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Mons Diseases Kvp

Mons Diseases Kvp

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Published by Dr.K.M. Abdulla

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Published by: Dr.K.M. Abdulla on Jun 30, 2010
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01/27/2013

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MONSOON DISEASES

Dr. K.V. PRABHAKARAN

Common diseases during monsoon 
Leptospirosis  Dengue fever  Chikungunya Viral hepatitis  Diarrhea  Common cold  Typhoid fever etc«..

Leptospirosis (Rat fever) 
Caused by Leptospira (diff serotypes)  L.icterohaemorrhagiae-Weils disease  Some serotypes are harmless  Leptospirosis varies from asymptomatic illness to severe disease and may be fatal too.

Leptospires are spiral bacteria (6-20micronsx0.1micron) 

Actively motile  With one both ends hooked  Usually seen by dark ground m/e

It is a zoonotic infection (Infection from animals)

One of the most widespread zoonosis

Where do Leptospires thrive 

Every mammal has the potential
to become carrier. 

Infected animals may not develop the
disease but become long term carriers 

They harbour leptospires in their
kidneys and shed in urine, contaminating the environment

Leptospires can survive for weeks in water or mud.

How does man get infected ?? 

by direct or indirect contact with
infected urine,tissues or secretions.

Leptospira gain entry through 

Small areas of damage on the skin or
via mucus membranes. 

Rarely enters through waterlogged
skin

Infection more common in certain occupational groups Farmers

Slaughter house workers

Veterinarians etc

Flooded roads

However 

It is not spread by animal bites or
insect vectors

Man to man spread (very rare) Congenital leptospirosis rarely occur

Clinical features
Asymptomatic  Simple fever, body ache  Jaundice  

severe fatal illness with renal failure

Laboratory diagnosis 

Detection of antibodies to leptospira (Igm) Dark ground m/e  

Culture of bacteria

Prevention
Rodent control  Appropriate waste disposal  

Use of protective foot wear  Cover cuts and abrasions  Appropriate disinfection of
contaminated water 

Vaccination of livestock pets  Antimicrobial prophylaxis
(doxycycline) in high risk exposure cases.

Dengue fever

(break bone fever) ) 

Highest incidence in SE Asia, India etc  Dengue ² from Swahili ² Ki denga pepo
(sudden seizure by demon) 

Caused by dengue virus (4 serotypes)

Dengue fever is transmitted by 

Bite of A. aegypti mosquitoes rarely A albopictus. albopictus. Day biting mosquito Abundant in and around habitation   

Dengue viruses are transmitted from person to person by Aedes mosquitoes.

(mosquito can infect another person only 3-10 day after 3blood meal)

Why more dengue following rainfall 

Peak breeding time Aedes mosquitoes breed in small collection and puddles of water 

Coconut shells

Discarded tyres

Clinical features
Incubation period ² 2-7 day  Simple dengue fever  Complicated dengue fever with hemorrhages 

Laboratory diagnosis 

Antibodies to dengue virus IgM and IgG antibodies 

ELISA test Immunochromatographic test

Prevention & Control 


Control mosquito population Patients with suspected dengue should be prevented from mosquito bites (under mosquito net)

Infection is rather spread by movement of persons and not much of mosquitoes

Viral hepatitis
Primary infection of liver  Caused by hepatitis virus . A,B,C,D,E & G Infectious hepatitis ² ( feco-oral route ) fecoHepatitisHepatitis-A HepatitisHepatitis-E In India ² associated with heavy rainfall 

Viral hepatitis

Man gets Infected by
Ingestion of contaminated water, food (Shell fish) or milk . 

Over crowding and poor sanitation favors spread

Viral hepatitis 

Virus multiplies in the intestines
through blood

Reaches liver

Hepatitis

Contd«..
Virus is shed in feces of infected persons

Contaminates water and food

Prevention & Control 

Improved sanitary practice

(prevention of fecal contamination of water and food ) 

Effective vaccine is available for hepatitis A (Two dose 1M) 

Hepatitis E Infection is generally mild.

However« 

It has 20-40% fatality rate in 20pregnant woman

Lab Diagnosis of hepatitis 

Detection of Ab to Hep A and Hep E Liver Function Test 

Enteric fever (Typhoid) 

Occurs throughout the year Seasonal variations may occur Caused by Salmonella typhi & paratyphi A,B&C  

Source of Infection 

A patient or a carrier.

Mode of infection 

Via contaminated water ,Milk & food

Lab Diagnosis 

Culture of organisms from blood,feces etc Serological test for detection of AbAbWIDAL test 

Control ² Hygienic measures

Diarrhea
In tropical countries Bacterial and protozoal diarrhea tend to occur in wetter season

Bacterial Cholera - Via contaminated water 


Rice water stools May be rapidly fatal

Treatment
Prompt rehydration is essential  ORS (Oral rehydration solution)  I/v fluids if necessary  Antibiotics like doxycycline 

Other pathogens

Entamoeba

Giardia

Lab diagnosis

Microscopy Culture

Control 

personal hygiene ( hand washing) Keep food covered 

Boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it

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