABAQUS Keywords Manual: This volume contains a complete description of all the input options that are available in ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. ABAQUS Theory Manual: This volume (available online and, if requested, in print) contains detailed, precise discussions of all theoretical aspects of ABAQUS. It is written to be understood by users with an engineering background. ABAQUS Scripting Manual: This online manual provides a description of the ABAQUS Command Language and a command reference that lists the syntax of each command. The manual describes how commands can be used to create and analyze ABAQUS/CAE models, to view the results of the analysis, and to automate repetitive tasks. It also contains information on using the ABAQUS Command Language or C++ as an application programming interface (API). ABAQUS Input Files: This online manual contains all the input files that are included with the ABAQUS release and referred to in the ABAQUS Example Problems Manual, the ABAQUS Benchmarks Manual, and the ABAQUS Verification Manual. They are listed in the order in which they appear in the manuals, under the title of the problem that refers to them. The input file references in the manuals hyperlink directly to this book. Quality Assurance Plan: This document describes HKS's QA procedures. It is a controlled document, provided to customers who subscribe to either HKS's Nuclear QA Program or the Quality Monitoring Service.

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Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE

Part I: Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE
ABAQUS/CAE is a complete ABAQUS environment that provides a simple, consistent interface for creating, submitting, monitoring, and evaluating results from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit simulations. ABAQUS/CAE is divided into modules, where each module defines a logical aspect of the modeling process; for example, defining the geometry, defining material properties, and generating a mesh. As you move from module to module, each module contributes keywords, parameters, and data to form an input file that you submit to the ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit solver. The solver reads the input file generated by ABAQUS/CAE, performs the analysis, sends information to ABAQUS/CAE to allow you to monitor the progress of the job, and generates an output database. Finally, you use ABAQUS/CAE to read the output database and view the results of your analysis. This part of the manual introduces you to the basics of creating and analyzing a model and viewing the results of your analysis with the Visualization module and is divided into the following sections: Using this manual This section outlines the contents of this manual. It also explains the typographical conventions used in the documentation and describes how common mouse and keyboard actions are indicated. Tutorials This section contains three tutorials that lead you through the modeling process. In the first tutorial you create a simple model, analyze it, and then view the results. The second tutorial is more complex and illustrates how parts, sketches, datum geometry, and partitions work together and how you assemble part instances. The third tutorial demonstrates how you can use the Visualization module to display your results in a variety of formats and how you can customize the display.

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Using this manual

1. Using this manual
The printed form of this manual serves as companion to an online version. Detailed, step-by-step instructions for using each of the ABAQUS/CAE functions are available only in the online version of this manual and as context-sensitive help. This chapter provides information about the contents of this manual and the typographical conventions used. The following topics are covered: · ``Overview of this manual,'' Section 1.1 · ``Typographical conventions,'' Section 1.2 · ``Basic mouse actions,'' Section 1.3

1.1 Overview of this manual
This manual is a reference guide to using ABAQUS/CAE. The ABAQUS/CAE user interface is very intuitive and allows you to begin working without a great deal of preparation. However, you may find it useful to read through the tutorials contained in Part I, "Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE," before using the product for the first time. The remainder of this manual is divided into the following parts: · Part II, "Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE" · Part III, "Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases, models, and files" · Part IV, "Creating and analyzing a model using the ABAQUS/CAE modules" · Part V, "Viewing results" · Part VI, "Using ABAQUS/CAE toolsets" · Part VII, "Customizing geometry and mesh display" Appendix A, "Keyword support," provides tables that you can use to determine which ABAQUS/CAE module embodies the functionality of a particular ABAQUS keyword, as well as whether a particular keyword is supported. Appendix B, "Visualization module limitations," lists the ABAQUS elements and output variables that are not supported by the Visualization module. If you are familiar with ABAQUS/Post, Appendix C, "Transitioning to the Visualization module from ABAQUS/Post," explains the relationships between the Visualization module functions and the corresponding ABAQUS/Post commands. This appendix also lists the functionality in ABAQUS/Post that is not yet available in the Visualization module.

1.2 Typographical conventions
This manual adheres to a set of typographical conventions so that you can recognize actions and items. The following list illustrates each of the conventions:

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Using this manual

· Text you enter from the keyboard or that ABAQUS/CAE outputs: crankshaft_steel, 1.35E10 · Labels of items on the screen: Canvas Toolbox · Hyperlinks: click here · Keyboard actions: [Shift] · Keystroke combinations (two keys that must be pressed simultaneously): [Alt]+F · Compound keyboard/mouse actions: [Shift]+Click · Text indicating that the user has a choice: odb_file, Options->plot mode · Menu selections and tabs within dialog boxes:
View->View Options->Hardware

1.3 Basic mouse actions
Figure 1-1 shows the mouse button orientation for a left-handed and a right-handed 3-button mouse.

Figure 1-1 Mouse buttons.

The following terms describe actions you perform using the mouse: Click Press and quickly release the mouse button. Unless otherwise specified, the instruction ``click'' means that you should click mouse button 1. Drag Press and hold down mouse button 1 while moving the mouse. Point Move the mouse until the cursor is over the desired item. Select

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Using this manual

Point to an item and then click mouse button 1. [Shift]+Click Press and hold the [Shift] key, click mouse button 1, and then release the [Shift] key. [Ctrl]+Click Press and hold the [Ctrl] key, click mouse button 1, and then release the [Ctrl] key. ABAQUS/CAE is designed for use with a 3-button mouse. Accordingly, this manual refers to mouse buttons 1, 2, and 3 as shown in Figure 1-1. However, you can use ABAQUS/CAE with a 2-button mouse as follows: · The two mouse buttons are equivalent to mouse buttons 1 and 3 on a 3-button mouse. · Pressing both mouse buttons simultaneously is equivalent to pressing mouse button 2 on a 3-button mouse.

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A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model

2. A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model
The following section leads you through the ABAQUS/CAE modeling process by visiting each of the modules and showing you the basic steps to create and analyze a simple model. To illustrate each of the steps, you will first create a model of a steel cantilever beam and load its top surface (see Figure 2-1).

Figure 2-1 A loaded cantilever beam.

You will then analyze the beam and plot the resulting stresses and displacements. The entire tutorial takes approximately 90 minutes to complete. If you are following the tutorial but are unsure how to proceed at any point, click the highlighted and underlined text in the help window to view more extensive documentation of the task you are attempting. Clicking highlighted text (a hyperlink) takes you to a different section of the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual; clicking the Go Back button in the toolbar across the top of this window returns you to your original point in "Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE. For example, click ``Overview of the main window,'' Section 5.2 to see detailed information on the components of the main window and click the Go Back button to return here. The following topics are covered: · ``Understanding ABAQUS/CAE modules,'' Section 2.1 · ``Starting ABAQUS/CAE,'' Section 2.2 · ``Getting help,'' Section 2.3 · ``Creating a part,'' Section 2.4 · ``Creating a material,'' Section 2.5 · ``Defining and assigning section properties,'' Section 2.6

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A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model

· ``Assembling the model,'' Section 2.7 · ``Configuring your analysis,'' Section 2.8 · ``Applying a boundary condition and a load to the model, '' Section 2.9 · ``Meshing the model,'' Section 2.10 · ``Creating and submitting an analysis job,'' Section 2.11 · ``Viewing the results of your analysis,'' Section 2.12

2.1 Understanding ABAQUS/CAE modules
ABAQUS/CAE is divided into modules, where each module defines an aspect of the modeling process; for example, defining the geometry, defining material properties, and generating a mesh. As you move from module to module, each module contributes keywords, parameters, and data to form an input file that you submit to the ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit solver for analysis. For example, you use the Property module to define material and section properties and the Step module to choose an analysis procedure; the ABAQUS/CAE postprocessor is called the Visualization module. You enter a module by selecting it from the Module list under the toolbar, as shown in Figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2 Selecting a module.

For the cantilever beam tutorial, you will enter the following ABAQUS/CAE modules and perform the following tasks: Part Sketch a two-dimensional profile and create a part representing the cantilever beam.

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Property Define the material properties and other section properties of the beam. Assembly Assemble the model and create sets. Step Configure the analysis procedure and output requests. Load/BC/IC Apply loads and boundary conditions to the beam. Mesh Mesh the beam. Job Create a job and submit it for analysis. Visualization View the results of the analysis. Although the Module list under the toolbar lists the modules in a logical sequence, you can move back and forth between modules at will. However, certain obvious restrictions apply; for example, you cannot assign section properties to geometry that has not yet been created. A completed model contains everything that ABAQUS/CAE needs to generate an input file and start the analysis. ABAQUS/CAE uses a model database to store your models. When you start ABAQUS/CAE, the Start Session dialog box allows you to create a new, empty model database in memory. After you start ABAQUS/CAE, you can save your model database to a disk by selecting File->Save from the main menu bar; to retrieve it from a disk, select File->Open. For a complete listing of which module generates a particular keyword, see ``ABAQUS keyword browser table,'' Section A.1. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Part III, "Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases, models, and files." · ``What is a module?,'' Section 5.3

2.2 Starting ABAQUS/CAE
You may find it easier to follow the printed version of the tutorial. This will reduce clutter on the screen and allow you to focus on the task at hand. If you do follow this tutorial online, you should resize and move the online documentation window and the ABAQUS/CAE window so both are visible while you work through the tutorial.

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Tip: To open a separate window containing any of the figures in the online documentation, click the figure itself. To start ABAQUS/CAE and display the online version of this tutorial: 1. If you did not already start ABAQUS/CAE, type abaqus cae. 2. From the Start Session dialog box that appears, select Start Tutorial. The ABAQUS/CAE main window and the online documentation window, turned to the chapter "Getting Started with ABAQUS/CAE," appear.

2.3 Getting help
You may want to read additional information about ABAQUS/CAE features at various points during this tutorial. The context-sensitive help system allows you to locate relevant information quickly and easily. To obtain context-sensitive help: 1. From the ABAQUS/CAE main menu bar, select Help->On Context. The cursor changes to a question mark. 2. Click any part of the main window except its frame. After a short delay, a window containing information about the item you selected appears. Subsequent help requests will not experience this delay, since the server is now running in the background, waiting for more help requests. 3. In the Find text field at the bottom of the help window, type any word that appears in the text of the help window and press [Enter]. All occurrences of the word you typed are highlighted. You can enter any phrase to search for, and the help system will locate precisely that phrase; for example, searching for the word "element" yields different results than searching for the word "elements." Use the [*] character as a wildcard; for example, searching for "element*" will find occurrences of the words "element," "elements," "elemental," and "elementary." 4. Scroll to the bottom of the help window. At the bottom of the topic, a list of blue, underlined items appears. These items are hyperlinks to the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual. 5. Click any one of the items. An online book window appears. The online version of the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual is available in the right side of the window, turned to the item that you selected. A table of contents is available on the left side of the window, and a Find text field similar to the one in the help window is available at the bottom of the window.

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6. Click any item in the table of contents. The right side of the book window changes to reflect the item you selected. 7. From the main menu bar of the book window, select File->Close View . The book window disappears. 8. In the upper-left corner of the context-sensitive help window, double-click the close button. The help window disappears. Note the following key points: · Context-sensitive help is available for every item in the ABAQUS/CAE main window and in all its dialog boxes. · You can search individual help windows or the entire online manual for information. · The online book windows provide a hyperlinked table of contents for easy navigation throughout the book.

2.4 Creating a part
You use the Part module to create each of the parts you will analyze. You can create parts that are native to ABAQUS/CAE, or you can import parts created by other applications either as a geometric representation or as a finite element mesh. You will start the cantilever beam tutorial by creating a three-dimensional, deformable solid body. You do this by sketching the two-dimensional profile of the beam (a rectangle) and extruding it. ABAQUS/CAE automatically enters the Sketcher when you create a part. ABAQUS/CAE often displays a short message in the prompt area indicating what it expects you to do next, as shown in Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-3 Messages and instructions are displayed in the prompt area.

Click the cancel button to cancel the current task. Click the backup button to cancel the current step in the task and return to the previous step. To create the cantilever beam: 1. If you did not already start ABAQUS/CAE, type abaqus cae.

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2. From the Start Session dialog box that appears, select Start Tutorial. 3. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Part to enter the Part module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Part module loads. When the Part module has finished loading, it displays the Part module toolbox in the left side of the ABAQUS/CAE main window. The toolbox contains a set of icons that allow expert users to bypass the menus in the main menu bar. Each module displays its own set of tools in the module toolbox. As you select items from the main menu bar, the corresponding tool is highlighted in the module toolbox so that you can learn its location. 4. From the main menu bar, select Part->Create to create a new part. The Create Part dialog box appears. ABAQUS/CAE also displays text in the prompt area near the bottom of the window to guide you through the procedure. You use the Create Part dialog box to name the part; to choose its modeling space, type, and base feature; and to set the approximate size. You can edit and rename a part after you create it, but you cannot change its modeling space, type, or base feature. 5. Name the part Beam. Accept the default settings of a three-dimensional, deformable body and a solid, extruded base feature. In the Approximate size text field, type 300. 6. Click Continue to exit the Create Part dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE automatically enters the Sketcher. The Sketcher toolbox appears in the left side of the main window, and the Sketcher grid appears in the viewport. The Sketcher contains a set of basic tools that allow you to sketch the two-dimensional profile of your part. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher whenever you create or edit a part. To finish using a Sketcher tool, click mouse button 2 in the viewport or select a new tool. Tip: Like all tools in ABAQUS/CAE, if you simply position the cursor over a tool in the Sketcher toolbox for a short time, a small window appears that gives a brief description of the tool. The following aspects of the Sketcher help you sketch the desired geometry: · The Sketcher grid helps you position the cursor and align objects in the viewport. · Dashed lines indicate the X- and Y-axes of the sketch and intersect at the origin of the sketch. · A triad in the lower-left corner of the viewport indicates the relationship between the sketch plane and the orientation of the part. · When you select a sketching tool, ABAQUS/CAE displays the X- and Y-coordinates of the cursor in the upper-left corner of the viewport. 7. To sketch the profile of the cantilever beam, you need to draw a rectangle. To select the rectangle drawing tool, do the following:

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a. Note the small black triangles at the base of some of the toolbox icons. These triangles indicate the presence of hidden icons that can be revealed. Click the Line tool in the upper-right corner of the Sketcher toolbox, but do not release mouse button 1. Additional icons appear, as shown below.

b. Without releasing mouse button 1, drag the cursor along the set of icons that appear until you reach the rectangle tool. Then release the mouse button to select that tool. The rectangle drawing tool appears in the Sketcher toolbox with a pink background indicating that you selected it. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 8. In the viewport, sketch the rectangle using the following steps: a. Notice that as you move the cursor around the viewport, ABAQUS/CAE displays the cursor's X- and Y-coordinates in the upper-left corner. b. Click one corner of the rectangle at coordinates (-100, 10). c. Move the cursor to the opposite corner (100, -10) so that the rectangle is twenty grid squares long and two grid squares high as shown in Figure 2-4.

Figure 2-4 Sketch of the rectangle.

d. Click mouse button 1 to create the rectangle. e. Click mouse button 2 anywhere in the viewport to finish using the rectangle tool.
Note: If you are a Windows NT user with a 2-button mouse, press both mouse buttons simultaneously whenever you are asked to press mouse button 2.

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9. If you make a mistake while using the Sketcher, you can delete lines in your sketch, as explained in the following procedure:

a. From the Sketcher toolbox, click the Delete tool, b. From the sketch, click a line to select it. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected line in red.

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c. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to delete the selected line. d. Repeat steps b and c as often as necessary. e. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to finish using the Delete tool. 10. From the prompt area (near the bottom of the main window), click Done to exit the Sketcher.
Note: If you don't see the Done button in the prompt area, continue to click mouse button 2 in the viewport until it appears.

11. Because you are creating an extruded part, ABAQUS/CAE displays a text field in the prompt area asking you to define the distance through which the sketch should be extruded. In the text field, erase the default value of 30.0 and type a value of 25.0. You can either press [Enter] or click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept this value. ABAQUS/CAE displays an isometric view of the new part, as shown in Figure 2-5.

Figure 2-5 Isometric view of the beam.

To help you orient the cantilever beam during the modeling process, ABAQUS/CAE displays a triad in the lower-left corner indicating the orientation of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. 12. Before you continue the tutorial, save your model in a model database file.

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a. From the main menu bar, select File->Save. The Save Model Database As dialog box appears. b. Type a name for the new model database in the Selection field, and click OK. You do not need to include the file extension; ABAQUS/CAE automatically appends .cae to the file name. ABAQUS/CAE stores the model database in a new file and returns to the Part module. The title bar of the ABAQUS/CAE window displays the path and name of the model database. You should always save your model database at regular intervals (for example, each time you switch modules); ABAQUS/CAE does not save your model database automatically. Note the following key points: · You use the Part module to create parts. When you create a part, you name it and choose its type, modeling space, base feature, and approximate size. · ABAQUS/CAE automatically enters the Sketcher when you create or edit a part. You use the Sketcher to draw the two-dimensional profiles of parts. · Click and drag toolbox icons to reveal and select hidden icons. · Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to indicate you have finished selecting items or using a tool. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 14, "The Part module." · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module." · ``Customizing the Sketcher,'' Section 22.8 · ``Editing a feature,'' Section 42.3.1

2.5 Creating a material
You use the Property module to create a material and define its properties. For the cantilever beam tutorial you will create a single linear elastic material with Young's modulus of 209 ´ 103 MPa and Poisson's ratio of 0.3. To define a material: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, select Property to enter the Property module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Material->Create to create a new material.

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The Create Material dialog box appears. 3. Name the material Steel, and click Continue. The material editor appears. Use the menu bar under the browser area of the material editor to reveal menus containing all the available material options. Some of the menu items contain submenus; for example, Figure 2-6 shows the options available under the Mechanical->Elasticity menu item.

Figure 2-6 Submenus available under the Mechanical menu.

When you select a material option, the appropriate data entry form appears below the menu. 4. From the material editor's menu bar, select Mechanical->Elasticity->Elastic. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Elastic data form. 5. Type a value of 209.E3 for Young's modulus and a value of 0.3 for Poisson's ratio in the respective fields, as shown in Figure 2-7. Use [Tab] to move between cells.

Figure 2-7 Entering data values for the elastic material properties.

6. Click OK to exit the material editor. Note the following key point: · You can use the Property module to create a material and define its properties. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Creating materials,'' Section 15.6.1

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2.6 Defining and assigning section properties
You define the section properties of a model by creating sections in the Property module. After you create the section, you can use one of the following two methods to assign the section to the part in the current viewport: · You can simply select the region from the part and assign the section to the selected region. · You can use the Set toolset to create a homogeneous set containing the region and assign the section to the set. For the cantilever beam tutorial you will create a single homogeneous solid section that you will assign to the beam by selecting the beam from the viewport. The solid section will contain a reference to the material Steel that you just created.

2.6.1 Defining a homogeneous solid section
A homogeneous solid section is the simplest section type that you can define; it includes only a material reference and a plane stress/plane strain thickness. To define the homogeneous solid section: 1. From the main menu bar, select Section->Create. The Create Section dialog box appears. 2. In the Create Section dialog box: a. Name the section BeamSection. b. In the Category list, accept Solid as the default category selection. c. In the Type list, accept Homogeneous as the default type selection. d. Click Continue. The Edit Section dialog box appears. 3. In the dialog box: a. Accept the default selection of Steel for the Material associated with the section. b. Accept the default value of 1 for Plane stress/strain thickness . c. Click OK. Note the following key points: · You can use the Property module to create a section and define its category and type (solid and homogeneous, respectively, in this case).

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· Since the section refers to the material, the material must be defined first. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9 · ``Creating and assigning a homogeneous solid section,'' Section 15.7.4

2.6.2 Assigning the section to the cantilever beam
You use the Assign menu in the Property module to assign the section BeamSection to the beam. To assign the section to the cantilever beam: 1. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Section. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 2. Click anywhere on the beam to select the region to which the section will be applied. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the entire beam. 3. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to accept the selected geometry. The Assign Section dialog box appears containing a list of existing sections. 4. Accept the default selection of BeamSection as the section, and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE assigns the solid section to the beam and closes the Assign Section dialog box. Note the following key point: · When you assign a section to a region of a part, the region takes on the material properties associated with the section. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9 · ``Assigning a section to a part or region,'' Section 15.11.1

2.7 Assembling the model
Each part that you create is oriented in its own coordinate system and is independent of the other parts in the model. You use the Assembly module to define the geometry of the finished model, called the assembly, by creating instances of a part and then positioning the instances relative to each other in a global coordinate system. Although a model may contain many parts, it contains only one assembly. For the cantilever beam tutorial you will create a single instance of your cantilever beam.

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ABAQUS/CAE positions the instance so that the origin of the sketch that defined the rectangular profile of the beam overlays the origin of the assembly's default coordinate system. To assemble the model: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Assembly to enter the Assembly module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Assembly module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Create. The Create Instance dialog box appears. 3. In the dialog box, select Beam and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE creates an instance of the cantilever beam and displays it using an isometric orientation. In this example the single instance of the beam defines the assembly. A second triad in the viewport indicates the origin and orientation of the global coordinate system. 4. In the toolbar near the top of the window, click the rotate view manipulation tool, When you move the mouse back into the viewport, a circle appears. 5. Drag the mouse in the viewport to rotate the model and examine it from all sides. Click mouse button 2 to exit rotate mode. 6. Several other tools (pan , magnify , zoom , and auto-fit ) are also available in the toolbar to help you examine your model. Experiment with each of these tools until you are comfortable with them. Use the context-sensitive help system to obtain any additional information you require about these tools. Note the following key points: · A model contains only one assembly. The assembly is composed of instances of parts positioned in a global coordinate system. · The view manipulation tools available in the toolbar allow you to examine your model. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 16, "The Assembly module." .

2.8 Configuring your analysis
Now that you have created your part, you can move to the Step module to configure your analysis. For the cantilever beam tutorial the analysis will consist of two steps: · An initial step, in which you will apply a boundary condition that constrains one end of the cantilever beam.

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· A general, static analysis step, in which you will apply a pressure load to the top face of the beam. ABAQUS/CAE generates the initial step automatically, but you must use the Step module to create the analysis step yourself. The Step module also allows you to request output for any steps in the analysis.

2.8.1 Creating an analysis step
You use the Step menu to create a general, static step that follows the initial step of the analysis. To create a general, static analysis step: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Step to enter the Step module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Step module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Step->Create to create a step. The Create Step dialog box appears with a list of all the general procedures and a default step name of Step-1. General procedures are those that can be used to analyze linear or nonlinear response. 3. Name the step Beamload. 4. From the list of available general procedures in the Create Step dialog box, select Static, General if it is not already selected and click Continue. The Edit Step dialog box appears with the default settings for a general, static step. 5. The Basic tab is selected by default. In the Description field, type Load the top of the beam. 6. Click the Incrementation tab, and accept the default time incrementation settings. 7. Click the Other tab to see its contents; you can accept the default values provided for the step. 8. Click OK to create the step and to exit the Edit Step dialog box. Note the following key points: · ABAQUS/CAE generates the initial step automatically, but you must use the Step module to create additional steps. · You use the step editor to configure each step you create. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 17, "The Step module." · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3

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2.8.2 Requesting data output
When you submit your job for analysis, ABAQUS/CAE writes the results of the analysis to the output database. When you create a step, ABAQUS/CAE generates a default output request for the step. For each step you create, you can use the Output Database Request Manager to do the following: · Select the variables that ABAQUS will write to the output database. · Select the section points for which ABAQUS will generate data. · Select the region of the model for which ABAQUS will generate data. · Change the frequency at which ABAQUS will write data to the output database. For the cantilever beam tutorial, you will simply examine the output requests and accept the default configuration. To examine your output requests: 1. From the main menu bar, select Output->Output Database. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Output Database Request Manager . 2. Review the default output request that ABAQUS/CAE generates for the Static, General step you created and named Beamload. The variables from the categories shown on the Field output tabbed page of the Output Database Request Manager will be output. If you change an output request, you can always return to the default settings by clicking Defaults at the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager . 3. At the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager , click Edit to view more detailed information about the output request. The field output editor appears. 4. Click the arrows next to each output variable category to see exactly which variables will be output. The boxes next to each category title allow you to see at a glance whether all variables in that category will be output. A filled box indicates that all variables are output, while a partially filled box indicates that only some variables will be output. Based on the selections shown at the bottom of the dialog box, data will be generated at every default section point in the model and will be written to the output database after every increment during the analysis. 5. Click Cancel to close the field output editor. 6. Click Dismiss to close the Output Database Request Manager .
Note: What is the difference between the Dismiss and Cancel buttons? Dismiss buttons appear in dialog boxes that contain data that you cannot modify. For example, the Output Database Request Manager allows you to view output requests, but

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you must use the field output editor or the history output editor to modify those requests. Clicking the Dismiss button simply closes the Output Database Request Manager dialog box. Conversely, Cancel buttons appear in dialog boxes that allow you to make changes. Clicking Cancel closes the dialog box without saving your changes.

Note the following key points: · When you create a step, ABAQUS/CAE generates a default output request for the step. · You use the Output Database Request Manager to examine which categories of data will be output. · You invoke the field and history output editors from the Output Database Request Manager to select the variables that ABAQUS/CAE will write to the output database during the analysis, as well as the frequency at which they are written and the regions and section points from which they are written. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 17, "The Step module." · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4

2.9 Applying a boundary condition and a load to the model
Prescribed conditions, such as loads and boundary conditions, are step-dependent, which means that you must specify the step or steps in which they become active. Now that you have defined the steps in the analysis, you can use the Load/BC/IC module to define the following prescribed conditions: · A boundary condition that constrains one end of the cantilever beam in the X-, Y-, and Z-directions; the boundary condition is applied during the initial step. · A load that you apply to the top face of the beam; the load is applied during the general analysis step.

2.9.1 Applying a boundary condition to one end of the cantilever beam
You use the BC menu to create a boundary condition that constrains the cantilever beam in the X-, Y-, and Z-directions at one end of the beam. To apply boundary conditions to one end of the cantilever beam: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Load/BC/IC to enter the Load/BC/IC module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Load/BC/IC module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select BC->Create. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears.

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3. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box: a. Name the boundary condition Fixed. b. From the list of steps, select Initial as the step in which the boundary condition will be activated. c. In the Category list, accept Mechanical as the default category selection. d. In the Type for Selected Step list, accept Displacement/Rotation as the default type selection, and click Continue. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 4. You will fix the face at the left end of the cantilever beam; the desired face is shown in Figure 2-8.

Figure 2-8 Selecting the region on which to apply a boundary condition.

By default, when you click in a region that overlaps more than one face ABAQUS/CAE selects the face that is ``closest'' to the screen. To select the face at the left end of the cantilever beam you need to turn off this default behavior and cycle through the valid selections. Do the following: a. From the prompt area, click the selection options tool .

b. From the Options dialog box that appears, toggle off the closest object tool c. Click over the desired face. ABAQUS/CAE displays Next, Previous, and OK buttons in the prompt area. d. Click Next andPrevious until the desired face is highlighted.

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e. Click OK to confirm your choice. 5. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport or click Done in the prompt area to indicate that you have finished selecting. The selection options return to their default behavior. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears. When you are defining a boundary condition in the initial step, all six degrees of freedom are unconstrained by default. 6. In the dialog box: a. Toggle on U1, U2, and U3, since only the translational degrees of freedom need to be constrained. b. Click OK to create the boundary condition and to close the dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE displays three arrows at each corner and midpoint on the selected face to indicate the constrained degrees of freedom. 7. From the main menu bar, select BC->Manager. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Boundary Condition Manager. The manager indicates that the boundary condition is Created (activated) in the initial step and is Propagated (continues to be active) in the general analysis step Beamload. 8. Click Dismiss to close the Boundary Condition Manager. Note the following key points: · Prescribed conditions, such as loads and boundary conditions, are step-dependent objects, which means that you must specify the step or steps in which they become active. · Managers are useful for reviewing and modifying the status of prescribed conditions in each step. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 19, "The Load/BC/IC module."

2.9.2 Applying a load to the top of the cantilever beam
Now that you have fixed one end of the cantilever beam, you can apply a distributed load to the top face of the beam. The load is applied during the general, static step you created using the Step module. To apply a load to the top of the cantilever beam: 1. From the main menu bar, select Load->Create. The Create Load dialog box appears. 2. In the Create Load dialog box:

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a. Name the load Pressure. b. From the list of steps, select Beamload as the step in which the load will be applied. c. In the Category list, accept Mechanical as the default category selection. d. In the Type for Selected Step list, select Pressure. e. Click Continue. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 3. In the viewport, select the top face of the beam as the surface to which the load will be applied. The desired face is shown by the gridded face in Figure 2-9.

Figure 2-9 Selecting the region on which to apply a pressure load.

4. Click mouse button 2 or click Done in the prompt area in the viewport to indicate that you have finished selecting regions. The Edit Load dialog box appears. 5. In the dialog box: a. Enter a magnitude of 0.5 for the load. b. Accept the default Amplitude selection--ABAQUS/CAE will ramp the load during the step. c. Click OK to create the load and to close the dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE displays downward-pointing arrows along the top face of the beam to indicate the load applied in the negative 2-direction.

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6. Examine the Load Manager and note that the new load is ``Created'' (activated) in the general analysis step Beamload. 7. Click Dismiss to close the Load Manager. Note the following key points: · You use the Load/BC/IC module to create loads and to define where the load is applied to the assembly. · Loads can be propagated across steps; the Load Manager indicates the steps during which a load is applied. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 19, "The Load/BC/IC module." · ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

2.10 Meshing the model
You use the Mesh module to generate the finite element mesh. You can choose the meshing technique that ABAQUS/CAE will use to create the mesh, the element shape, and the element type. ABAQUS/CAE uses a number of different meshing techniques. The default meshing technique assigned to the model is indicated by the color of the model when you enter the Mesh module; if ABAQUS/CAE displays the model in orange, it cannot be meshed without assistance from you.

2.10.1 Assigning mesh controls
In this section you will use the Mesh Controls dialog box to examine the technique that ABAQUS/CAE will use to mesh the model and the shape of the elements that ABAQUS/CAE will generate. To assign the mesh controls: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Mesh to enter the Mesh module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Mesh module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Controls. The Mesh Controls dialog box appears. ABAQUS/CAE colors the regions of your model to indicate which technique it will use to mesh that region. ABAQUS/CAE will use structured meshing to mesh your cantilever beam and displays the beam in green. 3. In the dialog box, accept Hex as the default Element Shape selection. 4. Accept Structured as the default Technique selection.

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5. Click OK to assign the mesh controls and to close the dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE will use the structured meshing technique to create a mesh of hexahedral-shaped elements.

2.10.2 Assigning an ABAQUS element type
In this section you will use the Element Type dialog box to assign a particular ABAQUS element type to the model. Although you will assign the element type now, you could also wait until after the mesh has been created. To assign an ABAQUS element type: 1. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Element Type. The Element Type dialog box appears. 2. In the dialog box, accept the following default selections that control the elements that are available for selection: · Standard is the default Element Library selection. · Linear is the default Geometric Order. · 3D Stress is the default Family of elements. 3. In the lower portion of the dialog box, examine the element shape options. A brief description of the default element selection is available at the bottom of each tabbed page. Since the model is a three-dimensional solid, only three-dimensional solid element types--hexahedral on the Hex tabbed page, triangular prism on the Wedge page, and tetrahedral on the Tet page--are shown. 4. Click the Hex tab, and choose Incompatible modes from the list of Element Controls. A description of the element type C3D8I appears at the bottom of the dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE will now associate C3D8I elements with the elements in the mesh. 5. Click OK to assign the element type and to close the dialog box. Note the following key points: · Although you can create a mesh at any point after creating the assembly, you typically do it after configuring the rest of the model, since items such as loads, boundary conditions, and steps depend on the underlying geometry, not the mesh. · The available element types depend on the geometry of your model. · You can assign the element type either before or after you create the mesh.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Controlling mesh characteristics,'' Section 20.16 · ``Element library: overview,'' Section 13.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual · ``Element library: overview,'' Section 12.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

2.10.3 Creating the mesh
Basic meshing is a two-stage operation: first you seed the edges of the part instance, and then you mesh the part instance. You select the number of seeds based on the desired element size or on the number of elements that you want along an edge, and ABAQUS/CAE places the nodes of the mesh at the seeds whenever possible. For the cantilever beam tutorial the default seeding will generate a mesh with square hexahedral elements. To mesh the model: 1. From the main menu bar, select Seed->Instance to seed the part instance. The prompt area displays the default element size that ABAQUS/CAE will use to seed the part instance. This default element size is based on the size of the part instance. 2. In the prompt area, accept the default element size of 10, and press Enter or click mouse button 2 in the viewport. ABAQUS/CAE applies the seeds to the part instance, as shown in Figure 2-10.

Figure 2-10 Seeding the mesh.

You can gain more control of the resulting mesh by seeding each edge of the partinstance individually. 3. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to accept the seeding.

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4. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Instance to mesh the part instance. 5. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Yes to confirm that you want to mesh the part instance. ABAQUS/CAE meshes the part instance and displays the resulting mesh, as shown in Figure 2-11.

Figure 2-11 Meshing the part instance.

Note the following key points: · You select the number of seeds based on the element size or on the number of elements that you want along an edge. · You use seeds to define the approximate position of nodes in your final mesh. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 20, "The Mesh module." · ``Advanced meshing techniques,'' Section 20.11 · ``Seeding a model,'' Section 20.14

2.11 Creating and submitting an analysis job
Now that you have configured your analysis, you will move to the Job module to create a job that is associated with your model and to submit the job for analysis. To create and submit an analysis job: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Job to enter the Job module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Job module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Job->Create to create a job.

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The Create Job dialog box appears with a list of the models in the model database. 3. Name the job Deform. 4. Click Continue to create the job. The Edit Job dialog box appears. 5. In the Description field, type Cantilever beam tutorial. 6. Click the tabs to review the default settings in the job editor. Click OK to accept all the default job settings and to close the dialog box. 7. From the main menu bar, select Job->Manager to start the Job Manager. The Job Manager appears and displays a list of your jobs, the model associated with each job, the type of analysis, and the status of the job. 8. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager, click Submit to submit your job for analysis. After you submit your job, the information in the Status column updates to indicate the job's status. The Status column for the cantilever beam tutorial shows one of the following: · Submitted while the solver input file is being generated. · Running while ABAQUS analyzes the model. · Completed when the analysis is complete, and the output has been written to the output database. · Aborted if ABAQUS/CAE finds a problem with the input file or the analysis and aborts the analysis. In addition, ABAQUS/CAE reports the problem in the message area. 9. When the job completes successfully, you are ready to view the results of the analysis with the Visualization module. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager, click Results. ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module, opens the output database created by the job, and displays a representation of the model. Note the following key points: · You use the Job module to create jobs. · You use the Job Manager to submit jobs and to monitor the status of a job.

2.12 Viewing the results of your analysis
You use the Visualization module to read the output database that ABAQUS/CAE generated during the analysis and to view the results of the analysis. Because you named the job Deform when you

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created the job, ABAQUS/CAE names the output database Deform.odb. When you open an output database, ABAQUS/CAE immediately displays a fast representation of the model that is similar to an undeformed shape plot. For the tutorial you will also view an undeformed, deformed, and contour plot of the loaded cantilever beam. To view the results of your analysis: 1. After you click Results in the Job module's Job Manager, ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module, opens Deform.odb, and displays a fast plot of the model, as shown in Figure 2-12.

Figure 2-12 Fast plot of model.

The title block indicates the following: · The job description. · The output database from which ABAQUS/CAE read the data. · The version of ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit that was used to generate the output database. · The date the output database was generated. The state block indicates the following: · The step name and the step description. · The increment within the step. · The step time. By default, ABAQUS/CAE plots the last step and the last frame of your analysis. Buttons that allow you to control which analysis results are plotted are available in the prompt area. 2. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Undeformed Shape to view an undeformed shape plot.

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The model's color changes to green to indicate that this is an undeformed shape plot, not a fast plot. 3. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Deformed Shape to view a deformed shape plot. 4. Click the auto-fit tool Figure 2-13. so that the entire plot is rescaled to fit in the viewport, as shown in

Figure 2-13 Deformed shape plot of model.

5. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Contours to view a contour plot of the von Mises stress, as shown in Figure 2-14.

Figure 2-14 Contour plot of Mises stress.

6. Click the Contour Options button at the bottom-right corner of the prompt area to change the appearance of the current plot.

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The Contour Plot Options dialog box appears. You can use this dialog box to, for example, turn on node and element labeling, change the deformation scale factor of the underlying model, or adjust the contour intervals. (To change general plot options, such as turning the legend off or on, select View->Viewport Annotations from the main menu bar.) 7. Click Cancel to close the Contour Plot Options dialog box. 8. For a contour plot the default variable displayed depends on the analysis procedure; in this case, the default variable is the von Mises stress. From the main menu bar, select Result->Field Output to examine the variables that are available for display. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Field Output dialog box; click the Primary Variable tab to choose which variable to display and to select the invariant or component of interest. By default, the Mises invariant of the Stress components at integration points variable is selected. 9. Click Cancel to close the Field Output dialog box.

Note the following key points: · You use the Visualization module to read the output database generated by your analysis and to view the results. · You can select the variable to display from the data in the output database, and you can also select the increment being displayed. · You can display the results in several modes--undeformed, deformed, and contour. · You can control the appearance of the display in each mode, independent of other modes. You have now finished the first tutorial. The second tutorial introduces additional techniques to create and analyze a model; for example, you will create and assemble multiple part instances and define contact. The third tutorial covers the capabilities of the Visualization module in more detail. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Part V, "Viewing results" · Chapter 25, "Plotting the undeformed shape" · Chapter 26, "Plotting the deformed shape" · Chapter 27, "Contouring analysis results"

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3. A tutorial: Using additional techniques to create and analyze a model
In the first tutorial (Chapter 2, "A tutorial: Creating and analyzing a simple model") you created and analyzed a very simple model composed of only one part. In this tutorial you will create and analyze a more complex model. The model is more complex on two levels: · It consists of three different parts and three different part instances rather than just one. This tutorial illustrates how you position instances of these parts to create the assembly and how you define contact between surfaces of the assembly. · It includes parts that you will draw using advanced sketching techniques. You will learn how sketches, datum geometry, and partitions combine to define the features that make up individual parts. You will also learn how you can modify a part by editing a feature and how modified parts are regenerated. As in the first tutorial, you will apply section properties, loads, and boundary conditions to the model; you will also mesh the model, configure the analysis, and run the analysis job. At the end of the tutorial you will view your analysis results. The entire tutorial takes approximately three hours to complete. This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the techniques described in the first tutorial, including the following: · Using the view manipulation tools to rotate and zoom an object in the viewport. · Following the prompts in the prompt area. · Using the mouse to select menu items, toolbox items, and items within the viewport. · Using hyperlinks to see more detailed help in the online documentation and clicking the Go Back button in the toolbar across the top of the book window to return you to your original point in "Getting started with ABAQUS/CAE."

3.1 Overview
During the tutorial you will create an assembly composed of a hinge held together by a pin. The assembled part instances and the final mesh are illustrated in Figure 3-1.

Figure 3-1 Model used in the hinge tutorial.

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The tutorial consists of the following sections: · ``Creating the first half of the hinge,'' Section 3.2 · ``Assigning section properties to the hinge part, '' Section 3.3 · ``Creating and modifying a second hinge piece,'' Section 3.4 · ``Creating the pin,'' Section 3.5 · ``Assembling the model,'' Section 3.6 · ``Defining analysis steps,'' Section 3.7 · ``Creating surfaces to use in contact interactions, '' Section 3.8 · ``Defining contact between regions of the model,'' Section 3.9 · ``Applying boundary conditions and loads to the assembly,'' Section 3.10 · ``Meshing the assembly,'' Section 3.11 · ``Creating and submitting a job,'' Section 3.12 · ``Viewing the results of your analysis,'' Section 3.13

3.2 Creating the first half of the hinge
To start the tutorial, you create the first part--half of the hinge. ABAQUS/CAE models are composed of features; you create a part by combining features. This portion of the hinge is composed of the following features: · A cube--the base feature, since it is the first feature of the part. · A flange that extends from the cube. The flange also includes a large-diameter hole through which the pin is inserted. · A small lubrication hole in one corner of the flange.

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3.2.1 Creating the cube
To create the cube (the base feature), you create a solid, three-dimensional, extruded part and name it. You then sketch its profile and extrude the profile over a specified distance to produce the base feature of the first half of the hinge. The desired cube is shown in Figure 3-2.

Figure 3-2 The base feature (a cube) is created first.

To create the cube: 1. Start ABAQUS/CAE, and create a new model database. If you are viewing this tutorial online, resize your windows so that you can follow the tutorial and see the ABAQUS/CAE main window. 2. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Part to enter the Part module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Part module loads, and the Part module toolbox appears on the left side of the main window. The triad in the lower-left corner of the viewport indicates the orientation of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. You can turn off this triad by selecting View->Viewport Annotations from the main menu bar and toggling off the Show triad option. (The triad is sometimes turned off for clarity in the figures in this tutorial.) 3. From the main menu bar, select Part->Create to create a new part. The Create Part dialog box appears. The text in the prompt area asks you to fill out the Create Part dialog. ABAQUS/CAE always displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through a procedure. 4. Name the part Hinge-hole. Accept the following default settings: · A three-dimensional, deformable body · A solid extrusion base feature

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5. In the Approximate size text field, type 0.2. You will be modeling the hinge using meters for the unit of length, and its overall length is 0.14 meters; therefore, 0.2 meters is a sufficiently large approximate size for the part. Click Continue to create the part. The Sketcher starts and displays the toolbox on the left side of the main window. ABAQUS/CAE uses the approximate size of the part to compute the default sheet size--0.2 meters in this example. In addition, in this example the Sketcher draws 20 grid lines on the sheet, and the distance between each grid line is 0.01 meters. (You probably see fewer than 20 grid lines because the sheet extends beyond your viewport.)

6. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the rectangle tool icon to reveal the hidden rectangle tool.)

. (Click and drag on the line toolbox

7. While you are sketching, ABAQUS/CAE displays the cursor position in the upper-left corner of the viewport containing the Sketcher grid. Find the origin of the sketch at (0, 0); then move the cursor to (-0.02, -0.02), and click mouse button 1 to define the first corner of the rectangle. Click mouse button 1 again at (0.02, 0.02) to define the opposite corner. Important: To complete this tutorial successfully, it is important that you use the dimensions stated and do not deviate from the example; otherwise, you will find it difficult to assemble the model. 8. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to exit the rectangle tool. Click mouse button 2 again to exit the Sketcher. Tip: Clicking mouse button 2 in the viewport has the same effect as clicking the default button in the prompt area--Done in this instance. 9. In the text box in the prompt area, type an extrusion depth of 0.04 and press [Enter]. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and displays the base feature, a cube, as shown in Figure 3-2. Note the following key points: · The default spacing of the Sketcher grid depends on the value you enter in the Approximate size text field in the Create Part dialog box. · Dashed lines on the Sketcher grid indicate the X- and Y-axes of the sketch and the origin. While you are drawing, ABAQUS/CAE displays the cursor position in the upper-left corner of the viewport containing the Sketcher grid.

3.2.2 Adding the flange to the base feature
You will now add a solid feature--the flange--to the base feature. You select one face of the cube to define the sketch plane and extrude the sketched profile through half the depth of the cube. The cube and flange are shown in Figure 3-3.

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Figure 3-3 The flange is added to the base feature.

To add the flange to the base feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Solid->Extrude. 2. Select a face to define the sketching plane, and select the extrusion direction. a. Select the face at the front of the cube, as shown in Figure 3-4.

Figure 3-4 Select the gridded face to define the sketching plane. The arrow indicates the correct extrusion direction.

ABAQUS/CAE displays an arrow indicating the extrusion direction. The default extrusion direction for a solid is always out of the solid. ABAQUS/CAE draws the arrow wherever you clicked on the face to select it during the previous step; as a result, the arrow may not appear in the same location shown in Figure 3-4. b. In the prompt area, click Flip to set the extrusion direction into the cube. Click OK when the arrow indicates the desired extrusion direction, as shown in Figure 3-4. 3. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the sketch, as shown in Figure 3-5.

Figure 3-5 Select the indicated edge to position the part correctly in the Sketcher.

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The Sketcher starts and displays the outline of the base feature as reference geometry. The sketch of the flange that you will create is illustrated in Figure 3-6.

Figure 3-6 Use the Sketcher to create the flange profile.

4. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the connected lines tool

.

5. Draw the three sides of a rectangle, as shown in Figure 3-7. The four vertices should be at (0.04, 0.02), (0.02, 0.02), (0.02, -0.02), and (0.04, -0.02).

Figure 3-7 First, draw the rectangular portion of the flange.

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Tip: If you make a mistake while sketching, use the Sketcher undo tools to correct your error.

or delete

6. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to exit the connected lines tool. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the center and two endpoints arc tool .

Note: You do not have to unselect the connected lines tool before you select the arc tool. ABAQUS/CAE automatically unselects the previous tool when you select a new Sketcher tool.

7. Click at the center of the arc and at each vertex. ABAQUS/CAE draws the arc in a clockwise direction from the first vertex to the second. The resulting arc is shown in Figure 3-8.

Figure 3-8 Then add the curved portion of the flange.

8. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the circle tool the circle; click at (0.05, 0) to define the circle.

. Click at (0.04, 0) to locate the center of

Note: When you mesh a part, ABAQUS/CAE places nodes wherever vertices appear along an edge; therefore, the location of the vertex on the circumference of the circle influences the final mesh. Placing the vertex at (0.05, 0) results in a high-quality mesh.

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9. From the dimension tools in the Sketcher toolbox, select the radial dimension tool 10. Select the circle to dimension.

.

ABAQUS/CAE highlights valid selections when you move the cursor around the sketch; the circle and the arc are the only valid selections in the current sketch. 11. Position the dimension text and click mouse button 1 to accept the location, as shown in Figure 3-9. You can position dimension text at any convenient location in a sketch, although you cannot subsequently move the text after you have positioned it.

Figure 3-9 Add a dimension label to the flange hole.

12. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to exit the radius dimension tool. Click mouse button 2 again to exit the Sketcher. 13. From the buttons that appear in the prompt area, select Blind to indicate that you will provide the depth of the extrusion. 14. In the text box in the prompt area, type an extrusion depth of 0.02 and press [Enter]. ABAQUS/CAE displays the part composed of the cube and the flange. ``Silhouette'' edges appear in gray indicating curved faces of the flange. Silhouette edges are purely a visual aid; they are not true edges and cannot be selected. 15. Use the auto-fit view manipulation tool Note the following key points: · You create parts by adding features to the base feature; in this example the cube is the base feature and the flange is added to it. · When you add a feature, you must select a face on which to sketch the profile of the feature. to resize the figure to fit in the viewport.

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3.2.3 Modifying a feature
Each part is defined by a set of features, and each feature in turn is defined by a set of parameters. For example, the base feature (the cube) and the second feature (the flange) are both defined by a sketch and an extrusion depth. You modify a part by modifying the parameters that define its features using the Feature Manipulation toolset. For the hinge example you will change the radius of the hole in the sketch of the flange from 0.01 m to 0.012 m. To modify a feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Feature->Edit. 2. From the lower-right corner of the main window, click Feature List. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Feature List dialog box, showing each feature's Name and Status. In this example you have created two solid extrusion features: the base feature (the cube), whose Name is Solid extrude-1, and the flange, whose Name is Solid extrude-2. When you select a feature from the Feature List dialog box, ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected feature in the viewport. 3. From the Feature List dialog box, select the flange ( Solid extrude-2) and click OK.
Note: Instead of using the Feature List dialog box, you could have also selected a feature to edit directly from the viewport.

ABAQUS/CAE displays the feature editor. For an extruded solid you can change the extrusion depth, and you can edit the profile sketch. 4. From the feature editor, click Edit Section Sketch. ABAQUS/CAE displays the sketch of the second feature, and the feature editor disappears.

5. From the edit tools in the Sketcher toolbox, select the edit dimension value tool 6. Select the radial dimension of the circle ( .010). 7. In the text box in the prompt area, type a new radius of 0.012 and press [Enter]. ABAQUS/CAE changes the radius of the circle in the sketch only.

.

8. Click mouse button 2 to exit the edit dimension tool. Click mouse button 2 again to exit the Sketcher. ABAQUS/CAE again displays the feature editor. 9. Click OK to regenerate the flange with the modified radius and to exit the feature editor. The flange hole is enlarged to the new radius dimension.
Note: In some circumstances regenerating a feature causes dependent features to fail. In such a case ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save your changes and suppress the features that failed to regenerate, or if you want to revert to the unmodified

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feature and lose your changes.

Note the following key points: · You can edit features by modifying the sketch of the feature or a parameter associated with the feature, such as an extrusion depth. · Dimensioning a sketch and modifying the dimensions allow you to refine a part. · Editing features can cause dependent features to fail during regeneration.

3.2.4 Creating the sketch plane
The flange includes a small hole used for lubrication, as shown in Figure 3-10.

Figure 3-10 Isometric shaded view of the hinge with the lubrication hole.

Creating the hole in the desired location requires an appropriate datum plane on which to sketch the profile of the extruded cut, as shown in Figure 3-11.

Figure 3-11 Two-dimensional view of the datum plane's position with respect to the hinge piece.

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You sketch a circle on the datum plane, which is tangent to the flange, and ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the circle normal to the datum plane and normal to the flange to create the lubrication hole. There are three operations involved in creating the datum plane: · Creating a datum point on the circumference of the flange. · Creating a datum axis running between two datum points. · Creating a datum plane through the datum point on the circumference and normal to the datum axis. To create the sketch plane: 1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Datum. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Datum dialog box. 2. Create a datum point along the curved edge of the flange through which the datum plane will pass. From the Create Datum dialog box, choose the Point datum type. 3. From the list of methods, select Use parameter, and click Apply.
Note: What is the difference between the OK and Apply buttons? When you click OK, the Create Datum dialog box closes before you create the datum. When you click Apply, the Create Datum dialog box remains open while you create the datum and is available for you to create the next datum. Click OK if you want to create only a single datum; click Apply if you want to create several pieces of datum geometry before moving on to a new procedure.

4. Select the curved edge, as shown in Figure 3-12. Note the direction of the arrow indicating an increasing edge parameter from 0.0 to 1.0.

Figure 3-12 Create a datum point along the curved edge of the flange.

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5. In the text box in the prompt area, enter a normalized edge parameter of 0.25, and press [Enter]. ABAQUS/CAE creates a datum point along the selected edge. 6. Create a datum axis that will define the normal to the datum plane. From the Create Datum dialog box, choose the Axis datum type. Select the 2 points method, and click Apply. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the points that can be used to create the datum axis. 7. Select the point at the center of the hole (created when you sketched the hole's profile) and the datum point on the curved edge. ABAQUS/CAE displays a datum axis passing through the two points, as shown in Figure 3-13.

Figure 3-13 Create a datum axis defined by two datum points.

8. The final step is to create the datum plane normal to the datum axis. From the Create Datum dialog box, choose the Plane datum type. Select the Point and normal method, and click Apply. 9. Select the datum point on the curved edge as the point through which the datum plane will pass. 10. Select the datum axis as the edge that will be normal to the datum plane. ABAQUS/CAE creates the datum plane, as shown in Figure 3-14.

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Figure 3-14 Create a datum plane normal to the datum axis.

11. Click Cancel to close the Create Datum dialog box. Note the following key points: · If a suitable sketch plane does not exist, you can use the Datum toolset to create one. · The Datum toolset allows you to create datum points, axes, and planes. · Click OK in a dialog box to perform the selected operation and to close the dialog box; click Apply to leave the dialog box open while performing the selected operation. Click Cancel to close the dialog box without performing an operation.

3.2.5 Sketching the lubrication hole
The next operation creates the lubrication hole on the flange by extruding a circle from the datum plane that you just created. First, you need to create a datum point on the flange that indicates the center of the hole, as illustrated in Figure 3-15.

Figure 3-15 A datum point indicates the center of the lubrication hole.

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To create the datum point at the center of the lubrication hole: 1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Datum. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Datum dialog box. 2. Create a datum point along the second curved edge of the flange. From the Create Datum dialog box, choose the Point datum type. 3. From the list of methods, select Use parameter, and click Apply. 4. Select the second curved edge of the flange, as shown in Figure 3-16.

Figure 3-16 Select the second edge.

5. Enter a normalized edge parameter of 0.75. ABAQUS/CAE creates a datum point along the selected edge. 6. From the list of methods, select Midway between 2 points , and click Apply. 7. Select the datum point along the first curved edge. 8. Select the datum point along the second curved edge. ABAQUS/CAE creates a datum point halfway across the flange. This exercise illustrates how you can use feature-based modeling to capture your design intent. The datum point is a feature that ABAQUS/CAE defines to be midway between the datum points along the edges of the flange. As a result, if you change the thickness of the flange, the lubrication hole remains in the center. 9. Click Cancel to close the Create Datum dialog box. To sketch the lubrication hole: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Cut->Extrude. 2. Click the boundary of the datum plane to select it as the plane on which to sketch.

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3. Select the direction of the extruded cut to be into the part, and click OK. 4. Select the top rear edge of the cube as the edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the sketch, as shown in Figure 3-17.

Figure 3-17 Select the indicated edge to position the part correctly in the Sketcher grid.

The Sketcher starts with the vertices, datums, and edges of the part projected onto the sketch plane as reference geometry. Tip: If you are unsure of the relative orientation of the sketch plane and the part, use the view manipulation tools to rotate and pan them. Use the cycle view manipulation tool restore the original view. to

5. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the circle tool

.

6. Select the datum point on the center of the flange to indicate the center of the circle. 7. Move the cursor to (-0.01, 0.01), and click mouse button 1. 8. Create a dimension indicating the radius of the hole. The radius of the circle is 0.004 m and should be changed to 0.003 m.

9. From the edit tools in the Sketcher toolbox, select the edit dimension value tool

.

10. Select the radial dimension of the circle. In the text field that appears in the prompt area, type a new radius of 0.003, and press [Enter]. The radius of the circle changes. 11. Click mouse button 2 to exit the edit dimension value tool. Click mouse button 2 again to indicate that you have finished sketching.

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12. From the buttons in the prompt area, select Up to Face to define the extrusion distance. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and displays an isometric view of the part. 13. Select the cylindrical inner surface of the hole in the part to indicate the face to which to extrude, as illustrated in Figure 3-18. (Because you can select at most only one face, ABAQUS/CAE does not ask you to indicate that you have finished selecting.)

Figure 3-18 Select the face to which to extrude.

ABAQUS/CAE immediately extrudes the sketch from the datum plane to the hole in the flange. 14. From the toolbar, select the shaded display tool , and use the rotation tool to see how the part and its features are oriented, as shown in Figure 3-19. (For clarity, the datum geometry has been removed from the view in Figure 3-19 by selecting View->Part Display Options->Datum.) to step through the previous Tip: After you rotate the part, use the cycle views tool views (up to a maximum of eight) and to restore the original view.

Figure 3-19 Isometric view of the first hinge.

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15. Now that you have created the first part of your model, it is a good idea to save your model in a model database: a. From the main menu bar, select File->Save. The Save Model Database As dialog box appears. b. Type a name for the new model database in the Selection field, and click OK. You do not need to include the file extension; ABAQUS/CAE appends .cae automatically to the file name. ABAQUS/CAE stores the model database in a new file and returns to the Part module. The name of your model database appears in the main window title bar. If you find you need you need to interrupt this tutorial, you can save the model database at any time and exit ABAQUS/CAE. You can then start a new ABAQUS/CAE session and open the saved model database by selecting File->Open from the main menu bar. The model database will contain any parts, materials, loads, etc. that you created, and you will be able to continue the tutorial. Note the following key points: · If you rotate or pan the sketch, use the cycle view manipulation tool to restore the original view. · Datum geometry that you create on a part can also be used by the Sketcher. · You should save the model database at regular intervals.

3.3 Assigning section properties to the hinge part
The process of assigning section properties to a part is divided into three tasks: · Creating a material. · Creating a section that includes a reference to the material. · Assigning the section to the part or to a region of the part. You will use the Property module to perform all of these tasks.

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3.3.1 Creating a material
You will create a material named Steel that has a Young's modulus of 209 GPa and a Poisson's ratio of 0.3. To define the material: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Property to enter the Property module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Material->Create to create a new material. The Create Material dialog box appears. 3. In the Create Material dialog box, name the material Steel, and click Continue. The material editor appears. 4. From the editor's menu bar, select Mechanical->Elasticity->Elastic. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Elastic data form. 5. In the respective fields in the Elastic data form, type a value of 209.E9 for Young's modulus and a value of 0.3 for Poisson's ratio. 6. Click OK to exit the material editor. Note the following key points: · You enter material data into tables in the material editor to define the material properties of your model. · Creating a material in the Property module is equivalent to entering keywords into an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit input file.

3.3.2 Defining a section
Next, you will create a section that includes a reference to the material Steel. To define the section: 1. From the main menu bar, select Section->Create. The Create Section dialog box appears. 2. In the Create Section dialog box: a. Name the section SolidSection. b. In the Category list, accept Solid as the default selection.

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c. In the Type list, accept Homogeneous as the default selection, and click Continue. The section editor appears. 3. In the editor: a. Accept Steel as the material selection. If you had defined other materials, you could click the arrow next to the Material text box to see a list of available materials and to select the material of your choice. b. Accept the default value for Plane stress/strain thickness , and click OK. Note the following key points: · You associate a section with materials that you have created. · You can choose from all materials that have been defined for the model.

3.3.3 Assigning the section
You will use the Assign menu in the Property module to assign the section SolidSection to the hinge part. To assign the section to the hinge part: 1. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Section. 2. Drag a rectangle around the hinge piece to select the entire part. ABAQUS/CAE highlights all the regions of the part. 3. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting the regions to be assigned the section. The Assign Section dialog box appears containing a list of existing sections. SolidSection is selected by default since there are no other sections currently defined. 4. In the Assign Section dialog box, accept the default selection of SolidSection, and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE assigns the section to the part. Note the following key points: · By assigning a section to a region of a part, you associate a material with that region. · You can choose from all solid sections that have been defined for the model.

3.4 Creating and modifying a second hinge piece
The model contains a second hinge piece similar to the first except that the lubrication hole is not present. You will create a copy of the first hinge piece and delete the features that form the lubrication 3-64

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hole.

3.4.1 Copying the hinge
First you will create an exact copy of the hinge piece. To copy the hinge: 1. Return to the Part module. 2. From the main menu, select Part->Copy->Hinge-hole. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Copy Part dialog box. 3. In the text box in the Copy Part dialog box, type Hinge-solid, and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE creates a copy of the hinge piece and names the copy Hinge-solid. The copy of the hinge piece includes the section from the original hinge piece. Note the following key point: · When you copy a part, the copy contains all the features that defined the original part, as well as any sections that were assigned to it.

3.4.2 Modifying the copy of the hinge
Now you will create a solid hinge piece by deleting the features that form the lubrication hole. To modify the copy of the hinge: 1. In the Part list located below the toolbar, click Hinge-solid. ABAQUS/CAE displays the retrieved part in the current viewport. Look at the viewport title bar to see which part is being displayed. 2. From the main menu bar, select Feature->Delete. 3. From the toolbar across the top of the main ABAQUS/CAE window, select the wireframe display tool so that you can see the features more clearly.

4. Select the datum point on the edge of the flange, as shown in Figure 3-20. Tip: You may need to use the zoom and magnify tools to locate the datum point.

Figure 3-20 Delete the datum point and its children.

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5. When you delete a selected feature, ABAQUS/CAE asks whether you also want to delete any features that depend on the feature being deleted. The feature being deleted is called the ``parent'' feature, and its dependent features are called ``children.'' ABAQUS/CAE highlights all the features that it will delete if the parent feature is deleted. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Yes to delete the datum point and all its children. ABAQUS/CAE deletes the datum point. Because they were dependent on the datum point, ABAQUS/CAE also deletes the datum axis, the datum plane, and the lubrication hole.
Important: You cannot recover deleted features; however, you can temporarily remove a feature by suppressing it using the Feature Manipulation toolset.

Note the following key point: · When you delete a feature from a part, ABAQUS/CAE also deletes any features that depend on the feature being deleted. These dependent features are called children.

3.5 Creating the pin
The final assembly consists of instances of the two hinge pieces that are free to rotate about a pin. You will model the pin as a three-dimensional, revolved analytical rigid surface. First you create the pin and assign the rigid body reference point; then you constrain the pin by applying constraints to this rigid body reference point.

3.5.1 Creating the pin
You use the Part module to create the pin--a three-dimensional, revolved analytical rigid surface. To create the pin: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Create to create a new part. The Create Part dialog box appears. 2. Name the part Pin. Choose a three-dimensional body as before, but change the type to Analytical rigid and the base feature shape to Revolved shell.

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3. Accept the approximate size of 0.2, and click Continue. The Sketcher starts and displays the axis of revolution as a purple dashed line; your sketch cannot cross this axis.

4. From the Sketcher toolbox, select the connected lines tool axis running from (0.010, 0.030) to (0.010, -0.030).

. Sketch a line to the right of the

5. Dimension the horizontal distance from the line to the axis, and change the distance to 0.012. When you modify the dimension, you must select the vertices at each end of the line to move. (Use [Shift]+[Click] to select both vertices.) The sketch and the resulting shaded part are shown in Figure 3-21.

Figure 3-21 Create the pin by revolving an analytical rigid surface about an axis.

6. Click mouse button 2 to exit the edit dimension value tool, and click mouse button 2 again to exit the Sketcher. ABAQUS/CAE displays the revolved, analytical rigid surface. Note that silhouette edges appear in gray indicating the curved face of the pin. Note the following key points: · When you create a part, you can create a deformable part, a discrete rigid surface, or an analytical rigid surface. You cannot subsequently change the type of the part. · When you sketch the profile of an axisymmetric part, the axis of symmetry appears as a construction line. Your sketch cannot cross the axis of symmetry.

3.5.2 Assigning the rigid body reference point
You need to assign a rigid body reference point to the pin. Because you will not assign mass or rotary inertia to the pin, the rigid body reference point can be placed anywhere in the viewport. You use the Load/BC/IC module to apply constraints to the reference point or to define its motion. Motion or constraints that you apply to the rigid body reference point are applied to the entire rigid surface.

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You can either select the reference point from the part in the viewport, or you can enter its coordinates. For the tutorial you will select the reference point from the viewport, as shown in Figure 3-22.

Figure 3-22 Create a rigid body reference point on the pin.

To assign the reference point: 1. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Reference Point. 2. From the buttons in the prompt area, select Select in viewport. 3. Select one of the vertices on the circumference of the pin. ABAQUS/CAE labels the vertex Ref Pt to indicate that the reference point has been assigned to it. Note the following key points: · When you create a rigid surface, you must assign a rigid body reference point to it. · You can click the part to select the reference point, or you can enter its coordinates.

3.6 Assembling the model
You use the Assembly module to create instances of your parts. A part instance can be thought of as a representation of the original part; an instance is not a copy of a part. You can then position these part instances in a global coordinate system to create the assembly. An instance maintains its association with the original part. If the geometry of a part changes, ABAQUS/CAE automatically updates all instances of the part to reflect these changes. You cannot edit the geometry of a part instance directly. The assembly can contain multiple instances of a single part; for example, a rivet that is used repeatedly in a sheet metal assembly. When you create a part instance, ABAQUS/CAE positions it so that the origin of the sketch that defined the base feature overlays the origin of the assembly's global coordinate system. In addition, the sketch plane is aligned with the X-Y plane of the global coordinate system. When you create the first part instance, the Assembly module displays a graphic indicating the origin and the orientation of the global coordinate system. You can use this graphic to help you decide how to

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position a selected instance relative to the global coordinate system. For the tutorial you will keep the hinge with the lubrication hole fixed and move the second hinge and the pin relative to it.

3.6.1 Creating instances of your parts
First, you need to create the following instances: · An instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole-- Hinge-hole. · An instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole removed-- Hinge-solid. · An instance of the pin--Pin. To create an instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Assembly to enter the Assembly module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Assembly module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Create. The Create Instance dialog box appears containing a list of all the parts in the current model--the two hinge pieces and the pin in this example. 3. In the dialog box, select Hinge-hole. ABAQUS/CAE displays a temporary image of the selected part. 4. In the dialog box, click Apply. ABAQUS/CAE creates an instance of the hinge piece and displays a graphic indicating the origin and orientation of the global coordinate system. ABAQUS/CAE names the instance Hinge-hole-1 to indicate that it is the first instance of a part called Hinge-hole.
Note: The default position of a part instance is such that the origin and the X- and Y-axes of the sketch of the base feature align with the origin and the X- and Y-axes of the global coordinate system. For example, the base feature of the hinge piece is the original cube you created. ABAQUS/CAE positions instances of the hinge piece so that the origin of the cube sketch is located at the origin of the global coordinate system, and the X- and Y-axes align.

Note the following key points: · The assembly is created using instances of your parts. · When you create a part instance, the default position is based on the sketch of the base feature. · A graphic indicates the origin and the orientation of the global coordinate system in the Assembly module.

3.6.2 Creating an instance of the solid hinge piece
You will now create an instance of the solid hinge piece. To separate the solid hinge piece from the

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instance of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole, you ask ABAQUS/CAE to offset the new instance along the X-axis. To create an instance of the solid hinge piece: 1. From the Create Instance dialog box, toggle on Auto-offset from other instances. The auto-offset function prevents new part instances from overlapping existing instances. 2. From the Create Instance dialog box, select Hinge-solid and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE closes the dialog box, creates the new instance, and applies an offset along the X-axis that separates the two hinges, as shown in Figure 3-23. (The datum geometry has been removed from the shaded view for clarity by selecting View->Assembly Display Options->Datum.)

Figure 3-23 Create an instance of each hinge piece, and apply an offset to position them in the viewport.

Note the following key point: · When you create an instance, you can ask ABAQUS/CAE to offset the new instance along the X-axis so that it does not overlap any existing instances.

3.6.3 Positioning the solid hinge piece
In addition to the simple translate and rotate procedures, the Assembly module provides a set of tools that allow you to position a selected part instance by defining the relationship between selected faces or edges. You can select a face (or an edge) of the instance to move, called the movable part instance, and a face (or an edge) of the instance that remains fixed, called the fixed part instance, and choose one of the following position constraints:

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Parallel Face The movable instance moves until the two selected faces are parallel. Face to Face The movable instance moves until the two selected faces are parallel and a specified clearance from each other. Parallel Edge The movable instance moves until the two selected edges are parallel. Edge to Edge The movable instance moves until the two selected edges are colinear or a specified distance from each other. Coaxial The movable instance moves until the two selected faces are coaxial. Contact The movable instance moves in the direction of a selected vector until the two selected faces come within a specified distance of each other. ABAQUS/CAE stores position constraints as features of the assembly, and they can be edited, deleted, and suppressed. In contrast, translations and rotations are not stored and do not appear in the list of features. Although position constraints are stored as features, they have no knowledge of each other; as a consequence, a new position constraint may override a previous position constraint. In this example you will move the solid hinge piece while the hinge piece with the lubrication hole will remain fixed. You will apply three types of position constraints to position the two hinge pieces correctly. To position the solid hinge piece: 1. First, constrain the solid hinge piece so that the two flanges face each other. From the main menu bar, select Constraint->Face to Face. 2. Select the face of the solid hinge piece shown in Figure 3-24.

Figure 3-24 Select a face on the movable part instance.

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3. Select the face of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole shown in Figure 3-25.

Figure 3-25 Select a face on the fixed instance.

ABAQUS/CAE displays red arrows on each selected face; the movable instance will be positioned so that the arrows point in the same direction. You can change the direction of the arrow on the movable instance if necessary. 4. From the prompt area, click Flip to change the direction of the arrow. Click OK when the arrows point toward each other. 5. In the text box that appears in the prompt area, type the clearance (0.04) that will remain between the two parts, as measured along the normal to the selected face of the fixed part, and press [Enter]. ABAQUS/CAE rotates the solid hinge piece so that the two selected faces are parallel to each other and 0.04 meters apart, as shown in Figure 3-26.

Figure 3-26 Position 1: Constrain the flange of the solid hinge piece to face the flange of the

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hinge piece with the lubrication hole.

The two pieces overlap because the position of the solid hinge piece is not fully determined by the position constraint you have applied. You will need to apply two more position constraints to obtain the desired position. 6. Next, align the two flange holes. From the main menu bar, select Constraint->Coaxial. 7. Select the flange hole on the solid hinge piece, as shown in Figure 3-27. (You may find it helpful to display the wireframe view of the two pieces.)

Figure 3-27 Select a cylindrical face on the movable instance.

8. Select the flange hole on the hinge piece with the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure 3-28.

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Figure 3-28 Select a cylindrical face on the fixed instance.

ABAQUS/CAE displays red arrows on each selected face. 9. From the prompt area, click Flip to change the direction of the arrow. Click OK when the arrow points downward. ABAQUS/CAE positions the two hinge pieces so that the two flange holes are coaxial. 10. Use the rotate tool to look at the top view of the two pieces. Notice that the two flanges are now overlapping, as shown in Figure 3-29.

Figure 3-29 Position 2: Constrain the two flange holes to lie along the same axis.

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11. Finally, add a constraint to eliminate the overlap between the two flanges. From the main menu bar, select Constraint->Edge to Edge. 12. Select the straight edge on the solid hinge piece shown in Figure 3-30.

Figure 3-30 Select a straight edge on the movable instance.

13. Select the corresponding edge of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure 3-75

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3-31.

Figure 3-31 Select a straight edge on the fixed instance.

ABAQUS/CAE displays red arrows on each selected face. 14. From the prompt area, click Flip to change the direction of the arrow. Click OK when the arrows point in the same direction. ABAQUS/CAE positions the two hinge pieces so that the two selected edges are colinear, as shown in Figure 3-32.

Figure 3-32 Final position: Constrain an edge of each hinge piece to lie along the same line.

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Note the following key points: · You position part instances in the Assembly module using a sequence of constraint operations. · Constraint operations position one part instance relative to another.

3.6.4 Creating and positioning an instance of the pin
You will now create an instance of the pin and position it symmetrically in the flange holes using constraints and translation vectors. To define the translation vector, you can select vertices from the assembly or you can enter the coordinates. You can determine the translation vector using the Query tool. To position the pin: 1. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Create. 2. From the Create Instance dialog box, toggle off Auto-offset from other instances and create an instance of the pin. 3. Constrain the pin to lie along the same axis as the two flange holes. Use the Constraint->Coaxial menu as you did when you aligned the two flange holes in the previous section. (You can select either of the flange holes as the cylindrical surface of the fixed instance.) ABAQUS/CAE will position the pin as shown in Figure 3-33.

Figure 3-33 Align the pin to be coaxial with the two flange holes.

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4. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Query. The Query dialog box appears. 5. Select Distance from the list of General Queries, and click OK. 6. The Distance query allows you measure the X-, Y-, and Z-components of the vector connecting two selected points. You need to determine the distance between the end of the pin and the hinge containing the lubrication hole; the two points to select are illustrated in Figure 3-34.

Figure 3-34 Determining the position of the pin.

a. To define one end of the vector, select a point on the circumference of the hole in the flange containing the lubrication hole. b. To define the other end of the vector, select the vertex on the pin that is inside the hinge containing the lubrication hole. ABAQUS/CAE displays the vector distance between the two selected points along with the X-, Y-, and Z-components of the vector in the message area. You will translate the pin along the Z-axis; the Z-component of the distance is 0.01 meters. You want to position the pin symmetrically between the hinges, so you will translate it 0.02 meters. 7. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Translate. 3-78

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8. Select the pin as the part instance to move. 9. ABAQUS/CAE warns you that translating this part may break the coaxial position constraint that you have applied to it. Click Yes to continue, since translation in the Z-direction only will not break the position constraint. 10. In the text boxes in the prompt area, enter a start point for the translation vector of 0,0,0 and an end point of 0,0,0.02. ABAQUS/CAE translates the pin a distance of 0.02 along the Z-axis and displays a temporary image of the new position of the pin.
Note: If the position of a temporary image (colored red) is not correct, you can use the buttons in the prompt area to correct the problem. Click either the cancel button ( procedure. ) to cancel the procedure or the go back button ( ) to step back though the

11. From the prompt area, click OK. The finished assembly is shown in Figure 3-35.

Figure 3-35 Shaded view of the finished assembly.

3.7 Defining analysis steps
Before you apply loads or boundary conditions to the model or define contact within the model, you must define the different steps in the analysis. Once the steps are created, you can specify in which steps loads, boundary conditions, and interactions should be applied. When you create a step, ABAQUS/CAE selects a default set of output variables corresponding to the analysis procedure and selects a default rate at which the variables are written to the output database. In this tutorial you will edit the default output frequency for the first step and edit the list of default output variables for the second step.

3.7.1 Creating the analysis steps
The analysis that you perform on the hinge model will consist of an initial step and two general

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analysis steps: · In the initial step you apply boundary conditions to regions of the model and define contact between regions of the model. · In the first general analysis step you allow contact to become established. · In the second general analysis step you modify two of the boundary conditions applied to the model and apply a pressure load to one of the hinge pieces. ABAQUS/CAE creates the initial step by default, but you must create the two analysis steps. To create the analysis steps: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Step to enter the Step module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Step module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Step->Manager. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Step Manager. The initial step created by default is listed in this dialog box. 3. From the lower-left corner of the Step Manager, click Create. The Create Step dialog box appears. 4. In the Create Step dialog box: a. Name the step Contact. b. Accept the default procedure type (Static, General), and click Continue. The step editor appears. 5. In the Description field, type Establish contact. 6. Click the Incrementation tab, and delete the value of 1 that appears in the Initial text field. Type a value of 0.1 for the initial increment size. 7. Click OK to create the step and to exit the editor. The Contact step appears in the Step Manager. 8. Use the same technique to create a second general, static step named Load. Enter Apply load in the description field and an initial increment size of 0.1. The Load step appears in the Step Manager. 9. Click Dismiss to close the manager. Note the following key points:

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· ABAQUS/CAE creates the initial step by default. · You create analysis steps yourself and use the step editor to control the time incrementation during the step. · Managers are available throughout ABAQUS/CAE. You use managers to display a list of the entities you have defined--steps in the above example--and to help you perform repeated operations.

3.7.2 Requesting output
You use the Field output tabbed page in the Output Database Request Manager to request output of variables that should be written at relatively low frequencies to the output database from the entire model or from a large portion of the model. Field output is used to generate deformed shape plots, contour plots, and animations from your analysis results. ABAQUS/CAE writes every component of the variables to the output database at the selected frequency. You use the History output tabbed page in the Output Database Request Manager to request output of variables that should be written to the output database at a high frequency from a small portion of the model; for example, the displacement of a single node. History output is used to generate X-Y plots and data reports from your analysis results. When you create a history output request, you must select the individual components of the variables that will be written to the output database. The default field output variables for the Contact and Load steps include the following: · S (Stress components) · E (Total strain components) · PE (Plastic strain components) · PEEQ (Equivalent plastic strain) · PEMAG (Plastic strain magnitude) · U (Translations and rotations) · RF (Reaction forces and moments) · CF (Concentrated forces and moments) · CSTRESS (Contact stresses) · CDISP (Contact displacements) By default, ABAQUS/CAE writes the default field output variables from a static, general procedure to the output database after every increment of a step. In the following procedure you will delete the request for CDISP during the Load step, since it is not needed for postprocessing. In addition, you will change the output frequency during the Contact step so that data are written to the output database once--at the last increment of the step.

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To edit an output request and to specify the output frequency during the Load step: 1. From the main menu bar, select Output->Output Database. The Output Database Request Manager dialog box appears. A list of the steps that you have created appears in the left panel of the dialog box. A list of the default output variables appears in the two tabbed pages labeled Field output and History output on the right side of the dialog box. 2. In the left panel of the dialog box, select the Load step. From the buttons at the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager , click Edit. The field output editor appears for the Load step. 3. From the list of output categories, click the arrow to the left of Contact. A list of the contact output variables available appears along with a description of each. 4. Click the check box next to CDISP to deselect this variable for output. The check box next to Contact changes to half-highlighted to indicate that not all variables in this category will be output. 5. Accept the default selections in the bottom half of the field output editor: · Generate output at default section points. · Save output at every increment. · Generate output for the whole model. 6. Click OK to create the output request.

7. From the Output Database Request Manager , select the Contact step and click Edit. The field output editor appears for the Contact step. 8. Near the bottom of the editor, toggle on The last increment to generate output only during the last increment of the step. 9. Click OK to create the output request.

10. At the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager , click Dismiss to close the dialog box. Note the following key points: · During the analysis, ABAQUS/CAE writes the results to the output database. · You use the Field output tabbed page of the Output Database Request Manager to request output of field variables to the output database, and you use the History output page to request output of history variables.

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· ABAQUS/CAE creates a default output request when you create a step. You can edit this default, and you can create new output requests.

3.7.3 Selecting a degree of freedom to monitor
You can define particular element or node sets that contain only selected portions of your model. Once you create a set, you can use it to perform the following tasks: · Assign section properties in the Property module. · Create contact pairs with contact node sets and surfaces in the Interaction module. · Define loads and boundary conditions in the Load/BC/IC module. · Request output to either the output database or the status file from specific regions of the model in the Step module. Output to the status file is also reported back to the Job module in the form of a continuously updated X-Y plot. · Display results for specific regions of the model in the Visualization module. In this example you will define a node set consisting of a single node. You will then be able to monitor the results for one degree of freedom at that node when you submit your job for analysis later in this tutorial. To create a node set and monitor a particular degree of freedom: 1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Set->Create. The Create Set dialog box appears. 2. Name the node set Monitor, and click Continue. 3. Select the vertex of the solid hinge piece shown in Figure 3-36.

Figure 3-36 Monitor a degree of freedom on the solid hinge piece.

4. Click Done to indicate that you have finished selecting the geometry for the set.

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ABAQUS/CAE creates a node set with the name Monitor that contains the node at the vertex you selected. 5. From the main menu bar, select Output->DOF Monitor. The DOF Monitor dialog box appears. 6. Toggle on Monitor a degree of freedom throughout the analysis. The node set Monitor that you just created is selected in the Point region text field. 7. Type 1 in the Degree of freedom text field, and click OK. Note the following key points: · Sets can be defined throughout the modeling process. · The progress of a job can be monitored through a particular degree of freedom.

3.8 Creating surfaces to use in contact interactions
Now you will use the Interaction module to define contact between regions of the model. The first step is to create the surfaces that you will include later in interactions. It is not always necessary to create your surfaces in advance; if the model is simple or the surfaces easy to select, you can indicate the master and slave surfaces directly in the viewport as you create the interactions. However, in this tutorial it is easier to define the surfaces separately and then refer to the names of those surfaces when you create the interactions. You will use the Surface toolset in the Interaction module to define the following surfaces: · A surface named Pin that includes the outside surface of the pin. · Two surfaces named Flange-h and Flange-s that include the two flange faces that contact each other. · Two surfaces named Inside-h and Inside-s that include the inside surfaces of the flanges that contact the pin.

3.8.1 Defining a surface on the pin
In this section you will define the outside surface of the pin. To define a surface on the pin: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Interaction to enter the Interaction module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Interaction module loads. 2. You will find it helpful to display only one part at a time while you select the surfaces to be defined.

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a. From the main menu bar, select View->Assembly Display Options. The Assembly Display Options dialog box appears. b. Click the Instance tab. The part instances that you have created are listed with check marks in the Visible column. All the part instances are visible by default. c. Click in the Visible column next to Hinge-hole-1 and Hinge-solid-1, and click Apply. The hinge pieces disappear from the view. 3. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Surface->Manager. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Surface Manager. 4. From the lower-left corner of the Surface Manager, click Create. The Create Surface dialog box appears. 5. In the dialog box, name the surface Pin, accept the default Geometry type, and click Continue. 6. In the viewport, select the pin. 7. Click mouse button 2 in the viewport to indicate that you have finished selecting regions for the surface. Arrows appear in the viewport indicating the two sides of the hollow cylinder representing the pin, as shown in Figure 3-37.

Figure 3-37 Select the region to be defined as the surface Pin.

The magenta arrow indicates the outer surface of the pin, and the yellow arrow indicates the inner surface of the pin. The outer surface contacts the two hinges and is the desired choice. 8. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Magenta to choose the outer surface. ABAQUS/CAE creates the desired surface called Pin and displays it in the Surface Manager. Note the following key points:

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· Click the Instance tab in the Assembly Display Options dialog box to make part instances visible or invisible. · When you create and name a surface, you can select the surface by name in subsequent operations, such as defining contact. · When you create a surface on a shell-type structure, you must select which side of the surface is of interest.

3.8.2 Defining the surfaces on the hinge pieces
In this section you will define the surfaces on the hinge pieces needed to define contact between the two hinge pieces and between the hinge pieces and the pin. To define the surfaces on the hinge pieces: 1. From the Assembly Display Options dialog box, change the visibility settings so that only Hinge-hole-1 is visible. ABAQUS/CAE displays only the hinge piece with the lubrication hole in the viewport. 2. From the Surface Manager, click Create. The Create Surface dialog box appears. 3. In the dialog box, name the surface Flange-h, accept the default Geometry type, and click Continue. 4. On the instance with the lubrication hole, select the face of the flange that contacts the other flange, as shown by the gridded face in Figure 3-38. (You may need to rotate the view to see this face clearly.)

Figure 3-38 Select the region to be defined as the surface Flange-h.

5. When you have selected the desired face, click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection. ABAQUS/CAE creates the desired surface called Flange-h and displays it in the Surface

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Manager.

6. Create a surface called Inside-h that includes the cylindrical inner surface of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure 3-39. (You may need to zoom in on the view to select this face.)

Figure 3-39 Select the region to be defined as the surface Inside-h.

7. Change the visibility settings so that only Hinge-solid-1 is visible. 8. Use similar techniques to create a surface called Flange-s that contains the corresponding face of the solid hinge piece's flange. 9. Finally, create a surface called Inside-s that includes the cylindrical inner surface of the solid hinge piece. 10. From the Surface Manager, click Dismiss to close the manager. 11. Leave the Assembly Display Options dialog box open so that you can continue to display the part instances as you need them for the rest of the tutorial. Note the following key point: · The surfaces you define are displayed in the Surface Manager.

3.9 Defining contact between regions of the model
Interactions are objects that you create to model mechanical relationships between surfaces that are in contact or closely spaced. Mere physical proximity of two surfaces on an assembly is not enough to indicate any type of interaction between the surfaces. You will use the Interaction module to define the following interactions: · An interaction called HingePin-hole that defines the contact between the part instance Hinge-hole-1 and the pin. 3-87

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· An interaction called HingePin-solid that defines the contact between the part instance Hinge-solid-1 and the pin. · An interaction called Flanges that defines the contact between the two flanges. Each of these interactions requires a reference to an interaction property. Interaction properties are collections of information that help you to define certain types of interactions. You will create a mechanical interaction property that describes the tangential and normal behavior between all surfaces as frictionless. You will name this property NoFric and use it in all three of the interactions.

3.9.1 Creating an interaction property
In this procedure you will create a mechanical contact interaction property. To create the interaction property: 1. From the main menu bar, select Property->Create. The Create Interaction Property dialog box appears. 2. In the Create Interaction Property dialog box: a. Name the property NoFric. b. In the Type list, accept Contact as the default selection. c. Click Continue. The Edit Contact Property dialog box appears. 3. From the dialog box's menu bar, select Mechanical->Tangential Behavior and accept Frictionless for the friction formulation. 4. Click OK to save your settings and to close the Edit Contact Property dialog box.

3.9.2 Creating the interactions
In this section you will create three mechanical surface-to-surface contact interactions. Each interaction will refer to the interaction property that you just created. To create the interactions: 1. From the main menu bar, select Interaction->Manager. The Interaction Manager appears. 2. From the lower-left corner of the Interaction Manager, click Create. The Create Interaction dialog box appears.

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3. In the dialog box: a. Name the interaction HingePin-hole. b. Select Initial from the list of steps. c. In the Types for Selected Step list, accept the default selection of Surface-to-surface contact (Standard). d. Click Continue. 4. On the far right side of the prompt area, click the Surfaces button. The Region Selection dialog box appears containing a list of the surfaces that you defined earlier. 5. In the Region Selection dialog box, select Pin as the master surface, and click Continue. 6. From the buttons in the prompt area, select Surface as the slave type. 7. In the Region Selection dialog box, select Inside-h as the slave surface, and click Continue. The Edit Interaction dialog box appears. 8. In the dialog box: a. Accept the default Sliding formulation selection of Finite sliding. b. Accept the default Slave Node Adjustment selection of Do not adjust slave nodes . c. Accept NoFric as the interaction property. (If more properties were defined, you could click the arrow next to the Interaction property field to see the list of available properties and select the property of your choice.) d. Click OK to save the interaction and to close the dialog box. The interaction that you created appears in the Interaction Manager. 9. Use the same techniques explained in the previous steps to create a similar interaction called HingePin-solid. Use Pin as the master surface, Inside-s as the slave surface, and NoFric as the interaction property. 10. Create a similar interaction called Flanges. Use Flange-h as the master surface, Flange-s as the slave surface, and NoFric as the interaction property. 11. From the Interaction Manager, click Dismiss to close the manager. Note the following key points: · Interactions are step dependent. In this tutorial all interactions are associated with the initial step.

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· You must select a master surface and a slave surface when creating an interaction. · You can select master and slave surfaces either by selecting previously created surfaces from a list or by selecting surfaces directly from the viewport.

3.10 Applying boundary conditions and loads to the assembly
You will use the Load/BC/IC module to apply the following boundary conditions and load to the hinge model: · A boundary condition called Fixed that constrains all degrees of freedom at the end of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure 3-40.

Figure 3-40 One end of the hinge is constrained.

· A boundary condition called NoSlip that constrains all degrees of freedom of the pin while contact is established during the first analysis step. You will modify this boundary condition in the second analysis step (the step in which the load is applied) so that degrees of freedom 1 and 5 are unconstrained. Figure 3-41 illustrates this boundary condition applied at the reference point.

Figure 3-41 The pin is constrained.

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· A boundary condition called Constrain that constrains all degrees of freedom of a point on the solid hinge piece during the first analysis step. You will modify this boundary condition in the second analysis step so that degree of freedom 1 is unconstrained when the load is applied. · A load called Pressure that you apply to the end of the solid hinge piece during the second analysis step. Figure 3-42 illustrates the constraint and the pressure load applied to the solid hinge.

Figure 3-42 The second hinge is constrained and loaded.

3.10.1 Constraining the hinge piece with the lubrication hole
You will apply a boundary condition to the face at the end of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole to fix the hinge piece in place during the analysis. To constrain the hinge piece with the lubrication hole: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Load/BC/IC to enter the Load/BC/IC module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Load/BC/IC module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select BC->Manager. The Boundary Condition Manager dialog box appears. 3. In the Boundary Condition Manager, click Create. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears. 4. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box: a. Name the boundary condition Fixed. b. Accept Initial from the list of steps. c. Accept Mechanical as the default Category selection and Displacement/Rotation as the default Type for Selected Step selection.

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d. Click Continue. The Region Selection dialog box appears. e. From the right side of the prompt area, click Select in Viewport to select the object directly from the viewport. The Region Selection dialog box closes. 5. Select the gridded face shown in Figure 3-43 as the region where the boundary condition will be applied.

Figure 3-43 Apply a boundary condition to the end of the hinge piece with the lubrication hole.

By default, ABAQUS/CAE selects only objects that are closest to the front of the screen, and you cannot select the desired face unless you rotate the hinge. However, you can use the selection options to change this behavior. a. From the prompt area, click the selection options tool .

b. From the Options dialog box that appears, toggle off the closest object tool c. Click over the desired face. ABAQUS/CAE displays Next, Previous, and OK buttons in the prompt area. d. Click Next and Previous until the desired face is highlighted. e. Click OK to confirm your choice. 6. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting regions.

.

The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears. The selection options return to the default setting of selecting only objects that are closest to the front of the screen.

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7. In the dialog box: a. Toggle on the buttons labeled U1, U2, and U3 to constrain the end of the hinge in the 1-, 2-, and 3-directions. You do not need to constrain the rotational degrees of freedom of the hinge because solid elements (which have only translational degrees of freedom) will be used to mesh the hinge. b. Click OK to close the dialog box. The boundary condition that you just created appears in the Boundary Condition Manager, and arrows appear on the nodes of the face indicating the constrained degrees of freedom. The Boundary Condition Manager shows that the boundary condition remains active in all steps of the analysis. Tip: You can suppress the display of boundary condition arrows in the same way that you suppress the visibility of part instances. Click the BC tab in the Assembly Display Options dialog box to see the boundary condition display options. Note the following key points: · Like interactions, boundary conditions are step-dependent and can change from one step to another. · The boundary condition editor allows you to constrain selected degrees of freedom.

3.10.2 Constraining the pin
In the first general step of the analysis you will establish contact between the two hinge pieces and between the hinge pieces and the pin. To fix the pin during this step, you must apply a boundary condition to the pin that constrains all its degrees of freedom. To apply a boundary condition to the pin: 1. In the Boundary Condition Manager, click Create. The Create Boundary Condition dialog box appears. 2. In the Create Boundary Condition dialog box: a. Name the boundary condition NoSlip. b. Accept Initial in the Step text field. c. Accept Mechanical as the default Category selection and Displacement/Rotation as the default Type for Selected Step selection. d. Click Continue. 3. In the viewport, select the rigid body reference point on the pin as the region where the boundary

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condition will be applied. The vertex at the same location as the reference point is closest to the screen, and ABAQUS/CAE always selects it over the rigid body reference point. From the Options dialog box, toggle off the . Now ABAQUS/CAE cannot choose between the vertex and the closest object tool reference point, and you must click the Next and Previous buttons until ABAQUS/CAE selects the reference point. The text string in the viewport displays Highlighting Pin-1 Ref Point when you have selected the reference point. 4. Click OK to confirm your choice. 5. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting regions. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears. 6. In the dialog box: a. Toggle on all the buttons to constrain all the degrees of freedom of the pin. b. Click OK. The new boundary condition appears in the Boundary Condition Manager. Note the following key points: · To constrain a rigid surface, you must apply constraints to the reference point. · The selection options help to make selection of regions easier.

3.10.3 Modifying the boundary condition applied to the pin
Objects that you can create and modify in certain steps--such as boundary conditions, loads, and interactions--have special managers that allow you to modify objects and change their status in different analysis steps. In this section you will use the boundary condition manager to modify the boundary condition NoSlip so that translation in the 1-direction and rotation about the 2-axis are unconstrained during the loading step. Currently the Boundary Condition Manager displays the names of the two boundary conditions that you have created as well as their status in each step: both boundary conditions are Created in the initial step and Propagated through the following analysis steps. To modify a boundary condition: 1. In the Boundary Condition Manager, click the cell labeled Propagated that lies in the row labeled NoSlip and in the column labeled Load, as shown in Figure 3-44.

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Figure 3-44 Select boundary conditions to edit in the Boundary Condition Manager.

That cell becomes highlighted. 2. On the right side of the manager, click Edit to indicate that you want to edit the NoSlip boundary condition in the Load step. The Edit Boundary Condition dialog box appears, and ABAQUS/CAE displays a set of arrows on the model indicating where the boundary condition is applied and which degrees of freedom are constrained. 3. In the editor, toggle off the buttons labeled U1 and UR2 so that the pin is allowed to translate in the 1-direction and rotate about the 2-axis. Click OK to close the dialog box. In the Boundary Condition Manager, the status of the NoSlip boundary condition in the Load step changes to Modified. Note the following key points: · By default, ABAQUS/CAE propagates a boundary condition to all subsequent steps. · You can use the Boundary Condition Manager to delete or modify a boundary condition within a step.

3.10.4 Constraining the solid hinge piece
In the first analysis step, in which contact is established, you will constrain a single node of the solid hinge piece in all directions. These constraints, along with contact with the pin, are enough to prevent rigid body motion of the solid piece. In the second analysis step, in which the load is applied to the model, you will remove the constraint in the 1-direction. To constrain the solid hinge piece: 1. Create a boundary condition in the Initial step, and call it Constrain. 2. Apply the boundary condition to the vertex selected from the solid hinge piece, as shown in Figure 3-45.

Figure 3-45 Apply a boundary condition to a vertex of the solid hinge piece.

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3. Constrain the vertex in the 1-, 2-, and 3-directions. 4. In the Load step, modify the boundary condition so that the hinge is unconstrained in the 1-direction. 5. When you have finished creating boundary conditions, click Dismiss to close the Boundary Condition Manager.

3.10.5 Applying a load to the solid hinge
Next, you apply a pressure load to the face at the end of the solid hinge. You apply the load in the 1-direction during the second analysis step. To apply a load to the solid hinge: 1. From the main menu bar, select Load->Create. The Create Load dialog box appears. 2. In the Create Load dialog box: a. Name the load Pressure. b. Accept Load as the default selection in the Step text field. c. From the Category list, accept Mechanical as the default selection. d. From the Type for Selected Step list, select Pressure. e. Click Continue. 3. In the viewport, select the face at the end of the solid hinge piece as the surface to which the load will be applied, as shown by the gridded surface in Figure 3-46.

Figure 3-46 Apply a load to the solid hinge piece.

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4. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting regions. The Edit Load dialog box appears. 5. In the dialog box, enter a magnitude of -1.E6 for the load, and click OK. Arrows appear on the nodes of the face indicating the applied load. Note the following key point: · You can create different types of loads, and you can select the region of the model to which a load is applied.

3.11 Meshing the assembly
Meshing the assembly is divided into the following operations: · Making sure the assembly can be meshed and creating additional partitions where necessary. · Assigning mesh attributes to the part instances. · Seeding the part instances. · Meshing the assembly.

3.11.1 Deciding what needs to be partitioned
When you enter the Mesh module, ABAQUS/CAE color codes regions of the model according to the methods it will use to generate a mesh: · Green indicates that a region can be meshed using structured methods. · Yellow indicates that a region can be meshed using sweep methods. · Orange indicates that a region cannot be meshed using the default element shape assignment (hexahedral) and must be partitioned further. (Alternatively, you can mesh any model by assigning tetrahedral elements to the model and using the free meshing technique.)

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For the tutorial ABAQUS/CAE indicates that the hinges need to be partitioned to be meshed using hexahedral-shaped elements. Specifically, areas surrounding the hole in the flange and the lubrication hole must be partitioned. The partitioned hinges are shown in Figure 3-47.

Figure 3-47 The partitioned hinges.

Use the following techniques to help you select faces and vertices during the partitioning process: · Use a combination of the view manipulation tools, the display option tools in the toolbar, and the tools in the Views toolbox to resize and reposition the model as necessary. (The Views toolbox appears when you select from the main menu bar.) and toggle off the closest object tool

· From the prompt area, click the selection options tool

to cycle through the possible selections using the Next and Previous buttons in the prompt area. · You will probably find the magnification tool and the rotation tool especially useful.

· When necessary, click the Iso tool in the Views toolbox to return the model to its original size and position in the viewport. · Select View->Assembly Display Options->Instance to suppress the visibility of part instances and boundary condition or load symbols that you do not need to see in the viewport. To decide what needs to be partitioned: 1. Use the Assembly Display Options dialog box to display all three part instances. 2. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Mesh to enter the Mesh module.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the two hinge pieces in orange, which indicates that they need to be partitioned to be meshed using hexahedral elements, as shown in Figure 3-48.

Figure 3-48 The unpartitioned model cannot be meshed.

ABAQUS/CAE also displays the pin in orange because it is an analytical rigid surface and cannot be meshed. 3. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Partition to partition the two hinge pieces. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Partition dialog box. 4. From the Create Partition dialog box, choose the Cell partition type. Select the Extend face method, and click Apply. 5. Select the solid hinge piece as the cell to partition and click Done to indicate you have finished selecting cells. 6. Select the face to extend, as shown by the gridded face in Figure 3-49. Toggle off the closest object tool to make the desired face selectable.

Figure 3-49 Select a face of the solid hinge piece to extend to create a partition.

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7. From the prompt area, click Create Partition. ABAQUS/CAE creates the partition, as shown in Figure 3-50.

Figure 3-50 Partition the solid hinge piece.

Tip: If the partition is not located correctly, select Feature->Delete from the main menu bar and select the partition to delete. ABAQUS/CAE colors the cube portion of the solid hinge piece green to indicate that it can be meshed using the structured meshing technique; it colors the flange of the solid hinge piece yellow to indicate that it can be meshed using a swept mesh. 8. Use a similar method to that described in the previous steps to create a partition between the cube and the flange of the other hinge piece. Again the cube turns green to indicate that it can be meshed using structured meshing, but the flange containing the lubrication hole remains orange, indicating that you need to perform additional partitioning to mesh this flange. Note the following key points: · ABAQUS/CAE color codes the model to indicate how a region will be meshed. Green indicates that a region can be meshed with structured methods, yellow indicates that a region can be meshed with sweep methods, and orange indicates that a region cannot be meshed. · You can partition the parts of your model into regions to create a model that can be meshed.

3.11.2 Partitioning the flanges
For ABAQUS/CAE to mesh the flange with the lubrication hole, it must be partitioned into the regions shown in Figure 3-51.

Figure 3-51 Shaded view of the partitioned flange.

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To partition the flanges: 1. From the Create Partition dialog box, select the Define cutting plane method, and click Apply. 2. Select the two flanges. Select the first flange and [Shift]+[Click] the second flange to append it to your selection. Click Done to indicate you have finished selecting cells. ABAQUS/CAE provides three methods for specifying the cutting plane: · Select a point and a normal. The cutting plane passes through the selected point, normal to the selected edge. · Select three non-colinear points. The cutting plane passes through each point. · Select an edge and a point along the edge. The cutting plane passes through the selected point, normal to the selected edge. The cutting plane need not be defined in the cell being partitioned. The plane extends infinitely and partitions the selected cell anywhere there is an intersection. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, select 3 points. ABAQUS/CAE highlights points that you can select. 4. Select three points that cut the flanges in half with a vertical partition, as shown in Figure 3-52.

Figure 3-52 Select three points to use in partitioning the flanges.

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Tip: You may find it easier to select the desired points if you magnify, rotate, and pan the model to obtain a more convenient view. 5. From the prompt area, click Create Partition. ABAQUS/CAE creates the desired partitions. 6. You have now partitioned each of the flanges into two regions; you need to create a partition that cuts the resulting four regions in half horizontally, as shown in Figure 3-53. Use the Define cutting plane method to create the desired partitions. Remember that since the cutting plane extends infinitely, points that define it need not be on the cells being partitioned; for example, you can select midpoints of edges around the cube to define the cutting plane through the four regions. The plane extends infinitely and partitions the selected regions anywhere an intersection occurs.

Figure 3-53 Divide the flanges further with partitions.

7. ABAQUS/CAE colors the region containing the lubrication hole orange to indicate that it still cannot be meshed. Use the Define cutting plane method to partition the four regions in the flange containing the lubrication hole, as shown in Figure 3-54.

Figure 3-54 Partition the flange containing the lubrication hole.

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The model with all the partitions is shown in Figure 3-55.

Figure 3-55 The partitioned model.

The coloring of the model indicates that it can now be meshed completely. 8. From the prompt area, click Done to indicate that you have finished partitioning cells. 9. From the Create Partition dialog box, click Cancel. Note the following key point: · You use the Partition toolset to divide the model into regions that ABAQUS/CAE can mesh.

3.11.3 Assigning mesh controls
In this section you will use the Mesh Controls dialog box to examine the techniques that ABAQUS/CAE will use to mesh the model and the shape of the elements that ABAQUS/CAE will generate.

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To assign the mesh controls: 1. You cannot mesh an analytical rigid surface. As a result you cannot apply mesh controls to an analytical rigid surface; neither can you seed it or assign an element type to it. To simplify the meshing procedure, you should use the Assembly Display Options to display only the the two hinge pieces. The pin, which is an analytical rigid surface, will not be selected in the following steps. 2. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Controls. 3. Drag a square around the model to select the two hinge parts and click Done to indicate your selection is complete. The two hinge pieces appear red in the viewport to indicate that you have selected them, and ABAQUS/CAE displays the Mesh Controls dialog box. 4. In the dialog box, accept Hex as the default Element Shape selection. 5. Accept Structured as the meshing technique that ABAQUS/CAE will apply. 6. Click OK to assign the mesh controls and to close the dialog box. 7. Click Done in the prompt area. Note the following key point: · You can select the meshing techniques that ABAQUS/CAE will apply to your model.

3.11.4 Assigning the ABAQUS element type
In this section you will use the Element Type dialog box to examine the element types that are assigned to the model. To assign an ABAQUS element type: 1. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Element Type. 2. Select the two hinge pieces using the same technique described in the mesh controls procedure, and click Done to indicate your selection is complete. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Element Type dialog box. 3. In the dialog box, accept Standard as the Element Library selection. 4. Accept Linear as the Geometric Order selection. 5. Accept 3D Stress as the default Family of elements. 6. Click the Hex tab, and select Reduced Integration as the Element Controls method if it is not

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already selected. A description of the default element type, C3D8R, appears at the bottom of the dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE will now associate C3D8R elements with the elements in the mesh. 7. Click OK to assign the element type and to close the dialog box. 8. Click Done in the prompt area. Note the following key point: · ABAQUS/CAE assigns a default ABAQUS element type to the model; you can accept the default element type or choose to assign other element types to different regions of the model.

3.11.5 Seeding the part instances
The next step of the meshing process is to seed each of the part instances. Seeds represent the approximate locations of nodes and indicate the target density of the mesh you would like to generate. You can select seeding based on the number of elements to generate along an edge or the average element size, or you can bias seed distribution toward one end of an edge. For the tutorial you will seed the entire assembly so that the hinge pieces have an average element size of 0.004. To seed the part instances: 1. From the main menu bar, select Seed->Instance. 2. Select the two hinge pieces using the same technique described in the mesh controls procedure, and click Done to indicate your selection is complete. 3. In the text box in the prompt area, type an approximate global element size of 0.004, and press [Enter]. Seeds appear on all the edges. You are now ready to mesh the assembly. 4. Click Done in the prompt area. Note the following key point: · Seeds represent the approximate locations of nodes and indicate the target density of the mesh that you would like to generate.

3.11.6 Meshing the assembly
In this section you will mesh the model. To mesh the assembly: 1. From the main menu bar, select Mesh->Instance. ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the part instances to mesh.

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2. Select the two hinge pieces using the same techniques described in the mesh controls procedure, and click Done to indicate your selection is complete. The cursor changes to an hourglass while ABAQUS/CAE meshes the assembly. The final mesh is illustrated in Figure 3-56.

Figure 3-56 Final view of the meshed model.

3.

Click Done in the prompt area.

3.12 Creating and submitting a job
Now that you have configured your analysis, move to the Job module to create a job that is associated with your model and to submit the job for analysis. To create and submit an analysis job: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Job to enter the Job module. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Job module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Job->Create to create the job. The Create Job dialog box appears. 3. Name the job PullHinge, and click Continue. The job editor appears. 4. In the Description field, type Hinge tutorial. Click the tabs to see the contents of the job editor, and review the default settings. Click OK to accept all the default job settings. 5. Select Job->Manager to start the Job Manager. The Job Manager dialog box appears and displays a list of your jobs, the model associated with each job, the type of analysis, and the status of the job.

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6. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager, click Submit to submit your job for analysis. The job can take anywhere from 10 to 60 minutes, depending on your system. 7. Click the Monitor button on the right edge of the Job Manager to monitor the analysis as it runs. A dialog box appears with the name of your job in the title bar and a status chart for the analysis. Messages appear in the lower panel of the dialog box as the job progresses. Click the Errors and Warnings tabs to check for problems in the analysis. Once the analysis is underway, an X-Y plot of the values of the degree of freedom that you selected to monitor earlier in the tutorial appears in a separate window in the viewport. (You may need to scroll to the right to see it.) You can follow the progression of the node's displacement over time in the 1-direction as the analysis runs. 8. When the job completes successfully, the text in the Status field of the Job Manager changes to Completed. You are now ready to view the results of the analysis with the Visualization module. From the buttons on the right edge of the Job Manager, click Results. ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module, opens the output database created by the job, and displays a plot of the model.
Note: You can also enter the Visualization module by clicking Visualization in the Module list located under the toolbar. However, in this case ABAQUS/CAE requires you to open the output database explicitly using the File menu.

Note the following key points: · When you create and name a job, ABAQUS/CAE uses the same name for the input file it generates. Consequently, all files associated with the analysis (for example, the output database, the message file, and the status file) use the same name. · Use the Job Manager to monitor the status of your job. You can also view the progression of a degree of freedom over the course of an analysis that you have chosen to monitor before submitting the job.

3.13 Viewing the results of your analysis
You will view the results of your analysis by drawing a contour plot of the deformed model. You will then use display groups to display one of the hinge pieces; by displaying just a portion of the model you can view results that are not visible when you display the whole model. ABAQUS/CAE displays a fast plot of the model when you enter the Visualization module. A fast plot is a basic representation of the undeformed model that indicates that you have opened the desired output database. The fast plot mode does not display results and cannot be customized.

3.13.1 Displaying and customizing a contour plot

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In this section you will display a contour plot of the model and adjust the deformation scale factor. To display a contour plot of the model: 1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Contours. ABAQUS/CAE displays a contour plot of von Mises stress superimposed on the deformed shape of the model at the end of the last increment of the loading step, as indicated by the following text in the state block:
Step: Load : Apply load Increment 6: Step Time = 1.000

By default, all surfaces with no results (in this case, the pin) are displayed in white. The deformation is exaggerated because of the default deformation scale factor that ABAQUS/CAE selects. 2. To remove the white surfaces from the display, do the following: a. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Display Group->Create. The Create Display Group dialog box appears. b. In the ODB Item options list, select Surfaces. In the Selection Method options list, select All surfaces. c. At the bottom of the Create Display Group dialog box, click Remove. The white surfaces disappear from the view. d. Click Dismiss to close the dialog box. 3. To reduce the deformation scale factor, do the following: a. From the main menu bar, select Options->Contour. b. From the Contour Plot Options dialog box that appears, click the Shape tab. c. From the Deformation Scale Factor options, choose Uniform. d. In the Value text field, type a value of 100, and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE displays the contour plot with a deformation scale factor of 100, as shown in Figure 3-57.

Figure 3-57 Contour plot of von Mises stress with a reduced deformation scale factor.

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4. Use the view manipulation tools to examine the deformed model. Note where the pin appears to be exerting the most pressure against the insides of the flanges. Also note how the two flanges have twisted away from each other. 5. By default, the contour plot displays the von Mises stresses in the model. You can view other variables by selecting Result->Field Output. The Field Output dialog box appears. 6. Click the Primary Variable tab of the Field Output dialog box, and select S11 from the list of Component options. Click Apply to see a contour plot of the stresses in the 1-direction. 7. From the Invariant option list, select Max. Principal, and click Apply to see the maximum principal stresses on the model. 8. Select any other variables of interest from the Field Output dialog box. 9. From the Invariant option list, select Mises and click Apply to display the von Mises stresses again. Note the following key points: · When you first open an output database, ABAQUS/CAE displays a fast plot of the model. You cannot customize a fast plot. · For all other plot modes--undeformed, deformed, contour, symbol--you use the associated options to control the appearance of the plot in each mode. In general, changing an option in one mode does not affect the appearance of the plot in the other modes.

3.13.2 Using display groups
You will now create a display group that includes only the element sets that make up the hinge piece that includes the lubrication hole. By removing all other element sets from the display, you will be able to view results for the surface of the flange that contacts the other hinge. To create the display group:

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1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Display Group->Create. The Create Display Group dialog box appears. 2. In the ODB Item options list, select Elements. In the Selection Method options list, accept the default selection of Element sets. The right side of the dialog box displays all the element sets in the model. ABAQUS/CAE creates a number of sets automatically. Some of the sets are named according to the following convention: ASSEMBLY__part instance name_label__setname. Part instance name consists of the name you gave to the part when you created it, plus an instance number that ABAQUS/CAE assigns. Label is G for geometry set, E for elements picked in the viewport, or N for nodes picked in the viewport. Finally, setname is either a name assigned to the set by ABAQUS/CAE or a set name given by you. The sets created by ABAQUS/CAE are geometry sets. 3. Select the element set created by ABAQUS/CAE for the Hinge-hole-1 part. 4. At the bottom of the Create Display Group dialog box, click Replace. The contour plot of the entire model is replaced by a plot of only the selected hinge piece, as shown in Figure 3-58.

Figure 3-58 Use display groups to view a contour plot of the von Mises stress in the hinge piece with the lubrication hole.

5. Use the view manipulation tools to view the hinge at different angles. You can now see results for surfaces on the hinge that were hidden by the solid hinge. 6. Click the Primary Variable tab of the Field Output dialog box, select CPRESS for the INSIDE-H/PIN contact pair in the Output Variable options list, and click Apply. You may need to widen the Name column to see the entire contact pair name. Do this by dragging the dividing line between the Name and Description column headings. ABAQUS/CAE displays a contour plot of the contact pressures in the flange hole.

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Note the following key points: · You use display groups to display selected regions of your model. · A display group can be an element set, a node set, or a list of nodes or elements. To learn more about the capabilities of the Visualization module, see the third tutorial, Chapter 4, "A tutorial: Viewing the output from your analysis." For more information about using the Visualization module, click any of the following items: · ``Viewing the results of your analysis,'' Section 2.12 · For a more in-depth tutorial of the capabilities of the Chapter 4, "A tutorial: Viewing the output from your analysis" You have now completed the second tutorial and learned how to: · create and modify features; · use datum geometry to add features to a model; · use position constraints to assemble a model composed of more than one part; · define contact interactions between regions of a model; · monitor the progress of an analysis job; and · use display groups to view results for individual parts of a model.

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4. A tutorial: Viewing the output from your analysis
This tutorial illustrates how you can use the Visualization module to display the results from your analysis in graphical form.

4.1 Overview
During the tutorial you will display the output from Case 2 of the example problem, ``Indentation of an elastomeric foam specimen with a hemispherical punch,'' Section 1.1.4 of the ABAQUS Example Problems Manual. The problem studies the behavior of a heavy metal punch impacting a soft elastomeric foam block; the resulting deformation and strain are shown in Figure 4-1.

Figure 4-1 Contour plot showing deformation and strain.

The problem is modeled in two dimensions and is divided into three steps: 1. The punch initially rests on the surface of the foam block and compresses the block under its own weight. The gravity loading is ramped up over two seconds; but the analysis continues for a total of five seconds, allowing the foam to relax fully. The analysis uses the *VISCO option to model the response of the foam block during the step. 2. The punch is forced down with an impulsive load that varies according to a half sine wave over a period of one second. The response of the foam block is modeled using the *DYNAMIC option. 3. The impulsive load is removed, and the punch is allowed to move freely while the foam expands and contracts. The viscoelastic foam damps out the vibrations, and the step runs for 10 seconds while the model returns to steady state. As with the second step, the response of the foam block is modeled using the *DYNAMIC option. The tutorial consists of the following sections:

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· ``Which variables are in the output database?, '' Section 4.2 · ``Reading the output database,'' Section 4.3 · ``Displaying and customizing an undeformed shape plot,'' Section 4.4 · ``Displaying and customizing a deformed shape plot,'' Section 4.5 · ``Displaying and customizing a contour plot,'' Section 4.6 · ``Animating a contour plot,'' Section 4.7 · ``Displaying and customizing a symbol plot,'' Section 4.8 · ``Displaying and customizing a material orientation plot,'' Section 4.9 · ``Displaying and customizing an X-Y plot,'' Section 4.10 · ``Operating on X-Y data,'' Section 4.11 · ``Probing an X-Y plot,'' Section 4.12 · ``Displaying results along a path,'' Section 4.13

4.2 Which variables are in the output database?
In the first step of the elastomeric foam example, a set of options is included to control the data output during each step of the analysis. ABAQUS/Standard writes this output to the Field Output or History Output portion of the output database, depending on the output type. Field Output The Field Output portion of the output database contains variables that should be output relatively infrequently during the analysis; in this case, after every 10 increments and after the last increment of a step. Typically, you select output for your entire model or a large region of your model, and ABAQUS writes every component at the selected frequency. Only the selected variables are written to the output database. The following input file fragment shows the options that control the field output variables in the elastomeric block example:
*OUTPUT, FIELD, FREQUENCY=10 *CONTACT OUTPUT, SLAVE=ASURF, MASTER=BSURF, VARIABLE=PRESELECT *NODE OUTPUT U, *ELEMENT OUTPUT, ELSET=FOAM S,E

ABAQUS/Standard writes the following variables to the Field Output portion of the output database after every 10 increments and at the end of each step:

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· the stress components of every integration point in the foam block; · the logarithmic strain components of every integration point in the foam block (by default, the logarithmic strain is written to the output database when the user requests strain for a geometrically nonlinear analysis); · the displacement of every node in the model; and · the default contact output variables (clearance, pressure, shear stress, and tangential motion) resulting from the contact between the punch and the foam block. History Output The History Output portion of the output database contains variables that may be output relatively frequently during the analysis, as often as every increment. To avoid generating large amounts of data, you typically select output from a small area of your model, such as a single element or a small region. In addition, you must select the individual components of the variables that are written to the output database. History output is typically used for generating X-Y data plots. The following input file fragment shows the options that control the history output variables in the elastomeric block example:
*OUTPUT, HISTORY, FREQUENCY=1 *NODE OUTPUT, NSET=N9999 U2, V2, A2 *ELEMENT OUTPUT, ELSET=CORNER MISES, E22, S22

ABAQUS/Standard writes the following variables from the punch's rigid body reference node (contained in node set N9999) to the history portion of the output database after every increment: · the vertical displacement, · the vertical velocity, and · the vertical acceleration. In addition, after every increment ABAQUS/Standard writes the following variables from the element at the corner of the block to the history portion of the output database: · von Mises stress, · the logarithmic strain in the 2-direction on the 2-plane, and · the stress in the 2-direction on the 2-plane. The stress and strain variables are written for all the integration points in the element.

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4.3 Reading the output database
To start the tutorial, open the output database that ABAQUS/Standard generated during the analysis of the example problem. To read the output database: 1. If you have not done so already, start ABAQUS/CAE by typing abaqus cae at the operating system prompt. 2. From the Start Session dialog box that appears, select Open Database . The Open Database dialog box appears. 3. From the File type list at the top of the Open Database dialog box, select Output Database (*.odb). The remainder of the dialog box changes to reflect the fact that you are now interested in files with the extension .odb only. 4. If you are following this tutorial online, resize your windows so that you can follow this tutorial and see the ABAQUS/CAE main window. For more information, see ``Starting ABAQUS/CAE,'' Section 5.1.1. 5. In the Selection field at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box, delete the text and type abaqus_dir/cae/Tutorial/viewer_tutorial.odb, where abaqus_dir is the name of the directory in which ABAQUS/CAE is installed. To determine the location of abaqus_dir at your site, type abaqus whereami at an operating system prompt.
Note: On Windows NT systems the path to the output database is abaqus_dir\cae\Tutorial\viewer_tutorial.odb.

6. Click OK. ABAQUS/CAE starts the Visualization module and displays a fast plot of the model, as shown in Figure 4-2. A fast plot is a basic representation of your undeformed model and is an indication that you have opened the desired output database. The fast plot mode does not display results and cannot be customized.

Figure 4-2 Fast representation.

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Important: Do not confuse this fast plot with the undeformed shape plot. While the fast plot displays the undeformed model, you must display the undeformed plot to customize the appearance of the model; for example, to display element and node numbering. The fast plot simply indicates that you have opened the desired output database. The title block at the bottom of the viewport indicates the following: · The description of the model (from the first line of the *HEADING option in the input file). · The name of the output database (from the name of the analysis job). · The product name (ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) and version used to generate the output database. · The date the output database was last modified. The state block at the bottom of the viewport indicates the following: · Which step is being displayed. · The increment within the step. · The step time. The orientation triad indicates the orientation of the model in the global coordinate system. Note the following key points: · ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module automatically when you open an output database. · The model is initially displayed using a fast mode. You cannot change the appearance of the model in fast mode. · The title block displays information about the analysis that generated the output database. · The state block contains information about the step and increment being displayed.

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4.4 Displaying and customizing an undeformed shape plot
You will now display the undeformed shape plot and use the plot options to request element numbering.

4.4.1 Displaying an undeformed shape plot
An undeformed plot displays the initial shape of your model. To display an undeformed shape plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Undeformed Shape . Tip: You can select a plot mode from the main menu bar or from the Visualization module toolbox. Click the undeformed plot tool the undeformed mode. in the Visualization module toolbox to select

The Visualization module enters the undeformed plot mode and displays the undeformed model at the end of the analysis-- Step 3 and Step Time = 10.00 in this example. The plot mode and a set of buttons also appear in the prompt area, as shown in Figure 4-3.

Figure 4-3 Frame buttons in the prompt area.

In the elastomeric foam block example ABAQUS/Standard wrote the data to the field output portion of the output database after every 10 increments and after the last increment of a step. Each increment written to the output database is called a frame. In this example the undeformed model does not change between frames, but in some simulations the model changes during the analysis; for example, if rigid surfaces are introduced. 2. Use the pan tool, which is one of several view manipulation tools available on the toolbar, to move the model above the state and title blocks as follows. a. From the toolbar, click the pan tool to enter pan mode.

The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow: b. To move the model away from the state and title blocks, click in the viewport and drag the

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cursor upward. The model moves along the same path as the cursor. c. Click mouse button 2 to exit pan mode. 3. From the prompt area, click the button on the far left to move to the first frame of the current step. ABAQUS/CAE displays the undeformed model at the beginning of the third step--Step 3, Increment 0, and Step Time = 0.000. This is the state of the model at the beginning of the step. The first frame and last frame buttons take you directly to the first or last frame of the current step but do not allow you to move between steps. The next frame and previous frame buttons in the prompt area allow you to move between each frame of the analysis and can cross step boundaries as needed. 4. Click the previous frame button. ABAQUS/CAE displays the undeformed model at the end of the second step--Step 2 and Step Time = 1.000. When you are at the first frame of the current step, clicking the previous frame button takes you to the last frame of the previous step. Conversely, when you are at the last frame of the current step, clicking the next frame button takes you to the first frame of the next step. Note the following key points: · To perform many Visualization module functions, you can use either a menu item or a tool in the toolbox. · You can use the buttons in the prompt area to display the state of the model in each frame of the analysis. · You can use the view manipulation tools in the toolbar to change the view of the model to a more convenient one. Use mouse button 2 to stop any view manipulation.

4.4.2 Customizing an undeformed shape plot
Each plot mode--undeformed, deformed, contour, etc.--provides a set of options that allow you to customize the appearance of the type of plot associated with that mode. Regardless of the plot mode, customization options apply only to the current viewport and are not saved between sessions. Use the undeformed plot options to customize the appearance of all undeformed plots. To customize an undeformed shape plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Options->Undeformed. Tip: The Visualization module provides the following three methods to access the customization options for the current plot while you are in any of the plot modes:

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· Select Options->Plot Mode from the main menu bar. · Click the Plot Mode Options button at the far right of the prompt area. · Click mouse button 3 in the viewport, and select Plot Mode Options from the menu that appears. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box. 2. Click the Basic tab in the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box if it is not already selected. Choose the Filled render style and Exterior visible edges, and click Apply. ABAQUS/CAE displays a filled view of the model. Because the model is a two-dimensional model, it displays all edges--the perimeter edges and the edges of each element--as shown in Figure 4-4.

Figure 4-4 Undeformed plot with filled view and exterior edges visible.

For clarity, most of the figures in this tutorial do not include the title block, state block, and orientation triad. In general, the figures illustrate the effect on the model of changing the plot mode and customizing the plot. You can toggle off and customize the title block, state block, and orientation triad by selecting View->Viewport Annotations from the main menu bar. 3. By default, ABAQUS/CAE fills the model in green and displays element labels using cyan text. You will change the color of the element labels from cyan to red and display them. From the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box, click the Labels tab and do the following: a. Toggle on Show element labels .

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b. Click Apply. ABAQUS/CAE displays the element numbering using cyan text. c. Select the color Red for the element labels. d. Click OK. The color of the element labels changes from cyan to red, and the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box closes. Note the following key points: · The Visualization module has different plot modes. Each plot mode has options associated with it that you can use to control the appearance of the model in that mode. Undeformed plot customization options apply only to undeformed plots. · You use the viewport annotation options to customize the appearance of items that appear in all plots, such as the title block, the state block, and the orientation triad. · When you click Apply in an options dialog box, ABAQUS/CAE applies the change and keeps the dialog box displayed. When you click OK, ABAQUS/CAE applies the change and closes the dialog box. · Customization options apply only to the current viewport and are not saved between sessions.

4.5 Displaying and customizing a deformed shape plot
You can display a plot of your model showing the deformed shape during each frame of the analysis. When you request a deformed shape plot of data from a force-displacement analysis, ABAQUS/CAE plots the nodal displacements by default; but you can display any nodal vector field output variable that is available on the output database. You can also use the plot options to customize the appearance of a deformed plot.

4.5.1 Displaying a deformed shape plot
Most procedures in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit write displacement to the output database by default and also select displacement for the nodal vector quantity to use as the default deformed variable. When ABAQUS/CAE reads the output database, it uses the default deformed variable to determine the shape of a deformed plot. In the elastomeric block example the user requested output of the displacements ( U) for every node in the model after every 10 increments, and displacement was selected as the default deformed variable. (Some procedures--for example, heat transfer--do not write nodal vector quantities to the output database by default and do not select a variable as the default deformed variable. Therefore, ABAQUS/CAE cannot display a deformed plot, since in such cases the output database does not contain any variables that can be used to compute a deformed shape.) To display a deformed shape plot:

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1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Deformed Shape. Tip: You can also plot the deformed model using the toolbox. tool in the Visualization module

ABAQUS/CAE displays the deformed model in the same increment and step that it last displayed the undeformed model. The state block indicates the default deformed variable being plotted ( U) and the deformation scale factor (1.00). ABAQUS/CAE selects a default deformation scale factor of 1.00 for large-displacement analyses. If the deformation is small (for example, for a perturbation analysis), ABAQUS/CAE increases the scale factor. Conversely, if the deformation is large, ABAQUS/CAE decreases the scale factor to fit the viewport optimally. 2. The buttons in the prompt area allow you to move between frames of the analysis, but you can also move directly to a selected step and increment using the following technique: a. From the main menu bar, select Result->Frame. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Frame Selector dialog box. b. Select Step 1, Increment 0, and click Apply. c. The Frame Selector also displays the step time associated with an increment. Use the Frame Selector dialog box to display the deformed model approximately halfway through the second step. 3. Use a combination of the buttons in the prompt area and the Frame Selector dialog box to view the deformed plot in different frames and in different steps. 4. Display the deformed model after the last increment of the third step (Step 3 and Step Time = 10.00), as shown in Figure 4-5.

Figure 4-5 Deformed plot of the model after the last increment of the third step.

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5. Click Cancel to close the Frame Selector dialog box. Note the following key points: · When you display a deformed plot, ABAQUS/CAE selects a default variable to display from the field output portion of the output database. · You can use the Frame Selector dialog box to select the step and frame to display.

4.5.2 Customizing a deformed shape plot
You can use the deformed plot options to customize the appearance of your deformed plot. To customize a deformed shape plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Options->Deformed. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Deformed Plot Options dialog box. 2. Click the Basic tab if it is not already selected, and do the following: a. Toggle on Superimpose undeformed plot. b. Choose Exterior visible edges. 3. Click the Labels tab, and toggle on Show node symbols . 4. Click OK to apply your changes and to close the Deformed Plot Options dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE displays the customized deformed plot overlaid with the undeformed plot. 5. To turn off the fill color and the element numbering of the undeformed plot, select Options->Undeformed from the main menu bar.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box.
Note: The button at the far right of the prompt area displays the options dialog box for the current plot mode--Deformed
Options in this example. You must use the main menu bar to display the undeformed plot options.

6. From the buttons at the bottom of the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box, click Defaults. Click OK to apply the default undeformed plot options and to close the Undeformed Plot Options dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE displays the customized deformed plot, as shown in Figure 4-6.

Figure 4-6 Customized deformed plot.

Note the following key points: · When you set options in one plot mode, they are not carried over to other plot modes. · You can use the Defaults button to restore the default plot options in each plot mode.

4.6 Displaying and customizing a contour plot
You can display a contour plot of your model showing a variable such as stress, strain, or temperature. In all plot modes, including contour, ABAQUS/CAE selects a default variable to display. The default variable selected depends on the variables available in the output database, which in turn depend on the analysis procedures and the requested output. You can choose to display any variable that is available in the field output portion of the output database. If you select a variable when you are not in a plot mode that can display that variable, a dialog box appears prompting you to switch to a valid plot mode. You can use the plot options to customize the appearance of a contour plot. ABAQUS/CAE applies your customized settings to every contour plot displayed in the current viewport. If you display a contour plot in a new viewport, ABAQUS/CAE reverts to the default plot options.

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4.6.1 Displaying a contour plot
You will first display a contour plot of the default variable. To display a contour plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Contours. Tip: You can also display a contour plot using the toolbox. tool in the Visualization module

The state block indicates that the variable plotted is S, MISES, the default variable chosen by ABAQUS/CAE. ABAQUS/CAE displays the results at the same step and frame that you used to display the deformed shape plot. 2. Use a combination of the buttons in the prompt area and the Frame Selector dialog box to view the contour plot in different frames and in different steps.
Note: The legend changes as you move between frames. ABAQUS/CAE updates the maximum and minimum values and computes the contour intervals in every frame.

Note the following key point: · In all plot modes, including contour, ABAQUS/CAE selects a default variable to display.

4.6.2 Selecting the variable to plot
ABAQUS/CAE selects a default variable to display in a contour plot, but you can display any variable that is available in the field output portion of the output database. To select the variable to plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Result->Field Output. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Field Output dialog box. In all plot modes you use the Field Output dialog box to select the variable to display. To see the complete description of the variable choices, increase the width of the Field Output dialog box by dragging the right or left edge. 2. Click the Primary Variable tab if it is not already selected. 3. To select the 22-component of strain as the primary variable, do the following: a. From the Output Variable field, select LE (logarithmic strain components at integration points). b. From the Component field, select the component LE22.

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4. Click OK to select LE22 as the primary variable and to close the Field Output dialog box. The contour plot in the current viewport changes to a plot of LE22, as shown in Figure 4-7.

Figure 4-7 Contour plot of the model after the last increment of the third step.

Note the following key points: · In all plot modes you use the Field Output dialog box to select the variable to display. · You can display a contour plot of any variable stored in the field output portion of the output database.

4.6.3 Customizing a contour plot
By default, ABAQUS/CAE displays a contour plot using 12 equal intervals between the maximum and minimum value of the selected variable. ABAQUS/CAE updates the maximum and minimum values and computes new contour intervals for every frame. The legend indicates the calculated intervals and the color corresponding to each interval. You can change the number of intervals, and you can set the values corresponding to the maximum and minimum contour limits. When you set the contour limits, ABAQUS/CAE uses the values you supply in every contour plot displayed thereafter, regardless of the frame and which variable is being contoured. To customize a contour plot: 1. Display the contour plot at the end of the last increment of the second step (Step 2 and Step Time = 1.000). 2. From the main menu bar, select Options->Contour.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the Contour Plot Options dialog box. 3. Click the Basic tab if it is not already selected, and do the following: a. Drag the uniform contour intervals slider to 16. b. Select Exterior visible edges. 4. Click the Limits tab to access the contour limits options. a. In the Max field, toggle the Specify button and type a maximum contour limit of 0.1. b. In the Min field, toggle the Specify button and type a minimum of -0.75. 5. Click Apply to view the customized contour plot. The plot changes, as shown in Figure 4-8.

Figure 4-8 Customized contour plot.

Although you selected 16 contour intervals, the plot legend displays 17 intervals. ABAQUS/CAE adds intervals to indicate any values that are greater than the maximum contour limit or less than the minimum contour limit and displays these values in light gray and dark gray, respectively. In this example, areas undergoing compressive strains greater than 0.75 are shown in dark gray. The minimum strain in the model is shown at the bottom of the contour legend. You might use either of these colors to indicate elements that fall outside the design range for the selected variable. 6. Under the Limits tab, examine the Min and Max Auto-compute options. The minimum and maximum values of strain for the contour plot are shown next to the two

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Auto-compute options.

7. Click OK to close the Contour Plot Options dialog box. Note the following key points: · You use the contour plot options to customize the appearance of a contour plot. · By default, ABAQUS/CAE uses light and dark gray contour bands to indicate values that are outside the limits shown in the legend.

4.7 Animating a contour plot
You can animate a deformed, contour, or symbol plot using one of the following: Time History Animation In a time history animation ABAQUS/CAE automatically displays each frame of each step from the output database in sequence, and you can see the change in the deformation or the change in a contour or symbol plot variable while the analysis progresses. In effect, ABAQUS/CAE animates the results of the analysis. You can select which steps to include in a time history animation. Scale Factor Animation Scale factor animation takes the results from a selected step and frame and simply scales them to form frames of the animation. You can select a scale factor that varies between zero and one or between minus one and plus one. Scale factor animation is particularly useful for animating vibration modes computed by an eigenvalue analysis. The animation uses the plot options from the relevant mode--deformed, contour, or symbol. In addition, you can control the following: · The speed of the animation · Whether the animation runs continuously or just once · Whether to display the animation status For the elastomeric foam example you will display a time history animation of a contour plot. The animated contour plot displays the variable you selected from the Field Output dialog box (E22). In addition, it uses the same options that you selected for the contour plot; for example, the contour intervals and element edge display. To animate the contour plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Animate->Time History. ABAQUS/CAE displays the customized contour plot at the beginning of the analysis and steps through each frame; the state block indicates the current step and increment throughout the

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animation. After the last increment of the last step, the animation restarts at the beginning of the analysis (Step 1, Increment 0, and Step Time = 0.00). ABAQUS/CAE also displays the movie player controls on the left side of the prompt area:

You use these controls to start, stop, and step through the animation. 2. In the prompt area, click the stop button to stop the animation. The animation stops at the current image. 3. In the prompt area, click the play button to continue the animation. The animation resumes. 4. From the main menu bar, select Options->Animation to view the animation options. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Animation Options dialog box. 5. Click the Player tab if it is not already selected, and do the following: a. Choose Swing . b. Drag the frame rate slider to Fast. c. Click OK. Because you increased the frame rate, ABAQUS/CAE steps through the animation at a faster rate. Because you chose Swing , when the animation reaches the end of the analysis, it steps backward through each frame instead of jumping back to the beginning of the analysis. 6. You can also customize the contour plot while the animation is running. a. Display the Contour Plot Options dialog box. b. Reduce the number of contour intervals to 10. c. Click OK to apply your change and to close the Contour Plot Options dialog box. 7. When you have finished viewing the animation, click the stop button to stop the movie. Note the following key points: · You can display a time history animation from the data in an output database, or you can generate a scale factor animation based on a single increment of the results.

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· You can animate a deformed, contour, or symbol plot; the animation uses the respective plot options to control the appearance of the model. You can customize these plots while the animation is running. · You can use the buttons in the prompt area to start, stop, and step through the animation. · You can use the Animation Options to control the speed and behavior of the animation.

4.8 Displaying and customizing a symbol plot
Symbol plots allow you to visualize the magnitude and direction of vector and tensor variables in the form of arrows superimposed on the model. Each arrow starts at the location in the model where the value was obtained; arrows representing nodal quantities appear at nodes, and arrows representing integration point quantities appear at integration points. The length of the arrow indicates the magnitude of the vector or tensor, and the direction of the arrow indicates its direction. For example, in this section you will create a symbol plot of displacement. The symbol plot displays arrows representing the magnitude and the direction of the displacement vector at each node.

4.8.1 Displaying a vector symbol plot
Before creating the symbol plot, you use the Field Output dialog box to specify the variable you want to plot. To create a symbol plot of nodal displacement: 1. From the main menu bar, select Result->Field Output. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Field Output dialog box. 2. Click the Primary Variable tab if it is not already selected. 3. From the output variable Name list, select U (spatial displacement at nodes). From the Invariant field, select Magnitude if it is not already selected. This selection indicates that you want to plot the magnitudes of the displacement vectors. 4. Click OK to select the field output variable and to close the Field Output dialog box. The contour plot in the current viewport displays the magnitude of the displacement vector but retains your customized settings for the contour limits. You can click the Defaults button in the Contour Plot Options dialog box to restore the default options. 5. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Symbols.
Tip: You can also display a symbol plot using the tool in the Visualization module toolbox.

A symbol plot appears, as shown in Figure 4-9.

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Figure 4-9 Symbol plot of displacement.

The arrows represent the total displacement at each node. The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the displacement, and the direction of the arrow represents the direction of the displacement. If your symbol plot is different from Figure 4-9, you may not have selected the correct output variable. On the Primary Variable page in the Field Output dialog box, select U and Magnitude and remember to click OK. Note the following key points: · You can display symbol plots of any selected field output variable, including both nodal and element quantities. · A symbol plot shows the magnitude and direction of a particular vector or tensor variable at a specified step and frame. By default, symbol plots display the magnitudes for vector variables or all principal components for tensor variables. · The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the variable; the direction of the arrow represents the direction in which the variable is acting.

4.8.2 Customizing the symbol plot
You will now customize your symbol plot by changing the arrow size and color. To customize the symbol plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Options->Symbol. The Symbol Plot Options dialog box appears. 2. In the Symbol Plot Options dialog box, click the Color & Style tab if it is not already selected, and do the following: a. Click the Vector tab.

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b. Select Cyan for the vector color. c. Select Long as the maximum length of the vector. 3. Click OK to apply your changes and to close the Symbol Plot Options dialog box. The customized symbol plot appears, as shown in Figure 4-10.

Figure 4-10 Customized symbol plot.

4.9 Displaying and customizing a material orientation plot
Material orientation plots allow you to visualize the material directions for each element in your model at a specified step and frame. Material orientation triads that indicate the material directions are displayed at the element integration points. By default, material orientation plots are drawn on the deformed shape of the model. In this section you will create a material orientation plot and customize its appearance.

4.9.1 Displaying a material orientation plot
The material orientation plot will be created at the step and frame of the analysis you specified previously. To display a material orientation plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Plot->Material Orientation.
Tip: You can also display a material orientation plot using the tool in the Visualization module toolbox.

A material orientation plot appears, as shown in Figure 4-11.

Figure 4-11 Material orientation plot.

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Material orientation triads at element integration points indicate the material directions of each element in the model. Note the following key point: · A material orientation plot shows the material directions of elements in your model at a specified step and frame of your analysis. Material orientations are displayed on an element-by-element basis at the material integration points, with no averaging across elements.

4.9.2 Customizing a material orientation plot
You will now customize your material orientation plot by changing the color and length of the material orientation triad axes. To customize the material orientation plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Options->Material Orientation. The Material Orientation Plot Options dialog box appears. 2. Click the Color & Style tab if it is not already selected, and do the following: a. Click the Triad tab. b. Select Red for the 1-axis color. c. Select Short for the length of the triad axes. 3. Click OK to apply your changes and to close the Material Orientation Plot Options dialog box. The customized material orientation plot appears, as shown in Figure 4-12.

Figure 4-12 Customized material orientation plot.

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4.10 Displaying and customizing an X-Y plot
You can display X-Y plots of data written to the output database. For the tutorial you will display the vertical displacement of the rigid body reference node versus time. The Visualization module also allows you to display X-Y plots of the following: · Data read from an ASCII file. · Data entered at the keyboard. · Existing data, either combined with other data or arithmetically manipulated.

4.10.1 Displaying an X-Y plot
You will now display an X-Y plot of displacement versus time. To display an X-Y plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Result->History Output. ABAQUS/CAE displays the ODB History Output dialog box. To see the complete description of the variable choices, increase the width of the ODB History Output dialog box by dragging the right or left edge. 2. The Output Variables field contains a list of all the variables in the history portion of the output database. Select the vertical motion of the rigid body reference node Spatial displacement: U2 at Node 9999 in NSET N9999 if it is not already selected. 3. The ODB History Output dialog box allows you to select where in the history data the X-Y plot should begin and end; in most cases the X-axis is assumed to be time. To create an X-Y plot using data in all three steps, do the following: a. Enlarge the dialog box so that all steps in the Steps field are visible. b. Drag the cursor over all three steps. Steps 1, 2, and 3 are selected.

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You can also choose the frequency at which to read the frames. For the tutorial you can accept the default setting of Frames: Read all. 4. From the buttons across the bottom of the ODB History Output dialog box, click Plot. ABAQUS/CAE displays an X-Y plot of displacement versus time, as shown in Figure 4-13.

Figure 4-13 X-Y plot of displacement versus time.

Default options selected by ABAQUS/CAE include default ranges for the X- and Y-axes, axis titles, major and minor tick marks, the color of the line, and a legend. The legend labels the X-Y plot U2 N: 9999 NSET N9999 . This is a default name provided by ABAQUS/CAE. 5. Dismiss the ODB History Output dialog box. Note the following key points: · You can display an X-Y plot of any variable stored in the output database. In most cases the X-axis is assumed to be time. · You can select the step from which to start and end an X-Y plot, and you can choose the frequency at which ABAQUS/CAE reads the frames from history data in the output database.

4.10.2 Customizing an X-Y plot
By default, ABAQUS/CAE computes the range of the X- and Y-axes from the minimum and maximum values found in the data read from the output database. ABAQUS/CAE divides each axis into intervals and displays the appropriate major and minor tick marks. The XY Plot Options allow you to set the range of each axis and to customize the appearance of the X-Y plot. As in all plot modes, X-Y plot customization options apply only to the current viewport and are not saved between sessions.

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To customize an X-Y plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Options->XY Plot. ABAQUS/CAE displays the XY Plot Options dialog box. 2. Click the Scale tab, if it is not already selected. 3. Specify that the X-axis should extend from 20 (the X-axis maximum) to 0 (the X-axis minimum) and that the Y-axis should extend from 0 (the Y-axis maximum) to -200 (the Y-axis minimum). 4. Click Apply to view the customized X-Y plot and to keep the XY Plot Options dialog box active. The axes of the X-Y plot change. 5. From the options in the XY Plot Options dialog box, do the following. (Click Apply as you work to check the effect of each setting.) · Select Blue horizontal and vertical major grid lines. The line style should be solid. · Type a Y-axis title of Displacement U2 (mm). · Request that major tick marks appear on the X-axis at four-second increments. · Request a decimal format with zero decimal places for the Y-axis labels. · Request a minor tick mark every second along the X-axis and every 10 mm along the Y-axis. 6. From the XY Plot Options dialog box, click OK to view the customized X-Y plot, as shown in Figure 4-14.

Figure 4-14 Customized X-Y plot of displacement.

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7. You will now display a second X-Y plot in a new viewport. To create a new viewport, do the following: a. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Create Viewport . The cursor changes to a cross-hair .

b. Position the cursor at one corner of the desired location for the new viewport. c. Drag the cursor across the drawing area to the opposite corner of the new viewport. The exact size and position of the new viewport is not critical because you can move and resize it later. The new viewport appears. The same X-Y plot that you had in the first viewport appears in the new viewport. The red border around the new viewport indicates that it is the current viewport; all work takes place in the current viewport. For more information, see ``What is a viewport?,'' Section 7.1.1. 8. Create a similar X-Y plot of vertical velocity ( V2) versus time. You cannot select velocity during the first step because the first step was not a dynamic step; ABAQUS/Standard computed velocity and acceleration only during the second and third steps. Use the same X-axis range as before, and use a Y-axis range from 1000 to -1000. Label the Y-axis Velocity V2. The finished plot is shown in Figure 4-15.

Figure 4-15 Customized X-Y plot of velocity.

4.11 Operating on X-Y data
An X-Y data object is a collection of ordered pairs that ABAQUS/CAE stores in two columns--an

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X-column and a Y-column. The Operate on XY Data dialog box allows you to create new X-Y data objects by performing operations on previously saved X-Y data objects. In this tutorial you will create a stress versus strain data object by combining a stress versus time data object with a strain versus time data object. Then, you will plot the stress-strain curve.

4.11.1 Creating the stress versus time and strain versus time data objects
The first step in creating the stress-strain curve is to create the stress versus time and the strain versus time data objects from the history output. The data objects will contain data from only the first step of the analysis, where the punch rests on the surface of the foam block and compresses the block under its own weight. To create the X-Y data objects: 1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->XY Data->Manager. The XY Data Manager dialog box appears. 2. From the XY Data Manager, click Create. 3. From the Create XY Data dialog box that appears, select ODB history output if it is not already selected and click Continue. The ODB History Output dialog box appears. 4. In the ODB History Output dialog box, do the following: a. In the Output Variables field, select Logarithmic strain components: LE22 at Element 1 Int Point 1. b. In the Steps field, select Step 1. c. Click Save As. The Save XYData As dialog box appears. d. Name the X-Y data Strain, and click OK. A data object called Strain containing logarithmic strain data ( LE22) from integration point 1 of element 1 during the first step of the analysis appears in the XY Data Manager. 5. Use a similar technique to create a data object containing stress data ( S22) from integration point 1 of element 1 during the first step of the analysis. Name this data object Stress. Now you are ready to combine the two data objects to create a stress versus strain data object. 6. Dismiss the ODB History Output dialog box. Note the following key point:

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· You can create X-Y data objects using history data from selected steps.

4.11.2 Combining the data objects
In this section you will create a stress versus strain data object by combining the stress versus time and strain versus time data objects. To combine the data objects: 1. In the XY Data Manager, click Create. 2. From the Create XY Data dialog box that appears, select Operate on XY data and click Continue. An Operate on XY Data dialog box appears. The dialog box contains the following lists: · The XY Data field on the left contains a list of existing X-Y data objects. · The Operators field on the right contains a list of all the possible operations you can perform on the data objects. 3. From the Operators field, click combine(X,X).
combine( ) appears in the expression text field at the top of the dialog box.

4. In the XY Data field, drag the cursor across both the Strain and the Stress data objects to select both. When you release the mouse button, the expression combine("Strain","Stress") appears in the expression text field. In this expression "Strain" will determine the X-values and "Stress" will determine the Y-values in the combined plot.
Warning: If you select the data objects individually, you must type the comma in the expression text field.

5. From the buttons along the bottom of the Operate on XY Data dialog box, click Save As. 6. From the Save XYData As dialog box that appears, enter the name Stress/strain and click OK. The new data object Stress/strain appears in the XY Data Manager. 7. Dismiss the Operate on XY Data dialog box. Note the following key point: · You can use the Operate on XY Data dialog box to create new X-Y data objects based on operations on existing data objects.

4.11.3 Plotting and customizing the stress-strain curve

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You will now use the Stress/strain data object that you just created to plot the stress-strain curve. To plot the stress-strain curve: 1. Your plot of stress versus strain will inherit the customized settings from your previous plot. To restore the default plot options, do the following: a. Click the XY Plot Options button in the prompt area. b. In the XY Plot Options dialog box that appears, click Defaults. c. Click Apply. 2. From the XY Data Manager, select Stress/strain and click Plot. A plot of the stress-strain curve with default axis titles appears in the viewport. 3. To change the axis titles, click the Titles tab from the XY Plot Options dialog box. Type Strain for the X-axis title and Stress for the Y-axis title. 4. Click OK to see your titles and to close the XY Plot Options dialog box. The plot of stress versus strain appears, as shown in Figure 4-16.

Figure 4-16 X-Y plot of stress versus strain.

5. Dismiss the XY Data Manager.

4.12 Probing an X-Y plot
You can use the Query toolset in the Visualization module to probe your model and X-Y plots. You can also write the resulting probe values to a file. In this tutorial you will use the probe capability to obtain X- and Y-values from your stress/strain plot and to write these values to a file.

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To probe an X-Y plot: 1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Query; select Probe values from the Visualization Queries portion of the dialog box; and click OK to enter probe mode. The Probe Values dialog box appears. Because an X-Y plot is in the current viewport, this dialog box will display X-Y curve data. 2. At the top of the dialog box, toggle on Interpolate between points . This option allows you to select arbitrary points along the curve. 3. In the viewport, position the cursor over the X-Y curve. When the arrow at the cursor approaches the X-Y curve, the point being probed is highlighted and the corresponding X-Y coordinates appear in the Current Probe Values table. 4. Click at various points along the curve. The X-Y coordinates for each point are added to the Selected Probe Values table. 5. When you have finished selecting points, click Write to File. The Report Probe Values dialog box appears. By default, the data in the Selected Probe Values table are written to a file called abaqus.rpt in your current directory. The options in this dialog box allow you to change the name of this file and the format of the data written to the file. 6. Click OK to write your data to the file. 7. From the Probe Values dialog box, click Cancel to exit probe mode. A dialog box appears to inform you that the Selected Probe Values table contains data. Click Yes to indicate that it is OK to continue; the data in the table will be deleted. Note the following key point: · You can use the Query toolset to probe a model or X-Y plot. You can write the values you obtain to a file.

4.13 Displaying results along a path
X-Y data can be generated for a specific path through your model. In this tutorial you will specify a node list path along the top of the foam block and plot the displacement magnitude along this path.

4.13.1 Creating a node list path
A path is a line you define by specifying a series of points through the model. In a node list path all of the specified points are nodal locations. You create a node list path by entering node labels or node label ranges in a table. To determine the node labels of interest, it is helpful to create a model plot with the node labels visible. 4-140

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To create a node list path:

1. Click the

tool to display a contour plot of the model.

Use the Contour Options to display the node labels. 2. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Path->Create. The Create Path dialog box appears. 3. Name the path Displacement. Accept the default selection of Node list as the path type, and click Continue. The Edit Node List Path dialog box appears. 4. In the Node Labels table, enter 1:601:100; and click OK. (This input specifies a range of nodes from 1 to 601 at increments of 100.) Alternatively, you can pick the nodes for the node list directly from the viewport by clicking Select in the Edit Node List Path dialog box.

4.13.2 Displaying results along a node list path
ABAQUS/CAE obtains analysis results for each of the points on the path you have defined and generates X-Y data pairs; the X-values are the specified points in the model, and the Y-values are the analysis results at these points. You can generate an X-Y plot of the data pairs. To display displacement results along a node list path: 1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->XYData->Create. 2. In the Create XY Data dialog box that appears, select Path; and click Continue. The Create XY Data from Path dialog box appears with the path that you created visible in the list of available paths. The selected path is also highlighted in the plot in the current viewport. Note: ABAQUS/CAE warns you that three of the node labels included in the specified range are not available and will be ignored. Click Dismiss to continue. Accept the default selections in the X Values portion of the dialog box. The result that will be plotted is displayed in the Y Values portion of the dialog box. In this case U is the field output variable that was selected last (when you generated the symbol plot). 3. Click Plot to generate an X-Y plot of U along the path, as shown in Figure 4-17.

Figure 4-17 Path plot of U along the top of the foam block.

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You have now finished the tutorial.

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Part II: Interacting with ABAQUS/CAE
This part of the manual introduces you to the ABAQUS working environment. The following topics are covered: · Chapter 5, "The basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE" · Chapter 6, "Understanding ABAQUS/CAE windows, dialog boxes, and toolboxes " · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas" · Chapter 8, "Manipulating the view and controlling perspective " · Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport" · Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance" · Chapter 11, "Printing canvas objects"

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5. The basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE
Before you can begin creating and analyzing a model, it is helpful to become familiar with the basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE. This chapter introduces you to the user interface. The following topics are covered: · ``Starting and exiting ABAQUS/CAE,'' Section 5.1 · ``Overview of the main window,'' Section 5.2 · ``What is a module?,'' Section 5.3 · ``What is a toolset?,'' Section 5.4 · ``Using the mouse with ABAQUS/CAE,'' Section 5.5 · ``Getting help,'' Section 5.6

5.1 Starting and exiting ABAQUS/CAE
This section explains how to start and how to exit ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered: · ``Starting ABAQUS/CAE,'' Section 5.1.1 · ``Exiting an ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section 5.1.2

5.1.1 Starting ABAQUS/CAE
When you create a model and analyze it, ABAQUS/CAE generates a set of files containing the definition of your model, the solver input, and the results of the analysis. In addition, ABAQUS/CAE generates a replay file that reflects all your interactions with the application. Consequently, before you run ABAQUS/CAE, you should move to a directory where you have permission to create files. You execute ABAQUS/CAE by running the abaqus execution procedure and specifying the cae parameter: abaqus cae

[database=database-file ] [replay=replay-file] [recover=journal-file ] [startup=startup-file ] [noenvstartup]

You can include the following options on the command line: database This option specifies the name of the model database file or output database file to open. To specify a model database file, include either the .cae file extension or no file extension in your file name. To specify an output database file, include the .odb file extension in your file

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name. replay This option specifies the name of the file from which ABAQUS/CAE commands are to be replayed. The commands in replay-file will execute immediately upon startup of ABAQUS/CAE. For more information, see ``Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section 12.4.1. recover This option specifies the name of the file from which a model database is to be rebuilt. The commands in journal-file (model_database_name .jnl) will execute immediately upon startup of ABAQUS/CAE. For more information, see ``Recreating a saved model database,'' Section 12.4.2, and ``Recreating an unsaved model database,'' Section 12.4.3. startup This option specifies the name of the file containing Python configuration commands to be run at application startup. Commands in this file are run after any configuration commands that have been set in the environment file. noenvstartup This option specifies that all configuration commands in the environment files should not be run at application startup. This option can be used in conjunction with the startup command to suppress all configuration commands except for those in the startup file. ABAQUS/CAE begins. If you do not include the database, replay, or recover options, the Start Session dialog box appears. Choose one of the following session startup options: Create Model Database Use this option to begin a new analysis (equivalent to choosing File->New from the main menu bar). Open Database Use this option to open a previously saved analysis or output database (equivalent to choosing File->Open from the main menu bar). Run Script Use this option to run a file containing ABAQUS/CAE commands (equivalent to choosing File->Run Script from the main menu bar). For more information, see ``Creating and running your own scripts,'' Section 12.4.4. Start Tutorial Use this option to begin an introductory tutorial from the online documentation (equivalent to choosing Help->Getting Started from the main menu bar). The ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual opens in a separate window.

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Note: You can disable the Start Session dialog box by including the following line in your ABAQUS/CAE resource file:
*useStartupDialog: false

For more information on the ABAQUS/CAE resource file, see ``Customizing X resources,'' Section 6.1. If you choose to disable the Start Session dialog box, you must open an existing or a new model database after you start ABAQUS/CAE by selecting either File->Open or File->New from the main menu bar.

5.1.2 Exiting an ABAQUS/CAE session
You can exit the ABAQUS/CAE session at any time by selecting File->Exit from the main menu bar. If you made any changes to the current model database, ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save the changes before exiting the session. ABAQUS/CAE then closes the current model database and all windows and exits the session. ABAQUS/CAE saves your customization selections, if any, only for the duration of the session. However, ABAQUS/CAE automatically creates a file called abaqus.rpy that records your operations during the session; you can use this file to reproduce your operations. For more information on reproducing operations and on recovering interrupted sessions, see ``Recreating an unsaved model database,'' Section 12.4.3. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

5.2 Overview of the main window
This section provides an overview of the main window and explains how to operate and manipulate the elements of the window during a session. The following topics are covered: · ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1 · ``Components of the main menu bar,'' Section 5.2.2 · ``Components of the toolbar,'' Section 5.2.3 · ``The context bar,'' Section 5.2.4 · ``Components of the viewport,'' Section 5.2.5

5.2.1 Components of the main window
You interact with ABAQUS/CAE through the main window, and the appearance of the window changes as you work through the modeling process. The components that appear in the main window after you first start ABAQUS/CAE are shown in Figure 5-1.

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Figure 5-1 Components of the main window.

The components are: Title bar The title bar indicates the version of ABAQUS/CAE you are running and the name of the current model database. Menu bar The menu bar contains all the available menus; the menus give access to all the functionality in the product. Different menus appear in the menu bar depending on which module you selected from the context bar. For more information, see ``Components of the main menu bar,'' Section 5.2.2.

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Toolbar The toolbar provides quick access to items that are also available in the menus. For more information, see ``Components of the toolbar,'' Section 5.2.3. Context bar ABAQUS/CAE is divided into a set of modules, where each module allows you to work on one aspect of your model; the Module list in the context bar allows you to move between these modules. Other items in the context bar are a function of the module you are working in; for example, the context bar allows you to retrieve an existing part while creating the geometry of the model. For more information, see ``The context bar,'' Section 5.2.4. Toolbox area When you enter a module, the toolbox area displays tools in the toolbox that are appropriate for that module. The toolbox allows quick access to many of the module functions that are also available from the menu bar. For more information, see ``Understanding and using toolboxes,'' Section 6.4. Viewport Viewports are windows on the canvas in which ABAQUS/CAE displays your model. For more information, see Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas." Prompt area The prompt area displays instructions for you to follow during a procedure; for example, it asks you to select the geometry as you create a set. For more information, see ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2. Message area ABAQUS/CAE prints status information and warnings in the message area. To resize the message area, drag the small square at its upper right corner; to see information that has scrolled out of the message area, use the scroll bar on the right side. Canvas and drawing area The canvas can be thought of as an infinite screen or bulletin board on which you post items such as viewports, text, and arrow annotations; for more information, see Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas." The drawing area is the visible portion of the canvas.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 5, "The basics of interacting with ABAQUS/CAE"

5.2.2 Components of the main menu bar
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When you start a session, the menus listed below appear on the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE displays additional menu options and provides access to toolsets depending on the current module in use. File The items in the File menu allow you to create, open, and save model databases; open and close output databases; import and export files; run scripts; manage macros; print canvas objects; and exit ABAQUS/CAE. For more information, see ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5. Model The items in the Model menu allow you to open, copy, rename, and delete the models in the current model database. For more information, see ``Managing models,'' Section 12.7. Canvas The items in the Canvas menu allow you to create or manipulate viewports and annotations and to open the canvas toolbox. All the tools that are available directly from the menu are also available from the canvas toolbox. For more information, see Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas." View The items in the View menu allow you to manipulate views, customize certain aspects of the appearance of your model, and control display performance. Some of the operations available in the view manipulation menu are also available in the toolbar. For more information, see any of the following: · Chapter 8, "Manipulating the view and controlling perspective " · Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance" · Chapter 46, "Selecting geometry and mesh display options" Help The items in the Help menu allow you to request context-sensitive help and to search or browse the documentation. For more information, see ``Getting help,'' Section 5.6.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1

5.2.3 Components of the toolbar
The toolbar contains a convenient set of tools for managing your files and viewing your model. Items

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in the toolbar are shortcuts to functions that are also available from the main menu bar. The toolbar is shown in the following figure:

To obtain a short description of a tool, place the cursor over that tool for a moment; a small box containing a description, or "tooltip," will appear. The tools are divided into the following groups: Database manipulation and printing

The database manipulation tools allow you to create and manipulate model databases and to print viewports and annotations. For more information, see Part III, "Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases, models, and files," and Chapter 11, "Printing canvas objects." View manipulation

The view manipulation tools allow you to specify different views of the model. For example, you can pan, rotate, or zoom the model using these tools. For more information, see Chapter 8, "Manipulating the view and controlling perspective ." View and display options

The view and display option tools allow you to customize the appearance of your model. For example, you can specify whether wireframe, hidden line, or shaded render style will be used and whether perspective will be applied. For more information, see ``Choosing a render style,'' Section 37.2.1, and ``Controlling perspective,'' Section 8.3. Query Use the query tool to obtain information about the geometry and features of your model. For more information, see Chapter 44, "The Query toolset." Help Use the context-sensitive help tool to display detailed information about any tool, menu, dialog box, or option in ABAQUS/CAE. For more information, see ``Getting help,'' Section 5.6.

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For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1

5.2.4 The context bar
The context bar is located under the toolbar; you can use it to do the following: Select the current module The Module list on the context bar allows you to move between modules. (For more information, see ``What is a module?,'' Section 5.3.) Select module-specific items As you move between modules, ABAQUS/CAE displays additional items on the context bar that help you select the context of your current operations. For example, when you are in the Part module, ABAQUS/CAE displays the Part list in the context bar. The Part list contains every part in your model; you can use it to retrieve a particular part. The context bar also allows you to move between models in the model database. The additional items in the context bar are a function of the module in which you are working. The items displayed in the context bar always refer to the current viewport, which is indicated by a red border. For example, if you have different parts displayed in different viewports, the context bar indicates the name of the part displayed in the current viewport. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``What is a module?,'' Section 5.3 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

5.2.5 Components of the viewport
Figure 5-2 shows the components of the viewport in the Visualization module.

Figure 5-2 Components of the viewport.

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The viewport title and the border around the viewport are called the viewport decorations. For more information, see ``Showing and hiding viewport decorations,'' Section 7.3.9. The legend, state block, title block, and view orientation triad are called the viewport annotations. The view orientation triad is a set of three perpendicular axes that indicate the orientation of the model currently being displayed. For more information, see ``Customizing the view triad,'' Section 8.2. The legend, state block, and title block identify results you display using the Visualization module. For more information, see Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations."

For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

5.3 What is a module?
ABAQUS/CAE is divided into functional units called modules. Each module contains only those tools that are relevant to a specific portion of the modeling task. For example, the Mesh module contains only the tools needed to create finite element meshes, while the Job module contains only the tools used to create, edit, submit, and monitor analysis jobs. You select a module from the Module list in the context bar. The order of the modules in the menu corresponds to the logical sequence you follow to create a model. In many circumstances you must follow this natural progression to complete a modeling task; for example, you must create parts before you create an assembly. Although the order of the modules follows a logical sequence, ABAQUS/CAE

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allows you to select any module at any time, regardless of the state of your model. The following list of the modules available within ABAQUS/CAE briefly describes the modeling tasks you can perform in each module. The order of the modules in the list corresponds to the order of the modules in the context bar's Module list:
Part

Create individual parts by sketching or importing their geometry. For more information, see Chapter 14, "The Part module."
Property

Create section and material definitions and assign them to regions of parts. For more information, see Chapter 15, "The Property module."
Assembly

Create and assemble part instances. For more information, see Chapter 16, "The Assembly module."
Step

Create and configure the analysis steps and associated output requests. For more information, see Chapter 17, "The Step module."
Interaction

Specify the interactions, such as contact, between regions of a model. For more information, see Chapter 18, "The Interaction module."
Load/BC/IC

Specify loads, boundary conditions, and initial conditions. For more information, see Chapter 19, "The Load/BC/IC module."
Mesh

Create a finite element mesh. For more information, see Chapter 20, "The Mesh module."
Job

Submit a job for analysis and monitor its progress. For more information, see Chapter 21, "The Job module."
Visualization

View analysis results. For more information, see Part V, "Viewing results."
Sketch

Create two-dimensional sketches. For more information, see Chapter 22, "The Sketch module." The contents of the main window change as you move between modules. Selecting a module from the

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Module list on the context bar causes the context bar, module toolbox, and menu bar to change to

reflect the functionality of the current module. When you select a module from the Module list on the context bar, ABAQUS/CAE associates the current viewport with the module you select. You can have multiple viewports, and different viewports can be associated with different modules. As you select a viewport and make it current, the module associated with the viewport becomes the current module. For more information on moving between viewports, see ``Making the selected viewport current,'' Section 7.3.6. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``The context bar,'' Section 5.2.4 · ``What is a viewport?,'' Section 7.1.1

5.4 What is a toolset?
When you enter most modules, a Tools menu appears in the main menu bar containing all of the toolsets relevant to that module. A toolset is a functional unit that allows you to perform a specific modeling task. The following toolsets are available in ABAQUS/CAE: · The Amplitude toolset allows you to define arbitrary time or frequency variations of load, displacement, and other prescribed variables. For more information, see Chapter 40, "The Amplitude toolset." · The Color Code toolset allows you to customize the edge and fill color of individual elements and surfaces. For more information, see ``Coloring individual elements and surfaces,'' Section 37.4. · The Datum toolset allows you to create datum points, axes, planes, and coordinate systems for a variety of modeling tasks. For more information, see Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset." · The Display Group toolset allows you to selectively plot one or more output database items. For more information, see Chapter 36, "Displaying a subset of your model." · The Field Output toolset allows you to perform operations on the field output available in an output database. For more information, see ``Creating new field output,'' Section 24.5. · The Partition toolset allows you to divide a part or assembly into regions. For example, you can partition a face and apply a pressure load to the resulting region. You can also use partitions to refine your mesh by creating additional edges and vertices. For more information, see Chapter 43, "The Partition toolset." · The Set toolset and the Surface toolset allow you to define sets and surfaces from regions of a model. Sets and surfaces are named regions of a model to which you can assign attributes and apply prescribed conditions. For example, when you create a load, you must apply the load to a region of your model. You can specify the load by picking a region from the viewport or by selecting a set. Likewise, you can create two surfaces from faces of your model and then select those surfaces when you define an interaction. For more information, see Chapter 45, "The Set and

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Surface toolsets." · The XY Data toolset allows you to create and operate on X-Y data objects. For more information, see Chapter 30, "X-Y plotting." Sometimes the objects that you create with a toolset in one module are useful in other modules. For example, you can use the Set toolset to create sets in the Assembly module and then apply boundary conditions to those sets in the Load/BC/IC module. Most of the toolsets include manager menus and manager dialog boxes that allow you to edit, copy, rename, and delete the objects you create with the toolset.

5.5 Using the mouse with ABAQUS/CAE
Many of the procedures in the ABAQUS/CAE documentation involve using one or more of the three mouse buttons. The following list explains the importance of each mouse button when interacting with ABAQUS/CAE: Mouse button 1 You use mouse button 1 to select objects in the viewport, to expand pull-down menus, and to select items from menus. The instructions ``click,'' ``select,'' and ``drag'' in the documentation refer to mouse button 1. Mouse button 2 Clicking mouse button 2 in the viewport signifies that you have finished the current task. For example: · Selecting entities from the model: when you create a node set, you select the nodes to include in the set. Clicking mouse button 2 indicates that your selection is complete and you are ready to create the set. · Using a tool: click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished with a view manipulation tool. In addition, clicking mouse button 2 in the viewport is equivalent to clicking the highlighted button in the prompt area. For example, if you tried to select nodes from your model and ABAQUS/CAE displayed the following prompt, clicking mouse button 2 would have the same effect as clicking OK:

Mouse button 3 Pressing and holding mouse button 3 in the viewport exposes a popup menu that contains shortcuts to any of the buttons on the prompt area. For example, when you press mouse button 3 in a viewport that contains a contour plot, the Visualization module displays the following menu:

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The mouse button 3 shortcut is available only when ABAQUS/CAE displays buttons in the prompt area.

5.6 Getting help
The ABAQUS/CAE online documentation is available through the Help menu on the main menu bar. This section provides a brief description of the online documentation and explains how to use the Help menu to find information. (For additional information on using the online documentation, refer to the online manual Using ABAQUS Online Documentation.) The following topics are covered: · ``Displaying context-sensitive help,'' Section 5.6.1 · ``Browsing and searching the online manuals,'' Section 5.6.2 · ``Finding special sections of the online documentation, '' Section 5.6.3 · ``Finding information about keywords,'' Section 5.6.4

5.6.1 Displaying context-sensitive help
You can use the help tool in the toolbar to display detailed help on any icon, menu, or dialog box that you use in ABAQUS/CAE. When you click the help tool and then click an item in the ABAQUS/CAE window, a help window appears containing the section from the online documentation that is relevant to that item. In most cases the section from the online documentation that appears is equally applicable to both ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit analyses. However, in some cases you must specify the product of interest (either ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) so that documentation specific to the analysis type can be displayed. In these cases a dialog box appears in which you can specify the product of your choice. To display help on an item in the main window or in a dialog box: 1. From the right end of the toolbar, click the help tool to start the context-sensitive help server.

Tip: You can also start the server by selecting Help->On Context from the main menu bar. The cursor changes to a question mark. 2. Position the cursor over the item that you need help with and click mouse button 1. Then, if necessary, select the product (ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) for which you want to display help. After a short delay a help window appears that contains the appropriate online documentation and hyperlinks to associated topics. The window is like any other window on your workstation in that

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it can be resized both horizontally and vertically and moved to suit your needs.
Note: Subsequent context-sensitive help requests are addressed much more quickly because the help server is already running.

3. If a dialog box appears in which you must specify the product of your choice, do the following: a. Select the product for which you want to display help. b. Toggle on Do not display this dialog box for subsequent help requests if you want all help that is displayed during the current session to apply only to the product that you just selected. c. Click OK to close the dialog box and to display the help window. After a short delay the help window appears. Alternatively, you can use the [F1] key to display help on a particular item. In most cases you can gain access to context-sensitive help by using the Help menu, the help toolbar icon, or the [F1] key. However, you must use [F1] if you are seeking information about menu items and certain kinds of dialog boxes. To display help using the [F1] key: 1. Click the feature in the ABAQUS/CAE window that you want help with. If the feature is part of a menu, do not release the mouse button. 2. Press [F1]. Then, if necessary, select the product (ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) for which you want to display help. A window appears that contains the appropriate online documentation and links to associated topics. If you selected a menu item without releasing the mouse button, that menu disappears. Note: ABAQUS/CAE also provides brief ``tooltips'' that describe the function of tools in toolboxes and in the toolbar. To see a ``tooltip,'' position the cursor over a tool and leave it stationary for a short time.

5.6.2 Browsing and searching the online manuals
You can browse and search the entire online manual collection by selecting Help->Search & Browse Manuals. The window that appears contains a list of all of the manuals in the online documentation collection. To view a particular manual, simply double-click the title of interest; the manual will appear in its own window. (For detailed information on using the online documentation, see the online manual Using ABAQUS Online Documentation.) To display and search an online manual: 1. From the main menu bar, select Help->Search & Browse Manuals . ABAQUS/CAE displays the library window with a list of all of the manuals in the online documentation collection.

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2. In the Book Titles column on the right side of the window, double-click the manual title of interest. Tip: You can also open the manual by first selecting it on the right side of the window and then selecting File->Open Book from the library window menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE displays a two-panel window containing the manual that you selected. The right panel contains the contents of the manual, and the left panel contains the table of contents (TOC). For example, the book window for UNIX systems appears in Figure 5-3. (The book window for Windows NT systems has the same layout but a slightly different appearance.)

Figure 5-3 The book window.

3. Navigate through the manual's contents in any of the following ways: · To scroll so that you can view additional manual content or additional TOC entries, use the scroll bars to the right of the content and TOC panels. · To jump directly to a section whose title is displayed in the TOC, click that title. · To search for a word or phrase, enter it in the Find text box at the bottom of the book window. The search engine searches for the precise word or phrase you type; for example, searching for the word ``element'' yields different results than searching for the word ``elements.'' Use the

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[*] character as a wildcard; for example, searching for ``element*'' will find occurrences of the words ``element,'' ``elements,'' ``elemental,'' and ``elementary.'' Searches are not case sensitive.

5.6.3 Finding special sections of the online documentation
The following Help menu items allow you to display sections of the online documentation that you may find useful: On Module Select Help->On Module to display the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual opened to the beginning of the chapter that describes the current module. If you have not yet entered a module, the manual will be opened to a description of the module concept. In either case, you are then free to read additional information as needed and to conduct text searches through the entire manual. Getting Started Select Help->Getting Started to display the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual opened to a section that provides basic information on how to work in the ABAQUS/CAE window. This section also contains helpful tutorials. You are free to read additional information as needed and to conduct text searches through the entire manual. On Help Select Help->On Help to display the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual opened to the section that describes how to use the help system. You are also free to read additional information as needed and to conduct text searches through the entire manual. Release Notes Select Help->Release Notes to display the ABAQUS Release Notes. Release notes detail new features of the software and provide a list of updates and enhancements. On Version Select Help->On Version to determine which version of ABAQUS/CAE you are currently using.

5.6.4 Finding information about keywords
The keyword browser is a scrollable table that contains the following information: · The purpose of each keyword. · The ABAQUS/CAE module or toolset that contains the functionality associated with each keyword. To view the keyword browser, select the following: · Help->Keyword Browser 1-159

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For example, you could use the keyword browser to verify that the *ELASTIC option allows you to specify elastic material properties and that the Property module is the ABAQUS/CAE module associated with this keyword. The keyword browser also contains hyperlinks to relevant sections in the online documentation. You can click a particular keyword in the table to display detailed information concerning the function of that keyword. You can also click the name of a module or toolset in the table to view related documentation in the ABAQUS/CAE User's Manual. To display the keyword browser: 1. From the main menu bar, select Help->Keyword Browser . A table of ABAQUS keywords and their associated modules is displayed. 2. In the Keyword column, click the keyword of interest to view online documentation describing that keyword. 3. In the Module or Toolset column, click the module or toolset name of interest to view online documentation concerning that module or toolset.

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6. Understanding ABAQUS/CAE windows, dialog boxes, and toolboxes
This chapter explains how to interact with the various windows, dialog boxes, and toolboxes that appear throughout the ABAQUS/CAE application. The following topics are covered: · ``Customizing X resources,'' Section 6.1 · ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2 · ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3 · ``Understanding and using toolboxes,'' Section 6.4 · ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5

6.1 Customizing X resources
You can use the ABAQUS/CAE resource file to control the behavior and appearance within ABAQUS/CAE of certain X resources, such as colors, fonts, and keyboard mappings. You customize these resources by creating a local resource file in which you specify your preferences. You can use the sample resource file supplied as a template for your own customizations; your customized resource file must be called Abaqus (without a file extension). The location of the sample and customized resource files depends on the system on which you are running ABAQUS/CAE, as follows: On UNIX systems · The sample resource file is located in
abaqus_dir/cae/Configuration/Xresources/Abaqus

· You can place a customized resource file for all users on a given machine in
/usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/Abaqus

You can place a customized resource file for an individual user either in their home directory or in the directory to which the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR points. A resource file for an individual user will take precedence over a machine-wide file. On Windows NT systems · The sample resource file is located in
abaqus_dir\cae\Configuration\Xresources\Abaqus

· You can place your customized resource file in
Exceed.nt\user\Abaqus

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or in any directory to which the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR points. If resource files are present in both locations, the one pointed to by XAPPLRESDIR will take precedence. To determine the location of abaqus_dir at your site, type abaqus whereami at an operating system prompt. Any specifications you enter in your customized resource file override the corresponding default specifications. For example, the resource specifications for background and foreground window color are shown below:
?*background ?*foreground : #adadad : Black

These lines specify that the background color of all windows and dialog boxes associated with ABAQUS/CAE be gray (the shade of gray indicated by the rgb code #adadad) and that objects in the foreground, such as text, appear in black. In general, rgb color specifications are more precise than color name specifications, which are system-dependent. If you decide that you want the foreground color to be blue instead of black, you can include the following in your Abaqus resource file:
?*foreground : Blue

A resource specification for one of the ABAQUS/CAE fonts is shown below:
*mainWindow*menuBar*fontlist: -*-helvetica-medium-r-normal--14-*

To reduce this font in size, you can include the following in your Abaqus resource file:
*mainWindow*menuBar*fontlist: -*-helvetica-medium-r-normal--12-*

You can also use your resource file to specify keyboard shortcuts for certain functions. For example, the following lines indicate that a keyboard shortcut exists for the Open item in the File menu:
*menuBar*fileMenu.openBtn.accelerator : Ctrl<key>O *menuBar*fileMenu.openBtn.acceleratorText : Ctrl+O

The first line above specifies that pressing [Ctrl]+O produces the same result as selecting Open from the File menu. The second line specifies that the text Ctrl+O appears in the File menu next to the Open menu item to remind you of this keyboard shortcut. Refer to the sample resource file to see a list of many of the resources that you can customize. The file contains comments that help you find the resources of interest. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 6, "Understanding ABAQUS/CAE windows, dialog boxes, and toolboxes "

6.2 Using the prompt area during procedures
This section explains how to make use of the procedural steps that ABAQUS/CAE displays in the prompt area. The following topics are covered:

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· ``What is a procedure?,'' Section 6.2.1 · ``Following instructions and entering data in the prompt area, '' Section 6.2.2 · ``Using the More Options button,'' Section 6.2.3 · ``Using mouse shortcuts with procedures,'' Section 6.2.4

6.2.1 What is a procedure?
Many tasks within ABAQUS/CAE are broken into step-by-step procedures. For example, creating a text annotation in a viewport is a three-step procedure: 1. Pick the position of the text. 2. Enter the text. 3. Press [Enter]. ABAQUS/CAE displays each step of a procedure in the prompt area near the bottom of the main window so that you do not need to remember all the steps and their order. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2

6.2.2 Following instructions and entering data in the prompt area
To use a procedure, simply follow the directions that appear in the prompt area near the bottom of the main window, as shown here:

The button marked X in the above figure is the Cancel button; click this button to cancel the entire procedure at any time. The arrow to the left of the Cancel button is the Previous Step button; click it to abort the current step of the procedure and return to the previous one. (The Previous Step button appears dimmed during the first step of any procedure.) If you prefer, you can place the cursor over the canvas and press mouse button 3; then select Previous Step or Cancel Procedure from the menu that appears. A Stop button appears in the prompt area during certain time-consuming operations, such as part healing or meshing. You can click Stop to interrupt and cancel the operation. Many procedures require textual or numeric data; for example, when creating a fillet using the Sketch module, you must first specify the fillet radius. When textual or numeric data are required, ABAQUS/CAE displays a text field in the prompt area for you to fill in; usually the text box will already contain a default value, as shown here:

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Position your cursor over the canvas, and enter data into the text field as follows: · To accept the default value, press either [Enter] or mouse button 2. · To replace the default value, simply begin typing; you need not click the text field before typing. The default value disappears as soon as you begin to type. · To change a portion of the default value, first click the text field; then use the [Delete] key and the other keys on your keyboard to change the value. · To commit any changes, press [Enter] or mouse button 2. Some procedures require you to choose from a number of options. For example, the Datum toolset may ask you to choose a coordinate system type. Such options are represented by buttons in the prompt area, as shown here:

Click the appropriate button to select the desired option. In some procedures a default option is indicated by a border around the corresponding button; in the above example the border is drawn around the Rectangular button. To select the default option, click mouse button 2. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2

6.2.3 Using the More Options button
When you create objects such as loads, initial conditions, and interactions, ABAQUS/CAE often instructs you to enter data directly in the prompt area. In some cases a More Options button appears on the far right of the prompt area, as shown below:

If you click More Options, an editor appears that provides you with more options for defining the object than are available in the prompt area. For example, when you edit a translational velocity initial condition, a Velocity (V1,V2,V3) text field appears in the prompt area (see the figure above); in this text field you can enter the three components of the initial velocity. Alternatively, if you click More Options, the following editor appears:

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As in the prompt area, this editor allows you to enter the initial translational velocity in the 1-, 2-, and 3-directions. In addition, the editor allows you to edit the region to which the initial condition applies. When you define this type of initial condition in the prompt area instead of using the editor, you must accept the currently defined region. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2

6.2.4 Using mouse shortcuts with procedures
Mouse shortcuts are available for many of the actions that take place in the prompt area. To use the shortcuts, first make sure that the cursor is in the drawing area of the main window. · To commit the contents of any text field that appears in the prompt area, click mouse button 2. · To accept any default option depicted by a highlighted button in the prompt area, click mouse button 2. · To reveal a menu containing options identical to those in the prompt area, press and hold mouse button 3. For example, given the following prompt:

pressing mouse button 3 will reveal the following menu:

Items above the horizontal line correspond to the option buttons on the right side of the prompt area, while items below the line correspond to the Previous Step and Cancel buttons. To select an item from the menu, hold down mouse button 3 while dragging the cursor to the

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desired item; then release mouse button 3. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Using the prompt area during procedures,'' Section 6.2

6.3 Interacting with dialog boxes
This section explains how to use the various dialog box components that appear within ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered: · ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1 · ``Using dimmed dialog box and toolbox components, '' Section 6.3.2 · ``Understanding the OK, Apply, Defaults, Continue, Cancel, and Dismiss buttons, '' Section 6.3.3 · ``Using dialog boxes separated by tabs,'' Section 6.3.4 · ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5 · ``Customizing fonts,'' Section 6.3.6 · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``Selecting multiple items in lists,'' Section 6.3.8 · ``Using keyboard shortcuts,'' Section 6.3.9

6.3.1 Using basic dialog box components
The following types of components are present in dialog boxes throughout ABAQUS/CAE: Text and numeric fields Text fields are areas in dialog boxes in which you can enter information. For example, when you save a display group, you must enter its name in the text field shown below:

Text fields are available whenever you need to name an object, such as a part, material, or set. Object names must adhere to the following rules: · The name can have up to 38 characters. · The name can include spaces and most punctuation marks and special characters. · The name must not begin with a number. · The name must not begin or end with an underscore or a space.

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· The name must not contain a period or a double quotes. However, when you are naming a model or job you cannot use the following characters: $&*~!()[]{}|;'`",.?/\. Similarly, when you are specifying a name that will be external to ABAQUS/CAE, such as a file name, you should avoid any character that may have a reserved meaning on your platform. ABAQUS/CAE retains the case of any text you enter. For example, if you name a material STEEL in the Property module, the material will appear as STEEL in the material manager and the section editor. However, within ABAQUS/CAE, ABAQUS/Standard, and ABAQUS/Explicit all text is case insensitive; you cannot use case to distinguish between objects such as parts and materials. If you create a material called STEEL in the Property module, you cannot create a second material called Steel. Numeric fields are text fields having two opposing arrows directly to the right of the text area. You can enter a numeric value into the text field, or you can use the arrows to cycle up and down through a list of fixed values.

Combo boxes Combo boxes are text fields having an arrow directly to the right of the text area. If you click this arrow, a list of the possible choices that you can enter in the field appears. For example, if you click the arrow to the right of the Color text field shown below, a list of all the possible colors you can enter in the field appears, and you can select the color of your choice from the list.

Radio buttons Radio buttons present a mutually exclusive choice. When an option is controlled by radio buttons, you can choose only one of the buttons at a time.

Check boxes You can toggle a check box to turn a particular option off or on. For example, the visibility of the triad in the current viewport depends on the status of the Show triad check box. If the box is toggled on, as shown below, the triad appears in the viewport.

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If the box is toggled off, as shown below, the triad does not appear in the viewport.

In some cases the option controlled by a check box can apply to more than one object. For example, a single Show line check box on the XY Curve Options dialog box individually controls the display of all X-Y curve lines in an X-Y plot. If you have toggled Show line on for some curves and off for others, that check box appears half-highlighted, as shown below.

Menu buttons When you click a menu button, a menu appears from which you can select the item of your choice. The current selection appears on the button. The Labels menu button is shown below:

Scroll bars Scroll bars appear in lists whose contents are too big to display; they allow you to scroll through the visible contents of the list as well as any contents that are hidden. Scrolling is often necessary when the numerous items must be listed, as shown below.

Sliders Sliders allow you to set the value of an option that has a continuous range of possible values. An example of a slider is shown below.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.2 Using dimmed dialog box and toolbox components
Some objects in dialog boxes and toolboxes are available only under certain circumstances. When an

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object is unavailable, it appears dimmed in the dialog box. Items are usually dimmed as a result of some other setting in the dialog box. For example, if Show triad is not selected, the triad customization options below it are not available and appear dimmed, as shown below.

Context-sensitive help is available even for dimmed options, although tooltips are not. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.3 Understanding the OK, Apply, Defaults, Continue, Cancel, and Dismiss buttons
Note: If you have reached this section through the context-sensitive help system and are actually looking for help on some feature of a dialog box, then you must request help on that item directly. To request help on an item, select Help->On Context from the main menu bar and click the item of interest. When you are finished working with a dialog box, you can specify how to proceed by using different action buttons. For example, if you enter data in a dialog box, you can save the data and apply them by clicking OK. If the dialog box is part of an intermediate step of a procedure, you can click Continue to move on to the next step. The following action buttons can appear in a dialog box: OK Click OK to commit the current contents of a dialog box and to close the dialog box. Apply When you click Apply, any changes you have made in the dialog box take effect, but the dialog box remains displayed. This button is useful if you make changes in a dialog box and would like to see the effects of these changes before closing the dialog box. Defaults If you want to revert back to the predefined default values after entering data or specifying preferences in a dialog box, you can click Defaults. This button affects only the information entered in the dialog box. It does not apply your changes or close the dialog box; therefore, to see the effect of reverting to the default values, you must click Apply or OK.

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Cancel Click Cancel to close a dialog box without applying any of the changes that you made. If the dialog box appears in the middle of a procedure, clicking Cancel also cancels the procedure. Continue Dialog boxes that appear in the middle of a procedure contain Continue buttons. When you click Continue, you indicate that you have finished entering data in the current dialog box and would like to move on to the next step of the procedure. Continue causes the dialog box to be closed and all data in it to be saved unless you click Cancel at some point later in the procedure. Dismiss
Dismiss buttons appear in dialog boxes that contain data that you cannot modify. For

example, some managers contain lists of objects that exist but no fields in which you can enter data or specify preferences. Dismiss buttons also appear in message dialog boxes. When you click Dismiss, the dialog box closes. To close a toolbox or a dialog box that does not have a Cancel or Dismiss button, double-click the close button in the upper left corner of the toolbox or dialog box. Note: On Windows NT systems you click the close button in the upper right corner of the toolbox or dialog box. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.4 Using dialog boxes separated by tabs
For the sake of organization and convenience, some dialog boxes are separated by tabs. Only one dialog box is visible at a time. To view a particular dialog box, click its labeled tab. For example, Figure 6-1 displays the Undeformed Plot Options dialog boxes.

Figure 6-1 Dialog boxes separated by tabs.

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If you click the Color & Style tab, the dialog box containing the color and edge attributes options comes forward, obscuring the other four dialog boxes, as shown in Figure 6-2.

Figure 6-2 Using tabs to display particular dialog boxes.

In addition, separated dialog boxes can exist within a single dialog box. In this case the tabs of the separated dialog boxes are aligned vertically but work the same way as tabs aligned horizontally. In Figure 6-3 the Other dialog box contains two dialog boxes separated by tabs: Scaling and

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Translucency.

Figure 6-3 Dialog box containing additional dialog boxes.

The action buttons in a dialog box apply to the whole set of dialog boxes, not just the one you are currently viewing. If you click Cancel, all of the unapplied changes you have made in the set of dialog boxes are canceled, not just those in the current dialog box. Likewise, clicking OK saves all changes that you have made in any of the dialog boxes. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.5 Entering tabular data
Some operations require the entry of tabular data. For example, the XY Data toolset can produce plots of data that you enter in the dialog box shown in Figure 6-4.

Figure 6-4 X-Y data table.

Data tables are composed of input boxes, or cells, organized into rows and columns. You can type data

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into a table using the keyboard or you can read data in from a file. The following list describes techniques for entering and modifying tabular data: Entering data Click any cell, and type the required data. You can press [Enter] to commit the data in a particular cell. ABAQUS/CAE does not allow you to enter character data in tables requiring numeric data; the program beeps if you attempt to enter character data in a numeric field. (The letter E that denotes scientific notation, as in 12. E6, is an exception to this rule.) Adding new rows Use the menu that appears when you click the third mouse button to add a new row before or after an existing row. Click the third mouse button while holding the cursor over the row of interest; then select the item of your choice from the menu that appears: · Select Add Row Before to add a blank row above the current row. · Select Add Row After to add a blank row below the current row. Alternatively, you can add a blank row to the end of the table by clicking the cell in the last row and in the last column of the table and then pressing [Enter]. Reading data from a file You can enter data by reading it in from an ASCII file. Data fields within the file can be delimited by any combination of spaces, tabs, or commas. To enter data from a file, click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the target cell; then select Read From File from the menu that appears. The Read Data from ASCII File dialog box appears. In this dialog box, specify the following: · In the File text field, enter the name of the file to read. · Specify the row number and column number of the target cell in the Start reading values into table row and Start reading values into table column fields, respectively. (By default, ABAQUS sets these fields to the cell your cursor was over when you clicked mouse button 3.) Click OK. ABAQUS reads data values from the file into the table according to your specifications. Moving from cell to cell Use the [Enter] key to move from left to right between the cells in a row. When you have reached the end of the row, press [Enter] to move the cursor to the first cell in the following row. In addition, you can use a combination of the [Tab] key and the up and down arrow keys to

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move from cell to cell. Use [Tab] to move to the right and [Shift]+[Tab] to move to the left; use the up and down arrows to move up and down. You can also simply click the cell of interest. Changing data If a cell already contains data, clicking the cell allows you to use the [Backspace] key and the other keys on your keyboard to modify the data in that cell. Use the [Escape] key to cancel any changes you have made and return the contents of the cell to their original state. After clicking the cell once, you can double-click to highlight the data; as soon as you begin typing, the highlighted contents of the cell disappear and are replaced by whatever you type. You can use the [Backspace] or [Delete] keys to delete highlighted data in a cell. Cutting, copying, and pasting data Use the menu that appears when you click mouse button 3 to cut, copy, and paste data from one location in a table to another. You can cut or copy data in single cells, in rows or parts of rows, in columns or parts of columns, and in series of consecutive rows or columns. First, drag the mouse over the cells containing the data that you want to cut or copy. All of the selected cells will become highlighted except the cell that you selected first. This cell becomes highlighted when you move the cursor outside the data table window or if you click mouse button 3. Once you have selected the cells of interest, click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the selection; then select either Cut or Copy from the menu that appears. To paste the data, select the target cell, click mouse button 3, and select Paste from the menu that appears. Sorting data Some data tables offer a sorting feature. (To determine if sorting is available for a particular table, hold the cursor over the table; then click mouse button 3. If it is available, Sort is listed in the menu that appears.) To sort table data, click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the table; then click Sort. The Sort Table dialog box appears. In this dialog box, choose the following: · In the Sort by text field, choose the column by which to sort. · Choose Ascending or Descending sort order. Click OK or Apply. ABAQUS sorts all rows according to data values in the specified column. Expanding and contracting columns You can change the size of the columns in some tables. To expand or contract a column, move the cursor to the line that divides the headings of the columns you want to resize; a resize cursor will appear. Drag this cursor to the left or right to resize the two columns on either side of the dividing line.

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You can also resize the last column in some tables by horizontally enlarging the dialog box that contains the table. Viewing data that extend beyond the edge of the dialog box Use the horizontal and vertical scroll bars to view portions of a table that are outside the boundaries of the dialog box. In some cases scroll bars may not be available; instead, increase the size of the dialog box to display more data. Deleting rows of data Click any cell within the row you want to delete, or select multiple cells in consecutive rows. Then, while holding the cursor over the dialog box containing the table, click mouse button 3 and select Delete Rows from the menu that appears. The row or rows disappear; if the rows are numbered, ABAQUS/CAE automatically renumbers the remaining rows. You cannot delete rows from tables that display matrices or tensors of fixed size, such as those used in the orthotropic or anisotropic elasticity data input forms in the Property module. Creating X-Y data from table data While you are creating a material in the Property module, you can use the data in a table to create X-Y data. You can then use the Visualization module to plot the X-Y data and to visually check its validity. To create an X-Y data object, click mouse button 3 while holding the cursor over the table; then select Create XY Data from the menu that appears. The Create XY Data dialog box appears. In this dialog box, do the following: · Enter the name of the X-Y data to create. · Specify the column number containing the X-values and the column number containing the Y-values. · Click OK. ABAQUS reads the data values from the table into the X-Y data. ABAQUS/CAE retains saved X-Y data only for the duration of the session. To view the X-Y data, do the following: · From the module list on the context bar, select Visualization. · From the main menu bar, select Tools->XY Data->Plot, and select the X-Y data from the pull-right menu. For more information, see Chapter 30, "X-Y plotting." Clearing the table You can delete all data from a table. While holding the cursor over the table, click mouse button 3 and select Clear Table from the menu that appears. The table data disappear. For information on related topics, click the following item:

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· ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.3.6 Customizing fonts
The Select Font dialog box, shown in Figure 6-5, allows you to customize the font of certain kinds of text; for example, you can use this dialog box to customize the font that appears in viewport and canvas annotations. A similar dialog box is used to customize the font of the Visualization module labels and titles.

Figure 6-5 Customizing fonts.

The Select Font dialog box allows you to specify and preview the following: · Proportional or fixed fonts. · The font family. · The font size, in points. · Regular, bold, or italic font. The available options vary depending on which fonts are installed on your system. To customize viewport fonts: 1. Display the Select Font dialog box for the text that you want to customize. For more information, see the following sections:

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· ``Editing canvas annotation color, line, and font attributes, '' Section 7.4.6 · Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations" · ``Setting the label font,'' Section 37.6.1 2. Select the desired font and properties. A preview of the selected font appears in the lower portion of the Select Font dialog box. 3. Click OK to accept your changes and to close the Select Font dialog box. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Editing canvas annotation color, line, and font attributes, '' Section 7.4.6 · Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations" · ``Setting the label font,'' Section 37.6.1

6.3.7 Using file selection dialog boxes
File selection dialog boxes allow you to select files from lists that are filtered based on file type, location, and name. To use a file selection dialog box, you first choose the type of file to open and then specify the directory and file name pattern to list. ABAQUS/CAE refreshes the dialog box to list only files that meet your criteria. From this list, you select the file to open. The dialog box for selecting model databases or output databases is shown in Figure 6-6. The Filter and Selection fields of the dialog box show the syntax on UNIX systems; on Windows NT systems the slashes are reversed.

Figure 6-6 Selecting a model database or an output database.

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Similar file selection dialog boxes appear when you perform other File menu functions, such as importing a part or printing to a file. Use the following techniques to select the file of your choice: Filtering the Files list according to file type Some file selection dialog boxes contain File type fields, which allow you to select the file extension of interest. For example, the File type selection in Figure 6-6 is Output Database (*.odb). Therefore, only files with the extension .odb appear in the Files list on the right side of the dialog box. Specifying the directory from which to select a file By default, the Filter field shows the directory in which you started ABAQUS/CAE. If you want to view a list of files from a different directory, you can enter that directory in the Filter field and then click Filter at the bottom of the dialog box. Important: You must always enter a slash after the directory name. Alternatively, you can select a directory from the Directories list and then click Filter. Filtering the files in a directory according to file name By default, ABAQUS/CAE lists all files of the selected type in the selected directory. Alternatively, you can enter the file name pattern and extension of your choice after the directory name in the Filter field and then click Filter at the bottom of the dialog box. For example, if the Filter field reads /disk2/user1/models/c*.odb, ABAQUS/CAE lists only those files beginning with the letter c and having the extension .odb.

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Selecting a file To select and open a file, double-click the file name of interest from the list in the Files field. Alternatively, you can enter the entire directory path and file name of interest directly in the Selection field and then click OK.

6.3.8 Selecting multiple items in lists
In some ABAQUS/CAE dialog boxes it is necessary to select an item from a list before you can perform certain functions. For example, if you want to plot X-Y data, you must first select the data object of your choice from the list in the XY Data Manager, shown in Figure 6-7, and then click Plot.

Figure 6-7 Single item selected.

Some functions allow you to operate on more than one item. For example, if you wanted to delete the first two data objects in the manager shown in Figure 6-7, you could select them both and then click Delete. To select a single item, you need only click that item in the dialog box. To select multiple items, you can use the following techniques: Selecting consecutive items from a list Click the first item of interest and then, while continuing to hold down mouse button 1, drag the cursor over the remaining items. Release the mouse button when all of the items of interest are selected. For example, consecutive items are selected in Figure 6-8.

Figure 6-8 Consecutive items selected.

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Another way to select consecutive items is to click the first item of interest and then [Shift]+Click the last item of interest. All items between the first and the last are selected automatically. Selecting nonconsecutive items from a list Click the first item of interest and then [Ctrl]+Click any other items you want to select. For example, nonconsecutive items are selected in Figure 6-9.

Figure 6-9 Nonconsecutive items selected.

Canceling a selection You can [Ctrl]+Click previously selected items to remove them from your selection. For example, if you [Ctrl]+Click Strain in the list shown in Figure 6-9, that data object is no longer selected, as shown in Figure 6-10.

Figure 6-10 Individual item removed from selection.

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Certain functions in a dialog box may become unavailable when you select multiple items. For example, the Edit, Copy, and Rename functions in the Data Manager shown in Figure 6-10 are valid only for individual data objects. When you select multiple data objects, these three functions become unavailable.

6.3.9 Using keyboard shortcuts
You can use the keyboard instead of the mouse to perform most actions within the ABAQUS/CAE main window and dialog boxes. The following actions have keyboard shortcuts: Context-sensitive help Press [F1] to display context-sensitive help concerning the currently selected object in the ABAQUS/CAE main window or dialog box. For more information on using [F1] for context-sensitive help, see ``Displaying context-sensitive help,'' Section 5.6.1. Menus On UNIX systems you can display a particular menu by pressing the [Alt] key in combination with the underlined character in that menu's name. For example, the letter C is underlined in the Canvas menu in the main menu bar:

Therefore, you can type [Alt]+C to display the Canvas menu. The function of the [Alt] key on Windows NT systems depends on your Exceed configuration settings. You can also press F10 to select the menu bar and then use the arrow keys to select different menus. When you have selected the menu of interest, press either [Enter], [Space], or the down arrow key to display the contents of the menu. Click F10 again to deactivate the menu bar. Menu items Once the menu is displayed, you can select a particular menu item by pressing the underlined character in that menu item's name. For example, the letter T is underlined in Toolbox in the Canvas menu: 2-181

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Therefore, you can type [Alt]+C to display the Canvas menu and then T to select Toolbox. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3

6.4 Understanding and using toolboxes
This section explains how to use the toolbox windows to perform common functions within a module, toolset, or on the canvas. The following topic is covered: · ``What is a toolbox?,'' Section 6.4.1 · ``Using toolboxes that contain hidden icons, '' Section 6.4.2

6.4.1 What is a toolbox?
Toolboxes are collections of icons that provide quick access to commonly used ABAQUS/CAE functions. For example, the visualization toolbox contains icons representing the tools used to generate different kinds of plots, while the canvas toolbox contains icons for tools you use to create and manipulate viewports and annotations on the canvas. The canvas and visualization toolboxes are shown in Figure 6-11.

Figure 6-11 Canvas and visualization toolboxes.

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All module toolboxes are available immediately to the left of the drawing area as soon as you enter the module. The canvas and view manipulation toolboxes behave differently; they appear in separate dialog boxes, and you must select the appropriate menu items to display them: Canvas->Toolbox and View->Views Toolbox , respectively. In all cases the tools available from a toolbox are also available from the main menu bar. Toolboxes are convenient when you are performing many related operations in sequence, whereas menus are more convenient when you are performing only isolated operations. For example, the canvas toolbox is useful if you are intricately annotating several viewports; conversely, selecting Canvas->Create Viewport from the main menu may be more convenient than using the toolbox icon if you are creating only a single viewport. To obtain a short description of a tool, place the cursor over that tool for a moment; a small box containing a description, or ``tooltip,'' will appear. Tooltips are not available for icons that appear dimmed; to get information on those icons, use context-sensitive help instead. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding and using toolboxes,'' Section 6.4

6.4.2 Using toolboxes that contain hidden icons
In some toolboxes, such as the canvas toolbox, all tool icons are immediately visible; however, most toolboxes contain hidden icons to conserve space. Any icon that includes a small triangle in its lower right corner conceals a group of icons whose function is closely related to that of the visible icon.

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To select tools whose icons are initially hidden: 1. Click and hold any icon that includes a triangle in its lower right corner. Icons for all the tools that are closely related to the original icon appear. For example, Figure 6-12 shows the top portion of the Sketcher toolbox with all of the icons revealed that are used for creating lines.

Figure 6-12 Sketcher toolbox with all line creation icons displayed.

2. Drag the cursor to the desired icon, and release the mouse button. The selected icon replaces the icon that was visible originally, and you can begin using the corresponding tool immediately. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding and using toolboxes,'' Section 6.4

6.5 Managing objects
Managers are dialog boxes you use to manage all objects of a given type associated with the current model; examples of such objects include materials, parts, and steps. In addition, you can use the Model Manager to manage the models contained in the current model database. This section describes basic and step-dependent managers and how you can use them in ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered: · ``What are basic managers?,'' Section 6.5.1 · ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2 · ``Understanding the status of an object in a step, '' Section 6.5.3 · ``Modifying the history of a step-dependent object,'' Section 6.5.4 · ``Understanding modified step-dependent objects, '' Section 6.5.5 · ``Managing objects using manager dialog boxes,'' Section 6.5.6

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· ``Managing objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7 · ``Changing the status of an object in a step,'' Section 6.5.8 · ``Editing step-dependent objects,'' Section 6.5.9

6.5.1 What are basic managers?
Basic managers consist of a list of objects and a series of buttons; you use the buttons to perform tasks on the objects you select from the list or to add new objects to the list. Figure 6-13 shows the Material Manager, which is an example of a basic manager used in ABAQUS/CAE.

Figure 6-13 The Material Manager.

The list box on the left shows all the materials that you have defined within the context of the current model. You use the buttons on the right to create new material definitions and to edit, copy, rename, and delete existing material definitions. The Dismiss button is used to close the manager dialog box. Often, the manager provides more information about an object than just its name; for example, in the Job module, the Job Manager provides information about currently executing jobs and provides buttons that allow you to write input files, submit jobs, monitor the analysis, or view output files for a given job. The Job Manager is shown in Figure 6-14.

Figure 6-14 The Job Manager.

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Every task you can perform with a manager can also be performed using the pull-down menus available from the main menu bar; for example, Figure 6-15 shows the menu items that correspond to

Figure 6-15 Menu items that correspond to the Job Manager.

the Job Manager. After you select a management operation from the main menu bar, the procedure is exactly the same as if you had clicked the corresponding button inside the manager dialog box. The decision whether to use menus or dialog boxes is yours. In general, menus are more convenient if you are performing isolated operations; the advantages of manager dialog boxes become apparent when you are performing several operations in sequence, when you need to browse through a long list of objects, or when you need quick access to the additional information that is displayed by some managers. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5

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· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.2 What are step-dependent managers?
Like basic managers, step-dependent managers contain a list of all of the objects of a certain type that you have created. In addition, they contain Create, Edit, Copy, Rename, and Delete buttons that you can use to manipulate existing objects and to create new ones. However, the types of objects that appear in step-dependent managers are those that you can create and, in some cases, modify and deactivate in particular analysis steps. Therefore, unlike basic managers, step-dependent managers contain additional information concerning the history of each object listed in the manager. Step-dependent managers display how these objects propagate from one step to another during the course of an ABAQUS analysis. (For information on steps and multiple step analyses, see ``Procedures: overview,'' Section 6.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.) The following step-dependent managers exist in ABAQUS/CAE: In the Load/BC/IC module: · Load Manager · Boundary Condition Manager In the Interaction module: · Interaction Manager For example, the Load Manager is shown in Figure 6-16.

Figure 6-16 The Load Manager.

This manager displays an alphabetical list of existing loads along the left side of the dialog box. The

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names of all the steps in the analysis appear along the top of the dialog box in the order of execution. The table formed by these two lists displays the status of each load in each step. (For information on creating and deleting steps, see Chapter 17, "The Step module.") If you click one of the cells in the table, that cell becomes highlighted, and the following information related to the cell appears in the legend at the bottom of the manager: · The type of analysis procedure carried out in the step in that column. · The type of step-dependent object in that row. You can resize the columns of the table by dragging the dividers between the column headings to the right or left. You can also increase the size of the dialog box by dragging the sides of the box. If the analysis includes many steps or many step-dependent objects, increasing the size of the dialog box allows you to view more rows and columns without having to use the scroll bars. The five buttons along the right side of the manager allow you to manipulate objects in the steps that you select. For example, if you click Edit in the Load Manager shown above, an editor appears in which you could modify the load named Force in Step-1. The other buttons-- Move Left, Move Right, Activate, and Deactivate--allow you to change the status of an object in a particular step. For more information, see ``Modifying the history of a step-dependent object,'' Section 6.5.4, ``Changing the status of an object in a step, '' Section 6.5.8, and ``Editing step-dependent objects,'' Section 6.5.9. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2 · ``Managing prescribed conditions,'' Section 19.3 · ``Managing interactions, interaction properties, and constraints, '' Section 18.6.1

6.5.3 Understanding the status of an object in a step
A model can contain a sequence of steps. When you create an object in an analysis step, that object may or may not continue to be active in any of the following steps. The activity (or inactivity) of an object in any particular step is called its ``status'' in that step. For example, Figure 6-17 shows the status of a load in a series of general static analysis steps.

Figure 6-17 The analysis history of a load.

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The load in this example is created in Step 1; therefore, the status of the load in Step 1 is Created. Since Step 1 is a general static step, the load's magnitude is ramped up over the course of the step. If the load continues to be active in Step 2, its status in Step 2 is Propagated and its magnitude remains constant throughout that step. If you edit the load in Step 3, its status in Step 3 becomes Modified and its magnitude ramps to the new value over the course of the step. If the modified version of the load continues to be active in Step 4, its status in Step 4 (as in Step 2) is Propagated and the value is constant. If you deactivate the load in Step 5, its status in Step 5 is Inactive and its magnitude ramps down to zero. The load remains inactive in Step 6. ABAQUS/CAE uses the following general terms, which can apply to any step-dependent object, to describe the status of step-dependent objects in a particular step: Created The object was created and becomes active in this step. The point in the step at which a prescribed condition becomes active depends on the amplitude variation associated with that step. For more information, see ``Prescribed conditions'' in ``Procedures: overview,'' Section 6.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Propagated The object was created or modified in an earlier step of the analysis and continues to be active in this step. Modified The definition of the object has been modified in this step. Again, the variation of a prescribed condition over the course of the step depends on the amplitude variation associated with that step. Inactive The object has been deactivated in this step or in a previous step. It will remain deactivated in all subsequent steps until you reactivate it. You cannot deactivate an object in the step in which it was created. The point in the step at which a prescribed condition becomes inactive depends on the amplitude variation associated with that step. For more information, see ``Prescribed conditions'' in ``Procedures: overview,'' Section 6.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.)

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The following terms apply only in linear perturbation steps: Built into base state If the step is a linear perturbation step, any active load or interaction created in a preceding general analysis step will be part of the base state and cannot be changed during the linear perturbation step. Propagated from base state Boundary conditions that were created in a previous general step continue to be active in this linear perturbation step. Deactivated from base state Boundary conditions that were created in a previous general step are deactivated in this linear perturbation step. The deactivated state applies only to the linear perturbation step and does not propagate to the remaining steps. For information on linear perturbation steps, see ``Linear and nonlinear procedures,'' Section 6.1.2 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.4 Modifying the history of a step-dependent object
You can modify the analysis history of an object by using the five buttons aligned along the right side of the step-dependent manager: Edit, Move Left, Move Right, Activate, and Deactivate. (For information on how to use these buttons, see ``Changing the status of an object in a step,'' Section 6.5.8.) The use of these buttons may be restricted depending on the nature of each step and the status of the object in the steps. The following list describes the rules for modifying the history of a step-dependent object: Changing the step in which an object becomes active. You can change the step in which an object becomes active by moving the Created status to that step. You can move the Created status of an object to any previous general step, or you can move the Created status to the following general step if its status in the following step is Propagated. For example, you could select the Created status of Load1 in the load manager table below. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Load1 Created Propagated Propagated Propagated If you moved the Created status to Step 1, the table would change as shown below. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Load1 Created Propagated Propagated Propagated Propagated If you moved the Created status to Step 3, the table would change as shown below. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

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Load1

Created

Propagated

Propagated

Note: If an object is created in a linear perturbation step, its Created status cannot be moved. Modifying an object You can modify an object when its status is Propagated; the object's status in that step changes to Modified. Moving the modifications of an object to another step You can transfer the modifications of an object to another step by moving the object's modified status to that step. You can move the Modified status of an object to the previous general step or to the following general step if the status of the object in those steps is Propagated. For example, you could select the Modified status of Load1 in the load manager table below. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Load1 Created Propagated Modified Propagated If you moved the Modified status to Step 3, the table would change as shown below. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Load1 Created Modified Propagated Propagated If you moved the Modified status to Step 5, the table would change as shown below. Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Load1 Created Propagated Propagated Modified Deactivating an object You can deactivate an object when its status is Propagated or Modified; the object's status in that step and in any following steps changes to Inactive. Warning: If you deactivate an object in a step in which its status is Modified, the modifications to the object are lost. If you later reactivate the object in that step, the original propagated version of the object becomes active in that step and in all subsequent steps. Reactivating an object You can reactivate an object that has Inactive status; however, the Activate button is available only in the step in which the object is first deactivated (for example, Step 3 in the following table). Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Load1 Created Propagated Inactive Inactive Inactive When you reactivate the load in the example above, its status in Step 3 and in all following steps changes to Propagated. The following rules apply to linear perturbation steps: Deactivating a boundary condition whose status is Propagated from base state

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You can deactivate a boundary condition whose status is Propagated from base state; the boundary condition's status in the linear perturbation step changes to Deactivated from base state. The status Propagated from base state cannot be moved to other steps. Reactivating a boundary condition whose status is Deactivated from base state You can reactivate a boundary condition whose status is Deactivated from base state; the boundary condition's status in the linear perturbation step changes to Propagated from base state. The status Propagated from base state cannot be moved to other steps. Objects whose status is Built into base state The status Built into base state applies only to loads and interactions and cannot be changed directly. For information on linear perturbation steps, see ``Linear and nonlinear procedures,'' Section 6.1.2 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.5 Understanding modified step-dependent objects
When you edit an object in the step in which it was created, you change the definition of the object in all of the steps in which it is active. In some cases you can also edit an object in steps in which its status is Propagated or Modified. In these cases the object's definition varies according to the analysis step. The effects of editing a step-dependent object are summarized below. If the status of the object is Created in the selected step: · Modifications that you make to the object in this step become effective in this step and propagate through all subsequent steps in which the condition is active unless you modify the object again in a later step. · The status of the object remains Created in the selected step and also remains unchanged in all subsequent steps. For more information, see ``Understanding the status of an object in a step,'' Section 6.5.3. If the status of the object is Propagated or Modified in the selected step: · Modifications that you make to the object in this step become effective in this step and propagate through all subsequent steps in which the condition is active. · The status of the object becomes (or remains) Modified in this step and remains unchanged

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in all other steps. (In other words, if the status of the object in the following step was Propagated before modification, its status in the following step remains Propagated after modification.) For example, the load applied over a sequence of general static analysis steps in Figure 6-17 has been modified in Step 3; the modifications remain in effect in Step 4 even though the status in Steps 4 is Propagated. For more information, see ``Understanding the status of an object in a step, '' Section 6.5.3. · When you modify the data in a Load/BC/IC module editor, ABAQUS/CAE indicates in the editor which data have been modified. These indications disappear if you change the data in the editor back to their original values. In some cases you cannot edit a particular aspect of an object's definition because it must be consistent for the analysis to proceed correctly. For example, although you can modify the magnitude of a load in any analysis step, you cannot modify the region to which the load is applied. The areas in an editor that specify this kind of restricted data are unavailable in all steps except the one in which the object was created. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.6 Managing objects using manager dialog boxes
ABAQUS/CAE provides you with a set of managers that list all the objects defined in the current model such as parts, stand-alone sketches, materials, sections, and steps. In addition, the Model Manager lists all the models defined in the current model database. Note: For more information on specific managers and where they are located, see the documentation for the particular module you are interested in. Use the buttons in the manager's dialog box to manage the list of objects. To manage objects: 1. To display a manager, do one of the following: · To start a manager associated with a module, select Manager from the appropriate menu on the main menu bar. For example, to start the Section Manager while you are working in the Property module, select Section->Manager from the main menu bar. · To start a manager associated with a toolset, select Tools->Toolset->Manager from the main menu bar. For example, to start the Set Manager, select Tools->Set->Manager from the main menu bar. · To start the Model Manager, select Model->Manager from the main menu bar. The manager appears and displays a list of objects in the current model. The list contains the name of each object and, in some cases, information about each object. For example, the Part Manager

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lists the name of each part, its type, and the modeling space in which it was created. 2. To manage an existing object, select the object or objects of interest from the list in the manager an then click the appropriate button. (For example, to delete an object, select that object's name from the list and then click Delete.) In most cases a dialog box appears; for example, when you click Rename, the dialog box asks for the new name of the selected object. 3. If a dialog box appears, provide the requested information. 4. Click Dismiss to close the manager. Tip: You can also use the menus in the main menu bar to manage objects. For more information, see ``Managing objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Managing objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7

6.5.7 Managing objects using manager menus
Like managers, pull-down menus from the main menu bar allow you to manage all the objects defined in the current model. To manage objects using menus: 1. From the main menu bar, select one of the following: · To manage objects associated with a module, select the manager menu items in the appropriate menu in the main menu bar. For example, to edit a material in the Property module you would select Material->Edit->material of your choice from the main menu bar. · To manage objects associated with a toolset, select the appropriate manager menu items in the Tools menu. For example, to delete a set you would select Tools->Set->Delete->set of your choice from the main menu bar. · To manage all the models defined in the current model database, select the manager menu items in the Model menu in the main menu bar. For example, to copy a model you would select Model->Copy->model of your choice from the main menu bar. In most cases a dialog box appears; for example, when you rename an object, a dialog box appears that asks for the new name of the object. 2. If a dialog box appears, provide the requested information.

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Tip: You can also use manager dialog boxes to manage objects. For more information, see ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Managing objects using manager dialog boxes,'' Section 6.5.6

6.5.8 Changing the status of an object in a step
Step-dependent managers contain buttons that you can use, under certain circumstances, to alter the status of an object in a particular step. These buttons are labeled Move Left, Move Right, Activate, and Deactivate. Whether or not you can change the status of an object in a step depends on the step's procedure and the object's status in the step. The manager allows you to make only valid changes to the history of an object. If the operation of one of the buttons would cause an invalid change in status, that button becomes unavailable. For more information, see ``Modifying the history of a step-dependent object,'' Section 6.5.4. The following list describes techniques for manipulating the status of a step-dependent object: To select the status that you want to change: Click in the cell that is located in the row of the object of interest and in the column of the step of interest. The status of the object in that step becomes highlighted, and, in most cases, some or all of the buttons on the right side of the dialog box become available. The availability of the buttons depends on the status of the object in the current step, in the preceding step, and in the following step. For example, the Created status of Pressure in Step-3 is selected in the figure below:

Use the buttons that become available to manipulate the status of the object in the step that you have chosen, as described below. To move the status in the selected step to the preceding step: Click Move Left to move the highlighted status from the selected to the preceding step.

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For example, the Created status of Pressure in Step-3 is selected in the history shown above. If you clicked Move Left, the history would change as shown below:

The Created status of Pressure moves to Step-2 and is replaced by Propagated in Step-3. To move the status in the selected step to the following step: Click Move Right to move the highlighted status from the selected step to the following step. In the history shown below, for example, the Modified status of Pressure in Step-5 is selected.

If you clicked Move Right, the history would change as shown below:

The Modified status of Pressure moves to Step-6 (indicating that the modifications to Pressure become effective in Step-6), and Modified is replaced by Propagated in Step-5. To deactivate the object in the selected step: Click Deactivate to deactivate the object in the selected step. In the history shown below, for example, the Propagated status of Pressure in Step-4 is selected.

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If you clicked Deactivate, the history would change as shown below:

The Propagated status of Pressure in Step-4 changes to Inactive, and the status in all subsequent steps becomes Inactive. Warning: If you deactivate an object in a step in which its status is Modified, the modifications to the object are lost. If you later reactivate the object in that step, the original, unmodified version of the object becomes active in that step and in all subsequent steps. To reactivate the object in the selected step: Click Activate to reactivate the object in the selected step. In the history shown above, for example, the Inactive status of Pressure in Step-4 is selected. If you clicked Activate, the history would change as shown below:

The Inactivated status of Pressure changes to Propagated in Step-4 and in any following steps. Note: The Activate button is available only in the step in which an object is first deactivated.

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For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2

6.5.9 Editing step-dependent objects
You can use either menus or managers to edit step-dependent objects in a particular step. (For information about the status of modified objects, see ``Understanding modified step-dependent objects,'' Section 6.5.5.) To edit step-dependent objects using menus: 1. In the Step list located under the toolbar, click the step of your choice. The step that you select becomes the current step. 2. From the main menu bar, select Edit->object of your choice from the appropriate menu. For example, if you want to edit a load in the Load/BC/IC module, select Load->Edit->load of your choice. The region to which the object is applied becomes highlighted in the current viewport. Either an editor appears or you are prompted to enter data in the prompt area, depending on the object you are editing. In some cases when you are prompted to enter data in the prompt area, you can also click More Options to display an editor. 3. In the prompt area or in the editor, modify the object definition as desired. 4. If you are using an editor, click OK to save your changes. If you are using the prompt area, click the mouse button 2 to save your changes. To edit step-dependent objects using managers: 1. In the load, boundary condition, or interaction manager, double-click the cell located in the row of the object that you want to modify and in the column of the step of interest.
Note: Alternatively, you can click the cell located in the row of the object that you want to modify and in the column of the step of interest and then click Edit.

The current step automatically changes to the analysis step whose column you clicked. The appropriate editor appears. The region to which the object is applied becomes highlighted in the current viewport. 2. In the editor, modify the object definition as desired and click OK.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

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· ``What are step-dependent managers?,'' Section 6.5.2 · ``Understanding modified step-dependent objects, '' Section 6.5.5 · ``Understanding symbols that represent prescribed conditions, '' Section 19.5 · ``Editing the region to which a prescribed condition is applied, '' Section 19.7.19

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7. Managing objects on the canvas
The canvas can be thought of as an infinite screen or bulletin board on which you post objects; you can imagine the canvas extending beyond the main window and your monitor. The visible portion of the canvas is called the drawing area, and you can increase its size by increasing the size of the main window. There are three kinds of objects that are displayed on the canvas: viewports, text annotations, and arrow annotations. You can position these objects anywhere on the canvas, and you can drag them outside the drawing area. When canvas objects are positioned outside the drawing area, ABAQUS/CAE displays scroll bars to help you move around the canvas and view them. Canvas objects are not part of a model and are not saved between sessions. This chapter explains how to create, manipulate, and work with canvas objects. The following topics are covered: · ``Understanding canvas objects,'' Section 7.1 · ``Manipulating canvas objects,'' Section 7.2 · ``Working with viewports,'' Section 7.3 · ``Working with canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4

7.1 Understanding canvas objects
A canvas object is defined as either a viewport or an annotation, and you can create and manipulate canvas objects using either the Canvas menu or the Canvas toolbox.The following sections describe the canvas objects in more detail: · ``What is a viewport?,'' Section 7.1.1 · ``What is a canvas annotation?,'' Section 7.1.2

7.1.1 What is a viewport?
Viewports are areas on the canvas where you can display models or analysis results. You can easily create and delete viewports and control their size, position, and appearance. Figure 7-1 illustrates how you might use several viewports to view the results from your analysis.

Figure 7-1 Working with multiple viewports.

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While the canvas can be thought of as an infinite screen or bulletin board, viewports are simply display areas posted onto that screen. You can have many viewports on the canvas. A viewport is similar to other windows on your workstation in that it can be moved, resized, and maximized, and it can overlap other objects on the canvas. For more information, see ``Working with viewports,'' Section 7.3. Viewport decorations consist of the border around the viewport and the title bar across the top of the viewport. You can display or suppress viewport decorations. The view manipulation tools, such as zoom and rotate, operate on whichever viewport contains the cursor. Other operations interact with two particular viewports: the selected viewport and the current viewport. The selected viewport Before you can change the geometry or location of a viewport, you must first select it by clicking anywhere along its border. After you select a viewport, eight small squares known as handles appear along its border; you can drag these handles to resize the viewport. You can move the viewport by clicking anywhere on its border and dragging it. To unselect the viewport, click any unused portion of the drawing area. The current viewport To change the contents of a viewport, you must first designate the desired viewport as current using Canvas->Make Viewport Current or by double-clicking the viewport border. After you make this designation, a red border surrounds the viewport to indicate that it is current. All work then takes place within the current viewport.

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All viewports are associated with a certain model and module. When you create a new model or open an existing model or output database, that model becomes associated with whichever viewport is presently designated as current. You can create different viewports and associate each one with a different model, so designating each viewport as current results in switching between the associated models. Similarly, you can work with multiple modules simultaneously by designating a new viewport as current before starting a different module. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1

7.1.2 What is a canvas annotation?
Canvas annotations are text strings and arrows that you create and position on the canvas to enhance the appearance and clarity of displayed results. Typically, they are used to annotate the contents of a viewport. Although you can position canvas annotations so that they appear to lie within a viewport, their location is associated only with the canvas. Moving a viewport will have no affect on the location of a canvas annotation. Figure 7-2 shows the use of text annotations and arrows to describe details of a model.

Figure 7-2 Text and arrow annotations.

Annotation attributes--color, line style, line thickness, and text font--can be modified from either the Canvas menu or the Canvas toolbox. Do not confuse canvas annotations (text and arrows) with viewport annotations. Viewport annotations include the view orientation triad and, in the Visualization module, the legend, the title block, and the state block. For more information, see Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations." For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Working with canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4 · ``Components of the main window,'' Section 5.2.1 · ``Working with viewports,'' Section 7.3

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7.2 Manipulating canvas objects
This section explains how to manipulate canvas objects using the options provided in either the Canvas menu or the Canvas toolbox. The following topics are covered: · ``Managing canvas objects from the main menu bar,'' Section 7.2.1 · ``Managing canvas objects from the Canvas toolbox,'' Section 7.2.2 · ``Moving canvas objects to the front or the back, '' Section 7.2.3 · ``Deleting selected canvas objects,'' Section 7.2.4

7.2.1 Managing canvas objects from the main menu bar
Use the Canvas menu, located on the main menu bar, to create, delete, modify, or rearrange canvas objects. If you prefer, you can select Canvas->Toolbox from the main menu bar to display a toolbox containing all the functionality of the items in the Canvas menu. The Canvas menu and toolbox allow you to do the following: · Create a viewport · Edit viewport annotation attributes (triad, legend, title block, and state block) · Make the selected viewport current · Show or hide the decorations (title and border) of selected viewports · Create a text annotation · Create an arrow annotation · Edit canvas annotation attributes (text and arrows) · Move selected canvas objects to the front or the back of the canvas · Delete selected canvas objects

For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.2.2 Managing canvas objects from the Canvas toolbox
To open the Canvas toolbox, select Canvas->Toolbox from the main menu bar. Figure 7-3 describes the tools available from the Canvas toolbox.

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Figure 7-3 The Canvas toolbox.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.2.3 Moving canvas objects to the front or the back
If you have several viewports and annotations on the canvas, you may want to rearrange them to view or hide particular objects. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Bring to Front to move selected objects to the front of the canvas so that they obscure other objects. Select Canvas->Send to Back to send selected objects to the back of the canvas so that they are hidden by other objects. If no objects are selected or if there is only one object on the canvas, the Bring to Front and Send to Back menu items are unavailable. If you send the current viewport to the back, its select handles remain visible. To remove the select handles, click the mouse anywhere on the canvas outside any viewport. To move objects to the front or the back of the canvas: 1. Select the first canvas object you wish to move. Handles indicate the selected object. 2. To select additional canvas objects, [Shift]+Click each object.

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3. Do one of the following: · From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Bring to Front to move the selected objects to the front of the canvas. · From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Send to Back to send the selected objects to the back of the canvas. ABAQUS/CAE moves the selected objects. If you selected more than one object, ABAQUS/CAE retains the original layering of the selected objects. Tip: You can also move selected objects to the front and back of the canvas by clicking or in the Canvas toolbox.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2 · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.2.4 Deleting selected canvas objects
If you have several viewports and annotations, you may want to delete one or more. Select the canvas objects, and select Canvas->Delete from the main menu bar to delete them. Warning: Deleted canvas objects cannot be recovered. The canvas must always contain at least one viewport. As a result, if the canvas contains only one viewport, you cannot delete the viewport. In addition, if no canvas objects are selected, the Delete menu item is unavailable. To delete selected canvas objects: 1. Select the first canvas object you want to delete. For more information, see ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2, and ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4. Handles indicate the selected object. 2. To select additional canvas objects, [Shift]+Click each object. 3. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Delete to delete the selected objects. ABAQUS/CAE deletes the selected objects from the canvas.

Tip: You can also delete selected canvas objects by clicking

in the Canvas toolbox.

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In addition, you can delete a viewport by clicking the delete button located in the top right corner, next to the viewport title. For more information, see ``Deleting a viewport,'' Section 7.3.7.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2 · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3 Working with viewports
This section explains how to create and manage viewports and how to modify their appearance. The following topics are covered: · ``Creating new viewports,'' Section 7.3.1 · ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2 · ``Moving viewports,'' Section 7.3.3 · ``Resizing the selected viewport,'' Section 7.3.4 · ``Maximizing a viewport to fill the drawing area,'' Section 7.3.5 · ``Making the selected viewport current,'' Section 7.3.6 · ``Deleting a viewport,'' Section 7.3.7 · ``Showing and hiding the title of selected viewports, '' Section 7.3.8 · ``Showing and hiding viewport decorations,'' Section 7.3.9

7.3.1 Creating new viewports
You can create new viewports at any time; there is no limit to the number of viewports or their position on the canvas. To create a new viewport: 1. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Create Viewport . The cursor changes to a cross-hair . in the Canvas toolbox.

Tip: You can also create a new viewport by clicking

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2. Position the cursor at one corner of the new viewport. 3. Drag the cursor across the drawing area to the opposite corner of the new viewport. The new viewport appears and becomes the current viewport; a red border indicates the current viewport. The exact size and position of the new viewport is not critical because you can move and resize it later to suit your needs.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3.2 Selecting viewports
Viewport operations, such as Delete and Make Viewport Current , require you to select one or more viewports before you can continue. A selected viewport has eight handles around its border, as shown in the following figure:

Click a viewport's border to select it. To select a viewport: 1. Move the cursor near the border of the viewport. The cursor changes to a box-in-box 2. Click mouse button 1. The viewport becomes the selected viewport, and its handles appear. If another viewport was already selected, it becomes unselected and its handles disappear. 3. To select additional viewports, [Shift]+Click on their borders. 4. To unselect an individual viewport, [Control]+Click on its border. 5. To unselect all selected viewports, click an unused portion of the drawing area. Note: Do not confuse the selected viewport with the current viewport. The current viewport is .

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indicated by a red borderand is associated with a particular model and module . Conversely, the selected viewport is affected by viewport management and manipulation actions, such as moving, resizing, or deleting.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3.3 Moving viewports
You can move a selected viewport to any location on the canvas. This may be necessary to expose hidden viewports or simply to reduce clutter in the drawing area. To move a viewport, click anywhere on the viewport border (except directly on a handle) and then drag it to the desired position. To move a viewport: 1. Select the desired viewport. Handles indicate the selected viewport. 2. Place the cursor anywhere on the viewport border except directly on a handle. The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow 3. Drag the cursor to the new location. An outline of the viewport indicates its new position as you drag. While you are dragging the viewport, the title box of the original viewport displays the new X- and Y-coordinates (in pixels) of the upper left corner of the new viewport relative to the upper left corner of the drawing area. 4. Release mouse button 1. The viewport moves to the new location, and the viewport title reappears in the title bar. .

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2 · ``Moving and editing canvas annotations, '' Section 7.4.5 · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3.4 Resizing the selected viewport
You can change the size and shape of the selected viewport by dragging one of its handles.

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To resize the selected viewport: 1. Select the desired viewport. Handles indicate the selected viewport. 2. Resize the viewport by dragging one of its handles; an outline of the viewport shows the new shape. You can do one of the following: · Drag one of the four handles located at each corner of the viewport. You can drag these handles in any direction--vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. · Drag the handle on either the top or the bottom border of the viewport. You can drag these handles only vertically. · Drag the handle on either the left or the right border of the viewport. You can drag these handles only horizontally. While you are dragging a handle, the title box of the original viewport displays the distance between the upper left corner of the new viewport and the upper left corner of the drawing area. The distance is displayed in units of horizontal ( X) and vertical (Y) screen pixels. 3. Release mouse button 1. The viewport is displayed with the dimensions you have chosen, and the viewport title reappears in the title bar.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas" · ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

7.3.5 Maximizing a viewport to fill the drawing area
Maximize and delete buttons are located in the top right corner of each viewport, next to the viewport title, as shown in the following figure:

If necessary, use the scroll bars at the edge of the drawing area to reveal the viewport's maximize and delete buttons.

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When you click the maximize button, the viewport changes size and position to fill the drawing area. In addition, the viewport covers any other viewports that were originally visible in the drawing area. To maximize the current viewport, you can also click the maximize tool or select Canvas->Maximize Current Viewport from the main menu bar. in the Canvas toolbox

After you have maximized a viewport to fill the drawing area, you can click this button again to restore the viewport to its previous size and position. To restore the current viewport, you can also click the restore tool main menu bar. in the Canvas toolbox or select Canvas->Restore Current Viewport from the

If the viewport title is hidden, the maximize button is also hidden. However, you can still use the Canvas menu items or the tools in the toolbox to perform the same functions as the maximize button.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Working with viewports,'' Section 7.3

7.3.6 Making the selected viewport current
Most of your interactions with the model, such as sketching a part, positioning a load, assembling part instances, and generating a mesh, take place through the current viewport. In addition, if you have multiple viewports displayed on the canvas, the current viewport indicates the model you are working on (the current model) and the module you are working in (the current module). The current viewport is indicated by a red border, while the selected viewport is indicated by handles on its border. To make the selected viewport current: 1. Select the desired viewport. Handles indicate the selected viewport. 2. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Make Viewport Current . A red border indicates the current viewport. Tip: You can make any viewport current by double-clicking the viewport border or title bar. You can also make a selected viewport current by clicking in the Canvas toolbox.

Only one viewport can be the current viewport; if more than one viewport is selected, the Make Viewport Current menu item is unavailable.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas" · ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

7.3.7 Deleting a viewport
Maximize and delete buttons are located in the top right corner of each viewport, next to the viewport title, as shown in the following figure:

If necessary, use the scroll bars at the edge of the drawing area to reveal the viewport's maximize and delete buttons. If it is not the current viewport, ABAQUS/CAE deletes a viewport when you click its delete button. As with any canvas object, you cannot restore a viewport once you have deleted it. If you try to use the delete button to delete the current viewport (indicated by a red border), ABAQUS/CAE does the following: · If the current viewport is the only viewport on the canvas, ABAQUS/CAE does not allow you to delete it. · If you have created additional viewports on the canvas, ABAQUS/CAE deletes the current viewport and selects one of the additional viewports to be the current viewport. You cannot control which viewport ABAQUS/CAE selects to be current. To delete a selected viewport, you can also click the delete tool in the Canvas toolbox or select Canvas->Delete from the main menu bar. However, you must first select the viewport. If the viewport decorations are hidden, the viewport title bar and the delete button are also hidden. However, you can still use the Canvas menu items or the tools in the toolbox to perform the same functions as the delete button.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas" · ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2

7.3.8 Showing and hiding the title of selected viewports
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By default, ABAQUS/CAE displays a title bar across the top of a viewport. The title bar contains the viewport name and additional information to help you identify the context of the viewport. If the title bar is not helpful, you can remove it to create additional screen space. You cannot show the viewport title without also showing the viewport border. To show and hide the title of selected viewports: 1. Select the desired viewport. Handles indicate the selected viewport. 2. To select additional viewports, [Shift]+Click on their borders. 3. From the main menu bar, select either: · Canvas->Show Viewport Title to show the title bar of the selected viewports. · Canvas->Hide Viewport Title to hide the title bar of the selected viewports. If no viewports are selected, the Show Viewport Title and Hide Viewport Title menu items are unavailable. Tip: You can also show and hide the titles of selected viewports by clicking in the Canvas toolbox. and

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2 · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.3.9 Showing and hiding viewport decorations
Viewport decorations consist of the border around the viewport and the title bar across the top of the viewport. By default, ABAQUS/CAE displays the decorations around a viewport. If the decorations are not helpful, you can remove them and make use of the additional screen space. You cannot hide the border of the current viewport. To show and hide the decorations of selected viewports: 1. Select the desired viewport. Handles indicate the selected viewport.

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2. To select additional viewports, [Shift]+Click on their borders. 3. From the main menu bar, select either: · Canvas->Show Viewport Decorations to show the decorations of selected viewports. · Canvas->Hide Viewport Decorations to hide the decorations of selected viewports. If no viewports are selected or the selected viewport is also the current viewport, the Show Viewport Decorations and Hide Viewport Decorations menu items are unavailable. Tip: You can also show and hide the decorations of selected viewports by clicking in the Canvas toolbox. and

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2 · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4 Working with canvas annotations
This section explains how to create, modify, and manage canvas annotations. The following topics are covered: · ``Annotating the drawing area,'' Section 7.4.1 · ``Creating a text annotation,'' Section 7.4.2 · ``Creating an arrow annotation,'' Section 7.4.3 · ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4 · ``Moving and editing canvas annotations, '' Section 7.4.5 · ``Editing canvas annotation color, line, and font attributes, '' Section 7.4.6 · ``Copying and applying canvas annotation attributes,'' Section 7.4.7

7.4.1 Annotating the drawing area
ABAQUS/CAE provides two types of canvas annotations that you can use to annotate the drawing area: text strings and arrows. You use the Canvas option from the main menu to create these annotations, and you can position them anywhere on the canvas. The Canvas->Canvas Annotation Options option from the main menu allows you to change the font, text size, line width, and other

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attributes of canvas annotations. Canvas annotations are not saved when you exit the ABAQUS/CAE session. Figure 7-4 shows text strings and arrows used to annotate a model.

Figure 7-4 Text and arrow annotations.

Text Text annotations can consist of any characters that can be displayed using the fonts available on your workstation. ABAQUS/CAE restricts each annotation to a single line of text. However, you can place text anywhere on the drawing area, and you can move a text annotation after you have created it. Different text annotations can be displayed using different fonts, but you cannot change fonts in a single text annotation. Arrows You can create arrows anywhere in the drawing area; typically, an arrow will connect a text annotation to a point within a viewport. Arrows can have one of several different thicknesses and line styles and can be displayed in any color available on your workstation. You can modify and move an arrow after you have created it. For information about viewport annotations, which are annotations that ABAQUS/CAE creates automatically within a viewport, see Chapter 38, "Customizing viewport annotations."

7.4.2 Creating a text annotation
You can create a single line of text to annotate the contents of a viewport and place it anywhere on the drawing area. To create a text annotation: 1. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Create Text. The cursor changes to a cross-hair. Tip: You can also create a text annotation by clicking in the Canvas toolbox.

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2. Move the cross-hair to the desired position of the text annotation, and click mouse button 1. (Text can be placed anywhere on the drawing area.) A box appears; the contrasting color of the border indicates it is selected. 3. Type the desired line of text. The width of the box automatically adjusts to the length of your text, but you cannot type on more than one line. When typing a text annotation, you can use standard mouse and keyboard editing techniques such as backspace, copy, and paste. 4. To finish creating your text annotation, either: · Press [Enter], or · Click Done in the prompt area. Tip: To edit an existing text annotation, click the text to select it. A box surrounds the text, and you can position the cursor within the box and add or delete text. You can also move the selected text annotation by dragging its handle to a new position on the canvas.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.3 Creating an arrow annotation
You can create an arrow to help annotate the contents of a viewport, and you can place the arrow anywhere on the canvas. Typically, you would use an arrow to connect a text annotation and an object within a viewport. To create an arrow annotation: 1. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Create Arrow to create an arrow. The cursor changes to a cross-hair. Tip: You can also create an arrow by clicking in the Canvas toolbox.

2. Click the desired position of the arrow's tail and head, in that order. The arrow appears in the desired location. You cannot reverse the direction of an arrow.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4 · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.4 Selecting canvas annotations
Most annotation operations require you to first select one or more annotations. To select a canvas annotation, move the cursor close to the annotation and click mouse button 1 when the cursor changes to a box-in-box: . A selected text annotation is surrounded by a box and has a handle to the left, as shown in the following figure:

A selected arrow has handles at each end, as shown in the following figure:

If another annotation was already selected, it becomes unselected and its handles disappear. To select additional annotations, [Shift]+Click instead of clicking. To unselect an annotation, [Ctrl]+Click the annotation. An additional method for selecting multiple annotations is to drag a rectangle around those annotations; you can select viewports at the same time by including them in the rectangle. To select multiple canvas objects your rectangle must begin in an unused portion of the drawing area and must completely enclose the objects you want to select.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.5 Moving and editing canvas annotations
You can move a text or arrow annotation to any location on the canvas by selecting it and dragging it to the desired location. To edit a text annotation, select the annotation and click in the surrounding box. To move or edit a canvas annotation: 1. Select the text or arrow.

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If you select a text annotation, a box surrounds the text with a handle at the left end; if you select an arrow, handles appear at each end. 2. Do one of the following: To move a text annotation: Place the cursor on the handle and drag the cursor to the new location. The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow while you move the text. You can drag the text anywhere on the canvas, even outside the drawing area. To edit a text annotation: Click inside the box surrounding the text to position the cursor. Use standard keyboard and mouse editing techniques to edit the text string. The width of the box automatically adjusts to the length of the text annotation, but you cannot type on more than one line. To create a multi-line text annotation, create and align separate annotations. To finish editing, select another canvas object or click an unused portion of the drawing area. To move an arrow annotation: Drag anywhere on the arrow shaft to move it around the canvas. To change the length or orientation of an arrow annotation: Drag one of the handles to lengthen, reduce, or reorient the arrow.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4 · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.6 Editing canvas annotation color, line, and font attributes
You can change the following attributes of selected canvas annotations: · The color of the annotation. · The font attributes of a text annotation. · The line thickness and line style of an arrow annotation. ABAQUS/CAE applies your customizations not only to the annotations you have selected but also to any new annotations you subsequently create.

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You can also copy the attributes of a text annotation and apply those attributes to another text annotation. Similarly, you can copy the attributes of an arrow annotation and apply those attributes to another arrow annotation. For more information, see ``Copying and applying canvas annotation attributes,'' Section 7.4.7. To edit annotation attributes: 1. Click the annotation to select it. Handles indicate the selected text or arrow. 2. [Shift]+Click to select additional annotations. 3. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Canvas Annotation Options. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Canvas Annotations dialog box. Tip: You can also display the Canvas Annotations dialog box by clicking Canvas toolbox. from the

4. From the Canvas Annotations dialog box, select the Text tab or the Arrow tab, and select the desired color, line style, line thickness, or font attributes. 5. To close the Canvas Annotations dialog box, double-click the top left corner. If you subsequently create a new annotation, ABAQUS/CAE displays it using the customized properties.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4 · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

7.4.7 Copying and applying canvas annotation attributes
You can copy the attributes of a selected arrow and apply those same attributes to other arrow annotations. Similarly, you can copy the attributes of a selected text annotation and apply those same attributes to other text annotations. To copy and apply annotation attributes: 1. Click the annotation whose attributes you want to copy. Handles indicate the selected annotation. 2. From the main menu bar, select Canvas->Canvas Annotation Options.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the Canvas Annotations dialog box. Tip: You can also display the Canvas Annotations dialog box by clicking Canvas toolbox. from the

3. From the Canvas Annotations dialog box, click Copy Options to copy the attributes of the selected annotation. If more than one annotation is selected, the Copy Options button is disabled. 4. Click the annotation to which you want to apply the attributes. Handles indicate the selected annotation. 5. [Shift]+Click to select additional annotations. 6. From the Canvas Annotations dialog box, click Apply to Selection to apply the saved attributes to the selected annotations. The attributes of the selected annotations change. 7. To close the Canvas Annotations dialog box, double-click the top left corner.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4 · Chapter 7, "Managing objects on the canvas"

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8. Manipulating the view and controlling perspective
This chapter describes the view manipulation tools and the perspective tools, all of which are located in the toolbar near the top of the main window. The view manipulation tools allow you to position, orient, and magnify objects within any viewport. You can also select custom views such as front and back, as well as define your own views. The perspective tools control whether ABAQUS/CAE displays your model with or without perspective; using perspective gives a more realistic appearance for three-dimensional models. The following topics are covered: · ``Understanding the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1 · ``Customizing the view triad,'' Section 8.2 · ``Controlling perspective,'' Section 8.3 · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.1 Understanding the view manipulation tools
This section describes basic concepts you should understand before using the view manipulation tools. The following topics are covered: · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``The pan view tool,'' Section 8.1.2 · ``The rotate view tool,'' Section 8.1.3 · ``The magnify tool,'' Section 8.1.4 · ``The box zoom tool,'' Section 8.1.5 · ``The auto-fit tool,'' Section 8.1.6 · ``The cycle tool,'' Section 8.1.7 · ``Custom views,'' Section 8.1.8 · ``Numerically specifying a view,'' Section 8.1.9

8.1.1 An overview of the view manipulation tools
The position, orientation, and zoom factor combine to define the ``view'' of an object in the viewport. Your view of the assembly, as well as each of your parts, is positioned relative to a default Cartesian coordinate system, and the orientation of this default coordinate system within a viewport is indicated by the view triad. By default, an isometric view is used when a module first displays a three-dimensional part or an assembly.

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You can manipulate this view using the pan, rotate, magnify, box zoom, and auto-fit tools on the toolbar. For example, you might want to pan and zoom a contour plot to view an area of stress concentration. The view manipulation tools allow you to perform the following operations: · · · · · · · view. Clicking a view manipulation tool puts you into the corresponding view manipulation mode. You then manipulate the view in a particular viewport by moving the cursor to that viewport and dragging or clicking as necessary. To exit a view manipulation mode, do one of the following: · Click mouse button 2. · Click the cancel button in the prompt area. Move the view horizontally and vertically; that is, pan the view. Rotate the view. Magnify or reduce the view. Zoom in to a selected area of the view. Rescale the view to fill the viewport; that is, auto-fit the view. Cycle through previous views. Use the Views toolbox to apply a predefined or user-defined view or to save a user-defined

· Click the view manipulation tool again. · Click any other view manipulation tool. You can use the view manipulation tools as many times as necessary to reach the desired view, and you can perform the view manipulation in any viewport, regardless of what is being displayed. ABAQUS/CAE stores the eight most recent views from each viewport, and you can use the cycle view manipulation tool to cycle backward and forward through these views. By default, ABAQUS/CAE displays the image using a simple wireframe representation while you manipulate the view of an object, regardless of whether the current render style is wireframe, filled, hidden line, or shaded. The image reverts to the original render style when you complete the manipulation. You can control this behavior by setting the Drag Mode in the View Options dialog box. If you prefer to use menus rather than the tools on the toolbar, you can access all of the view manipulation tools through the View menu on the main menu bar. In addition, you can apply predefined and user-defined views using the Views toolbox, and you can numerically specify a precise

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view using the dialog box that appears when you select View->Specify from the main menu bar. For more information on custom and numerically specified views, see ``Custom views,'' Section 8.1.8, and ``Numerically specifying a view,'' Section 8.1.9, respectively. Alternatively, you can enter three of the view manipulation modes by using a combination of keyboard and mouse actions. · To rotate the view, press Ctrl+Alt, and hold down mouse button 1. · To pan the view, press Ctrl+Alt, and hold down mouse button 2. · To magnify or reduce the view, press Ctrl+Alt, and hold down mouse button 3. To exit a view manipulation mode after using one of the preceding actions, simply release the mouse button. You can customize the key configurations associated with these actions; for more information see ``Customizing X resources,'' Section 6.1. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.1.2 The pan view tool
When you select the pan tool mode, as indicated by the and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters pan cursor.

The position of your view of the model changes as you click and then drag the cursor, and a rubberband line indicates the amount of translation. The initial location of the cursor is not important, as long as you place it within the viewport. Cursor motion is limited only by the physical bounds of your monitor, and panning will continue even if you move the cursor outside the viewport or window. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Panning the view,'' Section 8.4.1

8.1.3 The rotate view tool
When you select the rotate tool and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters rotate mode. In this mode the cursor changes to a right facing arrow, and a large circle appears in the viewport. Your view of the model rotates as you drag the cursor, and a rubberband line indicates the amount and the direction of rotation. As you rotate your view of the model, the view triad indicates the orientation of the global coordinate system. The circle that is drawn when you enter rotate mode represents the silhouette of an imaginary sphere that surrounds the object. When you drag the mouse inside the circle, you might imagine that you are

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actually rotating the sphere, as you would a trackball. Your model is attached to the center of the sphere, so that rotating the sphere causes your view of the model to rotate as well. You determine the axis of rotation as you move the cursor over the surface of the imaginary sphere. The rubberband line represents the intersection of a cutting plane with the sphere's surface, and the rotation axis is normal to this cutting plane. The angle of rotation is twice the angle made by the rubberband line on the sphere's surface, so that dragging all the way across the circle produces a 360° rotation. Figure 8-1 illustrates the imaginary sphere and a rubberband line being dragged across its surface.

Figure 8-1 The rotate tool.

When you drag outside the circle, the rubberband line is superimposed on the circle, and your view of the object simply rotates about an axis normal to the screen and passing through the center of the circle. In this case the rubberband line directly represents the angle through which the object has rotated. It is usually easier to obtain a desired rotation by performing a sequence of smaller rotations rather than one large one. If you need to abandon the rotation and return to a known orientation, use either the predefined views in the Views toolbox or the cycle view tool .

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2

8.1.4 The magnify tool
When you select the magnify tool and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters . When you drag the cursor to the right while in

magnify mode, as indicated by the magnify cursor

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magnify mode, your view of the model expands within the viewport, and a rubberband line indicates the relative magnification. Similarly, when you drag the cursor to the left, your view of the model contracts, and a rubberband line indicates the relative reduction. The dragging action must start in the viewport, but you can continue to drag within the limits of your monitor. You can also drag repeatedly to achieve the desired view. The magnify tool recognizes only the horizontal component of your dragging motion, as indicated by the rubberband line. Consequently, you can achieve finer control by dragging diagonally across the screen, since this results in a smaller horizontal component of the cursor's motion than dragging the same distance horizontally. If you lose track of your position, you may want to use the auto-fit tool the viewport. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Magnifying or reducing the view,'' Section 8.4.3 to rescale the view to fit

8.1.5 The box zoom tool
When you select the box zoom tool and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters box zoom mode, as indicated by a rectangular cursor with a small arrow in one corner. You use this tool to select a rectangular area of your model; ABAQUS/CAE enlarges your view of the selected portion of your model to fill the viewport. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Zooming in to a selected area of the view,'' Section 8.4.4

8.1.6 The auto-fit tool
Use the auto-fit tool from the toolbar to quickly adjust your view of the model so that the model fills the viewport and is centered within it. When you fit a view, the orientation does not change, as indicated by the view triad. If you have only one viewport, auto-fitting occurs as soon as you click the auto-fit tool. If you have more than one viewport, select the auto-fit tool and then place the cursor over the viewport you want to rescale. The cursor changes; click, and ABAQUS/CAE auto-fits the view. A separate option, Auto-fit after view rotations, is available when you select View->View Options from the main menu bar. You use this option to control whether or not ABAQUS/CAE automatically rescales the view to fit the viewport as you rotate. For more information on using this option, see ``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Rescaling the view to fit the viewport,'' Section 8.4.5

8.1.7 The cycle tool
When you select the cycle tool and the viewport in which to work, ABAQUS/CAE enters cycle mode, as indicated by a cursor in the form of a two-way arrow. You can cycle through the eight most recent views in each viewport. To cycle through previous views, click in the viewport whose view you want to change. To control the direction of cycling, click Backward or Forward in the prompt area. The default is to cycle backward. After you cycle backward to the oldest available view, continued clicking has no effect. Similarly, after you cycle forward to the most recent view, continued clicking has no effect. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Cycling through views,'' Section 8.4.6

8.1.8 Custom views
When you select the view toolbox from the toolbar, ABAQUS/CAE displays the Views toolbox that allows you to apply a custom view to the model in the selected viewport. (A view is the combination of the position, orientation, and zoom factor of the model in the viewport.) Custom views include seven predefined views (such as front and back) and up to four user-defined views. Predefined views Predefined views are based on the six faces of an imaginary cube and an isometric view. The view triad indicates the orientation of this imaginary cube within a viewport. Figure 8-2 illustrates the six predefined cube face views.

Figure 8-2 Predefined views.

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User-defined views You can use the view manipulation tools to position your view of a model in a viewport and in the Views toolbox to save the view as one of four user-defined views. then click You can use this saved view to restore the object in the viewport to a known orientation, and you can apply a saved view to other viewports. Saved views are not stored between sessions. The view consists of three components: orientation, zoom factor, and position. You can choose whether or not all three of these components are saved using the Scale & Position options, as follows:
Auto-fit

When you save a view after choosing this option, only the orientation is saved. When you apply a view saved with this option, the saved orientation is applied, but the zoom factor and position are adjusted to make the view fit the viewport.
Save current

When you save a view after choosing this option, the orientation, the zoom factor, and the position are all saved. When you apply a view saved with this option, the saved orientation, zoom factor, and position are all applied to the object in the viewport. To compare different objects in different viewports by placing the viewports side-by-side and applying a known orientation, zoom factor, and position to each, choose the Save current option.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Applying custom views,'' Section 8.4.7 · ``Saving a user-defined view,'' Section 8.4.8

8.1.9 Numerically specifying a view

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You can bypass the view manipulation tools and specify a particular view numerically. Specifying a view is useful if you want to reproduce a particular view between ABAQUS/CAE sessions or if numerically specifying a view is simpler and more convenient than applying a series of view manipulations. You can use the following methods to specify your view:
Rotation Angles

Enter three angles (µ1 , µ2 , µ3 ) representing the angles through which your view of the model rotates about the screen or model 1-, 2-, and 3-axes, respectively. Rotations are interpreted in the order (µ1 , µ2 , µ3 ), and a positive angle represents a right-handed rotation about the axis. You must choose one of the following modes to apply the rotation: · Increment About Model Axes. When you choose Increment About Model Axes, ABAQUS/CAE simply applies the rotation to the current view. Figure 8-3 shows the result of applying an incremental model axes rotation of 90, 0, 0 from the isometric view.

Figure 8-3 Specifying an incremental model axes rotation angle.

· Increment About Screen Axes. The screen X-axis is horizontal, the Y-axis is vertical, and the Z-axis is out of the screen. The origin of the screen axes is the center of the viewport. When you choose Increment About Screen Axes, ABAQUS/CAE simply applies the rotation to the current view. Figure 8-4 shows the result of applying an incremental screen axes rotation of 90, 0, 0 from the isometric view.

Figure 8-4 Specifying an incremental screen axes rotation angle.

· Total Rotation From (0,0,1). When you choose Total Rotation From (0,0,1),

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ABAQUS/CAE first rotates the view to the default position (a view looking down the 3-axis with the 1- and 2-axes in the plane of the screen) and then applies the desired rotation. Figure 8-5 shows the result of applying a total rotation of 90, 0, 0 from the isometric view.

Figure 8-5 Specifying a total rotation angle.

Viewpoint When you choose Viewpoint , you enter three values representing the 1-, 2-, and 3-position of an observer. ABAQUS/CAE constructs a vector from the origin of the model to the position that you specify and rotates your view of the model so that this vector points out of the screen. Figure 8-6 shows the result of applying a viewpoint of 1, 1, 1 (an isometric view) and a viewpoint of 1, 0, 0.

Figure 8-6 Specifying a viewpoint.

When you use the Viewpoint method to specify a view, you can also specify the Up vector. ABAQUS/CAE positions your view of the model so that this vector points upward. Figure 8-7 shows the result of applying an up vector of 0, 1, 0 and an up vector of 0, -1, 0 to an isometric view.

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Figure 8-7 Specifying an Up vector.

The Up vector must not equal the Viewpoint vector. Zoom Enter a value representing a magnification factor. A value greater than 1 expands your view of the model in the viewport; for example, a Zoom factor of 2 doubles the size of your view of the model. A value between 0 and 1 contracts your view of the model in the viewport; for example, a value of 0.25 contracts your view of the model to a quarter of its original size. The value must be greater than zero. You must choose one of the following methods to apply the zoom: · Absolute. When you choose Absolute, ABAQUS/CAE first fits the view to the viewport and then applies the desired Zoom factor. · Relative. When you choose Relative, ABAQUS/CAE applies the Zoom factor to the current view. Pan Enter values that ABAQUS/CAE uses to Pan your view of the model to a specified horizontal and vertical position within the viewport. ABAQUS/CAE first centers the view in the viewport and then moves it to the desired position. The values that you enter indicate the desired position of your view of the model based on fractions of the 1- and 2-dimensions of the viewport. Positive 1-values indicate a position toward the right edge of the viewport, and positive 2-values indicate a position toward the top of the viewport. For example, if the viewport is 200 mm wide and 100 mm tall and you enter values of 0.5, -0.1 in the Fraction of viewport to pan (X,Y) field, ABAQUS/CAE positions your view of the model 100 mm toward the right and 10 mm down from the center of the viewport. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Applying a specified view,'' Section 8.4.9

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8.2 Customizing the view triad
The view triad, shown below, is a set of three perpendicular axes that indicate the orientation of your view of the model currently being displayed. As you rotate your view of the model, the triad changes to indicate the new orientation. For more information on using the rotate tool, see ``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2.

You can use the View->Viewport Annotations menu item to request or suppress the display of the triad and to control the triad's position and appearance. You can also control the triad's color, labels, and label font. To control triad display options: 1. From the main menu bar, select View->Viewport Annotations. The Viewport Annotation Options dialog box appears. 2. Click the Triad tab, and toggle Show triad to display or suppress the triad. When Show triad is toggled on, Position and Attributes options become available. 3. If Show triad is toggled on, enter percentage values for the triad X and Y positions in the % Viewport X and % Viewport Y boxes, respectively. A value of 0 for % Viewport X moves the triad origin to the extreme left of the viewport while a value of 100 moves it to the extreme right. A value of 0 for % Viewport Y moves the triad origin to the extreme bottom of the viewport, while a value of 100 moves it to the extreme top. 4. Click the Color arrow and select a color option from the list that appears. The specified color name appears in the color box. 5. Click the Labels menu button and select either numerical or alphabetical labeling for the triad. The specified style appears in the Labels box. 6. Click Set Label Font to set the font type, size, and style using the dialog box that appears. 7. Click Apply to implement your changes. Your changes are saved for the duration of the session. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Overview of general display options,'' Section 10.5

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8.3 Controlling perspective
Perspective representation accurately depicts the spatial relationship of three-dimensional objects in a two-dimensional plane. In other words, a three-dimensional model on your screen appears more realistic when perspective is turned on. Alternatively, parallel lines in the model appear parallel when perspective is turned off. Perspective affects plots in all modules and is turned on by default. You can use the View->View Options menu item or the control perspective. To control perspective: 1. Locate the perspective option. From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . The View Options dialog box appears. Click the General tab in the View Options dialog box. Tip: You can also control perspective using the 2. Choose either Off or On. 3. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box. Your changes apply only to the current viewport and are saved for the duration of the session. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 8, "Manipulating the view and controlling perspective " and icons located in the toolbar. and icons located in the toolbar to

8.4 Using the view manipulation tools
This section provides details of using the tools in the toolbar that allow you to manipulate the position, orientation, and scaling of the model within a viewport. The following topics are covered: · ``Panning the view,'' Section 8.4.1 · ``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2 · ``Magnifying or reducing the view,'' Section 8.4.3 · ``Zooming in to a selected area of the view,'' Section 8.4.4 · ``Rescaling the view to fit the viewport,'' Section 8.4.5 · ``Cycling through views,'' Section 8.4.6 · ``Applying custom views,'' Section 8.4.7 · ``Saving a user-defined view,'' Section 8.4.8

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· ``Applying a specified view,'' Section 8.4.9

8.4.1 Panning the view
Use the pan tool viewport. To pan the view: 1. From the toolbar, click the pan tool to enter pan mode. from the toolbar to move the view horizontally and vertically within the

Tip: You can also select View->Pan from the main menu or press [F2]. 2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change. The cursor changes to a four-headed arrow: 3. Drag the cursor in any direction until you obtain the desired view. The position of your view of the model in the viewport changes as you drag the cursor, and a rubberband line indicates the amount of translation.
Note: The initial location of the cursor is not important, as long as you place it within the viewport. Cursor motion is limited only by the physical bounds of your monitor, and panning will continue even if you move the cursor outside the viewport or window.

To return to the original view, drag the cursor back to the origin of the rubberband line. 4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you achieve the desired view. 5. To exit pan mode, do one of the following: · Click mouse button 2. · Click the cancel button · Click the pan tool. · Click any other view manipulation tool. Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view. in the prompt area.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``The pan view tool,'' Section 8.1.2

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· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.2 Rotating the view
Use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the view within the viewport. Using a separate option you can control whether or not ABAQUS/CAE rescales your model to fit the viewport as you rotate. To rotate the view: 1. From the toolbar, click the rotate tool to enter rotate mode.

Tip: You can also select View->Rotate from the main menu or press [F3]. 2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change. A large circle appears in the viewport and the cursor changes to a right facing arrow. 3. Drag the cursor in any direction. The view rotates as you drag the cursor, and a rubberband line indicates the amount and direction of rotation. Tip: It is usually easier to achieve the desired orientation by performing a sequence of small rotations rather than a single large rotation. To rotate the view about the normal to the screen, move the cursor outside the circle and drag it clockwise or counterclockwise. To return to the original view, drag the cursor back to the origin of the rubberband line. 4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you achieve the desired views. 5. To exit rotate mode, do one of the following: · Click mouse button 2. · Click the cancel button · Click the rotate tool. · Click any other view manipulation tool. Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view. To rescale the view to fit the viewport as you rotate: in the prompt area.

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1. From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . The View Options dialog box appears. 2. Toggle Auto-fit after view rotations on to automatically rescale the view to fit the viewport as you rotate; toggle it off to disable automatic rescaling during rotation. 3. Click OK to implement your changes and close the dialog box. Your changes are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``The rotate view tool,'' Section 8.1.3 · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Rescaling the view to fit the viewport,'' Section 8.4.5

8.4.3 Magnifying or reducing the view
Use the magnify tool from the toolbar to change the scale of the view in the viewport.

To magnify or reduce the view: 1. From the toolbar, click the magnify tool to enter magnify mode.

Tip: You can also select View->Magnify from the main menu or press [F4]. 2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change. The cursor changes to a magnifying glass: 3. Drag the cursor either left or right. · To magnify the view (zoom in), drag the cursor to the right of the starting point. · To reduce the view (zoom out), drag the cursor to the left of the starting point. ABAQUS/CAE draws a horizontal rubberband line from the starting point as you drag the cursor across the screen. The rubberband line indicates the amount of zooming that has been applied, and the amount of zooming is proportional to only the horizontal component of your dragging motion. To return to the original view, drag the cursor back to the origin of the rubberband line. 4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you achieve the desired view.

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5. To exit magnify mode, do one of the following: · Click mouse button 2. · Click the cancel button · Click the magnify tool. · Click any other view manipulation tool. Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view. in the prompt area.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``The magnify tool,'' Section 8.1.4 · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.4 Zooming in to a selected area of the view
Use the box zoom tool viewport. from the toolbar to enlarge the view so that a selected area fills the

To zoom in to a selected area of the view: 1. From the toolbar, click the box zoom tool to enter zoom mode.

Tip: You can also select View->Box Zoom from the main menu or press [F5]. 2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change. The cursor changes to a rectangle with a small arrow in one corner. 3. Position the cursor at one corner of the area to be enlarged. 4. Drag the cursor to the opposite corner. A rectangle indicates the area to be enlarged. 5. Release mouse button 1. The area defined by the rectangle enlarges to fill the viewport. 6. Repeat Steps 2 through 5 as many times as necessary to achieve the desired view.

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7. To exit box zoom mode, do one of the following: · Click mouse button 2. · Click the cancel button · Click the box zoom tool. · Click any other view manipulation tool. Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view. in the prompt area.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``The box zoom tool,'' Section 8.1.5 · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.5 Rescaling the view to fit the viewport
Use the auto-fit tool from the toolbar to quickly pan and magnify or reduce a view so that the view fills the viewport and is centered within it. When you fit a view, the orientation remains fixed, as indicated by the view triad. From the toolbar, click the auto-fit tool to enter auto-fit mode.

Tip: You can also select View->Auto-fit from the main menu or press [F6]. If you have only one viewport, ABAQUS/CAE immediately scales the view to fit the viewport without changing the orientation, centers the view within the viewport, and exits fit mode. If you have more than one viewport, select the auto-fit tool and then place the cursor over the viewport you want to rescale. Click in the viewport to auto-fit; ABAQUS/CAE rescales the view and exits fit mode. Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view. For information on how to automatically rescale the view to fit the viewport during rotation, see ``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``The auto-fit tool,'' Section 8.1.6

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· ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.6 Cycling through views
Use the cycle tool from the toolbar to cycle through previous views; ABAQUS/CAE saves the eight most recent views for each viewport. To cycle through previous views: 1. From the toolbar, click the cycle tool to enter cycle mode.

Tip: You can also select View->Previous Views from the main menu or press [F7]. 2. Position the cursor in the viewport whose view you want to change (the cursor changes to a two-way arrow); then click. 3. To control the direction of cycling, click Backward or Forward in the prompt area. The default is to cycle backward. 4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 as many times as necessary to achieve the desired views. After you cycle backward to the oldest available view, continued clicking has no effect. Similarly, after you cycle forward to the most recent view, continued clicking has no effect. 5. To exit cycle mode, do one of the following: · Click mouse button 2. · Click the cancel or Done button in the prompt area.

· Click the cycle view tool. · Click any other view manipulation tool.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``The cycle tool,'' Section 8.1.7 · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

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8.4.7 Applying custom views
Use the Views toolbox to orient, scale, and position a view to one of seven predefined or four user-defined settings. To display the Views toolbox, click the views tool Views toolbox is illustrated in the following figure: from the toolbar; the

The following custom views are available: · Front, Back, Top, Bottom, Left, and Right: equivalent to observing the model from the six sides of a cube. · Iso: an isometric view. This is the default orientation for three-dimensional models. · User1, User2, User3, and User4: four user-defined views. See ``Saving a user-defined view,'' Section 8.4.8, for a description of how to save a user-defined view. To apply a custom view: 1. From the toolbar, click the View tool .

ABAQUS/CAE displays the Views toolbox. Tip: You can also select View->Views Toolbox from the main menu or press [F8]. 2. From the Views toolbox, click the desired tool. If you have only one viewport, ABAQUS/CAE immediately applies the selected view and unselects it from the Views toolbox. If you have more than one viewport, place the cursor over the viewport whose view you want to change. The cursor changes to a triad; click, and ABAQUS/CAE applies the selected view to that viewport.
Note: When you apply a view that was saved with the Auto-fit option selected, the view adopts the orientation of the saved view and immediately rescales it to fill the viewport. When you apply a view that was saved with the Save current option selected, the view adopts the orientation, zoom factor, and position of the saved view.

3. Repeat Step 2 as many times as necessary to achieve the desired view. Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the previous view. 4. To close the Views toolbox, double-click the close button in the upper-left corner of the toolbox.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

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· ``Custom views,'' Section 8.1.8 · ``Saving a user-defined view,'' Section 8.4.8 · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.8 Saving a user-defined view
Use the save tool in the Views toolbox to open the Save Views dialog box and save a user-defined view. The Save Views dialog box is illustrated in the following figure:

Use the Scale & Position options to determine whether the saved view contains zoom factor and position information. To save a user-defined view: 1. From the toolbar, click the View tool .

ABAQUS/CAE displays the Views toolbox. Tip: You can also select View->Save from the main menu.

2. From the Views toolbox, click the save tool

.

If you have only one viewport, ABAQUS/CAE immediately opens the Save View dialog box. If you have more than one viewport, click in the viewport whose view you want to save; ABAQUS/CAE then opens the Save View dialog box.

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3. From the Save View dialog box, choose the desired Scale & Position behavior: · Choose Auto-fit to save only the orientation of the view. When you apply a view saved with this option, the saved orientation is applied, but the scaling factor and position are adjusted to make the view fill the viewport. · Choose Save current to save the orientation, the zoom factor, and the position of the view. When you apply a view saved with this option, the saved orientation, scaling factor, and position are all applied. 4. In the View Name list in the Save Views dialog box, click the name of the tool you will use to recall this view. If you overwrite one of the six custom views--front, back, top, bottom, left, right--the other five views still retain their original definitions; that is, they do not become rotated to positions orthogonal to your saved view. 5. From the Save View dialog box, click OK. ABAQUS/CAE saves the definition of the view you selected and returns to the Views toolbox. The view is saved only for the duration of the current session; the saved view will not be available the next time you run ABAQUS/CAE. 6. To remove the Views toolbox, double-click the close button in the upper-left corner of the toolbox.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Custom views,'' Section 8.1.8 · ``Applying custom views,'' Section 8.4.7 · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

8.4.9 Applying a specified view
Select View->Specify from the main menu to specify a view. You can choose from the following methods to specify the view:
Rotation Angles

You can specify the angles through which ABAQUS/CAE will rotate your view of the model about the model or screen 1-, 2-, and 3-axes. You can also choose to rotate your view of the model from an absolute position (a ``Front'' view) or from the current position.

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Viewpoint

You can specify the coordinates of a vector along which an observer views your model. You can also orient the global 1-, 2-, and 3-axes within the viewport by specifying a vector representing the ``up'' direction.
Zoom

You can specify a zoom factor that expands or contracts the view. You can also choose to zoom the view relative to an absolute size of the objects in the viewport (the default size with a zoom factor of one applied) or relative to the current size of the objects in the viewport.
Pan

You can specify that your view of the model will be moved to a certain position within the viewport. The values correspond to fractions of the viewport dimensions and are relative to the center of the viewport. For a more detailed explanation, see ``Numerically specifying a view,'' Section 8.1.9. To specify the view: 1. From the main menu bar, select View->Specify. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Specify View dialog box. 2. From the Specify View dialog box, select the desired Method and do one of the following: · If you selected the Rotation Angles method, enter the rotation angles about the X-, Y-, and Z-axes (µx , µy , µz ); a positive number corresponds to a counterclockwise rotation about each axis. Use the Mode button to specify how ABAQUS/CAE is to apply your rotation: - Choose Increment About Model Axes to apply the rotation to the model axes of the current view. - Choose Increment About Screen Axes to apply the rotation to the screen axes of the current view. The screen X-axis is horizontal, the Y-axis is vertical, and the Z-axis is out of the screen. The origin of the screen axes is the center of the viewport. - Choose Total Rotation From (0,0,1) to first rotate the view to the default position (a view looking down the 3-axis with the 1- and 2-axes in the plane of the screen) and then apply the rotation. · If you selected the Viewpoint method, enter the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the viewpoint vector and the coordinates of the up vector. · If you selected the Zoom method, enter the zoom factor and choose either Absolute or Relative magnification. A zoom factor greater than one expands your view of the model, and a zoom factor between zero and one contracts your view of the model.

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· If you selected the Pan method, enter the values indicating how you want to position your view of the model within the viewport. The first value represents a horizontal position, and the second value represents a vertical position. 3. Click OK to apply your specified view and to close the Specify View dialog box. Tip: Use the cycle view manipulation tool to return to the original view.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Numerically specifying a view,'' Section 8.1.9 · ``An overview of the view manipulation tools, '' Section 8.1.1 · ``Using the view manipulation tools,'' Section 8.4

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9. Selecting objects within the viewport
This chapter explains how to select objects that appear within a viewport, such as nodes, elements, vertices, edges, faces, and cells. The following topics are covered: · ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1 · ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2 · ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3 Selecting dialog box options is discussed in ``Interacting with dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3. Selecting canvas objects is discussed in ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2, and ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4.

9.1 Understanding selection within viewports
This section describes the objects that you can select in a viewport and explains what these objects represent. The following topics are covered: · ``What objects can you select from the viewport?,'' Section 9.1.1 · ``Understanding the correspondence between geometric and physical objects, '' Section 9.1.2

9.1.1 What objects can you select from the viewport?
Selecting an object within the current viewport is one of the most common tasks you have to perform during the modeling process. In the course of various modeling procedures you may need to select geometric objects (such as vertices, edges, faces, cells, datum geometry, and partitions) or discrete objects (such as nodes and elements). Figure 9-1 shows these different object types.

Figure 9-1 Object types that you can select.

You can select objects in the viewport only during certain procedures, such as those listed below:

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· Creating sets and surfaces · Partitioning a part instance · Editing a feature · Seeding a part instance for meshing In most circumstances only objects that are appropriate for the current procedure are available for selection. For example, the first step in partitioning an edge is selecting the edge of interest. Therefore, at this point in the procedure you can select only an edge; you cannot select a cell, a face, or a vertex. Messages in the prompt area guide you through the steps of a procedure and indicate which types of objects are available for selection. In some circumstances ABAQUS/CAE cannot determine which objects are appropriate for selection and does not limit your selection. For example, when you are creating a set you can select from cells, faces, edges, and vertices to include in the set, and ABAQUS/CAE allows you to select any of these objects. When you make a selection from the viewport, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to cycle through the available objects until the desired object is selected. This ambiguity is described in ``Cycling through valid selections,'' Section 9.2.5. You may find it easier to use the selection filters to limit the type of object you can create. For more information, see ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1 · ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

9.1.2 Understanding the correspondence between geometric and physical objects
When you select geometric objects in a viewport, it is important to understand what physical structure each object represents. The geometric objects that make up a model--cells, faces, edges, and vertices--can represent different physical structures depending on the space in which they are embedded. For example, beams and other wire parts are represented by edges in the geometric model (see Figure 9-2).

Figure 9-2 Selecting wire parts.

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The end surfaces of these parts are represented by the vertices on either side of the edge, and the circumferential surface is represented by the line joining the vertices. To select a wire part, you can click the edge, and, if necessary, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to specify the surface of interest. Likewise, axisymmetric shells are also represented by edges in the geometric model (see Figure 9-3).

Figure 9-3 Selecting axisymmetric shells.

You can select the axisymmetric shell by clicking the edge in the viewport, and, if necessary, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to specify either the inside surface or the outside surface of the shell. You must select either the inside or the outside surface if you are applying a prescribed condition or contact definition to the surface. For example, if you want to apply a pressure load to a shell, you must specify which side of the shell should receive the load. For more information on selecting surfaces, see ``Specifying a particular side or end of a region,'' Section 45.2.5. For more information on modeling space, see ``The relationship between parts and features,'' Section 14.3.1, and ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1 · ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

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9.2 Selecting objects within the current viewport
This section describes techniques that you can use for selecting one or more objects in the current viewport. The following topics are covered: · ``Selecting and unselecting individual objects, '' Section 9.2.1 · ``Drag-selecting multiple objects,'' Section 9.2.2 · ``Using the face angle method to create a surface from an orphan mesh,'' Section 9.2.3 · ``Combining selection techniques,'' Section 9.2.4 · ``Cycling through valid selections,'' Section 9.2.5

9.2.1 Selecting and unselecting individual objects
Selecting and unselecting objects in the current viewport are straightforward operations that use standard methods. For more information on selecting canvas objects, see ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2, and ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4. You will use the following three selection operations most frequently: Click to select an object To select a single object from the current viewport, move the cursor to the object and click mouse button 1. · To select a point, click the corresponding point marker. The color of the point marker changes color when selected. Vertices that you can select are marked by small, filled circles, and datum points are marked by small, unfilled circles. (See ``Understanding the role of datum geometry,'' Section 41.1, for information on datum points.) Edge midpoints and arc centers that you can select are marked by small diamonds. Note: Some of the selection markers that appear when you are using the Sketch module are different from those described here. For information on selecting objects while using the Sketch module, see ``The Sketcher cursors and preselection,'' Section 22.4.5. · To select an edge, click the edge while positioning the cursor away from any vertex. Selected edges are highlighted. · To select a face, click the face while positioning the cursor away from any edge or vertex. Selected faces are highlighted with a grid pattern. (The grid pattern is unrelated to mesh element location.) · To select a cell, click any of its faces. All edges of selected cells are highlighted. If a selection is ambiguous, ABAQUS/CAE displays buttons in the prompt area that allow you

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to cycle between the valid choices and to confirm your selection. For more information, see ``Cycling through valid selections,'' Section 9.2.5. Once you select an object, any objects previously selected in the current viewport are unselected automatically. [Shift]+Click to select additional objects To select an additional object, move the cursor to the object and [Shift]+Click. Your original selection remains highlighted, and the newly selected object becomes highlighted. An alternative method for selecting multiple objects is to drag a rectangle around the objects. For more information see ``Drag-selecting multiple objects,'' Section 9.2.2. [Ctrl]+Click to unselect objects To unselect an object, move the cursor to the object and [Ctrl]+Click. To unselect all objects, click an unused region of the current viewport. When you have finished selecting and unselecting items in the viewport, click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection. You might find it useful to use the selection option tools to adjust the shape of the drag-select region. You can also choose which objects are selected by the drag-select region. To access the selection option tools, click in the prompt area. For more information, see ``Modifying the shape of the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.4, and ``Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.5.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2 · ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1

9.2.2 Drag-selecting multiple objects
Most prompts ask you to select just one object from the current viewport. However, some tasks allow you to select one or more objects; for example, the Set toolset allows you to select several objects of the same type and group them into sets. You can select multiple objects using the [Shift]+Click method described in ``Selecting and unselecting individual objects, '' Section 9.2.1. An additional method for selecting multiple objects is to drag a rectangle around those objects. You might find it useful to use the selection option tools to adjust the shape of the drag-select region. You can also choose which objects are selected by the drag-select region. To access the selection option tools, click in the prompt area. For more information, see ``Modifying the shape of the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.4, and ``Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.5. Detailed instructions for drag-selecting multiple objects:

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1. Imagine a rectangle that encloses only the objects you want to select. 2. Click at one corner of the rectangle and, while continuing to press the mouse button, drag until you have enclosed all the objects. 3. Release the mouse button. All the valid objects inside or crossing the rectangle are highlighted. 4. Click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting objects. Sometimes it is convenient to use a combination of the [Shift]+Click and drag-select selection techniques. For more information, see ``Combining selection techniques,'' Section 9.2.4. Tip: If you select multiple objects and then want to unselect one or more of them, [Ctrl]+Click the objects you want to unselect. To unselect all the objects, click in an unused area of the viewport.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2 · ``Selecting and unselecting individual objects, '' Section 9.2.1 · ``Cycling through valid selections,'' Section 9.2.5

9.2.3 Using the face angle method to create a surface from an orphan mesh
When you import a part from an output database (ODB), ABAQUS/CAE imports the part in the form of an orphan mesh. Similarly, when you import a model from an input file, ABAQUS/CAE imports the part in the form of an orphan mesh. An orphan mesh is a collection of nodes, elements, surfaces, and sets that has been ``orphaned'' from its original geometry. If you want to create a new surface from an orphan mesh, you must select the element faces that make up the set. Selecting individual element faces and appending them to the surface definition is time consuming and prone to error. To speed up the selection process, ABAQUS/CAE provides the face angle method for creating a surface from an orphan mesh. The face angle method is a two-step process: 1. You select an element face from the target face. 2. You enter a face angle (from 0° to 90°). ABAQUS/CAE selects every adjacent element from the target face until the angle between the element faces is equal to or exceeds the face angle. Figure 9-4 illustrates an exhaust manifold and the effect of

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the face angle selection method given a target face on a flange and a face angle of 90°.

Figure 9-4 Select a target face and a face angle to create a surface.

After you use the face angle method, you can [Shift]+Click on additional elements to append them to your selection, and you can [Ctrl]+Click on elements to unselect them. For more information, see ``Combining selection techniques,'' Section 9.2.4. When you are creating a surface from an orphan mesh, you use the menu button in the prompt area to choose between the selection methods-- Individual and Face angle.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2 · ``Understanding selection within viewports, '' Section 9.1

9.2.4 Combining selection techniques
There are times when it is convenient to use a combination of the methods for selecting and unselecting objects. For example, you can drag-select a group of nodes while creating a node set using the Set toolset. You can then [Ctrl]+Click individual nodes to unselect them and [Shift]+Click additional nodes to add them to your selection. A combination of the three techniques is illustrated below: 1. First, you use drag-select to select a group of nodes.

2. Then, you use [Ctrl]+Click to unselect individual nodes.

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3. Finally, you use [Shift]+Click to add nodes to your set and then click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished selecting.

You may find it useful to adjust the view orientation to make particular items in the viewport more accessible. You can adjust the view orientation at any point during the selection process. For information on the view manipulation tools, see Chapter 8, "Manipulating the view and controlling perspective." Tip: To unselect all the objects, click an unused part of the current viewport.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2 · ``Selecting and unselecting individual objects, '' Section 9.2.1 · ``Drag-selecting multiple objects,'' Section 9.2.2

9.2.5 Cycling through valid selections
In some cases ABAQUS/CAE is unable to differentiate between the object you have selected and other nearby or related objects. This ambiguity can arise as follows: · Imagine a small square surrounding the cursor. When you click an object, any other valid objects of the same type that fall inside this square are also considered to be possible selections. For example, if you select an edge that is positioned very close to another edge, ABAQUS/CAE may consider both edges to be possible selections. The size of the square is independent of the monitor size, the viewport size, and the dimensions of the model. It also remains constant when you zoom in and out on your model. Therefore, you can select a specific object in the viewport more precisely by zooming in on your model to increase the distance between objects. · If your model is three-dimensional, imagine a line that is perpendicular to the screen and that passes through the cursor and into the model. When you select an object, any valid objects of the

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same type that intersect this line are considered to be possible selections. (Rotating your model may remove some of the ambiguity.) ABAQUS/CAE reduces the potential for ambiguity by filtering your selection against the current procedure whenever possible. For example, if you are partitioning a cell, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the cell to partition. When you make a selection, ABAQUS/CAE considers only cells to be a valid selection. Conversely, if you are creating a geometry set, ABAQUS/CAE considers cells, faces, edges, and vertices to be a valid selection and the potential for ambiguity is increased. If your selection is ambiguous, ABAQUS/CAE displays buttons in the prompt area that allow you to cycle through all of the possible selections, as shown here:

Use the Next and Previous buttons to cycle forward and backward through all of the objects in the viewport that are possible selections; each object becomes highlighted in turn. When the object of your choice is highlighted, click OK or click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection. (You can also click mouse button 3 in the drawing area to reveal a menu of the options in the prompt area.)

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2

9.3 Using the selection options
ABAQUS/CAE provides a set of tools that can make it easier and more efficient for you to select objects from the viewport. The selection options tool appears on the prompt line when you are prompted to make a selection from the viewport, as shown in Figure 9-5.

Figure 9-5 The selection options tool appears on the prompt line when you are prompted to make a selection from the viewport.

This section describes the selection options. The following topics are covered: · ``Overview of the selection options,'' Section 9.3.1 · ``Filtering your selection based on the type of object,'' Section 9.3.2

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· ``Filtering your selection based on the position of the object, '' Section 9.3.3 · ``Modifying the shape of the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.4 · ``Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select region,'' Section 9.3.5

9.3.1 Overview of the selection options
When you are prompted to select an object from the viewport, ABAQUS/CAE provides selection options tools that can make it easier and more efficient for you to make the desired selection. From the prompt area, click the selection options tool to configure the selection options. Selection options remain in effect only during the current procedure. When you enter the next procedure, the selection options revert to their default settings. Figure 9-6 shows the layout of the selection options tools.

Figure 9-6 The selection options tools.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting objects within the current viewport, '' Section 9.2 · ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3

9.3.2 Filtering your selection based on the type of object
To help you select the desired entities (vertices, edges, faces, cells, nodes, and elements) from the current viewport, ABAQUS/CAE provides a set of filters that you can use to limit your selection based on the type of object. For example, if you are creating a set that contains only surfaces, you can limit your selection to only faces--vertices, edges, and cells will not be selected. When you click on the selection options tool , ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox and configures the contents based on the current procedure. The Options toolbox allows you to control the

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following selection options: Object type If the current viewport contains an ABAQUS/CAE part or part instance, you can select one of the following filters: · All · Vertices · Edges · Faces · Cells · Skins By default, ABAQUS/CAE selects from all vertices, edges, faces, and cells. You can select a skin from the viewport only after you select the skins filter. Similarly, if you are selecting elements from an orphan mesh in the current viewport (to assign an element type, for example), you can select one of the following filters: · All · Zero-dimensional elements · One-dimensional elements · Two-dimensional elements · Three-dimensional elements By default, ABAQUS/CAE selects from all elements.

9.3.3 Filtering your selection based on the position of the object
The selection tools allow you to choose from which objects to select, based on their positions in the viewport. When you click on the selection options tool toolbox, and you can select the following: Objects closest to the screen Toggle on this tool to select only the objects closest to the front of the screen. This tool is toggled on by default. If you toggle off this tool, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to cycle through all of the possible selections. Use the Next and Previous buttons in the prompt area to cycle forward and backward through all of the objects in the viewport that are possible selections; each object 5-253 , ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options

Selecting objects within the viewport

becomes highlighted in turn. For more information, see ``Cycling through valid selections,'' Section 9.2.5. This filter applies to vertices, edges, faces, and cells of an ABAQUS/CAE native part and to nodes and elements of an orphan mesh. Interior and exterior objects Choose one of the following filters: · · · Select objects located both outside and inside a part. This tool is selected by default. Select only objects located on the outside of a part. Select only objects located on the inside of a part.

9.3.4 Modifying the shape of the drag-select region
The selection tools allow you to change the shape of the drag-select region. When you click on the selection options tool the following: Rectangle Click to indicate one corner of the rectangle, and drag the cursor to the second corner. This tool is selected by default. Circle Click to indicate the center of the circle, and drag the cursor to a point on the circumference. Polygon Click to indicate one vertex of the polygon, and drag the cursor to the second vertex. You then continue to click on each vertex of the polygon. Click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished entering vertices. There is no limit to the number of vertices in the polygon. , ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox, and you can choose one of

9.3.5 Choosing which objects are selected by the drag-select region

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The selection tools allow you to choose which objects are selected by the drag-select region. When you click on the selection options tool choose one of the following: Inside , ABAQUS/CAE displays the Options toolbox, and you can

Select only the objects that fall inside the drag-select region. Inside and crossing Select only the objects that fall inside or cross the drag-select region. This tool is selected by default. Crossing Select only the objects that cross the drag-select region. Outside and crossing Select only the objects that fall outside or cross the drag-select region. Outside Select only the objects that fall outside the drag-select region.

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10. Tuning display performance
This chapter explains how you can tune display performance in ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered: · ``Controlling drag mode,'' Section 10.1 · ``Using double buffering,'' Section 10.2 · ``Choosing a graphics driver,'' Section 10.3 · ``Using display lists,'' Section 10.4 · ``Overview of general display options,'' Section 10.5 To locate the options referred to in this chapter, select View->View Options from the main menu bar.

10.1 Controlling drag mode
In ABAQUS/CAE you can manipulate a displayed object dynamically using the mouse; for example, you can pan, zoom, or rotate objects as needed. During such manipulation ABAQUS/CAE draws the object as it moves, thus producing a series of intermediate images. The drag mode controls the render style and, therefore, the speed with which these intermediate images are presented. In general, you use the Fast (wireframe) drag mode to display intermediate images as quickly as possible. Regardless of the current render style, Fast (wireframe) drag mode uses wireframe render style to display these images; in the Visualization module this drag mode is equivalent to using the fast plot mode. Setting the drag mode to Fast (wireframe) significantly improves view manipulation performance for many models, particularly for shaded images. This option is the default. Use the As is drag mode to draw using the selected render style throughout the entire manipulation. Setting the drag mode to As is usually provides a more realistic portrayal of the object but can be significantly slower than setting the drag mode to Fast (wireframe) , particularly if a render style such as shaded is used. Set the drag mode to As is to observe all stages of the object's motion in the selected render style. For example, you may want to use As is to locate areas of high stress concentration as you rotate a contour plot. The effect of your drag mode selection on drawing speed depends not only on your model and render style but on your graphics hardware and on the settings you have chosen for the other graphics options. For example, if you have very high performance graphics hardware and you enable the use of display lists, the As is drag mode may provide the quickest display. For more information on this option, see ``Using display lists,'' Section 10.4. To control the drag mode: 1. Locate the drag mode options. From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . Click the General tab in the dialog box that appears.

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2. Select the Fast (wireframe) or As is drag mode. 3. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box. Your changes are saved for the duration of the session. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

10.2 Using double buffering
Double buffering is a graphics rendering technique that prevents screen flicker when the viewport is refreshed and, as a result, produces a smoother effect, particularly for shaded render style plots. Double buffering is on by default, which works well for most applications. The term ``double buffering'' indicates that two graphics buffers are used. Successive image frames are alternately produced in the two buffers. The presence of two buffers, however, consumes additional graphics resources, which in turn may decrease the number of available colors on some systems. Turning double buffering off may increase color resolution on some workstations. To control double buffering: 1. Locate the buffering options. From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . Click the Hardware tab in the dialog box that appears. 2. Choose either On or Off for double buffering. 3. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box. Your changes are saved for the duration of the session. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

10.3 Choosing a graphics driver
You can choose between two graphics drivers to operate your display: X11 and OpenGL. OpenGL is a graphics library that provides high-speed graphics rendering and is available on most systems. ABAQUS/CAE automatically determines whether OpenGL is available on your system and, if so, establishes this driver as the default. In general, if you have OpenGL on your system, you should use it since OpenGL provides better performance than X11. In the following cases, however, you might prefer to use X11 over OpenGL: · If you run ABAQUS/CAE on a remote machine and display the images on a local machine,

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OpenGL may generate excessive network traffic, especially for large models. · If you use wireframe render style, X11 graphics may perform adequately while saving memory resources in comparison to OpenGL graphics. Note: X11 graphics are not supported on Windows NT systems. To select a graphics driver: 1. Locate the graphics driver options. From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . Click the Hardware tab in the dialog box that appears. 2. Choose either X11 or OpenGL for the graphics driver. 3. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box. Your changes are saved for the duration of the session. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

10.4 Using display lists
Display lists help you display repeated images faster. When an object is displayed repeatedly, for example, as part of an animation, the system must perform many computations to produce each image (frame of the animation). When you use a display list, the results of these computations are stored the first time the object is displayed. The speed of subsequent display increases since ABAQUS/CAE can then refer to the display list instead of recomputing each time the object is redisplayed. You can also use display lists to improve the display speed of large models during view manipulation. In this case display lists are most effective when you use them in combination with the As is drag mode, since the display list must be recomputed when display options such as render style change. By default, ABAQUS/CAE does not use display lists because there is some system overhead involved. In particular, for small models the overhead of accessing the display list can cause the display to be slower than if the display list were not used at all. As a rule, if you notice that animations involving large models are slow to display, use display lists to improve the performance. Display lists operate only in conjunction with the OpenGL driver. To control display lists: 1. Locate the display lists options. From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . Click the Hardware tab in the dialog box that appears. 2. Choose OpenGL for the graphics driver. 6-258

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3. Toggle Enable display list to enable or suppress display lists. When Enable display list is on, you may notice a brief delay the first time an image is drawn; this occurs because ABAQUS/CAE must construct the display list. Subsequent drawing of the image is faster. 4. Click OK to implement your changes and to close the dialog box. Your changes are saved for the duration of the session. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance"

10.5 Overview of general display options
You can use the general display options within the View Options dialog box to control object appearance and to tune display performance. To specify general display options: 1. From the main menu bar, select View->View Options . The View Options dialog box appears. It contains the following tabbed pages: · General: - Control perspective. For more information, see ``Controlling perspective,'' Section 8.3. - Choose the drag mode. For more information, see ``Controlling drag mode,'' Section 10.1. - Enable or disable the automatic fitting of your view to the viewport after rotations. For more information, see ``Rotating the view,'' Section 8.4.2. · Hardware : Tune performance using options for double buffering, display lists, and graphics drivers. For more information on performance options, see Chapter 10, "Tuning display performance." 2. Use the tabbed pages in the dialog box to customize object appearance and to improve display performance.

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11. Printing canvas objects
This chapter describes how you send an image of selected canvas objects--viewports, text annotations, and arrows--either directly to a printer or to a file. The following topics are covered: · ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2 For additional information on configuring printers, see the ABAQUS Site Guide.

11.1 Understanding printing
ABAQUS/CAE allows you to take a snapshot of selected objects on the canvas and to send the image either directly to a printer or to a file for later use; for example, to include in a presentation, embed in a printed report, or display in an HTML document. The objects can be one or more viewports and their contents, as well as any annotations (text and arrows) that appear on the canvas. Additional options allow you to select the appearance of viewports in the resulting image, as well as the color, resolution, and size of the image. This section describes basic concepts you should understand before sending output to a printer or to a file. The following topics are covered: · ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1 · ``PostScript image size and layout,'' Section 11.1.2 · ``EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size,'' Section 11.1.3 · ``Hardcopy image quality,'' Section 11.1.4 · ``Importing ABAQUS/CAE images into other software products,'' Section 11.1.5

11.1.1 Printed image formats
ABAQUS/CAE allows you to print images directly to a PostScript printer or to save the image in a PostScript (PS), Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), Tag Image File Format (TIFF), or Portable Network Graphics (PNG) file. The following list describes these file formats: PostScript PostScript is the recognized standard for desktop publishing. PostScript is actually a programming language whose instructions and data are usually stored in an ASCII format that can be transferred easily between operating systems. You can print an image directly to a PostScript printer, or you can save the same image in a PostScript file. When you select the PostScript format, ABAQUS/CAE generates either a compressed bitmap representation or a vector representation of your image, according to the following convention: · In general, ABAQUS/CAE creates a vector representation of your image when you print

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wireframe render style plots. The Visualization module creates a vector representation of your image when you print an X-Y plot, a wireframe undeformed or deformed plot, or a wireframe symbol plot having wireframe arrowheads. · ABAQUS/CAE creates a bitmap representation of your image when you print a hidden line or shaded render style plot. The Visualization module also creates a bitmap representation of your image when you print a filled render style plot or a symbol plot having filled arrowheads. Since contour plots are considered filled plots, they also generate a bitmap representation of your image. For efficiency when producing bitmap images, you should minimize the size of your image and limit the resolution of the image to, at most, the resolution of the device on which the image is to be printed or displayed. Encapsulated PostScript Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is a variation of PostScript that describes a single graphic designed to be included in a larger document without modification. EPS files are identical to PostScript files except for some information that describes the size and positioning of the image. As a result, the above discussion about vector and bitmap representations of your image applies equally to the EPS format. Most word processing and graphics applications support the inclusion of EPS files. TIFF Tag Image File Format (TIFF) is a well-established bitmap image format that is recognized by many software applications. The TIFF format supports both color and grayscale. PNG Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is an industry standard for storing bitmap images. The use of PNG files has been popularized by the World Wide Web, and PNG images are displayed by most popular web browsers running on a variety of operating systems. A PNG file consists of color information and a compressed bitmap representation of the image. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.1.2 PostScript image size and layout
When you print a snapshot of selected canvas objects directly to a PostScript printer or save it in a PostScript file, the size and layout of the image is determined by the available page size, the orientation, and the aspect ratio of the objects: Available page size The available page size is calculated from the total page size and the margin information that

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you supply, as illustrated by the sample dimensions shown in Figure 11-1.

Figure 11-1 The available page size.

Orientation The orientation of your page can be either portrait or landscape. Aspect ratio The aspect ratio is the ratio between the overall width and the overall height of the canvas objects--viewports and annotations--that you select for printing. ABAQUS/CAE calculates the size of your image by scaling the selected canvas objects so that the overall object size fits within the available page size without changing the aspect ratio of the objects, as shown in Figure 11-2. You cannot directly specify the size of your PostScript image; however, you can control the aspect ratio by manipulating the objects on the canvas before printing them.

Figure 11-2 Scaling the objects to maintain the aspect ratio.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Customizing the image sent to a PostScript printer or file, '' Section 11.2.5 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2 · ``EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size,'' Section 11.1.3

11.1.3 EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size
When you print a snapshot of selected canvas objects to an Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), TIFF, or

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PNG-format file, ABAQUS/CAE determines the size of the image based on the size you specify and the overall aspect ratio of the canvas objects. You can control the aspect ratio by manipulating the objects on the canvas. In the options dialog box (EPS Options, PNG Options, or TIFF Options) you can choose one of the following methods to specify the size of the printed image: · Use the size of the image on the screen. (ABAQUS/CAE indicates the current image size in the options dialog box.) This method is the default. · Set the width or height. You specify only one dimension; ABAQUS/CAE computes the other dimension to maintain the aspect ratio of the canvas objects. When you are creating an EPS-format file, you specify the width or height in either inches or millimeters. When you are creating a TIFFor a PNG-format file, you specify the width or height in screen pixels; increasing the number of pixels increases the image size. The maximum image size allowed is 1280 ´ 1024 pixels. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``PostScript image size and layout,'' Section 11.1.2 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.1.4 Hardcopy image quality
When you print a snapshot of selected canvas objects directly to a PostScript printer or save it in a PostScript or Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) file, ABAQUS/CAE creates either a vector or bitmap representation of the image (for more information, see ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1). Vector representation images are resolution independent, so their quality depends only on the resolution of your printer. For bitmap representation PostScript and EPS images, and for PNG and TIFF format images, you can use the Resolution menu button in the corresponding options dialog box to specify the resolution of the image you save or print. At higher resolution, images appear to be smoother and less jagged. Although a higher resolution image has higher quality, more data are required to define the image; the resulting file can consume a large amount of disk space. A lower resolution image will normally print and display faster. In general, you should select the lowest resolution that still produces an acceptable image. You may want to save a lower resolution image while you produce draft copies of your work and switch to a higher resolution for the finished version. The resolution of your printer sets an upper limit on the printed image resolution. For example, if you save an image at a resolution of 600 dots per inch (dpi) and print it on a printer that has a resolution of 300 dpi, the printed image will have a resolution of only 300 dpi. Bitmap representation image quality may also be affected by changes you make to the image with external software after the image has been created, such as scaling and rotation. Scaling and rotation may distort a bitmap image. Consequently, before you print a bitmap representation of your image, you

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should adjust the objects on your canvas to match the dimensions and orientation that will appear in the final application. Scaling and rotation do not distort or diminish the quality of vector representation images. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.1.5 Importing ABAQUS/CAE images into other software products
Many popular software systems such as word processors have mechanisms to incorporate externally generated graphic images. In some cases these imported images can be previewed online. The ability to preview an EPS image created by ABAQUS/CAE varies from product to product, depending on whether the product requires that bitmap preview data be present within the image file. Since ABAQUS/CAE does not include preview data in its image files, you will not be able to preview the image in products that require the preview data to be present. However, regardless of the success or failure of previewing, ABAQUS/CAE images print successfully in these systems.

11.2 Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images
This section describes the options available for controlling the destination and appearance of printed images. The following topics are covered: · ``Printing to a printer or to a file,'' Section 11.2.1 · ``Selecting which part of the image to print,'' Section 11.2.2 · ``Choosing the color of your image,'' Section 11.2.3 · ``Choosing the destination of your image,'' Section 11.2.4 · ``Customizing the image sent to a PostScript printer or file, '' Section 11.2.5 · ``Customizing the image saved in an Encapsulated PostScript file, '' Section 11.2.6 · ``Customizing the image saved in TIFF or PNG files,'' Section 11.2.7

11.2.1 Printing to a printer or to a file
ABAQUS/CAE allows you to print a snapshot of selected objects on the canvas and to send the image either directly to a printer, or to a file for later use; for example, to include in a presentation, embed in a printed report, or display in an HTML document. The objects on the canvas can be one or more viewports and their contents, as well as any annotations (text and arrows) that appear on the canvas. The printed image will reproduce the layering of objects on the canvas; that is, if one object obscures

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another on the canvas, the obscured portion will not appear in the printed image. You can select the format of the printed image, and additional options allow you to select the appearance of viewports in the resulting image, and the color, resolution, orientation, and size of the image. To create a printed image, select File->Print from the main menu bar. To configure your image, use the Print dialog box that appears. For detailed help on the items within the dialog box, request context-sensitive help on the individual items. When you have finished selecting options, click OK in the Print dialog box to send the image to the selected destination. ABAQUS/CAE closes the Print dialog box, sends the image to the selected destination, and saves your print options for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.2 Selecting which part of the image to print
When you print an image directly to a PostScript printer or to a file, you can use the Print dialog box to select which objects on the canvas to include in the printed image. You can select the following: All or selected canvas objects Select All Canvas Objects to print all objects (viewports, text annotations, and arrows) on the canvas. Objects that are on the canvas but are not visible because they are outside the drawing area will still be printed. If viewports and annotations are overlaid, the printed image will reproduce the layering of objects on the canvas. That is, if one object obscures another, the obscured portion will not appear in the printed image. By default, ABAQUS/CAE prints all the objects on the canvas. Select Selected Canvas Objects to print selected objects only. See ``Selecting viewports,'' Section 7.3.2, and ``Selecting canvas annotations,'' Section 7.4.4, for more information on selecting canvas objects. Viewport decorations Use the Print viewport decorations (if visible) option to select whether your image will include viewport decorations. Decorations are defined as the viewport border and the viewport title. If you want to print a viewport's decoration, it must first be visible on the canvas; you can turn decorations off and on using the Canvas menu in the main menu bar. Note: Toggling the Print viewport decorations (if visible) option off is the only way to prevent the red border around the current viewport from appearing in your printed image; the red border cannot otherwise be disabled. 7-265

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Viewport backgrounds Use the Print viewport backgrounds option to control the appearance of a viewport's background in your printed image. This option is available only when you choose either a grayscale or a color image; when you choose black and white, ABAQUS/CAE always prints a black image on a white background. Note: Printing without the viewport background (so that the background appears transparent or white) usually produces the most attractive hardcopy image. To select which part of the image to print: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print. Tip: You can also click The Print dialog box appears. 2. From the Print menu button at the top of the dialog box, select either: · All Canvas Objects to print all canvas objects, even if they lie outside the drawing area. · Selected Canvas Objects to print only the canvas objects you have selected. Canvas objects are defined as viewports, text annotations, and arrows. 3. Toggle Print viewport decorations (if visible). When Print viewport decorations (if visible) is on, all viewport titles and borders that are visible on the canvas will be printed. When Print viewport decorations (if visible) is off, none of the viewport titles or borders will be printed. You cannot use the Canvas menu items to hide the red border surrounding the current viewport. As a result, in order to print the current viewport without the border, you must toggle this option off. 4. Toggle Print viewport backgrounds . When Print viewport backgrounds is on, your image will inherit the background color of viewports on your monitor. When Print viewport backgrounds is off, the appearance of viewport backgrounds depends on the format you choose for your image: · When you choose PS (PostScript) or EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) format, viewports in your image will have a white background. · When you choose PNG or TIFF format, viewports in your image will have a transparent background. in the toolbar.

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5. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output. ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.3 Choosing the color of your image
When you print an image from the canvas directly to a printer or a file, you can use the Print dialog box to select the color of your image. The following color options are available:
Black&White

Use this option to print black images on a white background. This option is useful for printing wireframe and hidden-line images of parts, assemblies, and meshes, including any partitions and datum geometry. You can also print black and white images of undeformed and deformed shape plots. When you choose Black&White, ABAQUS/CAE always prints a black image on a white background, and the viewport background is printed as either transparent or white. This option should not be used for printing images that depend heavily on color, such as contour plots.
Grayscale

Use this option to print grayscale versions of color images, where each color is approximated by a shade of gray. (ABAQUS/CAE converts each color to one of 256 true shades of gray.) This option is useful for printing color images, such as contour plots, to a black and white laser printer. To improve the appearance of images sent to a printer, you may want to print viewports with the background turned off (so that it appears white or transparent).
Color

Use this option to print an approximation of the colors you see. ( ABAQUS/CAE uses up to 256 different colors, both on the screen and in your printed image.) This option is useful for printing images such as contour plots to a color printer or to a file that will ultimately be displayed online. If you try to print a color image to a black and white PostScript printer, the printer converts the colors to shades of gray. To select the color of your image: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print.

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Tip: You can also click The Print dialog box appears.

in the toolbar.

2. From the Rendition menu button in the Settings field, select one of the following color options: · Select Black&White to create a black image on a white background. · Select Grayscale to print a grayscale approximation of a color image. · Select Color to print a color approximation of the colors on your screen. 3. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output. ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding printing,'' Section 11.1 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.4 Choosing the destination of your image
You can choose to send an image directly to a printer, or you can save the image in a file. If you send the image directly to a printer, ABAQUS/CAE selects PostScript format, and you can specify the number of copies and the printer command. Additional options for the PostScript format allow you to choose the paper size, orientation, margins, and resolution of your image, and whether or not to include the date and ABAQUS logo. If you choose to save the image in a file, you must provide a file name and select one of the following file formats: PostScript Select PostScript (PS) if you want the saved image to be identical to the image that ABAQUS/CAE would print to a PostScript printer. Additional options for this format allow you to choose the paper size, orientation, margins, and resolution of your image, and whether or not to include the date and ABAQUS logo. For more information, see ``Customizing the image sent to a PostScript printer or file,'' Section 11.2.5. Encapsulated PostScript Select Encapsulated Postscript ( EPS) if you want to incorporate the saved image in a separate document; for example, a word processing file. Additional options for this format allow you to

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specify the size and resolution of the image. For more information, see ``Customizing the image saved in an Encapsulated PostScript file,'' Section 11.2.6.
TIFF

Select TIFF if you want to incorporate the saved image in a separate document; for example, a word processing file. Additional options for this format allow you to specify the size of the image. For more information, see ``Customizing the image saved in TIFF or PNG files,'' Section 11.2.7.
PNG

Select PNG if you want to incorporate the saved image in a separate document; for example, an HTML file for display on the World Wide Web. Additional options for this format allow you to specify the size of the image. For more information, see ``Customizing the image saved in TIFF or PNG files,'' Section 11.2.7. To select the destination of your image: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print. Tip: You can also click The Print dialog box appears. 2. From the Destination buttons in the Settings field, select one of the following: Printer Choose Printer to send your PostScript image to a printer, and type the print command in the Print command text field. This command should be the same command that you would use at your workstation to print a PostScript file. Do not include a file name in the print command; ABAQUS/CAE automatically appends the file name to your command. See your systems administrator for details on the valid commands at your site. Click the arrows in the Copies field to set the desired number of copies to print, or type the number of copies you want into the text field. You can print up to 100 copies. If desired, click PS Options to specify the page size, printed image resolution, and other options. File Choose File to send your image to a file. There are two ways to supply the file name:
File name

in the toolbar.

Type the name in the File name text field. You can type any characters that are legal UNIX or Windows NT file names; for example, on a UNIX system: stressfield.png ../../nozzle/presentation/injector_mesh ~/pump/actuator/strainpattern.eps 7-269

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If you do not type a file extension, ABAQUS/CAE will append an extension (.ps, .eps, .png, or .tif) to the file name.
Select

Use the Select button to supply a file name using the standard file browser. For more information on file selection, see ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7.

3. If you selected to print the image to a file, click the Format menu button to select either a PostScript (PS), Encapsulated PostScript (EPS), TIFF, or PNG format file. If desired, click the respective options button to specify additional options. 4. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output. ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1 · ``Hardcopy image quality,'' Section 11.1.4 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.5 Customizing the image sent to a PostScript printer or file
When you print objects on the canvas to a PostScript file or directly to a PostScript printer, you can use the PostScript Options dialog box to customize the resulting printed image. You can configure the following: Paper Size You can choose from a list of standard page sizes. Orientation You can choose either Portrait or Landscape orientation. Portrait and landscape orientations are illustrated in the following figure:

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Margins You can provide the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right margins. ABAQUS/CAE computes the maximum image size as the page size minus the margins. You can specify zero-width margins; however, printers cannot print to the edge of the paper and typically have margins of at least 0.25 inches (8 mm). ABAQUS/CAE maintains the margins you specify regardless of the orientation of the paper. For example, assume you chose a Portrait image and entered a value for the Top margin. If you now choose a Landscape image, ABAQUS/CAE uses the value you entered for the Top margin to compute the Left margin. Similarly, the value you entered for the Right margin becomes the Top margin. Text Rendering You can specify how you want text on the canvas to appear in the printed image. You can use either PostScript fonts or request that text characters be output as small bitmaps. If you select Always use PostScript printer fonts, ABAQUS/CAE prints only font families that are commonly available on a postscript printer (Courier, Helvetica, Times, and Symbol.) Any other font is replaced by Courier, the default font. If you select Use PostScript printer fonts when available , ABAQUS/CAE prints any canvas text that appears in Courier, Helvetica, Times, or Symbol font. However, text in any other font is output as small bitmaps for each character. This option requires more processing and results in a larger PostScript file. No fonts are replaced by the default font. If you select Always use displayed fonts (WYSIWYG), all characters are output as small bitmaps. Resolution You can select from a list of standard resolutions. The resolution setting will be used only to generate bitmap representation PostScript images. (For more information, see ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1.) The maximum effective resolution of a bitmap PostScript image is limited to the resolution of the device on which the image will be displayed. By default, ABAQUS/CAE sets the resolution of a bitmap PostScript image to 150 dpi. To save disk space, you should select the minimum acceptable resolution. Date and logo By default ABAQUS/CAE includes the date and time and an ABAQUS/CAE logo across the top of a PostScript image. You can choose to remove the date and time or the logo from your

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output. If you are printing to a printer, the Print dialog box also allows you to type a printer command and set the number of copies to print. For more information, see ``PostScript image size and layout,'' Section 11.1.2 and ``Hardcopy image quality,'' Section 11.1.4. To customize the image sent to a printer: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print. Tip: You can also click The Print dialog box appears. 2. From the Destination radio buttons, choose Printer. 3. In the Print command text field, type the print command. 4. Click the arrows to the right of the Copies text field to increase or decrease the number of copies to print or type the number directly in the text field. You can print 1 to 100 copies. 5. From the lower-right corner of the Print dialog box, click PS Options. The PostScript Options dialog box appears. 6. From the Paper Size field, select a standard page size. 7. From the Orientation field, choose the paper orientation. 8. From the Margins field, type the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right margins in inches. 9. From the Resolution menu button, select from the list of resolutions. 10. If desired, toggle off Print date to remove the date and time from your output. 11. If desired, toggle off Print ABAQUS logo to remove the logo from your output. 12. Click OK to save your PostScript customization settings and to close the PostScript Options dialog box. 13. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output. ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print dialog box are saved for the duration of the session. in the toolbar.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``PostScript image size and layout,'' Section 11.1.2 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.6 Customizing the image saved in an Encapsulated PostScript file
When you print objects on the canvas to an EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) file, you can customize the resulting image. The Encapsulated PostScript Options dialog box allows you to configure the following: Image Size You can save an image that is the same size as the image on the screen, or you can specify the size of the image in inches or millimeters. You specify either the width or the height; ABAQUS/CAE calculates the other dimension to maintain the aspect ratio of the canvas objects. Text Rendering You can specify how you want text on the canvas to appear in the printed image. You can use either PostScript fonts or request that text characters be output as small bitmaps. If you select Always use PostScript printer fonts, ABAQUS/CAE prints only font families that are commonly available on a postscript printer (Courier, Helvetica, Times, and Symbol.) Any other font is replaced by Courier, the default font. If you select Use PostScript printer fonts when available , ABAQUS/CAE prints any canvas text that appears in Courier, Helvetica, Times, or Symbol font. However, text in any other font is output as small bitmaps for each character. This option requires more processing and results in a larger PostScript file. No fonts are replaced by the default font. If you select Always use displayed fonts (WYSIWYG), all characters are output as small bitmaps. Resolution You can select from a list of standard resolutions. The resolution setting will be used only to generate bitmap representation EPS images. (For more information, see ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1.) The maximum effective resolution of a bitmap representation EPS image is limited to the resolution of the device on which the image will be displayed. By default, ABAQUS/CAE sets the resolution of a bitmap EPS image to 150 dpi. To save disk space, you should select the minimum acceptable resolution. For more information, see ``Hardcopy image quality,'' Section 11.1.4. To customize the images saved in an Encapsulated PostScript file:

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1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print. Tip: You can also click The Print dialog box appears. 2. From the Destination radio buttons, choose File. 3. In the File name text field, type the file name or click Select to select the file name from the standard file browser. 4. From the Format menu button, select EPS. 5. From the lower-right corner of the Print dialog box, click EPS Options. The Encapsulated PostScript Options dialog box appears. 6. From the Image Size field, choose one of the following: · Choose Use size on screen to save an EPS image that is the same size as the overall width and height of the canvas objects that you select for printing. ABAQUS/CAE displays the resulting size to the right of the Use size on screen radio button. · Choose Use settings below to specify the width or height of the resulting image in either inches or millimeters. 7. From the Resolution menu button, select from the list of resolutions. 8. Click OK to save your customization settings and to close the Encapsulated PostScript Options dialog box. 9. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output. ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print dialog box are saved for the duration of the session. in the toolbar.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

11.2.7 Customizing the image saved in TIFF or PNG files
When you print objects on the canvas to either a TIFF or a PNG-format file, you can customize the resulting image. You can save an image that is the same size as the image on the screen, or you can

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specify the size of the image in pixels. For more information, see ``EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size,'' Section 11.1.3 and ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1. To customize the image saved in TIFF or PNG files: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Print.
Note: You can also click in the toolbar.

The Print dialog box appears. 2. In the File name text field, type the file name or click Select to select the file name from the standard file browser. 3. Type or select the file name. 4. From the Format menu button, select TIFF or PNG. 5. From the lower-right corner of the Print dialog box, click TIFF Options or PNG Options. The appropriate dialog box appears. 6. From the Image Size field, choose one of the following: · Choose Use size on screen to save an image that is the same size as the overall width and height of the canvas objects that you select for printing. ABAQUS/CAE displays the resulting size to the right of the Use size on screen radio button. · Choose Use settings below to specify the width or height of the resulting image in units of pixels. The maximum image size allowed is 1280 ´ 1024 pixels. 7. Click OK to save your customization settings and to close the dialog box. 8. When you have finished with the Print dialog box, click OK to generate the desired output. ABAQUS/CAE generates the output and closes the Print dialog box. Your settings in the Print dialog box are saved for the duration of the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Printed image formats,'' Section 11.1.1 · ``EPS, TIFF, and PNG image size,'' Section 11.1.3 · ``Controlling the destination and appearance of printed images, '' Section 11.2

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Part III: Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases, models, and files
Almost every modeling operation you perform while working in an ABAQUS/CAE module contributes to the definition of a model in a model database. This part describes ABAQUS/CAE models and model databases, the files created by the modeling process, and how you work with these models and files. The following topics are covered: · Chapter 12, "Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models, model databases, and files" · Chapter 13, "Importing and exporting geometry data and models"

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12. Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models, model databases, and files
A finished model contains all the data that ABAQUS/CAE needs to create and submit the analysis to ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. Models are stored in a model database. This chapter discusses models and model databases and describes the various files that ABAQUS/CAE generates and reads. The following topics are covered: · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3 · ``ABAQUS/CAE command files,'' Section 12.4 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5 · ``Managing model and output databases,'' Section 12.6 · ``Managing models,'' Section 12.7 · ``Adding unsupported keywords to your ABAQUS/CAE model,'' Section 12.8 · ``Managing macros,'' Section 12.9

12.1 What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?
A model database (file extension .cae) stores models and analysis jobs. (For more information on analysis jobs, see ``Understanding analysis jobs,'' Section 21.2.) You can have multiple model databases stored on your workstation or network, but ABAQUS/CAE can work on only one of them at any time. As a result, every model you plan to work on simultaneously must be stored in one model database. The model database in use is known as the current model database; ABAQUS/CAE displays the name of the current model database across the top of the main window, as shown in Figure 12-1.

Figure 12-1 ABAQUS/CAE displays the model database name and the model name.

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When you first start ABAQUS/CAE, the Start Session dialog box allows you to either create a new, empty model database or to open an existing model database. Anything you create or define in ABAQUS/CAE is stored in this model database. You save the contents by selecting File->Save or File->Save As from the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE never saves the model database unless you perform an explicit save operation; there is no timer-based automatic saving, for example. However, while you work on your model, ABAQUS/CAE maintains a record of all the operations that changed the model database. Although you may not have saved the model database, you can always replay the operations that replicate its current state. For more information on recreating the model database, see ``Recreating an unsaved model database,'' Section 12.4.3. After you begin an ABAQUS/CAE session, you can open an existing model database by selecting File->Open from the main bar, or you can create a new model database by selecting File->New . If you open or create another model database after you have made changes to the current one, ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save the changes before it closes the current model database. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 12, "Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models, model databases, and files · ``Managing model and output databases,'' Section 12.6

12.2 What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?
An ABAQUS/CAE model contains the following kinds of objects: · parts · materials and sections · assembly information · sets and surfaces · steps

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· loads, boundary conditions, and initial conditions · interactions and their properties · meshes A model database can contain any number of models so that you can keep all models related to a single problem in one database. (For more information, see ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1.) You can open multiple models from the model database at the same time, and you can work on different models in different viewports. The viewport title bar (if visible) displays the name of the model associated with the viewport. The model associated with the current viewport (indicated by a red border) is called the current model, and there is only one current model. Figure 12-1 shows two viewports displaying two different models (high_speed and low_speed) in the same model database (crankshaft.cae); the current viewport in Figure 12-1 is displaying the high_speed model. You use the Model Manager or the Model menu items from the main menu bar to create and manage your models. You use the Model list located under the toolbar to switch to a different model in the current model database. You can create a copy of a model within a model database; in addition, you can copy the following objects between models: · Sketches · Parts (part sets are also copied) · Materials · Sections · Amplitudes However, you cannot copy a model from one model database to another. For detailed instructions, see ``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1, and ``Copying objects between models,'' Section 12.7.3. ABAQUS/CAE checks that your model is complete when you submit it for analysis. For example, if you request a dynamic analysis, you must specify the density of the materials so that the mass and inertia properties of the model can be calculated. If you did not provide a material density in the Property module, the Job module reports an error; for more information, see ``Monitoring the progress of an analysis job,'' Section 21.2.6. In some modules ABAQUS/CAE does not support functionality from ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit that you may want to include in the analysis. You may be able to add such functionality by using the Keywords Editor to edit the ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit keywords associated with a model. Select Model->Edit Keywords->model name from the main menu bar to start the Keywords Editor. (You can review the keywords supported by ABAQUS/CAE by selecting Help->Keyword Browser from the main menu bar.)

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For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 12, "Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models, model databases, and files

12.3 Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model
When you start a session and begin defining your model, ABAQUS/CAE generates the following file: The replay file (abaqus.rpy) The replay file contains ABAQUS/CAE commands that record almost every modeling operation you perform during a session. For more information, see ``Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section 12.4.1. When you select File->Save from the main menu bar and save the model database, ABAQUS/CAE saves the following files: The model database file (model_database_ name.cae) The model database file contains models and analysis jobs. For more information, see ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1. The journal file (model_database_ name.jnl) The journal file contains the ABAQUS/CAE commands that will replicate the model database that was saved to disk. For more information, see ``Recreating a saved model database,'' Section 12.4.2. When you continue to work on your model, ABAQUS/CAE continues to record your actions in the replay file. In addition, ABAQUS/CAE saves the following file: The recover file ( model_database_ name.rec) The recover file contains the ABAQUS/CAE commands that will replicate the version of the model database in memory. The model database recovery file contains only the commands that changed the model database since you last saved it. For more information, see ``Recreating an unsaved model database,'' Section 12.4.3. When you submit a job for analysis, ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit create a set of files; for a complete list of these files, see ``File extensions used by ABAQUS,'' Section 3.5.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. The following list describes some of the files that ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit create and their relationship to ABAQUS/CAE: Input files ( job_name.inp) ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file that is read by ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit when you submit a job for analysis. For more information, see ``Basic steps for analyzing a model,'' Section 21.2.1.

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Output database files ( job_name.odb) Output database files contain the results from your analysis. You use the Step module's Output Database Request Manager to choose which variables are written to the output database during the analysis and at what rate. An output database is associated with the job you submit from the Job module; for example, if you named your job FrictionLoad, the analysis creates an output database called FrictionLoad.odb. When you open an output database, ABAQUS/CAE loads the Visualization module and allows you to view a graphical representation of the contents. You can also import a part from an output database as an orphan mesh. The restart file (job_name.res) The restart file is used to continue an analysis that stopped before it was complete. You use the Step module to specify which analysis steps should write restart information and how often. If you are using ABAQUS/Explicit, the restart information you supply in the Step module controls the data written to the state file ( job_name.abq). For more information, see ``Configuring restart output requests,'' Section 17.10.1. The data file ( job_name.dat) The data file contains printed output from the solver input file processor, as well as printed output of selected results written during the analysis. ABAQUS/CAE automatically requests that the default printed output for the current analysis procedure be generated at the end of each step; you cannot use ABAQUS/CAE to exert any additional control over the contents of the data file. The message file (job_name.msg) The message file contains diagnostic or informative messages about the progress of the solution. You can control the diagnostic information that is output to the message file using the Step module. For more information, see ``Diagnostic printing,'' Section 17.5.2. The status file (job_name.sta) The status file (job_name.sta) contains information about the progress of the analysis. In addition, you use the Step module to request that the value of a single degree of freedom at a single node be output to the status file. For more information, see ``Degree of freedom monitor requests,'' Section 17.5.3. Note: The errors and warnings that ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit write to the data, message, and status files while analyzing a job can be monitored by the Job module; for more information, see ``Monitoring the progress of an analysis job,'' Section 21.2.6.

12.4 ABAQUS/CAE command files
This section describes the command files that you can use to reproduce your work and to customize ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered:

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· ``Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section 12.4.1 · ``Recreating a saved model database,'' Section 12.4.2 · ``Recreating an unsaved model database,'' Section 12.4.3 · ``Creating and running your own scripts,'' Section 12.4.4 · ``Creating and running a macro,'' Section 12.4.5 · ``Customizing your ABAQUS/CAE environment,'' Section 12.4.6

12.4.1 Replaying an ABAQUS/CAE session
Almost every modeling operation that you perform in ABAQUS/CAE is recorded automatically in the replay file (abaqus.rpy) in the form of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands. Executing the replay file is equivalent to replaying the original sequence of operations including any redundant procedures and any mistakes and subsequent corrections that you made. The replay file also includes canvas operations, such as creating a new viewport or adding a text annotation. ABAQUS/CAE retains the five most recent versions of the replay file. The most recent version of the replay file is called abaqus.rpy. The four older versions have a number appended to the end of the file name; the file name with the lowest number indicates the oldest replay file, and the file name with the highest number indicates the second most recent replay file. You can execute the replay file when you start ABAQUS/CAE or during a session; however, the resulting model may be different if the replay file generates an error. From the ABAQUS execution procedure To run a replay file from the ABAQUS execution procedure, type abaqus cae replay=replay_file_name.rpy. If executing the replay file generates an error, ABAQUS/CAE ignores the error and continues to the next command in the replay file. As a result, ABAQUS/CAE always attempts to execute every command in the replay file. During an ABAQUS/CAE session To run a replay file during a session, select File->Run Script from the main menu bar. If the replay file generates an error, ABAQUS/CAE stops executing the replay file and displays an error message in the command area. It is recommended that you run a replay file from the ABAQUS execution procedure.

12.4.2 Recreating a saved model database
When you save a model database (by selecting File->Save or File->Save As from the main menu bar), ABAQUS/CAE also saves a model database journal file (model_database_name.jnl) containing the ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands that will recreate the model database. Should the saved model database become corrupted, you can recreate it by starting ABAQUS/CAE with the recover option. (Type abaqus cae recover=model_database_name.jnl.) The recover

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option executes the commands in the specified model database journal file. The model database journal file differs from the replay file in that it does not contain every operation performed during a session. The model database journal file contains only the commands that change the saved model database; for example, commands that create or edit a part, change the time incrementation of an analysis step, or modify the mesh. Operations that do not change the model database are not saved in the journal file; for example, sending an image to a printer, creating a viewport, rotating the model, or viewing results in the Visualization module. As you continue to work on your model, the model database in memory will differ from the most recently saved model database. The model database journal file is updated only when you perform an explicit save of the model database using File->Save or File->Save As. If you copy the model database to a different location, you should also copy the associated model database journal file. Otherwise, you will not be able to recreate the model database.

12.4.3 Recreating an unsaved model database
After you save the model database and continue to work on your model, ABAQUS/CAE saves a model database recovery file (model_database_name.rec) containing ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands that will recreate the version of the model database in memory. The model database recovery file contains only the commands that changed the model database since you last saved it. The model database recovery file is similar to the model database journal file in that it contains only the commands that change the contents of the model database. You usually use the recovery file to recreate a model database that was lost due to a catastrophic interruption of your ABAQUS/CAE session; for example, as a result of a loss of power to your computer. If you have not yet saved the current model database, ABAQUS/CAE creates a model database recovery file called abaqus.rec. When you restart ABAQUS/CAE, it detects the presence of a model database recovery file called abaqus.rec and asks if you want to recreate the model database before continuing. The recovery behavior is similar after you save the model database. When you perform the save operation, ABAQUS/CAE copies the model database recovery file to a new model database journal file and deletes the recovery file. As you continue to work on your model, ABAQUS/CAE creates a new model database recovery file called model_database_name.rec. If you restart ABAQUS/CAE after a catastrophic interruption of your session, ABAQUS/CAE does not detect the presence of the model database recovery file until you open the model database called model_database_name.cae. ABAQUS/CAE then asks if you wish to restore the model database before continuing.

12.4.4 Creating and running your own scripts
Almost every modeling operation that you perform during an ABAQUS/CAE session can be duplicated by a script (script_name.py) containing a set of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands. Conversely, running a script from within ABAQUS/CAE is equivalent to performing the corresponding operations using the menus, toolboxes, and dialog boxes that ABAQUS/CAE provides. You can create scripts that duplicate operations you perform routinely during a session; for example,

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you might write a script that defines the material properties of a commonly used material. The replay file, the model database journal file, and the model database recovery file all contain ABAQUS/CAE commands. ABAQUS/CAE commands are written in the Python scripting language, and you can use Python to enhance the scripts generated by ABAQUS/CAE. For more information on ABAQUS/CAE commands, see the ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual. Commands are stored as ASCII text in the replay, journal, and recovery files and in ABAQUS/CAE scripts that you create. As a result, you can use a standard text editor to edit the contents of the files. For more information on commands, see the ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual. To run a script, select File->Run Script from the main menu bar, and select the script to run from the Run Script dialog box. Note: You should use the recover option from the ABAQUS/CAE execution procedure to run a journal file and recreate a saved model database. (Type abaqus cae recover=model_database_name.jnl.) Selecting File->Run Script to run a journal file may result in an incomplete model database.

12.4.5 Creating and running a macro
The Macro Manager allows you to record a sequence of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands in a macro file while you interact with ABAQUS/CAE. Each command corresponds to an interaction with ABAQUS/CAE, and replaying the macro reproduces the sequence of interactions. You can use a macro to automate tasks that you find yourself performing repeatedly, such as printing the current viewport or applying a predefined view. All of your macros are stored in a file called abaqusMacros.py in the local directory. For more information on ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands, see the ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual. To create, delete, or run a macro, select File->Macro Manager from the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Macro Manager and a list of the existing macros in abaqusMacros.py in the local directory. For more information, see ``Managing macros,'' Section 12.9.

12.4.6 Customizing your ABAQUS/CAE environment
You use the ABAQUS environment file ( abaqus_v6.env) to specify parameters that control ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit. In addition, you can use the environment file to specify a set of commands that are executed when you start an ABAQUS/CAE session. Examples of commands that configure how you want a job to run on a remote host computer are given in ``Submitting a job remotely,'' Section 21.2.7.

12.5 Using the File menu
Use the items under File on the main menu bar to do the following: · Select File->New to create a new model database. You can also click information, see ``Creating a new model database,'' Section 12.6.1. in the toolbar. For more

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· Select File->Open to open an existing model database or output database. You can also click in the toolbar. For more information, see ``Opening a model database or an output database, '' Section 12.6.2. · Select File->Close ODB to close an output database. For more information, see ``Closing the current output database,'' Section 12.6.3. · Select File->Save to save the current model database. You can also click more information, see ``Saving the current model database,'' Section 12.6.4. in the toolbar. For

· Select File->Save As to save the current model database with a new name. For more information, see ``Saving the current model database with a new name,'' Section 12.6.5. · Select File->Import->Sketch to import a planar sketch from the following: - An IGES-format file (.igs files) - An AutoCAD-format file (.dxf files) - An ACIS-format file (.sat files) For more information, see ``Importing sketches,'' Section 13.5.1. · Select File->Import->Part to import a part from the following: - An ACIS-format file (.sat files) - An IGES-format file (.igs files) - A VDA-FS format file (.vda files) - An output database (.odb files) For more information, see ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2. · Select File->Import->Model to import a model from an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit input file. For more information, see ``Using the input file reader to import a model,'' Section 13.6. · Select File->Export->Sketch to export the current sketch to the following: - An IGES-format file (.igs files) - An ACIS-format file (.sat files) For more information, see ``Exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file,'' Section 13.7.2. · Select File->Export->Part to export the current part to the following: - An ACIS-format file (.sat files)

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- An IGES-format file (.igs files) - A VDA-FS format file (.vda files) For more information, see ``Exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file,'' Section 13.7.2. · Select File->Export->Assembly to export the part instances in the assembly to: - An ACIS-format file (.sat files) For more information, see ``Exporting the assembly to an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.7.3. · Select File->Run Script to execute a file containing ABAQUS/CAE commands. · Select File->Macro Manager to store your actions in a macro file as a sequence of ABAQUS/CAE commands. You can also run a run a macro and rename an existing macro. · Select File->Print to print all or selected viewports and annotations. You can also click toolbar. For more information, see Chapter 11, "Printing canvas objects." · Select File->Exit to exit the ABAQUS/CAE session. For more information, see ``Exiting an ABAQUS/CAE session,'' Section 5.1.2. in the

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3

12.6 Managing model and output databases
This section describes how you use the main menu bar's File menu to manage model and output databases. The following topics are covered: · ``Creating a new model database,'' Section 12.6.1 · ``Opening a model database or an output database, '' Section 12.6.2 · ``Closing the current output database, '' Section 12.6.3 · ``Saving the current model database,'' Section 12.6.4 · ``Saving the current model database with a new name,'' Section 12.6.5

12.6.1 Creating a new model database
You can create and store multiple model databases on your computer, but you can have only one model database open at any time. Select File->New from the main menu bar to create a new, empty

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model database. You can also click

in the toolbar.

If you have made any changes to the current model database, ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save your changes before it closes the current model database and creates the new one. The new database then becomes the current database. To save the new model database, select File->Save from the main menu bar and enter the name of the database. After you save the model database, ABAQUS/CAE displays its name in the title bar of the main window.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1 · ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

12.6.2 Opening a model database or an output database
Select File->Open from the main menu bar to open either: · A model database (file extension .cae) · An output database (file extension .odb) From the Open Database dialog box that appears, select the File Type and the file to open and click OK. To specify the directory that should be searched by default when you open a model database or an output database and which files should be displayed in the Open Database dialog box, you can include lines similar to the following in your ABAQUS resource file (Abaqus). On UNIX systems
*FileOpenDB.dialog*pattern: /usr/smith/my_models/*.cae *FileOpenDB.dialog*pattern: /usr/smith/my_output/*.odb

On Windows NT systems
*FileOpenDB.dialog*pattern: c:\users\smith\my_models\*.cae *FileOpenDB.dialog*pattern: c:\users\smith\my_output\*.odb

For more information on the ABAQUS resource file, see ``Customizing X resources,'' Section 6.1. Detailed instructions for opening a model database or an output database: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Open.

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Tip: You can also click

in the toolbar to open a model database or an output database.

ABAQUS/CAE displays the Open Database dialog box. 2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Open Database dialog box, select one of the following:
Model Database (*.cae)

ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the file extension .cae. Select the model database to open, and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE opens the model database and displays its name in the title bar of the main window. All operations now refer to the new model database. If you have modified the current model database, ABAQUS/CAE asks if you want to save it before it opens the selected model database.
Output Database (*.odb)

ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the file extension .odb. Select the output database to open, and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE starts the the Visualization module in the current viewport and displays the model in fast mode. You can open more than one output database at the same time and display the contents in different viewports. For more information on specifying the file to open, see ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``What is the fast plot mode?,'' Section 23.3.3 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

12.6.3 Closing the current output database
Select File->Close from the main menu bar to close an output database. Closing an output database releases computer resources, such as memory. Detailed instructions for closing an output database:

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1. From the main menu bar, select File->Close. The Close Output Database dialog box appears with a list of all the output databases that are open, the date they were last updated, and the viewports that reference each open output database. 2. Select the output database to close and click OK to close the dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE closes the selected output database and clears any viewports that were displaying data from that output database.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

12.6.4 Saving the current model database
Select File->Save from the main menu bar or click in the toolbar to save the current model database. After you save the model database, ABAQUS/CAE displays its name in the title bar of the main window. Before you save the current model database for the first time, it exists only in memory and has no name. When you save the current model database for the first time, ABAQUS/CAE displays the Save Model Database As dialog box to allow you to enter a name; subsequent saves use this name. If you omit the file extension, ABAQUS/CAE appends .cae to the file name. For information on saving the model database using a different name and on customizing the default behavior of the Save Model Database As dialog box, see ``Saving the current model database with a new name,'' Section 12.6.5. For more information on saving files, see ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7. You should save the model database periodically. ABAQUS/CAE never saves the model database unless you perform an explicit save operation; there is no timer-based automatic saving, for example. If you try to save a model database that has not been modified, no action is taken. ABAQUS/CAE asks you if you want to save a modified model database before you exit the session.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

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· ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

12.6.5 Saving the current model database with a new name
Select File->Save As from the main menu bar to save the current model database with a new name. From the Save Model Database As dialog box that appears, enter a new name for the model database and click OK. If you omit the file extension, ABAQUS/CAE appends .cae to the file name. See ``Saving the current model database,'' Section 12.6.4, for information on saving the model database using the same name. To specify the directory that should be searched by default when you save a model database and which files should be displayed in the Save Model Database As dialog box, you can include lines similar to the following in your ABAQUS resource file (Abaqus). On UNIX systems
*saveMdbDB.dialog*pattern: /usr/smith/my_models/*.cae *saveMdbDB.dialog*pattern: /usr/smith/my_output/*.odb

On Windows NT systems
*saveMdbDB.dialog*pattern: c:\users\smith\my_models\*.cae *saveMdbDB.dialog*pattern: c:\users\smith\my_output\*.odb

For more information on the ABAQUS resource file, see ``Customizing X resources,'' Section 6.1. Note: You cannot save a model database using the name abaqus.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model database?,'' Section 12.1 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

12.7 Managing models
This section describes how you manage models within the current model database. The following topics are covered: · ``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1 · ``Opening an existing model,'' Section 12.7.2 · ``Copying objects between models,'' Section 12.7.3 1-290

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· ``Editing model attributes,'' Section 12.7.4 For general information on managing objects, see ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5, and ``Managing objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7.

12.7.1 Manipulating models within a model database
A model database can contain many models. Although you can have only one model database open at any time, you can open more than one model at a time. The main window's title bar displays the name of the model database, and the title bar of each viewport displays the name of the model associated with the viewport. The current viewport is indicated by a red border; the model associated with the current viewport is known as the current model. The name of the current model is also displayed in the Model list under the toolbar. To create a new model, select Model->Create from the main menu bar and enter the name of the model in the Create Model dialog box that appears. To open a model and associate it with the current viewport, select the desired model from the Model list under the toolbar. The Model list contains all the models in the current model database. To copy, rename, or delete models, select the Copy, Rename, or Delete items listed under the Model menu on the main menu bar. The Copy, Rename, and Delete items contain submenus listing all the models in the current model database. For general information on how to use these menus, see ``Managing objects using manager menus,'' Section 6.5.7. You can also create, copy, rename, and delete models using the Model Manager. To display the Model Manager, select Model->Manager from the main menu bar. The Model Manager dialog box contains functions identical to those listed under the Model menu but with a convenient browser that lists all the models available in the current model database. For general information on how to use managers, see ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5. You can copy a model to a new model in a model database. In addition, you can copy sketches, parts, materials, sections, and amplitudes between the models in a model database.; for more information, see ``Copying objects between models,'' Section 12.7.3. However, you cannot copy models between model databases.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Managing models,'' Section 12.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5 · ``Copying objects between models,'' Section 12.7.3 · ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5

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12.7.2 Opening an existing model
To open a model and associate it with the current viewport, select the desired model from the Model list under the toolbar. The Model list contains all the models in the current model database. ABAQUS/CAE switches to the selected model and associates it with the current viewport (indicated by a red border). The new model appears in the list of models under the toolbar. You can have multiple models open at any one time; the title bar of a viewport indicates the model associated with the current viewport. You do not have to save the current model prior to opening an existing model because ABAQUS/CAE stores all models in the model database.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2

12.7.3 Copying objects between models
Select Model->Copy Objects from the main menu bar to copy objects between models in the current model database. You can copy the following objects: · Sketches · Parts (part sets are also copied) · Materials · Sections · Amplitudes You cannot copy other individual objects, such as the assembly, loads, or steps; however, you can achieve a similar effect by copying the entire model to a new model and editing the objects in the new model. For more information, see ``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1. Dependent objects are not copied automatically when you copy an object between models. For example, if you copy a section, the associated material is not copied along with the section; you must copy the material in a separate copy operation. Detailed instructions for copying objects between models: 1. From the main menu bar, select Model->Copy Objects. The Copy Model Objects dialog box appears. 2. From the dialog box, select the model to copy objects from. 3. Use the following techniques to specify the objects to copy from the selected model:

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· Click the arrow next to the desired object category. From the list of objects that appears, toggle the names of the objects of your choice. An object category is unavailable if it contains no objects. · Toggle the desired object category. This action selects or deselects all objects within that category. The check box next to an object category becomes completely filled when all objects within that category are selected. The box becomes half filled if only some of the objects within that category are selected. You must select at least one object or object category to copy. 4. From the bottom of the Copy Model Objects dialog box, select the model to copy the selected objects to. 5. Click OK to copy the selected objects and to close the Copy Model Objects dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE copies the selected objects. If an object with the same name already exists in the model to which you are copying the object, ABAQUS/CAE asks for confirmation that you want to overwrite the existing object. Click Yes to All to overwrite all existing objects with the same name as the objects you are copying.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1

12.7.4 Editing model attributes
Select Model->Edit Attributes from the main menu bar to edit the description of a model and/or to define the absolute zero and the Stefan Boltzmann constant for the model. To edit model attributes: 1. From the main menu bar, select Model->Edit Attributes->model name. The Edit Attributes dialog box appears. 2. In the dialog box, edit the model attributes as desired: · In the Description field, type information that you want to record about the model. · In the area of the dialog box labeled Physical Constants, enter values for absolute zero and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. 3. Click OK to save your data and to close the dialog box.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Manipulating models within a model database,'' Section 12.7.1

12.8 Adding unsupported keywords to your ABAQUS/CAE model
ABAQUS/CAE uses your model definition to generate ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit keywords and data that are placed in an input file when you submit the analysis job. Currently ABAQUS/CAE may not support ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit functionality that you might like to include in your model. If that is the case, you may be able to add the functionality using the Keywords Editor. Select Model->Edit Keywords->model _name from the main menu bar to start the Keywords Editor. To use the Keywords Editor, you should be familiar with the syntax of ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit keywords and data. For example, the Interaction module does not allow you to impose constraints between different degrees of freedom of the model using multi-point constraints. To impose multi-point constraints, you can use the Keywords Editor to add the *MPC keyword to the model. Similarly, you can use the Keywords Editor to select an element type that is not supported by ABAQUS/CAE. When you submit the model for analysis in the Job module, ABAQUS/CAE incorporates changes you made using the Keywords Editor in the input file that is submitted for analysis. Keywords that you add to your model using the Keywords Editor persist even after you modify or regenerate the model using ABAQUS/CAE, because ABAQUS/CAE stores the contents of the Keywords Editor along with the model definition in the model database. The Keywords Editor does not allow you to edit the geometry of your model; you must use ABAQUS/CAE to make geometry changes. Therefore, the Keywords Editor is available only after you have generated the mesh. Warning: It is recommended that you not edit keywords that are supported by ABAQUS/CAE; for example, you should use the Property module, not the Keywords Editor, to change the properties of a material. This approach maintains consistency between directly supported aspects of a model and those added by the Keywords Editor. If you do edit a keyword using the Keywords Editor and then use ABAQUS/CAE to make a change to your model that refers to the same keyword, ABAQUS/CAE cannot determine which version of the keyword to incorporate in the input file and writes text to the input file signaling the problem. As a result, an error is generated when you submit the model for analysis. If you display the input file using the Keywords Editor, any keywords or data lines that conflict are indicated by a *Conflicts statement. In addition, the *Conflicts statement indicates whether the text was generated by ABAQUS/CAE or by the Keywords Editor. You should use the Keywords Editor to remove any unwanted keywords or data lines. You should also remove all the *Conflicts

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statements. You can review the keywords supported by ABAQUS/CAE by selecting Help->Keyword Browser from the main menu bar. Detailed instructions for editing the model's keywords: 1. From the main menu bar, select Model->Edit Keywords->model _name. The Keywords Editor appears and displays the keywords associated with the model you select.
Note: The keywords are available to be edited only after you have generated a mesh.

2. Each keyword in the input file is displayed in its own block. Buttons in the lower left corner of the Keywords Editor allow you to do the following:
Add After

Add an empty block of text below the selected block. A blue vertical bar indicates a block that you added.
Remove

Remove the selected block of text that was added using the Keywords Editor. You cannot remove a block generated by ABAQUS/CAE.
Discard Changes

Discard the changes you made to a block generated by ABAQUS/CAE during the most recent use of the Keywords Editor. In addition, you can click any block and edit the text inside. A red vertical bar indicates a block generated by ABAQUS/CAE that you edited. 3. From the buttons across the bottom of the Keywords Editor, click OK to include your changes and to close the editor. Click Cancel to disregard your changes.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · Appendix A, "Keyword support

12.9 Managing macros
To manage macros containing a set of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands, select File->Macro Manager from the main menu bar. When you create a macro, ABAQUS/CAE records a sequence of ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands in a macro file while you interact with ABAQUS/CAE. Each command corresponds to an interaction with ABAQUS/CAE, and replaying the macro reproduces the

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sequence of interactions. The macro file is called abaqusMacros.py and is saved in your local directory. The Macro Manager contains a list of the existing macros that ABAQUS/CAE detected in the abaqusMacros.py file. You can copy or rename abaqusMacros.py; however, the new file will not be recognized by the Macro Manager. Your macro will run only in the same context in which it was recorded. For example, if you create a macro while in the Part module that copies a part named gear1 to a new part named gear2 and exit ABAQUS/CAE, the macro will be executed in a new ABAQUS/CAE session only if you enter the Part module and a part named gear1 exists. The ABAQUS Scripting Interface commands are stored in ASCII text, and you can edit abaqusMacros.py with a standard text editor. For more information on commands, see the ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual. Detailed instructions for creating a macro: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Macro Manager. The Macro Manager dialog box appears. 2. From the buttons across the bottom of the Macro Manager dialog box, click Create. 3. Enter a name for the macro in the Create Macro dialog box that appears, and click Continue. You cannot overwrite an existing macro. Each of your interactions with ABAQUS/CAE is stored as a command in the abaqusMacros.py file. A Recording macro dialog box appears to remind you the macro is recording. In addition, the Create, Delete, and Run buttons are not available in the Macro Manager while the macro is recording. 4. Click the Stop recording button to save the macro in abaqusMacros.py.

Detailed instructions for deleting a macro: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Macro Manager. The Macro Manager dialog box appears. 2. Select the macro to delete. You can select more than one macro. 3. From the buttons across the bottom of the Macro Manager dialog box, click Delete. 4. From the dialog box that appears, click OK to confirm your action. ABAQUS/CAE deletes the macro from abaqusMacros.py. You cannot recover a deleted macro. Detailed instructions for running a macro:

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1. From the main menu bar, select File->Macro Manager. The Macro Manager dialog box appears. 2. Select the macro to run. 3. From the buttons across the bottom of the Macro Manager dialog box, click Run. You can run only one macro; the Run button is not available if you selected more than one macro. ABAQUS/CAE runs the commands in the selected macro and displays a message in the message area when the macro execution completes.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and running a macro,'' Section 12.4.5 · ABAQUS Scripting Interface Manual

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13. Importing and exporting geometry data and models
This section describes the files that can be imported and exported from ABAQUS/CAE. The following topics are covered: · ``What kinds of files can be imported and exported from ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 13.1 · ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3 · ``Importing models from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files,'' Section 13.4 · ``Importing geometry data and models,'' Section 13.5 · ``Using the input file reader to import a model,'' Section 13.6 · ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section 13.7

13.1 What kinds of files can be imported and exported from ABAQUS/CAE?
ABAQUS/CAE reads and writes geometry data stored in the following formats: ACIS (file_name.sat) ACIS is an object-oriented toolkit designed for use as a geometry engine for modeling applications and is considered the industry standard for geometry modeling. You can import ACIS-format parts, and you can export parts or the assembly in ACIS format. In addition, you can import and export a sketch from an ACIS file. For more information, see ``Importing sketches,'' Section 13.5.1; ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2; and ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section 13.7. IGES (file_name.igs) The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) is a neutral data format designed for graphics exchange between computer-aided design (CAD) systems. You can import IGES-format parts, and you can export parts in IGES format. In addition, you can import and export a sketch from an IGES file. For more information, see ``Importing sketches,'' Section 13.5.1; ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2; and ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section 13.7. VDA-FS (file_name.vda) The Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA) surface data format is a geometry standard developed by the German automotive industry. Both VDA-FS and IGES files contain a mathematical representation of the part in an ASCII format; however, the VDA-FS standard concentrates on geometry information. Additional information covered by the IGES standard,

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such as dimensions, text, and colors, is not stored in a VDA-FS file. As a result, the file format is simplified, and you may find it easier to transfer files between CAD systems and ABAQUS/CAE using VDA-FS files. You can import VDA-FS-format parts, and you can export parts in VDA-FS-format. For more information, see ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2; and ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section 13.7. AutoCAD (file_name.dxf) Two-dimensional profiles stored in AutoCAD (.dxf) files can be imported as stand-alone sketches. For more information and details of the AutoCAD entities supported by ABAQUS/CAE, see ``Importing sketches,'' Section 13.5.1. Output database (output_database_ name.odb) An output database contains the data generated during an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit analysis. You can import a part from an output database in the form of an orphan mesh. An orphan mesh part contains no feature information and is extracted from the output database as a collection of nodes, elements, surfaces, and sets. You can use the Part module to edit the original mesh definition, and you can use the Mesh module to change the element type assigned to the mesh. For more information, see ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2; ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22; and ``Assigning ABAQUS element types,'' Section 20.5. If you import an orphan mesh from an output database when the current viewport already contains an orphan mesh, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to do either of the following: · Create a new part from the imported orphan mesh. · Replace the mesh of the current orphan mesh part with the imported orphan mesh. All current sets are deleted, and sets from the imported orphan mesh are imported into the current part. The name of the current part does not change; and, if the set names in the imported database are the same as the current set names, the part will maintain all set-based assignments. ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file when you submit a job for analysis. You can import input files into ABAQUS/CAE. ABAQUS/CAE translates the keywords and data lines in the imported input file into a new model; however, a limited set of ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit keywords are supported, as described in ``Importing models from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files,'' Section 13.4. For more information on creating and submitting jobs, see ``Basic steps for analyzing a model,'' Section 21.2.1. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 12, "Understanding and working with ABAQUS/CAE models, model databases, and files

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13.2 Understanding the contents of an IGES file
The IGES neutral file format is an international standard that allows you to transfer geometric data between ABAQUS/CAE and other CAD applications. You can use IGES-format files to import and export sketches and parts. During importing ABAQUS/CAE scans the IGES file and detects all the entities stored in the file. An entity can be a geometric entity, such as a vertex, an arc, or a line. Alternatively, an entity can be separate from the geometry, such as a comment. IGES allocates a number to each entity; for example, a circular arc is entity number 100. After ABAQUS/CAE scans the IGES file, it displays the IGES Options dialog box, which lists the entities contained in the file along with the following: · A description of the entity along with its entity number. · The number of occurrences found in the IGES file. · Whether the entity is supported by ABAQUS/CAE. For a complete list of the IGES entities that can be imported into ABAQUS/CAE, see ``IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section 13.5.5. Some of the IGES entities are stored as a set of parametric surfaces along with a set of trim curves that delineate the boundaries of the surfaces. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to choose how these trim curves are defined: As per IGES file Using the definition in the IGES file. Always use parametric data Using the parameter space of the surface being trimmed. Always use 3D data Using real space--the part's coordinate system--together with an indication that the trim curve lies on the parametric surface. An IGES file can contain curves defined using real space, parameter space, or both. When you import a part from an IGES file into ABAQUS/CAE, the surface and the trim curves are converted into an internal representation of the part. By default, ABAQUS/CAE uses the information stored in the IGES-file to decide how the trim curve is defined; alternatively, you can force ABAQUS/CAE to always use either real space or parameter space. CAD applications store data in IGES-format files using their own interpretation of the IGES standard. ABAQUS/CAE is able to interpret IGES-format files generated by most applications. In addition, when you export a part or the assembly to an IGES-format file, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to specify the application that will be reading the file, and the data are written out in the appropriate tailored format or flavor. You can choose one of the following flavors:

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· Standard · AutoCAD · SolidWorks · JAMA (Japanese Automotive Manufacturer's Association) By default, ABAQUS/CAE exports data to an IGES file using a standard flavor. CAD applications can store entities in an IGES-format file in a sequence of layers. ABAQUS/CAE imports all supported entities from all layers. Similarly, ABAQUS/CAE writes the geometry data to a single layer in the IGES file. For a detailed description of how to import and export from IGES-format files, see ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4, and ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section 13.7.

13.3 Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts
Transferring parts and sketches between CAD applications sometimes results in the loss of information. Common problems include: · Incomplete or approximate geometric data. · Inconsistent or inaccurate curve and surface data. · Mismatch between two- and three-dimensional data. · Wrong orientation of curves or surfaces. ABAQUS/CAE stores the geometry of a part to an accuracy of 10-6 units; however, different applications may use a lower precision. As a result, during the import process ABAQUS/CAE may detect problems with face trimming curves that appear to be disconnected or separated from the underlying surface. Figure 13-1 illustrates an imported part. Because of precision limitations, vertex A appears to be separated from vertex B; similarly, trim curve A appears to be separated from trim curve B.

Figure 13-1 An imported part that must be repaired.

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When you import a part, ABAQUS/CAE displays a dialog box that allows you to repair the part. Parts created by ABAQUS/CAE are composed of geometry that is always considered to be valid and precise. Conversely, a part imported from another application can be invalid or imprecise and should be repaired. Invalid and imprecise parts are described in the following list: Invalid If the part is invalid, you can use the automated geometry repair tool to try and make it valid. If the part still cannot be made valid, you cannot modify it in the Part module or mesh it in the Mesh module. In addition, it cannot be analyzed by either ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. In general, a part that cannot be made valid cannot be used by ABAQUS/CAE. You must return to the CAD application that generated the original file and attempt to fix the geometry. Imprecise A valid part can be either precise or imprecise. If the part is imprecise, you can use the geometry repair tools to try and make it precise. If the part still cannot be made precise, it can still be used by ABAQUS/CAE; however, some functionality will be disabled. You should return to the CAD application that generated the original file and increase the precision. ABAQUS/CAE can perform the following set of operations in an effort to repair the geometry of an imported part. · Convert the part to its analytical representation · Stitch the edges of the part · Convert to a more precise representation Some of the operations are dependent on each other. For example, if you stitch the edges of a part, you must also convert it to an analytical representation. Similarly, if you convert the part to a more precise representation, you must also stitch its edges and convert it to an analytical representation.

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You can repair a part during the import process. Alternatively, you can repair a part after importing it by selecting Part->Repair Geomety from the main menu bar. The Part module provides a more complete set of geometry repair tools that allows you to repair and edit imported and ABAQUS/CAE native parts; for more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3.

13.4 Importing models from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files
You can import an ABAQUS input file into ABAQUS/CAE by selecting File->Import->Model from the main menu bar. Imported keywords are incorporated into a new model; for example, if the Young's modulus was imported from the *ELASTIC keyword, it will be available in the Property module. Keywords that are not supported are ignored during import. The input file does not have to be complete; for example, it may not contain any history data. The following functionality can be imported into a model from an ABAQUS input file: · Nodes and elements · Surfaces, node and element sets, and contact node sets · Adaptive mesh controls · Materials and sections · Interactions and interaction properties · Loads and boundary conditions (in the global coordinate system) · Amplitudes · Procedures, output requests, and monitor variables See ``Keyword support from the input file reader,'' Section A.2 for a complete list of the keywords that are supported by the input file reader. You can import models with a mixture of rigid and deformable parts. The input file reader uses element definitions to create separate deformable parts and analytical and discrete rigid parts. All of the deformable elements in the input file form a single deformable part in ABAQUS/CAE. However, a separate rigid part is created for each *RIGID BODY, *RIGID SURFACE, and *SURFACE option that is encountered. The rigid body reference nodes are assigned according to the REF NODE parameter on the *RIGID BODY and *RIGID SURFACE options. Deformable and rigid parts created by the import capability are stored in the form of an orphan mesh; an orphan mesh comprises node and element definitions and the type of element assigned. An orphan mesh part consists of a single feature; you can use the mesh edit tools to modify an orphan mesh, but you cannot add geometric features to it. The import capability creates sets based on any *ELSET or *NSET keywords, as well as any ELSET or NSET parameters on other supported keywords. If the nodes or elements in a set appear on only a single part (deformable or rigid), ABAQUS/CAE creates both a part set and an assembly set. Similarly,

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if these nodes or elements appear on separate parts, ABAQUS/CAE creates an assembly set and multiple part sets. Each part set contains only the nodes or elements from the imported set that appear on the particular part. Most of the commonly used element types can be assigned to the elements in an orphan mesh. However, some element types cannot be imported from an input file. For a full list of unsupported elements and detailed instructions on using the input file reader, see ``Using the input file reader to import a model,'' Section 13.6. You can use the Mesh module to change the element type assigned to an orphan mesh imported from an input file. In addition, you can use the Keywords Editor to include options that the input file reader does not support; for detailed instructions on using the Keywords Editor, see ``Adding unsupported keywords to your ABAQUS/CAE model,'' Section 12.8.

13.5 Importing geometry data and models
This section describes how you use the main menu bar's File menu to import sketches, parts, and models. The following topics are covered: · ``Importing sketches,'' Section 13.5.1 · ``Importing parts,'' Section 13.5.2 · ``Importing parts from an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.5.3 · ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4 · ``IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section 13.5.5 · ``Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file,'' Section 13.5.6 · ``Importing a part from an output database,'' Section 13.5.7 · ``Repairing an imported part,'' Section 13.5.8

13.5.1 Importing sketches
Select File->Import->Sketch from the main menu bar to import a sketch from either: · An IGES-format file (.igs files) · An AutoCAD-format file (.dxf files) · An ACIS-format file (.sat files) If you are importing a sketch, the file must contain a two-dimensional planar profile that can be mapped directly to the sketch plane. If the file contains three-dimensional geometry, ABAQUS/CAE does the following: · If you are importing an AutoCAD file, ABAQUS/CAE creates the sketch using the geometry in the

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X-Y plane only. · If you are importing an IGES or ACIS file, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and cancels the import procedure. You can import sketches from files that contain only simple geometry because ABAQUS/CAE must be able to translate the geometry to a corresponding Sketcher entity, such as a line, circle, arc, or spline. If ABAQUS/CAE finds geometry it cannot translate, it ignores that geometry. For a list of the IGES and AutoCAD entities supported by ABAQUS/CAE, see ``Imported sketches,'' Section 22.3.2. Detailed instructions for importing a sketch: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Sketch. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Import Sketch dialog box. 2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select one of the following: · IGES (*.igs) · AutoCAD DXF (*.dxf) · ACIS (*.sat) 3. Select the file containing the sketch to import and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketch module, converts the profile in the file to a sketch, and exits the Sketch module. The sketch now appears in the list of sketches in the model and can be retrieved when you enter the Sketch module. For information on how to use the imported sketch, see ``Stand-alone sketches,'' Section 22.3.1.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3 · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.5.2 Importing parts
Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import a part from either:

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An IGES-, ACIS-, or VDA-FS-format file Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can write IGES-, ACIS, or VDA-FS-format files; you can use these files to import geometry information from these applications into ABAQUS/CAE. You can import multiple parts stored in an ACIS-format file; however, if IGES- or VDA-FS-format files contains multiple parts, ABAQUS/CAE imports them as a single part. For more information, see ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4; ``IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section 13.5.5; ``Importing parts from an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.5.3; and . An output database You can import the assembly stored in an output database in the form of an orphan mesh. An orphan mesh part contains no feature information and is extracted from the output database as a collection of nodes, elements, surfaces, and sets. You can use the Part module to edit the nodes and elements that form the orphan mesh. Although the model that was analyzed may have been constructed from multiple part instances, only one orphan mesh part can be extracted from the resulting output database. For more information, see ``Importing a part from an output database,'' Section 13.5.7. Detailed instructions for importing a part: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part. The Import Part dialog box appears. 2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select one of the following: · IGES (*.igs); for more information, see ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4. · VDA-FS (*.vda); for more information, see ``Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file,'' Section 13.5.6. · ACIS (*.sat); for more information, see ``Importing parts from an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.5.3. · Output Database (*.odb); for more information, see ``Importing a part from an output database,'' Section 13.5.7. 3. ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the appropriate file extension. Select the file containing the part to import, and click Continue. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Part module, the imported part replaces the contents of the current viewport, and the part appears in the model's list of parts below the toolbar.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5 · ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1

13.5.3 Importing parts from an ACIS-format file
Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write ACIS-format files; you can use these files to exchange geometry information between these applications and ABAQUS/CAE. Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import a part from an ACIS-format file. You can import multiple parts stored in an ACIS-format file. You can export parts and the assembly from ABAQUS/CAE into an ACIS-format file. You cannot import parts of mixed modeling space from an ACIS-format file; for example, solids and axisymmetric surfaces. In addition, you cannot import parts of mixed type; for example, deformable bodies and discrete rigid surfaces. An imported ACIS part forms the base feature of a new part in ABAQUS/CAE; you cannot modify this base feature directly, but you can add additional features to it, such as a solid extrusion or a blind cut. Detailed instructions for importing a part from an ACIS-format file: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part. The Import Part dialog box appears. 2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select ACIS (*.sat). ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with a .sat file extension. 3. Select the ACIS file containing the part or parts to import, and click Continue. The Create Part from ACIS File dialog box appears. 4. ABAQUS/CAE uses the name of the file to name the part and assumes that the part type is deformable; you can change the part's name and type if desired. ABAQUS/CAE tries to determine the modeling space as follows: · If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is three-dimensional, it sets the modeling space to three-dimensional. · If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar, you can choose whether the modeling space is

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two- or three-dimensional. · If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar and that its geometry does not cross the Y-axis, you can choose whether the modeling space is axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional. If you choose axisymmetric, the Y-axis is assumed to be the axis of revolution, and you can add a twist degree of freedom. 5. If desired, click the Repair Options tab and toggle the desired repair operations. For more information, see ``Repairing an imported part,'' Section 13.5.8. 6. Click OK to import the ACIS part. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Part module, the imported part replaces the contents of the current viewport, and the part appears in the model's list of parts below the toolbar.
Note: An ACIS file can contain more than one part. If that is the case, ABAQUS/CAE imports each part separately and displays the Create Part from ACIS File dialog box for each part. Click Cancel to stop importing parts from an ACIS file.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5 · ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1

13.5.4 Importing a part from an IGES-format file
Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write IGES-format files; you can use these files to exchange geometry information between these applications and ABAQUS/CAE. Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import a part from an IGES-format file. You can export sketches and parts from ABAQUS/CAE into an IGES-format file, but you cannot export the assembly to an IGES-format file. If the IGES-format file contains multiple parts, ABAQUS/CAE imports them as a single part. An imported IGES part forms the base feature of a new part in ABAQUS/CAE; you cannot modify this base feature directly, but you can add additional features to it, such as a solid extrusion or a blind cut. Detailed instructions for importing a part from an IGES-format file: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part. The Import Part dialog box appears.

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2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select IGES (*.igs). ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with a .igs file extension. 3. Select the IGES file containing the part to import, and click Continue. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Import from IGES dialog box containing header information from the IGES file. 4. If desired, click IGES Options to open the IGES Options dialog box and to view a list of the entities read from the IGES-format file. The list includes a description of the entity along with its entity number, the number of occurrences found in the IGES file, and whether it is supported by ABAQUS/CAE. For a complete list of the IGES entities that can be imported into ABAQUS/CAE, see ``IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section 13.5.5. 5. If desired, use the IGES Options dialog box to customize the following: · How ABAQUS/CAE converts the surface and the trim curves into an internal representation of the part. By default, ABAQUS/CAE uses the information stored in the IGES-file to decide how the trim curve is defined; alternatively, you can force ABAQUS/CAE to always use either real three-dimensional space or parameter space. · The scale factor applied to the imported geometry. Note: ABAQUS/CAE applies the scale factor to all of the coordinates in the file. As a consequence, any offset from the origin will be scaled accordingly. For more information, see ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2. Click OK to close the IGES Options dialog box. 6. From the Import from IGES dialog box, click OK to import the IGES part. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Part from IGES File dialog box. 7. ABAQUS/CAE uses the name of the file to name the part and assumes that the part type is deformable; you can use the Create Part from IGES File to change the part's name and type if desired. ABAQUS/CAE tries to determine the modeling space as follows: · If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is three-dimensional, it sets the modeling space to three-dimensional. · If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar, you can choose whether the modeling space is two- or three-dimensional. · If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar and that its geometry does not cross the Y-axis, you can choose whether the modeling space is axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional. If you choose axisymmetric, the Y-axis is assumed to be the axis of revolution, and you can choose whether to include a twist degree of freedom.

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8. If desired, click the Repair Options tab and toggle the desired repair operations. For more information, see ``Repairing an imported part,'' Section 13.5.8. 9. Click OK to exit the Create Part from IGES File dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE scans the IGES file and starts the repair process, depending on the options selected in step 8. If you wish to cancel the import process, click Stop in the prompt area. When the part is imported, ABAQUS/CAE displays a message in the message area indicating if the part contains any validity or precision problems. Select Part->Repair Geometry from the main menu bar to try and repair an imported part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch,'' Section 13.5.5 · ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3 · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.5.5 IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch
During the import process, ABAQUS/CAE converts the entities stored in the IGES file to an internal representation recognized by ABAQUS/CAE. The IGES file can contain entities that are not recognized by ABAQUS/CAE; however, these entities are ignored during the conversion. Table 13-1 lists the IGES entities that ABAQUS/CAE recognizes.

Table 13-1. IGES entities recognized by ABAQUS/CAE when importing a part or a sketch. ID Form IGES Entity Name 100 0 Circular arc 102 0 Composite curve 104 1 Conic arc: general 104 2 Conic arc: ellipse 104 3 Conic arc: parabola 106 11 Copious data: 2D path 106 12 Copious data: 3D path 106 63 Copious data: Closed 2D curve

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108 110 112 114 116 118 120 122 123 124 126 128 130 140 141 142 143 144 186 190 192 194 196 198 502 504 508 510 514

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

Plane entity: bounded Line Parametric spline curve Parametric spline surface Point Ruled surface Surface of revolution Tabulated cylinder Direction Transformation Rational B-spline curve Rational B-spline surface Offset curve Offset surface Boundary entity Curve on parametric surface Bounded surface Trimmed surface MSBO Plane surface Right circular cylindrical surface Right circular conical surface Spherical surface Toroidal surface Vertex list Edge list Loop Face Shell

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4 · ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

13.5.6 Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file
Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write VDA-FS-format files; you can use these files to exchange geometry information between these applications and ABAQUS/CAE. Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import a part from a VDA-FS-format file. You can export parts from ABAQUS/CAE into a VDA-FS-format file, but you cannot export the assembly to a VDA-FS-format file. If the VDA-FS-format file contains multiple parts, ABAQUS/CAE imports them as a single part. An imported VDA-FS part forms the base feature of a new part in ABAQUS/CAE; you cannot modify this

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base feature directly, but you can add additional features to it, such as a solid extrusion or a blind cut. Detailed instructions for importing a part from a VDA-FS-format file: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part. The Import Part dialog box appears. 2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select VDA-FS (*.vda). ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with a .vda file extension. 3. Select the VDA-FS file containing the part to import, and click Continue. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Part from VDA File dialog box. 4. ABAQUS/CAE uses the name of the file to name the part and assumes that the part type is deformable; you can use the Create Part from VDA File dialog box to change the part's name and type if desired. ABAQUS/CAE tries to determine the modeling space as follows: · If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is three-dimensional, it sets the modeling space to three-dimensional. · If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar, you can choose whether the modeling space is two- or three-dimensional. · If ABAQUS/CAE determines the part is planar and that its geometry does not cross the Y-axis, you can choose whether the modeling space is axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional. If you choose axisymmetric, the Y-axis is assumed to be the axis of revolution, and you can choose whether to include a twist degree of freedom. 5. If desired, click the Repair Options tab and toggle the desired repair operations. For more information, see ``Repairing an imported part,'' Section 13.5.8. 6. Click OK to exit the Create Part from VDA File dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE scans the VDA-FS file and starts the repair process, depending on the options selected in Step 5. If you wish to cancel the import process, click Stop in the prompt area. When the part is imported, ABAQUS/CAE displays a message in the message area indicating if the part contains any validity or precision problems. Select Part->Repair Geometry from the main menu bar to try and repair an imported part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3 · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

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· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.5.7 Importing a part from an output database
Select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar to import the assembly stored in an output database in the form of an orphan mesh. An orphan mesh part contains no feature information and is extracted from the output database as a collection of nodes, elements, surfaces, and sets. You can use the Part module to edit the original mesh definition, and you can use the Mesh module to change the element type assigned to the mesh. For more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3 and ``Assigning ABAQUS element types,'' Section 20.5. Although your model may have been constructed from multiple part instances, only one orphan mesh part can be extracted from an output database. An orphan mesh part consists of a single feature that you cannot modify or add geometric features to. Detailed instructions for importing a part from an output database: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Part. The Import Part dialog box appears. 2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Import Part dialog box, select Output Database (*.odb). ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with a .odb file extension. 3. Select the output database containing the part to import, and click Continue. 4. If the current part is not an orphan mesh, the Create Part from Output Database dialog box appears. Do the following: a. Enter the name of the part. By default, ABAQUS/CAE uses the name of the output database to name the imported part, but you can change the name if desired. ABAQUS/CAE determines the modeling space (three-dimensional, two-dimensional, or axisymmetric) and type (deformable body, discrete rigid surface, or analytical rigid surface) of the imported part from the output database, and you cannot change the modeling space and type. b. Click OK to import the orphan mesh from the output database. The imported part replaces the contents of the current viewport, and the part appears in the model's list of parts below the toolbar. 5. If the current part is an orphan mesh, you must select one of the following from the buttons that appear in the prompt area: Create new part

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Select Create new part to import the orphan mesh and create a new part. The Create Part from Output Database dialog box appears, and you follow the steps described above. Replace current mesh Select Replace current mesh to import the orphan mesh but use the name of the current part. ABAQUS/CAE replaces the nodes and elements of the current part with the nodes and elements of the imported orphan mesh. Sections that were assigned to the current part are maintained. However, ABAQUS/CAE imports sets from the imported orphan mesh and deletes sets that referred to the current part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5 · ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1

13.5.8 Repairing an imported part
When you import a part from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to choose whether to repair the part during the import process. ABAQUS/CAE can perform the following repair operations: Convert to analytical representation ABAQUS/CAE tries to change the internal definition of edges, faces, and cells into a simpler form that can be represented analytically. For example, a plane that is nearly planar will be converted to an equation that represents the plane. Converting to an analytical representation usually provides the following advantages: · Processing of the part is faster. · The converted entity is available during feature operations. · The geometry is improved. Stitch edges ABAQUS/CAE tries to remove duplicate edges, vertices, and trim surfaces. Stitching edges usually results in valid geometry. However, due to internal tolerances, the resulting representation of small features may not match the geometry that was intended in the original

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file. Convert to precise representation ABAQUS/CAE tries to change neighboring entities so that their geometry matches exactly. Converting to a precise representation usually results in precise geometry. However, this can be a lengthy operation that increases the complexity of the imported part. As a result, processing of the part is slower. Detailed instructions for repairing an imported part: 1. Follow the procedure to import a part. For more information, see ``Importing parts from an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.5.3; ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4; and ``Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file,'' Section 13.5.6. 2. From the Create Part from (ACIS, IGES, or VDA) File dialog box that appears, select the Repair Options tab and toggle the desired repair operations. Some of the operations are dependent on each other. For example, if you choose to stitch the edges of a part, ABAQUS/CAE automatically toggles on the Convert to precise representation option. 3. Click OK. ABAQUS/CAE imports the part and displays a message in the prompt area indicating if the part has validity or precision problems. 4. If the part is still invalid or imprecise, select Part->Repair Geometry to use the geometry repair tools. For more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Importing parts from an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.5.3 · ``Importing a part from an IGES-format file,'' Section 13.5.4 · ``Importing a part from a VDA-FS format file,'' Section 13.5.6

13.6 Using the input file reader to import a model
Select File->Import->Model from the main menu bar to import a model from an ABAQUS input file. Options and parameters in the input file are translated into objects recognized by the import capability, and a new model is created. For a description of the input file reader, see ``Importing models from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files,'' Section 13.4. For a detailed list of the keywords supported by the import model capability, see ``Keyword support from the input file reader,'' Section A.2. Parts are imported from an input file in the form of an orphan mesh; an orphan mesh comprises node

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and element definitions and the type of element assigned. The input file reader can import an orphan mesh containing most of the commonly used elements types. However, the input file reader cannot import an orphan mesh containing the following element types: · Acoustic interface elements (ASI*) · Stress/displacement variable node continuum elements ( C3D15V, C3D15VH, C3D27, C3D27H, C3D27R, and C3D27RH) · Asymmetric-axisymmetric Fourier elements (CAXA*N and SAXA*N) · Infinite elements (CIN*) · Dashpot elements (DASHPOT*) · Distributed coupling elements (DCOUP*) · Drag chain elements (DRAG*) · Triangular shell heat transfer elements (DS3 and DS6) · Hydrostatic fluid and fluid link elements (F2D2, F3D3, F3D4, FAX2, and FLINK) · Frame elements (FRAME*) · Gap contact stress/displacement elements (GAPCYL, GAPSPHER, and GAPUNI) · Gasket elements (GK*) · Interface elements (INTER*, ISL*, IRS*, ISP*, ITT*, and DINTER*) · Tube support elements (ITS*) · Joint elements (JOINT*) · Line spring elements (LS*) · 9-node quadrilateral membrane elements (M3D9 and M3D9R) · Mass element (MASS) · Rotary inertia element (ROTARYI) · 9-node shell element (S9R5) · Hexagonal duct elements (SPHEX*) · Spring elements (SPRING*) · USA structural interface elements (USI*) Detailed instructions for importing a model:

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1. From the main menu bar, select File->Import->Model. The Import Model dialog box appears. 2. From the Import Model dialog box, select the input file (file extension .inp) to import, and click Continue. For more information on specifying the file to open, see ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7. ABAQUS/CAE imports the input file and creates a model using information from the supported options. Unsupported options and parameters are ignored. The new model, which has the same name as the input file, becomes the current model and appears in the model list below the toolbar.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Importing models from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files,'' Section 13.4 · ``Keyword support from the input file reader,'' Section A.2 · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``Understanding the files generated by creating and analyzing a model,'' Section 12.3 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.7 Exporting geometry data
This section describes how you use the main menu bar's File menu to export sketches, parts, and the assembly. The following topics are covered: · ``Exporting a sketch to an ACIS- or IGES-format file,'' Section 13.7.1 · ``Exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file,'' Section 13.7.2 · ``Exporting the assembly to an ACIS-format file,'' Section 13.7.3

13.7.1 Exporting a sketch to an ACIS- or IGES-format file
Select File->Export->Sketch from the main menu bar to export the current sketch to an ACIS or IGES file. Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write ACIS and IGES files; therefore, you can transfer sketches between ABAQUS/CAE and these applications. You can export a sketch at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session. If you are not in the Sketcher, ABAQUS/CAE exports the sketch most recently displayed in the Sketcher. Detailed instructions for exporting a sketch to an ACIS- or IGES-format file: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Export->Sketch. The Export Sketch dialog box appears. 2-317

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2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Export Sketch dialog box, select one of the following: · ACIS (*.sat) · IGES (*.igs) ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the appropriate file extension. 3. Select the file to which you want to export the sketch, or type the name of a new file in the Selection text field. 4. If you are exporting a sketch to an IGES file, you can select the application that you expect to read the file. You can choose one of the following: · Neutral · AutoCAD · Solid Works · JAMA ABAQUS/CAE tailors the internal representation of the IGES file to match the format expected by the selected application. By default, ABAQUS/CAE exports a sketch in a neutral format. ABAQUS/CAE writes all of the geometry data to a single layer in the IGES file. The IGES file contains geometry data only, ABAQUS/CAE does not export construction lines and dimensions from the sketch. 5. Click OK to export the sketch and to close the Export Sketch dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.7.2 Exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file
Select File->Export->Part from the main menu bar to export the current part to an ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS file. Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS files; therefore, you can transfer parts between ABAQUS/CAE and these applications. You can export a part at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session. If you are not in the Part module,

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ABAQUS/CAE exports the part most recently displayed in the Part module. You cannot export a part that you imported from an output database. Detailed instructions for exporting a part to an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Export->Part. The Export Part dialog box appears. 2. From the File Type menu at the top of the Export Part dialog box, select one of the following: · ACIS (*.sat) · IGES (*.igs) · VDA-FS (*.vda) ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the appropriate file extension. 3. Select the file to which you want to export the part, or type the name of a new file in the Selection text field. 4. If you are exporting a part to an IGES file, you can do the following: · Select the application that you expect to read the file from one of the following: - Standard - AutoCAD - SolidWorks - JAMA ABAQUS/CAE tailors the internal representation of the IGES file to match the format expected by the selected application. By default, ABAQUS/CAE exports a part in a neutral format. · Scale the geometry that ABAQUS/CAE writes to the IGES file. ABAQUS/CAE writes all of the geometry data to a single layer in the IGES file. For more information, see ``Understanding the contents of an IGES file,'' Section 13.2. 5. Click OK to export the part and to close the file selection dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7

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· ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

13.7.3 Exporting the assembly to an ACIS-format file
Select File->Export->Assembly from the main menu bar to export the assembly to an ACIS-format file. Many computer-aided modeling and drafting applications can read and write ACIS files; therefore, you can transfer parts between ABAQUS/CAE and these applications. You cannot export an orphan mesh part that you imported from an output database. You can export the assembly at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session. ABAQUS/CAE exports each part separately along with its position. If you subsequently import an ACIS-format file containing an assembly, ABAQUS/CAE creates a part corresponding to each instance while retaining each part's original position for later use when you instance the part in the Assembly module. When you create instances of the imported ACIS parts, ABAQUS/CAE uses the position information to recreate the original assembly. You cannot import the assembly directly. Detailed instructions for exporting the assembly to an ACIS-format file: 1. From the main menu bar, select File->Export->Assembly. The Export Assembly dialog box appears. ABAQUS/CAE lists all the files in the selected directory with the .sat file extension. 2. Select the file to which you want to export the assembly, or type the name of a new file in the Selection text field. 3. Click OK to export the assembly and to close the Export Assembly dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using file selection dialog boxes,'' Section 6.3.7 · ``What is an ABAQUS/CAE model?,'' Section 12.2 · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5

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Part IV: Creating and analyzing a model using the ABAQUS/CAE modules
This part describes how to use the modules in ABAQUS/CAE to define a model's geometry and other physical properties and then submit the model for analysis. The following topics are covered: · Chapter 14, "The Part module" · Chapter 15, "The Property module" · Chapter 16, "The Assembly module" · Chapter 17, "The Step module" · Chapter 18, "The Interaction module" · Chapter 19, "The Load/BC/IC module" · Chapter 20, "The Mesh module" · Chapter 21, "The Job module" · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module"

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14. The Part module
Parts are the building blocks of an ABAQUS/CAE model. You use the Part module to create each part, and you use the Assembly module to assemble instances of the parts. Chapter 3, "A tutorial: Using additional techniques to create and analyze a model ," contains examples of how you create, modify, and manipulate parts. This chapter explains how you use the tools within the Part module to work with parts. The following topics are covered: · ``Understanding the role of the Part module,'' Section 14.1 · ``Entering and exiting the Part module,'' Section 14.2 · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3 · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Importing parts into the Part module,'' Section 14.5 · ``What types of features can you create?,'' Section 14.6 · ``Using feature-based modeling effectively,'' Section 14.7 · ``Capturing your design and analysis intent,'' Section 14.8 · ``Understanding extruding, revolving, and sweeping,'' Section 14.9 · ``Using the Sketcher in conjunction with the Part module,'' Section 14.10 · ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11 · ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12 · ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13 · ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14 · ``Adding a feature to a part,'' Section 14.15 · ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16 · ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17 · ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18 · ``Adding a cut feature,'' Section 14.19 · ``Blending edges,'' Section 14.20 · ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21 · ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22

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14.1 Understanding the role of the Part module
There are several ways to create a part in ABAQUS/CAE: · Create it using the tools available in the Part module. · Import its geometry from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS compatible file. · Import its mesh from an output database. · Import its mesh from an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit input file. A part created using the Part module tools is called a native part and has a feature-based representation. A feature captures your design intent and contains geometry information as well as a set of rules that govern the behavior of the geometry. For example, a circular through cut is a feature, and ABAQUS/CAE stores the diameter of the cut along with the information that it should pass all the way through the part. If you increase the size of the part, ABAQUS/CAE recognizes that the depth of the cut should increase so that it continues to pass through the part. You use the Part module to create, edit, and manage the parts in the current model. ABAQUS/CAE stores each part in the form of an ordered list of features. The parameters that define each feature--extruded depth, hole diameter, sweep path, etc.--combine to define the geometry of the part. The Part module allows you to do the following: · Create deformable, discrete rigid, or analytical rigid parts. The part tools also allow you to edit and manipulate the existing parts defined in the current model. · Create the features--solids, shells, wires, cuts, and rounds--that define the geometry of the part. · Use the Feature Manipulation toolset to edit, delete, suppress, resume, and regenerate a part's features. · Assign the reference point to a rigid part. · Use the Sketcher to create, edit, and manage the two-dimensional sketches that form the profile of a part's features. These profiles can be extruded, revolved, or swept to create part geometry, or they can be used directly to form a planar or axisymmetric part. · Use the Set toolset, the Partition toolset, and the Datum toolset. These toolsets operate on the part in the current viewport and allow you to create sets, partitions, and datum geometry, respectively.

14.2 Entering and exiting the Part module
You can enter the Part module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Part in the Module list located under the toolbar. The Part, Shape, Feature, Assign, and Tools menus appear on the main menu bar, and the title bar of the current viewport displays the name of the current part, if one exists. To exit the Part module, select any other module from the Module list. You need not take any specific

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action to save your parts before exiting the module; they are saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File->Save or File->Save As from the main menu bar.

14.3 Understanding feature-based modeling
This section describes the feature-based modeling approach that ABAQUS/CAE uses to define a part. The topics covered are: · ``The relationship between parts and features, '' Section 14.3.1 · ``The base feature,'' Section 14.3.2 · ``Part instances,'' Section 14.3.3

14.3.1 The relationship between parts and features
A part created in ABAQUS/CAE has a feature-based representation. A feature is a meaningful piece of the design and provides the engineer with a convenient and natural way to build and modify a part. Parts created in ABAQUS/CAE are constructed from an ordered list of features and the parameters that define the geometry of each feature. You select from the following shape features to build a part in the Part module: · Solids · Shells · Wires · Cuts · Blends Using the tools in the Part module, you create and edit all the features necessary to describe each of the parts in your model. ABAQUS/CAE stores each feature and uses this information to define the entire part, to regenerate the part if you modify it, and to generate an instance of the part in the Assembly module. For more information on how parts are related to part instances, see ``Part instances,'' Section 14.3.3. The following sequence illustrates how the three-dimensional part in Figure 14-1 would be constructed using each of the features available in ABAQUS/CAE.

Figure 14-1 Part constructed using solid, shell, wire, cut, and blend features.

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1. The first feature you create while building a part is called the base feature; you construct the remainder of the part by adding more features that either modify or add detail to the base feature. In this example the base feature is a U-shaped part; the user sketched a two-dimensional profile and extruded it to form the base feature, as shown in Figure 14-2.

Figure 14-2 The base feature.

The sketch and the extrusion depth (a) are the modifiable parameters that define the base feature. You can revisit the base feature and change its size or shape by using the Feature Manipulation toolset to modify either the section sketch or the extrusion distance. If desired, you can delete the base feature and sketch a new shape. 2. A stiffening web is added as a shell feature. The user sketched a line on one of the internal faces and extruded the sketch to the opposite face, as shown in Figure 14-3. The sketch is the only modifiable parameter that defines the shell feature.

Figure 14-3 A shell feature.

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3. Rods are added to the corners as wire features. The wire was created by connecting two points that the user selected, as shown in Figure 14-4. Wires created in this way have no modifiable parameters; they must be deleted and recreated if you need to change them.

Figure 14-4 Wire features.

4. A blind cut is cut into the top of the clamp. The user sketched a two-dimensional profile, and the profile was extruded into the clamp through a specified distance, as shown in Figure 14-5. The sketch and the depth of the slot are the modifiable parameters that define the blind cut feature.

Figure 14-5 A cut feature.

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5. The edges of the cut are rounded. The user selected the edges to round and provided the radius of the round, as shown in Figure 14-6. The radius is the modifiable parameter that defines the round feature.

Figure 14-6 Round features.

If the geometry of a new feature depends on an existing feature, ABAQUS/CAE creates a parent-child relationship between the features. The new feature is the child, and the feature it depends on is the parent. For example, in the part described above the round feature is a child of the cut feature. If you change the position or size of the cut, the edges remain rounded. Similarly, if you delete the cut, ABAQUS/CAE also deletes the rounds. If you modify a parent feature, the modification may invalidate children of the parent feature. For example, in the part described above if you were to increase the depth of the cut so that it became a through cut, you would lose the fillets along its edges; that is, the fillets would fail to regenerate after the modification. ABAQUS/CAE offers you the following two choices: · Keep the changes to the parent feature but suppress the features that failed to regenerate. Children of the suppressed features will also be suppressed. · Abort the modification of the parent feature and return to the state of the last successful regeneration.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3 · ``Using the Feature Manipulation toolset,'' Section 42.3

14.3.2 The base feature
The first feature you create while building a part is called the base feature; you construct the remainder of the part by adding more features that either modify or add detail to the base feature. This process of building an ABAQUS/CAE native part using the tools in the Part module follows a sequence of operations analogous to building a part in a machine shop. For example, you start with a piece of billet stock (the base feature) and then you do the following: · Attach additional pieces to the billet (apply a solid extrusion, a revolved shell, or a sketched wire). · Cut away the billet (apply an extruded cut, a revolved cut, a circular hole, or round or chamfer an edge). When you create a new part, you must describe the base feature. You do this by specifying two properties of the base feature: its shape and type. The shape indicates the basic topology of the feature; that is, whether it is a solid, shell, or wire. The type indicates which of the following four methods will be used to generate the part: Planar You sketch the feature on a two-dimensional sketch plane. Extrusion You sketch the feature profile and then extrude it through a specified distance. Revolution You sketch the feature profile and then revolve it by a specified angle about an axis. Sweep You sketch two shapes: a sweep path and a sweep profile. The profile is then swept along the path to create the feature. Before you create a part and choose the shape and the type of the base feature, you should know the sequence you will use to construct the desired part. Choosing the correct type and shape of the base feature is important. Table 14-1 shows the base features that you can select based on the part's modeling space and type:

Table 14-1. Choosing the base feature. Modeling Space

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Three-dimensional Part Type Deformable Discrete rigid Any Any (you must convert a 3-D solid discrete rigid part to a shell before you instance it) Extruded or revolved shell

Two-dimensional or Axisymmetric Planar shell or planar wire Planar shell or planar wire

Analytical rigid

Planar wire

An ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS part consists of a single feature that you import into ABAQUS/CAE as the base feature of a new part. You cannot modify this base feature, but you can add additional features to it. Similarly, an orphan mesh is imported from an output database as the base feature of a new part. You can use the mesh editing tools to add and delete nodes and elements from an orphan mesh. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14 · ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16 · ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17 · ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18

14.3.3 Part instances
A part instance can be thought of as a representation of the original part. You create a part in the Part module and define its properties in the Property module. However, when you assemble the model using the Assembly module, you work only with instances of the part, not the part itself. The Interaction module, the Load/BC/IC module, and the Mesh module also operate on the assembly and, therefore, on part instances. A part instance is a reference to the original part; it is not a copy. You cannot modify the features of a part instance directly; you can modify the part itself only within the Part module. When you modify a part, ABAQUS/CAE automatically regenerates all instances of the modified part in the assembly. The following example illustrates the relationship between parts and part instances. A child's wagon is composed of five parts: a body, an axle, an axle mount, a handle, and a wheel. In the Part module you create each of the five parts shown in Figure 14-7: · One body · One axle · One axle mount · One handle

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· One wheel

Figure 14-7 The original parts.

In the Assembly module you assemble instances of each part: · One instance of the body. · Two instances of the axle. · Four instances of the axle mount. · One instance of the handle. · Four instances of the wheel. You then position the instances relative to a common coordinate system, thereby creating the model of the cart, as shown in Figure 14-8.

Figure 14-8 The model is assembled from instances of the parts.

Now, suppose you want to reduce the diameter of the wheels. You return to the Part module and modify the diameter of the wheel by editing the original part. When you return to the Assembly module, ABAQUS/CAE recognizes that the part was modified and automatically regenerates the four instances of the wheel to reflect the change in the diameter. You can create multiple instances of a single part. In addition, you can assemble instances of deformable, analytical rigid, and discrete rigid parts when you are solving contact problems. For more information on the types of parts you can create in ABAQUS/CAE, see ``Part types,'' Section 14.4.2.

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Sets are not transferred when you create a part instance from a part. For example, you might use the Property module to create a set from the geometry of a part and assign a section to that set; however, that set is not available later when you work with the part instance in the Assembly module.

14.4 How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?
This section describes the parts you can create in the Part module--deformable and rigid. The topics covered are: · ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1 · ``Part types,'' Section 14.4.2 · ``Rigid parts,'' Section 14.4.3 · ``Sketching the profile of a rigid part,'' Section 14.4.4 · ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5

14.4.1 Part modeling space
When you create a new part, you must specify the modeling space in which the part will reside. You can assign the following three types of modeling space: Three-dimensional ABAQUS/CAE embeds the part in the X-, Y-, Z coordinate system. A three-dimensional part can contain any combination of solid, shell, wire, cut, round and chamfer features. You model a three-dimensional part using three-dimensional solid, shell, beam, truss, or membrane elements. Two-dimensional planar ABAQUS/CAE embeds the part in the X-Y plane. A two-dimensional planar part can contain a combination of only planar shell and wire features, and all cut features are defined as planar through cuts. You model a two-dimensional planar part using two-dimensional solid continuum elements, as well as truss or beam elements. Axisymmetric ABAQUS/CAE embeds the part in the X-Y plane with the Y-axis indicating the axis of revolution. An axisymmetric part can contain a combination of only planar shell and wire features, and all cut features are defined as planar through cuts. You model an axisymmetric part using axisymmetric solid continuum elements or axisymmetric shell elements. Modeling space refers to the space in which the part is embedded rather than to the topology of the part itself. Thus, you can create a three-dimensional part using a topologically two-dimensional shell feature or a one-dimensional wire feature. You cannot change an ABAQUS/CAE native part's modeling space after you have created the part. When you import an orphan mesh from an output database, ABAQUS/CAE determines the modeling

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space of the new part from the information stored in the output database. When you import a part from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file, you can specify the part's modeling space, provided that ABAQUS/CAE does not determine it must be three-dimensional. Detailed instructions on how to specify modeling space when creating and importing a part can be found in ``Choosing the modeling space of a new part,'' Section 14.14.2, and ``Importing geometry data and models,'' Section 13.5. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

14.4.2 Part types
When you create a new part or import a part from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file, you must choose the part's type. The three possible types are: Deformable Any arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional part that you can create or import can be specified as a deformable part. A deformable part represents a part that can deform under load; the load can be mechanical, thermal, or electrical. By default, ABAQUS/CAE creates parts that are deformable. Discrete rigid A discrete rigid part is similar to a deformable part in that it can be any arbitrary shape. However, a discrete rigid part is assumed to be rigid and is used in contact analyses to model bodies that cannot deform. Analytical rigid An analytical rigid part is similar to a discrete rigid part in that it is used to represent a rigid surface in a contact analysis. However, the shape of an analytical rigid part is not arbitrary and must be formed from a set of sketched lines, arcs, and parabolas. You can assemble deformable bodies, discrete rigid parts, and analytical rigid parts in the Assembly module, but ABAQUS/CAE supports contact only between two deformable bodies or between a deformable part and a rigid part. You cannot change a part's type after you have created it. However, you can export a part in ACIS format and then import it as a new ACIS part of a different type. When you import an orphan mesh, ABAQUS/CAE determines the type of the new part from the information stored in the output database. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Rigid parts,'' Section 14.4.3 · ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5 · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

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14.4.3 Rigid parts
When your model contains parts that contact each other, you can specify that one or more of the parts is rigid. A rigid part represents a part that is so much stiffer than the rest of the model that its deformation can be considered negligible. In addition, in a coupled thermal-mechanical analysis no heat can be transferred to the rigid part. If a rigid body is considered as isothermal, a single temperature degree of freedom describing the temperature of the rigid body exists at the rigid body reference node. In contrast to a part that you define as rigid, a part that you define as deformable can deform during contact with either a rigid part or another deformable part, and heat can be transferred through a deformable part. For example, a model of a metal stamping process might use a deformable part to model the blank and rigid parts to model the mold and die, as shown in Figure 14-9.

Figure 14-9 Rigid and deformable parts.

In this example the mold is constrained to have no motion, and the die moves through a prescribed path during the stamping process. You control the motion of rigid parts by selecting a rigid body reference point and constraining or prescribing its motion. For more information, see ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5. You can choose between two kinds of rigid parts: Discrete rigid parts A part that you declared to be a discrete rigid part can be any arbitrary three-dimensional, two-dimensional, or axisymmetric shape. Therefore, you can use all the Part module feature tools--solids, shells, wires, cuts, and blends--to create a discrete rigid part. However, only discrete rigid parts containing shells and wires can be meshed with rigid elements in the Mesh module. If you try to create an instance of a solid discrete rigid part in the Assembly module, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message; you must return to the Part module and convert the faces of the solid to shells. Analytical rigid parts An analytical rigid part is similar to a discrete rigid part in that it is used to represent a rigid part in a contact analysis. If possible, you should use an analytical rigid part when describing a rigid part because it is computationally less expensive than a discrete rigid part. The shape of

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an analytical rigid part is not arbitrary, and the profile must be smooth. You can use only the following methods to create an analytical rigid part: · You can sketch the two-dimensional profile of the part and revolve the profile around an axis of symmetry to form a three-dimensional revolved analytical rigid part, as shown in Figure 14-10.

Figure 14-10 A revolved analytical rigid part.

· You can sketch the two-dimensional profile of the part and extrude the profile infinitely to form a three-dimensional extruded analytical rigid part. Although ABAQUS/CAE considers that the extrusion extends to infinity, the Part module displays a three-dimensional extruded analytical rigid part with a depth that you specify, as shown in Figure 14-11.

Figure 14-11 An extruded analytical rigid part.

· You can sketch the profile of a planar two-dimensional analytical rigid part, as shown in Figure 14-12.

Figure 14-12 A planar analytical rigid part.

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· You can sketch the profile of an axisymmetric two-dimensional analytical rigid part, as shown in Figure 14-13.

Figure 14-13 An axisymmetric analytical rigid part.

You can import a part from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file and define it to be either a deformable or a discrete rigid part; however, you cannot define an imported part to be an analytical rigid part. As an alternative, you can import the geometry of the analytical rigid part into a sketch. You can then create a new analytical rigid part and copy the imported sketch into the Sketcher toolset. A rigid part in ABAQUS/CAE is equivalent to a rigid surface in an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit analysis. For more information, see the following: · ``Defining analytical rigid surfaces,'' Section 2.3.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Defining rigid bodies,'' Section 2.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Rigid elements,'' Section 16.3.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 15.3.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Contact and interaction analysis: overview, '' Section 21.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and ``Contact analysis: overview,'' Section 20.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5 · ``Part types,'' Section 14.4.2 · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Sketching simple objects,'' Section 22.9

14.4.4 Sketching the profile of a rigid part
ABAQUS/CAE represents analytical rigid parts using profiles that are composed of a series of lines, arcs, and parabolas. Several tools are available in the Sketcher to help you construct each portion of the rigid part profile: Lines You use the Sketcher's Line tool to sketch straight lines. Arcs and fillets You use the Sketcher's Arc and Fillet tools to sketch circular arcs or to fillet two lines. Any resulting arcs must subtend an angle less than 180°; if you want to construct an arc subtending an angle greater than 180°, you should create two adjacent arcs. ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message if you create an arc subtending an angle greater than 180° while sketching the profile of an analytical rigid surface. Splines You use the Sketcher's Spline tool to sketch parabolas. You create a parabola by defining a three-point spline, where the three points are the start of the spline, a point anywhere along the spline, and the end of the spline. Only splines composed of exactly three points generate the parabolas required by the analytical rigid part definition; consequently, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message if you create a spline using more than three points while sketching the profile of an analytical rigid part. You can construct an analytical rigid part from any combination of lines, arcs, and parabolas; however, the resulting profile must be a single connected (but not necessarily closed) curve. In addition, the curve must be smooth to obtain a converged solution with ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. You may want to apply a sequence of small lines, arcs, or parabolas to eliminate any surface discontinuities (ABAQUS/CAE does not have an equivalent to the FILLET RADIUS parameter on the ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit *SURFACE option). For more information on creating parabolas and maintaining tangency, see ``Sketching splines,'' Section 22.9.8. For more information on the rules governing analytical rigid surfaces, see ``Defining analytical rigid surfaces,'' Section 2.3.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. A sketch of an analytical rigid part that includes a line, an arc, and a fillet is illustrated in Figure 14-14.

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Figure 14-14 A sketch of an analytical rigid part.

An analytical rigid part is defined completely by the two-dimensional profile of the base feature that you create with the Sketch; consequently, the Part module tools cannot be used to add features when you return to the Part module from the Sketch. You can modify the part only by editing the original sketch. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Sketching simple objects,'' Section 22.9

14.4.5 The reference point
You can create a reference point that is associated with a part. The reference point can be used for one of the following: · If the part is a discrete or analytical rigid part, you use the reference point to indicate the rigid body reference point. You use the Load/BC/IC module to apply constraints to the reference point or to define the motion of the reference point using loads or boundary conditions. Motion or constraints that you apply to the rigid body reference point are then applied to the entire rigid part. Similarly, if you created an isothermal rigid part, you use the Load/BC/IC module to apply a temperature constraint to the rigid body reference point. Typically, the location of the rigid body reference point is not important; however, if the rigid body moves freely in a dynamic analysis, its mass and rotary inertia influence the motion, and the reference point should be placed at the center of mass. You can use the Query toolset to determine the coordinates of the centroid of a solid, and you can use the Property module to assign mass and rotary inertia section properties to the reference point. The section can also include optional damping data. · If the part is a deformable planar part, you can model it with generalized plane strain elements. You must create a reference point to indicate the first extra node required by generalized plane strain elements. ABAQUS/CAE places the second extra node at the same location as the first. You cannot model initial curvature in the model in the axial direction; for more information on generalized plane strain elements, see ``Choosing the element's dimensionality,'' Section 13.1.2 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual.

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· You can create and name a set containing the reference point. You can then use the set when creating an equation constraint in the Interaction module. You can also refer to the set in the keywords editor when creating a multi-point constraint. You use the Part module to create a reference point. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Reference Point and use either of the following techniques:
Select in Viewport

You can select any existing vertex from the part, including datum points.
Enter Coordinates

You can type the components of a vector representing the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the reference point. ABAQUS/CAE displays the reference point at the desired location and labels it Ref Pt. You can assign only one reference point to a part; ABAQUS/CAE asks you if you want to delete the original point if you try to assign a second point. If you entered coordinates to define the reference point, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to edit the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates using the Feature Manipulation toolset. You can use the Interaction module to define the rigid body's surface normals.

14.5 Importing parts into the Part module
You can import parts stored in the following formats into ABAQUS/CAE: · ACIS · IGES · VDA-FS · ABAQUS output database (ODB) For more information, see Chapter 13, "Importing and exporting geometry data and models." Because ABAQUS/CAE treats imported parts as a single feature, you cannot use the feature manipulation toolset to remove excessive detail, such as small holes and fillets, from an imported part. However, you can use the geometry repair tools to edit an ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS part. In general, you can add features to an imported ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS part so that the final geometry may be very different from the part you imported. Similarly, you cannot add geometric features to a part imported from an output database (ODB); however, you can use the mesh editing tools to modify its nodes and elements. In addition, you can add reference geometry, called datum geometry to an orphan mesh. (For more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3, and Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset.") You can assemble a combination of native parts, ACIS parts, IGES parts, VDA-FS parts, and parts from an ODB in the Assembly module. You can mesh native parts and ACIS, IGES, and VDA-FS parts in the Mesh module. You can select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar at any time during a session. When you 1-338

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import a part into a model, ABAQUS/CAE switches to the Part module and displays the imported part in the current viewport. In addition, the imported part becomes the base feature of a new part. The following topics are covered: · ``Importing parts from an output database (ODB),'' Section 14.5.1 · ``Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files,'' Section 14.5.2 · ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3

14.5.1 Importing parts from an output database (ODB)
To import an orphan mesh into ABAQUS/CAE, select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar. When you use the Job module to submit a job for analysis, ABAQUS/CAE writes the results from the analysis to a binary file called an output database. The output database also contains the geometry of the nodes, elements, surfaces, and sets that made up the original meshed assembly, and this geometry can be imported into ABAQUS/CAE from an output database in the form of a part called an orphan mesh. In effect, the mesh information has been ``orphaned'' from its parent geometry. Once you import an orphan mesh, it appears in the model's list of parts. You can instance an orphan mesh part in the Assembly module, and position it with other part instances in the assembly. An orphan mesh consists of a single feature; you can modify this single feature with the following operations: · Add nodes or elements. · Delete nodes or elements. · Edit nodes. · Resize the elements. · Change the direction of the normal from a shell element. In addition, you can add reference geometry, called datum geometry to an orphan mesh. (For more information, see Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset.") Node and element sets are maintained when you import an orphan mesh. If you delete any nodes or elements from the orphan mesh, they are also deleted from these sets. In addition, you can create new sets using the Set toolset. If the current part is an orphan mesh, you can choose to replace its mesh with the imported orphan mesh. The name of the current part does not change, and the part maintains its original section assignments. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22

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· ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5 · ``Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files,'' Section 14.5.2

14.5.2 Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files
To import a part from an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file into ABAQUS/CAE, select File->Import->Part from the main menu bar. ACIS is a geometric modeling toolkit that serves as the underlying geometry engine for many three-dimensional modeling applications, including ABAQUS/CAE. Consequently, the ACIS format has become an industry standard for storing the geometry of a part, and parts stored in ACIS format can be interchanged between many applications. An ACIS-format file can contain more than one part, and ABAQUS/CAE allows you to import each one separately. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) is a similar industry standard, and IGES-format files contain a neutral data format designed for graphics exchange between computer-aided design (CAD) systems. An IGES-format file can contain only one part. The Verband der Automobilindustrie e.V. (VDA) surface data format is a geometry standard developed by the German automotive industry. Both VDA-FS and IGES files contain a mathematical representation of the part in an ASCII format; however, the VDA-FS standard is simpler and concentrates on geometry information. ABAQUS/CAE can import a part stored in an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS-format file, but the imported part does not retain any record of the features that originally defined it. As a result, the imported part forms the base feature of a new part; you can add features to the part, but you cannot edit this base feature. In general, you can import any part saved in ACIS, IGES, or VDA-FS format; however, subsequent operations, such as partitioning and meshing, may fail if the geometry is not valid. ABAQUS/CAE can detect and repair invalid geometry during the import process, or you can repair the imported part in the Part module. For more information, see ``Repairing and editing imported parts,'' Section 14.5.3. You can use ACIS, IGES, and VDA-FS format to transfer parts between ABAQUS/CAE and third-party solid modeling products, since ABAQUS/CAE can import and export parts in both formats. The feature-based information stored in the part or part instance is lost when you export it to ACIS format. To export a part from ABAQUS/CAE into an ACIS-, IGES-, or VDA-FS format file, select File->Export->Part from the main menu bar. For detailed instructions on importing and exporting parts, see ``Importing geometry data and models,'' Section 13.5, and ``Exporting geometry data,'' Section 13.7. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the File menu,'' Section 12.5 · ``Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files,'' Section 14.5.2

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14.5.3 Repairing and editing imported parts
When you import a part, you may find that aspects of the part are invalid or inappropriate for your analysis. Two sets of tools exist that allow you to edit imported parts as necessary to make them useful for modeling. Geometry repair tools Parts that you create using the Part module in ABAQUS/CAE are considered valid and precise. However, parts imported from other applications may be invalid or imprecise. The geometry repair tools allow you to improve the quality of parts that you import into ABAQUS/CAE. For example, you can use these tools to delete unwanted vertices, edges, and faces and to create new faces. Warning: You should use the geometry repair tools to edit only imported parts. The geometry repair tools do not take into account the feature-based representation of an ABAQUS/CAE native part and may delete important feature information. If you import an invalid part into ABAQUS/CAE, you can try to correct the geometry using the geometry repair tools. If you cannot correct the geometry using these tools, it cannot be changed or analyzed in ABAQUS/CAE and is generally not useful. If you import a valid but imprecise part into ABAQUS/CAE, you can try to increase the precision of the geometry using the geometry repair tools. If you cannot make the geometry more precise using these tools, you can still use the part in ABAQUS/CAE; however, some ABAQUS/CAE functions will be disabled. For detailed instructions on how to use the imported geometry repair tools, see ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21. Orphan mesh editing tools The orphan mesh editing tools allow you to improve the quality of orphan meshes that you import into ABAQUS/CAE. You can use these tools to perform the following tasks: · Create a node. You can specify the coordinates of the new node either in the global coordinate system or in a datum coordinate system that you specify. · Edit nodes. You can specify the new coordinates of the nodes either in the global coordinate system or in a datum coordinate system that you specify. You can edit a single node or you can edit multiple nodes simultaneously. · Delete nodes. Any elements associated with the deleted nodes are also deleted. In addition, you have the option of deleting any remaining nodes that would be left unassociated with any elements once the nodes selected for deletion and their associated elements are deleted. · Create an element. You must specify the shape of the element that you want to create, and you must select the nodes in the order appropriate for that element shape.

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· Delete elements. You have the option of deleting any nodes that would be left unassociated with any elements once the selected elements are deleted. · Reverse the surface normal of shell elements. · Refine a planar, linear, triangular orphan mesh. ABAQUS/CAE maintains the edges of the elements along the boundary of the part while improving the mesh quality in the interior. Alternatively, you can specify a global element size before refining the mesh, and the density of the new mesh reflects the new target element size. For detailed instructions on how to use the orphan mesh editing tools, see ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22.

14.6 What types of features can you create?
After you select the type and shape of the part and sketch the two-dimensional profile of its base feature, you add additional features or modify existing features to create the finished part. The following sections describe the features that can be added to a part: · ``Solid features,'' Section 14.6.1 · ``Shell features,'' Section 14.6.2 · ``Wire features,'' Section 14.6.3 · ``Cut features,'' Section 14.6.4 · ``Blend features,'' Section 14.6.5

14.6.1 Solid features
To create a solid feature, select Extrude, Revolve, or Sweep from the Shape->Solid menu on the main menu bar or select one of the solid tools in the Part module toolbox. Once you have sketched the profile, you perform one of the following operations to create the feature: · To create an extruded solid feature, you extrude the profile through a specified distance (d), as shown in Figure 14-15. Select Shape->Solid->Extrude from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-15 An extruded solid feature.

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· To create a revolved solid feature, you revolve the profile through a specified angle (a). A construction line serves as the axis of revolution, as shown in Figure 14-16. Select Shape->Solid->Revolve from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-16 A revolved solid feature.

· To create a swept solid feature, you sweep the profile along a specified path, as shown in Figure 14-17. Select Shape->Solid->Sweep from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. For more information, see ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3.

Figure 14-17 A swept solid feature.

You can use any of the solid tools to add a solid feature to a deformable or discrete part that you

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created in three-dimensional modeling space. You cannot add a solid feature to a two-dimensional or axisymmetric part. Figure 14-15, Figure 14-16, and Figure 14-17 illustrate how each feature might later be meshed. You can mesh a solid feature using any of the three-dimensional, solid continuum elements available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16 · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.6.2 Shell features
A shell feature is an idealization of a solid in which thickness is considered small compared to the width and depth. To create a shell feature, select Shape->Shell from the main menu bar or select one of the shell tools in the Part module toolbox. You create a shell feature in the Part module using the shell tools to do one of the following: · Sketch a line or curve and extrude it though a specified distance to create an extruded shell feature, as shown in Figure 14-18. Select Shape->Shell->Extrude from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-18 An extruded shell feature.

· Sketch a line or curve and revolve it through a specified angle to create a revolved shell feature. A construction line serves as the axis of revolution, as shown in Figure 14-19. Select Shape->Shell->Revolve from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-19 A revolved shell feature.

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· Sketch a path and a profile, and sweep the profile normal to the path to create a swept shell feature, as shown in Figure 14-20. Select Shape->Shell->Planar from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. For more information, see ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3.

Figure 14-20 A swept shell feature.

· Sketch the outline of the shell on a selected planar face or datum plane to create a planar shell feature, as shown in Figure 14-21. When you sketch on a planar face (for example, the side of a cube), the shell feature is created only where it extends beyond the face; a shell feature cannot overlap a face. A sketch on a planar face of a cube and the resulting shell feature are shown in Figure 14-21. In this example the shell feature is a fin extending beyond the selected face of the cube. Select Shape->Shell->Planar from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-21 A sketched shell feature.

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· Convert the faces of a solid feature to shell features; in effect, hollow out a solid. A shell-from-solid feature is shown in Figure 14-22. Select Shape->Shell->From Solid from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-22 A shell-from-solid feature.

· Remove selected faces from a solid and convert the remaining solid to shell features. A remove-face shell feature is shown in Figure 14-23. Select Shape->Shell->Remove Face from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-23 A remove-face shell feature.

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You can use any of the shell tools to add a shell feature to a part that you created in three-dimensional modeling space; however, when you are working on parts created in two-dimensional or axisymmetric modeling space, you can use only the planar shell tool to add a shell feature. You use the Property module to create a section prescribing the desired thickness and to assign the section to the shell feature. For more information, see ``Defining sections,'' Section 15.2.3, and ``Assigning sections, material orientations, and beam orientations to a part, '' Section 15.3. Figure 14-21 and Figure 14-23 illustrate how each feature might later be meshed. You can mesh a shell feature using: · Two-dimensional or axisymmetric continuum elements (limited to planar shell features) · Three-dimensional shell elements · Membrane elements For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17 · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.6.3 Wire features
A wire is depicted as a line in ABAQUS/CAE and is used to idealize a solid in which both its thickness and depth are considered small compared to its length. To create a wire feature, select Shape->Wire from the main menu bar or select one of the wire tools in the Part module toolbox. You create a wire feature in the Part module using the wire tools to do one of the following: · Sketch a wire on a selected planar face or datum plane to create a sketched wire feature, as shown in Figure 14-24. Select Shape->Wire->Sketch from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-24 A sketched wire feature.

When you sketch on a planar face (for example, the side of a cube), the wire feature is created only where it extends beyond the face. A wire feature cannot overlap a face; however, you can partition the face to simulate a wire extending over the face. · Connect two selected points with a straight line, as shown in Figure 14-25. Select Shape->Wire->2 Points from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

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Figure 14-25 A wire feature connecting two points.

You can use the wire tools to add a wire feature to any deformable or discrete rigid part. You cannot add a wire feature to an analytical rigid part; you can only modify the original sketch that defined that part. You use the Property module to create a section that prescribes the desired cross-sectional geometry and to assign that section to the wire feature. (For more information, see ``Defining sections,'' Section 15.2.3, and ``Assigning sections, material orientations, and beam orientations to a part, '' Section 15.3.) You can model a wire feature using any of the beam, truss, or axisymmetric shell elements available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. Note: Although you can create a mesh of beam elements, the current version of ABAQUS/CAE allows you to assign only the following sections to a wire: · Beam section · Truss section For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18 · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.6.4 Cut features
A cut is a feature that removes material from a part. A cut can be a circular hole, or it can be any arbitrary shape. To create a cut feature, select Shape->Cut from the main menu bar or select one of the cut tools in the Part module toolbox. You create a cut feature in the Part module using the cut tools to do one of the following: · Sketch the two-dimensional profile of the cut and extrude it through a specified distance ( d), as shown in Figure 14-26. Select Shape->Cut->Extrude from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-26 An extruded cut feature.

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· Sketch the two-dimensional profile of the cut and revolve it through a specified angle ( a). A construction line serves as the axis of revolution, as shown in Figure 14-27. Select Shape->Cut->Revolve from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-27 A revolved cut feature.

· Sketch the two-dimensional profile of the cut and sweep it along a specified path, as shown in Figure 14-28. Select Shape->Cut->Sweep from the main menu bar to create this type of feature. For more information, see ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3.

Figure 14-28 A swept cut feature.

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· Enter the diameter of a hole and the distance of its center from two selected edges, as shown in Figure 14-29. Select Shape->Cut->Circular Hole from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-29 A circular hole feature.

You can use the cut tools to add a cut feature to any deformable or discrete rigid part. You cannot add a cut feature to an analytical rigid part; you can only modify the original sketch that defined that part. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18 · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.6.5 Blend features
A blend feature smooths an edge of a three-dimensional solid part. To create a blend feature, select Shape->Blend from the main menu bar or select one of the blend tools in the Part module toolbox. You create a blend feature in the Part module using the blend tools to do one of the following: · Smooth an edge with a circular blend of a specified radius, as shown in Figure 14-30. Select Shape->Blend->Round/Fillet from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-30 A round/fillet blend feature.

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· Bevel an edge with a chamfered blend of a specified length, as shown in Figure 14-31. Select Shape->Blend->Chamfer from the main menu bar to create this type of feature.

Figure 14-31 A chamfer blend feature.

You can use the blend tools to blend edges of a deformable or discrete rigid part that you created in three-dimensional modeling space. You cannot add a blend feature to a two-dimensional or axisymmetric part; however, you can blend its corners by editing the sketch of the part. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18 · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.7 Using feature-based modeling effectively
You can devise an efficient approach to creating a part if you understand how ABAQUS/CAE uses feature-based modeling and how the rules that define a feature are applied. The following techniques will help you plan efficiently: Plan a strategy Feature-based modeling provides flexibility, but it can also add overhead to your model. For

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example, you can effectively suppress an extrusion by removing it with a cut feature. Although you can restore the extrusion subsequently by removing the cut feature, the resulting part contains additional feature-based information that can slow down regeneration. In addition, dependencies may cause feature regeneration to fail if you add more detail to the part; and, because the extrusion is no longer visible, the cause of the failure to regenerate may be hard to determine. Before you decide how to create a part, you should always consider if you will ever need to modify the part in the future. If you decide that you might need to modify the part, you should consider the techniques that you will use to create the features that define the part. The simplest techniques may not provide the flexibility you need for modifying the features. You may find it cumbersome to edit or suppress individual items of geometry, such as an extrusion, a fillet, or a hole. Alternatively, if you know that you will never change the final design, you may not need the flexibility provided by feature-based modeling and can use the simplest and most convenient techniques to define the part. Use reference geometry When you are adding a feature to a part, you should always use underlying reference geometry to define the new feature's location relative to existing features. While sketching a feature, you may be able to select reference geometry directly; for example, if you are sketching a circle, you may be able to select a vertex from the reference geometry to define its center. Alternatively, you may have to add a dimension between reference geometry and the new feature. If you do not use reference geometry to position a new feature and subsequently modify the part, the resulting changes to the feature can be unpredictable. Dimensions add clarity Dimensions add clarity to the sketches that define features and document your design intent for future reference. You can modify dimensions in the Sketcher, and the part and assembly will regenerate accordingly. Pay attention to the order in which you create features A new feature of a part is aware of existing features. In addition, if the new feature depends on an existing feature for positioning information, ABAQUS/CAE creates a parent-child relationship between the features. Parent-child relationships and the order in which you created features play an important role in feature regeneration. To satisfy the rules that govern successful regeneration, try to use the following sequence when creating the features that define your part: 1. Create the basic geometry of a part using extrusions, revolutions, cuts, and sweeps. 2. Add extruded, revolved, swept, and planar features. 3. Add round or fillet features.

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4. Add partitions only when the rest of the geometry is complete. 5. Dimension new features with respect to existing features. Allow for some overlap If possible, you should allow for overlap between an existing feature and a feature that fills a hole or cuts a hole. Allowing for overlap makes your part robust, and the features are more likely to regenerate successfully. For example, when you cut a slot, extend its sketched profile above the surface you are cutting, as shown in Figure 14-32.

Figure 14-32 The sketched profile of a slot should extend beyond any surfaces that are cut.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3 · ``Using the Feature Manipulation toolset,'' Section 42.3 · ``Capturing your design and analysis intent,'' Section 14.8

14.8 Capturing your design and analysis intent
If used carefully, the feature-based modeling approach used by ABAQUS/CAE allows you to capture both your design and analysis intent. Design intent is the capability to make changes based on design considerations. For example, when you add a cut feature, you can select either a through cut or a blind cut. If the cut feature represents a bolt hole, you know that the hole must always pass completely through the part. As a consequence, you should select a through cut, and ABAQUS/CAE recognizes that the hole remains through even when you change the thickness of the part. Analysis intent is the capability to make changes based on analysis considerations. Although ABAQUS/CAE allows you to create parts with complex, detailed geometry, your final goal is usually a finite element analysis of a meshed representation of the part. Excessive detail, such as fillets and small holes, can lead to regions with a very fine mesh that will, in turn, dominate the time taken by

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ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit to reach a solution. The amount of detail you provide when you create a part in the Part module should be a reflection of your goals. Alternatively, you can create a part with detailed features but suppress them prior to meshing the assembly. For example, if a model takes several days to analyze, you may wish to simplify it by suppressing features; you could then submit an analysis that runs faster and checks your basic modeling assumptions. If the simplified model behaves as expected, you can unsuppress the features and resubmit a full analysis. For an example of different feature-based design approaches based on design and analysis intent, consider the cover plate shown in Figure 14-33.

Figure 14-33 A model of a cover plate.

You could create the three-dimensional shell that models the plate in several ways: 1. Sketch a base feature that includes the four holes. 2. Sketch a rectangular base feature, and add four separate cut features. 3. Sketch a rectangular base feature, and add a single cut feature that cuts all four holes. Either of the three approaches would generate the same part, but your design intent and your analysis intent govern the best approach. For example: · Do you want to create and analyze plates of varying sizes with different sized holes for different applications? If the diameter of all four holes is always identical, you should create all four holes as a single cut feature. However, if the diameter of individual holes might differ, you should create four separate cut features. · Do you want to suppress features before you finalize your design? For example, you could perform a series of analyses with the holes suppressed to determine the desired plate thickness. You could then unsuppress the holes and analyze the finished model. In addition, suppressing features may simplify the mesh that ABAQUS/CAE generates, or suppressing features may make the assembly sweep meshable. If you want to suppress all four holes in the example of the rectangular cover plate, you should create all four holes as a single cut feature. However, if you want to suppress individual holes, you should create four separate cut features. If the analysis is straightforward and you do not need to analyze a simplified model, you should sketch a base feature that includes the four holes. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

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· ``Using the Feature Manipulation toolset,'' Section 42.3 · ``Using feature-based modeling effectively,'' Section 14.7

14.9 Understanding extruding, revolving, and sweeping
The following sections describe the techniques you can use to extrude, revolve, and sweep a two-dimensional sketch to create a three-dimensional part or feature. The following topics are covered: · ``Defining the extrusion distance,'' Section 14.9.1 · ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2 · ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3

14.9.1 Defining the extrusion distance
You can sketch a two-dimensional profile and extrude it to create the following: · A three-dimensional extruded solid feature. · A three-dimensional extruded shell feature. · A three-dimensional extruded cut feature. ABAQUS/CAE provides the following methods for defining the extrusion distance:
Blind

Specify the distance over which ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch. The sketch and the distance define the feature and can be edited using the Feature Manipulation toolset. You can use this method when creating extruded solid, shell, and cut features. Figure 14-34 illustrates a blind extruded cut in a solid part.

Figure 14-34 A blind extruded cut.

Up to Face

Select a single face to which ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch. The selected face does not

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have to be parallel to the sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. If you select this method to define the extrusion distance, only the sketch can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset; if you wish to extrude to a different face, you must create a new extruded cut feature. You can use this method when creating extruded solid, shell, and cut features. Figure 14-35 illustrates a sketch extruded to a nonplanar face.

Figure 14-35 A solid feature extruded up to a nonplanar face.

Through All

This method is available only for extruded cut features. ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch defining the profile of the cut completely though the part. If you select this method to define the extrusion distance, only the sketch can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Figure 14-36 illustrates a through all cut in a solid part.

Figure 14-36 A through all extruded cut.

14.9.2 Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features
When you create an axisymmetric part and when you add a revolved feature to a part, the sketch of the profile must include a construction line that defines the axis of rotation. The following rules apply to the sketch and to the construction line: Creating a three-dimensional part with a revolved base feature You can create three-dimensional parts with a revolved solid or a revolved shell base feature 1-356

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by selecting Part->Create from the main menu bar. When you sketch the part's base feature, ABAQUS/CAE superimposes a vertical construction line representing the axis of rotation on the Y-axis of the sketch. You can delete this construction line and redraw it at a different angle and location; however, the finished sketch must contain a construction line representing the axis of rotation. You can sketch on either the right or the left of the construction line, and your sketch can touch this line but cannot cross it. When you exit the Sketcher, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to enter the angle through which the sketch will be revolved. In addition, if the sketch contains more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the construction line that will serve as the axis of rotation. Creating an axisymmetric part You can create axisymmetric parts that are defined by either a shell or a wire along with an axis of symmetry by selecting Part->Create from the main menu bar. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to include a twist degree of freedom in your model when you create an axisymmetric part. When you sketch the part's base feature, ABAQUS/CAE displays a vertical construction line on the Y-axis of the sketch representing the axis of symmetry. You must sketch only to the right of the line. Your sketch can touch this line but cannot cross it. You can add only shell and wire features to an axisymmetric base feature. ABAQUS/CAE displays the original sketch and construction line when you add a feature, and the same rules apply--you cannot delete this construction line, and you must sketch only to the right of it. Creating revolved features You can add revolved solids, shells, and cuts to three-dimensional solids and shells by selecting Shape->Solid->Revolve, Shape->Shell->Revolve, or Shape->Cut->Revolve from the main menu bar or by selecting the equivalent tool from the Part module toolbox. After you select the planar face on which to sketch, ABAQUS/CAE displays an empty sketch sheet. You sketch the profile to revolve, and you must also sketch a construction line representing the axis of revolution. The construction line can be positioned at any location or angle on the sketch. You can sketch on either the right or the left of the construction line, and your sketch can touch this line but cannot cross it. When you exit the Sketcher, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to enter the angle through which the sketch will be revolved. In addition, if the sketch contains more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the construction line that will serve as the axis of rotation. When you are sketching the contruction line that represents the axis of revolution, you can position the construction line by selecting a datum axis from the underlying part. You cannot select the datum axis directly; you must select a point from either end of the datum axis. You can use the datum axis to create concentric features. For example, you can create a datum axis along the axis of a curved face and use the datum axis to create a revolved feature that is concentric with the curved face. Similarly, if you are adding more than one revolved feature to a part, you can make the features concentric by using a single datum axis to position the axis

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of rotation for each feature.

14.9.3 Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile
To create a swept feature, select Shape->Solid->Sweep , Shape->Shell->Sweep , or Shape->Cut->Sweep from the main menu bar or select the equivalent tool from the Part module toolbox. Sweeping is a two-part operation: first you sketch the sweep path, and then you sketch the sweep profile. The profile is swept along the length of the path to form a three-dimensional solid, shell, or cut feature. The sweep path can be any continuous path you can create with the Sketcher. The beginning of the path is always perpendicular to the sweep profile, and the profile always remains normal to the path as it is swept along its length. Figure 14-37 shows an example of a sweep path and a sweep profile.

Figure 14-37 An example of a sweep path and profile.

The feature created by sweeping the sweep profile along the above path is shown in Figure 14-38.

Figure 14-38 The resulting swept feature.

The sketches that define the sweep path and the sweep profile can both be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. The sweeping tools are available only when you are working on a deformable or discrete part that you created in a three-dimensional modeling space. The sweep profile must be closed when you are creating a swept solid or cut feature. However, unlike the sweep profile, the sweep path can be open or closed regardless of whether you are creating a swept

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solid, shell, or cut feature. If the sweep path is closed, the two ends of the path must meet tangentially. For example, the closed sweep paths labeled ``Bad'' in Figure 14-39 are not allowed because the ends of the path meet at an angle.

Figure 14-39 Invalid sweep paths.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.10 Using the Sketcher in conjunction with the Part module
Sketches are two-dimensional profiles that form the geometry of the features defining an ABAQUS/CAE native part. You use the Sketcher to create these sketches; in the Part module you use them directly to define a planar part or a beam, or you extrude, sweep, or revolve them to form a three-dimensional or axisymmetric part. Whenever you need to create the base feature of a new part, add a feature to a part, or modify an existing feature, the Part module automatically enters the Sketcher, and you operate on the sketch that forms the two-dimensional profile of the feature. When you have finished sketching, ABAQUS/CAE automatically returns you to the Part module. If you are adding a feature or modifying an existing feature, you must choose the plane on which to sketch. For a detailed description of how ABAQUS/CAE determines the orientation of the part relative to the sketch plane, see ``Entering and exiting the Sketch module,'' Section 22.2. For information on related topics, click the following item: · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module

14.11 Understanding toolsets in the Part module
The Part module provides a set of toolsets that allow you to add and modify the features that define a part. This section describes how these toolsets are used within the Part module. The following topics are covered:

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· ``Using the Datum toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.1 · ``Using the Feature Manipulation toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.2 · ``Using the Partition toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.3 · ``Using the Query toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.4 · ``Using the Set toolset in the Part module,'' Section 14.11.5 For more detailed information about each toolset, refer to: · Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset" · Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset" · Chapter 43, "The Partition toolset" · Chapter 44, "The Query toolset" · Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets"

14.11.1 Using the Datum toolset in the Part module
A datum can be thought of as reference geometry or a construction aid that helps you create a feature when the part does not contain the necessary geometry; you create datum geometry using the Datum toolset. A datum is a feature of a part and is regenerated along with the rest of the part. Furthermore, datum geometry is visible unless you toggle it off by selecting View->Part Display Options->Datum from the main menu bar. A datum created in the Part module appears with each instance of the part in the Assembly module and the Mesh module. Datum points are projected onto the Sketch plane in the Sketcher, and the projected point can be selected. However, you cannot refer to datum axes or planes in the Sketcher. Examples of how you might use datum planes and axes in the Part module are given below: Datum plane You can sketch directly on datum planes, and any features you sketch on a datum plane will be projected onto the part. Projecting a sketch from a datum plane is useful if the part does not already contain a convenient sketch plane. For example, suppose you want to cut a hole straight through the three-dimensional triangular part shown in Figure 14-40, parallel to the X-axis.

Figure 14-40 The desired cut feature.

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The part does not already have a face that is suitable for sketching the profile of the hole; sketching the profile directly on a face results in a hole normal to the face, as shown in Figure 14-41.

Figure 14-41 A cut normal to the face.

To cut the desired hole, first use the Datum toolset to create a datum plane on the Y-Z principal plane, as shown in Figure 14-42.

Figure 14-42 A datum plane.

Second, sketch the profile of the cut on the new datum plane, as shown in Figure 14-43.

Figure 14-43 A sketch on the datum plane.

When you exit the Sketcher, ABAQUS/CAE cuts the sketched hole through the part, perpendicular to the datum plane and parallel to the X-axis. This cut is illustrated in Figure 14-44.

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Figure 14-44 The desired cut.

Datum axis You can use the Datum toolset to create a datum axis that you will select as the vertical direction for the sketch when adding or modifying a feature to a three-dimensional solid. Creating a datum axis is useful when the part does not already contain the necessary axis. For example, suppose you want to cut a slot through the part as shown in Figure 14-45.

Figure 14-45 The desired slot.

Sketching the slot is difficult because selecting either of the two straight edges of the part as the sketch's vertical axis causes the sketch grid lines to align with the line you select, not with the X- or Y-axis. To make it easier to create the slot with the desired orientation, first use the Datum toolset to create a datum axis along the Y-axis, as shown in Figure 14-46.

Figure 14-46 The datum axis.

When you select the datum axis to define the Sketcher's vertical direction, the Sketcher starts, and its grid is aligned with the part's X- and Y-axes, as shown in Figure 14-47.

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Figure 14-47 The resulting sketch orientation.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11 · Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset

14.11.2 Using the Feature Manipulation toolset in the Part module
The following are considered to be features of a part: · Geometric features, such as extruded solids, revolved shells, sketched wires, and rounded edges · Repair operation · Partitions · Datum geometry When the Feature Manipulation toolset asks you to select a feature, you can select it from the viewport. Alternatively, you can click the Feature List button on the right side of the prompt area and select the feature from the Feature List dialog box that appears. Use the Feature Manipulation toolset in the Part module to edit, suppress, resume, and delete features of a part. The feature manipulation tools are described below: Edit When you edit a feature, ABAQUS/CAE displays the feature editor. You can either modify the feature's parameters directly or, if applicable, you can modify the sketch that forms the two-dimensional profile or sweep path of a feature. Suppress Suppressing a feature temporarily removes it from the definition of the part. A suppressed feature is invisible, cannot be meshed, and is not included in the analysis of the model. You cannot suppress the base feature, and suppressing a parent feature will suppress all of its child features. Resume 1-363

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Resuming a feature restores a suppressed feature to the part; resuming a parent feature restores all of its child features. You can choose to resume all features, the set of features most recently suppressed, or a selected feature. Delete Deleting a feature removes it from the part. You cannot resume a deleted feature. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11 · Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset

14.11.3 Using the Partition toolset in the Part module
Within the Part module, you can use the Partition toolset to partition a part into additional regions. The partitions you create are features associated with the part, so that each instance of that part in the assembly will contain all the partitions created in the Part module. You can use the regions when working with the assembly in other modules; for example, you can apply a load over a region in the Load/BC/IC module. If you do not want to associate the partitions with every instance of the part, partition the desired instance in the Assembly module instead. For more information, see ``Partitioning the assembly,'' Section 16.5.3. After you partition a part, you can use the Property module to assign different sections to the resulting regions; for example, you might use partitions to delineate regions of the part that are comprised of different materials. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11 · Chapter 43, "The Partition toolset

14.11.4 Using the Query toolset in the Part module
Select Tools->Query from the main menu bar, or click the query tool Query toolset. in the toolbar to start the

You can use the Query toolset to request either general information or module-specific information. For a discussion of the information displayed by general queries, see ``Obtaining general information about the model,'' Section 44.2.2. The following queries are specific to the Part module. Part attributes ABAQUS/CAE displays the part name, modeling space, and type in the message area.

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Geometry precision ABAQUS/CAE highlights the regions of an imported part that have geometry precision warnings. Geometry validity ABAQUS/CAE highlights the regions of an imported part that have geometry validity errors. Volume properties ABAQUS/CAE displays the volume and the centroid of the solid features of the part in the message area. ABAQUS/CAE computes the volume using only the solid features of the part; shell and wire features are not taken into consideration. ABAQUS/CAE does not display any volume information if the part contains only shell and/or wire features. Shell element normals If the current part is an orphan mesh, ABAQUS/CAE color codes the faces of two-dimensional shell elements according to the direction of the normal. ABAQUS/CAE does not display any information related to normals for other element types or for ABAQUS/CAE native parts.

14.11.5 Using the Set toolset in the Part module
You use the Set toolset to create a named part set containing regions of a part. When you assign section properties to a part in the Property module, you can either select the region from the part in the current viewport, or you can select a named part set that you created in the Part module with the Set toolset. Part sets are not transferred when you create an instance of a part in the Assembly module; you must use the Set toolset to create assembly sets in modules that operate on the assembly. For more information, see ``Using sets and surfaces in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5.5. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding toolsets in the Part module,'' Section 14.11 · Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets."

14.12 Using the Part module toolbox
You can access all the Part module tools through either the main menu bar or the Part module toolbox. Figure 14-48 shows the hidden icons for all the part tools in the Part module toolbox.

Figure 14-48 The Part module toolbox.

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For information on using each of the Part module tools, refer to the following sections: · ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13 · ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14 · ``Adding a feature to a part,'' Section 14.15 · ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16 · ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17 · ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18 · ``Adding a cut feature,'' Section 14.19 · ``Blending edges,'' Section 14.20

14.13 Managing parts
This section describes how you manage the parts in your model while working in the Part module. The following topics are covered: · ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13.1 · ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2

14.13.1 Managing parts
To create, copy, rename, and delete parts, use one of the following: · The Create, Copy, Rename, and Delete items listed under the Part menu on the main menu bar. The Copy, Rename, and Delete items contain submenus listing all the parts in the current model. · The Part Manager dialog box. The Part Manager dialog box contains functions similar to those listed under the Part menu on the main menu bar, but with a convenient browser that lists the names of all the parts available within the current model along with their modeling space (three-dimensional, two-dimensional, or axisymmetric) and type (deformable, discrete rigid, or analytical rigid). To display the Part Manager dialog box, select Part->Manager from the main menu bar. To retrieve a part from the model database and display it in the current viewport, select the part from

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the Part list located under the toolbar. The Part list contains all the parts in the current model.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13 · ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5

14.13.2 Creating a new part
Select Part->Create from the main menu bar to create a new part in the current viewport. A model can contain multiple parts; each part exists in a local coordinate system, and you use the Assembly module to create instances of the parts and position those instances relative to each other in a global coordinate system. When you create a part, you name the part and select its type, modeling space, base feature, and approximate size; you then sketch the profile of the part's base feature. Detailed instructions for creating a new part: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Create. The Create Part dialog box appears. For more information, see ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14. Tip: You can also create a part using the tool in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Type a name for the part. For information on naming ABAQUS/CAE objects, see ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1. 3. Choose the new part's modeling space, type, base feature, and approximate size. For more information, see ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4.
Note: You can rename a part after you create it, but you cannot change its modeling space or type.

4. Click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box. The Sketcher starts, and the Sketch grid appears in the current viewport. If you are creating a three-dimensional revolved solid or shell, ABAQUS/CAE displays a vertical construction line on the Y-axis of the sketch that serves as the axis of revolution. You can sketch on either side of this construction line, but the sketch must not cross the construction line. If you are creating an axisymmetric part, ABAQUS/CAE displays a vertical construction line on the left side of the sketch that serves as the axis of revolution. You must sketch to the right of this construction line.

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5. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the base feature. For more information, see Chapter 22, "The Sketch module." If you are constructing a swept part, you must first sketch the sweep path and exit the Sketcher. The Sketch will then restart automatically, and you can sketch the profile to be swept. 6. When you have finished sketching the base feature, click mouse button 2 to exit the current Sketch tool. 7. In the prompt area, click Done to exit the Sketcher. If the base feature is a three-dimensional solid or shell extrusion, you must use the text field that appears in the prompt area to enter the distance through which to extrude the profile. If the base feature is a three-dimensional revolved solid or shell, you must enter the angle through which to rotate the profile. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and displays the new part in the current viewport. 8. If necessary, use the Part module tools to add additional features to the base feature. For more information, see ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14 · ``Managing parts,'' Section 14.13 · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Imported parts from ACIS-, IGES-, and VDA-FS-format files,'' Section 14.5.2 · ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12 · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3 · ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1

14.14 Using the Create Part dialog box
This section describes the options in the Create Part dialog box. The following topics are covered: · ``Using the Create Part dialog box to define the properties of a part, '' Section 14.14.1 · ``Choosing the modeling space of a new part,'' Section 14.14.2 · ``Choosing the type of a new part,'' Section 14.14.3 · ``Choosing the base feature of a new part,'' Section 14.14.4

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· ``Setting the approximate size of the new part,'' Section 14.14.5

14.14.1 Using the Create Part dialog box to define the properties of a part
When you create a part, you first use the Create Part dialog box to define the properties of the part, and then you use the Sketch to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the base feature. You use the Create Part dialog box to define the following:
Name

Use the Name text field at the top of the Create Part dialog box to name the part you are creating. To rename a part, select Part->Rename from the main menu bar. For information on valid names, see ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1. After you create a part, ABAQUS/CAE displays the name of the new part in title bar of the current viewport.
Modeling Space

Use the Modeling Space radio buttons to choose the modeling space of the new part. You can define a part to be either three-dimensional, two-dimensional (planar), or axisymmetric. If you create an axisymmetric deformable part, the Create Part dialog box allows you to include a twist degree of freedom in your model. You cannot change a part's modeling space after you create it. For more information, see ``Choosing the modeling space of a new part,'' Section 14.14.2.
Type

Use the Type radio buttons to choose the type of the new part. You can define a part to be either deformable, discrete rigid, or analytical rigid. You cannot change a part's type after you create it. For more information, see ``Choosing the type of a new part,'' Section 14.14.3.
Base Feature

Use the Base Feature field to define the shape and the type of the new part's base feature. The shape and the type options that ABAQUS/CAE displays depend on the part's modeling space and type. You cannot change the type of a part's base feature after you create it. For more information, see ``Choosing the base feature of a new part,'' Section 14.14.4.
Approximate size

Use the approximate size text field to enter the size of the part. The size that you enter is used by ABAQUS/CAE to calculate the size of the Sketcher sheet and the spacing of its grid. For more information, see ``Setting the approximate size of the new part,'' Section 14.14.5. After you create the part and start sketching its profile, you can use the Sketch customization options to increase the sheet size. To display the Sketcher customization options click the tool at the bottom of the Sketcher toolbox.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2 · ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14

14.14.2 Choosing the modeling space of a new part
Use the Modeling Space radio buttons at the top of the Create Part dialog box to choose the modeling space of the part you are creating. ABAQUS/CAE carries a part's modeling space through the modeling process; for example, modeling space determines which tools are available in the Part module and which elements are available in the Mesh module. You cannot change the modeling space of a part after you create it. For more information, see ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1. Modeling space refers to the space the part can inhabit, rather than to the part itself. Thus, you can create a part in three-dimensional modeling space but construct it using topologically two-dimensional shell or wire features. The new part's modeling space can be set to one of the following: Three-dimensional ABAQUS/CAE positions the part in three-dimensional space. Two-dimensional planar ABAQUS/CAE positions the part in planar, two-dimensional space. Axisymmetric ABAQUS/CAE positions the part in axisymmetric two-dimensional space. If you create an axisymmetric deformable part, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to include a twist degree of freedom in your model. Detailed instructions for selecting the modeling space of a new part: 1. From the top of the Create Part dialog box, choose the desired Modeling Space radio button. 2. When you have finished choosing options, click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box. The Sketcher starts, and you sketch the profile of the new part's base feature.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Part modeling space,'' Section 14.4.1

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· ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2 · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2

14.14.3 Choosing the type of a new part
Use the Type radio buttons in the middle of the Create Part dialog box to choose the type of the part you are creating. ABAQUS/CAE carries a part's type through the modeling process; for example, you cannot assign section and material properties to a rigid part, and you cannot mesh an analytical rigid part. You cannot change a part's type after you create it. The new part's type can be set to one of the following: Deformable Any arbitrarily shaped axisymmetric, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional part that you can create or import can be specified as a deformable part. A deformable part represents a part that can deform under load; the load can be mechanical, thermal, or electrical. By default, ABAQUS/CAE creates parts that are deformable. Discrete rigid A discrete rigid part is similar to a deformable part in that it can be any arbitrary shape. However, a discrete rigid part is assumed to be rigid and is used in contact analyses to model bodies that cannot deform. Analytical rigid An analytical rigid part is similar to a discrete rigid part in that it is used to represent a rigid surface in a contact analysis. However, the shape of an analytical rigid part is not arbitrary and must be formed from a set of sketched lines, arcs, and parabolas. After you create either a discrete rigid part or an analytical rigid part, you must also do the following: · Assign the rigid body reference point. You apply constraints or prescribe motion to the rigid body reference point in the Load/BC/IC module, and the same constraints or motion are applied to the entire rigid part. For more information, see ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5. · If the part is a discrete rigid part or an analytical rigid part, you must use the Surface toolset in the Assembly module to choose which side of the part represents the outer surface. For more information, see Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets." If you create either a discrete rigid part or an analytical rigid part, you can toggle on Isothermal to define an isothermal rigid part. Detailed instructions for selecting the type of a new part: 1. From the middle of the Create Part dialog box, choose the desired Type radio button.

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2. When you have finished choosing options, click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box. The Sketcher starts, and you sketch the profile of the new part's base feature.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Defining analytical rigid surfaces,'' Section 2.3.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Defining rigid bodies,'' Section 2.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual · ``Part types,'' Section 14.4.2 · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2 · ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14 · ``The reference point,'' Section 14.4.5 · Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets

14.14.4 Choosing the base feature of a new part
Use the radio buttons and the list within the Base Feature frame at the bottom of the Create Part dialog box to describe the base feature of the part you are creating. The choices depend on both the part's modeling space and the part's type; for example, an axisymmetric deformable body can have only a planar shell or planar wire base feature. For detailed information about the different shapes and types of base features that you can create, see ``The base feature,'' Section 14.3.2. Your choice of the base feature's type is important because you cannot change the type after you create the part. You can modify the base feature, but you should be aware that any features you subsequently add to the part will be linked to the base feature. Consequently, if you modify the base feature, these dependent (or child) features may move or fail to regenerate. Detailed instructions for choosing the base feature: 1. From the bottom of the Create Part dialog box, choose the desired base feature shape (Solid, Shell, or Wire). The available choices depend on the modeling space and the type of the part you are creating. 2. If you are creating a three-dimensional part, you must also choose its Type (Extrusion, Revolution, Sweep , or Planar). 3. When you have finished choosing options, click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box. The Sketcher starts, and you sketch the profile of the new part's base feature.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4 · ``Creating a new part,'' Section 14.13.2 · ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14 · ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2 · Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset"

14.14.5 Setting the approximate size of the new part
Use the Approximate size text field at the bottom of the Create Part dialog box to set the approximate size of the new part. The size that you enter is used by ABAQUS/CAE to calculate the size of the Sketcher sheet and the spacing of its grid. The approximate part size must be between 100000 (10 5) and 0.001 (10 -3) units. ABAQUS/CAE does not use specific units, but the units must be consistent throughout the model. When you exit the Create Part dialog box, ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher, and you sketch the profile of the base feature. The Sketcher displays a square sheet with an overlaying grid and adjusts the dimensions of the sheet to approximate the size of the part. As a result, the dimensions of the sketch will have the same order of magnitude as the part you are creating. If you subsequently edit the part, ABAQUS/CAE still determines the size of the Sketcher sheet from the same dimensions that it used when you created the base feature. Consequently, you should set the approximate size of the part to match the largest dimension of the finished part. If you find subsequently that the part exceeds the size of the Sketcher sheet, use the Sketch customization options to increase the sheet size. Detailed instructions for setting the approximate size of the new part: 1. Type the approximate size of the new part in the Approximate size text field at the bottom of the Create Part dialog box. 2. When you have finished choosing options, click Continue to close the Create Part dialog box. The Sketcher starts with a sheet size and grid spacing based on the approximate size of the new part, and you sketch the profile of the new part's base feature.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``How is a part defined in ABAQUS/CAE?,'' Section 14.4

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· ``Using the Create Part dialog box,'' Section 14.14 · ``The Sketcher sheet and grid,'' Section 22.4.2 · ``Customizing the Sketcher,'' Section 22.8

14.15 Adding a feature to a part
Use the Shape menu to add a feature to the current part. You can do the following: · Use the Solid tools to add a solid feature to a to a three-dimensional solid part. · Use the Shell tools to add a shell feature to a part. · Use the Wire tools to add a wire feature to a part. · Use the Cut tools to add a cut feature to a part. · Use the Blend tools to add a blend feature to a three-dimensional solid part.

14.16 Adding a solid feature
This section describes the Part module tools used to add a solid feature to the three-dimensional solid part in the current viewport. The following topics are covered: · ``Adding an extruded solid feature,'' Section 14.16.1 · ``Adding a revolved solid feature,'' Section 14.16.2 · ``Adding a swept solid feature,'' Section 14.16.3

14.16.1 Adding an extruded solid feature
Select Shape->Solid->Extrude from the main menu bar to add an extruded solid feature to the part in the current viewport. You can add an extruded solid feature only to three-dimensional parts. You add an extruded solid feature by sketching a two-dimensional cross-section and defining the distance over which to extrude it. A sketch and the resulting extruded solid feature are illustrated in the following figure:

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You can also define the distance over which to extrude by selecting a single face to extrude to. The selected face does not have to be parallel to the sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch until it meets the selected face. Detailed instructions for adding an extruded solid feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Solid->Extrude. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add an extruded solid feature using the tool, located with the solid tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the face from which the solid will be extruded. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. An arrow appears, indicating the extrusion direction. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to accept the indicated extrusion direction. If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part. 4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view. from

5. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the extrusion. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate that you have finished sketching the profile. 6. From the buttons in the prompt area, select one of the following: · Blind a. A default extrusion depth appears in the prompt area. b. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new extrusion depth.

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ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module. The part is displayed in its original orientation with the solid extruded from the sketch plane through the desired distance. · Up to Face a. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module with the part displayed in its original orientation. b. Select the face to which to extrude. The selected face does not have to be parallel to the sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. You cannot select a datum plane. ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the solid from the sketch plane to the selected face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset" · ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.16.2 Adding a revolved solid feature
Select Shape->Solid->Revolve from the main menu bar to add a revolved solid feature to the part in the current viewport. You can add a revolved solid feature only to three-dimensional parts. You add a revolved solid feature by sketching a two-dimensional cross-section and a construction line on a selected face. The construction line serves as an axis of revolution, and ABAQUS/CAE creates the solid feature by rotating the cross-section about the axis using a specified angle of revolution. A sketch and the resulting feature, revolved through an angle of 180°, are illustrated in the following figure:

The rotation angle as well as the sketch of the profile and the axis define the revolved solid feature; both can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset.

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Detailed instructions for adding a revolved solid feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Solid->Revolve. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add a revolved solid feature using the tool, located with the solid tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the face from which the solid will be revolved. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. An arrow appears, indicating the normal to the axis of revolution and the initial direction of the revolution. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to accept the indicated direction. If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part. 4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid, and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view. from

, vertical , angle , or oblique construction line tools to 5. Use the horizontal sketch the axis of rotation. You can position the construction line by selecting a datum axis from the underlying part. You cannot select the datum axis directly; you must select a point from either end of the datum axis. 6. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the revolved feature; the sketch must not cross the axis of revolution. 7. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the profile and the axis. If the sketch contains more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the construction line that will serve as the axis of rotation.

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A default revolve angle appears in the prompt area. 8. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new revolve angle. The part returns to its original orientation with the sketched profile revolved around the axis of revolution.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating construction geometry,'' Section 22.10 · ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16 · ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.16.3 Adding a swept solid feature
Select Shape->Solid->Sweep from the main menu bar to add a swept solid feature to the part in the current viewport. You can add a swept solid feature only to three-dimensional parts. You add a swept solid feature by sketching a sweep path on a selected face and sketching a sweep profile. The sweep profile is always perpendicular to the beginning of the path, and the profile always remains normal to the path as it is swept along its length. The sweep path, the sweep profile, and the resulting solid feature are illustrated in the following figures:

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The sketch of the sweep path and the sketch of the sweep profile define the swept solid feature; both can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for adding a swept solid feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Solid->Sweep . ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add a swept solid feature using the tool, located with the solid tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the face on which to sketch the sweep path. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. 3. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view. from

4. Sketch the sweep path. The sweep path must meet the following guidelines: · The path can be closed, but the ends must meet smoothly; for example, the ends should not meet at a corner. For examples of valid sweep paths, see ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3. · The path must be continuous; for example, it must not branch. · The resulting solid cannot intersect with itself. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep path. 1-379

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ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and restores the original view of the part. A highlighted line indicates the sweep path and its direction. You are now ready to sketch the sweep profile. 5. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the Sketcher grid. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher again and rotates the part so that the Sketcher grid lies on a plane normal to the beginning of the sweep path. In addition, the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. The intersection of two dashed lines indicates the origin of the sweep path. 6. Sketch the sweep profile. The sweep profile must meet the following guidelines: · The profile must be closed. · The resulting solid cannot intersect with itself. You can sketch the profile anywhere on the Sketcher grid; ABAQUS/CAE sweeps the profile along a path parallel to the sweep path. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep profile. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher, restores the original view of the part, and creates the new swept solid.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a solid feature,'' Section 14.16 · ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17 Adding a shell feature
This section describes the Part module tools used to add a shell feature to the part in the current viewport. The following topics are covered: · ``Adding an extruded shell feature,'' Section 14.17.1 · ``Adding a revolved shell feature,'' Section 14.17.2 · ``Adding a swept shell feature,'' Section 14.17.3 · ``Adding a planar shell feature,'' Section 14.17.4 · ``Adding a shell-from-solid feature,'' Section 14.17.5 · ``Adding a remove-face shell feature,'' Section 14.17.6

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14.17.1 Adding an extruded shell feature
Select Shape->Shell->Extrude from the main menu bar to add an extruded shell feature to the part in the current viewport. You can add an extruded shell feature only to three-dimensional parts. You add an extruded shell feature by sketching on a selected face and extending the profile a specified distance in a direction normal to the face. A sketch and the resulting extruded shell feature are illustrated in the following figure:

You can also define the distance over which to extrude by selecting a single face to extrude to. The selected face does not have to be parallel to the sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the sketch until it meets the selected face. Detailed instructions for adding an extruded shell feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Extrude. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add an extruded shell feature using the tool, located with the shell tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the face from which the shell will be extruded. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. An arrow appears, indicating the extrusion direction. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to accept the indicated extrusion direction. If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part. 4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum 1-381

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axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view. from

5. Use the Sketcher to sketch the profile of the line to be extruded. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the profile. 6. From the buttons in the prompt area, select one of the following: · Blind a. A default extrusion depth appears in the prompt area. b. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new extrusion depth. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module. The part is displayed in its original orientation with the shell extruded from the sketch plane through the desired distance. · Up to Face a. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module with the part displayed in its original orientation. b. Select the face to which to extrude. The selected face does not have to be parallel to the sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. You cannot select a datum plane. ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the shell from the sketch plane to the selected face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.2 Adding a revolved shell feature
Select Shape->Shell->Revolve from the main menu bar to add a revolved shell feature to the part in the current viewport. You can add a revolved shell feature only to three-dimensional parts. You add a revolved shell feature by sketching a profile and a construction line on a selected face. The

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construction line serves as an axis of revolution, and ABAQUS/CAE creates the solid feature by rotating the profile about the axis using a specified angle of revolution. A sketch and the resulting feature, rotated about the axis of revolution through an angle of 90°, are illustrated in the following figure:

The sketch and the rotation angle define the revolved shell feature; both can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for adding a revolved shell feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Revolve. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add a revolved shell feature using the tool, located with the shell tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the face from which the shell will be revolved. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. An arrow appears, indicating the normal to the axis of revolution and the initial direction of the revolution. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to accept the indicated direction. If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part. 4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid.

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If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view.

from

, vertical , angle , or oblique construction line tools to 5. Use the horizontal sketch the axis of rotation. You can position the construction line by selecting a datum axis from the underlying part. You cannot select the datum axis directly; you must select a point from either end of the datum axis. 6. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the revolved feature; the sketch must not cross the axis of revolution. 7. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the profile and the axis. If the sketch contains more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the construction line that will serve as the axis of rotation. A default revolve angle appears in the prompt area. 8. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new revolve angle. The part returns to its original orientation with the sketched profile revolved about the axis of revolution.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17 · ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.3 Adding a swept shell feature
Select Shape->Shell->Sweep from the main menu bar to add a swept shell feature to the part in the current viewport. You can add a swept shell feature only to three-dimensional parts. You add a swept shell feature by sketching a sweep path on a selected face and sketching a sweep profile. The sweep profile is always perpendicular to the beginning of the path, and the profile always remains normal to the path as it is swept along its length. The sweep path (a spline) and the sweep profile are shown in the following figure:

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The resulting swept shell feature is shown in the following figure:

The sketch of the sweep path and the sketch of the sweep profile combine to define the swept shell feature, and both can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for adding a swept shell feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Sweep . ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add a swept shell feature using the tool, located with the shell tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the face on which to sketch the sweep path. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.

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3. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view. from

4. Sketch the sweep path. The sweep path must meet the following guidelines: · The path can be closed, but the ends must meet smoothly; for example, the ends should not meet at a corner. For examples of valid sweep paths, see ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3. · The path must be continuous; for example, it must not branch. · The resulting shell cannot intersect with itself. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep path. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and restores the original view of the part. A highlighted line indicates the sweep path and its direction. You are now ready to sketch the sweep profile. 5. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the Sketcher grid. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher again and rotates the part so that the Sketcher grid lies on a plane normal to the beginning of the sweep path. In addition, the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. The intersection of two dashed lines indicates the origin of the sweep path. 6. Sketch the sweep profile. The sweep profile must meet the following guidelines: · The profile must be closed. · The resulting shell cannot intersect with itself. You can sketch the profile anywhere on the Sketch grid; ABAQUS/CAE sweeps the profile along a path parallel to the sweep path. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep profile. 7. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher, restores the original view of the part, and creates the new swept shell. The resulting shell cannot intersect with itself.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3

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· Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.4 Adding a planar shell feature
Select Shape->Shell->Planar from the main menu bar to add a planar shell feature to the part in the current viewport. The planar shell tool is always available, regardless of the modeling space of the part in the current viewport. You add a planar shell feature by sketching the feature on a selected face. A sketch and the resulting planar shell feature are illustrated in the following figure: The sketch defines a planar shell feature and can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for adding a planar shell feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Planar. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add a planar shell feature using the tool, located with the shell tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. If the modeling space of the part is two-dimensional or axisymmetric, ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and aligns the X- and Y-axes of the part and the sketch. If the modeling space of the part is three-dimensional, do the following: a. Select the face on which the shell will be positioned. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. b. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool view. to return to the original

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3. Use the Sketcher to sketch the planar shell. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching. The part returns to its original orientation with the planar shell positioned on the selected face. The shell feature is created only where it extends beyond the faces of the part; a shell feature cannot overlap a face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.5 Adding a shell-from-solid feature
Select Shape->Shell->From Solid from the main menu bar to create a shell feature from the faces of a solid feature. You can add a shell-from-solid feature only to three-dimensional parts. You add a shell-from-solid feature by selecting the cells to remove from the part; ABAQUS/CAE converts any remaining faces to shells. The From Solid tool is an easy way to create shells with curved edges, as shown in the following figure. The curved edges of the solid were created by filleting the edges using the round tool.

Detailed instructions for adding a shell-from-solid feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->From Solid. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add a shell-from-solid feature using the tool, located with the shell

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tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select one or more cells to convert to shells. [Shift]+[Click] additional cells to add them to your selection and [Ctrl]+[Click] a selected cell to unselect it. Click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished selecting cells to convert. ABAQUS/CAE converts the selected cells to shells. Tip: Use the backup button ( ) to undo one or more steps; use the cancel button ( abort the creation of the shell from solid. ) to

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.17.6 Adding a remove-face shell feature
Select Shape->Shell->Remove Face from the main menu bar to create a shell feature from the faces of a solid feature. You add a remove-face shell feature by selecting the faces to remove from the part; ABAQUS/CAE converts any remaining faces to shells. You must remove at least one face from a solid feature of the part. The From Solid tool is an easy way to create shells with curved edges, as shown in the following figure. The curved edges of the solid were created by filleting the edges using the round tool.

Tip: You should use the remove-face tool only to create features that could not be created using the other Shape tools. For example, you should not create a solid cylinder and then remove the faces at each end to create a cylindrical shell. You should create the cylindrical shell directly using the extruded or revolved shell tools. Detailed instructions for adding a remove-face shell feature:

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1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Shell->Remove Face. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add a remove-face shell feature using the tool, located with the shell tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select one or more faces to remove from a solid feature. [Shift]+[Click] additional faces to add them to your selection and [Ctrl]+[Click] a selected face to unselect it. Click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished selecting faces to remove. You must remove at least one face from a solid feature of the part. ABAQUS/CAE removes the selected faces and converts all remaining faces to shells. Tip: Use the backup button ( ) to undo one or more steps; use the cancel button ( abort the creation of the shell from solid. ) to

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a shell feature,'' Section 14.17 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.18 Adding a wire feature
This section describes the Part module tools used to add a wire feature to the part in the current viewport. The following topics are covered: · ``Adding a sketched wire feature,'' Section 14.18.1 · ``Adding a wire feature connecting two points,'' Section 14.18.2

14.18.1 Adding a sketched wire feature
Select Shape->Wire->Sketch from the main menu bar to add a sketched planar wire feature to the part in the current viewport. The planar wire tool is always available, regardless of the modeling space of the part in the current viewport. You add a planar wire feature by sketching the feature on a selected plane. ABAQUS/CAE removes any portion of the wire that overlaps an existing face. A sketch and the resulting planar wires are illustrated in the following figure:

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The sketch fully defines a planar wire feature and can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for adding a sketched wire feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Wire->Sketch. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also add a sketched wire feature using the tool, located with the wire tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. If the modeling space of the part is two-dimensional or axisymmetric, ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and aligns the X- and Y-axes of the part and the sketch. If the part is three-dimensional, do the following: a. Select the face on which the wire will be positioned. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. b. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool view. to return to the original

3. Use the Sketcher to sketch the planar wire. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching.

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The part returns to its original orientation with the planar wire positioned on the selected face. The wire feature is created only where it extends beyond the faces of the part; a wire feature cannot overlap a face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.18.2 Adding a wire feature connecting two points
Select Shape->Wire->2 points from the main menu bar to add a wire feature connecting two points from the part in the current viewport. The tool to connect two points with a wire is always available, regardless of the modeling space of the part in the current viewport. You add a wire feature connecting two points by picking the two points to connect. ABAQUS/CAE removes any portion of the wire that overlaps an existing face. A wire feature connecting two points is illustrated in the following example:

A wire feature connecting two points cannot be modified directly. In general, if you want to change which points are connected, you must delete the wire and create a new wire connecting the desired points. However, if the points you select are datum points that you created by specifying coordinates, you can edit the datum points and change their location using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for adding a wire feature connecting two points: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Wire->2 points. ABAQUS/CAE highlights all the points on the part that you can pick. The possible choices are: · Vertices · The midpoints of lines and arcs · The centers of circles and arcs

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· Datum points ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. tool, located Tip: You can also add a wire feature connecting two points using the with the wire tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the points that will locate the two ends of the wire. If the selections are ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate points using the buttons in the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE draws a wire connecting the two selected points. The wire feature is created only where it extends beyond the faces of the part; a wire feature cannot overlap a face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a wire feature,'' Section 14.18 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.19 Adding a cut feature
This section describes the Part module tools used to add a cut feature to the part in the current viewport. The following topics are covered: · ``Creating an extruded cut,'' Section 14.19.1 · ``Creating a revolved cut,'' Section 14.19.2 · ``Creating a swept cut,'' Section 14.19.3 · ``Cutting a circular hole,'' Section 14.19.4

14.19.1 Creating an extruded cut
Select Shape->Cut->Extrude from the main menu bar to create an extruded cut through the part in the current viewport. The extruded cut tool is always available, regardless of the modeling space of the part in the current viewport. You create an extruded cut into a three-dimensional part by sketching the two-dimensional cross-section of the cut on a selected face and defining the distance through which ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the cut. You can select one of the following methods to define the distance through which the cut is extruded:

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· Blind extends the cut from the sketch plane in a selected direction but only to a specified depth. · Up to Face extends the cut from the sketch plane to a selected face. · Through All extends the cut from the sketch plane in a selected direction through the part. The three methods are illustrated in the following figure:

You create an extruded cut in a two-dimensional or axisymmetric planar part by sketching the two-dimensional cross-section of the cut directly on the plane of the part. The cut always passes completely through the part. Detailed instructions for cutting an extruded cut: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Cut->Extrude. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also create an extruded cut using the tool, located with the cut tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. If the current viewport contains a two-dimensional or axisymmetric planar part, ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and you sketch the profile of the extruded cut on the plane of the part. If the current viewport contains a three-dimensional part, you must do the following: a. Select the face from which the cut will be extruded. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area.

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An arrow appears, indicating the extrusion direction. b. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to accept the indicated extrusion direction. If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part. c. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool view. to return to the original

d. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the extruded cut. 3. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the profile. 4. If the current viewport contains a two-dimensional or axisymmetric planar part, the part returns to its original orientation, and ABAQUS/CAE cuts the plane with the sketched profile. If the current viewport contains a three-dimensional part, select one of the following from the buttons in the prompt area: · Blind a. A default extrusion depth appears in the prompt area. b. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new extrusion depth. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module. The part is displayed in its original orientation with the cut extruded from the sketch plane through the desired distance. · Up to Face a. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module with the part displayed in its original orientation. b. Select the face to which to extrude. The selected face does not have to be parallel to the

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sketch plane, and it can be a nonplanar face. You cannot select a datum plane. ABAQUS/CAE extrudes the cut from the sketch plane to the selected face. · Through All a. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and returns to the Part module. The part is displayed in its original orientation with the cut extruded from the sketch plane passing completely through the part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a cut feature,'' Section 14.19 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.19.2 Creating a revolved cut
Select Shape->Cut->Revolve from the main menu bar to create a revolved cut through the part in the current viewport. You can cut a revolved cut through only three-dimensional parts. You add a revolved cut by sketching a two-dimensional cross-section and a construction line on a selected face. The construction line serves as an axis of revolution, and ABAQUS/CAE creates the revolved cut by rotating the cross-section about the axis using a specified angle of revolution. A sketch and the resulting revolved cut are illustrated in the following figure:

The sketch and the rotation angle combine to define the revolved cut, and both can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for cutting a revolved cut: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Cut->Revolve. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

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Tip: You can also create a revolved cut using the tool, located with the cut tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the face from which the cut will be revolved. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. An arrow appears, indicating the normal to the axis of revolution and the initial direction of the revolution. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to accept the indicated direction. If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part. 4. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. Tip: If the selected face is curved or does not have a suitable edge, you can create a datum axis that will provide the desired orientation. You can then select the datum axis as the edge to appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view. from

, vertical , angle , or oblique construction line tools to 5. Use the horizontal sketch the axis of rotation. You can position the construction line by selecting a datum axis from the underlying part. You cannot select the datum axis directly; you must select a point from either end of the datum axis. 6. Use the Sketcher to sketch the two-dimensional profile of the revolved cut; the sketch must not cross the axis of revolution. 7. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the cross--section and the axis. If the sketch contains more than one construction line, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the construction line that will serve as the axis of rotation. A default revolve angle appears in the prompt area. 8. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new revolve angle. The part returns to its original orientation with the sketched profile revolved around the axis of

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revolution and cutting any part of the model that it intersects.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a cut feature,'' Section 14.19 · ``Defining the axis of revolution for axisymmetric parts and for revolved features, '' Section 14.9.2 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.19.3 Creating a swept cut
Select Shape->Cut->Sweep from the main menu bar to create a swept shell cut through the part in the current viewport. You can create a swept cut through only three-dimensional parts. You create a swept cut by sketching a sweep path on a selected face and sketching a sweep profile, as shown in the following figure:

The sweep profile is always perpendicular to the beginning of the path, and the profile always remains normal to the path as it is swept along its length. The sketch of the sweep path and the sketch of the sweep profile define the swept cut feature; both can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for creating a swept cut feature: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Cut->Sweep . ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also create a swept cut using the tool, located with the cut tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the face on which to sketch the sweep path. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. 3. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right of the Sketcher grid. The edge must not be perpendicular to the selected face. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher and rotates the part so that the selected face aligns with the

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plane of the Sketcher grid and the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. If you are unsure of the part's orientation relative to the Sketcher grid, use the rotate tool the toolbar to view its position. Use the cycle tool to return to the original view. from

4. Sketch the sweep path. The sweep path must meet the following guidelines: · The path can be closed, but the ends must meet smoothly; for example, the ends should not meet at a corner. For examples of valid sweep paths, see ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3. · The path must be continuous; for example, it must not branch. · The resulting cut cannot intersect with itself. In the prompt area, click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep path. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher and restores the original view of the part. A highlighted line indicates the sweep path and its direction. You are now ready to sketch the sweep profile. 5. Select an edge that will appear vertical and on the right side of the Sketcher grid. ABAQUS/CAE enters the Sketcher again and rotates the part so that the Sketcher grid lies on a plane normal to the beginning of the sweep path. In addition, the selected edge aligns with the vertical grid lines. The intersection of two dashed lines indicates the origin of the sweep path. 6. Sketch the sweep profile. The sweep profile must meet the following guidelines: · The profile must be closed. · The resulting cut cannot intersect with itself. You can sketch the profile anywhere on the Sketch grid; ABAQUS/CAE sweeps the profile along a path parallel to the sweep path. Click Done to indicate you have finished sketching the sweep profile. ABAQUS/CAE exits the Sketcher, restores the original view of the part, and creates the swept cut through the part. The resulting cut cannot intersect with itself.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Defining the sweep path and the sweep profile,'' Section 14.9.3 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

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14.19.4 Cutting a circular hole
Select Shape->Cut->Circular Hole from the main menu bar to cut a circular hole through the part in the current viewport. The circular hole tool is always available, regardless of the modeling space of the part in the current viewport. You cut a circular hole by specifying the distance from two selected straight edges and specifying the diameter of the hole, as shown in the following figure: The part must contain at least two straight edges; for example, you cannot use this tool to cut a hole through a circular part. If the current viewport contains a two-dimensional or axisymmetric planar part, the hole always passes through all of the part. However, if the current viewport contains a three-dimensional part, ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the type of cut. You can select one of the following types of cut: The distance from the hole to each edge, the diameter of the hole, and the depth of a blind hole are the features that define a circular hole, and all three can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. You cannot change the type of cut--through all or blind--after the cut has been created. Detailed instructions for cutting a circular hole: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Cut->Circular Hole. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also cut a circular hole using the tool, located with the cut tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. If the current viewport contains a two-dimensional part, select the first edge from which to position the center of the hole. If the current viewport contains a three-dimensional part, you must do the following: a. From the buttons in the prompt area, select one of the following types of cut: · Click Through All to cut a circular hole that extends from a selected face in a selected direction through the part. A through cut is illustrated in the following example:

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· Click Blind to cut a circular hole that extends from a selected face in a selected direction but only to a specified depth. A blind cut is illustrated in the following example:

b. Select the face from which the hole will be cut. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate faces using the buttons in the prompt area. An arrow appears, indicating the direction of the axis of the cut hole. c. From the buttons in the prompt area, click Flip to reverse the arrow, if necessary. Click OK to accept the indicated direction. Tip: If the arrow direction is difficult to see, use the rotate tool from the toolbar to rotate the part. d. Select the first edge from which to position the center of the hole. The selected edges need not lie in the same plane as the selected face, but they must not be perpendicular to it. 3. In the text field in the prompt area, type the distance from the selected edge to the center of the hole. 4. Select the second edge from which to position the center of the hole. The two edges must not be parallel. 5. In the text field in the prompt area, type the distance from the selected edge to the center of the hole. 6. In the text field in the prompt area, type the diameter of the hole.

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If the current viewport contains a two-dimensional or axisymmetric planar part, ABAQUS/CAE cuts the part with the circular hole. If the current viewport contains a three-dimensional part and you selected a blind cut, a default hole depth appears in the prompt area. Click mouse button 2 to accept the default value, or enter a new hole depth. The part returns to its original orientation with the circular hole cut from the selected face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adding a cut feature,'' Section 14.19 · Chapter 22, "The Sketch module" · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.20 Blending edges
This section describes the Part module tools used to blend edges of the part in the current viewport. The following topics are covered: · ``Rounding edges,'' Section 14.20.1 · ``Chamfering edges,'' Section 14.20.2

14.20.1 Rounding edges
Select Shape->Blend->Round/Fillet from the main menu bar to round selected edges of the part in the current viewport. You can ``round,'' or fillet, both convex and concave edges. A part with rounded edges is illustrated in the following example:

You define the radius of the fillet, and ABAQUS/CAE applies the radius to all of the selected edges as a group; therefore, subsequent feature manipulation operations, such as edit, delete, and suppress, will be applied to the entire group of selected edges. Consequently, if you select more than one edge to round, you cannot modify just one of the rounded edges. In addition, the shape of the resulting edges can depend on the order in which you apply the fillets, as shown in the following figure. The fillets on

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the left side of the part were created by selecting all three edges and applying the round/fillet tool to the group of selected edges in a single operation. In contrast, the fillets on the right side of the part were created by selecting each edge individually and applying the round/fillet tool to each edge in sequence.

The round/fillet tool is available only when the current viewport contains a three-dimensional solid part. The radius of a rounded edge defines the feature and can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for rounding edges: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Blend->Round/Fillet. ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the edges to round. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also round selected edges using the tool, located with the blend tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the edges to round, and click mouse button 2 to commit your selection. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate edges using the buttons in the prompt area. [Shift]+[Click] additional edges to add them to your selection, and [Ctrl]+[Click] a selected edge to unselect it. A default radius appears in the prompt area. 3. If necessary, type a new radius in the text field in the prompt area. Click mouse button 2 to commit the radius. ABAQUS/CAE redraws the part with the selected edges rounded.

For information on related topics, click the following item: 1-403

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· ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.20.2 Chamfering edges
Select Shape->Blend->Chamfer from the main menu bar to chamfer or bevel selected edges of the part in the current viewport. You enter the distance that the chamfer extends into each face, and ABAQUS/CAE uses the distance to define the chamfer, as illustrated in the following example:

ABAQUS/CAE applies the chamfer to all of the selected edges as a group; therefore, subsequent feature manipulation operations--such as edit, delete, and suppress--will be applied to the entire group of selected edges. Consequently, if you select more than one edge to chamfer, you cannot modify just one of the chamfered edges. The chamfer tool is available only when the current viewport contains a three-dimensional solid part. The length of a chamfer defines the feature and can be modified using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for chamfering edges: 1. From the main menu bar, select Shape->Blend->Chamfer. ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the edges to chamfer. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. Tip: You can also chamfer selected edges using the tool, located with the blend tools in the Part module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Part module toolbox, see ``Using the Part module toolbox,'' Section 14.12. 2. Select the edges to chamfer, and click mouse button 2 to commit your selection. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate edges using the buttons in the prompt area. [Shift]+[Click] additional edges to add them to your selection, and [Ctrl]+[Click] a selected edge to unselect it. A default chamfer length appears in the prompt area. 3. If necessary, type a new chamfer length in the text field in the prompt area. Click mouse button 2 to commit the chamfer length. ABAQUS/CAE redraws the part with the selected edges chamfered.

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For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3

14.21 Repairing imported geometry
This section describes the Part module tools used to repair the geometry of the part in the current viewport. The following topics are covered: · ``An overview of the repair geometry tools,'' Section 14.21.1 · ``Repair geometry,'' Section 14.21.2 · ``Removing redundant vertices or edges,'' Section 14.21.3 · ``Creating a new face,'' Section 14.21.4 · ``Removing a face,'' Section 14.21.5 · ``Creating a solid from a shell,'' Section 14.21.6 · ``Reducing the feature list,'' Section 14.21.7

14.21.1 An overview of the repair geometry tools
ABAQUS/CAE provides a set of geometry repair tools that allow you edit parts that you have imported. Warning: You should use the geometry repair tools to edit only imported parts. Where possible, you should use the Part module tools to create and delete features from an ABAQUS/CAE native part. The geometry repair tools may delete important feature information. The geometry repair tools allow you to do the following: · Automatically repair a part with the following operations: - Convert the part to an analytical representation - Stitch the edges of the part - Convert to a more precise representation For more information, see ``Repair geometry,'' Section 14.21.2. · Removing redundant vertices and edges from an imported part. For more information, see ``Removing redundant vertices or edges,'' Section 14.21.3. · Creating a new face by selecting one edge. For more information, see ``Creating a new face,'' Section 14.21.4. · Removing selected faces. For more information, see ``Removing a face,'' Section 14.21.5.

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· Converting a shell to a solid. For more information, see ``Creating a solid from a shell,'' Section 14.21.6 · Reducing the list of features that define a part to a simpler definition. For more information, see ``Reducing the feature list,'' Section 14.21.7

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21

14.21.2 Repair geometry
ABAQUS/CAE can perform the following set of operations in an effort to repair the geometry of an imported part: · Convert the part to its analytical representation · Stitch the edges of the part · Convert to a more precise representation Some of the operations are dependent on each other. For example, if you stitch the edges of a part, you must also convert it to an analytical representation. Similarly, if you convert the part to a more precise representation, you must also stitch its edges and convert it to an analytical representation. If your part is large and complex, the selected repair operations may take a long time to complete. ABAQUS/CAE allows you to repair the part in a background process and to continue working on your model. ABAQUS/CAE displays a message in the message area when the repair is complete, and the repaired part becomes the current part. Detailed instructions for repairing geometry: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Repair Geometry. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Repair Geometry Tools dialog box. 2. From the dialog box, select Repair geometry and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Repair Geometry dialog box. 3. Toggle on the desired repair operations. ABAQUS/CAE can do the following: Convert to analytical representation ABAQUS/CAE tries to change the internal definition of edges, faces, and cells into a simpler form that can be represented analytically. For example, a plane that is nearly planar will be converted to an equation that represents the plane. Converting to an analytical representation usually provides the following advantages:

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· Processing of the part is faster. · The converted entity is available during feature operations. · The geometry is improved. Stitch edges ABAQUS/CAE tries to remove duplicate edges, vertices, and trim surfaces. Stitching edges usually results in valid geometry. However, due to internal tolerances, the resulting representation of small features may not match the geometry that was intended in the original file. Convert to precise representation ABAQUS/CAE tries to change neighboring entities so that their geometry matches exactly. Converting to a precise representation usually results in precise geometry. However, this can be a lengthy operation that increases the complexity of the imported part. As a result, processing of the part is slower. 4. If the repair process is expected to take a long time, you can repair the part in the background and continue to work on your model. When the repair process is complete, ABAQUS/CAE writes a notification in the message area and creates an ACIS file called partname-repaired.sat. You must then import this file to make the repaired part available in your model. If you select background processing, ABAQUS/CAE selects all of the repair options described above. 5. Click OK. ABAQUS/CAE creates a backup of the part called partname-old-1 and repairs the original part. When the repair operation is complete, the repaired part becomes the current part. If partname-old-1 already exists, ABAQUS/CAE increments the last digit until it can create a unique file name.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

14.21.3 Removing redundant vertices or edges
An imported part can contain redundant vertices that are not attached to an edge or are positioned along a straight edge. Similarly, an imported part can include redundant edges that are not connected to a face or are internal edges. Redundant vertices and edges do not change the shape or the area of a part and are not required for a complete definition, as shown in the following figure:

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You can use the repair tools to remove redundant vertices from a selected group of vertices. Similarly, you can use the repair tools to remove redundant edges from a selected group of edges. Warning: You should use the geometry repair tools to edit only imported parts. Where possible, you should use the Part module tools to create and delete features from an ABAQUS/CAE native part. The geometry repair tools may delete important feature information. Detailed instructions for removing redundant vertices: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Repair Geometry. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Repair Geometry Tools dialog box. 2. From the dialog box, select Remove redundant vertices and click OK. 3. Select the group of vertices from which ABAQUS/CAE should remove redundant vertices and click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting vertices. ABAQUS/CAE removes the any redundant vertices from the selected group of vertices and closes the Repair Geometry Tools dialog box. Detailed instructions for removing redundant edges: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Repair Geometry. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Repair Geometry Tools dialog box. 2. From the dialog box, select Remove redundant edges and click OK. 3. Select the group of edges from which ABAQUS/CAE should remove redundant edges and click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting edges. ABAQUS/CAE removes the any redundant edges from the selected group of edges and closes the Repair Geometry Tools dialog box.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

14.21.4 Creating a new face
You can create a face to a three-dimensional part by selecting one edge of the new face. ABAQUS/CAE loops through the adjacent edges and calculates the location of the new face. You cannot create a face on a two-dimensional part. ABAQUS/CAE creates the new face as a shell. If the new shell forms a closed part, you can use the solid-from-shell tool to convert the part to a solid. For more information, see ``Creating a solid from a shell,'' Section 14.21.6. Warning: You should use the geometry repair tools to edit only imported parts. The geometry repair tools do not take into account the feature-based representation of an ABAQUS/CAE native part and may delete important feature information. Detailed instructions for creating a new face: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Repair Geometry. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Repair Geometry Tools dialog box. 2. From the dialog box, select Create face and click OK. 3. Select an edge that will be connected to the new face, and click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection. ABAQUS/CAE loops through the adjacent edges, selects the edges that define the boundaries of the new face, and creates the new face.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

14.21.5 Removing a face
You can remove selected faces from a three-dimensional solid or shell or from a two-dimensional planar part. You cannot recover faces that were removed. When you remove one or more faces from a three-dimensional solid part, ABAQUS/CAE converts the

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part to a shell, as shown in the following figure:

Warning: You should use the geometry repair tools to edit only imported parts. The geometry repair tools do not take into account the feature-based representation of an ABAQUS/CAE native part and may delete important feature information. Detailed instructions for removing a face: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Repair Geometry. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Repair Geometry Tools dialog box. 2. From the dialog box, select Remove face and click OK. 3. Select the faces that you want to remove, and click mouse button 2 to confirm your selection. ABAQUS/CAE removes the selected faces.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

14.21.6 Creating a solid from a shell
You can create a solid part from a three-dimensional shell part if all the faces form a part that is closed. You must select a face from the part and choose the direction in which ABAQUS/CAE adds the solid material to change the part from a shell to a solid. Warning: You should use the geometry repair tools to edit only imported parts. The geometry repair tools do not take into account the feature-based representation of an ABAQUS/CAE native part and may delete important feature information.

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Detailed instructions for creating a solid from a shell: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Repair Geometry. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Repair Geometry Tools dialog box. 2. From the dialog box, select Solid from shell and click OK. 3. Select a face. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected face and displays an arrow indicating the direction in which material will be added to create the solid. If desired, click Flip to reverse the direction of the arrow. 4. Click mouse button 2 to confirm the direction of the arrow. ABAQUS/CAE fills the shell in the direction indicated and creates a solid part.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

14.21.7 Reducing the feature list
ABAQUS/CAE uses feature-based modeling to define a part. Each part is made up of a sequence of feature operations. You can edit the part by modifying the parameters of a feature; for example, the parameter that governs the extrusion depth of an extruded solid. For more information, see ``Understanding feature-based modeling,'' Section 14.3. You can use the geometry repair tools to reduce all the feature and parameter information to a simple definition of the part. If you reduce the feature list, ABAQUS/CAE will regenerate the part faster if you subsequently modify it; however, you will no longer be able to modify any parameters of the part. Detailed instructions for reducing the feature list: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Repair Geometry. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Repair Geometry Tools dialog box. 2. From the dialog box, select Reduce feature list and click OK. 3. From the Reduce Feature List dialog box that appears, click OK. ABAQUS/CAE creates a backup of the part called partname-old-1 and reduces the feature list of the original part. When the operation is complete, the modified part becomes the current part. If partname-old-1 already exists, ABAQUS/CAE increments the last digit until it can

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create a unique file name.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Repairing imported geometry,'' Section 14.21 · ``Understanding how ABAQUS/CAE repairs imported parts,'' Section 13.3

14.22 Editing an orphan mesh
This section describes how you can edit the nodes and elements that comprise an orphan mesh. You can do the following: · Create, edit, and delete nodes. · Create and delete elements. · Change the direction of the surface normal of shell elements. · Refine a planar, linear, triangular mesh. In addition, you can use the Mesh module to change the element type associated with selected elements; for more information, see ``Associating ABAQUS elements with mesh regions,'' Section 20.16.9. The following topics are covered: · ``Overview of the orphan mesh editing options,'' Section 14.22.1 · ``Creating a node,'' Section 14.22.2 · ``Editing nodes one at a time,'' Section 14.22.3 · ``Editing multiple nodes simultaneously,'' Section 14.22.4 · ``Deleting nodes,'' Section 14.22.5 · ``Creating an element,'' Section 14.22.6 · ``Deleting elements,'' Section 14.22.7 · ``Reversing the surface normal direction of shell elements, '' Section 14.22.8 · ``Refining a planar, linear, triangular orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22.9

14.22.1 Overview of the orphan mesh editing options
You can use the Edit Mesh dialog box to edit the nodes and elements that form an orphan mesh. Detailed instructions for editing a mesh:

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1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Edit Mesh. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Mesh dialog box. 2. In the dialog box, choose either Node or Element and the desired operation. For information on each operation, see the following sections: · ``Creating a node,'' Section 14.22.2 · ``Editing nodes one at a time,'' Section 14.22.3 · ``Editing multiple nodes simultaneously,'' Section 14.22.4 · ``Deleting nodes,'' Section 14.22.5 · ``Creating an element,'' Section 14.22.6 · ``Deleting elements,'' Section 14.22.7 · ``Reversing the surface normal direction of shell elements, '' Section 14.22.8 3. Click OK to start the editing procedure and to close the Edit Mesh dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure.

14.22.2 Creating a node
Select Part->Edit Mesh from the main menu bar to create nodes on an orphan mesh. You can use the new nodes to create new elements, as explained in ``Creating an element,'' Section 14.22.6. Detailed instructions for creating nodes: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Edit Mesh. The Edit Mesh dialog box appears. 2. In the dialog box, do the following: a. In the Type field, select Node. b. From the Method list, select Create. c. Click OK. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the existing nodes. In hidden and shaded mode, only the visible nodes are highlighted. 3. If desired, you can enter the coordinates for the new node in a datum coordinate system that you have created rather than in the global coordinate system: a. In the prompt area, click Select.

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b. In the viewport, select the datum coordinate system to be associated with the coordinates of the new node. (For more information, see ``Creating datum coordinate systems,'' Section 41.8.) 4. In the Coordinates field in the prompt area, type the coordinates of the new node, and then press [Enter]. ABAQUS/CAE creates the new node. 5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 as often as necessary to create additional nodes. 6. When you have finished creating nodes, click the cancel button procedure. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22 in the prompt area to exit the

14.22.3 Editing nodes one at a time
Select Part->Edit Mesh from the main menu bar to change the coordinates of nodes in an orphan mesh. You can edit a single node by selecting the node in the viewport and then entering new coordinates in the prompt area. For information on editing multiple nodes, see ``Editing multiple nodes simultaneously,'' Section 14.22.4. Detailed instructions for editing a single node: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Edit Mesh. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Mesh dialog box. 2. In the Edit Mesh dialog box, do the following: a. In the Type field, select Node. b. From the Method list, select Edit. c. Click OK. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the existing nodes. In hidden and shaded mode, only the visible nodes are highlighted. 3. In the prompt area, click the Selection method menu button, and select Individually from the list that appears. 4. In the viewport, select the node that you want to edit, and click mouse button 2. Tip: You can limit the types of objects that you can select in the viewport by clicking the selection options tool in the prompt area and then clicking the options of your choice in 1-414

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the dialog box that appears. For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport." 5. If desired, you can enter new coordinates for the node in a datum coordinate system that you have created rather than in the global coordinate system: a. In the prompt area, click Select. b. In the viewport, select the datum coordinate system to be associated with the new coordinates of the node. (For more information, see ``Creating datum coordinate systems,'' Section 41.8.) 6. In the Coordinates field in the prompt area, type the new coordinates of the node, and then press [Enter]. 7. Repeat the previous steps as often as necessary to edit additional nodes. 8. When you have finished editing nodes, click the cancel button procedure. in the prompt area to exit the

14.22.4 Editing multiple nodes simultaneously
When you select multiple nodes to edit from an orphan mesh, an Edit Nodes dialog box appears, as shown below, that contains a data field for each coordinate.

If all of the selected nodes share the same value for a particular coordinate, that value appears in the field for that coordinate in the Edit Nodes dialog box. For example, the figure above indicates that all of the selected nodes have a value of -70 for their first coordinate and a value of 40 for their second coordinate. If the values for a particular coordinate are different for two or more of the selected nodes, the phrase As is appears in the data field for that coordinate. For example, the figure above indicates that two or more of the selected nodes have different values for the third coordinate. The Edit Nodes dialog box also displays the range of values for each coordinate. For example, the figure above indicates that the third coordinate values range from 10 to 20.

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You can edit the coordinates of the selected nodes in the following ways: · If all of the nodes share the same value for a particular coordinate, you can change the value entered in the data field for that coordinate. For example, in the figure above you could change the second coordinate value of the selected nodes from 40 to 45. · If two or more of the selected nodes have different values for a particular coordinate, you can remove the As is designation in the data field for that coordinate and replace it with a particular value. All of the selected nodes are given that value for the coordinate instead of retaining their individual values. The ability to assign a uniform coordinate value to multiple nodes is particularly useful when the nodes must lie in the same plane--for example, when defining the mating surface of a cylinder head or engine block. (For information on editing single nodes, see ``Editing nodes one at a time,'' Section 14.22.3.) Detailed instructions for editing multiple nodes: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Edit Mesh. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Mesh dialog box. 2. In the dialog box, do the following: a. In the Type field, select Node. b. From the Method list, select Edit. c. Click OK. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the existing nodes. In hidden and shaded mode, only the visible nodes are highlighted. 3. Use one of the following methods to select the nodes that you want to edit: Selecting individual nodes: 1. Click the Selection method menu button in the prompt area, and select Individually from the list that appears. 2. Select a node that you want to edit. 3. [Shift]+Click on additional nodes to add them to your selection. 4. If necessary, [Ctrl]+Click on selected nodes to remove them from your selection. 5. When you have finished selecting nodes, click mouse button 2. Specifying an existing node set 1. Click Sets on the right side of the prompt area.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the Region Selection dialog box containing a list of node sets that you have created. 2. Select the set of nodes that you want to edit, and click Continue. Note: The default selection method is based on the selection method you most recently employed. To revert to the other method, click Select in Viewport or Sets on the right side of the prompt area. Selecting nodes using the face angle method: 1. Click the Selection method menu button in the prompt area, and select Face angle from the list that appears. 2. Enter a face angle (from 0° to 90°), and select a node. ABAQUS/CAE selects every node on adjacent element faces from selected node until the angle between the element faces is equal to or exceeds the face angle. (See ``Using the face angle method to create a surface from an orphan mesh,'' Section 9.2.3, for more information.) 3. If necessary, you can [Shift]+Click on additional nodes to append them to your selection, or [Ctrl]+Click on selected nodes to remove them from your selection. (See ``Combining selection techniques,'' Section 9.2.4, for more information.) 4. When you have finished selecting nodes, click mouse button 2. Tip: You can limit the types of objects that you can select in the viewport by clicking the selection options tool in the prompt area and then clicking the options of your choice in the dialog box that appears. For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport." The Edit Nodes dialog box appears displaying information about each coordinate for the selected nodes. The value of a particular coordinate appears in the dialog box only if the value is the same for all selected nodes. Otherwise, ABAQUS/CAE displays a value of As is indicating the coordinate is different for at least two of the selected nodes. 4. In the Edit Nodes dialog box, use the following techniques to specify new coordinates: · If a coordinate field displays the phrase As is, click the arrow on the right side of the field and select Specify from the list that appears. Then enter the numeric value of your choice in the field. · If a coordinate field lists a numeric value, enter a different value. 5. If desired, you can enter the new coordinates for the nodes in a datum coordinate system that you

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have created rather than in the global coordinate system: a. At the top of the Edit Nodes dialog box, click Select. b. In the viewport, select the datum coordinate system to be associated with the new nodal coordinates. (For more information, see ``Creating datum coordinate systems,'' Section 41.8.) 6. Click OK to move the nodes to the new position. 7. Repeat the previous steps as often as necessary to edit additional nodes. 8. When you have finished editing nodes, click the cancel button procedure. in the prompt area to exit the

14.22.5 Deleting nodes
Select Part->Edit Mesh from the main menu bar to delete nodes from an orphan mesh. ABAQUS/CAE also deletes any elements associated with the deleted nodes. If the nodes and associated elements that you are deleting belong to existing node or element sets, those sets are updated accordingly. Detailed instructions for deleting nodes: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Edit Mesh. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Mesh dialog box. 2. In the dialog box, do the following: a. In the Type field, select Node. b. From the Method list, select Delete. c. Click OK. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the existing nodes. In hidden and shaded mode, only the visible nodes are highlighted. 3. In the viewport, select the nodes to delete. You can [Shift]+Click on individual nodes to add them to your selection, or [Ctrl]+Click on selected nodes to remove them from your selection. Tip: You can limit the types of objects that you can select in the viewport by clicking the selection options tool in the prompt area and then clicking the options of your choice in the dialog box that appears. For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport." If you would rather select from a list of existing node sets, do the following: a. Click Sets on the right side of the prompt area.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the Region Selection dialog box containing a list of node sets that you have created. b. Select the set of nodes that you want to delete, and click Continue.
Note: The default selection method is based on the selection method you most recently employed. To revert to the other method, click Select in Viewport or Sets on the right side of the prompt area.

ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected nodes and the elements associated with the selected nodes. (Both the nodes that you have selected and any elements associated with those nodes will be deleted.) 4. When you have finished selecting nodes to delete, click mouse button 2. 5. The elements associated with the selected nodes may also be associated with unselected nodes. If those unselected nodes would be left unassociated with any element after the nodes and associated elements are deleted, click Yes in the prompt area if you want ABAQUS/CAE to delete those unselected nodes as well. 6. Repeat the previous steps as often as necessary to delete additional nodes. 7. When you have finished deleting nodes, click the cancel button procedure. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22 in the prompt area to exit the

14.22.6 Creating an element
Select Part->Edit Mesh from the main menu bar to create elements from selected nodes of an orphan mesh. Detailed instructions for creating elements: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Edit Mesh. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Mesh dialog box. 2. In the dialog box, do the following: a. In the Type field, select Element. b. From the Method list, select Create. c. Click OK. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the existing nodes. In hidden and shaded mode, only the visible nodes are highlighted.

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3. In the prompt area, click the arrow next to the Element shape field, and select the element shape of your choice from the list that appears. 4. In the viewport, select the nodes that will define the element. You must select the required number of nodes for the element shape specified in the previous step. In addition, you must select the nodes in a specific order. The figures below indicate the required node ordering for each element shape:

Figure 14-49 Node ordering for wire elements.

Figure 14-50 Node ordering for shell elements

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Figure 14-51 Node ordering for solid elements

Once you have selected the required number of nodes, ABAQUS/CAE creates the new element. 5. Repeat the previous steps as often as necessary to create additional elements. 6. When you have finished creating elements, click the cancel button the procedure. in the prompt area to exit

14.22.7 Deleting elements
Select Part->Edit Mesh from the main menu bar to delete elements from an orphan mesh. You have the option of instructing ABAQUS/CAE to delete any nodes that are left unassociated with any elements once the elements are deleted. If the elements and associated nodes that you are deleting belong to existing element or node sets, those sets are updated accordingly. Detailed instructions for deleting elements: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Edit Mesh.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Mesh dialog box. 2. In the dialog box, do the following: a. In the Type field, select Element. b. From the Method list, select Delete. c. Click OK. 3. If you want to delete all nodes that are left unassociated with any elements once the selected elements are deleted, toggle on Delete associated unreferenced nodes in the prompt area. 4. Select the elements to delete. You can [Shift]+Click on elements to add them to your selection or [Ctrl]+Click on selected elements to remove them from your selection. Tip: You can limit the types of objects that you can select in the viewport by clicking the selection options tool in the prompt area and then clicking the options of your choice in the dialog box that appears. For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport." If you would rather select from a list of existing element sets, do the following: a. Click Sets on the right side of the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Region Selection dialog box containing a list of element sets that you have created. b. Select the set of elements that you want to delete, and click Continue.
Note: The default selection method is based on the selection method you most recently employed. To revert to the other method, click Select in Viewport or Sets on the right side of the prompt area.

ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected elements. 5. When you have finished selecting elements to delete, click mouse button 2. ABAQUS/CAE deletes the selected elements. In addition, if you toggled on Delete associated unreferenced nodes , ABAQUS/CAE also deletes nodes that would be left unassociated with any elements once the selected elements are deleted. The elements and nodes are also removed from any existing sets. 6. Repeat the above steps as often as necessary to delete additional elements. 7. When you have finished deleting elements, click the cancel button the procedure. in the prompt area to exit

14.22.8 Reversing the surface normal direction of shell elements

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Select Part->Edit Mesh from the main menu bar to reverse the surface normals of selected shell elements from an orphan mesh. The elements can be either quadrilaterals or triangles. If you display the orphan mesh using the shaded render style, the front and back faces of each shell element appear in different colors. (See ``Choosing a render style,'' Section 46.2, for more information.) Detailed instructions for reversing surface normals: 1. From the main menu, select Part->Edit Mesh. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Edit Mesh dialog box. 2. In the dialog box, do the following: a. In the Type field, choose Element. b. From the Method list, select Flip normal. c. Click OK. 3. Use one of the following methods to select the shell elements whose normals you want to reverse: Selecting individual elements: 1. Click the Selection method menu button in the prompt area, and select Individually from the list that appears. 2. Select an element whose normal you want to flip. 3. [Shift]+Click on additional elements to add them to your selection. 4. If necessary, [Ctrl]+Click on selected elements to unselect them. 5. When you have finished selecting elements, click mouse button 2. Specifying an existing element set 1. Click Sets on the right side of the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Region Selection dialog box containing a list of element sets that you have created. 2. Select the set of element that you want to edit, and click Continue. Note: The default selection method is based on the selection method you most recently employed. To revert to the other method, click Select in Viewport or Sets on the right side of the prompt area. Selecting elements using the face angle method: 1. Click the Selection method menu button in the prompt area, and select Face angle

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from the list that appears. 2. Enter a face angle (from 0° to 90°), and select an element face. ABAQUS/CAE selects every adjacent shell element from the selected face until the angle between the element faces is equal to or exceeds the face angle. (See ``Using the face angle method to create a surface from an orphan mesh,'' Section 9.2.3, for more information.) 3. After you use the face angle method, you can [Shift]+Click on additional elements to add them to your selection or [Ctrl]+Click on selected elements to remove them from your selection. (See ``Combining selection techniques,'' Section 9.2.4, for more information.) 4. When you have finished selecting elements, click mouse button 2. Tip: You can limit the types of objects that you can select in the viewport by clicking the selection options tool in the prompt area and then clicking the options of your choice in the dialog box that appears. For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport." 4. In the prompt area, select a method for reversing the surface normal: · Click Flip all to reverse the normal of all selected elements. · Click Select normal to change the normals of the selected elements so that they point in the same direction as the normal of a reference element that you specify. 5. If you chose Select normal in the previous step, do the following: a. In the viewport, select the reference element. b. In the prompt area, click OK. ABAQUS/CAE changes the normals of the selected elements so that they point in the same direction as the reference element normal. 6. Repeat the previous steps as often as necessary to change additional surface normals. 7. Click the cancel button in the prompt area to exit the procedure.

14.22.9 Refining a planar, linear, triangular orphan mesh
Select Part->Refine Mesh from the main menu bar to refine a planar, linear, triangular mesh on an orphan mesh part. A Refine Mesh dialog box appears that allows you to remesh the part using one of the following methods: Remesh the part without specifying element sizes

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If no element size is specified, ABAQUS/CAE maintains the edges of the elements along the boundary of the part while improving the mesh quality in the interior of the part. The resulting mesh topology is different from the original mesh topology. For example, a distorted mesh appears in Figure 14-52.

Figure 14-52 A distorted mesh.

When the part is remeshed, the quality of the mesh improves dramatically, as shown in Figure 14-53.

Figure 14-53 The part is remeshed.

Remesh the part using a global element size Before you remesh the part, you have the option of assigning a target element size to the entire part. You can then remesh the part, and the density of the new mesh reflects the new target element size. For example, when the part in Figure 14-52 is remeshed with a global element size of 15.0, the resulting mesh appears in Figure 14-54.

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Figure 14-54 A global element size of 15.0.

Figure 14-55 shows the part remeshed with a global element size of 8.0.

Figure 14-55 A global element size of 8.0.

Detailed instructions for refining a planar, linear, triangular mesh: 1. From the main menu bar, select Part->Refine Mesh. The Refine Mesh dialog box appears. 2. If you want to specify a new global element size for the mesh, do the following: a. In the Refine Mesh dialog box, select Size from the list of Action options. b. From the Method list, select Set global element size, and click Apply.

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c. In the prompt area, type the global element size of your choice, and press [Enter]. ABAQUS/CAE uses the new element size that you have specified when remeshing the part. 3. If you have applied a global element size to the part but decide that you would rather retain the current element sizes at the part boundary, do the following: a. In the Refine Mesh dialog box, select Size from the list of Action options. b. From the Method list, select Remove global element size , and click Apply. c. In the prompt area, click Yes. When you remesh the part, no global element size is applied to the mesh. 4. From the list of Action options, select Remesh. 5. Accept Mesh part as the default Method selection, and click Apply. 6. In the prompt area, click Yes. ABAQUS/CAE attempts to refine the mesh. You cannot recover the original mesh without reimporting the part from the output database. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Editing an orphan mesh,'' Section 14.22

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15. The Property module
You can use the Property module to perform the following tasks: · Define materials. · Define beam section profiles. · Define sections. · Assign section definitions, material orientations, and beam section orientations to parts or regions of parts. · Define a skin reinforcement. This chapter covers the following topics: · ``Entering and exiting the Property module,'' Section 15.1 · ``Understanding properties,'' Section 15.2 · ``Assigning sections, material orientations, and beam orientations to a part, '' Section 15.3 · ``Defining skin reinforcements,'' Section 15.4 · ``Defining gaskets,'' Section 15.5 · ``Understanding the Property module editors,'' Section 15.6 · ``Tutorial: Using the Property module,'' Section 15.7 · ``Creating and editing materials,'' Section 15.8 · ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9 · ``Creating and editing skin reinforcements,'' Section 15.10 · ``Assigning properties to a part,'' Section 15.11 The tutorial will help you become familiar with techniques for creating materials and for creating and assigning sections.

15.1 Entering and exiting the Property module
You can enter the Property module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Property in the Module list located under the toolbar. When you enter the Property module, Material, Section, Profile, Skin, Assign, Feature, and Tools menus appear in the main menu bar. A Part list appears under the toolbar that allows you to select the part to which you want to assign properties. To exit the Property module, select another module from the Module list. You need not take any specific action to save your section definitions before exiting the module; they are saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File->Save or File->Save As from the main menu bar.

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15.2 Understanding properties
You can specify the properties of a part or part region by creating a section and assigning it to the part. In most cases, sections refer to materials that you have defined. Beam sections also refer to profiles that you have defined. This section of the manual explains sections, materials, profiles, and section assignment. The following topics are covered: · ``Defining materials,'' Section 15.2.1 · ``Defining profiles,'' Section 15.2.2 · ``Defining sections,'' Section 15.2.3

15.2.1 Defining materials
A material definition specifies the required behavior of a material and supplies all the property data relevant to that behavior. You specify the required behavior by including a set of material options in the material definition, and you supply the property data with each material option you include. The materials you create using the Property module are analogous to those you create using the *MATERIAL option in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. You name these materials just as you use the NAME parameter in an analysis input file to assign a name. Rather than typing the material options, parameters, and data, you use the material editor to specify all the information that defines each material. Each material that you create has its own name and is independent of any particular section; you can refer to a single material in as many sections as necessary. ABAQUS/CAE assigns the properties of a material to a region of a part when you assign a section referring to that material to the region.

15.2.2 Defining profiles
A profile specifies the engineering properties of a beam section that are related to its cross-sectional shape and size (for example, cross-section area and moments of inertia). When you define a beam section, you must include a reference to a profile in the section definition. You can create the following types of profiles: Shape-based profiles Shape-based profiles define the specific shape and dimensions of the beam cross- section. ABAQUS uses the information provided by the shape-based profile to calculate the engineering properties of the section. You can create this type of profile by first selecting from a list of shape options and then specifying that particular shape's dimensions. For example, if you select a box shape, you must then specify the height and width of the box as well as the thickness of the four walls. The shape options currently available are shown below:

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Referring to a shape-based profile in a beam section causes the *BEAM GENERAL SECTION or *BEAM SECTION option with the SECTION=shape name parameter to be added to the analysis input file. For detailed information on each profile shape, see ``Beam cross-section library,'' Section 15.3.9 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.3.8 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Generalized profiles Generalized profiles specify the engineering properties of the section directly. You can create a generalized profile by specifying values for the area, moments of inertia, torsional rigidity, and, if applicable, sectoral moment and warping constant. Referring to a generalized profile in a beam section definition causes the *BEAM GENERAL SECTION option with the SECTION=GENERAL parameter to be added to the analysis input file. For more information, see ``Using the *BEAM GENERAL SECTION option to define the section behavior, '' Section 15.3.7 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. Each profile that you create has its own name and is independent of any particular beam section; you can refer to a single profile in as many beam sections as necessary.

15.2.3 Defining sections
A section contains information about the properties of a part or a region of a part. The information required in the definition of a section depends on the type of region in question. For example, if the region is a deformable wire, shell, or two-dimensional solid, you must assign a section to that region that provides information about the region's cross-sectional geometry. Likewise, a rigid region requires a section that describes its mass properties. Most sections must refer to a material name. Beam sections must also refer to a profile name. When you assign a section to a part, ABAQUS/CAE automatically assigns that section to each instance of the part. As a result, the elements that are created when you mesh those part instances will have the properties specified in that section. Sections are named and created independently of any particular region, part, or assembly. You can assign a single section to as many different regions as necessary. You can use the Property module to create the following types of sections: Homogeneous solid sections Solid sections define the section properties of two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and axisymmetric solid regions. Homogeneous solid sections refer to a single material. If the section will be used with a two-dimensional region, you must also specify the section thickness. (You have the option of

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specifying a plane stress or plane strain thickness even if the section will be assigned to a three-dimensional region. ABAQUS/CAE ignores the thickness information if it is not needed for the region type.) For more information, see ``Solid (continuum) elements,'' Section 14.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 13.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Homogeneous shell sections Shell sections define the section properties of shell regions. Shells model structures in which one dimension (the thickness) is significantly smaller than the other two dimensions and in which the stresses in the thickness direction are negligible. A homogeneous shell section includes the shell thickness, material name, section Poisson's ratio, and optional transverse shear data. You can choose to calculate (integrate) the section stiffness either before or during the analysis. If the latter is chosen, options are provided to control the section integration and temperature variation through the thickness. (For more information on integration, see ``Choosing whether to integrate before or during analysis,'' Section 15.9.2, and ``Specifying the number of section integration points in a homogeneous shell section,'' Section 15.9.4.) For more information, see ``Shell elements,'' Section 15.6 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.4 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Membrane sections Membranes represent thin surfaces in space that offer strength in the plane of the surface but have no bending stiffness. Membrane sections consist of a material name, membrane thickness, and section Poisson's ratio. For more information, see ``Membrane elements,'' Section 15.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Beam sections Beams are used in two and three dimensions to model slender, rod-like structures that provide axial strength and bending stiffness. Beams represent structures in which the cross- section is assumed to be small compared to the length. You can assign beam sections only to wire regions. In addition, you must assign a beam section orientation to all regions with beam sections. Each beam section includes a section Poisson's ratio and a reference to a profile. Additional information is required depending on whether you choose to calculate (integrate) the section stiffness either before or during analysis (see ``Choosing whether to integrate before or during analysis,'' Section 15.9.2, in the online version of this manual for more information). For information about profiles, see Defining profiles, Section 15.2.2. For more information on beam sections, see ``Beam modeling: overview,'' Section 15.3.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.3.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.

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Truss sections Trusses, like beams, are used in two and three dimensions to model slender, rod-like structures that provide axial strength but no bending stiffness. Truss sections consist of a material name and the cross-sectional area. For more information, see ``Truss elements,'' Section 15.2.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.2.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Point sections Point sections are used to assign properties to rigid or isothermal bodies. The section definition may include mass, rotary inertia, damping, and heat capacitance. For more information, see the following sections: · ``Point masses,'' Section 16.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 15.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Rotary inertia,'' Section 16.2.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 15.2.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Material damping,'' Section 12.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 11.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Point capacitance,'' Section 16.4.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 15.4.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual Gasket sections Gaskets model thin sealing components that are positioned between structural components. Gasket sections are used to provide pressure-closure behaviors for sealing components. Gasket sections consists of a material reference, initial gasket thickness, initial gap, initial void, and cross-sectional area. For more information, see ``Defining gaskets,'' Section 15.5, and ``Gasket elements,'' Section 18.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. Warning: The type of section that you assign to a part must be consistent with the element type that you assign to instances of that part in the Mesh module. For example, if you assign a truss section to a wire part in the Property module, you should assign a truss element type (and not a beam element type) to any instances of that part in the Mesh module.

15.3 Assigning sections, material orientations, and beam orientations to a part
Once you have created a section, you use the Assign menu in the Property module main menu bar to assign the section to a region of a part. You also use the Assign menu to assign beam section orientations to wire regions and material orientations to shell and solid regions. You can select the region to which to assign a section or orientation in the following ways:

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· Select the region directly in the viewport. (See Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport," for information on selecting items in the viewport.) · Use the Set toolset to create a set consisting of the region. (The Set toolset is available from the Tools menu in the main menu bar.) You can then assign the section, material orientation, or beam orientation to the region defined by the set. (See Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets," for information on the Set toolset.) If you assign a section to a region and then rename or delete the section, that section is no longer applied to the region. If a region of your model lacks section properties, your analysis job will fail, and the problem will be reported by the Job module. However, the original names of renamed or deleted sections continue to be associated with the regions to which they have been assigned until you take one of the following actions: · Assign a different section to the region. · Create a new section that has the original section name and is the appropriate type for the region (for example, a shell section for a shell region); the properties defined in the new section are applied to the region automatically. · If you have renamed a section, change the name of the section back to its original name. (You can use the Query toolset to determine the name of the section assigned to the region; for more information, see ``Understanding the role of the Query toolset,'' Section 44.1.) Similarly, if you refer to a material in a section definition and then rename or delete the material, the section becomes invalid; properties defined in that section are no longer applied to regions to which the section is assigned. However, the original names of renamed or deleted materials continue to be associated with sections that refer to those materials; therefore, you can use techniques similar to the ones listed above to restore sections. For detailed instructions on assigning sections and material and beam orientations to a model, see the following sections: · ``Assigning a section to a part or region,'' Section 15.11.1 · ``Assigning a beam orientation to a wire part or region,'' Section 15.11.2 · ``Assigning a material orientation to a shell or solid part or region, '' Section 15.11.3 · ``Displaying information about section assignment and orientations for a particular region, '' Section 15.11.4

15.4 Defining skin reinforcements
A skin reinforcement defines a skin that is bonded to the surface of an existing part and specifies its engineering properties. The surface can be a face of a three-dimensional solid part or an edge of an axisymmetric part. When you create a skin, it is not displayed in the viewport. You should think of a skin as a property of a part or region, in the same way a section is a property of a part or region. 2-433

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Each skin is defined by a surface, section name, material orientation, and offset. You can apply either a homogeneous shell section, a membrane section, or a gasket section to a skin. Different skins can share the same section; however, only one skin can be placed on a surface of a part--skins cannot overlap. You may need to select the skin in subsequent modeling operations; for example, to: · Prescribe an initial condition to the skin in the Load/BC/IC module. · Prescribe a thermal gradient on the skin in the Load/BC/IC module. · Assign an element type to the skin. · Create a display group to view the stress values on the skin elements in the Visualization module. When you assign elements to the skin in the Mesh module, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to assign only shell, membrane, or gasket elements. The skin elements share nodes with the underlying mesh when the part is meshed. As a result, the order of the elements on the skin--linear or quadratic--is initially the same as the order of the underlying elements. However, you can use mesh controls to assign a different geometric order to the skin elements and to the three-dimensional elements. The aircraft wing shown in Figure 15-1 is an example of how you might use a skin reinforcement in your model.

Figure 15-1 An aircraft wing modeled by a solid honeycomb core and an aluminum skin.

The wing has a solid honeycomb core and an aluminum skin on the outside. You can create a solid part representing the honeycomb and add a skin reinforcement representing the aluminum outer layer. In the Mesh module you assign solid elements to the honeycomb and shell elements to the skin. The solid and shell elements share the same nodes. After you create a skin, you need to be able to select it in subsequent operations; for example, to assign an element type to the skin in the Mesh module. In most cases you cannot select a skin directly from the viewport. Instead, you must first create a named set that refers to the skin. When you are prompted to select the geometry to include in the set, you must select the selection filter tool that appears in the prompt area; and then select Skins from the list of objects to filter. The skin filter is available only when you are creating a set. Otherwise, you can select only from the vertices, edges, faces, and cells in

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your model and can never select a skin. After you create the set that refers to the skin, you then select the named set by clicking the Sets button from the right side of the prompt area.

15.5 Defining gaskets
This section provides an overview of how to model gaskets using ABAQUS/CAE. For detailed information on gasket theory, see ``Gasket elements,'' Section 18.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. In the simplest case using ABAQUS/CAE to model a gasket in three-dimensional space involves the following steps: 1. In the Part module, define the solid geometry. Gasket parts are typically very thin, flat solids. 2. In the Property module, define a gasket material. The material can be a regular material or one that includes special gasket behavior options. See ``Defining materials for gaskets,'' Section 15.6.7, for more information. 3. In the Property module, define a gasket section that refers to the gasket material. Then assign the gasket section to the gasket part. 4. In the Interaction module, establish appropriate tie constraints or contact interactions between the gasket surfaces and the surfaces of adjacent part instances. 5. In the Mesh module, assign the sweep mesh technique to the gasket part instance, and choose a sweep path with a direction normal to the gasket plane. See ``Assigning gasket elements to a region,'' Section 20.5.4, for more information. 6. In the Mesh module, assign a gasket element type to the gasket region, and mesh the region. Additional steps are required if the gasket model is composed of several layers and inserts. For example, Figure 15-2 illustrates a compound gasket. The gasket is modeled as a solid layer with an embedded shell-like layer for the insert.

Figure 15-2 An insert modeled with three-dimensional line gasket elements.

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If you are working with compound gaskets, you must perform the following additional tasks: 1. Use the Partition toolset to partition the solid gasket region so that an internal surface is created at the position of the insert. 2. In the Property module, define a skin reinforcement on the internal surface that represents the insert. When you create the skin reinforcement, you must refer to a gasket section that you have already created. (The gasket sections you assign to the solid and to the insert are usually different, as are their materials.) 3. No meshing is required (or allowed) for the insert skin, but you must assign a three-dimensional line gasket element type to the skin in the Mesh module. Currently you must use sets to assign element types to skins, so first you must create a set using the skin selection filter. See ``Assigning element types to skin reinforcements,'' Section 20.5.5, for more information. When you model gaskets with solids, you can define how a gasket interacts with surrounding regions by using one or a combination of the following techniques: · You can create a separate gasket part and then use tie constraints or contact interactions to couple the gasket part instance to the other part instances. · You can create a thin region within a part and then assign a gasket section and element type to that region. If compatibility between the meshes of the gasket and its adjacent regions is important, the first approach (creating a separate gasket part) is recommended.

15.6 Understanding the Property module editors
When you create or edit a section or material, you must enter data in the appropriate editor. For example, when you create a material, you must enter data in the material editor. This section provides information on each editor type. The following topics are covered:

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· ``Creating materials,'' Section 15.6.1 · ``Creating profiles,'' Section 15.6.2 · ``Creating sections,'' Section 15.6.3 · ``Selecting material options,'' Section 15.6.4 · ``Specifying material parameters and data,'' Section 15.6.5 · ``Evaluating hyperelastic material behavior,'' Section 15.6.6 · ``Defining materials for gaskets,'' Section 15.6.7

15.6.1 Creating materials
To create a material, select Material->Create from the main menu bar. A Create Material dialog box appears in which you can enter a name for the material. Once you have named the material, click Continue in the Create Material dialog box to display the material editor, which allows you to create and edit materials. The material editor is shown in Figure 15-3.

Figure 15-3 The material editor.

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The material editor consists of the following: Material Options list A list of the options you have included in the material definition. Option menu A set of menus beneath the option list from which you select material options. Each of the options corresponds to a material option available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit; for example, *ELASTIC or *PLASTIC. Option definition area The lower portion of the window in which the parameters, tabular data fields, and suboptions associated with a selected option appear. Each of the items available in the data area corresponds to a parameter or data item available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit. Note: You can display help on particular aspects of the editor that are not discussed here by selecting Help->On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the editor feature of interest. A help window will appear containing a relevant section from this manual, from the

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ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual, from the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual, or from the ABAQUS Keywords Manual. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Selecting material options,'' Section 15.8.2 · ``Browsing and modifying material options,'' Section 15.8.3 · ``Specifying material parameters and data,'' Section 15.6.5

15.6.2 Creating profiles
To create a profile, select Profile->Create from the main menu bar. A Create Profile dialog box appears in which you can enter a name for the profile and select the profile type. Once you have finished entering this information, click Continue in the Create Profile dialog box to display the profile editor, which allows you to create and edit profiles. All profile editors display a diagram of the profile shape and text fields in which you can enter all of the data necessary to define the profile. For example, the I-Beam profile editor is shown in Figure 15-4. The editor contains a diagram of the I-beam profile and data fields in which you can enter each dimension.

Figure 15-4 The I-Beam profile editor.

Once you have created a profile, you can refer to that profile in a beam section definition. For example, a box-shaped profile named SupportBeam is selected in the beam section editor shown in Figure 15-5.

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Figure 15-5 Specifying a profile name in the beam section editor.

For more information on profiles, see ``Defining profiles,'' Section 15.2.2. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Defining profiles,'' Section 15.2.2 · ``Beam cross-section library,'' Section 15.3.9 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.3.8 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

15.6.3 Creating sections
You can use the Property module to create the following types of sections: · Homogeneous solid sections (solid regions only) · Homogeneous shell sections (shell regions only) · Beam sections (wire regions only) · Membrane sections (shell regions only) · Truss sections (wire regions only) · Point sections (vertices only) · Gasket sections To create a section, select Section->Create from the main menu bar. A Create Section dialog box appears in which you can name the section and specify the type of section that you want to create. Once you have specified a section name and type, click Continue in the Create Section dialog box to display the section editor, which allows you to create and edit sections. The format of the section editor varies according to the type of section you are defining. Most section editors ask for a material name, a section Poisson's ratio, and a method for determining the temperature variation. For example, the homogeneous shell section editor is shown in Figure 15-6.

Figure 15-6 The homogeneous shell section editor.

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Note: You can display help on particular aspects of an editor that are not discussed here by selecting Help->On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the editor feature of interest. A help window will appear containing a relevant section from this manual, from the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual, from the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual, or from the ABAQUS Keywords Manual. Some editors contain different Options buttons along the bottom of the dialog box similar to the Integration option button shown in Figure 15-6. If you click an option button, another dialog box appears in which you can enter data concerning that particular option. For example, if you click Integration in the editor shown in Figure 15-6, a Homogeneous Shell Integration Options dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 15-7.

Figure 15-7 The Homogeneous Shell Integration Options dialog box.

Once you have entered all the data necessary to define the section, you can click OK to close the section editor and to save the section. For detailed instructions on using section editors, see the following sections: · ``Creating sections,'' Section 15.9.1 · ``Choosing whether to integrate before or during analysis,'' Section 15.9.2 2-441

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· ``Selecting a method for defining the temperature variation through the section, '' Section 15.9.3 · ``Specifying the number of section integration points in a homogeneous shell section, '' Section 15.9.4 For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Defining sections,'' Section 15.2.3 · ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9

15.6.4 Selecting material options
The material editor contains several menus that allow you to add most of the material options available in ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit to a material definition. (For information on which material options are available in ABAQUS/CAE, see Appendix A, "Keyword support.") The material editor menus reflect the division of all material options into four categories: General, Mechanical, Thermal, and Other. Figure 15-8 shows the elasticity options available under the Mechanical menu.

Figure 15-8 Elasticity options under the Mechanical menu.

The lists of options do not change to exclude options that are invalid for the type of analysis you are running. In addition, ABAQUS/CAE does not check that the data that you enter in the editor are valid or that your materials are appropriate for your analysis type. For example, if you request a dynamic analysis, ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit requires that you specify the density of the materials used in the model so that it can calculate mass and inertia properties of the model. If you do not provide a material density in the material definition, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to create the material; however, ABAQUS/CAE will report an error when you submit your analysis job. When you select an option, the name of the option appears in the Material Options list at the top of the editor, and the option becomes part of your material definition. For example, the list in Figure 15-9 reflects that the Elastic and Plastic options have been chosen, as well as the Fail Stress suboption of the Elastic option.

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Figure 15-9 The Material Options list.

Options such as Elastic and Plastic are primary options and correspond to the keywords *ELASTIC and *PLASTIC in an analysis input file. Suboptions such as Fail Stress appear beneath the corresponding primary option and are indented to indicate their subordinate position. If you want to remove an option or suboption from a material definition, you can select that option or suboption from the Material Options list and then click Delete. If you are creating a new material, the selected option list is initially blank. As you select options, the option name appears in the list; if there are too many options to see at once, a scroll bar appears on the right side of the list. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Browsing and modifying material options,'' Section 15.8.3 · ``Specifying material parameters and data,'' Section 15.6.5

15.6.5 Specifying material parameters and data
When you select an option, the option definition area changes to show all of the associated parameters and data items for the currently selected option. The parameters are shown at the top of the option description area and the data items at the bottom. These parameters and data items correspond to the ones that would be required in an analogous ABAQUS input file. Depending on your analysis requirements, you choose to either accept or change the default parameter values; for example, you choose whether to use isotropic elasticity by using the Type button on the elasticity form, as shown in Figure 15-10.

Figure 15-10 The Type button.

A table containing fields for the remaining required material data appears beneath the parameter area; for example, Figure 15-11 shows the table that appears when you choose isotropic elasticity. 2-443

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Figure 15-11 The isotropic elasticity table.

Different fields become available depending upon how you have set the parameters. For example, when you choose lamina elasticity rather than isotropic elasticity, the table in Figure 15-12 appears.

Figure 15-12 The lamina elasticity table.

You can enter data into the table using the keyboard. Alternatively, you can click mouse button 3 anywhere in the table to view a list of options for specifying tabular data. For example, an option exists for automatically entering data from a file. Another option exists for creating an X-Y data object from the data in the table; you can plot the X-Y data in the Visualization module and visually check its validity. For detailed information on each option, see ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5.) For detailed information on specific features in the material editor, see the following sections: · ``Creating a material,'' Section 15.8.1 · ``Selecting material options,'' Section 15.8.2 · ``Browsing and modifying material options,'' Section 15.8.3 · ``Entering temperature-dependent data,'' Section 15.8.4 · ``Specifying predefined field variable dependence,'' Section 15.8.5 · ``Selecting and modifying suboptions,'' Section 15.8.6 For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Browsing and modifying material options,'' Section 15.8.3

15.6.6 Evaluating hyperelastic material behavior
ABAQUS/CAE provides a convenient Evaluate option that allows you to view the behavior predicted

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by a hyperelastic material and to choose a suitable material formulation. The Evaluate option prompts ABAQUS/CAE to perform one or more standard tests using an existing material. (For information on standard tests, see ``Hyperelasticity,'' Section 10.5 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 9.3 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.) Once the standard tests are completed, new viewports appear displaying the test results as X-Y plots. (For more information on X-Y plots, see Chapter 30, "X-Y plotting.") You can review the results and adjust the material definition as necessary. To initiate the evaluation procedure, select Material->Evaluate->material name from the main menu bar. Alternatively, you can select the material of interest in the Material Manager and then click Evaluate. The Evaluate Material Behavior dialog box appears in which you can specify how you want ABAQUS/CAE to perform the standard tests. For detailed instructions on evaluating hyperelastic material behavior, see ``Displaying X-Y plots of hyperelastic material behavior,'' Section 15.8.7. The Evaluate option is particularly useful in the following scenarios: Comparing test data with the behavior predicted by a particular strain energy potential When you define a hyperelastic material using experimental data, you also specify the strain energy potential that you want to apply to the data. ABAQUS uses the experimental data to calculate the coefficients necessary for the specified strain energy potential. However, it is important to verify that an acceptable correlation exists between the behavior predicted by the material definition and the experimental data. You can use the Evaluate option to perform one or more standard unit-element tests with the experimental data using the strain energy potential that you have specified in the material definition. When the tests are complete, an X-Y plot appears for each test that displays a nominal stress-nominal strain curve for the material as well as a plot of the experimental data. For example, the X-Y plot in Figure 15-13 shows the results of a planar test using the Ogden N=3 strain energy potential.

Figure 15-13 Results of a planar test.

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In addition, the following information is reported to the data ( .dat) file: · The coefficients calculated for the strain energy potential. · Any material instabilities that were detected during the tests. The path to the data ( .dat) file appears in the message area of the ABAQUS/CAE main window once the analysis has completed successfully. Evaluating multiple strain energy potentials If you are defining a hyperelastic material using experimental data and you are unsure which strain energy potential to specify, you can select Unknown from the Strain energy potential list in the material editor. You can then use the Evaluate option to perform standard tests with the experimental data using multiple strain energy potentials. When the tests are complete, an X-Y plot appears for each test that displays a nominal stress-nominal strain curve for each strain energy potential tested as well as a curve showing the experimental data. You can visually compare the strain energy potential curves and the experimental data curve and select the strain energy potential that provides the best fit. Once you have determined which strain energy potential provides the best fit with the experimental data, you must return to the material editor and change the Strain energy potential selection from Unknown to the strain energy potential that you have chosen. Viewing behavior predicted by coefficients for a particular strain energy potential If you have acquired coefficients for a particular strain energy potential (either by evaluating one or more strain energy potentials, as described above, or from another source), you may want to verify that the behavior predicted by the strain energy potential acceptably matches your experimental data or meets other criteria. You can use the Evaluate option to plot a curve of the strain energy potential using the coefficients you have provided in the material definition. If the material definition also includes experimental data, a curve for that data also appears in the plot. Adjusting material data If you are unsatisfied with the fit between the test data and the behavior predicted by the material, you can adjust the test data and then evaluate the material again. You can repeat this process until you are satisfied with the material behavior. In some cases it may be possible to use this approach to optimize the coefficients values included in a material definition. For more information, see ``Improving the accuracy and stability of the test data fit,'' in ``Hyperelastic behavior,'' Section 10.5.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 9.3.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.

15.6.7 Defining materials for gaskets
You can create two types of materials to include in gasket section definitions: materials with

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gasket-specific behavior options and general-use materials. The type of material that you create depends on your requirements for the gasket behavior. · Create a material using the special gasket options if you want thickness direction, transverse shear, and membrane behaviors to be uncoupled. When you refer to a gasket behavior material in a gasket section definition, ABAQUS/CAE adds the *GASKET BEHAVIOR option to the analysis input file instead of the *MATERIAL option. Gasket behavior materials are valid only for gasket sections. For detailed information on this approach to defining gasket behavior, see ``Defining the gasket behavior directly using a gasket behavior model,'' Section 18.1.6 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. · Create a general-use material if you want to consider only thickness tensile behavior. When you refer to a general-use material in a gasket section definition, ABAQUS/CAE adds the *MATERIAL option to the analysis input file as it would for any other type of section. General-use materials are valid in gasket sections as well as in other types of sections. For detailed information on this approach to defining gasket behavior, see ``Defining the gasket behavior using a material model,'' Section 18.1.5 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. You create a gasket-specific material by entering data for one or more of the options found in the Other->Gasket submenu. Data entered for any other option in the material editor are ignored, with the following exceptions: · You can include the Expansion option (located in the Mechanical menu) in a gasket behavior material definition. · You can include the Depvar and User Output Variables options (located in the General menu) in a gasket behavior material. You create a general-use material by entering data for any options that are valid for gasket sections except those found in the Other->Gasket submenu. (If you enter data for an option found in the Other->Gasket submenu, you automatically create a gasket behavior material.) For information on which material options are valid for general-use materials included in gasket section definitions, see ``Gasket elements,'' Section 18.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual.

15.7 Tutorial: Using the Property module
This section contains a tutorial that will help you become familiar with the Property module. First, you will create several different kinds of materials. Then, you will define a section that refers to one of the materials that you have created; finally, you will assign that section to the part. Note: It is not necessary to perform every task in this tutorial; you can select the individual tasks that you think would be helpful.

15.7.1 Defining a material using multiple options (isotropic, elastic-plastic)
In this example you will define a material exhibiting linear elasticity and von Mises plasticity, as

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shown in Figure 15-14.

Figure 15-14 An elastic-plastic material.

To define an isotropic, elastic-plastic material: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Property. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Material->Create. The Create Material dialog box appears. 3. Type a name of your choice in the Name text box, and click Continue. The material editor appears with a blank options list and option definition area. 4. From the menu bar in the upper portion of the editor window, select Mechanical->Elasticity->Elastic. The parameters and data corresponding to isotropic elasticity appear in the option definition area below the option menus, and the word Elastic appears in the Material Options list at the top of the window. 5. In the option definition area, type Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio as shown in Figure 15-15.

Figure 15-15 Elastic properties.

Use the Tab key to move from one data cell to the next. Note: The units for Young's modulus must be consistent with the units used elsewhere in the model.

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6. From the menu bar in the upper portion of the editor window, select Mechanical->Plasticity->Plastic. (Selecting a new option does not cause you to lose your elasticity data.) The parameters and data corresponding to von Mises plasticity appear in the option definition area below the option menus, and the word Plastic appears in the Material Options list at the top of the window. 7. In the option definition area, type values for yield stress and the corresponding plastic strain as shown in the first row of Figure 15-16.

Figure 15-16 Plastic properties.

8. Press [Enter] to add a blank row to the table. 9. Type the second yield stress and plastic strain values in the appropriate cells, as shown in Figure 15-16. Be sure to enter the second set of data points in ascending order of plastic strain.
Note: The yield stress is assumed to remain constant for plastic strains exceeding the last value given.

10. Click OK to save your data and to exit the material editor. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and editing materials,'' Section 15.8 · ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5

15.7.2 Defining a material with temperature-dependent properties
In this example you will define a linear-elastic material whose properties depend on temperature. You will enter values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at several different temperatures ranging from 100°C to 400°C. To define an isotropic, linear-elastic material with temperature-dependent properties: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Property. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Material->Create.

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The Create Material dialog box appears. 3. Type a name of your choice in the Name text box, and click Continue. The material editor appears with a blank options list and option definition area. 4. From the menu bar in the upper portion of the editor window, select Mechanical->Elasticity->Elastic. The parameters and data corresponding to isotropic elasticity appear in the option definition area below the option menus, and the word Elastic appears in the Material Options list at the top of the window. 5. Toggle Use temperature-dependent data . A temperature data field appears in the table. 6. In the table, type values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at the first temperature, as shown in Figure 15-17.

Figure 15-17 Temperature-dependent data.

Use the [Tab] key or the first mouse button to move from one cell to the next. There is no need to enter plus signs (+) to indicate positive numbers. 7. Press [Enter] to add a blank row to the table. You can also add a row by pressing mouse button 3 over the table and selecting Add Row After from the menu that appears. For more information, see ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5. 8. Type in a second Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and temperature in the appropriate cells, as shown in Figure 15-18.

Figure 15-18 Enter the second row of data.

9. Continue adding rows after completing each row in the table. Fill in each row as shown in Figure 15-19. (To save time, you can skip this step.)

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Figure 15-19 The completed data table.

10. Click OK to save your data and to exit the material editor. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and editing materials,'' Section 15.8 · ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5

15.7.3 Defining a hyperelastic material
In this example you will define a hyperelastic material based on the polynomial form of the strain energy potential. You will use the Suboption Editor to provide uniaxial test data that ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit can later use to compute the polynomial coefficients. To define a hyperelastic material: 1. In the Module list located under the toolbar, click Property. The cursor changes to an hourglass while the Property module loads. 2. From the main menu bar, select Material->Create. The Create Material dialog box appears. 3. Type a name of your choice in the Name text box, and click Continue. The material editor appears with a blank options list and option definition area. 4. From the menu bar in the upper portion of the editor window, select Mechanical->Elasticity->Hyperelastic. The parameters and data corresponding to hyperelasticity appear in the option definition area below the option menus, and the word Hyperelastic appears in the Material Options list at the top of the window. 5. In the option definition area, accept Test data as the Input source selection. 6. Click the Strain energy potential button, and select Polynomial from the list that appears. 7. Accept Long-term as the default Moduli time scale (for viscoelasticity) selection. 8. In the Strain energy potential order field, enter a value of 2.

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9. Click the Suboptions button in the upper right corner of the option definition area, and select Uniaxial Test Data from the list that appears. The Suboption Editor appears. 10. Click mouse button 3 in the first cell of the table, and select Read from File from the list that appears. The Read Data from ASCII File dialog box appears. 11. A file that contains uniaxial test data is stored in abaqus_dir/cae/Tutorial/testdata.txt, where abaqus_dir is the name of the directory in which ABAQUS/CAE is installed. Type this path in the File field. Note: To determine the value of abaqus_dir, type abaqus whereami at the operating system prompt. 12. Click OK to read your data into the table editor. The Read Data from ASCII File dialog box disappears, and the data in testdata.txt appears in the table editor. You can edit the data using mouse button 3 if you wish. 13. Click OK to save your data and to exit the Suboption Editor. 14. Click OK to save your data and to exit the material editor. Note: When you are a creating a hyperelastic material for an actual analysis, you should include data for at least three types of tests to ensure a stable material (see ``Hyperelastic behavior,'' Section 10.5.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 9.3.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual, for more details). For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and editing materials,'' Section 15.8 · ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5

15.7.4 Creating and assigning a homogeneous solid section
In this example you will open a model database that contains a part to which you will assign a homogeneous solid section. A homogeneous solid section definition includes only a material name and a plane stress/strain thickness. To open the model database: 1. The model database used by the tutorial is stored in abaqus_dir /cae/Tutorial/clamp.cae, where abaqus_dir is the name of the directory in which ABAQUS/CAE is installed. ABAQUS/CAE must have write permission to the current model database; consequently, before

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you open the database, copy it to a local directory to which you can write. To determine the value of abaqus_dir, type abaqus whereami at the operating system prompt.
Note: The path to the model database is abaqus_dir\cae\Tutorial\clamp.cae on Windows NT systems.

2. From the main menu bar, select File->Open. The Open Database dialog box appears. 3. Click the File type arrow, and select Model Database (*.cae) if it is not already selected. 4. In the Selection field at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box, delete the default text and type the path of the file containing the model database. 5. Click OK. If you have followed any of the other Property module tutorials, a dialog box will appear asking if you want to save the unnamed model database that contains your materials. If this dialog appears, you can click No. ABAQUS/CAE reads the model database containing the clamp model. To create and assign a homogeneous solid section: 1. If you have not already entered the Property module, in the Module list located under the toolbar, click Property. The Property module is loaded, and the part appears in the viewport. 2. From the main menu bar, select Section->Create. The Create Section dialog box appears. 3. In the Create Section dialog box: a. Name the section Brick. b. In the Category list, accept Solid as the default selection. c. In the Type list, accept Homogeneous as the default selection and click Continue. The solid section editor for homogeneous solids appears. 4. Click the arrow next to the Material text field to display the list of available materials. Select Steel. 5. Accept the default Plane stress/strain thickness value, and click OK. 6. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Section. 7. In the viewport, click the part to select the entire part. When the entire part is highlighted, click

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mouse button 2. An Assign Section dialog box appears. 8. In the Assign Section dialog box, accept the default selection of Brick and click OK. The section named Brick that you just created is assigned to the clamp part.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Defining sections,'' Section 15.2.3

15.7.5 Creating and assigning a beam section and orientation
In this example you will open a model database that contains a planar part to which you will assign a beam section and orientation. A beam section can be assigned only to a wire part or region. A beam section includes a profile reference, a material reference or information on beam material behavior, and a section Poisson's ratio. You must assign an orientation to regions with beam sections. To open the model database: 1. The model database used by this tutorial is stored in abaqus_dir /cae/Tutorial/beam.cae, where abaqus_dir is the name of the directory in which ABAQUS/CAE is installed. ABAQUS/CAE must have write permission to the current model database; consequently, before you open the database, copy it to a local directory to which you can write. To determine the value of abaqus_dir, type abaqus whereami at the operating system prompt. Note: The path to the model database is abaqus_dir \cae\Tutorial\beam.cae on Windows NT systems. 2. From the main menu bar, select File->Open. The Open Database dialog box appears. 3. Click the File type arrow, and select Model Database (*.cae) if it is not already selected. 4. In the Selection field at the bottom of the Open Database dialog box, delete the default text and type the path of the file containing the model database. 5. Click OK. If you have followed any of the other Property module tutorials, a dialog box will appear asking if you want to save the unnamed model database that contains your materials. If this dialog appears, you can click No. ABAQUS/CAE reads the model database containing the beam model.

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To create and assign a beam section and orientation: 1. If you have not already entered the Property module, in the Module list located under the toolbar, click Property. The Property module is loaded and the part in the model database appears in the viewport. 2. From the main menu bar, select Section->Create. The Create Section dialog box appears. 3. In the Create Section dialog box: a. Name the section Beam. b. In the Category list, select Beam. c. In the Type list, accept Beam as the default selection and click Continue. The beam section editor appears. 4. You need to create a beam profile that will be referenced by the beam section. From the main menu bar, select Profile->Create. The Create Profile dialog box appears. 5. Name the profile Beam, select Generalized from the Shape list, and click Continue. The profile editor appears. 6. Enter the following data in the respective fields: Area = 20.41, I 11 = I22 = 333.33, I12 = 0, and J = 0. (The open section properties are necessary only for sections associated with open-section beam elements.) 7. Click OK to close the profile editor. The Beam profile appears in the Profile name list in the beam section editor. 8. Click Linear Properties in the Behavior field in the beam section editor. The Beam Linear Behavior dialog box appears. 9. Enter a value of 30.E6 for the Young's modulus, 0 for the shear modulus, and click OK. 10. Accept the default value of 0 in the Section Poisson's ratio field of the beam section editor, and click OK to save your data and to dismiss the dialog box. 11. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Section. 12. In the viewport, drag a rectangle around the part to select the entire beam. When the entire part is highlighted, click mouse button 2.

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An Assign Section dialog box appears. 13. In the Assign Section dialog box, accept the default selection of Beam and click OK. The section named Beam that you just created is assigned to the beam part. 14. You need to assign an orientation to the beam by defining the local 1-direction. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Beam Section Orientation. 15. In the viewport, drag a rectangle around the part to select the entire beam again. When the entire part is highlighted, click mouse button 2. Arrows indicating the direction cosines of the beam appear along the part edges. 16. Accept the default selection for the n1 -direction ( 0,0,-1) by clicking mouse button 2 again. (The direction cosines of a planar beam must be (0, 0, -1).) Triads indicating the beam orientation appear along the part edges. 17. Click OK in the prompt area to assign the beam orientation. Note: You can use the query tool to determine the orientation assigned to a particular beam section when you are in the Property module (see ``Displaying information about section assignment and orientations for a particular region, '' Section 15.11.4, in the online version of this manual for more information).

For information on related topics, click the following item: · Part III, "Working with ABAQUS/CAE model databases, models, and files

15.7.6 Summary of key points
The following list summarizes the key points demonstrated in this tutorial: · You can specify the properties of a material by selecting items from the menu bar in the material editor and then entering the necessary data in the option definition area of the editor. · You refer to preexisting materials when you create certain types of sections. · You use the Assign menu to assign a section to a part or region of a part. · You use the Assign menu to assign a beam section orientation to a part or region of a part.

15.8 Creating and editing materials
This section describes each feature of the material editor individually. The following topics are covered:

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· ``Creating a material,'' Section 15.8.1 · ``Selecting material options,'' Section 15.8.2 · ``Browsing and modifying material options,'' Section 15.8.3 · ``Entering temperature-dependent data,'' Section 15.8.4 · ``Specifying predefined field variable dependence,'' Section 15.8.5 · ``Selecting and modifying suboptions,'' Section 15.8.6

15.8.1 Creating a material
When you select Material->Create from the main menu bar or click Create in the material manager, a small Create Material dialog box appears. In this dialog box you can enter the name of your choice for the material or accept the default name. When you click Continue, the material editor appears in which you can enter all data concerning the material. Detailed instructions for creating a material: 1. From the main menu bar, select Material->Create. Tip: You can also click Create in the Material Manager or select the create material tool in the Property module toolbox. A Create Material dialog box appears. 2. In the dialog box, enter the name of your choice for the material you are defining. For more information on naming objects, see ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1. 3. In the dialog box, click Continue. The material editor appears in which you can enter all the data necessary to define the material.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding the Property module editors,'' Section 15.6

15.8.2 Selecting material options
Use the menu bar under the browser area of the material editor to reveal menus containing all the available material options. Some of the menu items contain submenus; for example, the following figure shows the options available under the Mechanical->Elasticity menu item:

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To display information on a particular material option, click and hold that option and then press F1. A help window appears that contains information about the parameters and data associated with the option. If different documentation exists depending on whether you are performing an ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit analysis, a Product selection dialog box appears before the help window; this dialog box allows you to specify the ABAQUS product (ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) for which you want to display help. Caution: ABAQUS/CAE does not check for missing or invalid material options until you submit the job for analysis. (Any warnings and errors are reported by the Job module.) Therefore, you must be careful to supply correctly all of the material options that the analysis requires.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding the Property module editors,'' Section 15.6

15.8.3 Browsing and modifying material options
The selected option list at the top of the material editor window displays the options and suboptions that comprise the current material; the list is updated as you add and delete options. The following figure shows how the list would look if an elastic-plastic material complete with stress-based failure limits were defined:

Using the selected option list, you can add, delete, or change materials as follows: Adding material options

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Select the options needed to define your material from the menus just below the selected option list. When you select an option, its name appears in the list, and the parameters and data associated with the option appear in the data area in the bottom portion of the editor window. Suboptions appear beneath the corresponding primary option and are indented to indicate their subordinate position. Deleting material options Within the selected option list, click the option or suboption you want to delete; then click the Delete button located near the lower right corner of the option list. This procedure removes the option from both the options list and the material definition. If you delete an option that has suboptions shown beneath it in the list, the suboptions are also deleted. Changing material parameters or data Within the selected option list, click the option whose data you want to change. When the parameters and data associated with the option appear in the data area in the bottom portion of the window, make the desired changes.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding the Property module editors,'' Section 15.6

15.8.4 Entering temperature-dependent data
If your material includes temperature dependence, use the Use temperature-dependent data checkbox with the appropriate options to define how material properties vary with increasing temperature. Detailed instructions for entering temperature-dependent data: 1. Toggle the Use temperature-dependent data checkbox in the data area. The checkbox changes color and a column labeled Temp appears in the tabular data area. 2. Fill in each row with the appropriate values. For special table editing options or to read data from an ASCII file, press mouse button 3. (For more information, see ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5.)

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding the Property module editors,'' Section 15.6

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15.8.5 Specifying predefined field variable dependence
The Number of field variables text field allows you to specify the number of predefined field variables to be referenced by a given material option. Columns for each field variable appear in the table in the data area. Detailed instructions for specifying field variables: 1. Change the number of field variables in the Number of field variables box to the desired value using one of these methods: · Click the arrows to the right of the text field to increase or decrease the number of field variables. · Type the number directly in the text field. Either method adds field variable columns to the table in the data area. 2. Enter the appropriate data in each cell of the table. You can enter data into the table using the keyboard. Alternatively, you can click mouse button 3 anywhere in the table to view a list of options for specifying tabular data. For detailed information on each option, see ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5.)

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding the Property module editors,'' Section 15.6

15.8.6 Selecting and modifying suboptions
If suboptions are available for the current option, the Suboptions menu will be available in the upper right corner of the data area. When you select one of the options from the Suboptions menu, the Suboption Editor appears in which you can enter the required data. For example, in some cases the Suboptions menu provides a list of standard tests for which you can enter material test data. Note: To display context-sensitive help for specific buttons, text fields, and other options in the Suboption Editor, you must select the option of interest and then press [F1]. (The Help menu in the main menu bar is unavailable while the Suboption Editor is displayed.) For detailed information on using [F1] to obtain help, see ``Displaying context-sensitive help,'' Section 5.6.1. Detailed instructions for adding material suboptions: 1. Click Suboptions in the upper right corner of the data area and select the suboption of your choice from the list that appears. The Suboption Editor appears in a separate dialog box.

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2. Enter the required data inside the suboption editor and then click OK to return to the material editor. You can enter data into a suboption table using the keyboard. Alternatively, you can click mouse button 3 anywhere in the table to view a list of options for specifying tabular data. For example, an option exists for creating an X-Y data object from the data in the table; you can plot the X-Y data in the Visualization module and visually check its validity. Another option exists for automatically entering data from a file. For detailed information on each option, see ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5.)

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding the Property module editors,'' Section 15.6

15.8.7 Displaying X-Y plots of hyperelastic material behavior
ABAQUS/CAE allows you to evaluate hyperelastic material behavior by automatically performing unit-element analyses using strain energy potentials available in ABAQUS that you choose. When the analyses are complete, ABAQUS/CAE displays X-Y plots of the test results. You can review the results and adjust the material as necessary. For more information, see ``Evaluating hyperelastic material behavior,'' Section 15.6.6. To display X-Y plots of hyperelastic material behavior: 1. Define a hyperelastic material. (See ``Creating a material,'' Section 15.8.1, for more information. See also ``Selecting and modifying suboptions,'' Section 15.8.6, and ``Entering tabular data,'' Section 6.3.5, for information on including tabular experimental data in the material definition.) Note: When you define a hyperelastic material using experimental data, you have the option of selecting Unknown from the Strain energy potential list in the material editor. This option allows you to define the material temporarily without specifying a particular strain energy potential. You can use the Evaluate option to identify the optimal strain energy potential for the material data and then display the material editor again to complete the material definition. 2. From the main menu bar, select Material->Evaluate->material name. Tip: You can also select the name of the material in the Material Manager and then click Evaluate. An Evaluate Material dialog box appears. 3. In the Available Input Data field, do the following: a. Select the Source option of your choice:

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· Select Test data if you want ABAQUS to calculate the necessary strain energy potential coefficients from the experimental data specified in the material definition. · Select Coefficients if you want ABAQUS to use the coefficients specified in the material definition. b. If you selected Test data in the step above, specify the test data type or types that you want ABAQUS to use in calculating the strain energy potential coefficients. (Only data types for which you have specified data in the material definition appear in the list.) 4. From the list of Standard Tests, select one or more tests that you want ABAQUS to perform using the data in the material definition. (For information on standard unit-element tests, see ``Hyperelasticity,'' Section 10.5 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 9.3 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.) 5. For each test that you select, enter a Nominal Strain value that will be the upper or lower limit for the analysis. (Enter a positive value for a tension test, or enter a negative value for a compression test.) 6. Click the Strain Energy Potentials tab, and do the following: · If you selected Test data as a data source, a list of all the available strain energy potentials appears. From the list, select one or more that you want ABAQUS to apply to the experimental data. · If you selected Coefficients as a data source, the name of the strain energy potential specified in the material definition appears. You can simply review the information and move on to the next step. 7. Click OK to begin the standard unit-element tests. If the evaluation fails during the extraction of material coefficients due to problems with nonlinear curve-fitting, ABAQUS/CAE displays the path to the data ( .dat) file. If a unit-element test fails to converge due to problems with the strain energy potential, ABAQUS/CAE displays the path to the message (.msg) file. The data and message files provide detailed information on each problem encountered. (For more information on the data and message files, see ``Output,'' Section 4.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual.) If ABAQUS completes the tests successfully, X-Y plots of the results of each test appear in new viewports. (For information on X-Y plots, see Chapter 30, "X-Y plotting.") These X-Y plots are temporary, and the data objects do not appear in the X-Y Data Manager. In addition, the path to the data ( .dat) file appears in the message area of the ABAQUS/CAE main window.

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For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Hyperelasticity,'' Section 10.5 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 9.3 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

15.9 Creating and editing sections
This section describes how to create and edit sections using the section editor. The following topics are covered: · ``Creating sections,'' Section 15.9.1 · ``Choosing whether to integrate before or during analysis,'' Section 15.9.2 · ``Selecting a method for defining the temperature variation through the section, '' Section 15.9.3 · ``Specifying the number of section integration points in a homogeneous shell section, '' Section 15.9.4

15.9.1 Creating sections
You can use the Property module to create the following types of sections: · Homogeneous solid sections (solid regions only) · Homogeneous shell sections (shell regions only) · Beam sections (wire regions only) · Membrane sections (shell regions only) · Truss sections (wire regions only) · Point sections (vertices only) You create sections by entering data in the section editor. The format of the editor varies according to the type of section you are defining. Detailed instructions for creating a section: 1. From the main menu bar, select Section->Create. A Create Section dialog box appears. Tip: You can also click Create in the Section Manager or select the create section tool in the Property module toolbox. 2. Enter a section name of your choice. For more information on naming objects, see ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1.

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3. Select the category and type of section, and click Continue. The section editor for the type of section you have specified appears. 4. In the editor, enter all of the data necessary to define the section and then click OK.
Note: You can display help on particular aspects of an editor by selecting Help->On Context from the main menu bar and then clicking the editor feature of interest.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Defining sections,'' Section 15.2.3

15.9.2 Choosing whether to integrate before or during analysis
When you create homogeneous shell section or beam sections, you must choose to calculate (integrate) the cross-sectional behavior either during analysis from section integration points or before analysis from section property data that you provide. Choosing to integrate either during or before analysis is the same as choosing between the *BEAM SECTION and *BEAM GENERAL SECTION options or between the *SHELL SECTION and *SHELL GENERAL SECTION options in a analysis input file.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating sections,'' Section 15.6.3 · ``Shell section behavior,'' Section 15.6.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.4.3 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Beam section behavior,'' Section 15.3.5 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.3.5 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

15.9.3 Selecting a method for defining the temperature variation through the section
When a section definition includes a method for defining temperature variation, you can use the Load/BC/IC module to define the initial temperatures for each region that you associate with the section. Defining initial temperatures in the Load/BC/IC module is analogous to including *INITIAL CONDITIONS, TYPE=TEMPERATURE in a analysis input file. The methods for defining temperature variation through a section are as follows:
Constant through thickness (shell sections)

If a shell section is integrated before the analysis, the temperature must be constant through

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the section. You can use the Load/BC/IC module to specify the initial temperature of the section. For more information, see ``Defining a constant initial temperature through a shell section,'' Section 19.7.15.
Linear by gradients (shell and beam sections)

If you select this method for defining temperature variation through the section, you can use the Load/BC/IC module to specify the initial temperature at the reference surface (for shells) or cross-section origin (for beams) and the temperature gradient or gradients through the section. For more information, see ``Defining an initial temperature gradient through a shell section,'' Section 19.7.17, and ``Defining initial temperature gradients through a beam section,'' Section 19.7.18.
Piecewise linear over n values (shell sections)

If you select this method for defining temperature variation, you must enter the number of temperature points (values) through the section in the text field provided. You can use the Load/BC/IC module to specify the temperature at each of these points. For more information, see ``Defining initial temperatures at points through a shell or beam section, '' Section 19.7.16.
Interpolated from temperature points (beam sections)

The shape of the profile that you specify in the beam section definition determines the number and location of the temperature points. (For more information on temperature points, see ``Beam cross-section library,'' Section 15.3.9 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.3.8 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.) If you select this method, you can use the Load/BC/IC module to specify the temperature at each of these points. For more information, see ``Defining initial temperatures at points through a shell or beam section, '' Section 19.7.16.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9 · ``Defining initial temperatures at points through a shell or beam section, '' Section 19.7.16 · ``Specifying temperature and field variables'' in ``Using the *SHELL SECTION option to define the section behavior,'' Section 15.6.5 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.4.4 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Specifying temperature and field variables'' in ``Using the *BEAM SECTION option to define the section behavior,'' Section 15.3.6 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.3.6 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

15.9.4 Specifying the number of section integration points in a

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homogeneous shell section
The Homogeneous Shell Integration Options dialog box allows you to specify both the number of integration points through the thickness of the section and the thickness integration rule of your choice. Detailed instructions for specifying your integration preferences: 1. In the shell section editor, click Integration. The Homogeneous Shell Integration Options dialog box appears. 2. Choose either the Simpson or the Gauss integration rule. If you choose Simpson, a default value of 5 appears in the Thickness integration points text field. If you choose Gauss, a default value of 3 appears in the Thickness integration points text field. 3. Click either the upward or downward arrow in the Thickness integration points text field to change the default number to the number of your choice. If you are using the Simpson integration rule, you can specify only odd numbers ranging from 3 to 15. If you are using the Gauss integration rule, you can specify odd or even numbers ranging from 2 to 7. You can also type the number directly in the text field. 4. Click OK to return to the shell section editor.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating sections,'' Section 15.6.3 · ``Defining the shell section integration'' in ``Using the *SHELL SECTION option to define the section behavior,'' Section 15.6.5 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.4.4 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

15.9.5 Creating profiles
To create a profile you must choose a profile shape and then enter all of the data necessary to define the profile in the profile editor. To create a new profile: 1. From the main menu bar, select Profile->Create. A Create Profile dialog box appears.

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Tip: You can also click Create in the Profile Manager or select the create profile tool in the Property module toolbox. 2. Enter a profile name of your choice. For more information on naming objects, see ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1. 3. Select a profile shape, and click Continue The profile editor for the profile shape you have chosen appears. 4. In the profile editor, enter the required profile data. For detailed information about each profile type, see ``Beam cross-section library,'' Section 15.3.9 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.3.8 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual, for shape-based profiles, and ``Using the *BEAM GENERAL SECTION option to define the section behavior,'' Section 15.3.7 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual, for generalized profiles. 5. Click OK to save the profile.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Defining profiles,'' Section 15.2.2 · ``Defining sections,'' Section 15.2.3

15.9.6 Specifying offsets for generalized beam sections
To offset a generalized beam section from its node, you must specify how far and in which direction along the cross-section axes to move the section centroid and/or shear center. For more information, see ``Using the *BEAM GENERAL SECTION option to define the section behavior, '' Section 15.3.7 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. To specify beam offsets: 1. In the beam section editor, click Offset. A Beam Offsets dialog box appears. 2. In the dialog box, enter the local x1 - and x2 -coordinates for the centroid and/or the shear center as desired. 3. Click OK.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating sections,'' Section 15.6.3 · *CENTROID · *SHEAR CENTER

15.10 Creating and editing skin reinforcements
You can add a skin reinforcement to selected faces of a three-dimensional solid or to an edge of an axisymmetric part. The skin is a property of the part or region and is not visible in the viewport. When you mesh the part, the skin and the solid have separate elements; however, they share nodes. After you have created a skin, in most cases you cannot select it directly from the viewport. Instead, you must first use the selection filters to create a named set that refers to the skin. To select the skin (for example, to assign an element type) you must select this set from the list of named sets. You must create a material and a section (a homogeneous shell section, a membrane section, or a gasket section) before you create a skin. If you assign a shell section to a skin, you must assign shell elements to the skin in the Mesh module. Similarly, if you assign a membrane or gasket section, you must assign membrane or gasket elements. Detailed instructions for creating a skin reinforcement: 1. From the main menu bar, select Skin->Create. The Create Skin dialog box appears. 2. In the dialog box, enter the name of the skin you are defining and click Continue. For more information on naming objects, see ``Using basic dialog box components,'' Section 6.3.1. 3. Select the face or faces on which the skin will be created. Tip: To select more than one face, hold down the [Shift] key as you click each face. To select multiple faces, you can also drag a rectangle around them. To toggle the selection of a face, use [Ctrl]+Click. When you have finished selecting faces, click mouse button 2. For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport." The Edit Skin dialog box appears. 4. In the dialog box, do the following: · Select a section to associate with the skin reinforcement. · If desired, select the datum coordinate system representing the material orientation. The 1-direction of the material is aligned with the X-axis of the coordinate system specified. You can select a datum coordinate system from the viewport or select the global coordinate system. For more information, see ``Assigning a material orientation to a shell or solid part or region, ''

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Section 15.11.3. · If desired, enter an offset from the selected face or faces. The offset can be negative or positive. A negative offset from a shell or an axisymmetric part indicates on which side the skin is positioned. A negative offset from a solid indicates that the skin is embedded in the solid. 5. Click OK to create the skin and to close the Skin editor dialog box. Detailed instructions for creating a set that refers to the skin: 1. Select Tools->Set->Create from the main menu bar. 2. Enter a name for the set in the Create Set dialog box that appears. 3. From the prompt area, select the selection filter tool .

ABAQUS/CAE displays the selection filters that are available. 4. Click on the list of filters, and select Skins. ABAQUS/CAE now allows you to select only skins from the viewport. You cannot select vertices, edges, faces, or cells. 5. Select the skin from the viewport, and click mouse button 2 to indicate that you have finished selecting skins. After you create the set that refers to the skin, you then select the set by clicking the Sets button from the right side of the prompt area and select from the list of named sets.

15.11 Assigning properties to a part
This section describes how you use the Assign menu to assign properties to a part. The following topics are covered: · ``Assigning a section to a part or region,'' Section 15.11.1 · ``Assigning a beam orientation to a wire part or region,'' Section 15.11.2 · ``Assigning a material orientation to a shell or solid part or region, '' Section 15.11.3 · ``Displaying information about section assignment and orientations for a particular region, '' Section 15.11.4

15.11.1 Assigning a section to a part or region
You can assign section properties to a part by first creating a section and then selecting Section->Assign to assign the section to a part or to a region of a part. Section properties that you assign to a part are assigned automatically to all instances of that part in the assembly.

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Note: When you import an orphan mesh part from an input file, some section properties associated with that orphan mesh may also be imported; in these cases it may be unnecessary to assign section properties to the part. For more information, see ``Importing models from ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit input files,'' Section 13.4. Detailed instructions for assigning a section to a part or region of a part: 1. If the part to which you want to assign a section is not visible in the current viewport, click the name of the desired part in the Part list located under the toolbar. The part that you select appears in the current viewport. 2. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Section. Tip: You can also click the tool in the Property module tool box.

3. Select the part or region of the part from the viewport and click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished selecting. (For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport".) Tip: You can limit the types of objects that you can select in the viewport by clicking the selection filter tool in the prompt area and then clicking the selection filter of your choice in the dialog box that appears. See ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3, for more information. If you would rather select from a list of existing sets, do the following: a. Click Sets on the right side of the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Region Selection dialog box containing a list of available part sets. b. Select the part set of interest, and click Continue.
Note: The default selection method is based on the selection method you most recently employed. To revert to the other method, click the button--Select in Viewport or Sets--on the right side of the prompt area.

An Assign Section dialog box appears. This dialog box contains a list of existing sections that can be assigned to the selected region or part set. For example, if you selected a solid region, any existing solid sections appear in the Assign Section dialog box. 4. In the Assign Section dialog box, select the section of interest and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE assigns the selected section to the part or region. 5. If the part contains more than one region, repeat Steps 3 and 4. When you have finished assigning sections to the regions of the part, use one of the following methods to exit the section assignment

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mode: · If you are selecting regions of the part from the viewport, click mouse button 2 or the cancel button on the left side of the prompt area. · If you are selecting preexisting sets from the Region Selection dialog box, click Cancel.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9 · Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport

15.11.2 Assigning a beam orientation to a wire part or region
After you have assigned beam sections to the wire regions of a part, you must assign an orientation to the beam sections by defining the local 1-direction of the cross-section. The beam orientations that you assign to a part or region are assigned automatically to all instances of that part in the assembly. Detailed instructions for assigning a beam orientation to a part or region of a part: 1. If the part to which you want to assign an orientation is not visible in the current viewport, click the name of the desired part in the Part list located under the toolbar. The selected part appears in the current viewport. 2. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Beam Section Orientation. Tip: You can also click the tool in the Property module tool box.

3. Select the wire part or a wire region of the part from the viewport and click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished selecting. (For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport".) Tip: You can limit the types of objects that you can select in the viewport by clicking the selection filter tool in the prompt area and then clicking the selection filter of your choice in the dialog box that appears. See ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3, for more information. If you would rather select from a list of existing sets, do the following: a. Click Sets on the right side of the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Region Selection dialog box containing a list of available

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part sets. Part sets containing only wires appear in the list. b. Select the part set of interest, and click Continue.
Note: The default selection method is based on the selection method you most recently employed. To revert to the other method, click the button--Select in Viewport or Sets--on the right side of the prompt area.

4. ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to enter the vector representing an approximate n1 -direction (the local 1-direction of the cross-section). For more information on defining the n1 -direction, see ``Beam element cross-section orientation,'' Section 15.3.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.3.4 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.
Note: If the part was created in two-dimensional modeling space, the n1 -direction is always normal to the X-Y plane (0.0, 0.0, -1.0).

ABAQUS/CAE displays the resulting (n1 , n2 , t) axis system on the selected wire regions. 5. If the displayed (n1 , n2 , t) axis system is correct, click OK in the prompt area to confirm your choice. If you wish to change the beam orientation, click the backup button ( n1 -direction. ) and enter a new

6. If you wish to assign beam orientations to additional wire regions, repeat Steps 3 through 5. 7. Click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished assigning beam orientations.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9 · Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport · ``Beam element cross-section orientation,'' Section 15.3.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.3.4 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

15.11.3 Assigning a material orientation to a shell or solid part or region
The global coordinate system determines material orientations by default. However, you can assign specific material orientations to a shell or solid part or region by selecting datum coordinate systems from the viewport. The material orientations that you assign to a part or region are assigned automatically to all instances of that part in the assembly. Detailed instructions for assigning a material orientation to a part or to a region of a part: 1. If the part to which you want to assign a material orientation is not visible in the current viewport, click the name of the desired part in the Part list located under the toolbar.

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The selected part appears in the current viewport. 2. From the main menu bar, select Assign->Material Orientation. Tip: You can also click the tool in the Property module tool box.

3. Select the shell or solid part or part region from the viewport and click mouse button 2 to indicate you have finished selecting. (For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport.") Tip: You can limit the types of objects that you can select in the viewport by clicking the selection filter tool in the prompt area and then clicking the selection filter of your choice in the dialog box that appears. See ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3, for more information. If you would rather select from a list of existing sets, do the following: a. Click Sets on the right side of the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Region Selection dialog box containing a list of available part sets. Part sets containing only shells or solids appear in the list. b. Select the part set of interest, and click Continue.
Note: The default selection method is based on the selection method you most recently employed. To revert to the other method, click Select in Viewport or Sets on the right side of the prompt area.

4. In the viewport, select the datum coordinate system defining the material orientation that you want to apply to the region. (See ``Controlling datum display,'' Section 46.6, for information about displaying datum geometry in the viewport.)
Note: From the right side of the prompt area, click Use Global CSYS to reset a previously assigned material orientation back to the global coordinate system and click OK to confirm your choice.

If you are assigning a material orientation to a shell region, you are prompted to specify the axis of the datum coordinate system that is normal to the shell. In the prompt area, click the button that indicates the axis of your choice. 5. If the datum coordinate system that you selected is a cylindrical or spherical system, you have the option of specifying an additional rotation about a specific local axis (for solids) or about the shell normal (for shells). (You specify the equivalent rotation in rectangular coordinate systems directly in the coordinate system definition.) If necessary, specify information concerning the additional rotation: a. If you are assigning a material orientation to a solid, you are prompted to specify the coordinate system axis about which the additional rotation occurs. In the prompt area, click the button that indicates the axis of your choice. 2-473

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b. Enter the additional rotation in the prompt area, and click mouse button 2. 6. If the axis system displayed in the viewport is correct, click OK in the prompt area to confirm your choice. If you want to change the orientation, click the backup button ( orientation as necessary. ) and change the

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9 · Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport" · ``Solid (continuum) elements,'' Section 14.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 13.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · ``Shell elements: overview,'' Section 15.6.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 14.4.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

15.11.4 Displaying information about section assignment and orientations for a particular region
You can use the Query toolset to display the following: · A list of all of the regions to which you have assigned sections. · The name of a section assigned to a selected region. · The beam orientations assigned to all or selected wire regions. · The material orientations assigned to all or selected shell and solid regions. Detailed instructions for displaying information about a region: 1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Query. Tip: You can also query the model by clicking the ABAQUS/CAE displays the Query dialog box. You can request either a general query or a module-specific query. For a discussion of the information displayed by general queries, see ``Obtaining general information about the model,'' Section 44.2.2. The Section assignments , Beam orientations, and Material orientations queries are specific to the Property module. 2. From the Property Queries list, select the property of interest; then click Apply. tool in the toolbar.

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3. In the prompt area, select the option of your choice: · Click Single region if you want to query only one region of the part. Then select the region in the viewport that you want to query. (For more information, see Chapter 9, "Selecting objects within the viewport.") Tip: You can limit the types of objects that you can select in the viewport by clicking the selection filter tool in the prompt area and then clicking the selection filter of your choice in the dialog box that appears. See ``Using the selection options,'' Section 9.3, for more information. · Click All regions if you want to query all regions of the part. 4. Once you have specified the regions that you want to query, the following information appears: Section assignment queries If you are querying a single region, the name of the section assigned to that region appears in the message area. If you are querying all regions of the part, a list of all the sections applied to the part appears in the message area. Beam section orientation queries If you are querying a single beam region, the beam orientation applied to that region appears in the viewport. If you are querying all beam regions of the part, all of the beam orientations applied to the part appear in the viewport. In addition, the n1 -direction for each beam region in the part appears in the message area. Material orientation queries If you are querying a single region, the material orientation applied to that region appears in the viewport. If you are querying all regions of the part, all of the material orientations applied to the part appear in the viewport. In addition, information concerning the material orientation of each region in the part appears in the message area. 5. In the prompt area, click Query Again to query another region of the part. 6. To exit the querying procedure, click the cancel button in the prompt area.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Creating and editing sections,'' Section 15.9

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16. The Assembly module
You use the Assembly module to create and modify the assembly. The model contains only one assembly, which is composed of instances of parts from the model. Chapter 3, "A tutorial: Using additional techniques to create and analyze a model ," contains examples of how you use the Assembly module to create part instances and position them relative to each other in a global coordinate system. This chapter explains how you use the tools within the Assembly module to create the assembly. The following topics are covered: · ``Understanding the role of the Assembly module,'' Section 16.1 · ``Entering and exiting the Assembly module,'' Section 16.2 · ``Understanding the relationship between parts, part instances, and assemblies, '' Section 16.3 · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4 · ``Understanding toolsets in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5 · ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6 · ``Creating, positioning, and replacing part instances, '' Section 16.7 · ``Applying constraints to part instances,'' Section 16.8 · ``Using the Query toolset to query the assembly,'' Section 16.9

16.1 Understanding the role of the Assembly module
When you create a part, it exists in its own coordinate system, independent of other parts in the model. In contrast, you use the Assembly module to create instances of your parts and to position the instances relative to each other in a global coordinate system, thus creating the assembly. You position part instances by sequentially applying position constraints that align selected faces or edges or by applying simple translations and rotations. A part instance can be thought of as a representation of the original part; an instance is not a copy of a part. An instance maintains its association with the original part. If the geometry of a part changes, ABAQUS/CAE automatically updates all instances of the part to reflect these changes. You cannot edit the geometry of a part instance directly. A model can contain many parts, and a part can be instanced many times in the assembly; however, a model contains only one assembly. Loads, boundary conditions, initial conditions, and meshes are all applied to the assembly. Even if your model consists of only a single part, you must still create an assembly that consists of just a single instance of that part.

16.2 Entering and exiting the Assembly module
You can enter the Assembly module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Assembly in the Module list located under the toolbar. The Instance, Constraint, Feature, and

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Tools menus appear on the main menu bar.

To exit the Assembly module, select any other module from the Module list. You need not save your assembly before exiting the module; it will be saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File->Save or File->Save As from the main menu bar.

16.3 Understanding the relationship between parts, part instances, and assemblies
A model can contain many parts; however, it can contain only one assembly. The concept of parts, part instances, and the assembly is carried throughout the ABAQUS/CAE modeling process, as illustrated in the following list: 1. You create a part in the Part module; each part is a distinct geometric entity that can be modified and manipulated independently of other parts. Parts exist in their own coordinate system and have no knowledge of other parts. 2. You define section properties in the Property module and also associate a material with a section. You use the Property module to assign these section properties to a part or to a selected region of a part. 3. You create instances of your parts in the Assembly module, and you position those instances relative to each other in a global coordinate system to form the assembly. An instance always maintains its association with the original part; although you cannot modify a part instance directly, you can modify the original part in the Part module. ABAQUS/CAE will then update any instances of that part when you return to the Assembly module. You can instance a part many times and assemble multiple instances of the same part. Each instance of the part is associated with the section properties assigned to the part in the Property module. 4. You use the Interaction, Load/BC/IC, and Mesh modules to complete the definition of the model by applying items such as loads, boundary conditions, and a mesh to the assembly. ``Creating a part instance,'' Section 16.7.2, contains detailed instructions on creating part instances.

16.4 Understanding part instance positioning
After you create a part instance, you apply a succession of position constraints and positioning operations to position it relative to other part instances in the global coordinate system. This section describes the tools that ABAQUS/CAE provides to position and constrain part instances and how those tools operate on part instances embedded in different modeling spaces. The following topics are discussed: · ``The position tools in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.4.1 · ``How the position constraint methods differ, '' Section 16.4.2 · ``How conflicts can arise between position constraints, '' Section 16.4.3

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16.4.1 The position tools in the Assembly module
Each part exists in its own coordinate system in the Part module, and you use the Assembly module to position and orient instances of these parts relative to each other in a global coordinate system. ABAQUS/CAE provides the following tools for positioning part instances: Auto-offset When you create the first part instance in the Assembly module, ABAQUS/CAE displays a triad indicating the origin and the orientation of the global coordinate system. ABAQUS/CAE positions the first part instance so that the origin of the part aligns with the origin of the global coordinate system and the axes are aligned. If you create additional part instances, ABAQUS/CAE continues to position the new instances such that their coordinate system aligns with the global coordinate system. Since this usually results in new part instances overlapping existing ones, ABAQUS/CAE allows you to apply an offset before it creates the instance. The offset is applied along the X-axis for three-dimensional and two-dimensional part instances and along the Y-axis for axisymmetric part instances. Basic positioning tools ABAQUS/CAE provides the following basic methods for positioning a part instance: · You can translate a selected part instance along a vector. You specify the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the start point and end point of the translation vector. · You can rotate a selected part instance about an axis. You specify the X-, Y-, and Z-coordinates of the start point and end point of the axis of rotation and the angle of rotation. · You can replace a part instance with a second part instance. ABAQUS/CAE positions the new part instance such that its origin is located at the origin of the original part instance, and their axes align. In addition, you can choose whether the new part instance inherits all the constraints from the instance it replaced. Replacing a part instance is useful when you are replacing a part instance with one that has similar geometry. For example, the new part instance might have additional detail that was not present in the original part instance. Position constraint tools A position constraint defines a relationship between two part instances. Unlike a simple translation or rotation, you do not specify the position directly. Position constraints define a set of rules that must always be met by the part instances in the assembly; for example, a face that must be parallel to another face. Constraints are stored as features of the assembly. If you modify a part or move a part instance, ABAQUS/CAE attempts to apply all existing position constraints when it regenerates the assembly. Each of the position constraints is described in How the position constraint methods differ, Section 16.4.2 . Creating the final assembly is an iterative process of creating part instances, applying position constraints, and applying translations and rotations. After each repositioning, ABAQUS/CAE displays 3-478

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a temporary image indicating the result of the operation. You can accept the new position, cancel the operation, or step back through the repositioning procedure by clicking the go back button prompt area. in the

You can use the Query toolset to obtain the coordinates of a vertex and to measure the distance between selected vertices. This may help you determine the vector along which you need to translate a part instance or the angle through which to need to rotate it. ``Using the Query toolset to query the assembly,'' Section 16.9, contains detailed instructions on how to obtain information about the assembly.

16.4.2 How the position constraint methods differ
A position constraint defines a relationship between two part instances--one that will move (the movable part instance) and one that will remain stationary (the fixed part instance). When you apply a position constraint, ABAQUS/CAE computes a position for the movable part instance that satisfies this relationship; you do not specify the position directly. You can apply the following position constraints to part instances in the Assembly module: · Parallel face (three-dimensional part instances only) · Face to face (three-dimensional part instances only) · Parallel edge (two-dimensional and three-dimensional part instances only) · Edge to edge · Coaxial (three-dimensional part instances only) · Contact In general, applying a single position constraint is not sufficient to define the precise location of the movable part instance. You must apply several position constraints--usually three for a three-dimensional assembly and two for a two-dimensional assembly--to position a part instance in the desired location. Part instances can overlap as a result of applying position constraints; ABAQUS/CAE does not prevent overclosure between edges, faces, or cells. Similarly, ABAQUS/CAE does not prevent you from overconstraining part instances or duplicating a constraint. The definition of a constraint feature includes all the faces and edges that you originally selected. If you subsequently modify a part or move a part instance, ABAQUS/CAE automatically recalculates the constraint based on your original selection of faces and edges. As a result, one or more part instances may move after the assembly is regenerated. For example, different edges may become parallel and different faces may come into contact. For more information on features, see ``Manipulating features in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5.2, and Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset." The following position constraints are provided by the Assembly module: Parallel Face A parallel face position constraint causes the two selected faces or datum planes to become parallel. However, the position constraint does not specify the precise location of the part 3-479

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instances, and the distance between the parallel faces is arbitrary. To apply a parallel face position constraint between two part instances, you do the following: · Select the faces or datum planes to be constrained to be parallel from the movable part instance and the fixed part instance, as shown in Figure 16-1.

Figure 16-1 Select the faces to become parallel.

· ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows normal to the selected faces. You prescribe the orientation of the movable part instance by selecting the direction of the arrow normal to its selected face. Figure 16-2 illustrates the result of applying the position constraint and the effect on the movable part instance of reversing the direction of the arrow.

Figure 16-2 The result of applying a parallel face position constraint and the effect of changing the direction of the arrow normal to the selected face of the movable part instance.

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ABAQUS/CAE rotates the movable part instance about its centroid until the two selected faces are parallel and the arrows are pointing in the same direction. The faces you select from the movable and fixed part instances must be planar. The parallel face position constraint can be applied only to three-dimensional part instances. Face to Face A face-to-face position constraint is similar to a parallel face position constraint except that you define the clearance between the parallel faces. The clearance is measured between the two selected faces, positive along the normal to the fixed part instance. Other than this clearance, the precise location of the movable part instance is not constrained. Assuming that you selected the same two faces shown in Figure 16-1, the effect of applying a face-to-face constraint is shown in Figure 16-3. Figure 16-3 also illustrates the effect on the movable part instance of reversing the direction of the arrow normal to its selected face.

Figure 16-3 The result of applying a face-to-face constraint and the effect of changing the direction of the arrow normal to the selected face of the movable part instance.

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ABAQUS/CAE rotates the movable part instance until the two selected faces are parallel and the arrows point in the same direction. In addition, the movable part instance is translated to satisfy the clearance specified. The faces you select from the movable and fixed part instances must be planar. The face-to-face position constraint can be applied only to three-dimensional part instances. Parallel Edge A parallel edge position constraint causes two selected edges or datum axes to become parallel. However, the position constraint does not specify the precise location of the part instances, and the distance between the parallel edges is arbitrary. To apply a parallel edge position constraint between two part instances, you do the following: · Select the edges or datum axes to be constrained to be parallel from the movable and fixed part instance, as shown in Figure 16-4.

Figure 16-4 Select the edges to become parallel.

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· ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows along the selected edges. You prescribe the orientation of the movable part instance by selecting the direction of the arrow along its selected edge. Figure 16-5 illustrates the result of applying the position constraint and the effect on the movable part instance of reversing the direction of the arrow.

Figure 16-5 The result of applying a parallel edge constraint and the effect of changing the direction of the arrow along the selected edge of the movable part instance.

ABAQUS/CAE rotates the movable part instance until the two selected edges are parallel and the arrows point in the same direction. The edges you select from the movable and fixed part instances must be straight. The parallel edge position constraint can be applied only to two-dimensional and three-dimensional part instances. It has no effect on axisymmetric part instances. Edge to Edge An edge-to-edge position constraint is similar to a parallel edge position constraint except that the clearance between the parallel edges is defined by the constraint. Assuming that you selected the same two edges shown in Figure 16-4, the effect of applying an edge-to edge position constraint to a two-dimensional assembly is shown in Figure 16-6. Figure 16-6 also illustrates the effect on the movable part instance of reversing the direction of the arrow along its selected edge.

Figure 16-6 The result of applying an edge-to-edge constraint and the effect of changing the

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direction of the arrow along the selected edge of the movable part instance.

The modeling space of the assembly determines the behavior of ABAQUS/CAE after you apply an edge-to-edge position constraint. · If the assembly is three-dimensional, ABAQUS/CAE positions the movable part instance so that the edges are coincident. · If the assembly is two-dimensional, you can specify the clearance between the selected edges. The clearance is measured between the two selected faces, positive along the normal to the fixed part instance. Other than this behavior, the precise location of the movable part instance is not constrained. The edges you select from the movable and fixed part instances must be straight. The edge-to-edge position constraint can be applied to two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and axisymmetric part instances; however, axisymmetric part instances can move only parallel to the axis of revolution. Coaxial A coaxial position constraint causes the two selected cylindrical or conical faces to become coaxial but does not constrain their precise location. To apply a coaxial position constraint between two part instances, you do the following: · Select the cylindrical or conical faces to be constrained to be coaxial from the movable and fixed part instance, as shown in Figure 16-7.

Figure 16-7 Select the faces to become coaxial.

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· ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows along the axis of revolution of the selected part instances. You prescribe the orientation of the movable part instance by selecting the direction of the arrow along its axis of revolution. Figure 16-8 illustrates the result of applying the coaxial position constraint.

Figure 16-8 The effect of applying a coaxial constraint.

ABAQUS/CAE rotates and translates the movable part instance until the two selected faces are coaxial and the arrows are pointing in the same direction. The coaxial position constraint can be applied only to three-dimensional part instances. Contact A contact position constraint causes selected faces or edges to come into contact by translating the movable part instance along a selected vector. This type of constraint is available only for

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native or imported geometric part instances. Unlike other constraints, a contact position constraint specifies the final location of the movable part instance. When applying a contact position constraint between part instances in three-dimensional modeling space, you select faces to come into contact; for part instances in two-dimensional or axisymmetric modeling space, you select edges to come into contact. In addition, when the contact position constraint is applied between axisymmetric part instances, the translation vector must be parallel to the axis of revolution. ABAQUS/CAE approximates a curved face with a set of faceted faces. Likewise, ABAQUS/CAE approximates a curved edge with a set of faceted edges. The number of facets depends on the degree of curve refinement that you specified when creating the part in the Part module. Use the box zoom tool to view the faceting applied to curved faces or edges in the assembly. When you are defining contact between curved faces or curved edges, ABAQUS/CAE computes the contact position using this faceted representation. By default, the curve refinement is set to Medium. You may wish to set the curve refinement to Fine or Extra Fine for curved faces or edges that you know will be coming into contact. For more information, see ``Controlling curve refinement,'' Section 46.4. When creating a contact position constraint, you can select more than one face or edge from both the fixed and the movable part instances. Selecting multiple faces or edges is useful if you are not sure what part of the model will come in contact when the movable part instance moves along the selected vector. However, for faster processing you should select as few faces or edges as possible. Even though you apply a contact position constraint to two part instances, the physical proximity of the selected surfaces is not enough to indicate any type of interaction between them. You must use the Interaction module to specify mechanical contact between surfaces. The contact position constraint is satisfied only within a tolerance based on the size of your model. As a result, contact may not be precise unless it is applied between two planar surfaces. A contact position constraint often conflicts with other position constraints and will break those constraints if applied. If possible, you should not mix a contact position constraint with other position constraints. To define a contact position constraint between two part instances, you do the following: · Select faces or edges from the part instance that will move and from the part instance that will remain stationary. · Prescribe the motion of the movable part instance by defining a translation vector. Figure 16-9 illustrates the selected edges and translation vector.

Figure 16-9 Select the edges to contact and define the translation vector.

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· Define the desired clearance between the selected faces or edges. Figure 16-10 shows the effect of the contact constraint after specifying a clearance value of zero and a clearance value of d.

Figure 16-10 The effect of applying a contact constraint and specifying clearance values of zero and d.

To measure the clearance d, ABAQUS/CAE first moves the part instance along the translation vector until any pair of selected faces or edges come into contact. ABAQUS/CAE then moves the part instance along the translation vector a distance specified by the clearance value. The clearance can be zero or a positive or negative number; a negative value for the clearance results in overclosure between the selected faces or edges. When you apply a contact constraint, ABAQUS/CAE calculates the position of the movable part instance within a tolerance based on its size. If you want to avoid any possibility of overclosure, you should specify a small clearance value, rather

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than simply specifying zero. ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and does not apply the constraint if contact is not possible given the selected translation vector.

16.4.3 How conflicts can arise between position constraints
In some situations a new position constraint may conflict with other position constraints that you applied earlier. If that is the case, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message, and you can either apply a different position constraint or use the Feature Manipulation toolset to modify the existing position constraints. Alternatively, you can remove all the existing position constraints without changing the position of the part instances by using Instance->Convert Constraints and then applying the new position constraint. You cannot restore position constraints that were removed. Similarly, a translation or rotation constraint may conflict with position constraints that you applied earlier. If that is the case, ABAQUS/CAE offers the following options: · Cancel the translation or rotation. · Remove all existing position constraints without changing the position of the part instances and then apply the translation or rotation.

16.5 Understanding toolsets in the Assembly module
The Assembly module provides several toolsets that allow you to modify the features that define the assembly. This section describes how these toolsets are used within the Assembly module. The following topics are covered: · ``Using datum geometry in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5.1 · ``Manipulating features in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5.2 · ``Partitioning the assembly,'' Section 16.5.3 · ``Querying the assembly,'' Section 16.5.4 · ``Using sets and surfaces in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5.5 For more detailed information about each toolset, refer to: · Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset" · Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset" · Chapter 43, "The Partition toolset" · Chapter 44, "The Query toolset" · Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets"

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16.5.1 Using datum geometry in the Assembly module
Within the Assembly module, you use the Datum toolset to provide additional reference geometry (vertices, edges, and surfaces) that is not provided by the assembly. You use the reference geometry to help you define position constraints and to position part instances. For example, you can use a datum plane when creating a parallel face or face-to-face constraint if the desired surface does not exist. Similarly, you can use a datum axis when creating a parallel edge or edge-to-edge constraint if the desired edge does not exist. A datum is a parent feature of any constraint in which it was selected. Datum geometry that you create in the Part module is transferred along with the rest of the part's geometry when you create a part instance in the Assembly module. In addition, when you translate and rotate a part instance in the Assembly module, a datum created in the Part module is translated and rotated along with the instance. In contrast, a datum created in the Assembly module follows only the reference points that were used to create the datum. As a result, if you translate and rotate the part instance, the behavior of the datum may be unpredictable. If you know that a datum should be associated with a part, you should create the datum in the Part module. Figure 16-11 illustrates a model in which a deformable curved shell will be compressed between two rigid surfaces. The shell is positioned easily by applying an edge-to-edge position constraint between a selected edge of the lower rigid surface (the fixed part instance) and a datum axis associated with the shell (the movable part instance). The datum axis was created with the deformable part in the Part module and moves along with the movable part instance when the position constraint is applied.

Figure 16-11 An edge-to-edge constraint applied between a datum axis and a selected edge.

In contrast, Figure 16-12 illustrates an edge-to-edge position constraint applied between three movable part instances and a fixed datum axis that provides reference geometry. In this example the datum axis was created along the X-axis of the assembly and is not associated with any part instance.

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Figure 16-12 Edge-to-edge constraints applied between multiple parts and a fixed datum axis.

Applying three edge-to-edge position constraints, one to each of the three part instances shown, would result in alignment of the three instances along the datum axis. A datum is a feature of the assembly and is regenerated along with the rest of the assembly. You can make datum geometry invisible while still retaining it in the assembly by selecting View->Assembly Display Options from the main menu bar. For more information, see ``Controlling datum display,'' Section 46.6. The triad indicating the origin and the orientation of the global coordinate system is a datum coordinate system created by the Assembly module. You can suppress or delete it, but you cannot modify it. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding toolsets in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5 · Chapter 41, "The Datum toolset."

16.5.2 Manipulating features in the Assembly module
Along with datum geometry and partitions, the following are considered to be features of the assembly and appear in the list of features in the Feature Manipulation toolset: Part instances You can suppress, resume, and delete part instances. You can partition a part instance, but you cannot edit its geometry. To modify a part instance, you must edit the original part in the Part

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module; ABAQUS/CAE automatically regenerates instances of a modified part when you return to the Assembly module. You can make a part instance invisible while still retaining it in the assembly by selecting View->Assembly Display Options->Instance from the main menu bar. For more information, see ``Controlling instance visibility,'' Section 46.9. This technique is not the same as suppressing a part instance; a suppressed part instance is removed from the assembly until you resume it. Position constraints You can edit, suppress, resume, and delete position constraints. You can modify the following parameters of a position constraint: · The direction of the arrow normal to the selected face or along the selected edge of the movable part instance. · The clearance between the selected face or edge of the movable part instance and the selected face or edge of the fixed part instance. The clearance parameter applies only to face-to-face, edge-to-edge, and contact constraints. Translations and rotations are not stored as features and cannot be edited, suppressed, resumed, or deleted. When the Feature Manipulation toolset asks you to select a feature, you can select visible features such as a part instance, a datum, or a partition from the viewport. However, to select a position constraint, you must click the Feature List button on the right side of the prompt area and select the position constraint from the Feature List dialog box that appears. The following feature manipulation tools are available from the Feature Manipulation toolset: Edit When you edit a feature, ABAQUS/CAE displays the Feature Modify dialog box, and you can modify the feature's parameters or the sketch that defined the feature. You cannot edit part instances; you must return to the Part module to modify the original part. Suppress Suppressing a feature temporarily removes it from the definition of the assembly. A suppressed feature is invisible, cannot be meshed, and is not included in the analysis of the model. Suppressing a parent feature will suppress all of its child features. Resume Resuming a feature restores a suppressed feature to the assembly; resuming a parent feature restores all of its child features. You can choose to resume all features, the set of features most recently suppressed, or just a selected feature. Delete Deleting a feature removes it from the assembly; you cannot restore a deleted feature.

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For a more detailed explanation of the Feature Manipulation toolset, see Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset." For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding toolsets in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5 · Chapter 42, "The Feature Manipulation toolset."

16.5.3 Partitioning the assembly
Within the Assembly module, you can use the Partition toolset to partition the assembly into additional regions. You can use vertices, edges, and faces from one part instance to create a partition that divides a second part instance; for example, you might use the Extend Face method to partition a cell by extending a face of one part instance into a second part instance. Partitions cannot span part instances. A partition in the assembly appears in every module that operates on the assembly. Partitions you create in the Part module are transferred along with the rest of the part's geometry when you create a part instance in the Assembly module. Partitions are features of the assembly, and they are regenerated along with the rest of the assembly. You cannot turn off the display of partitions. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding toolsets in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5 · Chapter 43, "The Partition toolset."

16.5.4 Querying the assembly
You can use the Query toolset to request either general information or module-specific information. For a discussion of the information displayed by general queries, see ``Obtaining general information about the model,'' Section 44.2.2. In addition, you can use the Assembly module-specific queries to determine the following attributes of a part instance: · Name, type, and modeling space · Origin · The sum of the translations and rotations applied to the instance For more information, see ``Using the Query toolset to query the assembly,'' Section 16.9.

16.5.5 Using sets and surfaces in the Assembly module
Sets created by selecting geometry from the assembly are called assembly sets. Typically they are used to indicate where loads, boundary conditions, and interactions are applied. You can also use assembly sets to define regions of the model from which ABAQUS/CAE will generate output during the

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analysis; for example, selected vertices or faces. Assembly sets can include regions from multiple part instances. Part sets, which are created by selecting geometry from a part in the Part module or the Property module, are not transferred to instances of the part in the Assembly module. You use the Surface toolset to create surfaces from regions of the assembly. Surfaces are more specialized than sets. While sets can be used for many different applications, surfaces can be used only where an operation requires you to identify a surface in the physical model. Such operations include applying distributed loads, such as pressure loads, and defining contact interactions. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding toolsets in the Assembly module,'' Section 16.5 · Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets."

16.6 Using the Assembly module toolbox
You can access all the Assembly module tools through either the main menu bar or through the Assembly module toolbox. Figure 16-13 shows the hidden icons for all the Assembly module tools in the toolbox.

Figure 16-13 The Assembly module tools.

To see a tooltip containing a brief definition of an Assembly module tool, hold the mouse over the tool for a moment. For information on using toolboxes and selecting hidden icons, see ``Using toolboxes that contain hidden icons,'' Section 6.4.2.

16.7 Creating, positioning, and replacing part instances
This section describes how you use the Assembly module's Instance menu to create part instances and to position part instances relative to the global coordinate system. You also use the Instance menu to replace one part instance with another and to convert the constraints applied to a selected part instance to an absolute position. The following topics are covered:

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· ``Using the Instance menu,'' Section 16.7.1 · ``Creating a part instance,'' Section 16.7.2 · ``Translating a part instance,'' Section 16.7.3 · ``Rotating a part instance,'' Section 16.7.4 · ``Replacing a part instance,'' Section 16.7.5

16.7.1 Using the Instance menu
Use the Instance menu to do the following: · Create instances of parts in the model and add them to the assembly. The part can be either a native part, an ACIS, IGES or VDA-FS part, or an orphan mesh. · Translate selected part instances along a specified vector. · Rotate selected part instances through a specified angle about a specified axis. · Replace a part instance with a second part instance. · Convert any position constraints to an absolute position. You may find it more convenient to access the instance tools using the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6 · Chapter 16, "The Assembly module"

16.7.2 Creating a part instance
To create a part instance, select Instance->Create from the main menu bar and select the parts to instance from the Create Instance dialog box that appears. You can select from any of the existing parts in the current model. You can create multiple instances of the same part, but you cannot assemble instances of parts that were created in different modeling spaces (three-dimensional, two-dimensional, or axisymmetric). When you create the first part instance, the Assembly module displays a graphic symbol indicating the origin and orientation of the assembly's global coordinate system. This symbol is a datum coordinate system. If desired, you can hide it using the assembly display options; for more information, see ``Controlling datum display,'' Section 46.6.

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When you create an instance of a part, by default ABAQUS/CAE positions the instance so that the origin of the original geometry aligns with the origin of the assembly coordinate system. When you create multiple part instances, a new instance can be positioned over an existing instance. However, if you toggle on Auto-offset from other instances in the Create Instance dialog box, ABAQUS/CAE translates each new part instance along the X-axis until it does not overlap any existing part instances. If the assembly is axisymmetric, ABAQUS/CAE translates the new part instance along the axis of revolution instead of along the X-axis. Detailed instructions for creating a part instance: 1. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Create to create a part instance from the parts in the model. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Create Instance dialog box and a list of all the existing parts in the model. Tip: You can also create a part instance using the tool from the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6. 2. From the list of parts, select the parts to instance. You can use a combination of [Ctrl]+Click and [Shift]+Click to select multiple parts. A temporary image of the selected part instances appears in the current viewport. ABAQUS/CAE positions the temporary images so that their origins coincide with the origin of the global coordinate system. 3. If desired, toggle on Auto-offset from other instances to offset the new part instances. 4. If you are satisfied that you have selected the correct part instances, click Apply from the Create Instance dialog box. ABAQUS/CAE creates the part instances and applies an auto-offset if selected. 5. To create additional part instances, repeat this procedure from Step 2. When you have finished creating part instances, click Cancel to close the Create Instance dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Instance menu,'' Section 16.7.1 · ``Understanding the relationship between parts, part instances, and assemblies, '' Section 16.3

16.7.3 Translating a part instance

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Select Instance->Translate from the main menu bar to move a selected part instance along a selected vector. The direction and magnitude of the vector are arbitrary except that you can translate axisymmetric part instances only along the axis of rotation. Translating a part instance may invalidate a previous position constraint; for example, a constraint that aligns two faces. If you proceed with the translation, ABAQUS/CAE first converts all previous position constraints to an absolute position. When you create the first part instance, ABAQUS/CAE displays a graphic indicating the origin and orientation of the assembly's default coordinate system. You can use this graphic to help you decide how to translate your part instances. In addition, you can use the Query toolset to review the sum of the translations and rotations previously applied to a part instance and the distance between selected vertices. Translations and rotations are not considered features of the assembly and cannot be edited or deleted. Detailed instructions for translating a part instance: 1. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Translate. Tip: You can also translate a part instance using the tool from the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 2. Select the part instance to translate. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate instances using the buttons in the prompt area. You can also click the Instance List button on the right of the prompt area and select the instance to translate from the Feature List dialog box that appears. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected part instance. 3. If the translation could break any previous position constraints, you must choose whether to continue the translation from the dialog box that appears. Choose one of the following: Yes Continue the translation and convert the constraints to an absolute position before applying the translation. No Abort the translation. 4. Select the start point of the translation vector. You can select any existing vertices or datum points, or you can enter the coordinates in the text box in the prompt area. 5. Select the end point of the translation vector. Again, you can select any existing vertices or datum points, or you can enter the coordinates in the text box in the prompt area.

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ABAQUS/CAE displays a temporary image indicating the translation that will be applied to the selected part instance. You cannot edit or delete a translation after it is applied. 6. Do one of the following: a. If you are satisfied the translation is correct, click the OK button in the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE translates the part instance and positions it at the same location as the temporary image of the part instance. b. If you are not satisfied with the translation, click the go back button ( new translation vector. c. Abort the translation by clicking the cancel button ( ). ) and specify a

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Instance menu,'' Section 16.7.1 · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4

16.7.4 Rotating a part instance
Select Instance->Rotate from the main menu bar to rotate a selected part instance about a selected axis. To rotate a three-dimensional part instance, you must select two points that define the axis about which the part instance will rotate. To rotate a two-dimensional part instance, you must select a single point about which the part instance will rotate. You cannot rotate axisymmetric part instances. Rotating a part instance may invalidate a previous position constraint; for example, a constraint that aligns two faces. If you proceed with the rotation, ABAQUS/CAE first converts all previous position constraints to an absolute position. When you create the first part instance, ABAQUS/CAE displays a graphic indicating the origin and orientation of the assembly's global coordinate system. You can use this graphic to help you decide how to rotate your part instances. In addition, you can use the Query toolset to review the sum of the translations and rotations previously applied to a part instance and the distance between selected vertices. Rotations and translations are not considered features of the assembly and cannot be edited or deleted. Detailed instructions for rotating a part instance: 1. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Rotate. Tip: You can also rotate a part instance using the tool from the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6. 3-497

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ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 2. From the assembly, select the part instance to rotate. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate instances using the buttons in the prompt area. You can also click the Instance List button on the right of the prompt area and select the instance to rotate from the Feature List dialog box that appears. ABAQUS/CAE highlights the selected part instance. 3. If the rotation could break any previous constraints, you must choose whether to continue the rotation from the dialog box that appears. Choose one of the following: Yes Continue the rotation and convert the constraints to an absolute position before applying the rotation. No Abort the rotation. 4. Select the start point of the vector that defines the axis of rotation. You can select any existing vertices or datum points, or you can enter the coordinates in the text box in the prompt area. 5. Select the end point of the vector that defines the axis of rotation. Again, you can select any existing vertices or datum points, or you can enter the coordinates in the text box in the prompt area. 6. In the text box that appears in the prompt area, type the angle of rotation. A positive angle indicates a counterclockwise rotation; a negative angle indicates a clockwise rotation. ABAQUS/CAE displays a temporary image indicating the rotation that will be applied to the selected part instance. You cannot edit or delete a rotation after it is applied. 7. Do one of the following: a. If you are satisfied that the rotation is correct, click the OK button in the prompt area. ABAQUS/CAE rotates the part instance and positions it at the same location as the temporary image of the part instance. b. If you are not satisfied with the rotation, click the go back button ( rotation. c. Abort the rotation by clicking the cancel button ( ). ) and specify a new

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Constraint menu,'' Section 16.8.1 · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4

16.7.5 Replacing a part instance
Select Instance->Replace from the main menu bar to replace a selected part instance with an instance of another part from the model. ABAQUS/CAE positions the new part instance so that its origin is located at the origin of the original part instance and their axes align. In addition, you can choose whether the new part instance inherits all the constraints from the instance it replaced. Replacing a part instance is most useful when you are replacing a part instance with one that has similar geometry. For example, the new part instance might have additional detail that was not present in the original part instance. Detailed instructions for replacing a part instance: 1. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Replace to replace a selected part instance. 2. From the assembly, select the part instance to replace. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate instances using the buttons in the prompt area. You can also click the Instance List button on the right of the prompt area and select the instance from the Feature List dialog box that appears. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Replace Instance dialog box with a list of all the parts in the model. 3. From the Replace Instance dialog box, select the part that will replace the selected part instance in the assembly. ABAQUS/CAE displays a temporary image of the new part instance in the assembly and positions it so that its origin is located at the origin of the original part instance and their axes align. 4. If the correct part instance is selected, click OK in the Replace Instance dialog box. If you have not applied any position constraints to the original part instance, ABAQUS/CAE replaces it with the new part instance. 5. If you have applied position constraints to the original part instance, you must choose one of the following buttons in the prompt area: · Click OK to position the new part instance in the same location as the instance it is replacing. ABAQUS/CAE removes any constraints that were applied to the original instance, while maintaining its position. · Click Apply previous constraints if you want the new part instance to inherit position constraints from the part instance being replaced. ABAQUS/CAE applies all the previous constraints that can be satisfied by the new part instance; any constraints that cannot be

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satisfied are ignored. ABAQUS/CAE replaces the original part instance with the new part instance.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Creating a part instance,'' Section 16.7.2 · ``Applying constraints to part instances,'' Section 16.8 · ``Understanding the relationship between parts, part instances, and assemblies, '' Section 16.3

16.8 Applying constraints to part instances
This section describes how you use the Assembly module's Constraint menu to apply constraints to selected part instances in the assembly. The following topics are covered: · ``Using the Constraint menu,'' Section 16.8.1 · ``Constraining two part instances with parallel planar faces, '' Section 16.8.2 · ``Constraining two part instances with parallel planar faces separated by a specified distance, '' Section 16.8.3 · ``Constraining two part instances with parallel edges, '' Section 16.8.4 · ``Constraining two part instances with parallel edges separated by a specified distance, '' Section 16.8.5 · ``Constraining two part instances with coaxial faces, '' Section 16.8.6 · ``Constraining two part instances with contact between two faces separated by a specified distance,'' Section 16.8.7 · ``Converting constraints,'' Section 16.8.8

16.8.1 Using the Constraint menu
Use the Constraint menu to apply a constraint that does the following: · Parallel Face. Positions a selected face of a movable part instance parallel to a selected face of a fixed part instance. · Face to Face. Positions a selected face of a movable part instance parallel to and a specified distance away from a selected face of a fixed part instance. · Parallel Edge. Positions a selected edge of a movable part instance parallel to a selected edge of a fixed part instance.

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· Edge to Edge. Positions a selected edge of a movable part instance parallel to and a specified distance away from a selected edge of a fixed part instance. · Coaxial. Positions the axis of revolution of a selected face of a movable part instance coincident with the axis of revolution of a selected face of a fixed part instance. · Contact. Positions two part instances by moving one instance along a vector defining the direction of motion until one of its selected faces is a specified distance from one of the selected faces of the fixed instance. Constraints position one part instance relative to another; as a result, constraints cannot be applied until your assembly contains two or more part instances. You may find it more convenient to access the constraint tools using the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4 · Chapter 16, "The Assembly module"

16.8.2 Constraining two part instances with parallel planar faces
Select Constraint->Parallel Face from the main menu bar to apply a constraint that positions a selected face of a movable part instance parallel to a selected face of a fixed part instance. The parallel face constraint does not specify the precise location of the movable part instance, and the distance between the parallel faces is arbitrary. All position constraints are features of the assembly and can be suppressed or deleted using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for constraining two part instances with parallel planar faces: 1. From the main menu, select Constraint->Parallel Face. Tip: You can also apply the parallel face constraint using the tool in the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 2. Select planar faces from three-dimensional part instances, as shown in the following figure:

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ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows normal to the selected faces. When ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the face from the fixed part instance, you can select a datum plane that was created in either the Part or Assembly module. In contrast, when you select the face from the movable part instance, you can select a datum plane that was created only in the Part module. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, do one of the following: · Click OK to accept the direction of the arrow on the face of the movable instance. · Click Flip to reverse the direction of the arrow on the face of the movable instance, and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE positions the movable part instance so that the two faces are parallel and the arrows point in the same direction. The effect of changing the direction of the arrow is illustrated in the following figure:

If the parallel face constraint conflicts with existing constraints, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and cancels the operation. To avoid the conflict, you can try reversing the selection of the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed. Alternatively, you can convert the existing constraints to an absolute position and reapply the parallel face constraint.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

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· ``Using the Constraint menu,'' Section 16.8.1 · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4 · ``Converting constraints,'' Section 16.8.8

16.8.3 Constraining two part instances with parallel planar faces separated by a specified distance
Select Constraint->Face to Face from the main menu bar to apply a constraint that positions a selected face of a movable part instance parallel to and a specified distance from a selected face of a fixed part instance. Other than this clearance, the precise location of the movable part instance is not constrained. The face-to-face constraint is a feature of the assembly and can be suppressed or deleted using the Feature Manipulation toolset. In addition, you can edit the clearance between the two selected faces. Detailed instructions for constraining two part instances with parallel planar faces separated by a specified distance: 1. From the main menu, select Constraint->Face to Face. Tip: You can also apply the face-to-face constraint using the tool in the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 2. Select planar faces from two three-dimensional part instances, as shown in the following figure:

ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows normal to the selected faces. When ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the face from the fixed part instance, you can select a datum plane that was created in either the Part or Assembly module. In contrast, when you select the face from the movable part instance, you can select a datum plane that was created only in the Part module. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, do one of the following:

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· Click OK to accept the direction of the arrow on the face of the movable instance. · Click Flip to reverse the direction of the arrow on the face of the movable instance, and click OK. The effect of changing the direction of the arrow is illustrated in the next step. 4. In the text field that appears in the prompt area, enter the distance between the selected faces, positive along the normal to the face of the fixed instance. ABAQUS/CAE positions the movable part instance so that the two faces are parallel and the arrows point in the same direction. In addition, the movable part instance is translated to satisfy the clearance specified. The effect of specifying the distance is illustrated in the following figure:

If the face-to-face constraint conflicts with existing constraints, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and cancels the operation. To avoid the conflict, you can try reversing the selection of the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed. Alternatively, you can convert the existing constraints to an absolute position and reapply the face-to-face constraint.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Constraint menu,'' Section 16.8.1 · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4 · ``Converting constraints,'' Section 16.8.8

16.8.4 Constraining two part instances with parallel edges
Select Constraint->Parallel Edge from the main menu bar to apply a constraint that positions a selected edge of a movable part instance parallel to a selected edge of a fixed part instance. The

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parallel edge constraint does not specify the precise location of the part instances, and the distance between the parallel faces is arbitrary. All position constraints are features of the assembly and can be suppressed or deleted using the Feature Manipulation toolset. Detailed instructions for constraining two part instances with parallel edges: 1. From the main menu, select Constraint->Parallel Edge. Tip: You can also apply the parallel edge constraint using the tool in the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 2. Select straight edges from the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed, as shown in the following figure:

ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows along the selected edges. When ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the edge from the fixed part instance, you can select a datum axis that was created in either the Part or Assembly module. In contrast, when you select the edge from the movable part instance, you can select a datum axis that was created only in the Part module. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, do one of the following: · Click OK to accept the direction of the arrow along the edge of the movable instance. · Click Flip to reverse the direction of the arrow along the edge of the movable instance, and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE positions the movable part instance so that the two edges are parallel and the arrows point in the same direction. The effect of changing the direction of the arrow is illustrated in the following figure:

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If the parallel edge constraint conflicts with existing constraints, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and cancels the operation. To avoid the conflict, you can try reversing the selection of the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed. Alternatively, you can convert the existing constraints to an absolute position and reapply the parallel edge constraint.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Constraint menu,'' Section 16.8.1 · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4 · ``Converting constraints,'' Section 16.8.8

16.8.5 Constraining two part instances with parallel edges separated by a specified distance
Select Constraint->Edge to Edge from the main menu bar to apply a constraint that positions a selected edge of a movable part instance parallel to a selected edge of a fixed part instance. In addition, if the part instances are two-dimensional, you must specify the distance between the selected edges; otherwise, ABAQUS/CAE makes them coincident. Other than this clearance, the precise location of the movable part instance is not constrained. All position constraints are features of the assembly and can be suppressed or deleted using the Feature Manipulation toolset. In addition, you can edit the clearance between the two selected edges, where applicable. For more information, see ``How the position constraint methods differ,'' Section 16.4.2. Detailed instructions for constraining two part instances with parallel edges separated by a specified distance: 1. From the main menu, select Constraint->Edge to Edge. Tip: You can also apply the edge-to-edge constraint using the tool in the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 2. Select straight edges from the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed, as shown in the following figure:

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ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows along the selected edges. When ABAQUS/CAE prompts you to select the edge from the fixed part instance, you can select a datum axis that was created in either the Part or Assembly module. In contrast, when you select the edge from the movable part instance, you can select a datum axis that was created only in the Part module. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, do one of the following: · Click OK to accept the direction of the arrow along the edge of the movable instance. · Click Flip to reverse the direction of the arrow along the edge of the movable instance and click OK. The effect of changing the direction of the arrow is illustrated in the next step. If the part instances are three-dimensional, ABAQUS/CAE positions the movable part instance so that the selected edges are parallel and coincident. 4. If the part instances are two-dimensional, you must specify the clearance between the selected edges. In the text field that appears in the prompt area, enter the distance from the edge of the movable part to the edge of the fixed part instance, positive along the normal to the edge of the fixed instance. ABAQUS/CAE positions the movable part instance so that the two edges are parallel and the arrows point in the same direction. In addition, the movable part instance is translated to satisfy the clearance specified. The effect of specifying the distance and changing the direction of the arrow is illustrated with two-dimensional instances in the following figure:

If the edge-to-edge constraint conflicts with existing constraints, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and cancels the operation. To avoid the conflict, you can try reversing the selection of the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed. Alternatively, you can convert the existing constraints to an absolute position and reapply the edge-to-edge constraint.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Constraint menu,'' Section 16.8.1 · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4

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· ``Converting constraints,'' Section 16.8.8

16.8.6 Constraining two part instances with coaxial faces
Select Constraint->Coaxial from the main menu bar to apply a constraint that positions the axis of revolution of a selected face of a movable part instance coincident with the axis of revolution of a selected face of a fixed part instance. Other than this coaxial constraint, the precise location of the movable part instance is not constrained. All position constraints are features of the assembly and can be suppressed or deleted using the Feature Manipulation toolset. The selected faces of the movable and fixed part instances must be either cylindrical or conical. In addition, the coaxial constraint can be applied only to three-dimensional part instances. For more information, see ``How the position constraint methods differ, '' Section 16.4.2. Detailed instructions for constraining two part instances with coaxial faces: 1. From the main menu, select Constraint->Coaxial. Tip: You can also apply the coaxial constraint using the tool in the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 2. Select cylindrical or conical faces from the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed, as shown in the following figure:

ABAQUS/CAE displays arrows along the axis of revolution of the selected faces. 3. From the buttons in the prompt area, do one of the following: · Click OK to accept the direction of the arrow along the axis of revolution of the face of the movable instance. · Click Flip to reverse the direction of the arrow along the axis of revolution of the face of the movable instance, and click OK. ABAQUS/CAE positions the movable part instance so that the two axes are coincident and the 3-508

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arrows point in the same direction. The effect of the coaxial constraint with the arrows selected as shown above is illustrated in the following figure:

If the coaxial constraint conflicts with existing constraints, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and cancels the operation. To avoid the conflict, you can try reversing the selection of the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed. Alternatively, you can convert the existing constraints to an absolute position and reapply the coaxial constraint.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Constraint menu,'' Section 16.8.1 · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4

16.8.7 Constraining two part instances with contact between two faces separated by a specified distance
Select Constraint->Contact from the main menu bar to position two part instances by translating one instance along a vector defining the direction of motion until selected faces or edges are separated by a specified distance. Other than this contact constraint, the precise location of the movable part instance is not constrained. All position constraints are features of the assembly and can be suppressed or deleted. In addition, you can edit the clearance between the selected edges or faces. The contact position constraint is satisfied only within a tolerance based on the size of your model. As a result, contact may not be precise unless it is applied between two planar surfaces. If the selected faces or edges never contact when ABAQUS/CAE translates the movable part instance, the contact constraint is not applied. ABAQUS/CAE approximates a curved face with a set of faceted faces. Likewise, ABAQUS/CAE approximates a curved edge with a set of faceted edges. The number of facets depends on the degree of curve refinement that you specified when creating the part in the Part module. For more information, see ``Controlling curve refinement,'' Section 46.4. When you are defining contact between curved faces

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or curved edges, ABAQUS/CAE computes the contact position using this faceted representation. Increasing the degree of curve refinement increases the accuracy of the contact positioning calculation; however, the calculation will be significantly slower. Even though you apply a contact constraint to two part instances, the physical proximity of the selected surfaces is not enough to indicate any type of interaction between them. You must use the Interaction module to specify coupling between surfaces. To constrain two part instances by defining contact: 1. From the main menu, select Constraint->Contact. Tip: You can also define contact using the tool in the Assembly module toolbox. For a diagram of the tools in the Assembly toolbox, see ``Using the Assembly module toolbox,'' Section 16.6. ABAQUS/CAE displays prompts in the prompt area to guide you through the procedure. 2. Select the faces (for three-dimensional part instances) or edges (for two-dimensional part instances) from the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed. You can select more than one face or edge from both the fixed and the movable part instances. Selecting multiple faces or edges is useful if you are not sure what part of the model will come in contact when the movable part instance moves along the selected vector. However, for faster processing you should select as few faces or edges as possible. You cannot select a datum plane. 3. Select the start and end points of the vector that defines the direction of motion. You can select any existing vertices or datum points, or you can enter the coordinates in the text box in the prompt area. If the part instances are axisymmetric, the translation vector must be parallel to the axis of revolution. The following figure illustrates how you define contact between edges of two-dimensional part instances:

4. In the text box that appears in the prompt area, enter a value for the clearance between the two selected faces; a negative value indicates over-closure. ABAQUS/CAE moves the selected part instance along the vector until the two selected faces

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contact with the specified clearance. The following figure illustrates contact with zero clearance and contact with a specified clearance.

For more information, see ``How the position constraint methods differ, '' Section 16.4.2. If the contact constraint conflicts with existing constraints, ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message and cancels the operation. To avoid the conflict, you can try reversing the selection of the part instance that will move and the part instance that will remain fixed. Alternatively, you can convert the existing constraints to an absolute position and reapply the contact constraint. If possible, you should not mix a contact position constraint with other position constraints.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Constraint menu,'' Section 16.8.1 · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4 · ``Converting constraints,'' Section 16.8.8

16.8.8 Converting constraints
To remove all the face, edge, coaxial, and contact constraints applied to a selected part instance while leaving the instance in its current position, select Instance->Convert Constraints from the main menu bar. The conversion is equivalent to applying a single translation and rotation to the part instance that moves it from its original position to the current position. Any previous constraints no longer appear in the list of features and cannot be restored. Detailed instructions for converting constraints: 1. From the main menu bar, select Instance->Convert Constraints to convert any existing constraints to the current position. 2. From the assembly, select the part instance whose constraints you want to convert. If the selection is ambiguous, you can cycle through the candidate instances using the buttons in the prompt area. You can also click the Instance List button on the right of the prompt area and select the instance from the Feature List. The part instance does not move, but ABAQUS/CAE converts any existing constraints to the current position. You cannot restore the original face, edge, coaxial, and contact constraints.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``How the position constraint methods differ, '' Section 16.4.2 · ``How conflicts can arise between position constraints, '' Section 16.4.3

16.9 Using the Query toolset to query the assembly
Select Tools->Query from the main menu bar to start the Query toolset. You can use the Query toolset to request either general information or module-specific information. For a discussion of the information displayed by general queries, see ``Obtaining general information about the model,'' Section 44.2.2. In addition, you can use the Assembly module-specific tools in the Query toolset to determine the attributes and position of a selected part instance. Detailed instructions for querying an assembly: 1. From the main menu bar, select Tools->Query. Tip: You can also select the query tool ABAQUS/CAE displays the Query dialog box. 2. From the Query dialog box, select one of the following and click Apply:
Instance Attributes

in the toolbar.

Select a part instance. ABAQUS/CAE displays the following in the message area: · The name, modeling space, and type of the part instance Instance Position Select a part instance. ABAQUS/CAE displays the following in the message area: · Position of the origin of the instance relative to the global coordinate system · The sum of the translations applied to the instance relative to the assembly's global coordinate system · The sum of the rotations applied to the instance relative to the assembly's global coordinate system · A list of the constraints applied to the part instance

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3. Click Cancel to close the Query dialog box.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding part instance positioning, '' Section 16.4

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17. The Step module
You can use the Step module to perform the following tasks: · Create analysis steps. · Specify output requests. · Specify adaptive meshing and contact controls. This chapter covers the following topics: · ``Understanding the role of the Step module,'' Section 17.1 · ``Entering and exiting the Step module,'' Section 17.2 · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3 · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4 · ``Understanding restart, diagnostic, and monitor output, '' Section 17.5 · ``Understanding adaptive meshing and contact controls, '' Section 17.6 · ``Using the Step Manager,'' Section 17.7 · ``Using the step editor,'' Section 17.8 · ``Creating and managing output requests,'' Section 17.9 · ``Requesting specialized output,'' Section 17.10 · ``Customizing contact controls and adaptive meshing , '' Section 17.11

17.1 Understanding the role of the Step module
You can use the Step module to perform the following tasks: Create analysis steps Within a model you define a sequence of one or more analysis steps. The step sequence provides a convenient way to capture changes in the loading and boundary conditions of the model, changes in the way parts of the model interact with each other, removal or addition of parts, and any other changes that may occur in the model during the course of the analysis. In addition, steps allow you to change the analysis procedure, the data output, and various controls. You can also use steps to define linear perturbation analyses about nonlinear base states. Specify output requests ABAQUS/CAE writes output from the analysis to the output database; you specify the output by creating output requests for each analysis step. An output request defines which variables

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will be output during an analysis step, from which region of the model they will be output, and at what rate they will be output. For example, you might request output of the entire model's displacement field at the end of a step and also request the history of a reaction force at a restrained point. Specify adaptive meshing and contact controls You can define adaptive mesh regions and specify controls for adaptive meshing in those regions. In addition, you can customize solution controls for problems involving contact.

17.2 Entering and exiting the Step module
You can enter the Step module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Step in the Module list located under the toolbar. The Step, Output, Other, and Tools menus appear on the main menu bar. If the current viewport contains something other than the assembly, the contents of the viewport disappear when you start the Step module. To exit the Step module, select any other module from the Module list. You need not save your steps or output requests before exiting the module; they will be saved automatically when you save the model database by selecting File->Save or File->Save As from the main menu bar.

17.3 Understanding steps
This section gives an overview of steps. The following topics are covered: · ``What is a step?,'' Section 17.3.1 · ``Linear and nonlinear procedures,'' Section 17.3.2 · ``Step sequence restrictions,'' Section 17.3.3 For additional information on steps, see ``Procedures: overview,'' Section 6.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.

17.3.1 What is a step?
An ABAQUS/CAE model uses the following two types of steps: The initial step ABAQUS/CAE creates a special initial step at the beginning of the model's step sequence and names it Initial. ABAQUS/CAE creates only one initial step for your model, and it cannot be renamed, edited, copied, or deleted. The initial step allows you to define boundary conditions and interactions that are applicable at the very beginning of the analyis. For example, if a boundary condition or interaction is applied throughout the analysis, it is usually convenient to apply such conditions in the initial step. Likewise, when the first analysis step is a linear perturbation step, conditions applied in the initial step form part of the base state for the perturbation. Analysis steps 4-515

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The initial step is followed by one or more analysis steps. Each analysis step is associated with a specific analysis procedure. There is no limit to the number of analysis steps you can define, but there are restrictions on the step sequence. (For more information, see ``Step sequence restrictions,'' Section 17.3.3.) You use items from the Step menu to create a step, to select and configure the analysis procedure used during the step, and to manage existing steps. Alternatively, you can select Step->Manager from the main menu bar to display the Step Manager. For example, consider the following analysis of a section of a piping system: Initial Step: Apply boundary conditions to fix the left end of the pipe and to allow only axial movement at the right end. Step 1: Compress Apply a compressive force to the right end of the pipe. This step is a general analysis step. Step 2: Eigenmodes Calculate the frequencies and modes of vibration of the pipe in its compressed state. This step is a linear perturbation step. Figure 17-1 shows the Step Manager after you create these steps.

Figure 17-1 The Step Manager.

The manager lists all of the steps in the analysis as well as a few salient details concerning each step. Step 2, Eigenmodes, is indented to show that it is a linear perturbation step based on the state of the model at the end of Step 1, Compress. For detailed information on creating and editing steps, see the following sections: · ``The Step Manager,'' Section 17.7.1 · ``Creating a step,'' Section 17.7.2 · ``Editing a step,'' Section 17.7.3 · ``The step editor,'' Section 17.8.1

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· ``The Incrementation tab,'' Section 17.8.2 For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3 · ``Procedures: overview,'' Section 6.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual · ``Procedures: overview,'' Section 6.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

17.3.2 Linear and nonlinear procedures
The Step Manager distinguishes between general nonlinear steps and linear perturbation steps by indenting the names and procedure descriptions of linear perturbation steps. General nonlinear analysis steps define sequential events: the state of the model at the end of one general step provides the initial state for the start of the next general step. Linear perturbation analysis steps provide the linear response of the model about the state reached at the end of the last general nonlinear step. You use the Procedure type menu button to choose between General and Linear perturbation steps when you select the procedure in the Create Step dialog box. For each step in the analysis, the Step Manager also indicates whether ABAQUS will account for nonlinear effects from large displacements and deformations. If the displacements in a model due to loading are relatively small during a step, the effects may be small enough to be ignored. However, in cases where the loads on a model result in large displacements, nonlinear geometric effects can become important. The Nlgeom setting for a step determines whether ABAQUS will account for geometric nonlinearity in that step. The Nlgeom setting is turned on by default for ABAQUS/Explicit steps and turned off by default for ABAQUS/Standard steps. The sequence of steps and the current Nlgeom setting determine whether you can change the Nlgeom setting in a particular step. For example, if ABAQUS is already accounting for geometric nonlinearity, the Nlgeom setting is toggled on for all subsequent steps, and you cannot toggle it off. Where permissible, the following methods allow you to change the Nlgeom setting for a step: · Click the Basic tab in the Step Editor and toggle the Nlgeom setting. · Select Step->Nlgeom from the main menu bar. · Click Nlgeom in the Step Manager. For more information, see ``Accounting for geometric nonlinearity,'' Section 17.7.4, or see ``Linear and nonlinear procedures,'' Section 6.1.2 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3

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17.3.3 Step sequence restrictions
When you select Step->Create from the main menu bar, a Create Step dialog box appears in which you can specify the procedure type for the step that you are creating. The selection of procedure types in the Create Step dialog box depends on the following: · The procedures that you have already associated with existing steps. · The position of the new step in the analysis step sequence. For example, when you create the first step in an analysis, you can choose from a list of valid procedure types; both ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit procedure types appear in the list. However, once you have created the first step, the list of valid procedure types in the Create Step dialog box will change to include only those procedures that are compatible with the first step. For example, if the first step is an ABAQUS/Standard step, ABAQUS/Explicit procedures no longer appear in the list.

17.4 Understanding output requests
This section gives an overview of output requests. The following topics are covered: · ``What is an output request?,'' Section 17.4.1 · ``What is the difference between field output and history output?, '' Section 17.4.2 · ``Selecting variables and components in an output request, '' Section 17.4.3

17.4.1 What is an output request?
The ABAQUS solvers compute the values of many variables at every increment of a step. Usually you are interested in only a small subset of all of this computed data. You can specify the data that you want written to the output database by creating output requests. An output request consists of the following information: · The variables or variable components of interest. · The region of the model and the integration points from which the values are written to the output database. · The rate at which the variable or component values are written to the output database. ABAQUS/CAE selects a default set of output variables corresponding to the step's analysis procedure. By default, output is requested from every node or integration point in the model and from default section points. In addition, ABAQUS/CAE selects the default rate at which the variables are written to the output database. The Output Database Request Manager allows you to view and modify the default output requests as well as to create new output requests. To display the Output Database Request Manager, select Output->Output Database For example, Figure 17-2 shows the default state of the Output Database Request Manager after 4-518

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you create a step and select a Static, General procedure.

Figure 17-2 The Output Database Request Manager .

The Field output tabbed page contains the variables shown in Figure 17-2, and the History output page is empty. (Field and history output are described in ``What is the difference between field output and history output?,'' Section 17.4.2.) In addition, the entire model is selected as the region for output, and the default section points are selected. Finally, each variable is output after every increment of the step. (For more information on default output, see ``Output to the output database, '' Section 4.1.3 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.) If you click Edit in the Output Database Request Manager , an editor appears that allows you to change either the field or the history output requests depending on which page is visible at the time. When your analysis is complete, you use the Visualization module to read the output database and graphically display the data that were written to it. For detailed instructions on creating and editing output requests, see the following sections: · ``Using the Output Database Request Manager to create and manage output requests, '' Section 17.9.1 · ``Creating an output request,'' Section 17.9.2 · ``Creating and modifying field output requests,'' Section 17.9.3 · ``Using the history output editor,'' Section 17.9.4 · ``Deleting output requests,'' Section 17.9.5 For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4 · ``Creating and managing output requests,'' Section 17.9

17.4.2 What is the difference between field output and history output?
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When you create an output request, you can choose either field output or history output. Field output Field output is output that you request from the entire model or from a large portion of the model. Typically, field output is written to the output database at a low rate; for example, after every step or at the end of the analysis. The Visualization module allows you to display field output results in undeformed, deformed, contour, and symbol plots. (For more information, see ``Understanding plot modes and plot customization, '' Section 23.3.) ABAQUS/Standard automatically writes every component of the variables that you include in the field output request. For example, if you were using solid elements to model a cantilever beam with a load at the tip, you could request the stress (all six components) and the displacement (all six components) data from the entire model after the last increment of the loading step. You could then use the Visualization module to view a contour plot of stresses and deflections in the final loaded state. History output History output is output that you request from a small portion of the model. Typically, history output is written to the output database at a high rate; for example, after every increment. The Visualization module allows you to display history output in X-Y plots. (For more information, see ``Reading X-Y data from output database history output,'' Section 30.2.1.) When you create a history output request, you can specify the individual components of the variables that you want written to the output database. For example, if you model the response of a cantilever beam with a load applied to the tip, you might request the following output after each increment of the loading step: · The principal stress at a single node at the root of the beam. · The vertical displacement at a single node at the tip of the beam. You could then use the Visualization module to view an X-Y plot of stress at the root versus displacement at the tip with increasing load. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4

17.4.3 Selecting variables and components in an output request
When you use the field output editor to select a vector or tensor variable to be included in an output request, ABAQUS automatically writes all components of that variable to the output database during the step. For example, if you select the vector U in a three-dimensional model, ABAQUS outputs the three displacement components U1, U2, and U3 to the output database along with the three rotation components UR1, UR2, and UR3.

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The field output editor is illustrated in Figure 17-3. The top part of the editor contains a list of the variable categories that are applicable to the step procedure. You can click the check box next to a category name to select all of the variables within that category, or you can click the arrow next to a category name to display the list of variables in that category and then select individual variables.

Figure 17-3 The field output editor.

In Figure 17-3 the user has selected the variable S, Stress components and invariants in the Stresses category as well as all of the variables in the Strains and Displacement/Velocity/Acceleration categories to be included in the output request for the step named Beamload. ABAQUS will write output from the default section points after every five increments. Like the field output editor, the history output editor contains a list of variable categories that you can expand to see the list of variables in each category. However, the history output editor also allows you to specify individual components of a variable for which you want output. When requesting history output, it is useful to specify individual components because these variables are typically output very frequently--possibly as often as every increment. For detailed instructions on selecting output variables and components, see the following sections: · ``Creating and modifying field output requests,'' Section 17.9.3

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· ``Using the history output editor,'' Section 17.9.4 · ``Selecting default output requests,'' Section 17.9.6 For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4

17.5 Understanding restart, diagnostic, and monitor output
This section explains the additional output controls available in the Step module.The following topics are covered: · ``Restart output requests,'' Section 17.5.1 · ``Diagnostic printing,'' Section 17.5.2 · ``Degree of freedom monitor requests,'' Section 17.5.3

17.5.1 Restart output requests
By default, ABAQUS writes restart information every time you submit an analysis. The Restart Requests dialog box, invoked by selecting Output->Restart Requests in the Step module, allows you to specify how often you want the restart file to be updated. · You can specify the frequency in increments (for ABAQUS/Standard) or in intervals (for ABAQUS/Explicit) at which ABAQUS writes data needed to the restart file. You can set the frequency to zero to avoid writing the restart file during an ABAQUS/Standard step. However, it is impossible to avoid writing the restart file for ABAQUS/Explicit steps; if you set the frequency to zero for an ABAQUS/Explicit step, restart information will be written only at the end of the step. · You can request that only one increment should be retained in the restart file, thus minimizing the size of the file. When you select this option, data written to the restart file overlay data from the previous increment. By default, ABAQUS does not overlay data. For detailed instructions on requesting restart data, see ``Configuring restart output requests,'' Section 17.10.1. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4 · ``Understanding restart, diagnostic, and monitor output, '' Section 17.5

17.5.2 Diagnostic printing
If the analysis of your model fails or produces unexpected results, you can examine its iteration-by-iteration progress by looking at selected diagnostic information that is written to the

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following files: For ABAQUS/Standard analyses: Diagnostic information is written to the message file (.msg). By default, the information is written during every iteration; you can request that ABAQUS discontinue writing diagnostic information by specifying an output frequency of zero. For ABAQUS/Explicit analyses: Diagnostic information is written to the status file (.sta). For information on the frequency at which this information is written, see ``Output,'' Section 4.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Using the Diagnostic Print dialog box is equivalent to including the *PRINT option in a solver input file. You display the Diagnostic Print dialog box by selecting Output->Diagnostic Print from the main menu bar. For detailed instructions on requesting diagnostic printing, see ``Configuring diagnostic printing,'' Section 17.10.2. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4 · ``Understanding restart, diagnostic, and monitor output, '' Section 17.5

17.5.3 Degree of freedom monitor requests
You can request that ABAQUS write the values of a degree of freedom at one selected point to the status file (.sta) and, for ABAQUS/Standard analyses, to the message file (.msg) at specific increments during the course of an analysis. In addition, a plot of the degree of freedom value over time appears in a new viewport that is generated automatically when you submit the analysis. (For more information, see ``Monitoring the progress of an analysis job,'' Section 21.2.6.) You can use this information to monitor the progress of the solution. When you place your request in the DOF Monitor dialog box (which is invoked by selecting Output->DOF Monitor from the main menu bar), you must first specify an existing geometric set or node set that you have created using the Set toolset: · If you are working with a native geometric model, the set must contain only one vertex. · If you are working with an orphan mesh, the set must contain only one node. (For information about creating sets, see Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets.") Once you have specified a set, you must indicate which degree of freedom you want to monitor at that vertex or node and how often you want the information printed to the status and message files. Requesting this information is analogous to including the following line in a solver input file:

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*MONITOR, NODE=node_number, DOF=dof, FREQUENCY=N. For detailed instructions on monitoring a degree of freedom, see ``Configuring monitor requests,'' Section 17.10.3. For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Configuring monitor requests,'' Section 17.10.3 · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4 · ``Understanding restart, diagnostic, and monitor output, '' Section 17.5

17.6 Understanding adaptive meshing and contact controls
This section explains how you can specify adaptive meshing and contact controls for a particular step. The following topics are covered: · ``Adaptive meshing,'' Section 17.6.1 · ``Solution controls for contact problems, '' Section 17.6.2 Note: Currently, these options are available only for Dynamic, Explicit steps.

17.6.1 Adaptive meshing
Adaptive meshing allows you to maintain a high-quality mesh throughout an analysis, even when large deformations occur, by allowing the mesh to move independently of the material. Currently, adaptive meshing moves only nodes; the mesh topology remains unchanged. You can define regions of the model where you want adaptivity by selecting Other->Adaptive Mesh Domain from the main menu bar. If necessary, you can select Other->Adaptive Mesh Controls to customize the adaptivity controls. Currently, you can define only one adaptive mesh domain for any particular step. Defining adaptive mesh domains and controls in the Step module is equivalent to including the *ADAPTIVE MESH and *ADAPTIVE MESH CONTROLS options in an ABAQUS/Explicit input file. For detailed information on adaptive meshing, see ``Adaptive meshing,'' Section 7.6 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. For detailed instructions for defining adaptive mesh regions, see ``Defining an adaptive mesh region,'' Section 17.11.2, and ``Specifying controls for adaptive remeshing,'' Section 17.11.3.

17.6.2 Solution controls for contact problems
If your model includes complex geometries and numerous contact interactions, you can customize the variables that control the contact algorithms for selected contact interactions. The default solution controls are usually sufficient, but customizing the contact controls may result in a more cost-effective

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solution. You can access the contact controls by selecting Other->Contact Controls from the main menu bar. Customizing contact controls in the Step module is equivalent to including the *CONTACT CONTROLS option in an ABAQUS/Explicit input file. For more information, see ``Common difficulties associated with contact modeling,'' Section 20.5.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Warning: Contact controls are intended for experienced analysts and should be used with great care. The default settings of these controls are appropriate for most analyses. Changing these values inappropriately may greatly increase the computational time of your analysis or produce inaccurate results. For detailed instructions for setting solution controls, see ``Customizing optional solution controls for contact problems,'' Section 17.11.1.

17.7 Using the Step Manager
This section describes how you can use the Step Manager to create, edit, and manipulate steps. (For general information on managers, see ``Managing objects,'' Section 6.5.) The following topics are covered: · ``The Step Manager,'' Section 17.7.1 · ``Creating a step,'' Section 17.7.2 · ``Editing a step,'' Section 17.7.3 · ``Accounting for geometric nonlinearity,'' Section 17.7.4

17.7.1 The Step Manager
You use the Step Manager to create, edit, and manipulate the analysis steps associated with the current model. To start the Step Manager, select Step->Manager from the main menu bar. Columns in the Step Manager dialog box display the following information about each step:
Name

The name of the step. Names of linear perturbation steps are indented relative to names of general steps. Procedure The analysis procedure that you selected for this step when the step was created. You cannot change the analysis procedure after you have created a step. The Procedure column also indicates whether thermal and steady-state soils steps assume steady-state heat transfer or transient heat transfer or if neither is applicable.
Nlgeom

Whether the analysis step accounts for geometric nonlinearities. You use the Nlgeom button to control the Nlgeom setting for a particular step. Once you have set the Nlgeom option for a

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step, your setting remains in effect for all subsequent steps.
Time

The time period for the step. The default value for the time period is 1.0 time unit. Click Edit to display the step editor so that you can modify the time period. You use the buttons across the bottom of the Step Manager dialog box to create a step that follows the selected step or to manipulate the selected step. You use the Dismiss button to close the Step Manager dialog box. You can perform the same tasks using the pull-down menus available from the Step menu, located in the main menu bar. Warning: If you use the Step Manager or the Step menu to delete a step, objects associated with that step, such as prescribed conditions or output requests, are also deleted.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Step Manager,'' Section 17.7 · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3

17.7.2 Creating a step
You can create any sequence of procedures that is allowed by ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit; the procedure list in the Create Step dialog box is updated to show only the available procedures for the new step. For example, if your first step contains a static stress/displacement procedure, you cannot follow it with a new step containing a heat transfer procedure. Detailed instructions for creating a step: 1. From the main menu bar, select Step->Create. The Create Step dialog box appears. Tip: You can initiate the Create procedure in two other ways: · Click Create in the Step Manager. (You can display the Step Manager by selecting Step->Manager from the main menu bar.) · Click the tool in the Step module toolbox.

2. If desired, use the Name text field to change the name of the new step. All steps must have unique names, and you cannot name a step ``Initial''.

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3. From the list of existing steps, select the step after which the new step will be inserted. 4. Click the Procedure type menu button and select either General or Linear perturbation from the list that appears. The lower half of the dialog box displays a list of available procedures. 5. Select the desired procedure and click Continue. The Edit Step dialog box appears. 6. Use the Edit Step dialog box to modify the settings from their default values and to provide values for optional settings. (For detailed help on a particular editor feature, select Help->On Context from the main menu bar and then click the feature of interest.) 7. Click OK. ABAQUS/CAE closes the Edit Step dialog box, and the new step appears in the Step Manager.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Using the Step Manager,'' Section 17.7 · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3 · ``Linear and nonlinear procedures,'' Section 6.1.2 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual

17.7.3 Editing a step
You can use the step editor to edit the analysis procedure settings associated with an existing step. Detailed instructions for editing a step: 1. From the main menu bar, select Step->Edit->step of your choice. The step editor appears. Tip: You can also select the step name in the Step Manager and click Edit. 2. Use the tabs within the step editor to modify the settings. (For detailed help on a particular editor feature, select Help->On Context from the main menu bar and then click the feature of interest.) 3. Click OK to close the step editor and save the new settings.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items:

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· ``Using the Step Manager,'' Section 17.7 · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3

17.7.4 Accounting for geometric nonlinearity
The Nlgeom setting for a step determines whether ABAQUS will account for geometric nonlinearity in that step. The Nlgeom setting is turned on by default for ABAQUS/Explicit steps and turned off by default for ABAQUS/Standard steps. The sequence of steps and the current Nlgeom setting determine whether you can change the Nlgeom setting in a particular step. For example, if ABAQUS is already accounting for geometric nonlinearity, the Nlgeom setting is toggled on for all subsequent steps, and you cannot toggle it off. Similarly, you cannot change the Nlgeom setting during a linear perturbation step. Note: When you create a step, you can click the Basic tab in the Step Editor and select On or Off as the Nlgeom setting. Detailed instructions for changing the Nlgeom setting for an existing step: 1. To display the Nlgeom dialog box and to change the setting where applicable, do one of the following: · From the main menu bar, select Step->Nlgeom. · From the main menu bar, select Step->Edit->stepname. The Step Editor appears. From the Nlgeom field on the Basic tabbed page, click Edit. · From the main menu bar, select Step->Manager. The Step manager appears. From the buttons along the bottom of the manager, click Nlgeom. 2. From the Nlgeom dialog box, click the step name of interest to turn Nlgeom on or off for that step. If Nlgeom is turned on for a step, a checkmark appears in the Nlgeom column. If Nlgeom is turned off for a step, no tickmark appears. 3. Click OK to close the Nlgeom dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Linear and nonlinear procedures,'' Section 17.3.2 · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3

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17.8 Using the step editor
This section describes the step editor and the options that appear in the step editor. The following topics are covered: · ``The step editor,'' Section 17.8.1 · ``The Incrementation tab,'' Section 17.8.2

17.8.1 The step editor
When you create or edit a step, the step editor displays a set of tabbed pages that allow you to configure the settings for the procedure you selected. The pages are unique for each procedure; for example, when you configure a Static, General procedure, the step editor displays the Basic, Incrementation, and Other tabs. Settings you can configure with these tabbed pages include the time period for the step, the maximum number of increments, the increment size, the default load variation with time, and whether to account for geometric nonlinearity. The text that you enter in the Description field on the Basic tabbed page is analagous to the first data line after the *STEP option in a solver input file; ABAQUS stores this text in the output database, and it is displayed in the state block by the Visualization module. For detailed help on a specific feature of the editor, select Help->On Context and then click the feature of interest.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3 · ``Using the step editor,'' Section 17.8

17.8.2 The Incrementation tab
When you configure general procedures, you use the Basic tab in the step editor to enter the total time period for the step. You use the Incrementation tab to configure the approach that ABAQUS will use to divide the total time period for the step into increments. For a general, static step as well as for many other kinds of steps you can set the following options on the Incrementation tabbed page: Time incrementation · When you choose Automatic time incrementation, ABAQUS starts the incrementation using the value entered for the initial increment size. The size of subsequent time increments are adjusted based on how quickly the solution converges. This option is the default selection. · When you choose Fixed time incrementation, ABAQUS uses the value entered for the initial increment size throughout the step.

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Warning: Choosing Fixed time incrementation may prevent the solution from converging and is not recommended. Maximum number of increments ABAQUS limits the number of increments in a step to the value that you enter for the maximum number of increments. If the step exceeds this number of increments, the analysis stops, and diagnostic information is reported to the Job module and written to the message file. By default, ABAQUS/CAE sets the maximum number of increments to 10. Initial increment size ABAQUS starts the step using the value entered for the initial increment size. Minimum increment size ABAQUS checks for the minimum Increment size only when you analyze your model using automatic time incrementation. If ABAQUS needs a smaller time increment than this value to reach a convergent solution, it terminates the analysis, reports to the Job module, and writes diagnostic information to the message file. If you do not enter a minimum increment size, ABAQUS uses 10 -5 times the total time period.
Maximum increment size

ABAQUS checks for the maximum increment size only when you analyze your model using automatic time incrementation. ABAQUS will not increase the increment size beyond this value during the analysis. If you do not specify this value, ABAQUS/CAE sets the value to that of the total time period. Note: A value must be entered for each of the incrementation options described above. ABAQUS/CAE does not allow you to create the step if you delete the default value for an incrementation option but fail to provide another. For detailed information on other items in the Incrementation tabbed page, click Help->On Context and then click the item of interest.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding steps,'' Section 17.3 · ``Using the step editor,'' Section 17.8

17.9 Creating and managing output requests
This section describes the Output Database Request Manager and how output requests are defined and managed. The following topics are covered:

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· ``Using the Output Database Request Manager to create and manage output requests, '' Section 17.9.1 · ``Creating an output request,'' Section 17.9.2 · ``Creating and modifying field output requests,'' Section 17.9.3 · ``Using the history output editor,'' Section 17.9.4 · ``Deleting output requests,'' Section 17.9.5 · ``Selecting default output requests,'' Section 17.9.6

17.9.1 Using the Output Database Request Manager to create and manage output requests
You use the Output Database Request Manager to create, edit, and manage the output requests associated with an analysis step. Select Output->Output Database from the main menu bar to display the Output Database Request Manager . An output request is composed of the following: · The region of the model for which ABAQUS writes data. · The variables that ABAQUS writes to the output database during the step. · The frequency at which ABAQUS writes the variables to the output database. · Where applicable, the section points for which ABAQUS writes data. To configure an output request, select the desired step from the list of steps on the left side of the Output Database Request Manager . The Field output and History output tabbed pages display the output requests defined during that step. You can use the buttons along the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager to edit and manipulate these output requests or to create new output requests. Note: You must use the Output Database Request Manager to manage your output requests; there are no equivalent menu selections.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4 · ``Creating and managing output requests,'' Section 17.9

17.9.2 Creating an output request
When you create a step, ABAQUS/CAE generates a default field output request based on the analysis procedure that you selected for the step. You can use the Output Database Request Manager to edit

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the default field output request, or you can create additional field or history output requests. Detailed instructions for creating an output request: 1. From the list of steps on the left side of the Output Database Request Manager , select the analysis step during which ABAQUS will write the desired data to the output database. 2. Click either the Field output or the History output tab. 3. At the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager , click Create. ABAQUS/CAE displays the appropriate output editor. The list of variable categories at the top of the editor reflects the procedure associated with the selected step. 4. In the editor, enter the data necessary to define the output request. For more information on using the editor, see ``Creating and modifying field output requests,'' Section 17.9.3, or ``Using the history output editor,'' Section 17.9.4. 5. When you have finished configuring your output request, click OK to save your selection and return to the Output Database Request Manager . The Output Database Request Manager displays the new output request.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4 · ``Creating and managing output requests,'' Section 17.9

17.9.3 Creating and modifying field output requests
You can use the field output editor to create and modify field output requests. Detailed instructions for creating or modifying a field output request: 1. In the top part of the field output editor, use the following techniques to specify the variables of interest: · In the top half of the editor, click the arrow next to the desired variable category. From the list of variables that appears, select the variables of your choice. · Toggle the desired variable category. This action selects or deselects all variables within that category. The check box next to a variable category becomes completely filled when all variables within that category are selected. The box becomes half filled if only some of the variables within that category are selected.

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Note: If you prefer, you can change the Variables option setting from Select from above to Edit and then manually type or delete variables in the Edit text field.

2. Choose one of the following to modify the section points from which variables will be output during the selected step:
Defaults

Choose Defaults to request that ABAQUS write data to the output database from the default section points. ABAQUS chooses the default section points based on the section selected in the Property module. (The default section points are usually the outer fibers of the section.) For more information see Chapter 15, "The Property module."
List

Choose List to manually type the section points for which ABAQUS will write data to the output database. The specified section points are used only during the selected output request; ABAQUS reverts to the default section points for subsequent output requests. 3. Specify the desired output frequency. For more information, see ``Controlling the output frequency'' in ``Output to the output database, '' Section 4.1.3 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. 4. Choose one of the following to modify the region from which variables will be output during the selected step:
Whole model

Choose Whole model to request that ABAQUS write data to the output database for the entire model.
Set name

Choose Set name to request that ABAQUS write data to the output database for only the named region. 5. When you have finished modifying the output request, click OK to save your changes and return to the Output Database Request Manager .

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4 · ``Creating and managing output requests,'' Section 17.9 · Chapter 15, "The Property module

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17.9.4 Using the history output editor
You can use the history output editor to create or modify output requests. Detailed instructions for creating or modifying a history output request: 1. In the top part of the history output editor, use the following techniques to specify the variables and variable components of interest: · In the top half of the editor, click the arrow next to the desired variable category. From the list of variables that appears, select the variables of your choice. If a variable of interest has components, click the arrow next to the variable and select the components of interest. To select or deselect all components of a variable, toggle the variable itself. · Toggle the desired variable category to select or deselect all variables and variable components within that category. The check box next to a variable category name becomes completely filled when all variables within that category are selected as well as all of the components of those variables. The box becomes half filled if only some of the variables or variable components within that category are selected. Likewise, the check box next to a variable name becomes completely filled when all components of that variable are selected. The box becomes half filled if only some of the components of that variable are selected.
Note: If you prefer, you can change the Variables option setting from Select from above to Edit and then manually type or delete variable components in the Edit text field.

2. Choose one of the following to modify the section points from which variables or components will be output during the selected step:
Defaults

Choose Defaults to request that ABAQUS write data to the output database from the default section points. ABAQUS/CAE chooses the default section points based on the section selected or defined in the Property module. (The default section points are usually the outer fibers of the section.) For more information see Chapter 15, "The Property module."
List

Choose List to manually type or delete the section points for which ABAQUS will write data to the output database. The specified section points are used only during the selected output request; ABAQUS reverts to the default section points for subsequent output requests. 3. Specify the desired output frequency. For more information, see ``Controlling the output frequency'' in ``Output to the output database, '' Section 4.1.3 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.

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4. Choose one of the following to modify the region from which variables will be output during the selected step:
Whole model

Choose Whole model to request that ABAQUS write data to the output database for the entire model.
Set name

Choose Set name to request that ABAQUS write data to the output database for only the named region. 5. When you have finished modifying the output request, click OK to save your changes and return to the Output Database Request Manager .

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Understanding output requests,'' Section 17.4 · ``Creating and managing output requests,'' Section 17.9 · Chapter 15, "The Property module"

17.9.5 Deleting output requests
You can use the Output Database Request Manager to delete an output request. You cannot recover a deleted output request. Detailed instructions for deleting an output request: 1. From the list of steps on the left of the Output Database Request Manager , select the analysis step containing the output request to delete. 2. Click the tab (Field output or History output) for the output request to delete. 3. Select the output request to delete. You cannot select more than one output request at a time. 4. At the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager , click Delete. ABAQUS/CAE deletes the selected output request. Tip: To delete only selected variables from within an output request, select the output request and click Edit. ABAQUS/CAE displays the appropriate editor, and you can add or delete variables from the output request.

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For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``What is an output request?,'' Section 17.4.1 · ``Creating and managing output requests,'' Section 17.9

17.9.6 Selecting default output requests
When you create an analysis step, ABAQUS/CAE creates a default output request associated with the analysis procedure that you selected for the step. If you modify or delete the output request or create additional output requests during the step, you can subsequently use the Output Database Request Manager to restore the original default output request to either the Field output or the History output tabbed page by clicking the tab and clicking Defaults. Only the output requests in the selected tabbed page are restored to their default values. For most procedures, the History output page is empty by default, so that selecting Defaults usually deletes all output requests in the History output page. Note: In most dialog boxes, when you click the Defaults button, ABAQUS/CAE reverts to the default settings in every tabbed page. However, when you click the Defaults button in the Output Database Request Manager , ABAQUS/CAE reverts to the default settings in only the tabbed page being displayed--Field output or History output. ABAQUS/CAE asks for confirmation before overwriting the existing output requests. Detailed instructions for selecting default output requests: 1. From the list of steps on the left of the Output Database Request Manager , select the analysis step for which all of the field or history output requests will be set to their default value. 2. Click either the Field output tab or the History output tab. 3. At the bottom of the Output Database Request Manager , click Defaults. ABAQUS/CAE displays a warning message and asks you to confirm that you want to replace the selected step's output requests in the selected page with the system-defined defaults. 4. Click Yes to restore the system-defined output requests for the selected type of output. ABAQUS/CAE deletes all the output requests on the tabbed page and restores the default output requests (if any).

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``What is an output request?,'' Section 17.4.1 · ``Creating and managing output requests,'' Section 17.9

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· ``Output to the output database, '' Section 4.1.3 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

17.10 Requesting specialized output
This section describes how you request and configure specialized output. The following topics are covered: · ``Configuring restart output requests,'' Section 17.10.1 · ``Configuring diagnostic printing,'' Section 17.10.2 · ``Configuring monitor requests,'' Section 17.10.3

17.10.1 Configuring restart output requests
Select Output->Restart Requests from the main menu bar to configure restart files. Detailed instructions for configuring a restart request: 1. From the main menu bar, select Output->Restart Requests. The Restart Requests dialog box appears with a list of the steps in the current model. 2. In the Frequency column for the desired step, specify the frequency in increments (for ABAQUS/Standard) or in intervals (for ABAQUS/Explicit) at which ABAQUS writes model definition data and output requests to the restart file. By default, ABAQUS writes restart information after every increment. To avoid writing the restart file during an ABAQUS/Standard step, set the frequency to zero. (It is impossible to avoid writing the restart file for ABAQUS/Explicit steps; if you set the frequency to zero for an ABAQUS/Explicit step, restart information will be written only at the end of the step.) 3. Click the Overlay column to request that only one increment be retained in the restart file, thus minimizing the size of the file. You can use the Overlay column only when the value in the Frequency column is greater than zero. 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each step of the analysis. 5. When you have finished configuring your restart output requests, click OK to close the Restart Requests dialog box.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Restart output requests,'' Section 17.5.1 4-537

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17.10.2 Configuring diagnostic printing
Select Output->Diagnostic Print to configure the diagnostic messages that ABAQUS writes to the message file (for ABAQUS/Standard) or to the status file (for ABAQUS/Explicit) and reports to the Job module during an analysis. If the analysis of your model fails or produces unexpected results, you can examine these messages and look at a step-by-step description of the analysis. (For more information, see ``Diagnostic printing,'' Section 17.5.2.) Detailed instructions for configuring diagnostic printing: 1. From the main menu bar, select Output->Diagnostic Print. The Diagnostic Print dialog box appears with a list of all the steps in the current model. 2. In the Frequency column, specify the frequency at which you want diagnostic printing data written for each step. (This option is not available for ABAQUS/Explicit analyses.) 3. Click in the other columns to request specific diagnostic information during a particular step. A check mark appears indicating that type of diagnostic printing has been enabled during the step. Click in the column again to turn off diagnostic printing. 4. When you have finished configuring your diagnostic printing, click OK to exit the Diagnostic Print dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Diagnostic printing,'' Section 17.5.2 · ``Requesting specialized output,'' Section 17.10

17.10.3 Configuring monitor requests
Use the DOF Monitor dialog box to monitor a degree of freedom at a point during the course of an analysis. ABAQUS reports the degree of freedom values for that point to the Job module, to the status file (jobname.sta), and, for ABAQUS/Standard analyses, to the message file (jobname.msg). For more information, see ``Degree of freedom monitor requests,'' Section 17.5.3. Detailed instructions for monitoring a degree of freedom: 1. From the main menu bar, select Output->DOF Monitor. The DOF Monitor dialog box appears. 2. In the dialog box, toggle Monitor a degree of freedom throughout the analysis. If Monitor a degree of freedom throughout the analysis is toggled on, the monitoring options

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become available in the dialog box. 3. Click the arrow next to the Point region field and select the set of your choice from the list that appears. (ABAQUS/CAE displays an error message if you select a set containing more than one vertex or node.) 4. In the Degree of freedom field, enter the degree of freedom that you want to monitor. 5. If you are performing an ABAQUS/Standard analysis, in the Print to the message file every n increments field, enter how often you want ABAQUS to write the degree of freedom values to the message file. (There is no option to control the frequency at which values are written to the status file, since this frequency is determined by ABAQUS. For more information, see ``Output,'' Section 4.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.) 6. Click OK to save your request and to exit the dialog box.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Degree of freedom monitor requests,'' Section 17.5.3 · ``Requesting specialized output,'' Section 17.10 · ``Monitoring the progress of an analysis job,'' Section 21.2.6

17.11 Customizing contact controls and adaptive meshing
This section explains how to customize contact and to how to configure adaptive remeshing in particular analysis steps. The following topics are covered: · ``Customizing optional solution controls for contact problems, '' Section 17.11.1 · ``Defining an adaptive mesh region,'' Section 17.11.2 · ``Specifying controls for adaptive remeshing,'' Section 17.11.3

17.11.1 Customizing optional solution controls for contact problems
The contact controls editor allows you to modify the algorithms used to enforce contact conditions. Customizing contact controls is analogous to including the *CONTACT CONTROLS option in an ABAQUS/Explicit input file. For more information, see ``Common difficulties associated with contact modeling,'' Section 20.5.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Note: Currently, this option is available only for ABAQUS/Explicit steps.

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Detailed instructions for customizing contact controls: 1. From the main menu bar select Other->Contact Controls. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Contact Controls Manager. 2. In the Contact Controls Manager, select the step of interest and then click Edit. ABAQUS/CAE displays the contact controls editor. 3. In the editor, select Use values below . 4. Enter the data necessary to specify the customized contact controls. For help on a particular editor feature, select Help->On Context from the main menu bar and then click the feature of interest. 5. Click OK to save your customized settings and to close the editor.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Solution controls for contact problems, '' Section 17.6.2

17.11.2 Defining an adaptive mesh region
Specifying an adaptive mesh domain in the Step module is equivalent to including the *ADAPTIVE MESH option in a solver input file. Note: Currently, this option is available only for ABAQUS/Explicit steps. In addition, you can define only one adaptive mesh domain for any particular step. Detailed instructions for applying adaptive mesh controls to a region: 1. From the main menu bar, select Other->Adaptive Mesh Domain->Manager. ABAQUS/CAE displays the Adaptive Mesh Domain Manager showing the steps defined in the model and the adaptive meshing controls associated with each step. 2. In the Adaptive Mesh Domain Manager, select the step during which you will configure the adaptive meshing and click Edit. ABAQUS/CAE displays the adaptive mesh domain editor. 3. At the top of the editor, select Use the adaptive mesh domain below . 4. Provide the following data: a. Select the set corresponding to the region you want to remesh. (For information on

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creating sets, see Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets.") b. If you want to specify nondefault adaptive mesh controls, toggle on Adaptive mesh controls and then select the name of the adaptive mesh controls to associate with the region. If you have not yet created mesh controls, you can click Create to the right of the Adaptive mesh controls field to define the controls that you want to assign to the adaptive mesh domain. c. Type the Frequency, in increments, at which ABAQUS/CAE will remesh the region. d. Type the number of Initial remeshing sweeps that ABAQUS/CAE will apply at the beginning of the step. e. Type the number of Remeshing sweeps per increment . An increment in this case is each adaptive mesh increment, as defined by the Frequency setting above. 5. Click OK to save the settings and to close the adaptive mesh domain editor. The Adaptive Mesh Domain Manager displays the adaptive mesh controls associated with the step. 6. Click Dismiss to close the Adaptive Mesh Domain Manager.

For information on related topics, click any of the following items: · ``Adaptive meshing,'' Section 7.6 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual · Chapter 45, "The Set and Surface toolsets"

17.11.3 Specifying controls for adaptive remeshing
Specifying adaptive mesh controls in the Step module is equivalent to including the *ADAPTIVE MESH CONTROLS option in a solver input file. Note: Currently, this option is available only for ABAQUS/Explicit steps. Detailed instructions for specifying controls for adaptive remeshing: 1. From the main menu bar, select Other->Adaptive Mesh Controls->Create. 2. In the dialog box that appears, type a name for the adaptive mesh controls and click Continue. ABAQUS/CAE displays the adaptive mesh controls editor. 3. In the editor, select the desired mesh controls. (For more information, see ``Adaptive meshing and

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remapping,'' Section 7.6.3 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.) 4. Click OK to save the named set of controls and close the editor.

For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Adaptive meshing,'' Section 7.6 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

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18. The Interaction module
You can use the Interaction module to define and manage the following objects: · Mechanical and thermal interactions between regions of a model or between a region of a model and its surroundings. · Analysis constraints between regions of a model. This chapter covers the following topics: · ``Understanding the role of the Interaction module,'' Section 18.1 · ``Entering and exiting the Interaction module,'' Section 18.2 · ``Understanding interactions,'' Section 18.3 · ``Understanding interaction properties,'' Section 18.4 · ``Understanding constraints,'' Section 18.5 · ``Understanding Interaction module managers and editors,'' Section 18.6 · ``Tutorial: Using the Interaction module,'' Section 18.7 · ``Using the Interaction module,'' Section 18.8 The tutorial will help you become familiar with techniques for creating and applying interaction definitions.

18.1 Understanding the role of the Interaction module
You can use the Interaction module to define the following: · Contact between two surfaces. · Elastic foundations. · Thermal film condition. · Radiation to and from the ambient environment. · A user-defined actuator/sensor interaction. Interactions are step-dependent objects, which means that when you define them, you must indicate in which steps of the analysis they are active. (For more information about step-dependent objects, see ``Understanding the status of an object in a step, '' Section 6.5.3.) For example, you can define film and radiation conditions on a surface only during a heat transfer, coupled temperature-displacement, or coupled thermal-electrical step. Similarly, you can define interaction with a user-defined actuator/sensor only during the initial step. The Set and Surface toolsets in the Interaction module allow you to define and name regions of your

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model to which you would like interactions applied. You can use the Amplitude toolset to define variations in some interaction attributes over the course of the analysis. ABAQUS/CAE does not recognize mechanical contact between part instances or regions of an assembly unless that contact is specified in the Interaction module; the mere physical proximity of two surfaces in an assembly is not enough to indicate any type of interaction between the surfaces. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Contact and interaction analysis: overview, '' Section 21.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and ``Contact analysis: overview,'' Section 20.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

18.2 Entering and exiting the Interaction module
You can enter the Interaction module at any time during an ABAQUS/CAE session by clicking Interaction in the Module list located under the toolbar. Interaction, Property, Constraint, Feature, and Tools menus appear on the main menu bar, and a Step list appears under the toolbar. To exit the Interaction module, click another module in the Module list. You need not take any specific action to save objects created in the Interaction module before exiting the module; they are saved automatically when you save the entire model by selecting File->Save or File->Save As from the main menu bar. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Understanding interactions,'' Section 18.3

18.3 Understanding interactions
You can use the Interaction module to define the following types of interactions: Surface-to-surface contact and self-contact Surface-to-surface contact interactions describe contact between two deformable surfaces or between a deformable surface and a rigid surface. Self-contact interactions describe contact between different areas on a single surface. Creating these types of interaction is analogous to including the *CONTACT PAIR option in a solver input file. For more information, see ``Contact and interaction analysis: overview, '' Section 21.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and ``Contact analysis: overview,'' Section 20.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Elastic foundation (ABAQUS/Standard only) Elastic foundations allow you to model the stiffness effects of a distributed support on a surface without actually modeling the details of the support. You can create elastic foundation interactions only in the initial step. Once an elastic foundation is activated, you cannot deactivate it in later analysis steps. Creating an elastic foundation is analogous to including the *FOUNDATION option in an 5-544

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ABAQUS/Standard input file. For more information, see ``Element foundations,'' Section 2.2.2 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. Thermal film condition Film conditions define surface heating or cooling due to convection by surrounding fluids. A film condition interaction is analogous to including the *SFILM option in a solver input file. You can define film interactions only during a heat transfer, fully coupled thermal-stress, or coupled thermal-electrical step. For more information, see ``Thermal loads,'' Section 19.4.3 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 18.4.3 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Radiation to and from the ambient environment Radiation interactions describe heat transfer between a nonconcave surface and a nonreflecting environment due to radiation. A radiation interaction is analogous to including the *SRADIATE option in a solver input file. You can define radiation interactions only during a heat transfer, fully coupled thermal-stress, or coupled thermal-electrical step. For more information, see ``Thermal loads,'' Section 19.4.3 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 18.4.3 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Actuator/sensor An actuator/sensor interaction models a combination of sensors and actuators and, therefore, allows for modeling control system components. Currently, this type of interaction allows sensing and actuation at just one point. The interaction definition and its optionally associated property are used to define the basic aspects of the interaction, but the user must provide user subroutine UEL to supply the specific formulae for how actuation depends on sensor readings. You specify the name of the file containing the user subroutine when you create the analysis job in the Job module. Warning: This feature is intended for advanced users only. Its use in all but the simplest test examples will require considerable coding by the user/developer. ``User-defined elements,'' Section 18.8.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual, should be read before proceeding. Actuator/sensor interactions are available only for ABAQUS/Standard analyses. For more information, see ``UEL,'' Section 23.2.19 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual, and Part VIII, "User Subroutines and Utilities," of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual. For information on related topics, click the following item: · ``Contact and interaction analysis: overview, '' Section 21.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and ``Contact analysis: overview,'' Section 20.1.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual

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18.4 Understanding interaction properties
You can define a set of data that is referred to by an interaction but is independent of the interaction; for example, the coefficients that define orthotropic friction during contact. This set of data is called an interaction property. One interaction property can be referred to by many different interactions. You can create the following types of interaction properties: Contact A contact interaction property can define tangential behavior (friction and elastic slip) and normal behavior (hard, soft, or damped contact and separation). In addition, a contact property can contain information about damping, thermal conductance, thermal radiation, and heat generation due to friction. A contact interaction property can be referred to by a surface-to-surface or self-contact interaction. Film condition A film condition interaction property defines a film coefficient as a function of temperature and field variables. A film condition interaction property can be referred to only by a film condition interaction. Actuator/sensor An actuator/sensor interaction property provides the PROPS, JPROPS, NPROPS, and NJPROPS variables that are passed into a user subroutine UEL used with an actuator/sensor interaction.

18.5 Understanding constraints
Constraints allow you to model kinematic relationships between points. Currently, you can create the following types of constraints: Tie Tie constraints allow you to fuse together two regions even though the meshes created on the surfaces of the regions may be dissimilar. Once you activate a tie constraint, you cannot deactivate it in any later analysis steps. Creating a tie constraint is analogous to including the *CONTACT PAIR, TIED option in a solver input file. For more information, see ``Defining tied contact,'' Section 21.2.4 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual and Section 20.2.4 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual. Equation Equations are linear, multi-point equation constraints that allow you to describe linear constraints between individual degrees of freedom. Defining an equation constraint is analogous to including the *EQUATION option in a solver input file. For more information, see ``Linear constraint equations,'' Section 20.2.1 of the ABAQUS/Standard User's Manual

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and Section 19.2.1 of the ABAQUS/Explicit User's Manual.

18.6 Understanding Interaction module managers and editors
This section describes how to manage and edit objects in the Interaction module using managers and editors. The following topics are covered: · ``Managing interactions, interaction properties, and constraints, '' Section 18.6.1 · ``Creating and modifying interactions,'' Section 18.6.2 · ``Creating interaction properties,'' Section 18.6.3 · ``Creating constraints,'' Section 18.6.4

18.6.1 Managing interactions, interaction properties, and constraints
The Interaction module provides the following managers that you can use to organize and manipulate all interactions, interaction properties, and constraints associated with a given model: · The Interaction Manager allows you to create and manage interactions. · The Interaction Property Manager allows you to create and manage interaction properties. · The Constraint Manager allows you to create and manage constraints. For