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Direct Measurement of Airfoil Lift and Drag

David Clark

Group 1

MAE 449 – Aerospace Laboratory

Abstract

The characterization of lift an airfoil can generate is an important process in the field of

aerodynamics. The following exercise studies a NACA 0012 airfoil with a chord of 4 inches. By varying

the angle of attack at a known Reynolds number, the lift coefficient, Cl, can be determined by using a

two-component dynamometer. Normalizing the lift and drag forces against the reference area, as well

as correcting for some disturbances due to the experiment setup. The lift and drag coefficient calculated

using this setup is less accurate than previous methods.

2|Page

Contents

Abstract .................................................................................................................................................. 2

Introduction and Background................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 4

Governing Equations .......................................................................................................................... 4

Similarity ............................................................................................................................................. 5

Boundary Corrections ......................................................................................................................... 5

Equipment and Procedure ..................................................................................................................... 7

Equipment .......................................................................................................................................... 7

Experiment Setup ............................................................................................................................... 7

Basic Procedure .................................................................................................................................. 8

Data, Calculations, and Analysis ............................................................................................................. 8

Raw Data ............................................................................................................................................ 8

Preliminary Calculations ..................................................................................................................... 9

Results .................................................................................................................................................. 13

Discussion and Conclusions .................................................................................................................. 16

References ............................................................................................................................................ 17

Raw Data .............................................................................................................................................. 17

3|Page

**Introduction and Background
**

Introduction

The following laboratory procedure explores the aerodynamic lift and drag forces experienced by a

NACA 0012 cylinder placed in a uniform free-stream velocity. This will be accomplished using a wind

tunnel and various pressure probes along an airfoil as the subject of study.

When viscous shear stresses act along a body, as they would during all fluid flow, the resultant force

can be expressed as a lift and drag component. The lift component is normal to the airflow, whereas the

drag component is parallel.

To further characterize and communicate these effects, non-dimensional coefficients are utilized.

For example, a simple non-dimensional coefficient can be expressed as

ܥ =

ܨ

1

ቀ2 ߩܸ ଶ ቁ

ோாி

ܣோாி

Equation 1

where F is either the lift or drag forces, AREF is a specified reference area, ρ is the density of the fluid, and

V is the net velocity experienced by the object.

Governing Equations

To assist in determining the properties of the working fluid, air, several proven governing

equations can be used, including the ideal gas law, Sutherland’s viscosity correlation, and Bernoulli’s

equation. These relationships are valid for steady, incompressible, irrotational flow at nominal

temperatures with negligible body forces.

The ideal gas law can be used to relate the following

ܴܶߩ =

Equation 2

**where p is the pressure of the fluid, R is the universal gas constant (287 J/(kg K)), and T is the
**

temperature of the gas. This expression establishes the relationship between the three properties of air

that are of interest for use in this experiment.

4|Page

**Another parameter needed is the viscosity of the working fluid. Sutherland’s viscosity
**

correlation is readily available for the testing conditions and can be expressed as

ߤ=

ܾܶ .ହ

ܵ

1+

ܶ

Equation 3

**where b is equal to 1.458 x 10-6 (kg)/(m s K^(0.5)) and S is 110.4 K.
**

Finally, Bernoulli’s equation defines the total stagnation pressure as

1

= + ߩܸ ଶ

2

Equation 4

Similarity

Using the previous governing equations, we can use the Reynolds number. The Reynolds

number is important because it allows the results obtained in this laboratory procedure to be scaled to

larger scenarios. The Reynolds number can be expressed as

ܴ݁ =

ߩܸܿ

ߤ

Equation 5

**where c is a characteristic dimension of the body. For a cylinder, this dimension will be the diameter. As
**

a result, the Reynolds number based on diameter is referenced as ReD.

Boundary Corrections

The following experiment must consider three different corrections due to the setup of the

tunnel section.

First, the “squeezing” of the inviscid flow causes the streamlines to flatten and push toward the

center of the test section. This effect is referred to as horizontal buoyancy. To correct for this effect, the

following expressions can be defined.

∆ܦ = −

6ℎଶ

݀

Λߪ

ߨ

݀ݔ

Equation 6

5|Page

ߪ=

ߨଶ ܿ ଶ

ቀ ቁ

48 ℎ

Equation 7

**The parameters used in these expressions include
**

•

h, the height of the wind tunnel section

•

Λ, the body shape factor (estimated from empirical charts)

•

dp/dx, the static pressure gradient

•

**c, the chord of the foil
**

The second consideration corrects for blockage due to equipment within the wind tunnel itself.

**Like the previous correction, simple expressions have been derived to adjust the parameters.
**

ߝ௦௪ = Λߪ

Equation 8

ߝ௦௦ =

0.96ሺܸ݈௦௧௨௧ ሻ

ଷ

ܣ௧௨ ଶ

Equation 9

**ߝ௦ = ߝ௦௪ + ߝ௦௦
**

Equation 10

ߝ௪ =

ܿ/ℎ

ܥ

4 ௗ௨

Equation 11

**Though some parameters have already been defined, the corrections for blockage introduce the
**

following parameters.

•

Volstrut, the volume of the strut

•

Atunnel, the cross-sectional area of the tunnel

•

Cdu, the uncorrected drag coefficient

Finally, the last set of expressions corrects for the presence of the floor and ceiling within the

wind tunnel.

Δߙ௦ =

57.3ߪ

൬ܥ௨ + 3ܥ ௨ ൰

2ߨ

ସ

Equation 12

6|Page

Δܥ,௦ = −ߪܥ௨

Equation 13

1

Δܥ ,௦ = − Δܥ,௦

4

ସ

Equation 14

where

•

Clu, the uncorrected lift coefficient

•

**Cmc/4u, the uncorrected c/4 moment coefficient
**

The use of each correction equation is further explained in the calculation section.

**Equipment and Procedure
**

Equipment

The following experiment used the following equipment:

•

A wind tunnel with a 1-ft x 1-ft test section

•

NACA 0012 airfoil section

•

A transversing mechanism to move the pitot tube to various sections of the test section

•

A Pitot-static probe

•

Digital pressure transducer

•

Data Acquisition (DAQ) Hardware

•

Two-component dynamometer (to measure lift and drag forces)

Experiment Setup

Before beginning, the pressure and temperature of laboratory testing conditions was measured and

recorded. Using equations 2 and 3, the density and viscosity of the air was calculated.

The UAH wind tunnel contains cutouts to allow the NACA airfoil to be mounted inside the test

section. The two-component dynamometer can measure the force exerted perpendicular and parallel to

the airflow, which represent the lift and drag respectively.

7|Page

Basic Procedure

To ensure the working flow is relatively laminar and within a range acceptable for study, the

procedure initiated flow with a Reynolds number of 250,000. The velocity at which the laboratory air

must be accelerated was determined by solving equation 5 for velocity. First, the density and viscosity of

the air must be calculated using equations 2 and 3 respectively.

Using the DAQ hardware, the lift and drag at each angle of attack and specified dynamic pressure

was recorded.

**Data, Calculations, and Analysis
**

Raw Data

The following table catalogs the pressure read by the DAQ hardware for the specified rotations.

Three data sets were taken to ensure integrity.

8|Page

Data Set 1

Angle

-4

-2

-0.25

2

4

6

8

10

12

Dynamic Pressure

868

868

867

865

866

867

864

868

867

Angle

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Dynamic Pressure

869

868

868

867

868

868

869

867

868

Lift

-2.50

-0.65

1.32

2.41

5.77

8.58

9.92

10.90

8.10

Drag

-0.51

-0.43

-0.28

-0.35

-0.42

-0.54

-0.63

-0.75

-2.95

Lift

1.35

1.50

3.48

5.83

7.18

8.49

9.23

10.97

8.17

Drag

-0.40

-0.38

-0.41

-0.44

-0.50

-0.57

-0.58

-0.77

-2.99

Lift

1.35

1.43

3.03

4.25

5.95

8.43

10.05

10.75

9.30

Drag

-0.38

-0.40

-0.40

-0.42

-0.45

-0.56

-0.67

-0.75

-2.35

Data Set 2

Data Set 3

Angle

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Dynamic Pressure

867

868

866

867

867

868

867

867

868

Table 1

Preliminary Calculations

First, the density and viscosity of the air at laboratory conditions was calculated. This can easily be

accomplished using equation 2 and 3.

ߩ=

99.1݇ܲܽ

݇݃

=

= 1.1660 ଷ

ܴܶ 287 ܬ296.15ܭ

݉

݇݃ܭ

Equation 15

9|Page

݇݃

ି

.ହ

݇݃

ܾܶ .ହ ൬1.827 × 10 ݉ ܭ ݏ.ହ ൰ ሾሺ296.15 ܭሻ ሿ

=

= 1.83 × 10ହ

ߤ=

ܵ

110.4 ܭ

݉ݏ

1+

1+

ܶ

296.15 ܭ

Equation 16

**For a Reynolds number of 250,000, the velocity of the airflow must therefore be
**

ܴ݁ ߤ

ܸ=

=

ߩܿ

ሺ250000ሻ ൬1.83 × 10ହ

൬1.1660

݇݃

൰

݉ݏ

݇݃

൰ ሺ0.1016 × 10ିଶ ݉ሻ

݉ଷ

= 38.57

݉

ݏ

Equation 17

**This value is determined using the definition of the Reynolds number where c, the reference length, is
**

the known value of the chord, 0.1016 meters. For reference, the value for q can be calculated as

1

1

݇݃

݉ ଶ

ݍஶ = ߩܸ ଶ = ൬1.1660 ଷ ൰ ቀ38.57 ቁ = 867.37 ܲܽ

2

2

݉

ݏ

Equation 18

All three data sets can be combined by averaging the three records for each angle.

Averaged Data

Angle

-4

-2

-0.25

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Lift

0.0667

0.7600

1.3200

3.2550

4.1633

6.3000

8.5000

9.7333

10.8733

8.5233

Drag

-0.4300

-0.4033

-0.2800

-0.4050

-0.4033

-0.4567

-0.5567

-0.6267

-0.7567

-2.7633

Table 2

The lift and drag can be used in equation one to determine the lift and drag coefficients. For

example, for -4 degrees angle of attack

ܥ =

ܨ

0.0667ܰ

=

= 0.0025

1 ଶ

݇݃

1

݉ ଶ

ቀ2 ߩܸ ቁ

ܣோாி ൬ ൬1.660 ଷ ൰ ቀ38.57 ቁ ൰ ሺ0.03064݉ଶ ሻ

2

ݏ

݉

ோாி

Equation 19

10 | P a g e

ܥௗ =

ܨ

0.4300ܰ

=

= 0.0162

1 ଶ

݇݃

݉ ଶ

1

ܣோாி ൬ ൬1.660 ଷ ൰ ቀ38.57 ቁ ൰ ሺ0.03064݉ଶ ሻ

ቀ ߩܸ ቁ

2

ݏ

2

݉

ோாி

Equation 20

Below is a table of the lift and drag coefficients. These lift coefficients must be corrected for the

three corrections mentioned previously.

Averaged Data

Angle

-4

-2

-0.25

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Lift Coefficient

0.0025

0.0286

0.0497

0.1225

0.1567

0.2371

0.3198

0.3662

0.4091

0.3207

Drag Coefficient

0.0162

0.0152

0.0105

0.0152

0.0152

0.0172

0.0209

0.0236

0.0285

0.1040

Table 3

**To begin correcting for horizontal buoyancy, the following parameters need to be calculated.
**

ߪ=

ߨ ଶ ܿ ଶ ߨ ଶ 0.1016݉ ଶ

ቀ ቁ =

൬

൰ = 0.0228

48 ℎ

48 0.3048݉

Equation 21

∆ܦ = −

ܲܽ

6ℎଶ

݀

6ሺ0.3048݉ሻଶ

ሺ0.3ሻሺ0.0228ሻ ൬−120.3 ൰ = 0.1463ܰ

Λߪ

=−

ߨ

ߨ

݉

݀ݔ

Equation 22

**It is important to note Λ is assuming a thickness to chord ratio is 0.3.
**

ߝ௦௪ = Λߪ = ሺ0.3ሻሺ0.0228ሻ = 6.853 × 10ିଷ

Equation 23

ߝ௦௦ =

**0.96ሺܸ݈௦௧௨௧ ሻ 0.96ሺ5.96 × 10ିହ ݉ଷ ሻ
**

=

= 2.021 × 10ିଷ

ሺ0.0929݉ଶ ሻଷ/ଶ

ܣଷ/ଶ

Equation 24

**The volume of the strut and cross-sectional area were known.
**

ߝ௦ = ߝ௦௪ + ߝ௦௦ = 6.853 × 10ିଷ + 2.021 × 10ିଷ = 8.887 × 10ିଷ

Equation 25

11 | P a g e

The correction parameters εwb, Δαsc, ΔClsc, and ΔCmc/4sc are calculated on the fly for each angle since

these expressions utilize the uncorrected lift and drag coefficient, which varies for each angle of attack.

For example, for 0 degrees angle of attack

ߝ௪ =

ܿ/ℎ

0.1016݉/0.3048݉

ሺ−0.0152ሻ = −0.0013

ܥௗ௨ =

4

4

Equation 26

**Δܥ,௦ = −ሺߪሻሺܥ௨ ሻ = −ሺ0.0228ሻሺ0.1225ሻ = −0.0028
**

Equation 27

1

1

Δܥ, ,௦ = − Δܥ,௦ = − ሺ−0.0028ሻ = 0.0007

4

4

ସ

Equation 28

To further demonstrate the usage of the correction factors above, the parameters for the zero

angle of attack will all be calculated.

ܸ = ܸ௨ ሺ1 + ߝ௦ + ߝ௪ ሻ = 38.56

݉

݉

൫1 + ሺ8.874 × 10ିଷ ሻ + ሺ−0.0013 × 10ିଷ ሻ൯ = 38.86

ݏ

ݏ

Equation 29

ݍ = ݍ௨ ሺ1 + 2ߝ௦ + 2ߝ௪ ሻ = 867.37ܲܽ൫1 + 2ሺ8.874 × 10ିଷ ሻ + 2ሺ−0.0013 × 10ିଷ ሻ൯ = 880.87ܲܽ

Equation 30

**ܴ݁ = ܴ݁௨ ሺ1 + ߝ௦ + ߝ௪ ሻ = 249947൫1 + ሺ8.874 × 10ିଷ ሻ + ሺ−0.0013 × 10ିଷ ሻ൯ = 251847
**

Equation 31

ߙ = ߙ௨ +

57.3ߪ

57.3ሺ0.0228ሻ

൬ܥ௨ + 4ܥ, ,௨ ൰ = 0 +

൫0.1225 + 4ሺ0.0007ሻ൯ = 0.03 ݀ܽݎ

2ߨ

2ߨ

ସ

Equation 32

ܥௗ௨ =

**ሺܦ௨ − Δܦ ሻ ൫ሺ0.4050ܰሻ − ሺ0.1463ܰሻ൯
**

=

= 0.0208

ሺ867ܲܽሻሺ0.0306݉ଶ ሻ

ݍ௨ ܵ

Equation 33

**ܥௗ = ܥௗ௨ ሺ1 − 3ߝ௦ − 2ߝ௪ ሻ = 0.0208൫1 − 3ሺ8.874 × 10ିଷ ሻ − 2ሺ−0.0013 × 10ିଷ ሻ൯ = 0.0095
**

Equation 34

12 | P a g e

Results

Using the same procedure outlined above, the following table catalogs all the parameters used in

calculating the corrected lift and drag coefficient.

Correction Calculation Summary

Uncorrected Data

Experimental

Angle of Attack

-4

-2

-0.25

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Average

Dynamic

Pressure

868.0

868.0

867.0

867.0

866.3

867.0

867.7

866.7

867.3

867.7

Experimental

Angle of Attack

-4

-2

-0.25

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

ε,wb

0.0013

0.0013

0.0009

0.0013

0.0013

0.0014

0.0017

0.0020

0.0024

0.0087

Experimental

Angle of Attack

-4

-2

-0.25

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Corrected Angle

of Attack

-4.00

-1.99

-0.24

0.03

2.03

4.05

6.07

8.08

10.09

12.07

Reynolds Number

Velocity

250091

38.59

250091

38.59

249947

38.56

249947

38.56

249850

38.55

249947

38.56

250043

38.58

249898

38.56

249995

38.57

250043

38.58

Corrected Data / Correction Factors

Corrected Dynamic Corrected Reynolds

Pressure

Number

885.75

252647

885.60

252626

883.91

252384

884.59

252482

883.90

252384

884.87

252523

886.10

252698

885.46

252607

886.84

252806

898.10

254428

Corrected Data / Correction Factors

ΔCm,c/4,sc

0.0000

0.0002

0.0003

0.0007

0.0009

0.0014

0.0018

0.0021

0.0023

0.0018

Cl

0.0024

0.0274

0.0476

0.1172

0.1499

0.2268

0.3057

0.3499

0.3906

0.3021

Lift

Coefficient

0.0025

0.0286

0.0497

0.1225

0.1567

0.2371

0.3198

0.3662

0.4091

0.3207

Drag

Coefficient

0.0162

0.0152

0.0105

0.0152

0.0152

0.0172

0.0209

0.0236

0.0285

0.1040

Corrected

Velocity

38.98

38.98

38.94

38.96

38.94

38.96

38.99

38.97

39.01

39.26

ΔCl,sc

-0.0001

-0.0007

-0.0011

-0.0028

-0.0036

-0.0054

-0.0073

-0.0084

-0.0093

-0.0073

Cdu

0.0107

0.0097

0.0050

0.0097

0.0097

0.0117

0.0154

0.0181

0.0230

0.0984

Cd

0.0104

0.0094

0.0049

0.0095

0.0094

0.0113

0.0150

0.0175

0.0222

0.0941

Table 4

13 | P a g e

Cl versus Angle of Attack

2.5000

**Force Measurement Method (Lab 3)
**

Pressure Method (Lab 2)

2.0000

Xfoil Results

NACA Data (Re=130000)

1.5000

Naca Data (Re=330000)

Cl

1.0000

0.5000

0.0000

-4.00

-2.00

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

-0.5000

Angle of Attack (Degrees)

Figure 1

Figure 1 contains the various lift coefficients versus angle of attack for all the methods described

previously, as well as the previous lab session.

14 | P a g e

0.0400

**Cd versus Angle of Attack
**

Force Measurement Method (Lab 3)

0.0350

Xcode Results

NACA 0012 (Re=170000)

0.0300

NACA 0012 (Re=330000)

Cd

0.0250

0.0200

0.0150

0.0100

0.0050

0.0000

-4.00

-2.00

0.00

2.00

4.00

Angle of Attack

6.00

8.00

10.00

Figure 2

15 | P a g e

**L/D versus Angle of Attack
**

100

Force Measurement Method (Lab 3)

Xfoil Results

80

**NACA 0012 (Re=170000)
**

NACA 0012 (Re=330000)

60

L/D

40

20

0

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

-20

-40

Angle of Attack

Figure 3

**Discussion and Conclusions
**

Comparing the lift coefficient curves plotted in figure 1, the pressure measurement method

most closely matches the NACA data. The worst method was the force measurement technique, which

was the only method that did not recognize zero lift at a zero angle of attack. The Reynolds number had

very little effect on the lift coefficient.

The best method for determining the drag coefficient is the force measurement method. As

Reynolds number increases, the amount of drag decreases.

The accuracy of the computer simulation is dubious. The software would not solve reliably, and

several data points were off the charts.

The force measurement method should not be the recommended procedure for determining

the lift and drag coefficients due to the poor control and lack of repeatability.

16 | P a g e

12

References

“Aerodynamics Lab 3 – Direct Measurement of Airfoil Lift and Drag.” Handout

Raw Data

Aero Lab 1

Fall 07

p

t

row

u

q

V

99100

23

1.165950252

1.82773E-05

867.3710308

38.57246947

R=

b=

S=

287

0.000001458

110.4

T=

c=

Re=

span=

Aref

296.15

0.1016

250000

0.3016

0.030643

Data Set 1

Angle

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

experimental

angle

-4

-2

-0.25

2

4

6

8

10

12

experimental

q

868

868

867

865

866

867

864

868

867

Lift

-0.25

-0.065

0.132

0.241

0.577

0.858

0.992

1.09

0.81

Drag

-0.051

-0.043

-0.028

-0.035

-0.042

-0.054

-0.063

-0.075

-0.295

experimental

angle

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

experimental

q

869

868

868

867

868

868

869

867

868

Lift

0.135

0.15

0.348

0.583

0.718

0.849

0.923

1.097

0.817

Drag

-0.04

-0.038

-0.041

-0.044

-0.05

-0.057

-0.058

-0.077

-0.299

Data Set 2

Angle

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

Data Set 3

17 | P a g e

Angle

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

experimental

angle

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

experimental

q

867

868

866

867

867

868

867

867

868

Lift

0.135

0.143

0.303

0.425

0.595

0.843

1.005

1.075

0.93

Drag

-0.038

-0.04

-0.04

-0.042

-0.045

-0.056

-0.067

-0.075

-0.235

18 | P a g e

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