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Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture of Litopenaeus vannamei

Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture of Litopenaeus vannamei

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The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has widely replaced Penaeus monodon as the cultured species. One of the reasons for this change is the fact that L. vannamei can be cultured in higher densities and with a lower exchange of water, which increases the bio-security.
The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has widely replaced Penaeus monodon as the cultured species. One of the reasons for this change is the fact that L. vannamei can be cultured in higher densities and with a lower exchange of water, which increases the bio-security.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Jun 30, 2010
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July | August 2010 Feature title: Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture of Litopenaeus vannameih

International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

F: Mineral premix
Phosphate mineral salts for optimal growth

Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture of Litopenaeus vannamei
by Eric De Muylder of Belgium; Leon Claessens of The Netherlands and Frederic Martens of Belgium

A worldwide leader in phosphate creativity

www.prayon.com

PRAYON S.A. - 144, rue J. Wauters - 4480 Engis - Belgium - Tel: +32 4 273 93 15 - Fax: +32 4 275 68 36 - Email: FMartens@prayon.be

T

he white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has widely replaced Penaeus monodon as the cultured species. One of the reasons for this change is the fact that L. vannamei can be cultured in higher densities and with a lower exchange of water, which increases the bio-security. L. vannamei is a euryhaline species and can be cultured in salinities from 0 to 50ppt, although the best growth is obtained in salinities between 10 and 25ppt. In lower salinity culture, there is an osmotic pressure between the shrimp body and the surrounding water, resulting in automatic water uptake mainly through gills and intestine. With lower salinity the shrimp face
Table 1: Apparent digestibility of selected minerals K and P in different diets

Diet
0 4 6 10 12

ADC P
94,99% 96,46% 96,74% 99,46% 99,63%

ADC K
99,85% 99,93% 99,93% 99,98% 99,98%

more difficulties to uptake macro-minerals from the water. It has been shown that inclusion of these minerals through the feed can be a solution. However, Leaching of selected minerals in different diets leaching of these minerals, which are often highly water soluble Samples of feed were put in water reduces this option. with 0ppt salinity and 25°C for one hour. Therefore, a mix of specific minerals was The minerals in the feed were analysed developed which shows increased retention before and after leaching and corrected for in the pellets and is available for the shrimp.A moisture content and overall leaching. A growth trial confirms that shrimp show good reference diet, (0) without added minerals, growth even at low salinities when minerals was also analysed to have an idea of the are added in the feed. retention of minerals from the other ingredients. This gave a retention percentage for each mineral for each sample, which can be Leaching of minerals seen in Graph 1. from feed pellets It is clear that leaching of minerals In the first experiment, 12 diets were is especially important for Na and K, produced with a different mix of minerals. although we can see that some samples 98 percent of the ingredients used are the show a higher retention than others. same and two percent minerals were added.
12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | July-august 2010

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July-august 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 13

F: Mineral premix
Table 2: Growth results during week 1 and 2 Table 3: Growth results during week 3 and 4 with lower feeding frequency

F: Feature
total average weight salinity feed
day 14 day 21 day 28

average weight salinity feed start day 7 day 14

total
Growth (g/week)

Solubility and digestibility
The lower leaching rate (higher retention) could be the result of a lower solubility of the mineral; which could affect the digestibility of this minerals for the shrimp. Therefore, the apparent digestibility was tested for some selected growth trials. It is clear from Table 1 that for all diets, the digestibility of selected minerals is not the problem.

Growth (g/week)

10 ppt 10 ppt 10 ppt 10 ppt 5 ppt 5 ppt 5 ppt 5 ppt 10 ppt 5 ppt average average average average

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 average average 1 2 3 4

6,72 6,83 6,64 7,27 6,27 5,21 6,31 6,47 6,87 6,06 6,49 6,02 6,48 6,87

8,57 8,62 8,21 9,16 7,99 6,86 7,49 8,17 8,64 7,63 8,28 7,74 7,85 8,67

10,05 10,76 9,79 10,83 9,78 8,64 9,18 10,00 10,36 9,40 9,91 9,70 9,49 10,42

1,67 1,97 1,58 1,78 1,75 1,72 1,44 1,77 1,75 1,67 1,71 1,84 1,51 1,78

10 ppt 10 ppt 10 ppt 10 ppt 4 ppt 4 ppt 4 ppt 4 ppt 10 ppt 4 ppt average average average average

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 average average 1 2 3 4

10,05 10,76 9,79 10,83 9,78 8,64 9,18 10,00 10,36 9,40 9,91 9,70 9,49 10,42

11,68 12,20 11,24 11,74 11,05 10,06 10,64 11,50 11,71 10,81 11,36 11,13 10,94 11,62

12,82 13,12 12,44 13,02 11,97 11,38 12,16 12,34 12,85 11,96 12,39 12,25 12,30 12,68

1,39 1,18 1,33 1,1 1,1 1,37 1,99 1,17 1,25 1,28 1,24 1,28 1,41 1,13

Material and methods
From the leaching experiment, the most promising combinations were used for a feed trial. Four diets were produced on a small pellet mill with a diameter of two millimeters. Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were imported from Thailand and raised to two grams. They were then transferred to the CreveTec-AFT Research station in Venray and divided over 20 nets (volume 150L) in two separate tanks. Shrimp were acclimatised for several weeks to a lower salinity. Each tank is connected to a biofloc reactor to control water quality. This way, the water quality is equal for all nets. One tank was running on a salinity of 10ppt and the other on 5ppt. Each diet was used in three replicates for the 10ppt salinity and two replicates for the 5ppt salinity. Each net is equipped with a belt feeder. Feeding was adjusted daily to an estimated growth and percentage of biomass.

lower salinity anymore, maybe because shrimp adapted to this condition. The best growth was obtained with diet number three. For week five and six the feeding frequency was further lowered to only two times per day. To understand the influence of leaching on growth, the feed for the three replicates in tank number one was treated before feeding: Four nets received normal feeds; four nets received feeds which were first soaked in fresh water for one hour before feeding and four nets received feeds which were first soaked in tank water (10ppt) for one hour before feeding (see table 4). There was a clear influence of leaching on growth, indicating that leaching of nutrients is an imported factor in the growth of shrimp. Leaching for one hour in 10ppt water reduces the growth by 15 percent and leaching in fresh water reduces growth by 33 percent.

10ppt and lower salinity, which confirms earlier results of leaching and digestibility. Based on these results a special mineral premix was developed jointly by companies Prayon and CreveTec.

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inFormation:

Frederic Martens Prayon SA, Rue J Wauters 144 4480 Engis, Belgium Email: fmartens@prayon.be Tel: +32 4 2739310 Website: www.prayon.com Eric De Muylder CreveTec Email: eric@crevetec.be Website: www.crevetec.be Leon Claessens Aquaculture Farming Technology Email: info@aquaculture-ft.com Website: www.aquaculture-ft.com

Week one to six – overall performance (see table 5).
• Growth is negatively affected by lower EZ Artemia IAF2:Layout 1 6/16/2010 3:53 PM salinity. • The best growth was Is artemia throwing you for a loop? observed with diet number two for 10 and lower salinities.
Page 1

Table 4: Growth results during week 5 and 6: influence of leaching of pellets before feeding average weight leaching feed day 28 day 35 day 42 total Growth (g/week)

Table 5: Overall growth results

average weight

total Growth (g/week)

FCR

salinity

feed

start

day 42

Results
2,01 2,06 2,12 2,29 2,23 1,6 2,09 2,28 2,12 2,05 2,12 1,83 2,1 2,28

no no no no 0 ppt 0 ppt 0 ppt 0 ppt 10 ppt 10 ppt 10 ppt 10 ppt no 0 ppt 10 ppt

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 average average average

11,16 12,36 10,77 13,04 13,69 13,95 13,18 12,99 13,60 13,04 13,36 13,02 11,83 13,45 13,25

12,43 13,36 11,7 14,31 14,46 14,69 14,38 13,75 14,47 14,66 13,77 13,89 12,95 14,32 14,2

14 14,61 12,93 15,73 15,62 15,59 14,94 14,38 15,68 15,65 15,13 14,97 14,32 15,13 15,36

1,42 1,13 1,08 1,35 0,97 0,82 0,88 0,7 1,04 1,32 0,89 0,98 1,25 0,84 1,06

10 ppt 10 ppt 10 ppt 10 ppt 5-2 ppt 5-2 ppt 5-2 ppt 5-2 ppt 10 ppt 5-2 ppt average average average average

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 average average 1 2 3 4

6,72 6,83 6,64 7,27 6,27 5,21 6,31 6,47 6,87 6,06 6,49 6,02 6,48 6,87

15,10 15,28 14,33 15,02 13,83 12,55 13,63 14,07 14,94 13,52 14,46 13,92 13,98 14,55

1,4 1,41 1,28 1,29 1,26 1,38 1,22 1,27 1,35 1,24 1,33 1,4 1,25 1,28

During the first two weeks (see table 2) the shrimp were fed continuously through a belt feeder. Growth was good for all replicates. Average growth loss between 10ppt and 5ppt was 4.3 percent. The most promising diets were diet number two and four. For diet four there was no growth diffference between salinities. These results show that Litopenaeus vannamei can easily be grown at good growth rates in lower salinities if minerals are added in the diet. For week three and four the feeding frequency was lowered to only four times per day. This will result in slower feed uptake, longer interaction of feed and water and higher leaching of minerals from the feed. The salinity of tank number two was lowered from five to four ppt. Growth was affected negatively by the lower feeding frequency and dropped to 1.25g/week (see table 3). There was no negative influence of

Conclusion
Growth and survival are negatively affected by lower salinity of pond water and by decreasing feeding frequency. The addition of various minerals in feeds makes it possible to still obtain growth in those conditions. Diet number two seems to be the best source of minerals in both

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14 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | July-august 2010

July-august 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 15

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Inclusion of a mineral premix for lowsalinity culture
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Evaluation of Vibrio control
- with a multi-species probiotic in shrimp aquaculture

Recent advances in the use of diformates in fish

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