Literally speaking Dam means a body of water confined by a
Dams, structure that blocks the flow of river, stream, or other water way. Somedams divert the flow of river into a pipeline, canal, or channel. Others raise thelevel of inland water ways to make them navigable by ships and barrages. Manydams harness the energy of falling water to generate electric power. Dams alsohold water for drinking and crop irrigation, and provide flood control.The oldest known human made dams were built more than 5000 years ago inarid parts of the Middle East to divert river water to irrigate crops. Today thereare more than 500000 dams world wide. The wast majority of these are smallstructures less than 3m (10ft) high. Engineers regard dams that measure morethan 15m (50ft) high as large dams. About 40000 large dams exist in the worldtoday.Dams are of two types,1. Concrete dams2. Embankment dams
1. Concrete dams
Concrete dams are those whichare constructed of concrete andthey are mainly of three types,a. Gravity damsb. Arc damsc. Buttress dams
a. Gravity dams
Gravity dams are the concrete damswhich stayed due to their weight.
Aconcrete gravity dam has a crosssection such that with a flat bottom,the dam is free standing. That is, thedam has a center of gravity lowenough that the dam will not topple ifunsupported at the abutments. Gravitydams require maximum amounts ofconcrete for their construction ascompared with other kinds of concretedams, and resist dislocation by thehydrostatic pressure of reservoir water by sheer weight. A favourable site usuallyis one in a constriction in a valley where the sound bedrock is reasonably closeto the surface both in the floor and abutments of the dam. The availability of