Johri T. Drew sarah A., M.

,yer -;;i;;;;i;;;==--======I

Fot eWf dllu'gl'~~r:l ON1.I.i4 ifnd Qlstllva 'Who 1ofNj#1 ,UlI; evel'rde .... Rild"~N m9ntliP'1\ EI:!lptMiIJ'JV' PMNp B, MIl,tmS'afW Aldm Oud'ri.

,~Y-tJghfC" ~td'r.'1.1"M1 SiA 2):6

p~r~ nr..:t i;tilllnr-flTmi.O_n·;" lne, iJ!pHalnlllb ud t'iio PTopefff or PltrL(filll!L ~ ~!}I"t. -ue, •• r.ldanull '"" Dnl,1 ~Coff~-:rfgJrt1i u!ltd ...-!tf1:

~IlIlD.ii"" .I'd tfi~lillM.d, III' ll>;Ito;ll1lwn {l'" 1I,,;tln Sui.,. iI.

... 11 ,Ib~'" !~~-,.,~.f, ~.ri""Uif 1111. l;lrlilll"'~ m.~ li~ f"nrnJlu"...r;u, l5'i'IliI:!U L., • IlI!ll'"llil!'''~fI~JI:eln, o.r 'l.rilnuTlUltd III DJ1o'iJ' ~l;!rl'J"ll (IT L'J!' 111"-",,'

1io·¢'lIlo;,n!iil,

".:.. II< E~I~~["QFl;~

EJ-I'iiJlfdWI HIh.II~r ~til !l1n';:'[ljI'fi·F.;r1ifr1 H.~" er~$ 1';;;0, uK'

~ .... ,qiln~lJ >2 I~ OU FOOl +4!~ ,Q.)12.'1a1:l1H;(t

mDi.l1riar pCOOl:f:ad -D:I ~ book" fNe tiD'"~ DOC Dfw~, ~Q

'~];"76JH3:! IliI!iNio2~_lB'1

Cfl:nrU"'i"i Ojr'D-Zt!lU, JG.lIn it Cr~ rtn~ Sant;rl6. ~ EG[]~ odillr~ b'., Joon t CI'D'('I' -Nld, S211'~ ~ ~

~~ cnIR~6v......,'i>; ..,.hoT, fit .... dtf.,,,,, ~ M~

PinD!~m .h_1~~~""~ Irr JQha r.l!"!",.od lliorO~~, M~r l\'oo!l>ior.ttr (l1i1l"" 224. Rnd,U,r'-","":,,

~~ Wl!l .I~," 1i. C ...... ~·.s.r.l> '" t.jofffl ~~,;h~ ]:"IF~~ ••• mr !:i'~DD;; Jplu!T.. _ PM

mJl'ltic1 .Iolm T. Om"" ,lit 1t::..,W@riAlri:Of'j.I.u.r~ (II S:or,i!i,A, ~r"zil :SDrr~rt?¢I:~~lIi(I(iiJ.lltJl,ji

lana

ent

J'ohn T. Dtrew

Sarah A. Meyer

-

A. C,ompreben,sive Guide for Graphic Designers

He

Stlll1.~il'tIC. nil i.DjJ~og~'r, fmll~"([ It note to [he prlncipe I

and he WilS t~Hall~h the door nnd !tolle,

II'~ re!l\lflled hls trip across tin:: country,

stoppj ng at !I\'sry bar tu rake a I,efd', IIlld hove n beer, and Olll;..qide nn the !It:rt'<ll when 11.0 one was looJllng, he .... '01lld drap hiR pants.

He drove ~ wluce ; 5IJ C!m!ilh.ic ccnvcrtjble aud 'W(H'e !il red _hrlr h,~,t

und wnj;;i.\ 1.1 e wen ~ 5'~'inuning

hc won: flue cescent green swim Ii us, ~I ilUOI"f::SC1e1U blae face masl;.

and a iluorescellt o .... .lJlge saorkel

Laker he beenrne fJlr.IJJou~ lor serving paneake hreak~lllits in the municrpul ]J'tITl!tll uhil1E11l '10""'11~,

l'hm.lgh unannounced, rhey were well auended.

7
1
2
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U1
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196
200
220
221 I nl!1r1[1dm:tion

The TerminolDgy 1lI~ Golor ~ilS,~~ 'Coior Th e Drd,a 8 Atldi:tlVB Color Theor'll Slibtra~tive Color The'ory 3-D CoIG~ Theory

The Creation of Color Wheels,

The S~e'Gtral flange' 01 Colot Wheels Elo:~l3!'lding the Color Wl1e!)1

Color legibility

Fle~ d~1J Ility

legll:ljdltv

C(}nl~~,M

Warnl anti Cool Colors ThE! Color Matrix

Utilizing F[eid Colors with Text TYI)e ()olor ta lib'f!Ltl;;m ~ ndl OV!lflPrll'lltil'llg Color Silllk.ing ,pnd Overllril1tin(! Quality of Colot Proofs

Colo" Prep're~~ lind I'rillltilll1l

Dot Qlliii

U nde reo lor Ram oval

Pixels" L I n~'!;. arHIi i)o'ts p:l a r Inch

911 O,~plh Rang,!! and H,aw FmmattinQ Pri n [i ng 0 rder

Ctllar Cmf,acling lmijJge~ for Press

Typ'a Rever8BI~ end KnQ.cI('outs "/[lt, Solids, lint>i>, and Shades BehavIDr!!1 EJlee1~ of C'olor

Micro ColQr Responses

Macro ector Assccrauons

Ac'm{.w',~d!!lmonU

Co nt rib LUll r~

Incielt;

Contents

~ "11ft if1 'I;Imli .11~idP..Jr ~d.l!.z.:Jlb~ff,I. m.-"lff"lhlr~ .. , lIIuJUlllltlllJ. 11UU. ~ILI. ~IIII. ~I\I~ II 11111 111 .•. 1.1 01 [!II T~.I t:ILiJly SiDlblD Iloo:J D [lr'J'IlI~ OJ .I bU .1 nu 'hll • "-"'1111 Inri H1.~",., L..!"l& "I'" ~'IU"'IXIIIlI'" Iii" ""'''I~,,' !oil 1U1J1Si11'..L., l!it "I~ !Iot'V llulJlI. ..JIIJ>JI J",_,LIIijtII, l:!Jillir~.1m "',,"*·1;110 ."·0" 10 111I1Il< • ~OI.i!D, ~r:..t 11'-'I1IJ1Ii11 &.:JII b .. ~. ~IIN:I PQ 11; .. :Ibl~~ FUf!F II"I1(1 .. r It ..'1 IJ:ln.~~fl1~ 1111111.,.1.11111 fml1't III ~~I~~H 1''''l..1o 1It.b ', J;lt..Jel n'!.'~,.j1·'i 111m. 1111 !lDI li:fD1!I1 .... - jltllh1, .. 1111L Itl.:'l I III h.ll[.1~1I111l J enn I nlillilbi!l

1'""lli. ~""""'~~ "'I""J; •• 'I:' =======:;;;;;;=====:1'= - ~~' .• ','.' ".

Ul,!·.h· .•. WlJl1l. l.!.Im::· r,nr~.I.'." . ..

~I'ii lulKlafh'!

tlil.!I-=-ftIoll1o':'" 11M. pH~_· ~.~1 1I1...!;II:f!lltOJ;!t J.IIID.f'ibJ'1!ll~~1 Ina H~ "IJhrti~

~nc oorr:nam~r. !RI'J'

Ih 'III ...... 'II,IIIOnU n,~ ,"n~oln"'\'''·'",.;r,1l>- '4 ",\<!!III T" ~II~ er UI.,"I' "l-'h~. ~ 'f,II1py,..' • ~11 Ir·, ~1II11., .• r_.,:J '''' h."q,oone Inll II mll'llll ftr."ll.

r .... -=I;"'o Ani! 'ilFlgl1r:~o itdo I'l1iI;rw ~ti11"ti.DmJ.a'

n_,. -::: 1"'1"'. 1If~.tr '11hO IC,'DI ai lIbo']IDullif .nll ~"nlt .11_' 'iIlnll.~," .nillD Q011DtO):I~I~ O'IloJ [or YI.t/lJ,~ ... JUI'1IIIU:D

.ReB [l:ll'

~n!I1. '~~'ng ~9r j1ij.~.U" ~UI'IIII""IlV-'I'~

~1J.1l11l "IIIIID:TIJ~ ~ILmll ul jllIl t.1::"\!J;l1I ~ I'If,' .,. II~ , .• ,,~ ~1~1lI1" 1'0'11 ~ ~.aIr ... ~I

~,bft tl IM,II- , h.,"t-4lJ"'lil~ 111 .• I~ • ~Q'''' 'IIInDl

01. t\""oil.~' 'Uf ''''' 1.;,.jfO"", ~,1!.iWIIHl to" III- 1:.J:a'!pl1><I11.t. ,m,...-llIlfIm"",1l' "~~~,I'" ""~ .1 .. ~IF:rt'pl. tlill 1i1~6!1,11 1:IDl!1'al i~ Illdo 11D 0" IoITI

U" I» !PUf,J ur ill< ~ul<p ,p-1Dlli""""Q, ~1l' ~ ItllrI.r.ml'l'L ·'I"J.i-~n~'.'I".n: I nflilDnD-lI.;,h:::£1l1a[

I ~ ;t;fllt I '1l'·I.'A-IiI. ~ '~.At" r; II I;.lp .. d.., ,rtillli1...ala... bw:

I'h. ,,~~ ~-.ttrI'I' .till "'""~~'"

!!I-IIIi' .."", t''1i"I"'i,*,III~~II._~' I'm. ~lIoi'-'lj~ nh].'I'-'I:"'I.1]I111 ,,"Nlp I~IIU--'~\' I'f~~ "j~

lIl'!-.. ~y1:HI II. tOOt!1l;JO UID .¥nlluw,.. .nllLlC.!no- P't!'DIP."Jo.:UQ "'J"\III1Dlj-:.;,wI:~r.:.::t

~t~ Ml!il~~QIl

1,,,. lop., pd~·I.n h

;Pf1!!JIII rlUrlrlhlr Utl!lll,'tllf' U"

i'.uJil>-t- ....... ~.,.llII!p"" ... ' .... 1l11." or.;;':'" ou~rf\ll Jlh';IlIllI. JII'~.IIII'ilfl~, Ijtl~jJ,~

~""'I~._r;I.o.It~. , .. tNn .... nnt.lTf>tlrn,~I~ 1.,111'), """J. 1~lhnf(!~ UIUb. iD\", 11..:,'

"I'I'uo",.. ' •• ..,I~~ '_'f'I..,.,~1 "k~II~I-\IIIII.'

.N+iP~I"'1II 1II11':J::~ • .ltjttl.

. r~'F"p""'c,,,-, II."~"'~' lll, '~thllr~~1 1T~IIimQ rne I~Llrrql'll'l' ~~afrl. ~ IIllirll~1 ~ .. D

'" "I I IJ~I:rI'E' III na:-.: ..,It.:aL IICll'Ir!urll

-.,.. ,,'II>-""'tnn""~

11( .. III (;It hun unq-p:..w·-:tJIIlIt.::;. JI¢ploti~1Il i .. ,...,U tf,Ir fllt$'4!" tloolUl' -MIIi""

hpPiptJ'1 nl'tirTU- tDr UDt.alill ditolQ~ """,Un'll

~ilMl'm.i...:ql~ ~hh"'J'I1I' .UL".y, IS~, j t. ,'1'l nn",,,·· ...,

,~n~III'Je.~ Jlf;Uht'lh ·~I!!fIIlIlIlL'i. lIi~, ,II"" '~IIL1r hi.,J IJlJlllh l.IDlJ.

~1~ •• ~ln

'""1''''' .... : .......,..n!I\'j, .rnlJlunnll.~1' I ,"~I~T1UII', I1l11ll,lilllill. ~11I11!.LJ'" r.lm:~rl.~II. nm~mlf"·' 1,III,IIIIt'1ri

.\11 ~ ~ , '''UI'lllt;,1 :~I~ III 1!1. ,'(in :111 ~2111.ioIJ-h~ Iyp.' ) nlJ"~nrJloi'lI.,..A~. nre '1~~~tr '..M"" 'o;I1J' fllll11uln:'li"()1 j'llIflll~.ItIJ'I~ 'I1li .] !lDult'lln[JI,jhotUili _,111111110 "!WI P~'io 1I1;91D·t<l'1h. taGaJtnnr 10l,;,;n!'DtD to, *0 'bx:r.qroup[t 1l111iI· "lul'r.tI4.'tI,III '·~I.t jill! {jD\l ..... - n'p..; 111, .• Iol!l~ ' .... "IIO! ;n~n. Ina IIDlll.' • ..;!'1I ... W"I~ ~~ I-"II~$I 1\J,{iIU'ffi"ft 411" '~' 1"lf,'ft,,,,, I~ ~ob'l~fri!i,,~ ,fl,· 'JQ •• I'''' "" I hit H 1m;· ~II ~1JfT" "f"'not cllmiV I~,,,,m,,hln, ~"I thn In~1IIo1m 1.~IUlluo:l."I.

""~~~I~ ,.OrfA j.r ~UI a-iIIoT '1<.."'OIh.~ I~r .'""""111' m~' tttOff "io'E:1i D~ lra,

t"",,11

PHr"1I'HI 1I~E>lm"fll rltganallL ."'"JW; tltt,l:lru;Ly,·.J..rp li"l"" •• !!!!!l!!!!!i:=::o' 'r.~dl'!'.1lC ~~I

r.I ... I. ....... 'l<iI._l>IO rllllp.;III'''~ P~I.1it illnTI'f, L.E;Iflp' -~I:P~ ,,·.liu¥ 11111

lIt'pull;lo .~~g '"' .o~ -10" .o.drUUll'ttOf ~:l1J1m ftO'-Ol'If1h.[ ') t";';ld~ fllII1' '11"11

n ... :11-1

.... 1"'.uroo lo.N>, ·"'fIo _~L IlJlI'i"Jn~

,1 r~il;1r. ~< DOCor =.J!I~ ~ ~hQ ;:::=====================:::IIi,w.w.J.IHI" 11rllntlrn • .t~"I"" "'I"l1mHI." .hi • ..,.

In 'III 00 ... flbl. .a m. l_trirr'mAl _' III rubhl.lllt 'I. ,ini .eililr_ Tlth

;:::=======:;;;;;;:1 hi. :zrrtll! -II" II npal 11"111 ~'r 'jIw II}IIT rrtIlU·I."'" rN'tl1l1 !!In·lIl1! I'limd Il .. I,II~I'liI~·' .. I.4I1~..u1 t~-

h~\"ll"'" in IMr"''''

r-=;::::!:::l::!::=:!=:;::o=:=>:!:::...,.. A111.'JU 1I_1I[jI['JD:JfDl IHII,.,.m ~~ r I rnlt":t.;I1l iI~" "il2l11:" J~II t; -1I:f'1~"~lk'~1I1 ~Ulll _ IIIIII.II~ ul'

i!- 71'111""",,1· T>l1 •• ..,jJ"lIl~~ 1h~Hh" enlr -·r.ullttt, III.~~QPIO l\"1 Ih. IlIlJ.ribITP (J,'J'; '1'MIIo To.1h" ,.,t:!rurr.-J"tJ:. lllt!+·, 1I:rtI~r.~J '1hi. dlD J.ype."JI~ ='~III. 1h. '(1I"liill'l. lIt1m.r ~Ijp ~d" 'It9 glnr.

c;>" liil'i<rlllrd.iJn .110 ",*,,1 *",tili.f.JTrQJ~.lTIIJ-w h.ltIrl;Irm 1,:J;r.dimlu h".... "",I~I~ 1"'~.1Jt.,·

~I L.T,ljll~''''I, ~II ~ ... '" Ar.llp)'''~llr III-I' Il!ahln, th:!ltJ;lallDrl'L;·"tt.E: jlinlr,,;u..

f>I",Ji;. .....,I.I~ ttll"~II·II! ... -4n:" lIW~IWhulij'

At>iofil1~ .. m.o Jd, •• cli'o •• "'1igIT 'I>" 'It

I"Jr 111111 WlIn nllnWll1i

Introduction

1~l1ll1r I[ull.k~, llLI;-' l,thf:J ,. .. hJ.l:CllH \ 1~\II11 ~llIll!llflil:!n£fIJH>-- 11Trt!l'Ill.!ilv!::, ITrult-bU"sl!lLl .!nrlrtlllt"~w.Jl, .111il mntinll jV:JrlUj,'~---ff< "'~f ~'Oml,.IIII'~lJml rruquanrly nllsul\de~tQqjl f;lQJDI', wJw:iJ;1 h~11 JffirJ!I enl •. p!i-~chrJIlJI!.'(l:'IIt 'lirpc.lt{'1 1~.u'11eti be'I1~~'llmJ] :llrtrllJlll.e~. ~lIti :itl:uJ.~e dlceti~" '.'1~1 Lo.mmflnleu.d(Jn. A:;;I I,h~lcid fLIl'nJ \Ji ~(II.lLmtlli!ejltlhll-lL!l;II~~"ly~ijlur l~ Mth 'f1h!bt.tri~d Lilli! 'l;!hf:(lt~ bf L I~~ ',*,WIl~I,<; .... '~ leo k il r IJn(~ Inli!~Hlng Ii; L I'll gs.lll nned IIIl d tnl'!i~!ured U1Tnu~lj 1~ Irsi'; ()I'd!})' ,U,tUllt!ll1l1bmt.llllLl lue SOiLWllTC JJJIllUOjt~fl .. Xbllltr.· In, .. leiI);:rJbe htl"'" [,] 1'(J[\I(jIIii..L dJ .. t1i~wfulJt p.'i~·{!ltlll~l!lcl'll •. 1II,111;l~LttlJ;tt.1 1:,t'jl!II'Wr:1.l. ~frl~ ~J ~'(ll£lr, and 110w tr I J.I~ 9(ljqr (0 oren t.: IIIQCIt m~lIlJ LIl~llll1h'4!.!;;.lJo1:e~

,'\~!.le$.I~l'1tro, \Yl.! rW Inl1~~ nto~J ru ImO\i' hilW Llll1hY:trc~liy mf)O pJ1J1TP.:itll!lt'tl tt LD 'rrl:l~ to [!1'BI1 teo n (lertll~ n hw;!' ~S~Bt ot IY~ hnve 11 flt \(]ughQ4 lI.. [l..ri.>!mi~ [!C] lor t'entij I ~ :"f.agft! 'lIhtl'l,eor, Co:IOOO.1 ttl gaper. or pm.tttlrn.l~h fo~ naarh-'Ii dei:!itde. 'rim bcelr .IirI.ufu 11.1 p.roVLde r.re~IAJ1tlr.l WI ~n .! .~~ilpfr.e I (If nn r,1O!r~1uJlillng Lhe: JVtwn!.I,l;!i of- ccW:lr III Lilt! tJant,eJto: of 1.:'IsUlll @!lUllw.llil.ru.tQJ.L

'l'he"aam)J:lUJ1o.u CD curualns nnu-, [\\'tI-, i;hIl:!io-, find !IJUf.Jnk I.lolor 11H1II'1~e;. EiJcl1 []]!JUiX JUJ.!!,J.ha ':.M'"K bud~ lind tna !Jell runnbers fur htl~ I~YcJ lllWclJ-bll~, InrrLl.IlE!~~11d kl,¥.~f!n, I'or rl~lJW.ers; these color mfibi~ 1:08 [J he usl~ t,(, ci.lllJc .5·illfi ull~lt troIHJllj'i:l!e.tI~l;'·~ u.rltl utnWlt lli.ToW1!lW t!dlIlT a.pfle>'J.rn.i"~,

1'il EJ .'\m~lt~· I \. 1l'lJltwflTe ""l.il1I~'llt~iiln l'f<;IgJ:n In.!I(ll~ tLlicnlly' llf!l...'-TmUle~ tlill ulsEmil!E! at \\'b,lcb JercIlftUrJlltl>(.\(JIL 00 seen Itl ,1lI'- Co.lUT uOlnbfmrtlrm. (qr :<!Jllld,ml \f1~ltttJI, 1.tir1I.u.dit.u!,n.urrillll \ j~HJ!I,mimlrU11l1 If f;, rJj-l,'i3"QII ,Ii ~jI'IIlif VltltltJlJ::l1lIITillml~.1IiFlly imp!lito?d, and l!!tall)' blind SIJllttllluts it \Ii iml1ndt'd I~ IJl!lp~h;1t d~II3tleT;! ~rJ;;lLlteet.:;. OfJl\'loo[]JltCnwJ ~Tj!pJdb,JIfu~Jl!1£!T.~, and 1M~1 m;ll111Irmllll'l;1;1~ gntn c(JllilJl.;lll;i: lJullt;· rr41~um~!nl1 :ln~ [1Jfldut;!L len j"If ~i!/.ll~ ,II"'~ cl'1!l.n~~~ ,~~dti!lll ... !!;r Ltr.\l u~.~· trf'l(l~ hlo i'mTl;l!l ~TIll (Join I "11m lun BljWIO

r~.. :Pllli'lh.hul 11 mo~1,I

1

The TerminologV of Color

[lrll.h_""",1lJ,,dltLg Uru '--iJIT1o,-'uljJf I); L ,,[or. ~l1rtisiLlLrjri!t tho::; oolllt ctrmp\t>~il~' WI' dbl\ Wilh nn lJ In.~'-tll-JJn' hh.~j~ b,flt:l1

moe:rwhelll Hilt LTnUjm- UlL;- orher IlTI .11 (_";U!pii.EIC \:~L-LLII ~llJlnnlLII1.l~1110il u~.ds HOt onlv I\:i~ll unlar IJUiJLl.iu~l~hl.:c [l.tr~[(),u]'m:t:i:,inq_ III ~l1k

tlJ!1 LI e.u[ uud t:Ifu tln.lltWn <II tlk'Otl'OhlL tlJ.!!L!; 1. loin JrlSt:J ~\ith tbu h11Ll11ll1 lfeJ'~,!!lijIJll ~J Iw~ and Ill," f1~~u1H!idhJi!iijJcl.!' IWU riJlll-rf1CDllliJ.u(J,!;~tjl ~""(JJl7r, Plus iJlr~n[l!T l1'i; .:'r:np_[!m1l,!.tl ~'I'lth tn.!;! !~QQIJ~ of Oi)lur •• lt.o; tlli!i.JtiES~ autl It,,· m1e ~Il ~ praO"l:Ir;~d l'i:'rm til"prl)t1jem:'" '!ld.h'Ul~ 'flll:! I clffil.llll.J[O~~· Iuuutl In t.hi~ .:...1lllpier f$, Lll.\: J:Hdldll1~ I,[(!~II IlIt'llJ[d~t.a~lIn!! Wr:llnr .lymrnik,.. 'l1olLldlng ~ltfJmfatit'C L1,ltlr rllIWf;'I' rbn('r ~!rrL1JI~ :Imi OQl'I'Illlc:r.: (~i1lm- .ru:C~'~.I. IUWZ'l'Ot' I'fl/Oj r/l¢u~\I, IIml .,-I! ~ir.r1rc[}1j! l-ntllll1lt~l\rJlnl! rhe lr3rm:o;,JOlrlii:1 \\'J[tllil {h~~ <1illlVrc€f ,viii 11llMd~n, yN.~ I~I)]N Im~Jw J!.':~1!!llt. dlCrl1ll'!r ltl(:l ~rnlrl.l¥. llu: i!tf~'I~[J$flJ thi!:'\II~lJl]ll1~ ~ Il!'~,;.

I.JIH.kmit~H:dl[J~ c",lrir n.ll[ll\'~ vuu lu urt\"l~hjrt r.h~J1tlwlifllh;R;n~l Jl1l1Sl1iijlr.,g. ;tEIiJ " hU1ti'lian"ty Wi1h,~lnT I~rmlmllll~~ WIll hill" vnlJ f1llhr':<1Il~ f1L!r:' hR'flIUCllti(JD'!J In fhe cttllt~T n~ "Qbr thenrte:o IT1I< well M

rr: .Ihe.(!ali_~ I,j ['Inn t-hllse.d. 1111 j)"'J(atkac. ell~'lrtt'lrmefl HI r 1111 ~I

rrinbim IlWirphrtlf. StrilE~IE!.~ ro IIllf1"r~iJjild er!iei;!lItfl- 1;!Qlnluie.1I ':

TfJ'nVtIJI:JLI. in>!llldlu~ ~'llill It.;glllllll~' IHI~ ·brtlflilj.ilt\· 11'1'1111;:. LVPII! 111111 ~H1i1f1I~~ool8:, (1 I rm_g ","rll llrdflr rt1flll'rO;e.~ l1ml ~l~'lLI.U~llS These 'l!trl3tl!&I~"I Ve:<:!IflH,)lll1:rrnr::*llLrtlugh ,exetnvJ.llr'r In·(.tloe~llrothd "~'Ilrk.

10

Color Management

F~gme 1

Art DiutC101'{1: Sa rah A. Nh,ryef, Ned' Dtew, ana John 1. Drew Desigl'le-r Sarah A_ Meyer

Figu..-e .... ThE! words "visual Thcllking, ~ the title of this volume. are concealed by

a ce reful examination of

the color value nu mbers associated with green. WIthin this example. subtle variations of green create a color eHectthe words disappear when viewed at difterent angles.

To ensure that an object or lerterform can be viewed and understood at a dlstence, a 20% color value dlftarentlal {CVDi is recommended. In the example above, the CVO Is 5%,

Diagram ""I Lett: The black and while com bination Creates a eva of mer e than 40%, black being 2% and wblte being 98%. In reality neither color is absolute-O% Of 100%. Numerous hues can be found in the 2-10% and 90-98"/~ range, dispelf r-g the myth

thai black and white color comblnatlons are the

most leglble.

Absorbed light: Ioight that is absorbed by an obi~ct; tbe opposite of tl'ansmitted JjgJ]1

All colors visible to humans are created

by llghtwaves. When light strikes an object, be it a rock or a printed surface, some llghtwaves are absorbed QY that object while others are reflected by its szrrfaee, thi.s Is what produces the object's color. This is

the essence of sub tractice color theory ..

The lightwaves absorbed by an object are transformed into heat. The darker the color, the more waves are absorbed and rhus the more heat it produces. An understanding of this phenomenon will help you make better decisions regarding outdoor color schemes (diagt:am 2).

Three-dlmensional 'color theory specifies that if all ligh t is absorbed by an object,

the "color" produced is black If only some .of the lightwaves are abso.rbed by the object, with the othens reflected by the snrfklce into the human eye, these reflected lightwaves ·are transformed into electrical impulses which are interpreted by the pl'imary viS"t(cd coste« as color and object. The color value number indicates the relative lightness

as perceived by the mind. This number represents how wei! the human ere perceives that color (diagram 3).

Diagram 2 To retrieve

the heat index of a color, subtract the color value r-ating On this book also referred to as y tnstimulus value) frorr

100%. This will vletd the amount of absorbed light that is transformed into heat The larger the number, the more heat produced. The PANTQNE Color Cue can retrieve the

Y tristimulus values for print production colors. If USing a

color not found within their systems, the Color Cue will give you the closest PANIONE Y trlstlmol us value. This isaccurate enouqh 10 predict

the color heal mdex.

1 100% 73.93% "'" 26.07% 2" 100%·7.43% = 92.52%

3. 100%· 17.80% "" 82.20%

4. 100% - 2.4.87% ,",75.13% S. 100% - '2..51% .. 97.49% s, 100%· 29.53% "" 70.0'19%

jlype CO MO YO KO type CO Ml0 Y35 KO ~ Backqround color CO M50 ¥lOO KO 30%
!>nd co MO YO Kl00 bgd CO M53 Y1DO K4
Dtyp·co MO YO Kl00 wee CO M53 Yl00 K4
bgd CO MO YO KO hqd CS8 M6 YBO KO
type CS8 M6 YeO KO
bgd CO Ml0 Y35 KO We visited the sttuiiurn. ac Indian We,lIs Tenni"1 Gordanfi»: tl1e2003 Sup,!r 9 event. The Indian lVells Ten'nis Garden is located in Palm Desert, California. The dayUm.e temperatures ·when 'zce utfended were ill the high 90s (mid,to-high 30;; °C). The stadium seats are dark blue plast.ic,. and we Cfl.(iclHy found that you canfry an e&!i on them during the day. This is a gQod e,'l:umpie

of architects and enviTonmental graphic desi.gners having tietle lmdeTstdnding of the_princip.les of subtract'ive COIOf theory.

0010[' is always relative to the environment in which H is used. We should understand the environment in order to select effective colors. According to 3·-D COI01- the",'!);,

the light being reflected by an object and interpreted by the "mind's eye" determines the color '(talue. It is ~rucial for desjgners

to know the color value numbers, Including those Ior all ink- and plastlo-matchtng systems. These numbers will help you understand the heat produced by different colors, and ~he contrast and legibHity of color as perceived by the mind's ey.e.

The lower the number .. the more heat the object will produce. The heat of ;H1 object can be offset in many ways through man.ipulating the substrate. "I'aking the example of the Indian Wells stadium seats, two such ways of rCdU8iit1g the heat

rods

Diagram 3 To the right are

the Y tristimulus values for the hues above. These demonstrate the relative lightness/darkness of en individual hUH within

the mind.

, 13_93% 2. 7.48% a. 17.80%

4. 24.37%

5. 2.51%

6. 29.53%

could have been: to place holes in them to increase Ventilation and reduce their surface area; and to increase the substrate texture

in order to create mote scatter'ing, thereby reducing the temperature.

In the 19801; and 1990s, IT plethora of studies showed that a 40 percent contrast value between foreground and background is necessary in order for tbe legally blind/visually impaired to naTigate their way through an environment.

Achromatic: Hues made from black, gray, and white

An achromatic color schern? can be, an extremely effective communicat.on device iOT the creation of visual messages, This type of color scheme is hi&l[-ly dramatic and, if used correctly, v.ery emottve, Ansel Adams' black-and-whire photographs of the western United' States, many of Georgia D'Keet;fe's paintdngs, and the' movie

Rc!ging Bull are all fine examples 01' the ern.ployme.n.t of achromatic color schemes. Most-contemporary designers are gl)ilty of overlooking this partlcular color scheme

in favor of nslng all array of colors.

F('J[' example, few Web siites rely on an achromatic color scheme, and seldom do we see illustrations, posters, brochures,

or annual reports in black and white.

We tend to lise black and white only

Diagram 4 The rods in the eyes have (he ability to detect black, while, and gr1'ly.

The Te'rmi[1olo§'Y of Color

11

when [he budges does not allow for fourCOlOi' reproduction .. even when achromatic hues would be tlie most effective choice.

To createeffeetive visual messages using achromatic color schemes, an understanding of howthe many hues-of black, white, and gray arecrea.ted, and how the human eye perceives them, is necessary. It is harder

to create an effective visual message. using achromatic colors: an achromatic color scheme is inherently more simplistic than

a multicclored scheme.

In complex C010T mixing, brack is made from a combination of different hues.

For example, in fonr-color process building, 100 percent of cyan, magenta, and yellow will create a dull blaek; black ink is added to create a rich and saturated prin t.ed surface with a greater tonal range. In addition, many two-spot-color oomlrinatinns can create a range of blacks.

J\~ 1:\. ~\<:J 1]\. ~\~
~'f tt''' ,,'} ",,,,"!
'" ~ 0, Color value raHng

t:;,..r:5>\~' '"'J(5\~ ~\" ..;\':1 rl\9 Simple subtractive color mixing
'" 'c k value ~IVI:l'2

RnI'.~'D~ ~U"'I( GoI!lm."

In prilBt-iM:~~1 tr;Jpjlic~"Dlt>re ofr-eH~han [fdt.,I.I!hftB i!'l' Jt~ate.d ~~, th~ D~ex 1)e'fdl1; ll~~a. ff the iC\;I'I))e,fhM ;1 111$~1 brl!ih tn%<'l" t:!I!li'lIl,t.i, the whi~ wUl ~~ III) ~ IjrmhulL, ~s, win thJt O{ her hues 'l!~oo. (The- brighmes11 )'atrTI'g for P~'P~f ·j£'lr.h ... my$ def1l:re!1l Ufil r.be sw''l.wh r~~detl hr ~he nIl:mL.(ij'ltLlI*:~ or l,rllMte!'i 0li:l the re~lIIj t~lr, ~ U the !;l,~!rer b ~IJ. on. white. olten the; tl.l~ Il'I:inr~J 0H:L r~ \llil1 j;~ot h.ll1roe l)S'wlde II cul.o'i: Sj)M~1't!I:IU,_.[;h~ eutQi'!I wU I niOit be a~ \'Ivid. ThW,,'f I.H J~d:rll"jj'ft&;::t1 ~a'.1!lh!e.s th!i! p''''pel U]~~!II WJI::>.nlil.lJlur

llJ,1 Lid I ~~ Mook to!!' -:"h0'::< ~'i>lo!1ili.p.tjct['U1il ~

,I,lhLQ.!1 1.ViJ1 b~:dhrJI~1L uf Ule! &tll~r,~!bl~' df dlJ:..l'l!'peiii'.. u th~ ffllPllir: I}; ~I lirjht hlllJi:! ,It:I£!il

a oofor wj!IJntlJI.L' ~l P.~lI::~oal't, tl~~ !L~'1~iJl!b1E1 ll:iIil)!ti!' Wi II be (I'll!!)' 0-80 .perr~l- hr'';1~ldilil~~ll, rul i:nJiB f'lril1t-e'd Dil thl~ I~n'l~r will h,~''''~·ntlm \~~ ~dlrw..m ~l (I" hlae, Jll OOJRE ~~, '<I'hj~e 9~~que in[ ... j" @~piied w J10iO:l.'e,I, PilfJer. h!;l~'(lJ~~~om'cQj()r lll'ot:es'S lnks m,re )lfJ nted

en t.tJI' 'rhi5'UIlI~ I:.b,C' lJoJ"t.JpebLrLUll. ~Q ~1:Ieb1i!EJ][It~ll' 'mM!.I~ Qr [Lic whlrl# Iu,k wt!ier {hl\~1 Ille Imper, Gcm]ul.!<~lqiHI ~!x'"'eI).~pril:1~1Ii1g InlisoJ\l'er. grent.0Jt 1'llk"~Et'l' I'o .... sulllh us(!,

Iii e[!, .. I,TI:!mn~n'lIIli!nlr,tJ:lic ~'i~n, white. ffi ltl;,tl1lJly' eJSl!l,t.ed b~- apf:ol ~jm~ IJ '\vl:!jU! N·'illj~, (E!!»LI:!U(! wiiite 'In it, of \1/IhT:W p!J;lIDant tGl'11 ~I-llji, r'lil te, 't'h.e mnTI ~ i~ UlI.re f"f ~11iI)' l;il~kI; cr ~1'H~ ,greq~~ 'f r f<1$1l;~ge. It I~ il'lllpo;r~m to lm~'\V -the (!,o]"r ~'aioe,.X1i IlIl:" hue, incllldi!m~bliiJ1k, \\'llire, Lilla g!i':d:r.l.n Ilrder

WhiLG

FiglJre 2 I .... this photograph, black, while, and ccnttnvous tones of gray are achieved to create the maln focal point The focal ocmt is surrounded by white to effectively communicate the visual message of serentrv. In printbased graphics these hues can be acbtevec I n three different ways. The flrst is to create a one-color job using bI3Ck.. The second is to create a two-color Job with neutral gray and black. Creating a cuotone

in Phctcshcp uLfll2fng these two hues will Create a printed specimen that rivets

a continuous-tone photoqraph By <ldding 0 second nue {gray). more tonality can be ech revec within the printing process.

While Outer retina w,,11

.0' \' .. Hiqb chroma (t'.®+_\ ;~ 10' standard observer

,~ " ~

I!. Fovea

:~

• 0

'0

10)

Ib)

Diagram 5 (3-cl

The .s bove color wheels are examples of different color models: 5.a is a four-color process wheef 5b is a 12·slep tramnone! color wheel that is based in subtractive color theory; 5c is a color wheel derived from 3-0 color theory specific La how the eye detects color.

'lei

II~-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------~·----'

LJ type CO MD YO X27
bgd CO MD YO K2
2 tvce co MD YO K100
bgd co MO YO K27
.t"PeeD MD YO K2
bgd CO MO YO K100 EI Backqround color

C75 M67 Y89 K89 20%

to umletr."itilil.d lh!l. OO'ntr .. ~r mllJl:~rn:t~QI fi.lL"

J ~1l1~ Uw PU"f!dS~, '11'1) 1n~n~f rh(::)'Wlltdtlhill of e1i'~Si~'l, },:toot ~lg;1J !ll~Jn'hlCJ\.l r,e~~ l1f~~ ~!re* IHuil be.~§ (In file. The PMTOll1L,@ C:O_la~ t!ueTi'ill @lu(:. t:he (ffi~",r t;Llr".~ ['lJr- <.l41ehi hU~!¢i~:lI~ill·~V.it.lHi:I limIt $~~~M:nl.

ln ,oomp'J~';t ~11brmm]_~i~~~,,),rtilY'1:1I; il['M!I1~~ Il~' uumljiiiinlt multipht mk~ u. (l)'llntJl.

lror O!x:'l1npl>l:, in ~1~1i! _,\ail:ljtr Color )~~-~ltmrt. Rlmt~ gl\ii'~ ~ f<! 1JIi~!l~d !;iYI!([1I!ll SQf!I1!Wi pl;!tm~'I~W~. (l~-'~U~ l1~~~I)ri'l,.·aJ]d ~1I0W,. di<.~r eitJ ~ f1lso 1)8 !i}'fJdo~e(1 hv mhllllE:

Fwn ~[)!l.t)J I'll ,rerTI'm;v ~nll')l:5 !=1~erl 011 ~~wosi[Wli!lW of tM' trWr,lr" 'tI.-Jfu~l.

iIi. ",~ullll Pt~O!lil~bi'lit.

r il: ~~inl~(! 1L"oI~' mi;dl'I~, I¥::3!Y is ,~'mu IlI1d b}"iJJ~airut ilbtdk :mtl \\'hitw'liid~~~-!;Jd'it

wirh m;I ~alitlrli3Ti· ~n ri~i n t-i:!al>Od r,.l'c!]pli'i t.#, ~l'nr r~ .~r¥ted J~ !Ji~iitlii>il ~E$;I1 ['i1!!O[!:!E!nt:~g~ 1)£ hl~,()'J; Oil wlli tg p~~r. 'l'hi ~_ o~m,Pin~ S'ubtr!IDtli~ ami ~,i!ll,pl.e rl'dt~~:~it..g~t1lw rbm:\' llecl.m~ fiQme If~h'[ fl; helllg

,.b~1J I'bed I a nil ~'()/m- mf.:rlng k$ u!kI~J.g

f,llaqe ill tke brain.

Ll.t'tl:OtdJl1[[!. tu ~t1t:15 ~[\"C l:Ulor rlmm-y b.llllciL (;:.; il1:~dm.JuJ hr tltc! dl:j9iltetl or 11m)' l~t. Tri\lI'¢UlIll hi~~! ;P[j II. Wlll1tmltc~ IriIlt"b':!,lrt m" [G1~jfi~tlZln Il1rnm:~wr, Idl lii.~ht is' p:rl:!~'~ntt.-d Fcrof1T n!:"Whil1~ the aren that i~ ff) ~.(JpB<tr bl~.(I\I; ~o r he vji!\\'er.

",~ootll:H'a'lf) .'Y-n (!f~{m,,qM!fl:Q'. bli1~1\ 'i1nd whlt<?~lre L~wQ[.etllir' til'" Vrn~M~'&llt(;lr (lf1jJ.:s_ l'O~hnd i1ll dle. j'(~£.'O!' lite- %'eEi~~1i I W"0il.rkrl <ill" tire ro.lh~a Watt. Qmy b~ .e~ eed hy II. L"Jmb.lnu;Uon ",e I,FJ.a~ep1:.Q'i' eAll~ rG:!!ghl.(l~I~Le hT' ~le~ect.in~ hhl[lJl{ IiIllit W J.~it~. 'lal the ~~e. oJ blit~k; [l1e--cj:)illo~aJ)f:.e(l,p..mt""'eU,S \Yl,[~1i iii rh~ '~Qd!; cl\'t';HNl ~~ l1ej\m'l.J:II'fi (lk'OI.Ti~~-! j:~nmtl_~ thii~l ml\'1&IlS tu til!! pd~'l~tI' ;il',fu.~ ~rl~. \l.~leffi. i C i~, .it!~e~tt! Iq,d (J!( !.Ii!? Tr.fih d,

Additi",lioo:lar tb&t'l'l11ll11lo1ng, 'CDmbining ~'gh~\W~ ~ ~'@M~~

t"dd~rit~ ;(:(1100- is: used I~l t 11'e prmlujQd0l1 »f j;tIt':iHt·imSj::d, e:tlYl1'qmuennri, b±[~~ru:!'I:l1.'e,

IlJ J:llJollltoll ~111:n16; 'H~~v~, 111& u.:s.e lu ,1!rl,n;l-!J1~t11li!,;{Lhi)S &ij'ft'~nl (d:fnl dJ~t

til ~1'h!eJ:nmi.tJ iJild!~,~: in:! tJw Ill'iatl'i}cOOt'It!Ii':ion l)ir:~I}, adt:jil ~,tru >uo~(jlri li.:u.,;\!fl !D 'lilnli.l3~ ;!I~lb~l'PL1t~'l."t;tloir' m ~"nl~, Doo tJtr ri'lit: flh~1S:'11 prn'~J. .. t.il«i 1\'1[' ~iCLdit[\'€ ~hlnf,

(H"I\! l1·mlli:1'/1I;e. ~l~~QtTUn1 af1i;!1l'ti.i~ gt:e~ Q;l~' ~tt:1n th~:t: .,,,,\li /ilabla to:;: .lI-lubtl\lll'1:!tlve ooLlI.f.

Ii'Q1' eX'~lll1ple, fIll ~ cOmlnltef s(fl'l~en, @Iol'.s I~r~ e.re: .. n~d Ilm<i prq.i~u:od di.!leot.l~ into the I!.~ulllm'<)r~· 'l'ji) 1~1 x'al'~a;rc ,th~'-'rh~tj Or ~i:Iee[e{l in .nly (H6!Je~~ol!, l~ fUIY ol'i.1.eet-l:, T1lJil If w.1'Ly 11;~c ool.[)~ OLl a e""ltBJilllu_r ~reeu, \,I'ill ~l'IJ.V~'lIIn,t~l~ rdllt~~~d !J:rtl~til~,

l.rn HU~l~b-brwGtI !\liIlphil:::!I; liglit, IWh~ thll!'r dlili 110 from thi¥~Lm, lB tumg:.lti.!,rH'ilam"m lmnp, (')!',:I'I'UlDn2~e(Jn,r lighnhl;\, i'l< st?(I'rren!ei by rho nh:}:'E!ot; ~')]nl! li~ll\Vaves an: absorbed by it.

13

!~If'j'iltg an].}' a !inl;S'li poL'lJ91l to 00 iliTl2ctl!ti Imo th~ JtUIiIlEl1!I "');}'f" l>J·I"'gr;~m!liiT1i!1. ~ kcigl U!!E!r.l'l' Im'l"~ [(i,OO 0[('1 lim uiilte. th i~ n,h!l!l(}IIiI>Ilw;1n

i~i rodeno <Ji:~a(~ (ile:-mj'l~l~~~;ttlo""nf !iUhl;t~iCt;/ ~,.j ~ol!..if!!. m ~ [be, cnn1 I~\;! ~€F s~reeon. Huwjwt;r, r:l1e color 'I"I;o:! 1,[Ie fln the ~t=~~fl

i~ not iyh;l([ llg:!'PeJl'i'l: on f>ill1'!tr. thJ1t"'is dlliO

t~ tbe filiOl LI.lfll M.ch !lOll "MiIN~ EIppU~tIU101 I.l~e" u~.iiAlr~it ~~r.:IiIIlIInMijg fur p!d;rl["b:~scil ptl;:iilll;!ll:t~olm /i!IDui,rrlfllit Si~lclS L'Vltlr: i~{l plr-\ild~llll1! ~ 91' ~~ ell',~'<nilrJ1>1ml'!; t~:lJmlf Jilj)nt a:a!or h':1nll)o1'l/1;:' ,,,;!'ry [Jiffilnlm'i ill di lilill'il'll!t ujlJn- :I(,~~ 1'0'E!1l"; ,,,~tt nli> pl'O,&mm Offl1 t~ke tfte Inllnl~e amounr or tioCeJ1;~Tlm: imo n~~mlT. Coij)~ ere!l.[;ed 'flwol"l:llllg; [o,ll,dditi'l'e; eoler t.1.tiJo.~y _ to, l)l;e [u .1l1(e"tl!l.1~ Ilni11NllI'U3n. *~IJI'C dbt!llItlll~1iI t;!I, 'I.n:. br-3!'O(hlllct£61

th~ iutgll1~i t~ 01 [!loti h!l/h!: tlre¥ e~td.L .l.. Ugh't ~CJH-Gllt i~. r!JtlfJ~nl1,ltL in k,c-h~ [I];< (R). ,>\WffllJ.t' a1rlr~1[ f~ lI1Ial~~IL'~ til ,5 ,OmJ K (LfJI. ~tl~nd!liil'dJ ('11' , ... $rl(J N ll~rtJilol!~rn ~tl[IIJiI~I'rtl). g,.'~rr TV l11,rlljluto.r, Ii. ,'ld, r~~~{lni~ ki~~."k,

inl ~ comp~~~~' sm-eO!D I[:I);!Y E!'m~ t !n~l1t tn.m.t :i tiiff,g,rl!:nh!o!'lUIiae. Wh~n dE'5igl1lllgJllIt~ro'l;!ti\r 1I11)d m>i'tl£lU ~~~pllJ(ill' it 1* ird'l'urtl(l;lt Ip nli~ SH [11m l.lW illQCll meur:i~ re:n~~1 (In la)i~n~' dl(:f~~~I"l lu()ilebS of lnlOIlI,~dr!l 'li!l1d oolil,puter ~~tCl! :.f. i:tlJilAdl!lg tlloSLl Il.lJllulJar:l L111cil rn~ nos, fihtc, i~tl~1 8'11 ~.,p~ W~ t[l,mli4l, Qf tll.e IIIiItlrti i:oE1m ttl tler'IRLll8 r. :;y!..'tC:ill. wlU IlIHOOI ~le efl]O~ TlnxlitlCcd.

D[] Average daylight::; 6,500 K
Early afternoon light = 9,300 K
~". .\0 #,~ .,* '\.-11'" ,.gl" ,,~o
" ,,'"
Diagram if) [a-cl Diagram 7 In the prl nt dte log
Left 'hE! three gray bars are box of mOSL Ink-let printers
created USI ng different color th(::r€l ere seninqs that
combinenons: 6a creates Incorporate average d.aylight
variations of high warm (6,500 K) and early afternoon
&" ~<::,* gray through tno lise of red- llqht 19.300 Kl. When printing,
violet al'ld yellow-Qreen; 6b if a vellowjsll ti.,t is ~3id down
creates vadat~ons of warm over the white areas of the
gray through the use of paper, try ono!3' or both of these
yellow and violet; 6c CrC-'ltes seni ngs. 8y llsitlg either 6,500 K
OJ variations of a neutfLlI gray or 9,300 K Ihe yellOWish tint
USing the process printi ng should be elimjnaledc These
primaries cyan, magenta, sijmulate the source of light in
0\' 0\0 ~, ,\0 ,>",-" oJ'" ",~' and yellow. 3-D color theory, and most
,," ,,'" .Jl .," , often he~p to render a better
color pri~tout. (a) Red-violet and yellow green

~ b) Yellow and violet

(c) Cyan, magenta, and ye1~ow

14

Cotor Management

Fjgure 3

Art Director/Designer Bas .Jaccbs

Figure 3 The design of this book is. an excellent example of how attenmaqa can be utilized to create color dvnarnics not found on the prloted peqe.

Diagram 8 The use of afl6fimag6 can increase compositional movement,

and at times, may alter meaning. 8laclo;, white, reo, green, and blue correspond

to the photoreceptor CHUS within the first staqe of vision. When using colors that directly agree with the primaries found in 3-D color theory, afterimage will ra pidly occur. The rods

and cones will fire with force causing the receptor cells to become overly fatigued, henceinducing afterlrnaqe.

Designer John T, Drew

and Sarah A. Meyer

SAJAM'~DQ'rts

SAJAM s P 0 r Is

Afterimage: Illusions occurring when retinal cones anc! neurons become fatigued or overstimulated

Two lW~t8'gorie~ of photoreceptor ClBJJ~.

~~~ ])fu~polli>ible' for hi!h1~1J pe'~~p~i,~n

of colo~-it;!d arn.d,th.-'\i!!JJe. (Th~~'e- i~ l;o"L'lle Jil!bitll.E! wiii'hip t~l '\l i1l:\l~I~Cid 'O!I)mnwlJ.l rty p~~inil.~g 01) ron(ltL~f pIlQ}Qf~~P:t.o~· cell h(i!lie'v~.;I to be- re!:iJll0n~~l.ble Mr the 'peJ.I~pUOl1 ('If pumle.) A p'lJli;l~oreeeJlror <Jell '!r.Ill hee-o):1le, mtJtll~lf it ff.,.;~te'$ O'U <I partj()ular color. 1'llis wll] CflIt1Se a false eiectrical impulse

of the Qdle~' ealClf b1i' the j)hotor..c.~~p~0r Cl'e!l.. creating whim ;ji c~~lIeilllii ltit~rJiiinMi,e. If: we ~Ill.l~e: aU~IJ. ir.ItlMdiJlll1 t)9~tJ([ fllr JlI.m.LI1UN· DT. t.'WO ,Bmi tb~il iook ,~t:;!l whit~ il1te~[))Jnl(t, w-e will !Self!' lilt oo,16f£.oo'j<l'lp7@!('!ht([lY. F!;)riru,>tnlloo, u( 'il,l1o!1l~l_('! fi r~t ;I¢ .md, We

wil] ,eB ~{!~n. 'U'h!~ pb<tmDI1CI<I'!!]on,~ l~IJOWIll t~'!{ ~dt8irj'llI1;~ge,

Af~r{iIn~ elm Qe~1I1' Wiltlq;rill~1l!e5 ]1f(1cl:\lO>e~ I~r Ixlth .. ..,ll'~tm(lt~;"i1d ad~H'V9 (!)IJfQ'r n~f%Mlg. In oot.h C%llS~s', ~h.e e1J,~t C,Ul be redueed byprodi:~ci',i!lg." CU.inpasiti.on. tImE 1il! Itinet.i(l, Atl asY.i:llllfwtrfc, (j6JItPQ~l£i",rl .~s

r~.r mOl*, ~.ctiVtl thlill 11-2;.;r,:mU:Lr=.l:ri.c: Que, In

<lIT !l.c~'i~[nljlletl'ic U~,.1l!PO.£HiWl~ th<J:~:r'& t01lrtill not to .ru~t and tb~rutore, m~imtl fatigue is li~!i,~ lil,,(,!ty to.occur; n ymu: aim j1j te Die~!:~ un a!h,rim[l~#tect, the~ ~'~ymI11etr)iC! C(J!:n.p(:Jsit;iQn ill; l>E!(!i;Ji:nmej1dal, ~!~. t:hi~\)fill e\nloowrn[e tlHnirew:er'~ ~es to ~'€'5t·

SAJAMspo

r t s

• type-co M89 Y93 KO
bgd C90 M87 Y58 K63
alypeC29 MO Y73 KO
bgd C75 M36 Y91 K26
.~peC9o Ma7 Y58 K63
bgd co Ma9 Y93 KO ~ Backqround color C30 MO Y100 KO 40%

]vlonochl.onic£tic. achromatic, and analogous color palettes are welt suited to-symmetric compositions. These palettes produce a eonsrant eleotronic impulse that is -either negjtiv:e 'or positive, rather than both negative and positive, :and therefore help

ito create a fixation point. This is not

to say that they canit be used for asymmetric compositions.

Analogous colors: A· color grouping in

which the colors are to the near left and right of each other

An analogous color scheme is harmoniotis in nature and can be highly effective in its subtleties. Analogous colors are harmonious because all colors within the palette have

a cl!!irtain percentage of each other built

into them. This creates-a visual lack

of conflict and :.lIT exterior arrangement that i.,~ physically pleasing to the eye.

Ali. with monochmmatic and achromotic color schemes, analogous color schemes arc underutilized.

Withiu subtracti'ix color them].',. ~l~~.logous color schemes involve complex: ~'~lbtractive mi:ving. Each color within the palette has a perc@liIt. M the other c,()JnL~ Je~{lilj~. to (!:_Pluplex ("'>UJ!Dr mixing l;JoeQ.ay·se of Ille O"ctlaying 4!! overprinting of color ~n sereen pl.loo(lntut~ on press.

100% of light

Diagram 9 A facsimile of how bronzfnq may occur and alter the purple hue.

Within 3-D color them)" analogous color schemes arc physically pleasing to the eye because very little sinl1ilroneou.s contrast" takes place, Cones within the eye are responsible for discerning color, Cones have two types of photoreceptor cells .. One type discerns red, green, and blue, and the other blue/yellow, grecnJred, and black/whtte. (There is some debate over whether another type discerns purple.) Simultaneous coutrast takes place when a photoreceptor cell

is responsible for two colors that appear together. This creates an intermittent electrical impulse fat both colors as they travel through the 'Visual pathway to the prima-ry '(.'isw.'tl cortex. For example, the color combination of greeu and red creates pronounced sirrtultaneous contrast. The receptor cell resporjsible for green and red cannot physically process the information for both colors <lethe same time, thereby creating an unstable juxtaposi tion of color, With analogous colors, the photoreceptor cells responsible foi' the lightwavcs within the color scheme fire continuously, creating very little: simultaneous contrast, There is not an intermittent electrical impulse-the impulse is COnstant.

Diagram 11 Ia and b)

In 11a, all other light not reflected off the surface is absorbed as heat. This rS all example of simple subtractive color mixing, 10 l1b, heat absorption is less. Th~s IS an example of complex subtractive color mixing.

The Terminology of Color

15

Bronzing: An effect that develops when some inks are exposed to light and air which creates a false reading in the calcula (ion of color

Of partjculat importance in environmental graphic design, bronzing causes a g)al'c

effect in JeD color space and must be accounted for i11 the creation of signs and signage systems. It occurs In inks that are warm in nature: the pigments in warm colors 'begin to rise up through the cooler ink pigment», This can reduce the legibility of signs as the color contraiit, when the signs are viewed at a 450 angle, will be affected over time. T11is creates an umisual amount of g1are, almost equivalent to laminating or placing ,I sign under glass. For .this reason, bronzing mus,t be accounted for when choosingspot colors or four-color process builds that have a mixture of warm and

cool colors, for example, cyan and magenta, reflex blue and rubine red. Bronzing is most apparent in the family of purples. When measurlng color, a fresh color sample will

ensure a correct measurement.

Source: white visible light 35Q-750nm

Observer

:x: 1/2 _ 1/4 of Ilght

650nm [red IlgnU

Smooth surface

1/2

Source: while visible lighl 350~750nm

Observer <color chroma ls tesscnedl

1/4in 16.35mmi 1/4;n (6.35mm)

magram 10 An ill usrranon of Lambert'S law.

Rough surface

650nm (fed light)

Diffuse scattering

Il!l

16

In print-based gwphics, bronzing should

be accounted for when orca ting documents that are meant to be viewed from a

distance, as btllboards, .broadsides, postera, and food packaging are all intended to

DI". This, is not to say that COlOI'S "prone

to hronzing should not be used in (he crearion of any sign, signage system, poster; billboard, and the like .. It simply means that legibility ShOllJ.~1 be increased by I () percent tq allow for this effect: the reduction in legibili.ty due to ligbtwaNcs being scauered when a documcn t is under glass is equivalent to III percent.

The same lO-percent rule applres to elcetronic media in which glare is alii issue, When lightwilves reflect off of a mirrorlike or smooth surface, seattering or glare

will occur. This J[O percentIncrense take'S into account only a minirrium amount of glat:e. Thew if no known equation in the calculugion of. color to account for severe glare. However, creating a document that is on a sligl1t!y textured substrate, equivalent to a matte finish, can sorueruues cut

down on glare.

Bronzing occurs only with the subtracti;r.'e coloT mi,ving> A«dit.ivc color is not affected by hronzing, however, whenever {i document is to he viewed under glass, glare must be taken into oonsideratiorr.

Diagram 12 Chromatic colors type = C65 M 100 YO

Color Management

Chnoma: Color intensity. Sometimes referred to as the color's brightness, chroma is another wor« for the X tristimulus value in 3-D

color theorv

Chromatic colors: A series of colors arranged in set increments

Chromatic coloes are 'llTan,ged in steps, for example, a two-color matrix with an X and Y access arranged in increments of 1 o percent, from 0-100 percent. I.n this ease, a color matrix is used to determine the different

hue posslbilities.·found within the two colors hy overprmtrng screen percentages at' each color. To creiil';; the matrlx, one color is placed on the horizontal (X) axts and the other on the vertical (Y) axis.

In prmt-based graphtcs, color ruatrioes are often used to calculate color predictability. These matrices act, as a visual reference for simple. cQlor mixin.~. A matrtx with an X and Y acces_s is an excellent resource for simple calm' mixing. or the predictability of tint (see color tinting) control. Overprlnttrig

or k1}oeking out typogi'apllY ill each step found within the color matrsx, is an excellent strategy for .preJiicting color and type, legibiliW This strategy can also be employed in cnvtronmental graphic design. With improved color printersvcolor predictability, with a liIttl.e legwork, can be assured. (See Claapter 4 for predtctabilitv of color, color

Photoreceptor cell matrix

Smallest object vlssble

Diagram 13 the above diagram depicts all Object crossing over th ree photoreceptor calls, in a distinct order, for visualization 10 take place.

Diagram 14 la-c)

Right: Tbts chan illustrates theCVD for each rvpe and color comblnation, and their CMYK builds. Both 14b end 14c meet the specified CVO for the visuauv impaired/legally b~i nd.

calibration, and color sinking Ink-jet _l?rinting for print production.)

Color matrices are also an excellent resource for color ptedictability in Interactive and motion graphics, though since the electronic file ls the final document, controlung color is an easter process, In Web design, legibility and readabtlity with type and color combinations can be predlcted by creating a color matrix in the desircq font. This document should

be created in Photoshop at 72dpi, in ROB mode, and saved as a JPEG or 8IF, 'f:he resulting file will be platform independent. and able to be opened in a DOS, MiIC,

or UNIX':platt'orl1l. By using this strategy, legibiHty and rcMlabihtv can be assured.

typo C8 M38 YO KO bgd C8 M38 YO KO

70.03 - 50.85 = 19.18 ICVDI

. ,,-,---I _l ~_' l'~

70.03' 29.88,40.15 (CVD)

J type I

typo cza M58 YO KO bgd co MO Yl00 KO

typo CBS Ml00 YO K15 bgd CO MO V100 KO

~ Background color C23 M42 '1'78 K3 20%

Color contrast: The difference between lightwaves detected by the apparatus of the e Ycebal/

Tile photoreceptive fields near and around the/O'Dea are responsible for four kinds

of vision:

• motion;

• jrmM5ilho'uette;

• depth; and

• CO/01".

This reg,ion is responsible for clear and sharp vision. Therefore, clear and sharp vision ,is determined by the densi ty of the photoreceptive fields within the cones, which are found near and.around the fovea. In order for an object to be detected by the eye, a lighrtl'iave 'must cross over a minimum of three photoreceptor cella, in a distinct order. The color, size, shape, and motion of an object or objects cannot be artificially separated .. In other words, all four of these factors determine color contrast.

eVR: 9,80%; 18.22%

CVR: 19.99%; 35.07%

eVR: 45.81 %; 70.03%.

CVR: 31.15%.; 20,73%

CVR: 25.62%; 32,66%

CVR: 15.74%; 5.85%

Color val Lie tatlo {GVR)

-

17

---__,.....,..-......."... .........

--

-

~~"(;~."

l~~;:':"~,,~:_'!.4'.'o •. :.:.H~~-=~"=.~·'

~----~. ---"._

Figure 4

Art DirectQr/De:sigm;·~ Invo~!!1g Chci

Figure 4 Different hues of purple are- utilized within the poster. When exposed 10 sunlipht and air, bromtnq will occur, creating drastic color

shifts. To help slow down this process a clear UV varnish can be applied to the surface and give the ink more lcnqevitv,

Slmultanous contrast

Warm color (top) coo. color [bottom)

Ccmplementarv colors

Diagram 15 Some of

the factors that need to be considered when color contrast between two objects is determined .

• tvpe co M9S Y2 KO woe C79 MS' Y23 1(25
bgd CO M3S Y99 KO bgd C40 M20 YO KO
.~tlPeC40 M20 YO KO
hgd CO M98 Y2 KO
a !WP" CO M38 Y99 KO
~gd C79 MS4 Y23 K25 18

tourfsm :;,mtn~mty of 'thajlal"l'i:l

tonl.ntJ.

~bi~~~U, IE J 1 i':131~,311!lll-~ IWilJlnIJ1'l~~r~: ~U ~~~.~ r,e:w Yfd~. n~ ~ 1 -431 04~ ?

qafu

Figure 5

Art Direcror/Pcs'jgner Pornpnaphe Phatanateacha

Agl.lre 5 An excellent exampleof ector mix! ng.

Diagram 1S ttl-c) The compositional position of the parent colors ('6al. the parent color swatches (16b). and their four-color process builds (160;:)

~(:J Color buildifl9
LC27 M79 Y55 K37
2.C44 M54 Y65 K49
3. C7 M9 Y75 Kl
4. C76 M56 Y5 KS
5. C9l 1'1172 Y2 Kl
6. C8l M68 Y18 K29
7. Cl00 M93 V82 KO To truly undcrstcnd color coutrast ~~ou neod to grasp the factors that govern its constitution. Contrast is orie of the most misunderstood aspects of C9IoJ. Color contrast is dependent upon the lurnlnosltv or relative lightness of colors '\5 perceived by the m,ind"s eye-the differeuce between the color 'Vcil;les of the hues concerned. Some combinuuons need only a 2; percent color value differentia'! to be ]egible for normal color vision. However, for normal color vision, color value diJfenmtiil.! combinations of 15 percent are prudent. For the visually ilIl!)alred-20((';O and up~ a 40 percent color value differential is necessary. It is further recommended that the fmegroilnd hue h!lV'e a 7,0 percent color value or greater, and uhe backgrounJ hue have ]0 percent or less.

When building color contrast for design purposes-whether print-based, interaotive. environmental, or motion graphics-

five type~·of conrrast must be considered:

o the differential (!t' color ccdue nll1nbers;

o .the physical eft'ects. of simttltaneDUS eonU;ast.

o the conO·ast oj warm and cool colors;

• the contrast of c;Drupl.ern<mtfll)' colors; .and

.0 the size, shape, eilhouetre, depth, and motion ("if an object(~).

I
1-· type C64 M4l Y2 K2 tvpe C1 'MS8 vss KO EI Background color
I ,bgd Cl M58 Y85 KD ~ C64 IM41 V2 K2 C93 M88 '{1 KO 10%
.'LYPOC4.1 M63 V50 K49
,bgd C13 M85 Y74 K3
.'lypeC13 M85 Y74 K3
_bgd C4l M63 V50 K49 These factors hold true for all nhree color theories. (See Chapters 3 and 4 is)\" color contrast and ensuring color log.ibility.)

Color mixing; The process by which different pigments, dyes, colorants, or lightwaves are mixed to create a new hue

For print-based graphic~, there an: about

22 common screen-printing and offset ink ruanufacrurcrs. It iiS easy to review thes.e

in all software appltoartons for print. The manufacturers ali lrave printed color-formnln guides that show ever~~/lUe they can prodiscc. Most of these gUides have base inks that produce all the variants created through niixiiig. For example, the Acuity Color Systel11 has four base .inks Irorn which over }O,O()() IW(:;S·C.lMl be created.

There are two methods of color l11ixing. for prinr-based graphics. The first is to mix the ink tPrt5 of a particular color to create the spot hue, The I)ANTONE lVIATCHlNG SYSTEl>.-l@ gtiitics arc good examples of this ii;r~t t?pr.; of oolor mixing. Eacb PANTONE'identified color found wit hin their color formula guide has a number to j(kntiiy tbe color, as well as the pans and pcrm~ntage of each ink creating the spedfi,ed color, In

the 2()()4 printing edit ion of the PM·/TONg formula gUlide, PA~lTONE 15'2. C has 12 parts PJ\NTONl.~ \ledlow, which i~ 73.9 percent; 4 pans PANTONE Warm Red, which is 24.6

percent; and one-quarter parr PANTONE Black, w.h~ch is l.~. pel·gel1t of the specified color. In the PA.l\fTONE MATCHING SYST8~J, each hase ink is a speoially formulated color unique to the system.

A mixture or yellow, warm reel, and black in these exact parts or percentages lllay look very Liifiere-qt using base inks from another ink manufncturer, In [he companion CD to this hoolL the inks and l)ereen.rages used to create each spot colorare given, This .gives the printer all the information they Heed to mix the- color for press.

The second method involves creating an electronic mechanical that produces screened peroen tage~ of e [wb ba;;e ill k to create the color. The most common SCl"(,!E!ITS are ISO arrd 13,1 lines 'pel' inch (Ipi ), in offset ptinting, and 7Slpi in commercial screen printing. In both cases, the designer C-IIN specify the percentage used for each color when setting up an electronic rueohamcal.

If the hue i,s 100 percent or color, 110 screen. is used. lI'he four base inks used in tOU1:-

color process print1n~g are' ciyan~ nragonta, yellow, and black: these correspond to. the Acuity Color System. These four colors create one- of the widest subtracnvc hue spectrums, including all the color vartations round in full-color priritrng. III four-color process printing, most if not aB Co.IOl·S are gOFCOl1 p.ercentages of the f.our base 11 ues.

Diagram 17 (e-dl A crop of an illustration {17a). the composlticnal position of the parent colors ~17bl, the parent color swatches (17c), and their jour-ector process builds (17d).

(d) Color bLJj!ding
1. C57 M51 V35 K35
2. CSO M41 V29 K16
3. C69 M5B Y81 K64
11. en M59 V21 K40
5. C61 M47 Y34 K32
6. C76 M58 Y1S K20
7. C91 M81 Y24 K38 The Termil1olo9,y of EoJIQr

19

The difference l]etwecp color mL:i:ing and color buildii1g is the usc of ,screen IQQrce.n.t.ages of spot COIOliS in building,

in order to create new hues. In scanning il four-color photogrnph, the software applicatioJ) deterrnnies the screen percentages of each process color automatically. This is color mixing,

not 00.101· building. Color building. is the process by which a designer dctcrmlnos each screen percentage and builds the electronic mcehanical accordingly. Color miJ,:ing and c010r btuldtng can take place ~n print-based. environmental, interactive, and motion g'l"aphlics; nrchitecture; interior and industrial design; prfnrmakrng: ph"oto-:graphy; and illustradon.

20

Color Management

Feb t .14

F.;gtm~·6

Studio. RGO. MU!TIbai, India

Designers Radhik'il Chopra and Fredpy N'~9ar\,,!ai~

~---------------------

Figure 6 An excellent example of hue use, this demonstrates how ector purity can be interrnlnqled in a working color com position

Pour-color process

Subtractive color

Additive color

In iuteractive graphics, hexadecimal (hex) numbers are use]! in llTML coding. In many of the software applicanons used for tnteraetivc graphics, the designer speoifies the hue by clicking on a depiction o'f the colors offered within the program. The program itself converts the color depiction into hex numbers. The Acuity Color System has a fuli library of over 10,000 colors that provides the hex numbers for each hue. This Iibrary is also useful for motion-graphics documents and internal irrtranetsysterns.

For both stlbtracti'-'~ am! additive CO/OT mixing, all ink-matching systems can 'be used. However .. these hues will appear different depending on the environment in whipb the color is vie-wed. Additive color has a larger color spectrum than subtractive color, and this ~lfects the appearance of the hue created. Not'e that when viewing colors lor Interaetlve gppJhics as well as motion graphi'cs, you must bear in mind Ulat the document in which the colors were created will be viewed on different Ill.Mforms. Each platform, and every monirtor, .may create differcm tints (see color tinting), shades (see'color shddinlJ), or colors of the original.

With 3-D color, it makes no difference what il.1lr<matching or color system is used, or whether the color is additive or subtractive. The photoreceptor cells responsible for

3-D color

Diagram 18

Left: Primary sets wi(llin their respective color theory, When

J pure hue ~s applied to another paradigm, some hues become semlpore Or ecnrometlo. In Figure 6 these color sets were utilized to create tile cover comprehensive.

C70 MO V100 KO 20%

'. t\i~. C\O MaS V100 KO

!>go CSO M40 V40 K100

• type CSO MoW YOW K100 to;)d C10 M85 Yl00 KO

allr". CO M20 Y100 KO ~d C100 M40 YO KO

EJ Backqround color

depicting colorfire an electrical impLiise through the 'Di~'UCll pathwqy connecting to the primary cisua! corte». The more light the eye can detect, the rriore pronounced the fi:dng of the electrical impulse. This is what determines the mind's perception of color intensity or chr.oma.

Color purity: The absence of white, black, or gray from a hue

The majority of colors used by designers are' not pure. Color purity, in a practical sense, refers to colors that are bright, e.g., colors that are made hom two hues, inks, or spot colors that do not contain black or white pigment

When working with spot colors for printbased, mteracnve, and srrotion grfl!pliios, purity is vital for color building. To create

a wide range of color variation (wirh a great color range from ljght to dark), two pure or semipure colors are essential. A semi-pun! color is created with no more than three inks (one of which is a small percentage

of 01112 of the hues), and with no black or while. U siilg two spot colors that are made from three inks consisrin~ of four parts or more will create color matrices of earth tsme'l,or muddy colors. Muddy colors. arc also created when onc calm is puce or semi, pure and the other-spot calm: has three inks with four parts or more creating its color.

I . .

y

When working with print-based graphiCS and the concept of .color building, epmple,x subtractis:e 12010.1' mixing: takes ]'lliace, This is due to the overprtnting of colors to create additional hues.

In interacttve and motion-gfaphics design, color building takes place through the projection. of light, which is then interpreted by the apparatus GI the eye-the 'visual. pathway, and the pri'nwry 'visual cortex, This constitutes addtti've color theory,

and it is important to recognize that no color mitcing takes place in physical space.

Color rendition: The phenomenon of two colors appearing the same in one light source but very different in another

We .have all experienced the phenomenon of dramatic color shifting in photography when-a, film that is balanced for daylight

is used under fluorescent lIghting; the resultant prints have a gl'{)enish tint (sec color tinting). All color is a product of Its environment, includiug its ligll1 source. There are four main categories of common ligh t sources;

• dusb/dasem. li,ght;

• a'VeTage dayliglu;

• incandescent light; and

• jitwl'cscent light,

The Term inology of Color

21

For example, most fluorescent lighting emits a gFeenish lint thar affects aH colors viewed under it. This is why most printers conduct press cheeks under average daylight (5,000 Ie UB. standarcll6,500 K European standard). As this Is the most common light source,

it is am excellent'source by which to match she press proof to the color proof.

Forprint-based graphics, all color proofs should be checked in daylight. MOst deSign studios use different equipment from printers-viewing the printer's color proof under daylight conditions will give the most consistent, realistic impression possible.

H thls is nor practical. a scale model should be utilized. Designer Ca rter Wong Tomlin Studio.

Diagram 19 left: Demending upon the lIght sou res, an individual viewing this diagram will see the ector comblnatlcns as legible Or not.

O\agram 20 hi environmental graphic design, color eppearence can be easily verified by placing the object in the correct lighl source,

22

Figure 7

Art Dire.(;t9rlDesigncr SaM-SoD Ahn

FigUfe- 7 An effective use of color saturation. Sm.;l~ I amounts of gray are added

to help communicate a 3~D Illusion on a 2-D plane. In pnnt-based graphics this can be achieved by one: of three ways. The first is by substhutlnq gray with black to achieve the same effect. The second is to use 3 grey hue wh lch will add an additional color to the prim job, end the third, lO add equal amounts of cyan. magenta, and yellow to create gray.

Color saw ration

Color shading

Diagram 21 These color swatches illustrate the difference between colcr satu ration and color shadlnq.

I
I
i-I
• tvpeC74 M93 Va4 K53
~d CiD MiDD vas KiO
T type Ci0 M100 vas K1D
bgd C2 M33 V95 K1
• lypeC2 M33 Y95 K1
bgd C74 M93 V84 K53 Many corporations have specialty inks made for their corporate colors. A specialty ink is a color that b not found in a standarr] inkmatching SYSt8ITl but Is requested by !he client. In these cases, tl1<C' client is likely to have strict standards as rcgm'ds calm accuracy. Depending on how the printer creates the speeialty inks, metameric pair« of colors can be engendered. In such a case, two colors can look the same. in one light source and different ill another,

It is a much easier task to check .for color

rendition in environrnentnl graphic design. From t.he onset of a project an environ menta'] gnlphio designm' \\IiH know the light source in which the ;Hg.ns or si,gnagc sysrcru will be 'viewed; at the very least, they will know before the project is complctoly designed. When the light source is known, [he colors should alw-ays be proofed under the conditions in which the final sign will be presented.

Although color rendition affects subtractive colors, the phenomenon can be Jiiwlkcl to the change In appearance that happens from computer monitor to. computer monitor, electronio kiosk to electronic kiosk, TV set IiO TV set, or additlve medium to subtractive substrate. Calor renclition can ruake.cheoklng CQIo.I'8 a tedious task, but being able to predict accurate rendition in uH media in Which a visual message is go.ing to. be seen is vital.

Diagram 2::! Black is substituted for gray arid printed on a white stock so thai subtle variations in

color can be achieved ill the beckqround. This is the second method mentioned in the

text above (Color satu ration). Designer Seiec Fa riai

8 Backqrounc color

C49 MO Y50 KO 20%

The eye can detect" subtle nuances in lightwaves, or colors, However, it can be fooled by the particles that make up an object's color. Part of a color's makeup is the substrate to which it is applied. All inks and most paints are translucent to some degree. If ink 'Or paint of the same color

is applied to different surfaces, including different materials that appear "to have

the same color, the likelihood o] color rendition increases,

Color saturation: The richness of a hue

Color saturation is controlled by the amount of gray added toa particular hue. It can have a bea.ring on the intensity, or chroma, of a color. Low amounts of gray within a partlcular hue, for example, lOQ percent red with 5 percent gray, equate to a higher level o.f color saturation. In four-color process printing, gray is created in one oJ two ways:

• l("sing equal portions of cyan, magenta, a.nd yellow;, 01.'

• rls'ing a screened percentage of blcich on sohue paper.

In prin t-based graphics, color saturation can abo refer to the amount of ink printed, regardless of hue. Color saturation <or ink saturation can be. a concern in many lowquali ty print shops. Printed jobs can val")' i.n color samratiori by up to tlO pecr:gent-

100% green

100% green and 5% gray

100% green-b~ue and 5% gray

1QO% blue

[he equivalent <ilf having onc sample printed at 100 percent of color and another at

60 percent.

When dealing. wi th photographic color saturation for ptin't prodnction, it is a good idea to color correct a(1 images for press. This includes checking color balance, focus, particle removal, undercolor caldition: a;lld!or undercolor remQ"val. (See Chapter 6 for color correcting photographs.)

For interactive and motion-graphics design, images are used at a very low resolunon, Wjt:h Web design, most images are presented small-scale and therefore', color saturatjon, focus, and balance are the three most important aspects to consider; it is. not necessary to- check for particle removal (hiokjes) or to concern yourself With undercolor additton or undercolor removal HlS any problems caused by these will not

be visible. WH!, Web design it is perfectly approprrate to use the monotone, duotone, tritone, and quadtone rean11res, but this is noe recommended for print-based graphics. (See Chapter 6 for setting up monotones, duotones, tritones, and quadtones for

prfnt production.)

100% blue-violet

100% blue-violet and 5% gray

iOO% violet

100% violet arid 5(0/(> gray

Diagram 23 The color swatches above depict the difference when small amounts of color saturatlcn me utilized with ina hve.

Diagram 24 Bleck is substituted for gray and blended with a teal-green 10 create a corulnuous-tcne Imaqe. This is the second method mentioned in the text above {Color saturation). Deslqner Art Chantry

The Terrni nolo'gy of Color

23

Color scheme: The color combinations selected for a particular design

Many designers have an intuitive sense about color arid randomly select color combinatlons that work. For most of us it is much harder to select successful color schemes. The following three basic methods relate choosing a color scheme to the content and/or physical forms within the design.

Metirlod 1

too:k ar djj~ photoltnll,phs. and ohj~<Jts to be used with in th~ dE!!ij~n. MO~l of rhese l'I'Ul have eolor embedded tn tJl~ir Cornl.

By p.ic.kil~;; rwo or tklree 'C~llkll'~ [omit] within lilt! ori;!lluru {lb~ec t, a "OIOT ~~lhl!mL' eun

UI!: U~t£OO.

Mettilod.2

C reate a de l'~vuti~:n:1 oi t.h~ eolors rol1lld in the photO!lwp'h~ anti ubj~ts. A ",ldet'Y

of {<j.cld~{k>mll colors .cun be cJ:le{l(~'<:l from

rlIe orJi)l1ull ~olq.f' fjQhem@ 1.t.1:i I1'Ig s,g-oo~!d.(rry, ~r,!l(!t:1i" dW,s' ~~ee !='Q{o:r .ti!ld~3.1D·, .i:.l1'(ld~s ~ see L"illo.r $imdi1lg}, .~I~rommj.c, {_~Jmrlcrrrt!'mary, l~al'mo~t1(>tts. mml00l·mmt.;jti>t::. il>l!ill t:ml , 7}lit/~t!.t]J, spUl ~mnj)!~m~n~\!HY, mJlb·tmln~'fc, and rtlltilla~.HIS ~'(I:lorl\. 11'1 tnjl.'i I:'~~!t tlu; tlfm:1 pri Eilllt:;< refers eo the. eolors within the

tlri ~inal 0hj6CL Enc:h 0;:0101' ~elei)(ted ~mm thi>' nrigimi.l ubjG~[ becomes one 01 the prjm ~ry ,~I o~ sources fronl ","'l1td. ~. color iml~tt~ mill he. constru ctad, {.800 GlI~Lp(E~r J fOl' I;!re~d!l.:li e(')lol' "oI.lo!!fII1I1S.)

MMhod S'

E.)':I'Jllllll~ th~ !J:'iy"llolog;.cru mtd/0t learned bel1mliO"t;:l! efi'eot;!i. (~r culor, An ~ffc~tiv.c coler s-ch~ml~ ca n be h.1~~1 on tho.! m~~SiI!l.(J the cHerat wanes [Q convey, ~lId PI) [io ..... t.I:ic:Y' {,t:d about ~'Ileir pf<:>dllGt mldloL' CO)ll,pamy. {S~(l ChmiJloler '7 io« physJ.c,ll, pSY'(lnolQ!liCl81 und/or ](mmCli L.ehELv:iQrol effects of co1o'i'.)

Diagram 25 In this merkettnn material the basic color selection was made utilizing method L 35 descrl bed above. Additional hues were added to

make the material seem more sprlnqllke {see method 3,. Designers John T. Drew and Sarah A. Meyer

-·Il'---------~

Co:I~~ ~h~~!I'lI!l: CDmbin;l.lg ,Ii' C'{jla~ ~jjd MMI< '1'1~'? mnmr~'t uf biue:l.{ ;i)Jjded. Co a color hi LI$I!~ Itr nn nrmr~ than SO ~t<::cnl-.lust I~ ~:maU lil!'l nunr (If hluck uan ,t!'[L'i.!'Le IL d m~Uc: £llffe!L'ence. in apTJ<I'!ar.mC4!L Mna)! of the spC'~ colors fh~.~ ~ re QR!","~~d ~!1 {lo)(]r' ftlo.lTIllil~. ilJllllje.i have (mly one-quarter part (I~ 1 . .5 pt'reenL blaek buUt tlJ(oC) !h~ Q"'~l'~TI C~)~()I" .. In pTjnt-bm~ed gtaj)hi.c~ an.d e.lwil'o!lmellc.~l ~1':lLphi~ i 1l.rel' SO percent of braC'k C~Ul>I;!l'l dw color to i1PPt:!l~ Ul(hr~ bW!::K than

Il~' yEnl.Tli\', (lIll:ilLl. In I,H0ra.c[.JVC l~!ld lUQt!{I'.I1 ll>'tp.h Ics, np to 900 percctlt (!ClJ.lMir (Jim be ~~efl tn ,CL'r;!l3t[5 cliffG:r.QJ:IL hues, COlU.f sll!lL'illli oan be used ii!fi'~ct,~V1:lI~; with 1!lly spot '::.9'lm or ..... tth precess prj nti'nll hy ~dd~:t~g blrdt te the Q[ber tilree pT'im ~ ries, BI ~(jk ~~ a!£O tLS<::cI W uh slx-color pm~E!~i~ (eM YOGK), Th(! I:WO m.!dJ~toll,~j colors '1 n sIX"C(l~Of P!'OL'"I3~~ ali.! or!lrl~ und 1!:~1SS green: t,h~ei lH.ell,~i fy tnc c~'a!l nnd Il:lj~il.La,

Gol{)~ ~hm.lit!1t \mdt~ ~Cje(:[l \lei}· 'i701tll borh C&'C1'I"Irr and ~'oQ!(Pt wlor'S, W'j thIV;)l'lIl ool(l~ i ~ddiT1Ji 1-20 'p~rL~lH of bleck Cl'eatli!:ll·.lI1 ~~nh tmle flr ~I.~atl~..a hue With cool C()JfH'~, hh,(Ji,; m~k~ (hE! color darker und ():I1!l, thus help tj}C!'Il;!.1,te a ;]·D mU~iDn On a 2·:0 pitu'le. AdrJ1 n~ I -;0. l~rCE!n[ u f hlnck Lu ~"IXIl C!ilIUl~ r~mls mH til muddy thE! I;njo,r, hou'lV\ovt! 'I vtsual veI'Hlc..1tj'HI Is ~IW~I~·I>. l1~aC'!i~ar;t'.

The Acuiry Color ~ystern :~E!$ CO~(]T ~hiLi.liL1~ eXlrl!];sJ:V~!y,

Til r,11·.n[·b~li0d An~phics, &1 !)cl'C~IH is pn!d.cn!:. d:if;K';[!i3.l1" wI\t:·[! pd.riHng 011

~I Lm(j~ tud st 0011, [I:> eonslderable dut ~;llil OCi;!UU on ~hG~"'. Dot ~;'I:i]j ""iui IlCI.'Ilf em

com ted paper.-; !;Iv' ~ub~~mt~~, btl~ i nil swelHtJg ls uoe IL5 pren.!~~e'Llt 1m ~n@s~, gO the ll1~r!i.. CilfJ. ·te Increased tel IIrflunii <~S pareent, {See Ci!ap{er 6 for dot gatn mud ~1'{)rDorn:l~~llj~ 1

In I:n~eru()Li ~'i: JULd motloa gt.1phi.c!t dot Wi'in duel> nOt u(:CLU'_ 'Th,e colol.' spectrum ii> hri~br.erhmJ;Ul'sc rlrese fletds lIflllze midi ~~l{{l coj.G':I:, 'Phi!l alkm':S tlK' l.lt!II1I. W oe set .1t 'the k,w 'JH percent murk,

Ol1e Cit ~he ~lyth~ pDrflt!tL!a~~d aIL desl~n

Is ~h!L~ hJ.@k he11l~ tQ add ooJ:iIi" v.:ml7'uSL

At!, .. w~ted ~~ rhel', "''>!j,lnf {!(J]t~m~l is t1etermlned h)' mottnn, fnnlw'EjU'iOIJil.jU~. deprh, arul colo!'. I'll I 00llf r~l~'Wt'~ Iwl Ii> tI:I determlne leg! bUl ry and f~mhd~iJ ity in L'(] lu.t 'Uf.lmhit.lflt.lo!].I;, A ~"':ma bln atlon C';~n lul1.!('! a

!TIi nimum ,jl 2 r~~t~m ~!)ntli'~sr and ~till b~ lE:#bJe: ;s.irnl~ly beeause the molti{ll} of tlu'! [jbj~oL, th~ !(It!w','l;UhOlllme 01' ~h~ Qbj~t,

1! IlO ~h(! dapth of the- uhj~ct d\'!;:(;'I<E:'1fly

vi ~ible" !111 n $I:::!ti.~ 2-1] {Ordll, LlW III uslnn

of (i~pth C:lH stfl] lw ~"l'~jned thJ'ough sise ~:nd 1l.1iIc~m(!n!t, and tliu forrIlA~UhQuc<tr.e

i~lld colo r m'~sti II t-o'~'fo)n1iTi~ !'n~ tQf~ J.u ~lete[ln!:n'ng l~ihWt~.', The ~·nI{}r 1:I(J~j~ numbers constituec ()Illy uno d {(m~ (rue'mrs iJtlteTnUlling oolor ormtmst,

magfam 26 Right: Thls chart Illustrates smart amou nts of black being added in 10% Increments to the hue red

100% red 100% red + 10% black

lOO%. red 100% red + 20% black

100% red 100% red + 30% black

100% red 100% red -+ 40% black:

100% red 100% red + 50% black

~ Bacxqrcu nd color CO MBO Vi 00 xo 80%

&o~or tsm;j:}.aratur8': The degJVt!J cl warmtb ,oriiGo[n9Ss mgt l:l cedar 5IJggl!:$t~

.::-Jo m atrer th~ ooh:rr tn~cl1" or IliedhtlHI il 'iI"hicJl rn~~ IST{! u~iI ~;lecl, ".i:!(H'~1 CQlf~rs Ill)t)eilf to came fot\lj~rd ~1t(i cool oolor:s ~nc! to r.,~de. With S1w{.mc:ti'tl(': ~lo:rrftJ.'!:'-tt~ I dJ.l~ phenomeneu [s due 'I,? [he pll:j!sk:ill prop,e.r[y(ies) or an ObjCC<l mILl th~ :lmQlIJ1"It

of Ihl;lu hoi nl;l. iltlnQO~~d. ~)fr ir.~ "'iiurbo<l!_

'File _'>pl!otn:~m 'lh~ol Of ~nat h~:m:~I1~"'!miT d8'tect rroTl'&8!> hum M() UT tlli~hdy over 70U rt:~!l{l't)jeWr:'l (mn), 1'1.:18' b i.ghe~ tlle n1lIIlOOr. til(! !l;~e,~.t;er the ;lilloum of l1gl.u euiltted

Co.o.l CCl.lO~ muge i],OI1J JOOnfu (j)Judq lu urouud ·fiOOl:ml fll[uel~re";:~l\ ~J~d 1'l13rnl ~olon l'tiH1l;t) fn:lm51l0l.t11J. (~c!].(}WIJlfG~n~. to 7UOn:l~l (Rod), 1.1] IhL<l C~4~{l, plln'~ hhll:!'I~ :L"{I \"hilt: are 11m ~nsitL~~ O~)ro.ni.

---_ ... _- ----

Hue T.l!lcminolDgy {!I Color

Flgl.t!f.-J E

lIIu5tHii.:if~DiUi!'ljiijr -r.;.iTl ~lIlllilrlilli

Figure a A superior use of color temperature.

The coolness or the cvera!l color scheme relates to

the physical temperatures found en the water. and the psvchcloqical effects associated with the harsh condltlcns. Orange Is utilized to represent an oasis of warmth in a most inhospitable environment

Diagram 27 Small amounts of
cyan are added 10 each hue to {' ,~ dl' .~ {' .'" .~ ." ~~ (f'"
lower the colors' temperature. ,0° o~ o~ 0" d' 0" 0" <~ <"
"." ,>~' {}.\Q 1,0 ~\'=' c:;\Q f'\Q f\Q ...... ro-J..'" ...... ,gle, '"'''''
~<:J ~ ~ ~
" , r- - I' _ ---'" _ - __ ,~ .~- - ._ , • ~

-- ,: . __:. .'

• type co MSo Y70 KO
bgd C8S MB8 YO KO
• tvpe co M45 Yl00 KO
bgd co M85 Y70 KO
.rypeco MO YO KO
bgd co M45 Yl00 KO 26

I'IU!,;;"~ ~

Altt DI~[>[jr r.:~d Oro ..... DIl~i1llr ~.-.di1 M!:Mnm!:!i

L.~

:\u tl<!iJjec'l 'vi til a cool ~'ll,1 Dr \yill ojten a ppe~II' suusller 'lh~ln :511 ~hjc>,[!'l nf ~h~ ~~II nt: ~i7.~· \yillt ~. W,LTm ~(Jh} r, JIOW~~TI", t.hi~ ~~ an inLl~iu:1i, and dtJ1;S not d irn ill i~h thl: [(!'~ihi lity ol' tile

o hj~ et, ! [] other wonl~, t h~ t\nl ubjC()L~ e:m 1:l'I1 the ~anl€ ~:i ~O, UIK' appcm'l I~~ tL) be I.~IJ:(C!, t.h~1n the n~I~0" hm the r 11 ~'~L~3J 81'fW rsuus of the eye \vill vlew tll~m as th~ ~~m10 On~ of th~ my.h~ ~l,ll'rntlndin!,', t\'~~Hd cnlor I;!()bnl-dll~ (1011 s Is rh;'lt t he t~'rfltr:;lrh~· snJt>lJld I~ I \\·.1y~ be ;~ WrLm 1 eolo I' ;]jnJ th e b~I~J;gf(lHI1(l sho uhl be ~ (XI{Iil color H1 order W lucre ... se le_gihility ut u distance. The ,ll'mngelillent 0( (iJ()S~ l \.\It I 0ul{).L'~ makes no dtr[~HmCe to [he k;!l.!hi.!ity. Hue, HI.[JLiuJi., 101"J[tI~jIJwtl.~ L W.

~md deptl I an; t.he dercrruhuna la~{()]',~ i~}r k~jhih ly and ~'{}k~~ c .. tmtnl~t_ T'hurc for~,

thu aLT~n.w~mE'nt 0,1' the t~T'(,! and ~'Olu~ 11181~,E!~ rI(l diff~ren~e to d'i<!hql;i bi:Ji ry in lhl< eX:~Jr~p'I"" !efr; r,J I lh~t rr!.~tti!'r~ !Q [h~l I:ilen!

J$ ; I Z( i-percen ~ ell f,'ere !l{!'~ I~tw~~n the k.~grr>!J'I](i a Ild r h~ hll01;:grr>~m d ~oJm_

"-e do need [0 mite tuco account rhe

rend ~~ IlIIY of ill l 0 l>j~~t Dr. ~liJes A. Tin ker \\t:l~ UI~1;t 01 th~ ulw l p~'(>lul~ researc hers

in Lh~ field or lypogrLlph i 8 tegibJl Hy l~lHl re~~l~hi.hty_ [Iuw~\'f.::.r, many ~).i the $tutli{l~ nc con U:m~':etl_ durin ~ Lite 19'2'0$ suul 1 930s .. I~"~r~ h:l~Qd Of! C'ulllLmi 1'I0riJ;L~, 8.1:1d tb~ r~pogr8phk nnrm~. Of h i~ time :In' clit.F~ rCL1 t. irOfil i""~ m tod~y. ·rhi~ '[!'alq i~ ~tLid about mw hook (l~alll~A wh h tY!lOJ,i.r'lrhiQ

Figure 9- Color temperatu re is used in a most effective manner. III each case- a WJ rm ector is juxtaposed with two cODI colors, makinq the images pop. By setting LJp the color composition in III is rnenner;

a 3·0 illusion 00 ill 2~O plane

IS achieved.

Oiagram 28 (a and b)

The color swatches abovedepict two color techniques: 288 FII ustretes color ti nling

iO 10% Increments. and 2Bb illustrates color shadjng. Both techniques are methods [0 control color temperature.

T~:I.J~lhjl i ty i&s ues ptl hllshed tWU' :10 r~~ r~ ~IWL file l"~,j(I,jhll~w "f ill I. ,d)jt."l.; t rl~I>Io!.IL,h upon nnw J'!flf'!"Iwl rhe 111)j-~~~. 'lrJ9ilmln;. U1Hl(tr 81)t)ol")1l81 oondlnons. the speed 81 whicn

\h'(, N~Ld \\ UJ bered ueed, Wht: I"! :iL"IJj!i nil: \l'Hh (Il~ colu I.' I ~'!ll p~ r ilW i'~ 1)1 l~ pc and m~l~r c<J'.r1:I!J,_j_I.I'~~l{y]!~, d:1 ~H~i [I.@; dil'l' f()m11.rOlmd color w the Imd~l.JJc".l~~ a!lItl vice ~'-E!r~ll wtll not hl.!'·~ ~:L1y dr~t on l~~tiJilit?', 11m It m~r

3 ffe-.ct ene !;P€~::i atl'l'lli.oh t h (,! eomblua tlon [!"III'! he r~~d. I h;.p~ed oi re8(i.illg ls p<~rt or the d~~~n requlreauent, rhen you Sil"'Ll~d 1,)(:11-;; for culturally nGl'ln~1 lYlle 1LrJ~1 Cl)[OT ~omhi n<l~ion~, [f th~ h1tt'.lH l~ ro .~Iuw dcrwn the reader, look fur 81~rl(J:r!"Hj!] ~'"tl mili 'l:1tinll~.

I L1 pri nt- tt<l~~d, ]T.I(;lti(lI]. int~r8i1:\tjv~, anJ ~:]"I \. iromnQq'~~~11 gr~iph i ~ .. .!;, '110',1 rrn ~o!()r{i C~jl ha V~' II cool tim :llri~1. t'flo! colo [,s ca It ha ve

.:l \V.~l"m tint (s.E!~ (~J1(1~ tJ:~ ((~l~) I).ep';al d,ing nil the amount '1f coll)r n:;?iH/1' mid~~1 III rhe "rigi ~ ~J y",~ rm () r ""0("11 hue, rhe bHCJl~~!(y {or r~18ti\l"~ lithtne&:-; ~~. nercelved Ill' the n"ii[~d's ~~y~ fll'l}' 11 Q,[ iJ.~ IiIlm III L~ll~d !.u (t1J~' gT~t ~1#iM~~ c.:hiUl!(li1'l_§ ~OliJ [' toC! I i.I~~n.1.lLl1'L: i~ ~I \'~~y df~'J-[h'~ '-"'fLy vi 0ruatlll~ ct.!"!u, ~(."he)N.~'~. [f II sed eo rrectly, color L'(J'IUhi!llL tions C81l ~I~atl: L1 ,'-D i llusiun un ~I 2-D pil:m c. 'l'he djl~'ke-r the color, Lh~'ITILlT~ L~ rc-ecdas, llw wnTl"rmr thou ~:(J lor, thlJ I"UQr~ j ~ U{1'I]\~~ i0H!1. DcpL'mlin;Li on 110\\' ilw!;e color ';~I~·~torles an.' usuel, a ruinor OT major .I-I") Iltu~hflll cnnbc c ruated.

\~r[dl iI. lmowh .. d4L: li C'olor tCl"l1pL~~'I{lIJ'i.:, y'fHt {"HU (!,1:8':3 LG more L:: ff0L! ~i 'J,'r;:! Vl::':'i.i iA I ~~O!l1l1 ml.Ul rc~tim~~ ~hrQu.gh illu qnllS. We know Eilm tho pIKltm<!"<;!(~ptor cells ~'utl 1"1(1

wi rh i i1 the ~:-e I'(!"~!}~nn to '~.l11 u~ti us oi 1l~~1l. Li~h tW:i'l'~~ nre inrerprered accord lrl~ t(, the r~l~t;lv"" lJghmeSl-i 01' hi'jgIHil~~~S r~.r~i\"CL.!

b~' the m lud's "'re. The mure 1 i!l,!'ll tll nt enters (II'.!: eve, the In-j~tH.H, rnore inr'8n!>~, ,LElJ 1It6R~ pure til ~ '-'0 lor' will ~pp~m' ~l nri I the a ~>p~.mtt.l~ uf t h~ ~:'-'~ i~ (fv(!f\'I'heh'lled and ~l~m~ occurs. W~I~m ~(1Jlor~ huve ;l[ lQHg,er W:L ~'deil~th rh~ll ~(mJ ~o1or~ Til" JJihysical ]lrop~n)' of IIgln ..... ";"\~·es mn:v have some

h",~ r"ll~ Oil die oreatiou ot' ~im 11,rtWJ~~tt . L.'"{)ll.t1\;1:S~. R(OSe,1 rollers h(1\'~ dete L"1j.l.ilL-~d til 31 wlieu \'J~wlng ~~1 ul'.ie~l ',ll.Ist ]DOl>S~~S£~

w~ i m Ill.l d enol ~u.klr~, the j .• j.s i'(JOLl~C>li

back and forth from ,;1 Il}ol\ \\'iwel(!"~11;~1; t{>

n short \V:!\';~I~.It1~th. 'rhi,s ilh[!I~("Jm~llOll m,lY l~~ uce rbsue simnlulll ~~:HL~ cnnr 1', I$t hy G~.I !~ing dill.: iB·i.~ to 3djlJ~t b8d[ and l()Hh mpklty,

CoBlor ti:rli~jl1lg: Add~l!ll a !m'IIJ;JI i!rm9ti~U oI.'-'l'Iti color ar whr~e p~~!!t ro ;;IIlotilw- ~gt(!r

,\ ~I,>r [lilt ~~11 also m~~L1 .1 screened r(,!rQ~nt~~e of 8 00101', wluoh ~H0WS the wJiite I)f rl!", P~J~J W s I ~(lW [1.1 i'(.>UjIi;h Th~ P!J"RC'tEc-31 ijprU~[1 rl"ll of color Until IJ;! [$ usu all r J-JO p(1-rcem of QIM eolor or \\'h:1(t l1i!llll~n[ ,,_tkJ~d to the- NiJoC.r ..... IT U p~ n::-~-ntat:.e oj" L'"Olnlr I ~;!-;~

~ bml ] 00 perecn L prhuud a n ~L xu b~tT~I.t~ When dt;~llin.~ with ~I.~tml!l ic tll,e3, ,QO 1m

27

tintinA t<lk~~ r],K'~ when lh~ 0lNldty i~ ~et I~~~ T [mn ! flU peroen t m"ltl ti~<[! b8>oII!lruuni[ oolor i~ wlurc, err :;, small nmounr 01 m](! color 'i~ ~Llrerimpos.ed on mwEi-1QL It" I~~ul COHG C tly, (.'CJ lnr tin t.i n,ll. C~1I:i ~1'(28 tf! ;l wid..: \·8I:iet~· (lof oolor eifEct~ t h"l ~ cancomplemenr til e mi".er~ 11 III ~~,~ge.

Colo I' tJ~[ln~ C~IL Iw n hL~.hly dLCu:[i~~: ~(r'lwil~' Fm' crear Ill~ effi.deul ["]:I ~:;s~lg.~:!;

wi L hln ~'i"~-W11. commun icatiuns. Sj nOlle H.l.O~L offs,.:: L ~llk~ are \!C~." transparent, the

~u h.~ tra tc (In \-\'11 Lch the i 11k j_~, rl~lcGd pl.~y 5

an unportnnr roJe in onhJr ,iIU1Llg, III face, th~ ~ub~tr~'telf];l}':B un I~po!!,!;am role 1.11 ~.rmtn)ml~g dle nl .. W"(ml~ 0~ {!<"LI<Of uppeurnucc. &.T~en-prj ntlll11, ill k~ are n1{>r~ opnque tljstn oi'f$e{ i nks, bm L hey <l!'e ~~ i.n lr.1l1:<p~Lre'1 L

Diagram 29 (.a-d)

The two squares 29a and 29b utilize warm .s nd cool COIOiS 10 create an illusion of the type comlnc forward or popping. The color combination in 29c creates the illusion thai the lYPi3: recedes, The combination in 29d is perceived as flat because the warm color is in the background .:l110 the- cool color in the foreground.

Btue-vlclet

Rod

Red

violet

Violet

Blue-violet

Violet

Red

, I

28

] n screen p]'lntil1t, plilruem {!~In n€! sulded l'l:I 111Cre~W rJle op;l.C!lfr [If an inl!, 11m the in!,'~ ;tPp>e~ ranee may b~ nffe~~ed, mn Q-E! l;nm~t ')i.ffset mild soreen prlnslng ls p1!Od\Eced an wl,j te p~p~'r. H' can be sa] (i t.11<t( ;11l colors used have ll: certainpercentage of eolcr ti;].titlg bl;l::i1ll1\ p.l~.c~, W"heil ~slng a eolereel P~ll)~t" or ,3 .~IJl:ti;:t:rati} tbjl~ is alread}T colored, all lLl];:~ pkll~'ed nn t.(]p \\liU "{hllmi.~l:L'- ~

l»f)I'~Aj L1 p~n;!ell~e of the 811h~t.mW's color, ill I.~ 'I~ also c.oll~;ldl;!red. color tinting. ln l.lthj_~t words, celor dIU hl~~l.~[t!S pl~c~ by t1~lnA ~I colored sljbstL'H~ Of pap~~ ~hMmQ('lLfiB;!i thl.! 'l\hfr.r~H ltl'l;te<lfl.mce. I)r rh~ i IJ I.v;;,

Cclor [j ~Hill!l Js one or ehe mosr counnon tcC!Jut~qtH::S used riu'oughom the de3il!Il i.tu.hlo£(t:-'" whmevcr dw med lu Ill, t);;~0r tiriti:n._~ cun lx' used for HIm; ~'J<!e'!)i lrmHtiO<I1ai phmo.(1.l'llphy (i u whicli (,~l$e i{ ts usually dClnIc by ~!~i!HI): djlljlalphulO:!\!",tll]ry: in[l~t:rf.Ltim.1; priJlLmakiL'I!1;: f.md iH'itll-bEI~d,

i nteraotlve, ruction, ·:1 nd ~n.\~nm mental t,nL'ph fc~. An importusrt; Im:;t:oQr to C[)Il,~;iI:lC'~ when usi n~ color ti nt.i nl1; is ~Hlc typ~ O! ink~ O( mel nHi{l/rl' b~ i!l~ !~t!H;!cl. lh~ flT~.t Icon~IJemtioo ior pr1[i1t-h:lj~ed gOI ph ~C'"

s hOllld he the type of p]'iJU~n~ to 'lX;!n~~d!: rbis will dl(lt~~t~ haw YOll sat ~!P ih~ eJE:c{;roJL!~ me fa I' jl press-rendv ill ech ~l1i~;d Withm the medln nnd color ll-ch emes menuoued ,1Do'\-'e. 1.1JJ~.~ly dJJieJ\e..Lu colo]' l.i.mil:l.!l' I:.echnhlll.eS Cum be ci\eME\d.

ln print-bw;e~l ij.mfl'h~c~, the most common t(C~·hn ~qn{!~ involve til ~ n~~ (If di fr~!"ell t ~er"'['!!llf-m~~,zlltint., verticnl 1')1- horiznntnl Jl'J1T~H~1 line" s~~ptone, JO!.lMe dot, ~W~;)riJ11?; et~,-alld different screen numbers (ll~n, However, rile tonal dlgtrlbvtJon of ·~l{1r nntl.!ll!; ean be effected or the h~:tl!ghtl'i, mldwil.es_ and ahadows of nn hu~~e, If rhe Lorlal. t'lln!i;C' or un h'i!lfl!1e I'o.r prin t ptDc!t",3(iuf! is frolIt J-98 gl1m~eIl1L o! color, thun t.hl: color t:LI]'ltl1~ [nidus place \\,[1] hm~ ~.II a \.'~;;;LIl .!]·ITwl:!t m~ th~ irml~_

1f .'1 nj.~her-o~1Ilt rasr illl ~IIQ i~ hein;l~ !ltilj,,~d, [hell t 11 ~ 1;!:f~I{)r ~imin!4 In,l), !1 [j~ ;Ippoear m '1PP~Y W rhe,! ..... hole Im.1ge. \\'trll hl~h·~'A)mr.~~[ Illtll~~S. the touat I'all:ge ()l' continuous tone of au tm ag~ is dl.m:l (II shed, The spectrum fan~~ 'Jf rl eon tinuous-tone In]~g.e 1~ HI) longer fro.m 1]-.10U percent 111 alluS.l high· eon tras L Emrlg~s. t:he cOl1tunuOtlS touul tl~!l,[1i~ J~ from 2(J-·10~) pereenr. The h ~1th~, ~11C ceutrust, the luss t.onal r:lrng.t: rhctmnge hus: ~he· eomrast causes areas or O-JO perceut

to drup out to whi.t~ o. ttil€ coler (i.f the substrate, and ~ril!:38 from 1D-1.0n percent

to fiT] in blach, m:l.d; equals 1 (lei perot!11t

and white eCj~I"11~ OIJ'i')IC!'em- Wheoll 1J~i ng color fintiI1g'Ol,ith lm3gi,(O!s. t h B cl:Lfl~ ~F ,~'~e~L~ of :1. ph(ltogr~ph, 111.uMmtll)n, nnn p~inrillg mny nor be ilm~,cted by the timIng, or the eUect may be M sl~!1.ht rhm :it Is hard for

the hU1l1illl e}'e L,-, detect Lhe sh~it III ~Cllor

In tll~~ hook. CQJuJ' t:iHfi~lg i~ l.!~.li.zt!ti 011 311 ~.~.I'3y ()~~Im;; f[)Uow:i n11; On>l~ _,.i m p!~ TuiE:if th ~ Jtlli!!i'~ tua ~!~ [rnm 2! coo] ~r)!or, th~il

it is till tad 2()p~~TU or I~~s; if it 1.5 made frQlJJ ':l ~rnjl wror. it: is dlIwCI from ZfI percent and ~ bove, Wilrm, pure or senalpure eolors ~see cr){(wp!wlry) ,Ire used at II}() peroeut of eolor

11:1; mentioned illltlve, scrccrrs !lJll,U thuir:

pe rct:l1t~lg~~ are a higMy d.f~-.:tiv~ ~\lfr~t W tr~m~ 0[~l[H timil\Y-- l~3C1h trr~' of ~eru~·I.l, the correspondm ~ pel'c..r,nt3~., and tne cC'rf1E!~pomiillig drill.pl tiJeillg LL~d oan h~v~ .;~ diff~r'1!rH. e-f1'~G t Il]Wln Q{lI{I~ t ~n t~llg_

M.~HY ~Hrfel'eLlt screens ~ re ~w~U.~ble. ;ml()ll,!i them. contlnuous tone, d~l. ~qu~r('!, iP;~I. brlek, conceu [.J~ oircle, crossline, cu rllue, dou b~e do r, C::11grfivi.ng, etch [.;)one, fl.ll€ grj~lu, I!ne(l, Ill·e!!.~()dIlt, vertleal I~nd hO.d~(lU r;~1 f,~.nlllel 1:1118, $r:~J)t.(II:I~. llJ.lcI WiNy Htl<.::_ IIi m:nty (If tJt~ photo manipulL!{lotl p~Ii"Lilt~ tlV~lillubk toduy, the r.n~l]jl)ul{Lli(Jll. (ll screerus, til ~i ~ (!mr~~p()lltlinq, p~ro~l]t{tA.~., aud lhej r dpt and lpi 3'r.E ruIHtiv'~] y ~:!S? l(I ,,-uutml.

l' h['! IOWGr the I.pi uurn ber, .h"'CO;:lH'~OI" til 8 ~~f!?~ I, prmtuc-~d. 111 oU~~t prin ting, the tW(l most common Ipi numbers Ilr"e l.'l:~ and 150. Worll th ~ t is p'F]nlf.ld nr JOO]p~ looks l':imih~r to <1. connnuous-tcne rh(w::I@.'.~J.lh" WltJ11 ,3UO]ril tt ts hard to. see t he sereens u~lhzed wrrh ~n the phOW,!lffiph wlthout m~E:lJfl.c~ rlon.

Yellow-orange 100%

Whilo 100%

Diagram 31

Oifferent screell effects that can be utWzed 10 alter hue appearance. This Incl .... des color tinti ng.

Yellow·orange 100% + blue· violet 10%

Yellow·orange 70%

Yellow-Of.ange 10%

Diagram 30 Left: Two methods of color lirning.

~' lBackground color CO M30 Y100 KO 80%

forijlc~r~~tjv~ ~1'''Iph! C"lI, Imrl~es Ja:r~'

A~!l'~:r~11 y ~:L~~tl M 7" ;2nl'l, ;l1uJ screen ~I'l'cd~ enn .~I~Q be ~tm~~d eriJ:cJemly wl~h lu rhis madium CofIJIJdel:II(loll slloLlId be l1;i.\{~ll

to rh~ jmInt! ut 01 compeesslou Hpp!i~d by

the fi~~ ,~'(lmj;l( the 1 m~e t~ ~1l.VeU, hi (il.W~l COUlIllml1y JVEG or Glf), In olxlie:t" to OOtlll~~S.~ nn hl.l.~~Q er 11iJ'~l)hiC, some

jjtbrm ~.ti (In, i~ LhtLl\~n ~W~I~-. T:>'pic~lly, t~i~ results in j[ 1d6ii!i or Wrm~ findl'or color T~)l~0. Stlm~1l ill~ e!'fuC1t.~ can Cn;!~I,~Q 8 J.)/'IJ 8m ic color I1Hi8'tt£ by ~n!mEHg 11 L'%;r '8dl:~'m~ ~h'lt il(m~;e~ th~'(lp'p{ll~i~i()n (if HtllI W darhund !!h 0:<~.ed~(} fully s~HLmf~f~ I m,,ges, The same (!'~]1 he $;'lid r'}J: mo non graphics. flInt, ,'](100, WlMmdo'l.l,llW.! ph(lL~nlphy

29

rutgers -njil theatre arts pFogram

99

D¥,;:":J.~j,,"_'1PIot DlOl1S - 2.!iCl_Plt

KUPF1l[A..~·~'Tm:ATItE, ~'JJt C,o,.._'lPUS, 'FOJcM~:RI.:'r· tI~U[r;RarrrlL\LL ,\r.lMIS!!rO~ $7,$nmE~'l'fI &81':1';[00 CfTlZ£. x S.:i R~S&R\'ATlONEi &: t~T.ORM.\T1QN'J1.a.u3-5:U"9 Xi\' <

IlOLli'!] E[l

.Art DlM~oo.r~D~IIii:!1e,' :Il,h':tj [!:In!(&,

------------------~--~---------------------------·I '

Figure 10 When pr~oting on colored stock. purity of the original hue- specified must

be take .... into ccnslderation. This poster is a good example

of pure snd serrupure colors being utilized to offset the effect that a colored stock wi II have on each hue printed.

DIagram 32 Color l:inting through the use of line screen per inch-.a11 round dot

•- 'typeC15 'bgd C77

typo C77

"gd C15

M79 Y9S K6 M73 Y60 KSO

M73 Y60 K80 M79 Y99 K6

F10IJIr<o .,

DrW1!IIh,IQ i!lii\fE:tnr ~ .... iIJ p~

'JViltuPlnlFtmI f!lrn'~il1l ~lInDIIi ,Jnd MIIl'D, Prr.:1ey

Fi!lure 11 In this Merry Down poster, the red bas a CVR r.ating of 18.22% and the purple a eVR rating of 10_37%, This is a CVD 01 less than 8%.

Diagram 33 Left: A pers-on possessing normal eyesight, wilh or without corrective evewear. can easily detect objects that have a eVR differential of less than 9%.

eVA 16.12%

Diagram 34 Right In this C[Z records cover, two hues are being uti I lzed-va dark purple and a pinkish red. Each

is used at 100% of color.

The pinkish red has tonal variance, however, this ijs achieved throuqh a COarse screen pattern. Desiqner

Art Chsntrv

CVR 5.11%

eVA 19.99%

eVR 10.37%

Ct.lIOt tOlilll'!g~ Al'1di"'9 ~Jl80 cpmpfem .. mm flllfp to 8ftO ll~r

C,.I<ill' P·ll1.~14 l~ '[11~ uiu:ot ~iI'ccti\'e ~tmtell..'I: f .. r (fe(lt~<Lt.llJg i;b)~~ttrfmw,1 r,1;, qljl tr'ajli't. ThiS OO~l~:JiS w]lI,~t! ~h~ru is !"till !mhai8~ro(;!. or ~llle(JW'] ~TOI£l'OFt:ioll uf ~>jJImj)Lel:neUr:Lry' (';fl~lJJ".S uud hecesues PIU!'Hll1InOL"d I\;h~n lh~ '!lAIJI~ n ~~ tmdHimmIT jJ'l"jmctlilC'll. ! 11 _~ uch cases. !YPQ-gmpili(..' (..'OIOF !;tombin;ltioi"lS' ~I'r", aU but lill'po~s.ibl(l to rj3ml a),; tho.! :<rf(TI)ln~ oci'relrl'l I1IliIk..,N i[ pl'lYl'lic1lllF Imrl<o~lhJ", (II dl!=l Iil'¥e ttl t:ixllte.

L'~lId(1 ii~ L\ .. m:c ~ornpl e lJIl>;l.mM~' ~.I'Jt lIJ tI! .. ol:b~ r, :1 m<1!t"<;! 11011rl n~~~ color ~'~!llIlJ:)iJ:'lIun occurs; d~l L5 lessen tllg rJ116 :;;iJ,fllJllljln!COlL~ omitr~st-tlt'" l)\'el'~rhilll!.1]il!{i(lrL .Iud rmUgue

oj rile pl:i(HHre{l..!l'1lu r ~dL~, and rill: l:C~uJtlllll .-(l'll!n:ma~t' eir.:~r. The [II1U\"[: color tmlinA created, the less silinillLiI1tJ6u~ cnntrust will OI"<Jtir. Slmulmneous ccmrnst oecur .. ~ with all color ~IXI-L'll,"'"';<!:~. ~.hs~!;liim;:.~. :md lTLl!ch~ ~"

~ on i ns Is An jh·(t~8JJi!;,m ~ttmte~· fo:r dE:~k!lm IIll 'Pl'i 11 t, intenl(!lti\'t:, ~11' ..... i l"I~I~l1~~lt'll. ,lll(i mutlon ~ml)h.to~.

Ito'or val U I!": The r.elsmi,"", ~frl"(:-$# Or dilfflruzys of the~oJitJ'I' as petccf1PJ<'l "11 rrnJ "'il'l~ iiI"!)

The colnr value rl'1rlllg. or dlro1rl'l, is alsu I,m)l'm a~ rhe r n'isntlliJlll<!' I LUllil1, Ni'h1l1Lt"1'DtI,s h"I~>';;' hove the- s~Jne (IiU !~~J:Ly lu~ ~amc: ct"dm value. We OJ'["CH cl!lll.Fus~th .~·1"~ei1 pe.roenrtigt3 {.t' du:!' culor w] 111 i . .J'~10Mr v~11 ue.

.fVpeC96 M84 Y22 K33 ~ Bacxqrou nd color C20 MO Yl00 KO 70%
bgd C13 M99 Y91 Kl '-..-1
G. type C13 M99 Y91 Kl
bgd C12 Mll V15 KO
cn Mll Y15 KO
C96 M34 Y22 K33 l1k ~~~",,'!Il;Jt f.!'IlrC>eiICI t~~ uf u IJo]or I'lfl£l r I ~~ eolnr VIIi~~ (lp8rn1 e InrJepeilcl.t.'J1ti~-; on~ <ll,*~ il.o~ a fle~ til·' ()~be,r, Go1,or ~ew'~nt8tc 3ltd ~"el,~ "''aitl~ ,U"~ di~wm eouslns, l~t1t .C~~ ~~ of {!CJ;mpT:£. hensl.o1l &,,'ji; $"''LL~tiI \;k'w d'u:!Ul ~~. enti'l'~'l.r tJl~'i~I~JLt !lor ~mrlG, 111l!"CI1,w e~ln h~I''i,!e .1- edJQo~ ~:;] ~I.le rn[ilJ~ u P] ~(!"ro(,l !~t and b~ lOC'! pe~nt ()if 0l1iol', or tl~1£ moJi0ll' <;:;;II~ h~we

;"t #$ l~eJ'c-elat culor \'Jllm~ rati 111.: ~ Ild pf,! lIilO J;Joe I'e-€In ~ oj OO~I-1~. The- p;E'Te'"nt~e {If i[ 0O'lu)' Jl~ the !lnl'JU1Lrll DE' L~JE!r b(,!in@ u~IU~1 etlhet i.ln H[l ~l'.x:tffilukel1l'irnnmn,ellt @r elil u j:)lTl.i>J.[Qd

SU bst;U'~1 tA.!. 'rile mfJI'a1' "ilhle ~!'Ilh)1l tells 1I~

how wei! h~ hl1ln~u., ~yt pew·.!::d \'c(;~ &L- C'Dlnr ~ tthe!' :Ll:l s. jWi!31 r ve eJe()~rj<::<I,ti Illpui~J~ ('i£'(~I'm {.:f,{()i' ~'~.~u~) or ff neg,nj~'~ el~t17ics.l impll.lw ~~'f)()! 1l!'0iQI' va l,lIe) , (s:e~ ell fllK~f .'i (nr ~®lnr :':~LI~liI1 iIlll'i eo].)]; O;:OH[,rllll'L )

The .~s~ LIlI,rl",!! ",I' ~(J.]l[;Ir~'jlhle ~I'l cl ~-.rJ~.r ~~·.nlr~1${ wi'tlr h.:Jj;ihilitri.s i'fof,!quemly misfi [hl'~I'~l~_ Mdn 'Y de~i!ln!i!rs .;!.:ruq.t'tl!Sc [tLI: t\~~)_ Culur OOlnt.T~~t i~ detet'l1liJl (:,ul~~ tlic jlh~l>lc:d "",'ay d:1tt,e",y~ pl;)lj_~l\~$IAUC~ ml1~l Q.~~J~Qt~, where~~ QQIO)<r valu ~ I.~ ll.~w

Ihlt III i n~1 'i nt~l'Jlref~ \\.1lM "11<:: <l::l'e~'I'~'Cjv~~.

9"..i)leT v811.n(,! iOi f:<tll! .);1' tlw "-'COr! t~'iWL[i~]~ fS>Ct0f~ in illiR~ il1~'l'l ~hl ~ d~ L'~~~lJtll~n.~i.[mJlht~·_

The I ighter rh~ e@l~!r, ~ he dm;(5r' [~n~ QbjOCl ~PP'l!.~T~ .talJ.e,~ the (~1lI rk~ ••. i~E' eo,lm, rh~

fll rth~l' ;l'iMl!l.;"!'- H i11il~~~IJ;;~. 'Ehi~ ·Joe_ .. n(lit i·]~e.m rh;l,etJI ~ ('l>'e p~~Ct:i ~.c~ a liJl,l1 tf! f p(ll!)'I' l1t1)~

Olagram 35 Right: A person possessing normal eyesight with or without corrective evewear, can easily det eel objects that have a CVR differential of lass than 9%.

CVR 19.99%

CVR 7.89%,

CVR 19.99%

eVR 19_21%

elen tly ~ h"~l i ,1 cl, J:k<l, color, G)JT tl:! ~t ;~ I ngln <1!&lur 1'i'ltI.ill ll'~ I>IL.>n;! bill L~I \'IIi'til fi J~ rk l"~l0, L10 ~j'CHe.e 1~llill)l<t i)l~~ m!J 01.}~m; (!'mnIJlill.iltj.}tE~.

I~}' C!IMlin~L1ji!1; Ll\1: ~·BJUj,! nf l3 eolor, lWH1'1'~'6Il~ rwln-I{~'- .~"--'U)m:lcrr3', and ~'(im)' '.)'(jI~I~6"un he Cl'-ei.l~etl. ktldi nil; b:1;LO~, to a co[;or will ,f{~Q:l H$ ~lIrity ~p,e-E! '!tl!m' ~w~'Ir,yLjf til'! ~>(!II'IJF ~ ~~"~terl i ~ to b~ 'I~e!cl f~t- bu iUi'ul.! • nd ~!Dll \Y~lI.lt r.o achieve ~ h!l~h eu~u~ dm'HI>l''(~. usc Uri r~' \'~q' !@W lJ>ef0eJ l~Ilg...:~ ur hl!l1cli..;.

0( .:(1<llOr~'ii!h.J~ l~ t)m~ (){ [h{l t'~'le t[)r.~ rh.,t determlues {~'~>Oi!l;m!'Jhie l~iIDihrr· W'heu

J L~i 11,& ,1 whl ~<:: ~LLbstl'n~(!', t h~ :<t;lL1J~ 1'1]1 rule of rhumb ~fJt l>LLw!i W_"ilt t:<,p(o! 'QJ1 il h ... 10~(YmHj ~ol", I' b ttl ]I;/;~ i!--.2'lllM!rc-en r {m ,d ~~'k, ~"tI{}I.-· t;Qlm'<::d haL~I~~.I'mln(b. Mos{ w.;~J'm 1!lI1'ill'lllUk~~ fHHI ~L"l!Iml,Jm'¥ ~JiI}r~ c~ n he tl~GJ ut n mlLDI~ ~L~p'-h~r P~LO:-~ltr~!!i~ 0~'e<)I(.r, fil.c'lLld,lnll, 'IIH' P~I'C'~I~t o~ {:(1lor :,~.l 1:l-;;i.d~gl'().u{lcl. fflr

ex ~lH'Pl~, 1 oc! I~~ 1!~eJ.IU or i'tt1 wi tha , .. lor ~"fIin>E! f)~ 1 8.2;! p€lleellJl eun lA: !i!-l(,ld ~" ~ 8acl~~Wl!I.~M t.-.t ImJ [lltroldr'll M3~1; ~e:;;:t rYflt!', l\'~ hl.wk I~I,I~ 0 ~U~I)I' vahljE! r.f ). I ! rf.! reenr, the d il'fW'i11 ~ti~i I~~ tween rhe t ~'f(O

ls n~y 13_11. Ij~l?:.!(tn't, $0 th,(! [~P~ ~'I'Ii1 (J(litl]; f!C!ml 'j il~l[ l~1J j~ r'.:n',~C',lJryhegi hl~. Thli: S~~i1nj.' ~~rr~},1I.~~ f~lf l. 00 perean I rlll~fl~(;> (w~[ IJ II 6_!l jl£!t<i:eHU color f'JiJue I :Llld 1 HJ) IJoej'~IU. fl'!'! (\'\(ilh an I. ~ .. 2·21X!rlN2m (~~loJ' \''\fiIh~'''')_ L~fc

('I i ~{6l.!fllli~bl ic!; nn Lr 11_:1:2 ~j'<.)~n l , fill.:! the tll'lJC Ilin]ll eolo]J cr.mhimlUflrl IS rJ8iJc(;!Iliy

liI,;;~Lbk 'T'hOj dl~([ilro~ <It whldl st liUltlj!L1 \1-'itb I1IUl'tll,ll ~()J£iI~ l'itS i 1)11 ~;In s,ee III is r~'P'e EIJld ~~~ll~u' 001111 bin~ ~I Qil liil kl1em~M I 1 f lh~'~y'f'l'lo!

11> ptll'ple 'Iml t he 11,1d~ll;rL~tIl.1I:1 j~ n:tl Or "i~ versa The ~II'~ L.~ true 1,C>i' rht: 'me! nnd bl~C'k W~ ~ ~llld G!Ob~jl' (Wmhil~r~~kl)l'l" It m,~J~-el'l 1m

!l!i ffufl;!n ee \\'J!:I~I L eelor l~ rll!!.l baC'liig.TI'lUJld

;;ind ~~111(!1~ Is, [hIJ fflore.!b·I)Ul;LtI 1-'<;;), t)'fI!'J'l!:~"IiIJ~10 ~~llihi ti ry.' {>II'ii1 ~'I~wi.l1g d:iStt~ne~.

The cull1r ~'lt!~l(' mtiFl!! fb~ ~ 1l1~" phy-si()~.1 ~'llll.pi~ '-':~'n 11!t iI(!~~'1'11'1 in ed. Illdmll:tl J tI th~ .\,~p<mL~i_" ~:re "i~Il;l15.Ullr1es ,111J or hlt:~ cHI.or V~II.u0 Fa bi ng,~ JOY W{>f:l!ci~. meta I.~. l)IRlliHIt~, hrjGIt~,[_"i ndie'l" bklcik, <"LiJ J ' [ll~-..c~..---.lIlJ i:'OlTlil'!fl(lnl" 11$1:'<-1. H1HO!.1lil(1 C~);r sil)1nnge- lJ:<lilll~ lhese v~J.lI~~' v.i I.l eIJ'SHN t:OJ.u r . ~ulll·f.'1 il,l n{!(o! w'rth :Y11'Y lo,)gllllt~[L""1l

CVFI 18.22%

CVR 10.37%.

CVR 18.22%

CVR 6.90%

32

Color wheel: A matrix comprised of primary, seconda:rY. and "tertiar::/. hues or caiars Different forms of color wheels gcnerate a mnltipltctry of hues. The NUllS'ell Svsrem has. 10 lhs.ie recognli7.ed hues defining

the color wheel, while in the PAKTC)NE MATCr·IINd SYSTEM® some 13 basic hues make up the color wheel. In the Aouit y Color System, there are four baste hues, ,H1J sanae Ill,OO() spot colors'. Most color wheels and thuir respective systems start wit.h a few basic colors. These colors lend to COIT8spond to the receptor cells found within the eWI·e~ of the eye (yellow/blue', red/gr8en, white/hlack, red, blue, .~roen, and purple). Nlbs!.af the color spectrum

that humans can see can be created through either subtrnct'i't·e or additive cousr mixing; from these basic colors.

Color wheels that do not utilize the entire human color spectrum can also be oicared. Such wheels are offbeat and usually specific to the job in hanJ. 'rhey an" generally set up to meet the objectives of the client through the utjltzation of corporate colors, and physica}, psycllOlogipal, and/or learned behaviorataffects, A basic color whee! that utilizes prhnary, 'secondary, andHe["tinr~' colors coordinated witli a specifro job provides a highly effective tool for creating articnlu«, visual messages. (See Chapter J nor creatlng color whccls.)

Diagram 36

These are a few or

the color wheels/enodeja that desiqners lise on 1'1 dev-to-dav basis,

Wh[te

S ubvactlve color wheel

Color Manag.ement

In pri.nt-hased graph.i,cs, subtraotive primaries (cYiln,JUagenta, yellow, 'and

black) are used to create the color specarurn. In. iJ1teract,,;e~aJld motlon grapbics, lincluding film and vldeo, additive color is used to orente the color spcctrumvWirh additive color mixing, the hues ape projected from their source. This means that the color intensity 0[' chroma is great.or than t!laX produced in prtnt-based gmphic~, and this creates a larger color spectrum. 1I10st of

the wheels provided by contemporary appHca.tion prograrns do not dl~ti1'lgtlish between \\ubtraoti ve and additive color ~pectnui1s. Many 01' these progr.rms tlistingutsh only the color ranil'"S that arc outside of the subtractive color spectrum, flaMing the color ChOSelTI with a "'."

Cornplemerrtarv colors: Hues that we fOUllt! Of! opposite sides of-the cOlor wheel Cornplcmcntarv colorscan be pr-i·mury, seem~da1~\', or tertiary, as well as tints

hee color tin1'i'n!-lj_alUd shades (see color :~ht(di:'H,~). With subtractive U(Jlors, mixing two complementary colors i'1 equal parts

will creak a neutral gray or bhok Whit~ pigment cam be added to lighten a neutral gmy. Bleck pigment can bc added to darken a neutral gmy. lVlixilllgcslightly more of one complementary eolor to the other will create 11 gra.y with 3 color tint of the '''larger'' complementary color.

White

White

With additice co-/o)" 'mixing, complementary colors mixed in equal parts (using all

three primaries) create. a neutral grw? or white. Computer screens and tetevision monitors usc addit,h'e color. However, the contemporarv appllee.tlon .I?.rogram~ used by designers, photogfap.he;cs, <lod illustrators for interacttve and motion graphics and fi lm use subtractioe colo)"'mi,,,ing (both s'~rnple and com pie",') for tho creation of color palettes. The color information is still created in the calm' gamma range of additive colors, but designers tend to be more t'a.miliar with subtractive color rnix+ng palettes. Color ganlI1:W is the interrstty of light gunerated,

in this case hy the C01);1p11.ler screen. Maemtosh ope . ratjng sYstems usually use H gamma value of 1.8 'while Windows svsrerus use 2.2; the. higher the value, the. darker

the midtoncs ,produced. Neither of these systems accurarcly rctlects what would be

S'eell on pnper.

Complementary colors create biighly effective color sclrel7ws and, usually,

p',leasing color combinations. However,

using p.ri:l11ar~' and secondary hues at full satrrratjorj within cornplerner.tar'y color schemes creales pronounced sinwltmieml,s contrast: This effect, in the right context, can create successful visual communications. A color scheme utiliz.inj; sirmu1taneous contrast creates highly ki net.ic hue irirerplav,

While

High chroma

A"'"' chroma 0\Q).

_.(\ oj) ~ Hlqh chrcma

•. .

~

.

Tredltlcnal color wheal

0\ H;gh chromo

. .

.

.

Outer retine wall

((5{\. 10' standard observer

~FOV ••

BI.c~

I:x"o""".m. ~Wh;le

Additive color wheel

lnrfividue I color wheel

to-step color wheel

Prtru-based SI,J btractive colcr wheel

3·0 color wheel

While

~] Background color

C65 MO V100 'K9 20%

The strobing interpla;y can be intriguing. However, you do need-to exercise caution when using contplementnry colors that create pronounced simultaneous contrast with type and color combinations-small texr.se: in a. complementary color scheme at rull saturntlon.creates unreadable text.

Complementary colors that arc primarv and coincide with the photoreceptor

cells found \~:i.t1IiJTJ. the cones of the eye (blue/yellow, green/red, red, bhre. .. ~·cen, and purple) can create a 3-D illusion 011 a 2-D plane. ~ycwear such as 3-D glasses-that utihzc the same complementary colors as the printed page produce a 3-D effect; the transparent, cplored gels through which the audience views the printed piece must be the same or ncar-same h;J,(: and Ch1i(~H'n(1 ilS the colors on the prrnred pagc.

Ir,ut,olfi' ~M!!KIT ffsn~ fmlSIJ1(o7 Ji.tltillfWliMi?.\.'Fi: MTllt,'/l-'!l ..1M .. 2l.M:I1, wAM fa BfM. ~AI/fIIJP. SijrtfE. ~,!l\111t.~(Jh ffl-.Cf. rt"U'.,\911t'G: &I\o;t5: ,lJClCRrnam' .. rWuo r3!1J.~ fml.M'N ~~f"I1.~ GfI~i'[.IT~'($. rr.tllJAn CIr(tS. !"lST<l, M.u:i'N.!i:. 1'IllA ~,~{l, ello'J~ IllQJ;$, lf~~r(iAM~. JUSGJLII5,. C~"I1.r:','IfU$ A~r!l'trlfS, .!I1vr;~ >ilWl hWC,ll, MLDI Mmi'i;lrot; MD;'lEl'lI'1l:lI>f !IoI~i!iI"OO

~ r ... IH:I'l'jlW,,.,~UEf.lSifARiJT~ .

33

Fiqur c 12

Art Director/De~igper John Mallposkl

Fioure 13

lI\ustratorlDfl'sjgnc-r lOp} ErilgEmillil

Figl,lre 12 Red and g(E!en are utilized as pe rent colors to form a ccmplementarv color palette.

Diagram 39

__ . Cornptementerv colors rto-step color wheal!

Figure 13 Btu€' arid oranqe

are employed IQ form a complementary color palette. Beth shading a nd tjntillg are utilized within the blue hue Magenta is utilized with blue to create an array of red-violet. When combined. the thre~ hues create an incongruent color palette.

Dlegrarn 37 Parent colors trom Figure 12.

!Ii • tompll'!mE!rH.a.ry CCIOfS (tz-stec color wheel}

Diagram 38 Pa rent colors from Figure 13.

!!II Complements ry colors rtz-step color wheel!

• tYPE-CO M91 '0'87 KO III Lype C17 MZ8 '0'0 KO
bgd C65 MO '0'100 K9 ~gd C89 MZ9 '0'13 K1S
IItYDeco MO '0'0 KO P tvpe C89 M~9 '0'13 K1S
bBd CO M91 '0'87 KO bgd C17 M28 VO KO
~ tvpe ces MO Y1QO Kg V type css M29 '0'13 K15
bgd CO MO YO KO bqd C2 M33 '0'36 KO 34

Complex fields of vision: The mechanics of perceiving the location and orientation of an object

Complex fteld" are located in the primary '1:JiSllal cot'tecc"ir of the brain. They work best when ail object is proper})' oriented but contains no "on" and "off" component. Cornplo, fields arc responsible (o~' defining inov.ihg slits, edges, and/or dank bars, and help humans to interpret the shape. contour, and mass of an object.

For example, complex rields play an important role in how humans see [tild understand typogl~aphic anatomy. Withotrt them we would see color, l)lit no distinc: shapes, Color and sliapc' perception are intertwined-e-rhey should not be viewed as independent entities. 'I'hey have a symbiottc relationship best viewed as {I dynamtc, ongoing visual process.

~Vith the complex fields of \!j,&ion, it makes QO difference whether the color val'ue

rating of a background/Foreground color combiuation has a 2 percent or a 98 percent differential. The issue 1~ whether these fields cap detect form or not. Wi:th regard to the perception of form, the choice of color combination has to 0.10 wi-th learned behaviors-it has nothing to do with the way humans perceive objects plrysically, through the apparatus of the eye.

Color Management

A general lack ef understanding about how humans "see" color has led to myths about e'lhw v0nfj'((Sr.. The colors chosen for type and background can have the same value rating find, the type be clearly legible. Type and hack.ground can even have a vellow and yellow/orange combination 'and be dearly legib10. Legibility d'cpend'§' on the slltlpc, color, depth, and size of the form. If the object under exanrinatlon crosses over the simple, hype-rcomplex, and complexjidds, the object can be seen. These three fields are limne! within the ·l,.tis!lab pachway ..

An object must be big enough to make" an impression that is larger than three or these receptor cells; if it is not, the object will

not be seen.

Complex subtractive mixing: The process of removing lightwaves through absorption and scattering

Complex subtractive mixing occurs When light bounces off an object. The light waves' are then either retleqted b.<J,ck in the direction of the viewer, absorbed by the object as heat, and/or scattered jen various directions. When creating objects for viewing at. a distance, rlle effects of complex subtractive color mixing should 'always be considered. In prinr-based .graphics this process will have an effect whenever 3 varnish is used or an object is viewed under glass 0[' laminate. In many cases, glare is a

Diagram 40 (a and bi

The difference in appearance when hvperccmplex photoreceptor cells are used ill the process 01 perception and when they are 110t 40a shows the appearance without the use of the complex photoreceptor field: 40b shows the appearance with the complex

photoreceptor field.

bv-produor of the object created. Minimum glare must be taken Into 118Cotl11t because it decreases the distance at which objects can be read by up to 15 percent. In eases where Incense glare i$ ge:ne.wted, the object can no longer be seen,

In environmentnlgnaphic de'j,ign, .many materials and substrates are utilized in sign_s and signagc systems. Each mntcrial has its own molecular structure and texture. Both the structure and the texture influence scattering. The rougher t,he texruro, the greaten the scattering; the smoother the 'texture, the Ids likely it is that scatrertng will occur, However, in certain condrtions,

if the object is smooth intense glare will occur. Both scattering and glare have a

direct impact on the distance at which we can se,e objects-botllH'e,iuce it. On a rougher object, glass, laminate, and varnish, whether matte Iinish or not, a1.1 produce scatt\!rin,~. and/or glare. Scattering and ghre occur in tuteractive and morton graphics because the o~*:;c.t ies unde-r transparent

glass when the design i's viewed. No matter how transparent the glass appears, some soattering will occur. With interactive and motion graphics the phenomena of projected light and ambient light occur simultaneously. Depending on the environment, one lighting oondi tion UJay be dominant own the other, and this must be accounted for in the design.

20/20 '" 5fL 461,610 n .7m} 20}25 = 5" 312/15in {1.6m} 20j30 "; 3rt, 312!16in <1 m) 2Q/40= 2ft 7~5t16in \D.8m; 20/50 ;r 2ft 38h6ir1 {O.67m) zono = 1ft 610116in (O.47m) 20/100", lit 15/'610 IO.3m~ 20/200 = BI16jn IO.16m)

l t
CVR 10.'37%
eVR 19,99% I I- Diagram 41 The visual

dis lance is the same in both type and color combinations. For typographic legibility it makes no difference- which color is the foreground and which is the bsckqround.

eVA 19.99%

CVR 10.37%

~ Backqround color

C50 M90 YO KO 15%

F1gure 14

Art DirectorlOesi'gnor Art Chantrv

Figure 14 In this example. both complex subtractive mixing and sirn pie subtractive mixing occur. In the phctcqraphlc process, complex subtractive mixing is utllhed. aoc simple subtractive mixing is used to reproduce the photograph in the printing process,

Diagram 42 In these two

exe rnptes, simple subtractive mixing lakes place. In order for complex subtractive rnlxlnp to occur. the substrate in which these imaqes are printed would have to have

a textured surface. Des.igner Linda Y. Henmi

type CO M9S Yl00 KO

bgd C2 M6 YBO KO

typo CO M9. Yl00 KO

bgd C2 M6 Y80 KO

The Term inology of Color

35

Cones: The receptor cells responsible for our perception of bright light and color

Cones receive rlrelr name from their shape. They are 'primadl)! responsible for dayltght perception, Cones are most dense near and around the fovea of the eye. 'They diminish in density as they move outward on the retina-wall. There are two types of color perception within the eones of the eye.

The first typ.e corresponds to the primaries of additive color theory (red, green, and blue), and the second corresponds to the color opponenr theory, witheoior primaries of red/green, blue/yellow, and black/white. Each set of primaries seems to correspond to the location of the cone's photoreceptor cell matrix-on the retina wall.

3.6

Cm1lB:l; tXlrr~iWm.d~irl:g to ,rue ootor- p:!'imm:rie~ [If rM, ~C'fl? l~.m:l illu.e se!!1~1 ttl I1.e" I ol;!li.~i ~11!\8J~'ll!n~.ru·auuJ {hit l'tWeiJI. A~ di."',()Oil1~

ije!d t!~~rt;M>e.~ l!f deilSi~ll and mp"'.e% outW/lDtfi W th~c pei"trIJ.~ter'of the retfh'iil field, the reO>l!!ptt.I"L~l.li-l \l'itll.itL dw ~9fle<!l·lleml [.0 r~sp;l}nd ¢o th~ tJlPpOnC1]~ proc~ tliL~ory (bll,~i!!IY~lkl,v.!itm(!l1iu:d, \{lIlU bJ!IIdll.Cwl.ltt<::J. 1'h8" r~(i!r!fur (!0.U:s ~iu\d wi.Utif! (he c!J):IlCS

in [his~~~LU01~ flp:e~::!lr'-'!. in flIair~ ~f l!JJl!te,

Unders,t,mdii'I'it (ti~ b,ISi,fj!; ur Cer]ilr pefccpti,'Hl ,Itild bow,~ Dro.:!ii!':i:S·~J:ld int~~rpret G05b~bl:JtI~ l)h~'~i~!LU~ mut p.'W~hqlo~ifi"lly-. WilLh:(:1p }'Olt.c~(l'~~IIP(:!:I~9~' ~'ifi,U!al OOm:i:lllln:i-I:\lulolt. It j;Hl;"ll'~ tacre'~(l;I:! <!b:irri~~lJ.~llg .§.oltJ!:I(!_L1~ 'll\lilhiQ"'iI:.~ ~~ml;'ro!U:!lI:I~lt!'l\ Q.f I mw G"(IlOl" 'o);!r)rl@l~

Electromagnetic radiation: "the trensier of radiant energy as heet a.nd ligh.t, thro ugh air,

water~ or 'I1~CI1UmS

E!JIl"~tWJJJl:\gnm.ie radiation is p'~otl.tL~(j b~' a u~t,t ~f)un:!~, eitheF amjfidjt! 1J<~i!al'tfrlll. ":Vhh ,rll·ui,tarai. l~u, the radi;Lnt uvu:!~~y tnftld~fred us heat Ojlin h!; "'.;J!1Illy IOOlltmlkd. "j;:hi:!![j tndi;))lt elre(r~~)~ prQdJ~I""e.dr~)r'!l light ~u;r~, it M the ]je;!l·p,,:u:!s.ibllity of tlm dl!!iijtJ~B~ to un(lJ1~ran~ me d ~~r~e or h,e!lt ]'ll;Qa!JJl:!ed.

Elc<;!tmrnagI18<J1e i'<Idilil.UQII and the rmil;ianr eneriW l'rrxliIce¢ :liS lteu.t ,tlre'liiislJes in wli:Utt'QEl,.,,~"twrtltiXii,t ,il:I') d J·:L;l,oo~w"n~fllg:,

Diagram 43 In both examples, fixation is hard 10 achieve due to prcnouncec simultaneous contrast, induced by the pnotoreceoror cells of the eYG which are responsible for color

Each has a line length of almost 29 picas. a comrlbutlnq factor in poor fixation. U 5 line length less than 18 picas is

used (Of body copy, (he leading must be increased to improve fixation. FOr body copy the ste ndard arnuu nl 01 leading ts apts. ln this

exa mpte, Zpts of le.ading has been added, increasmp the er-tcv nt to sots.

_L

----------------

Golo'r Management

Pnnt-based, lntenruth't:, m",lIl motiongrl!;ph~os r1~;W:t'1'!1'~ rte~d nOt ilc CO!iGe;t:lt~! wrth thi&" pl.lifflm11leLl(l1~, hut it mti!;;t ll~·tltl\)da. i,J)"t'l. ~.09[)I.lllt i lli l;he Held~ of :iT~hit~tul:t~ Ime rtor de"!-1i~n, i'htlll~t ri~J d8~ig-[), liAhtJtl~ (fzyr teh~Vr:~'Wil :!u~l: moHnllp~ctll~e~, ~tc.t ~m:1 ~V~f"(JJ~nle;nHIII ill1L'plTio de~iil~.

Fixatiolil points: Discrete points a~ which,the eye is in iocus:

The ey,e mm'!lS iLlong th~J1;rin.~ed lin" in a SjClcGessi:(I![t M small. nIP-lei. .'etll.:s, from Qltl;! '!:i'&hu to lIncMhM nl~se'})oints M-.(j\ciIIUel:l m:imi6n pouHti I tLl~1.! It ls [1I11~r (tt dO'l[1lwrli.u th"H!(fN ~S in {iJ>r:m;",

11b"1.tlt)l1 pointS' pl:uY'..:ln il#ritnt &ledn tim l!Jl(J~l';<it~:ndil1~ c thu, rufl.ltidiL'ihj:Ii'I#::tJi,l,lc~t1. tVl {lbD~p,"!nd in, l(!oI91·. If' the hummil ~'j'h wa~uili.dJJe t.olfi,xt.~e", tlr0.Vt<3win1!1°of ckm:

fhe JI'I'~.~ll:IM'Jf "'~~~Y'lnt WlHL' i!l ~:rr~lll1a ~IS- i;;: ,§hni.lar tp tlire..-Gol]~tr1l.;!tion~f·{~ I¥lQ1ji~· ~01! fi:%fltLon p~d:Ll t ~S LLke «.slll.ll.le fF.~]l.~. ~.n.d l,1)r .t:O!J1B"iHi.n;; thes& ill'ilf@S one "I'tel' m'l~ot.h~r, the t.'11""i.tml:rneuh H rO!liud t1g.! I~ Hn,le,r~ Qud:;

\\J(i can inCru1'~ ~hil'p'~r()Cillt-loil of g,00d Dd:in p~~i tiJlJ<nal b.1i:l.alliL'C bY' ':hrcl~i.l~y Jillac:injJh:1l.ti-l:in poi:nt.~~J;fmJ:t t·y~ri(pl1:le. '~9!1fi~p'l;atim1~<Jo no rend th~m~h'e..~ 10 imluilfiIlj1;ll n:lliliti(:lln poi net. TJt"e !i!slm~ &n1 be ~aldN1r llIIa{]y ty'lJ'E! -;"!nii ,cQ1{1il" qomiJiT.l1L1:iolTS

. . ,

and two-color cl)]:nbim13tiol"lS. f11:lf'e:J<llnl,p~l;!, "~tllctllfcLIlt a column of text th:il:t IR 9'<1~r 24'iJ'M~~ w~g wiU crr~~,~ II pRltt:ti>l;!~d ho"l~orlwl:S~Jl that lle-;;!u\rs in poor 'fi~1<~i!l11, th11~ El:u!ltJ:~lg iot hard to pflJ!t,-uJi" the I,text'

li.tI)I!J witltill tim co:iLLif"tlll. of re!':'t. ~ilUYI'l:me(l.il:ll< (!O):iIrJl~t. 'VhicJ'l l'& cutl~td lw Jifl overstlmulation of @li~piHlrore~~lQt. c~Uis WithilTI thb'!Ii!:l'c~rI!§O prohibm i'i.:Uifio.!!, 'Vh,l'!'J~ thls, 1Ji:%!i[lrli, the o~U:~t)1> P.QO( f.ck"a[~Oll, wlilZ,h l~afls to (l:..,duPcI!!-d yi~will,~ C!omiJruhl!:<tI~iqfL

Wftb111~UY tlE'fiigri neid. some ~jfpQ~(~lj;hi<J ~'I'I;:n.6lll:i j, be[~~r fhr- vi'ewil1~tilt 'ID d~:iml:l.OO

t han {\fn~rt, 4:)r '."In ~ml!lA~ t9!;1 [,! ~;l~n~'

au o.b;J~~ mutt CI~0S~l', in _:l'"'l;tiifl~~nC!'~ ut:(Ier, t hree 'C~ fl"Fi ti /:)-E£.r in the: ~liI1lill~ _field DMtrux of t:h't1jNjll"1~:I' 'iliSif.d el?~.

If\ r'I.J~ =JilP~~, pa 1ft of llie: t:':PPID'$I.]'lh ~ 'IlIInW:tJIY Ol''t! $l~~'C.if.i!~etj is too thin tQ ~5:~ I}vur lBl:t~SoIh::llsr. th~ lotCi.1Lt~ of the tudltOOil)' willl:ll(i.!lifi!.lim. j[hi~i~nol to ~y milt 1llL1ly m.~nla~~ignt tYr:"2hLiJ~~houlCl be rl~d.,~~' tll~J~I".J:phy that: 'l'I'iU be- j,(jC\'j)Iit,d at.1l 'd~SUlfle:e" 1'hi~ i;;_fi m~~"Q",ption o.f nI!~tn~ re:sMl:~her'l; l n tl:l.e. 'f'll1:rd 0 f f!!1vi rOIlII'l1,£ll~.Hl Waj)n:i~ ItI~~li' BYUlt(if;!P1I\~rllhll~ f.h~ (~ctm~ that. ,j.qtentLim~ wl'ie~M:er ~n ()ih]eJ;l:t "'>Ijl],J:te' 'i:i!'ijWI~ or lioliiil' 3-D OOM:r rliJeo,y, oo;j:r~t.!JJent\~· ,'0 on!ate a l}et:ter ~, 'iIYillg ~el"l'enCs. ~n he m~Ld!;l, Fii]t,1[iOll l)j}iil:~~OOI]lW~III~ PMt ~r the qj;1je(l1~lII MlcuhltlOIt fol:l.1": dem', vh'~'d viewIn~,. Tli~ SiflF$.w,El!w program iI.(!uit~" 1.0 makes the.o;.e-

~ Background color CO M27 '{lOO KO 50%

ealcri!lat!loHs' and di2J~lelli];Ln~s th~ dL"~iIl.t;!E! jl,[ which d~l' re~~pt~ot1 rokll~ place, ,SooClllt!:i?tf,!\, 4 fer color 1~It>J~ity,)

, 1a1.lY ~lQr com"hl.nllti(ljll.~ m.EfJ~ it ,!(jr)· djJri~].!Ui r:()f ~'hei eye to fix<1cg an 4111. objaaL ,"Vhell, printed·Q.r' viewed ,Q't. IOU il<'!rei~l1t, nlilny C'tJ1tm~~~mmr{lljl\~ookJiE .eollllili!il:-itiQns ~.11,] crent<! prouOtltlM'd ~imlilta'-I!t?(jlUl carf!.rr.ts.., wl1leh makes th~()hJ'I!o""il"pp8ar tCt_llibr:!lt<;,. 1:h~s,cal'! be mQ&lIg®r\$Slyre;nnd lI,kmI0~ with addi(i~i!lJ:::Qlol- mtx~'tlg'\iJiie to" .lu ~'l"<!l"8'[er color spectrum. WI.J11l. &,'tlbtrrxcwl1-El c61m-" lightwm'~;Il.tftke an eb!ec:u h.e€bre ·!J,einfl; pl:ojected into the apparnrus of the O~B~lclbt:ralCU1i'l;! IIllh,h"llve8 caiPp"lMF I~.!t!i iutl1!rule, or brigbt) to ~Ift'-' human ('!'ye,

J!!lrl theretbre,J d~¥rfeet tlhtmult~lll~!J~S oa.n!ra>!lf Is lessened H.OW-f!",~~, !illm.€' oo.ru~h:nlerHairY OOl0r ooml~~Ill!llo!lS and 1.l'rlmary 4~IQI" r:{lmbinatil:m~ create hJw d~'nalnlcs that; are not eQl,L>I!lliQlV,e to stabili~ing an dbj:ect. For:JjQth~dditiv'e

Iili'd ~htraotjyf!! ODl{)f'mi",iTJi~, r,bis l'1t~il'"oIill!ll!m!'l ~hQ1JllE1'De gofl'~~ep, tIIi1l'SS

t~ i~ ~p~'<[!jfical~~""{lJe~jl'g.;t 1:9 n~IiIl1~,,tlJ,,

i!ltii~HttJ:lO~jlJ&lij"lnore l~ineaO'_

37

Fig!,!Jre 15

Art Oin;lctor/Das_ignar Banq-Bak Kim

Old stvte: Gararnond (1617) Stroke width-to-

height ratio: 1:7

Snoke width-to-

width ratio: 1:7.33 Width-to·

height ratio: 1:1

Stroke width-toccunterform ratio: 1:5.3

Transincnal: Baskerville (1757) Stroke wldth-rc-

helqht ratio: 1 :5.33

Stroke width-to-

width ratio: 1:5.5

Wldth·te-

height ratio: 1;1

Stroke width- to-

counterform ratio: 1:3.5

Figure 15

With this poster, prolonged viewing will create retina fatigue. making it h,ud for the eye 10 fixate. Such color

combl nations a re very effective when creating 3 dynamic comcosnlon lil<:e this

Modern: Badoni (t 7881 Stroke width-to-

l1eighl ratio: 1 :6,25 Stroke width-to-

width ratio: 1:5.25 Wfdlh-IO-

height ratio: 0.84:1 Stroke wroth-tocounterform rat!c: 1 :3.25

Diagram 44 Left: Thi'S example illustrates the rypopraphfc specifications tor each typeface shown. The ctrokc width-toheight width-to-width. arid widtn-tc-countertorrn retlo.

and th .. character width-toheigh' ratio are critical when designing a typeface for maxim LJm viewinq distance. {For more lnformatlcn see Chapter 4.)

Egyplian: Canturv Expanded 118941 SlmkF' width-toheiqht ratio: 1 :6.15 St{ol<e width-to· width ratio. 1 :5.5 width-to-

height ratio: 0_89:1 Stroke width-tocountertcrm ratio: 1 :3.5

Contem porary: Helvetica (19571 Stroke wtdth-to-

heig hi ratio: 1:7 cS

Stroke width-to-

width ratio: 1:7

Wldth-Io-

height reno: 0.93:1 Stroke width-toccunterform rauo: 1:5

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ .

II type CO MO yo KO
_bgd co MO yo K100
m rlype CO MO YO Kl00
bgd CO M30 Y100 KO
.Weco MO YO KO
id cso M90 YO KO 38

Fo¥ea~ A small spot on thee retina that provides our narro'{V, cemrsl field of focused vision

The location of the fovea Is cru.ical in detecting sharp, vivid images .. This area of the eye also has a high concentration Q!' cones sensitive to color. The region around the fovea performs the primary role .In. the calculation of color and sharp, vivid images. It represents a 1'0° angle of vlsion that can be projected in an outward direction .. 1\t'3 distance at' 18i.n (4S.7cm), this area would be: equivalent to a 33t8in (8 .. Scm) circle

(the 10" stc(hd(,rd obseroer). The other areas.located on tbe retlna wa]! are responsible j'QI' our' ,peripheral vision. This, does not provide HS with sharp, vivid images, but it does play an important

role in helping us navigate through

our environment.

Fugitive colors: Colorants, pigments, or dyes that cha'nge or lose color rapidly when exposed to light and air

Fugitive colors are used in print-based gmphi'C~, product design, and environmental graphic design. Colorants, pigments,

and dyes are not used £01' interacuvc and motion graphics.

Most colorants, pigments, and dyes are sensitive to light and air, which causes fading of the orlginal, specified For print-based graphics, many .. ~ ","'~'"',"

2Q standard observer -----+-----------1

Dleqrarn 46 All colors fade when exposed to light. The higher the chroma rating, the more m::ely the color wW

10" standard observer

Diagram 45 The amount of space the 2° standard observer and the 1 o~ standard observer project ;;11 a distance 01

1Sfn (45c7cm'.

Color Management

colorants and pigments are used in the to humans and can physically .altcr the

creation of an ink, and some inks are more partieles within 'colorants, pigments, or dyes

sensirrve than others .. Most ink-jet printers for pri nt- based gmphlcs.

do not offer stable inks" A proof from such

a printer should be treated in the same Harmonious colors: Two or more colors that

manner as a bluelmc. {A blueune is a have II sameness about them

proofing system lor press-ready mechanicals Haemorrious colors can be defined in Ila3l1Y

that is extremely sensi tive to light. In ways. Each co.or scheme outlined in this

certain conditions a blueline can be ruined book can produce a hartnonious or a

within 20-30 rnrnutes.) Although Ink-jet dissonant color palette. Sameness must

inks are'mOJie stable than bluelines, all ink- he applied to the palette to create a

jet proof should be protected from light. harmonious color scheme. For example,

Proofs from a dye sublimation proofrng to create a harmonious color scheme in a

system should abo be protected. When using pt'imary 'CO/D), palette, the cozor -caluc Fating

any elecrronic color proofing system I'm for each color must be the same. Ii color

final output (as with digital photography), tinting is to be used within the primary

tho manufacturer or service bureau should color paiette, the color timing must be

be contacted to discuss the stability of their applied uniformly across all hues.

inks or dyes.

The same applies to printed samples from any commercial printer using offset, spotcolor, four-colo!' process. silk-screen, iJmd Dmy-G!o inks, Day-Glo inks arc extremely sensitive to light; exposure to full sunlight will cause the design to fade completely within a week. Most printers call offer an l-1-V·'1-c'oa.tirll! to help protect the

from fading rapidly. coating helps

to protect the colorant, pigment, the sun's harmful UV rays and will

pro teet the proof from exposure to air. rays are shorter than the lightwaves '

from

Some color schemes are harmonious in nature, e.g., lIwn(-Jehromatie, achromat.ic, analogous, and 'neutral. colors, They have a charactcrisrie sameness in their. palettes and Ihereforc, the. individual hues fo~l.nd within each .schemel-nrrnontze well.

In monochromatic color palettes, harmony is achieved by the use of ope color. The vartation in the palette is achieved by color tinting and color shading to lighten -and darken the color scheme. Wj,th achromatic colors, harmony is achieved by limiting the color palette to black; gray, and white. Color tinting and color shading are also

[~I Beckqrou nd color co M30 Vi 00)(0 20%

utilized here. Neutral color schemes use a percentage or a complementary color or black to develop a palette. A harrrronious color palette is created if the percentage

of the complementary color is uniformly applied and the percentage of black is varied or vice versa. This ensures that one of the two aspects that make up a neutral color scheme has a sameness wit11iri the palette. (See harmony of ana!ogoas colors.)

Diagram 47 la-c)

Thls three-part diagram depicts the methods mentioned under harmonious colors above.

<ill Harmony of scale: within this exarnpte. colors lake up the same amount of space, creatinq harmony of enatogous colors through scale.

Ibl Harmony of dominant color; within this example, harmony of analogous colors IS created through color ljnting by the dom lnant color. and throvgh color contrast-color, size.

and shape.

39

Piqore 16

Art D'i~aqQr Neq Drew nestcner Rick Barqmaen

Figure- 16 Magel'lta and YGUOW run throvqhout the color palette with the exception of while. While is a type- reversal in which the color 01 the paper s110W$ through.

High chroma

Diagram 48

The complex analoocus color palette utlllzed io' Figure 16. This type 01 color palette is ioherennv harmonious

tel Harmony of hue: here, harmony of analogous colors IS achieved through the relative flqhtness of each hue to the mind's eye. All three colors have a very similar CVR In fluorescent lighting

mrypecn M71 Y96 K9
bgd C75 M68 Y67 K90
•lypeC2S Ml00 Y80 K31
bgd C22 M71 Y96 K9
•wpeC75 MBa Y67 K9G
. I>9d C28 Ml00 Y80 K31 type C22 M71 Y96 K9 bgd C1G M25 Yl00 KO

40

Figure i7

lIIusuatorlDesigner Koshi Ogawa

ty~mLlst:\Jm.Of'g

. ..".

I

a'

~igure 18

Art Dlnactor Pal!.I1 8~ 110rd

Fi9ure 11 Red and black are specified to ampllfv the power of the ill ustration. Between the two colors, black is an excellent choice for the fig me, giving it mass and weight.

Analogous. 100%

Monochrcrnatlc

Figure 18 (a and bl

hi these tvpoqraphic posters. black is specified to help create dynamic compositions.

80.%

60%·

Achromatic

Diagram 49- A simple analogous color pelerte that utlllaes rlntinq.

Hannonious Iiues create ij visual impression that lessens ille kinetic energy norrnallv auributed to asynnne.tric design and most color schemes. 'rhis phenomenon is borh psychological and physical. With J~.v color, harmonious color palettes.create fewer ~;a1'imHB within the electrical stimuli that

are processed rrndsent along the oisual

pa th~~'Ciy to th e primary cisual: cortex

When color palettes are narrowed by a contrtbuting factor of sameness, the PSY(;[lplogical €freelS that can.be attributed to the palette are also reduced. Any strategy employed to acnieve harmonious color relutionshlps creates a stabilizing force upon the viewer t.hat acts as a consonant c0101'

scheme, both phystcally and psychologloally. A consonant color scheme is bne that has an inherent agreement within the arrangeme'HE.

For prtnt-based, interactive, envtrcnrnental, and motion .graphics, hanmcnlous color schemes are, bighly effective in promoring stabillty within, the given palette. This sel1S~ of stabijity can be Incorporated into the visual messagescreated by desrgners to ensure soundness, security, and balance .

. .

Harmonious calm' relatjonshlps can

build. visual messages intended to convey particular jnro;rmation, and Leave the viewer with a desired emotive response.

Diilgram 50 Two different color schemes lJlilizillg tinting.

r::l tvpe CO L::'J bqd CO

IlI,vpe CO I bgd CO

,.,.",. C75 M68 Y07 K90

bgd CO M94 YBZ KO

• type co M94 Y82 KO

• bgd C75 M68 Y67 KSO

MO YO

MO YO

MO YO

MO YO

Kl00 KO

KO K100

~ Background color

CO

M56 Y99 KO

30%

Harmony of analogous colors: Of scale .. color tones that are produced through a single scale Of hue: colors that have the same, relative lightness to the mind's eye Icolor value rating) Of do'mlnaNt, coior: hues that are related to the faotors fnllolve'd in color contrast

Harmony of allalc~g(Jus color« is defined as the pleasing arrangement ?f colors that

have- a lack of conflict within the hue

palette, This harmony is brought about.by an aspect of sameness within harmony of scale, harmony of hue, and harmony of dominant color, Harmony, an aspect that

is generally applied to symmetric designs" can ajso be integrated into asymmetrtc composltiona-By doing so, an asymmetric composition can have both a kinetic structure and a harmonious color scheme. Analogous colors in geneJ;al are harmonious so long as the color- scheme applies to one

of the three factors in the above definition, Harmonious analogous colors create a-sense of rest.and therefore, when used with an asymmetric composition, retard the kinetic energy to some degree, creating a navigable, pleasingpace. With symmetric composition, harmony ef analogous colors helps to anchor a'lack of motion, It can be used as a conceptual primer to control the visual

pace. or lack thereof.

eVR 29.95%

magram 51 ~ACl,li[y 00385,

A hue sampled hom the Acuity Color System.

eVR 29.13%

eVR 29.95%

Ha rm 0 ny of contrast: Of scale: T:wo colors with the same or near same color value rating but different hues

Of hue: Chromatic colors with distinctly different color value ratings mixed together in stepped increments

Of color temperature; Two colors with the same or near same color value rating but different color temperatures

Harmony of contrast occurs where colors have one aspect in contrast, but shape a sameness in.another, This sameness creates a lack of conflict and most often a pleaSing arrangement of color, When these factors

are used, correctly, harmony at contra's. can create a conceptual model for understanding effective color use, In subtmctive, additive, and 3-D color schemes, harmony of

contrast can be applied; in 3-D color schemes, the perception of harmony of contrast is paramount, -Both harmony of scale and harmony of color temperature

can create simllitaneO:(lS contr(0t; Y€lU

must verify the palette visually to avoid unwanted simultaneous or pronounced simultaneous contrast.

Diagr-llrTI 52 Ia-cl

Three methods fer aehievlnq harmony of contrast: 52a shows harmony 01 contrast achieved through temperature. 52b thrcuqh scale, and 52c: through hue.

t

The Term inolo@y of Color

41

Hue; A 'classified or specified color

Au .example of a specified color is Acuity OOJ8S, This is made up of 80 percent yellow and 80 percent cyan, In architecture, and in interior, industrial, packaging, print-based, Web, motion-graphics, and environmental graphic de:>igu, specified colors or colorants are used to create a color pnlettc that can

be reproduced anywhere in the worl'd, All

of these specified colors can be referred to as hues, Ilues can be found in paint, plastic, laminate, and ink-matching color systems including Pittsburgh Paint, Pantone, Inc., Toyo, and Acuity colors,

Hue application must be understood before specifying any color, Many of the lnkmatching/color-matching systems available. for architecture, and for electronic pressready, Web, motion-graphics, interior, and environmental graphic design have different color-matching systems, These vary not only from industry to industry, but also within each field, Having a broad understanding of the matching systems, color and otherwise, will help you make informed decisions about how best to use color,

Violet 100%

Violet 80%.

Viole-t 60%

42

For example, the.Acuit~· Color System C',ill! buiki arry of its hues using CMYK and hex numbers. Each color-matching svstern is unique and therefore, has potentially dtfferent uses depending upon the circumstances. amdi the expertise of the user.

IF~igu(e 1,9

Art Director NE;!d Draw O,esigner ~J'e~f 'Wi'a~lowskl

Figures 19 and 20 Tvpoqrephlc readability

and legibility are- different. Readability is the speed at which an object is recognized, and legibWty is how cteertv an object can be seen. In figures 19 and 20 readability is lntentlonallv manipulated to slow down the viewer.

CVR 35.07<;'O/c.

eVR 50.21%

Diagram 53 (a-e) The eVR for each hue. the typeface. and the: viewinq distance for

stand a rdued eyesight. Note that the New Baskerville Italic, when rvpeset at (he same Sil06- as Helvetica 55, is tess visible at a distance. The two main

factor-s that contribute to th is phenomenon are the colors used and the typographic anatomy. Parts c, d. and eo shaw the crude approximation used ill the past, and the precise vie -, vlnq distance of the letterlorms used in 53a and 53b.

Color Management

Hypercomplex fields of vision: Matrix fields

of photoreceptor cells within the brain that respond most favorably to moving objects which behave with a set direction and definite

position/pattern

Hypercomplex, simple, and comntexjiclds process visual, inrormatton rhat is 8e.M to the primary 'Visual corte» by the eye.

The photoreceptor cells found Within the hypereomplex Held respond to any moving stjrnuli that are large enough for the mind's eye to perceive, Simple and hypcrcornplcx fieids are responsible £01' deternnning iii an object is visible or not. With hypercomplex photoreceptor cells, the position and length of a moving abject and tile pattern it forms while nJovlng are crltlcal for detecting the object <lJnd its motion. Hypcrcomplcx photoreceptor cells respond best when moving objects arc 011 a predictable path. For an object to be visib]e, it needs to cross over three photoreceptor cells in a distinct order. U it does u . .ot cross over the cells in the requieed order, or does not cross over au least three cells, then the object and its motion will not be visible.

The problem for d'!Osigners has always 'been how small, big, near, far, and in what color an object should be in order for it to be legible .. All design disciplines have developed rules of thumb for placing an object in an envtronment for viewing at a distance.

o· o· o· o~ ". o· <" c·
~" &"..,~<:- t-t.,,"'?J.~ '&-t, .... 'i:o~ ,:F &"'~'lJ." §' ~"
6.._?f iY~ '$-~-': 6:;''''.:.
,;;.r:-Q, :;,_.s .. Q j...s·ct,. :;..:..;;:-Q) j/'~ j. .... .-;-.".i ~ ... ~~ ~$'O'-
..i~ .;. -c 0:. ... .i"'~ ,J. -c t; ... J.,e. ~ -c e- .j.'~ .J, ..... CJ ....
"'~~~ ,>",<:/' ,>",'V'" #~ ,>",cr'" 4::-'" ",'" "'~
')..f:)\' ~()'
10ft 9ZI~6in Oft 51ol!t6in 7ft 514f1oE;in 5ft 3in 4ft49"/'(lill 3ft 11I'6ill 2ft 1Sl!16in tft 111uSill
3.3m 3.2m 2.3m 1.6m 1.3m O.9m O.6Sm O.32m eVA 10.4.1%

". o· o? ". c· c· ". .(
6"'~"''I)c~ 6"'_""''''~ 6,-.::,--.ii;;-0 ;$-~'_~~ J' ~~" &'c}'i:o~ ~~
I:Y~ I:Y~ b"
$~O; ~ ... ~QJ ,t. .... e-.<":;J ,i. ... "q, ,>0, i"o, j. ... ,,~ j.'('.¢;
::... -c ~ ... "'" J..,e. .!. -c e-
J..'~ ._i'Co ._i,<to .:.. -c e ", .
p,'" ~~~ ~~~ "cj,\T).~ t>'" ~" ",'" ,,"
,,<> " " "OJ "OJ "'~\' ,>"fY eVR 17.54%

However, these are highly inaccurate and can leave 11 designer with a nonfunctional structure. For .instance , a standard ["ul:e of thumb in environmeuml graphic design Is that lin. (2 .. 540111) of letter height equals 50ft {1 .5m) of viewing distance. This rule has become Instltutiounltzcd in many mdustrlcs, but it is inaccurate, The distance at which humans with 20/20 vision can read a sign that is made up of a monoweigbt typeface

ts totally cliffm'e-nt from the distance at which they can read a sign with a typeface [hat has thick and thin strokes. The

distanoe (It whioh we can see an object depends upon that object's unique structural characteristics and nothing else.

In 1862 Herman Snellen, MD, devised a system for determining the accuracy of human perception .. As ollie of the pioneers of ophthalmology, he is credited with illventing a field test known as the Standardized Eye Chart. This chart takes into consideration how human perception takes place, including how dw hvperoornplex, .eomplex, and .srmple photoreceptor cells respond! to visual stirnuli. This test is still used to determine whether an individual needs corrective eyewear, The Standardized Eye Char. has been deemed scientifically accurate by the field of ophthalnrology, and millions of Iudivlduals see no-rmally, with corrective eye-wear, due its accuracy.

9h 79/16ill 3ft S!3/1Sill 3ft 471Hiin ttt S"116in 1ft 51Z116in 'tft 5Il-Gin 1ft )/16in 06/16in

r.trn L08m LOm Q,54m O.45m O.31m O.22m O.lm

.1~PIl:CO MO YO KD
. ~gd C76 M22 Y2 K6
type C76 M22 Y2 K6
bgd C7B M67 YB4 K83
B type C78 M67 YB4 KB3
bgd co MO YO KO C100 MO YSO KO lO~!o;].

EJ 8adg round color

~ ~
~ d Viewing dista nee; ft (m} ~
~ / ~ ~
~ 1 <3
~ g
I
0; i. 0;
g If ~
0,- jl 0,-
~ :i' g
~- o-
f; ~
e .§ @ e
~ .s /J ~
N N
'"
'"
] I I
~
V
250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
1761 1911 101 115.21 130.51 1461 1611 (761 191)
Precise distance for lowercase Helvetica Roman
.,.,-peco MO VO KO
Dgd C76 M22 V2 K6
.typeC76 M22 V2 K6
bgd C75 MB8 V67 K90
GwpeC75 M68 V67 K90
bgd CO MO VO 1(0 Using tile mathematical equations Snellen devised for determining human perception, it is now possilfle for interior, pao\,aging, Web, and environmental graphic designers to predict the distance at which an object cap be seen fat normal vision and for any other defined vision. Other mathematical equations for determining environmental factors, such as light source, color, and motion, are used to calculate the distance at which objects should be placed for viewing. The software program Acuity 1.0 uses these mathematical equations to predict, the distance at which typefaces should be placed for viewing at a distance. Within this program each conditionindividual typeface, color, light source, size, motion-is considered to determine the optimal viewing distance.

We do not need to know how to mix paint pigment to' create a certain hue, but we do need to' understand how humans perceive color, shape, depth, form, and morton under I111any different conditions. These conditions include the application of additiue and subtracuice colors on different substrates. Hypercomplex photoreceptor fields are just one of the visual dynamics that constitute human perception.

c Viewing distance: ft Irnl

l

o 50 100 150 20Q

101 115.21 130.51 146) 1611

CHide approximations found within design

The Term in o loqv of Colo r

F'igure .20

Art Director IOesigner N'e-d Drew

e Viewing distance: ft (m}

43

(0)

SO 100

115.2) 130.5)

200 1611

150 1461

250 1761

300 191)

Precise- distance for lowercase Baskarville ltalic

44

COlor Management

Fi~<ule 21

Studio Pentag lam

Partner/Art Diree1c..- p.avjd ,Hillm.an

FjgLJre 22 Stu~lo"Pentagr'a.m

Partner/Art Director OJ,vld Hillmafl

figure 21 Numerous factors must be considered in order to create a tunctlcnet sig nage system. Most important are the lighting conditions found wlthln the environment

Once the lighling conditions. wlthln operational hours, are confirmed, testt ng for tegjbH~ty can lake place. For any environment a photographer's light rueter woutd be most helpfuf: they measure ~ight in ketvlns. This would allow

the environmental graphic designer to plot the different lighting conditions throughout the day, and to verify the overall legibili' .... of the system

Figure 22 With any sigoage system. typographic legibility at prescribed distances, and for different stenderdized eyesights, must be reaftzed. The Nationa I Marltirne Museum in Washington D.C.

is an excellent example of both a conceptual end practical signage system that meets

tbe reg ulatlcns concsrnmg

the visually impaired

(20/200 vision) and their normal eyesight audience (20/20 vision).

Illuminant: Li!jht, physically realized or not, definet;f by spectrat power distribution

In the process of measuring light and its by-products, color-srandardizcd ligla sources have been esrabhshed in order to predict outcome. Plotung wavelength found within the standardized light sources gi\-es the spectral power distriburion (-SP])) curve. Each standardized light source or illuminant hasits own SPD curve-without standardized sources, color predictability would be impossible. Each standard illurninant is configured to create a different form on basic whi[e light. The [tHee most standard Illumlnants are daylight, incandescent light, and fluorescent light. Each can create a full spectrum of color.

With additive eoror, the combination of all colors creates white .light .. In 1730, Sir Isaac Newton conducted an experiment in which light was directed through a glass prism in order to break apart the white light and show the visible spectrum of colors found withjn the source. Although humans encounter standardized light sources cv€ry day (D65, average daylight; A, incandescent lighting; CWF, fluoreseene lighting), these sources do indeed have unique SPD curves and therefore, the colors they create differ from source to source. In other words, a red that is seen under average daylight may differ greatly in appearance when viewed

type C46 M2B Y18 KO IItype-e12 M6 Y3 KO .';'.'poco MO VO KO .:~'p'P6'C47 M24 Y41 KO ~ Background color ClOD MO YO KO 10%
bgd ClOD M91 Y24 K\O _ bgd C66 M7l Y65 K80 bgd C78 M66 Y62 K71 t-;;d C15 MS5 Y55 KO
211 type C100 M91 Y24 KIO BtypeC59 M43 Y45 K10 .lypeC15 Ma5 Y55 KO
bgd Cl2 M6 Y3 KO ~gd CO MO YO KO bgd C47 M24 Y41 KO
2' type C66 Mll Y65 K80 1.,vpeC78 M66 Y62 K71
bgd C46 M28 Y1S KO bg.d C59 M43 Y45 KIO under fluorescent or incaridsscerrt lighting Color "hifting should be taken into consideration when creating a display

for which multiple light sources will be constructed or be inherent in the environment. If, for example, we have a hank of ligl;lt~, five of which hnve lightbulbs that are l~all~l1eed for average daylight and one that is not, color shifting will take place. II' the light 'is distributed evenly, the colors under ;1 light source that is- somed1_jng

other than average daylight wHI differ.

This may not be a problem if the hues change within each region of light, but if there is a standardized corm that i,s going to be utilized throughout the display, then more thalli likely the color will change as the light changes"

The same can be s~id when dealing wirh computer screens, electronic l~iosks, and television sets; these need 10 be calibrated in order to create the correct illuminant. There are two basic ways to do this, one easy ;u~d 0110, bard.

The easy Wij'Y b to set up a display that utilizes, [or example, computccserccns that are of the same model, manufacturer. and year. To facilitate ease of set-up, they should be purchased new and at the' same time:

the efficiency of eleerrontc equipment that

055: Average daylighl

CWF: Fluorescent lightjng

Diagram 54

The exam pies above illustrate the color shifting that takes place when viewing objects under different light SOurces.

projects light diminishes over time. The lighting conditions should also be set upin a consistent way. The hard way is to try

to set tIp n bank of monitors of different makes and models: these produce all environment that, is all bur impossible

to calibrate.

A problem within the design industry today is that there are no accurate standards for Hluminants created for computer screens, electronic kiosks, and television sets.

For example, in electronic stores, multiple televisio» sets are tuned to the same channel yet rhe color shifts from set to set. This CHI1 be controlled to some degree hv adjusting each set to match .the other. However, many cannot be calibrated simply because they arc created by diiteren t manufacturers.

Web-~ite ciGSigN8rs lace the problem of

color standards. Forexample, [JOS computers arid Maeintosh computers use dilie'rent progntl1uuing andclectronlos to

set up their color spectra. Ahhough Doth computer svstems are capable of creat,ing. millions of colors, only a small ft:actintll

of the hues available on eaoh will matcb closclv. In fact, when dosigninga \Veb site, only 216 colors on either svstem wil! equate to a fairly accurate color appearance capable of be.ing achieved au both. Tfris is the

A: Incandescentlighling

The Tar mmo lo qv of Co lor

45

highest common denominator for browsers that take into consideranon Macintosh and Window capability. This limited palette is referred to as the Web-safe color cube.

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11 ~I :.IIi~n~a'ft~lIIprp£l-

.,s.II:I!~t_ J~I"III.fiI'

_pl ..... 1: .. I.f •• I'to:.:-I1(1 • I oJoJoI:14 I"~I"""'! ) oj, uiil<l.- ..... I ,...wtd< 01.00>1._ lJJ.oI.r," •• llrl!: = naw., 1.1 ~.i!UI"'::'::

p:'1:Q!JTtl~~ ,:!iilHli. itt.niJ<

Figura 23 This book desiqn is an excettem example of an inccnqruous color scheme.

Diagram 5S

Right: When u;ill9 incongruous slmultanecus colors. contrast must be considered. Shown here are three techniques for maneqlnq slrn ultaneous contrast.

'ype C31 Ml0 V88 KO bgd CB9 M9B V4S K47

type e89 M98 Y48 K47 bgd C31 M10 Y8B KO

Color shift

Color shade

Reverse type

Incongruous colors: Colors tbetmsk» a discordant combination

J\. ~br Il:s.~ wId! n!!lO:i:l:ler I~t~(' "i::hat is t:o thi;! rig1u ar J~h pf Jts eOlil[)I.cIll~m {ro~ ~1>;~nJplE!, rellow·otange rh%ne ,0010, I'Jltd rctlJjshpurple, O!: hJuish-gree:n as al1(1ther),(!.b;!~t~. all Il:1;oo'~~rn~tl.S eum1l.~ni~ti,(in, IIl{l~ll,g~~Dtl~ OO~Qr OO!Ilbinillliil'L~~ hm.'~ '(]ne G!?lor ~t nms thrOtl.l1itt e:!ch 11IJ~, :mul OIlB- th~1: dl)e~ JJ.Qt, The}; .puliS~!i ljttle or l~D ci)j(l,duml;lorry,

fLri~1 t[)nu i~ (]1'~!Lt-e. !i\i'~ry ~fJnl:pl?~tlcFL1S cll!e' [0 the. i:u;h~·r""n.t l<iJtet~t:! '\RIIl~1 wicll~ll ehem, 1n-.!1.~IlI;!ml, jT1ci;ui~!'\1tI.us eelor ~o.lII1blniilti.m"'l~ inil well lin'ted to ~~Yi:nn\e:[r!~ ~r!ln, 'tllC}'

. .

:;i:r;emore ".iJ.etl~I~i' to'~e,ey~,Hzy,v~~r, If

ilS~~ l~~on~Q<tly, ~hey'cml '(!'~I!tn4 eremOO ~'11unpl~sant'l1:fI'eCl't ,

T4>e bes,t WIJY to -giJ~l 'r.~b]u,~t nn jjI:!W:lJH.~ inleQ:llEm:pt[s pC!mb:~ll,iI't.l.on i$ t{]j ~rB:lIte Mlm"''Swff('eI~ell,hl [~i:l'proport!(]111R ii1l whi;cil clley .I~ ~ 00 iJ~.\o'1l, In too~;l;;: [Le~~~n Mv.~totll:i:l"-"ti~ .jt i.;; B~y to ~!mrly .!;!I!~k ;lind pbc,e; t:l:I~ d~l<i~d 0I]tqr ijY;i dOO1Jiruiellr, bm rlrnli; ItI,~,.. not ,ils tih ~8!lit Sflh,rtl~.IiI"T;.here Ili'e s.urrmf.hin~ It? b\O'~~d for;,s.l(lwh14 ,d'crwn rhe p!lJo!f0..~[)f qa]"o51i~ colorS' ~·Y. flJ1" r.:~111p!e. tJ!,:jJl~;I ~'lo.t:~wm~ book. HoQcl,~·oolQt ~;W'I,It\2h ibooll:.lu h.a'ml, and rtlo"'e Lhe clliH(.!t:S fli'<;l'lIl1d umLi the eeler ptl'QI),(Jil:tiOIT~ CreJi!~,

;l vlsjJ1~lly l.ilhigll,kLg.~it!lCe TIl:i.H)'Pq til exernlse all:01,l.-'ll o~t~Ml'Vetij:leaHoIl of simultii!re(}1!lil CO!1~ruSlt, With an incOI~g:"linwt

Diagram 56 In this figura. redviolet and vellow-oranqe

are used ill the background. Cyan is added to the vellcworanqe ector 10 muddy the hue, lessening the chroma Ithe fourth tech n lque). Designers Joh n T. Drew

and Ned Drew

E11 'Background color

C20 MO Y100 KO 50%

oo.lor ML'lill~lEl~Ui(!n, poonOlmc~d sfutultAttihlu.s urJnb'Uitl·_m:rl~' 1:!~!.1 r II die Ctl:tnh:~m:!~iiD.L1 dD):)t> .nor 11:RYi\l ~'J1oil't.l~Jl of at !p'~:5t Orm !!'l' the eu.\D"" t~),OlJgltQ1Jt:,

In il~[~nuft(ve ~I':'~pbj)z.", it jB'!J1lIl1eoe~1.j'y·'t(] wp~ry'JhoiJt hOwm3.1lY C>9k\lr~, ~l'~ l,1:se'd ~n i)r.dl~l' tJ) .~ll~ II[] e:tt~ett\l;e tlIo(!.)on_grl!Jotl;S. color cOlllliiD3U.on. ill ,my 'Web desil1;L'l, 316'~1;irS e.~!ll be ~fr@tive'ly tJse!ilou nl'llltlJ~~IlI.tfOl'lUS. 'CIte COlLC€nl ,h.t:!;'t',i~ ithl2" (m~ilUOn o.r a ~Gl1tbtirm~i0lt so 'C(lllfp~ID;. diaL

h liBtDOO'flS dis~hdr.l·ol'l of il1lo:nnatiiDlil. Slmillit colul' dildhl1'!it~)tiun~ bm:!;l!d. JOiI]; ~Q[Jl[ld rufl:S{)~lil~ ~11[1 .r!lJt on l\utrjf!.C!tiJ.'~ j,.'rjr~l'ia

j~ i:!I'k~ most etillcti've ~lI~Y'(lf lI;!:I;eotjn:g eoJo.ri 'QClImh~rmti(lJl,s ~!.1.i~~h1)€! hr t1l1;!'s~d]<Ject m~!l;e!l'. 'I'll ill hr;llds troe fQf mU£1:f'Rllil. t':t~bt.r(f.ctt'tie, ~\u(i;J.J) OOk~i' '9QJillbin~ tiOIl~ fo~: .1:I~hit~Ci[tll'nl s!~es" .lniie:rl~H' ·ehvJ.rol1men~. eJ:terior ~:iI,ge ~,~t'erii.'i, illfe'cl:roe-tih'e ~rnphle:s, f!'il!el{~i,:e t\'e8!Il'Ia, 'Lud I'd I.tt.b~~~r:I ~filphic~,

Irntegrated sphere; A hollow sphere used to collect illf Clf tho light reflected ('rom the surface of 9 '~flJi,Q.r sample

Widl todl~lf~S; t~C.hIl!tlUD~' i,t.j5 ~'I;)'LllHI;f(lupI1li()'e fffi' -a color !i~lTi!l1e to h~ me-Ji~m~Eor .~.ooEJotiniJ:i _ M~m¥ pfim~F!\ i1n,{i pai lilt d.enl~~E!mpJ(1'y tbli> ie>l)'11Iil<:ll,?iY. House ~nl., 1'o~o(,!Ji:mllpil!;!!, (!~I·II he mi)l)l!d to IlJa~~1.J the c!Ll~'lillue,,'8 f~vf)Jl'l tt\! shirt., Tille !Jue,grl:uecl. ~pbere fs pout of dl~ rilEli;1hil:l~ ll~~ W

Diagram 57 This color scheme, violet and orange, Is an excellent example of

an incongruous color scheme. ThE! orangs hue has been tinted and the violet utilizes shading, TInling with while

is the second technique. Designers John T. Drew, Sarah A. Meyer, and Pomprapha Phataneteacha

metliSu.re ll('! IlI~JltWIl"~S' nOllllchlt (JIFF n COkil' ~lIml~le. lri .n~ntJniI-el~l\S. '.[he p~i:ni.tin~ i nd,Us,u:y uses vh!s"~CI]IJ:ipll1eil Un OLd~~·

to ~re~;t,e sltml.:lard colorsH~~!'l.g ot·h!JT m!11l1.l!!mCiLUl"erS' 1111,s:, For 6i11IDpri:l. it-is qulte eommon ['II! use b'~Sc tn,k~, (Imt M.e not F'A:lit.ol:te producfs te e<':'"\3ot.a lI·color rhu[ is .m milWn. no·!"·i:tm2 of the P1M'\fTONE Jo"tATCH1NG SY,STm..1'® OOJ!Dr~. Th~ ~ULPllt~i:!t_thlit lll"€~ tb!;! int,egr'1t~ ~Il'here includes .~ 5(J'P!:W~Ir;y 1l'1'9gra~n ~.h+'lt ~Its the r'rint.eF bQ,w ¢Cl ~l~jX other ink products, jllell1!d~rig W;lf«~ ink.

The i tl{eg.:,;lted ~:ph.ere O:~ cl.:1,UIl hil~ other uses N:Latel:l to Cl~Lrll:ll'Y repn}{!lIc~uon. iii drum s.eii'1J. tLStls all. l:tl(eg:r~ted ~tihe.ro t?' ~~b l!;!.V'e ~1Jgh"'Lmt:l I'CpJ:lll>t1pt$iqns a,F pl:rotQ~:r:J;ph~, i.Uus~ffl~i(ilrl~, painti n;Lb, s.ild ~r",y~~J1~r nrtW.u.rll ~hlLl uan be 8tt.~elhed ti;t ~ evlirJdero Tlii~ jl~ tlu'!: h~,h~HII1!;J!li~' 8~n tllSed'~L1 !h~ iII B r'ke~ mcl;Iy. tJrnUk~ h~nclhe.ld, ~Id~, ~uJ:d fl[l~~. ~lI.lmars, ill.;!h!dlUg ietli' SC<lltn,ep&,

~ d rum ~~f,j III 1 er has me Llb]Il~' ttl ti.fipl:u.re the' r:lrl;gJ1lo;11 gll~] [tYl)f ,t:he i l'liIrL.!l.e--~tS color 1l~~ ro'rm-~r·~ rnulct~ ilLghe.r .d.pi tnmt. h

r1(!!t' il1te.lj)Ql1lt.ed.

Tb:eru.nwork. 1~ tIT'p.N to mil ttr:i:Lm, whi,?J1i dwu re,~IQ!~e.1 ~I.l h,rga~L ,$pGoo. The i:m(!!i.E!' )iIi Mj>ttU'cti 011 B.ph[jt()m.ul<ti.pl~o:r .wbe, which gi.~~ tI:w ull:l.ll~ a rI§,['I!lrt~~iI" c!l'l~6)' ~Ile~rn.rm (.j.nch.11IT1IJg gnL'~'f=!le ieV>£!i~ fQl1!l)d l'i'itllin the

4.7

"~tMIlli:l!1. M.otrulr.'dl'um sUn!. '-Ire'[!(IJltlI;!cQtedtltJ ;m !fltegJ!\ll~d.cOJllP1L'~(I'·~~~m. ;~lat ILltQW5 the. [mnge,(~ b~ I1iilI~tl,!l'ed. ~IJJin lIlotJo,St eases Utde oolor OOrtoe<)t1II,# remains m(') he deue, 'J~hi~.t!"l!l nOt l1e ~aidl'Qrlm:r:ntJ.ler type. ~f '~~~l1'.ller. Drn ni )!X!'111!1.eret~']J~CiiJnl!' tL#d

IQf p.rint·j}.lodllction j)1lIi1'pQllC;l bec,~us~

of cost oolrls'l:dJelra[~()Il't:

.A h~,"",~i!iI, ,.:liilU.d C~_t:~i or ",i!:l,l<lo!) _op;IIp~w1.ns ,'(]]e;I,I'Uoo, ~~ 'I:h~ m.inill:l!Urvi.D€'0Li!!!d fC!i~ Web pm'p!i::t.';.e'S. ill I'Imbti~ ~C8H1i.un~an bE! 1]!>hd r{fr'l~~h Internet ;311,d[lI'.ililt-pmdll~"Qn inl~eJ'l, but the dpi. $.hQulfl. be s~t

cli ~re!1dy., it i~~f soan >tslleo;1es:s:ll'J:;Y only

io::)lr [J.-fut ·~r.{lorh~otfun. It i<I,01l~ lelrel kleIo\.\~

-a Jl'I!lrr'~C.~·tiI ~ Ilut the f:'IlIUHr~' ~ ~re.!ltl;, dlminlshed 1:he dnnn S.el,!l~ uses {tcId:i1it:>C! ooiol" m(wng W' sean l}l'Id reptMulile tbl:! imru,{e:;" U lIlI LIJI.age'lt gU!i:Dll to i:t(>;u~lld to:r ptlul p.rr)t:luct.~ob:r;\., tilt!} 8.uit\\1:1li€ p.J:~ValTI aU;L!Qnlld eo 1:1112 i.nt0~rJl'te.LI Ca~l.~PJ]t~r ~y:5t~m \';'iH r:dbon:t'i~UFB the m1it\Y0,1,( for C!o,ll'YR prOOl.lC!ti(],~~ibif'n(:>:~{u(!~loW·'1n~,g.

DI"gram 58

Three cxernploa of on incongruous color scheme. On a color wheel an incongruous color scheme is pcsltlcned so that one hue is on OM side end the ether hue is two steps away from Its complementary.

48

Invariant pairs: Color samples or objects having an identical spectral reflectance curve and the same color coordinates

The phenomenon of Invariant pairs means that, in JeD Gulo}" nrixl"li.4, €)IHi huI1Cal1 occupy the same space as another. In other words, the colors in question march mathematically in all standard li,~ht sources, but they 1001, different. Tni-s happens with very few hues within Ink-matohmg systems, but it is the reason you mustalway» visually vprify the color specified, Invariant pairs

can occur with any equipment that measures samples for color reproduction purposes, For example, three colors thut

look very different to the naked eye can possess the same color coordinates wtthin 3-D color theory-s-the surne Xi, r, and Z lri.s.tini..ulw; values, These trrstirnulus values are used whelp map the h1k or paint mixlur€! needed to' produce. a certain color, This applies Quly to prmt-based graphics, environmental gr.aphic dosi.!ll\, interior ue,~jgn, and at'chitGcturc-any field thac uses colorants and pigments for the production of produet-s-and in this coertext, are of eonccm only with subt'meti'rx! eolf}r mixin.g and mapptng out paint, ink, and other materials sueh as wood, stone, metal, and plasric,

for the reproduction or perception of color. The. tristirnulus: values arc also used to predict I.futNan perception or hue,

~,-I ~

Pupil

Iris

Pupil

Ids

Twilight

Indoor ~i9htir1.9

Diagram 59 This illustration depicts how the pupil arid

iris operate in different levels of light

ThE! lens on a camera ;s like an iris: it opens and doses

to ad] ust the amount of lig ht that passes through the pupil and defines the depth of field.

Color Management

Iris: The portion of the eye that helps to focus an image, adjust the amount of light passing through the pupil to define depth of field, and give eyes their-color

The Iris is much like the lens ori a eamera; the greater the aperture, the smaller the depth of fidd, and the smaller th~ opening, the gmater the depth of field, The iri.s is the part of rhe human -eye that gh'cs individuals blue, green, brown, hazel, or black eyes. It should not be confused with the pupil, thn'lu,gh which l,ight travels to ~trike the retina on rhe back wall of the eyeball. The t\VO irises wor-king in tandem dcflnc depth of field and enable tiS to accurately perceive our 3-D environment, The iris also ,governs the amount of lightwavcs that enter the-eye, thus oontrolling how an image is €!xposed to the retina anti_to-uca located on the back ponj,srtrr of the eyeball.

Ligh,t'energy: Ugllt,distinguished b.V the hutrtan eve.es-cotors

Light t,ner!!,y from the sun or any qt:her arttficial soimie starts the process of perceiving color within th'e human ntirid.

In tact, <1 person's perception of any colored object is either composed ofreflected Iight source's or of light transmt tted directly 11'0111 tll;- source itself The type of [,Ight energy cast by the source affects a color's appqarance, For example, most fluorescent l.ighting gives a gLeCJ"lls]'l tint to any of the

Pupil

30m ph (48k/h)

\

45mph (7Zklh)

Daylight

Diagram 60

This. two-port diagram illustrates the effects

that motion has upon evestcht. and the eye's ability to fixate on objects.

colors perceived hy humans, For the accurate representation of all indivfdual colo". average daylight is required, bght energy is measured in kelvins (1\8), and average daylight is measured at 5,000 K (U,S, printing standard). or 6,500 I( (European pt'i'nting standard). In order no -achievc average dayhght, the object must

be placed under a eorreored ljght source that i's balanced to achieve average dilyiight, or' placed outdoors,

The Individual colors humans perceive are created by tlw source of light- and the molecular structure of an object. For example, if an object appears to be, red,

the light th&l'strH{(!s the object, and that is of the exact molecular structure and size found on the object's surface, will appear to be red, The light ettergy that docs not match the sUt'£ace structure will be absorbed by

the olijeot as heat.

As desi.gllCl'S, our main concern is how the object we me creating 'will appear and feel to humans, Undersrandtng the light energy that ts transmitted [rom the surface of the objects we, create will enable UlS to predict appearance, In addition, light that IS dircctlv transmitted into the human <?fe (,fm example, from television, Web sires, electronic ktosks. etc) has the potential to fatigue the C)'@, The quality of tlie surface

Peripheral vision at standard speed limits

60mph {97k!h)

~

+

+

- I

t

I " --1

65"

40"

15"

~ Backqround color

C93 M98 Y1 KO 10%

tlw Hght strikes also can Influence the-way we see the object, If the object has a r(jugfJ texture then diffuse scatrermg will take place. In other words, the UgIH energy reflected off the textured surface will scatter in .numerous directions, ther?by lo\yering ~Iac Intensity Ol'chroma of the object's appearance.

Fixation vision at standard speed lim ns

1 ,400ft (427m)
t.zoon {366m)
1,OOOft (305m)
800ft IZ •• m)
700ft (213m)
600ft (183m) +
500f'I152ml
400ft (121m~
300ft 191ml
200ft 161ml
100fT. (30m)
Oft (Oml 25mph 35mpl1 4Smph 55mph 65rnph 75mph

,~kJhl (56kJhl l72kJhl (88kJhl (105kJhl (UOkj~1

The Terminology of Color

49

Fioure 24

Art Directo_r/Desrgner' tl;n IZhC'JlHr.y

Figure 24 For this exempre. a flatbed scanner is allthat is recotrco {Of print orcoucnon nurposas. Wilen creating artwork that has a gross screen pattern. a high·end drum scan is nOI necesssrv {see Chapter 6~

Satin souc copper CVR 33.22%

Bamboo CVR44,77% Gr~y'Sc-Clle 38%, C \0 M44 Y75 K3

Anodized atumlnum CVR SUS%

Diagram 61 Righi: Three substrates arid thele correspondl ng lntormation leVA, grayscale equ ivatent. and Iour-cotor process oulldsl.

G r"y~(,;:J11'o ~~"I" C11 M69 Y72 K4

Gn,:'y!:c<ola 24% C9 M1S Y37 K1

.,'i¥peC41 M96 V54 K40
~gd CO M95 V100 KO
.l.vpeCO M\ Y11 KO
~ ligd C41 M96 Y54 K40
GtvpeCO M95 Y100 KO
pgd CO M1 Yll KO 50

Color Management

Figure ~5

Phctoqrapher .Jennl Kolsky

If a structure Is-planned for an cnvironrncrr; with different lighting conditions, a soalc model should he placed in rho proposed environment in order to predict outcome, This will ensure the color prediotnbllltx- of the materials being ~IHliZ'ed as a safeguard ag~li,nst an unwanted color effect. For example, in food packaging fluores,cent lighting needs to l?e considered, especially when deallng with red meats. "\s stated, typical fluorescent lighting imparts a

Pigl.Jre 25 In the above photograph, different substrates are present, a condltlcn of 3-D space. As can be seen. different materials reflect and absorb diHemnt amounts of Hqht.

Diagram 62 RighI: For env 3-D object that is exposed 10 different lighling conditions. a scaled mode' should be created to be-UBI' understand how lighting etlacts the surface space arid the corresponding substrates. Designer Brian Cantley

Diagram 63 far right: In the heat of the day su nliqht is around 6,500 K to. 9,300 K. Ar this temperature lighl

is a true white. Photograph .Ienni Kolsky

.~Fce[]ish t int, If the color ycllow Is played under fluorescent light, the color will oppear to the viewer ;IS a greenish yellow. Instead of haviru; a clean vellow next to the red meat, we !]OW have a gr.eenish yellow, which {Ji,minishes the appearance of freshness assoctuted with yellow, possibly indtcatiug spoiled meat. Green is not advised when creating food packaging for red meat products because red meats, when spojled, turn shades of g,reeIL

Metameric pairs; Pairs of colors with different spectral reflectance curves (see spectral power distribution cur·vel that have· the same appearance in one light s'ource but

not in another

All colors are created by light. Lightw;J\'cS, whether from the sun or arr artificial source, bounce off an obJect and epter into the field of perception through the hUJ)1i)H eye, or

arc directly transmrrted intothe human eye, sturtlng the process of color perception. Objects that are metameric pairs have the ablljty to change their appearanec from one another as chey travel through one light source, intoanother. ,[bi.s rare occurrence is caused by the object's moleeulor stl'HcHlre. In such cases the anutomv of theobject is more complex than an object made from una muterial, and therefore the object has a greHter ab~Hty to change its appearaneu.

The greater the number of materials used

to create " structure, the more likely the phcnoiucnou of metameric pairs is to occur. TJl such casas, a oouslsrent light source is advised. In other words, if matchlng color i~ critical, Llsing a structure made of numerous. materials and Pfilssing it through di.ffexent light sources is ill-advised: it is more than lil<ely ·that the phenomenon of metameric pairs will occur. In interior, indUl~tri,,!I, and environmental gl'aphic design, metameric pairs arc more likely strnplv because

MO YO K97 '~ Backqrcund color co M27 vroo KO 30%
MO YO K48
m type CO MO YO K15
_ bgd co MO YO K97
~S type CO MO YO K4S
. ~gd CO MO YO K15 cHffereJU marerrals and light sources are' used more often than not, In print-based gmphucs, motion graphics, and Web design' this phenomenon is not as hkcly to occur.

The ,~[).qenomemon of metameric pairs does, occur with !i>iibtrclCU've color mixmg ; but is more likel:,' to occrrr in a 3-D environment, If, for example, :pl environrnentcl stre is going to beconstructed from ditfereu: materials havinj; the sarr;e color, visual verifUcation of these materials it1 different stlnHgh t sources ,is uecessary. If an artifid?l light source will be used to illuminate the site <l'l night, tthei:i the materials should he tested under these conditions as well.

51

FigLl'rG 26

Art DlrectQ.r/;Desigr:'lcr 11T1y,Oi.Hl!] Chni

Figure 26 I n ttl is exam pie, metameric pairs will not occur. The su bstrete that the poster is printed on is slnputar, and the pigments are the same throuqhcut the piece. However. in diagram 62., metarnerlc pairs are mere likely to occur .

• rvpe czz M14 yo KO
, bqd C75 M68 Y67 K89
~ Wpe C75 MS8 Y67 KB9
bgd C69 M7 Y9 KO
~n type C69 M7 Y9 KO
bgd C22 M14 vo KO I

~I~"'.!!l

~n Dlr.<i,~ f>Io<I [1"0"",

I!l:flIIJ;Jnlt tf«I DrlllN ~·R~8~mfill I

MMo-al!il1lmMi~ ~LI!r!!: b'i:W!i ~W'une,o ~. m~~ .rerem:.. ,p'em:en:tsgea of. rJah, sl.MditJillmJ &ml1il1.lltl):ms_~ ~~~.J (DII *1fUi1OtJ lmrfWoI ~J

rn. [he IW~~ it \,I'M m1!lt!1b D,j,;[J'IIpoe.f (Q prl nt

cue· ~fL(~ [\WJ-.f:~~OI"jDbs thnn f[lJlM:roltll~. WI.I.iI ~d\\tmuil.q' i¢1 pri I"~i I1Y t~~llln If{ijr and

rl1 t:: .IDxlhrlll~ltriJh fjf th~ IndJJ8try, rh I:. Is (10 l(ff~m- 1:!I.l\1I'·~Y~ tliil! ~~lSe, :riltiIOlI"!lb tkU;:re 1:;1 ~ cleTiniro l:en:clSIIIQY' fm: b)~ll·~.nd de1;lilgl~ [() use (u_uNiolor pr6!;:~ nJ Lx1n&; OJ. ~p ~! thi's, .dU!itiitJ."I~!!" J1f~n flTlr f61 n t,;!,r)/r;';1" ;ldr[;"I'~r~ lIult \'IoiH ~hQW of,( l.be.p @blliJl!!.s ret use ~l.oE' b.i'fuat:lVelY'; III riil"Cl,'iSoll!hltmtl.:!! rcJi:' i:strnJ~ mol'll. With nWllOOhrnJl!!Iltli!'.lmrl!:lr «l1[!(mi!-!i, pne wtQ"f cau b;= elllp~01l"~-d U(fJ,:uij~[JJr ((.j 1l<:I"tve- a,delHl\Il Ilt{)blwil.,

Mm1ji'l:!ltroititltlt: L"P(ai' ~wmlY.i ~n ""'flofl~ tlfit;,O"ti vely r(l~·ttd~J~~~;';'f)!fJj_ documenrs • . ~ubll't"j:ll~ .a~t1(!rdi'JQufli1!!rrt), I.I]~ a·o !.}El.itlt:J~, Unltk~ f1l,lll)' !::~.J.lWfl!l;Olt 20lW ~U!.rUlB.!I" mrlljlioL:-luoffitul!.: !;I.[J)!llr~ euu !bEl: ubTn~ed 111 flfl!lny m,e~LI~.

'NIILJlfIIl calor. A ~ r,Vdh II _ BlJuaI,;5~ IIQmrnrl)!'I~ oJ Qitri Of IiiOfl!' .rfQIOri;, fnC!u!iln.g 1rJ; eom¢fm(rlllll1lzy,

A t rtlly l1elL[r.~1 eo~~ i~ l'IemeiVoE!G riJ!; n.eltlrti;!r \VilII'm IllIr (!aIiLNullr-I1BU~' I f)bli;lrl> ~,~ ~!tfchly cl[.imwd 1Io111(l nm Inil If mill nJy n{'~[t11,11 lkl;~m.tlI~!t T~'f1ill~[IJ~, tbe't~ i:> Hltl~ tlm~tr1I1.i;,~ In Imutr,!1 CilfllJ i)lll1ititii'is, lllll-d II

Figure 27 This monochromatic study utilizes shading as a technique 10 create 8 multitude of hues. The color white is created by an absence of plqment-eit is the paper thai the impress-ion is primed 0 rr.

h

d

Diagram 64 Two color- bars u@liog shading and tinting

IQ create two very different monochromatic studies from the same hue, However. in the prin~jng process, two hues are needed 10 create this effect. This cms.y of hues is sampled from ligu re 27.

type co Ml ViS K19 ':'7 type C6 M44 V99 K93 [~J Bac"=:grou nd COIOf
bgd co M33 ViOO K37 bgd co M5i vroo K19 co M8S Vl00 KO 80%
M33 Yl00 K37
M44 Y99 K93
type CO MSl Yl00 K19
bgd co Ml Y1S K19 JJLil'nwnililill! .t'~Lailia"~hjp I~ h~re!at~ I]n~~ t~d WhUlll Ul:mj} UIL!:m~ tUJ'!"tFlt:l!t ·!.l'r,ml~ rh~ ,aPP!<-';IIl'm'_Q ,pt bc.'l\{;i,;m~ ~md H"lmml ®lur LXI"I!J1l).imlmmlt[JlI"ea~ Ir:.rm,(llll~', NeUlMI ~"rs E14H he ei'kill~:tve 'i''(1!t' erel\[LI1g,: el'l~'lro'l1rne~~ of llU~ re;tl~C'Tlt}11.

MliIlIlY I ~Ul3S f<l~f:lJd w~[lii~ i:h~' lljp~"oli'Um of 11~I1tl'!il U0hml IUI~ B1l tim:t:h:l' aprei!rln:N:!~ 'I'll!: millie ~r~ll'S thati ;O{1? b~e!llJe.d t@~E!thel'. th.o'!ltlm'l1ke;!'~d earrhie:r I']".;H!.olor In~~l~ity (-Ircrnil\l1!II.I ig,ciiiJllbi.rs:Ho£!t1 thrUlltIl tb:fi;

111~liU.l ~n~ pro&Sl'{ ~lrereii)' I;: l'E:.1~ ldJIJ.pUI~ ~l)loT~. Ho'~\1~" rb 1,'1 dfle~ J1m dlnlLrJ.it!a

U neo'U',~l eQrOl'~o;:iieo;:l1tvlm,I;:Sg ·lD 'CG.!'i:Jlin cj'rCl1lliSLUJ L't.~S, It 11ll1L!}' be ..Uill.L Ii lIil:s.tl1,m!:r Ull~ 41 nlli!lltt'tll Loulfjr, sl.'ffil!1j.e ""~rt frw 11');1~ !Jul,!)!=. TIi~~il!im~l ~~n~~:ttOIl qi a plJ 11!. JU,l1l ,~l.l l.).:ithin ~U:Cl:I :J ;!Jollema m ~he~ tlJe! hue. "poup." pqp r~ a tJ:! ern mt~J. \'I'hlli:! II hu~ wrth.lll a {l~3nr~c!]j3mi;! h¥ the :Lrjl~~mr~~tj( ~llddjl'JJJ~' m~)VIIl!l fnrw~ rd,

N~~ltr;tl .~ hellQel ''11 rfO I ~d lUlIJo$d r b:l LI~~~Iiur d!t~I!ln, 1~.Jl~IJnu dl:&Ig.,. rug ,I till ~Uld'ir .~C'Uiljl cI~$I~tl a • IlI1~ em'bvu]]1tetmtl ~i":i\'P.hi~ J~iltTIr'filly {If!e vi' T-D ell \/'J rOnllJ!etll IIJ'Jtdl;htl~olf t(\

JL Ji~U1.tlIJ 001" .. !h.C1'I.cnl,,<, r!mVU\nglf I hie'; o:Jn'l!!o; t\[)l tI1l~~tI t.lf1J.l !.I:il:!}. 8 rc U:niiltld rn ~ Oj1 ~m~'ti:~~atlm,mrs_ 1Y.'q,~19~tDr't" il"~ of ;:!lIY cpj{l(r t'OIt:J.bin~tol-'oi'J, in;l:lrl!(ll!lllll~'litnd [!'O tQr~. ;;;ful Ilnlr IUld lL! ~n~ 1I!1ipC!l'iven~ Q~ ymni .~'6i1llr w. _~ol II<! 'I'i~liI1l rrf:ihh~II1l","'

\'I9lll rill' C{j lUil illl ngl&lt"iln L~!Cs.ln Jti.ial~ t~!:Ih.ll.J~jTI ~re.tltl~, neu LrtLl colo!" !i'!1l1~11lM;:~ (:<j1n I)(; It[J.lrz.ed IUGre "lk~\'~1 ~"'. hi~ha[ celor Ihtl'IQ\ti~r Mti n@ 8ltd ~htlufi~ htitW,cQII uodutll:'csli\ "'It ·t::rej!tl'\<.! ~n ~liIdlfl~ii:!. ¢PIp,· c;~"f.rDl:rL'l1j,lrrt.5 ~J.I~ ~~ We~ de~lgn IIFJd irilE!lnI-Olici."e tmp)jj~ th.;lln,:~urht!IUC1t~~ ICYJldr 8Wif(!oiLdo[ls

PafQtlt 1>olQ11; TWO" C~ mDpl'._~._:thmf o!MI!\ .!IBed 1'D' ~tlt ooimiiri' O!IR Mrny Of:"mDft;

lim1':::rn 11l1i5t W7t: If;il'it~l! 1JD.!W1;, ~hm: tll'rTTl t ~ tUUH1 structuru {"r all <:Qkmfr ~hmle:;;. ~UI(I lintli ~~rt m;ltf}1" ,../radl-'flA,,1Ud ouI{1]' nm'l~g) e~:lt(!,f vrJtbiJl II (I{'jl~l'l\ p;llleRe, e-,g" II [II'() L'Qlltr IlrllT~ Job wl~~ tlTSi m bKlJ ~ or lmtl1U.ng ni ih~~ (WI') 'e(lllJ r~ 111 rtlw;iJ S'c~n 11~we:n~ll&e'g 1lI~~~ cd [~ 1t~~!lInlf tints, ~~gh~t;s Im~ Im1A used !'lLl'Cn'l hm_"<I'tti L:r~;t'C t:ulur fpllcUL. .. '1l_ P'1mJrI L [!~rtlr~ ~l~

l'.l:e.tI ted ~~'Ur1li[1& ~o tl1" d(li';:u;u:rJ ru~~~ n( cl~~ 'dli!J1U. cl~~ ~mqt;j'~ nrrd ~li'l1OhE)!Q~t;;;;!~ t\ff~ts QLJllf1'l1."d fD~ rbetr pa:rtl.un I'll' ! I~.

JUlL.i timn' iiTo{!!I!Kis~i fi~ rl'fkt.hl(ji~. n1;:1iu':l'ln!: •• A.11d -'ulbj!llo~rllet: and objo!!(.'!fiv.e a riterlIt,

'fbe L1~ tJf r~ltellt ijnl.1)):~ to ml:lW !I.i!ltl tl.iilinu II spe(!il'UliIl !;If! I UIIi.$, shml~~~ lind r11-l t!l FJ. [I ~j[ IImlr~~1 flIf'rlm·l~~~J ~f:llplliic.'!"M.tltjuu gmphw~. \\r~l). Imei"l0:r.ltshiOl].lqtlti1!Jtri~11, Il.JH.I ell'~JfV.tIill@.rIw.l:J!hL~IH~ liI.1!1~i,(lll-lIH I!llii~

PI tredt lI.~!ltl~ to imht~ t:b~: ~r~~ m1'1l11i1.-'1~.5 lML!.I flwJU~!'.i thAJ~' ~t·L'i!t0. ~"'lnu]'(! fi~JdI.~ "1](1

lr1d'ilrti..luHh.-WW Ilm~UI ",[d~rS';m'1ri! ~m:;~~.tt,Uy rhnn (1(h"'l;l1', l'ly ~h('lOOl'll~. (lWO

'If 11L!)~ pl1l'e:nl ®lO:flI.4c1;:!i)IQ.[JJ\!l [00 0'bJe(llll~ erJ.r etl~, .J e:l!Lnllt<TI tiQWI iHJ~.Lrlkr(: u \ t.he

1W.IIl.m L ,llllJ CIJ,u~Kl qJ' lh~ ll'.\~"",n pro.hlti'!.1:L nre ~edlf:l\EdL '['1iSo ~~J ~ ~klllbo"l[

illIY ..w]or ~lJIE'([~ r])..lfl is IJt_j~~t.f~lr

Llilffi rf~,J, but r~wl1 ~ tl'rjrlll~~ o!i:J~r:om~"I

u IlTlll'.lderr QI'JI'lW.l,;t of (:(Iltlf, incJ",,riI,"ili

m8QlY IlldMo:h1.~1 ~'QtQr ~~.Illetletl;;J.tb.cb

1l!l [~II'i'hn1", 'mftni1J1WuS'. fl<rrid,pgGok I.!hr®rr'lli'C, mW~r1i:..jlivmll1l~!L', l:lclJ.IlmflCltii.:, WJiJ·tjkll11t~UI,r;v, I:1I:1J jtuOO:i:I.!l\l"~j'O~ls ~Idr't:

TIl.u L'itli'Li fippiunlll{1!}f uI Ii hue ~m; 1!1fll!! hfIiJ~till"m~lltld, br th!3 ul!lm",,,t: IIll Whi'hl1 r1J~ nnTIl1'Jt o-olan;: o"lJi? 'lJ![ed_ 'f:;-plooI1r. o;I,;.;:jJ,¢n~.~ Lli"i!~ Il:tf,eJll~ PlIOf-5 to I lei!}, <J·rt;~"I!C.t.1iI.rretl non to 11 Il.i"'B n e:LlV~rHIiLIJIElDt .~ .. predue r No illaW~J: rhe. m~'i.llilm wlled~e~ !dH~lt'£!.l, (jlml v!de\), prlnr, .;\-1', huHI Ilm~fi()l- ei1l\'HnHIllJitllill>',

q_r a built elj \'J.ro11IlLl':'I:U nlnal*, (If aifl'f:.r'Bfit ilime.E'i:J1li::, t)rupl)rl:~ ww~"I! rI ~~lril!t~ (lult.l~~ 11Il1~ul! un: &1.1 ITtlunlJfi h~ Witb !I \'r~uul

I ~n\glJ Ilflt' t~~iLl uan ~ \1'~~il;.' tLlldl'l'rrII~~m(.L

Diagram 65 Ill-d) Right: The three parent colors in 651:1 crea[€- an array 01 330 hues in 10% increments, These color matrices-in oSSa, 65b, and

65c-are a n excellent way to create an tn-depth color patene for any deslq .... problem. Thousands of hues can be created by just using these three parent colors

Allthree of these parent colors

are- unpure

Dlaqrurn 68 Left: An excellent example of a neutral color scheme.

Deslqncr Inyou ng Choi

54

• M~~"'tf' (ilt' Il~tilr1ftl~ t~"o c: dljl1-; ~1~I;IJ '~n!:

Plllj'l!!cm<1 Ij«s>e q lli,gh IH·l\gj'~ml~.!:i J'("ail:1,!t 'Wm f!i'.~ld drt:' '1ltt:€ifiesr (~j"rr('II fl.t CJb.!nn; .Ii·!') If! .I~1i t r1~ ddrl~

• JW'iMiIl.il !.~(il uo!ttrs, tmu th«r is pure l1~iiJ bTi:fltH~ ~~J ~I~ll;mller thea i~~ "w·e or .<elll~pllrc 1m.1 d~·k- (~I~~~i,ng't! (mbJ:"~ 'rl'l~if~ vi;l· perchltn-t t~~). ti11U c<no'4~t.e' fi ,;;"Q/Qr· puie!tf>!jmm ~!,¥J!l to (!~{)"k. Ina the. t'I.rm,:'(' 'Will 11tH ~~'.!)I:~,i.ir~a

• ."lilxl~~,!! MW: pti ~ tt"lllI1d!,!:IJJ lL~t} ... ~t(h (/ H U~IPW'j; @lr)l'~m 'Df"~lE! l!;tL am-u.v r$"liJl.~ll lrJ d£frl; fr()l?! " 1'W-1}' I.n ffl'l·t'l ~mj~ Ni~nilj'

• Mt'.:'oog t~ I mpti'rOl ~(lll)lil}. ~~~nlll!'~!1 (I lIwtt·1.-II,J't,llltl, i.~m .'!"j~Je; l'l:n tlrr~l,;'il tJj· L"Ul'l'i! ~mwl.

Prima ry co'l ors- Pure hues that create the fou,nda.tion tilf a.l) IMJ'lor spectrums

S~~bll\f~eH"'l.;e ~ udptti;c)!;\ anil ~-D ~,ut' u L~~l!l ~I'E! 1},,1~J:...u Q<~~ diU~nmt pt'illmFi= ~m~!f.}h $,el l~ ~~:t;T~Q~'IJ t~) 1?<~1!tru th,~ wPtie'St ~liiJ).l<:

J;Q!pr'~p~~rum i1lt th!;!! gi'ron rrn.t!dihm, and e~(Jh IJw 1j v:ll'rl~~ul:~r !~.f~ \,"r~lrTIl the niGlJa M de.l<ign. Ih~ dlre~.~e.~ ~~i prin.t\l'''y IlW(J'l'.Ij lb~

• R!~tH ro:rd:~: l-;'IH, m@L:!"ma. ~'cllIJw'. fjwf p1tv:k (':1tdl~H)

• J\ddit'i~~ r~(i, Jlj:t'>1el\, ctl.i(/, !llu~ {111GB)

• J-D' blIH", _';41~; .1i~~i )~ll, 'I:~jh"U(,.

I,/nii!:t, and. Pl~ll'{i?

Co~or Management

Subfractive prjmaries

l.J~oo~ nLQ·~1tbL, yelhw. 1I11l11,lt1kl!. oce~ uS0d W I:.'lrel3tu It full ~[C!iI' !I;.r~~Tumtl$r PtilH .. 'J'J·~t~ i~ knlUll1(n ~~ rn~lrcc()10r Hrm:~~ l(li};.llJ~t ~'yjJll, n'ri~tW[lt!l. :mJ )'~>lh,n ... ~~r (;!rd!iCtilN3 Iv'dt! uelor !!p@btnlm, ifl.[:hl~lu!l: liil!tlk: the hllU::k ill' ~dd~d !~~>11 f#m't'h pri'mlilry' l() ~l:W;.Un: ~(j!CW ~HWHj",.I'I ;lnd rj~hl)~~!iI,· WithO:lI! thi~ hi~t!li, it \V01l~ n~'t t)e. posilihle tiC! <!!:~~ bE!

I1W ny '~f th~ ,h~rlre r ~6191~~ "l11 Pfi"~,*

Re~ mir, a Jl~W Se'J" or P$'UIJHl r~e)I h~~,",~e>en ~re'hted i~)" pl'J.nt·ila~d ntitll~ ill ClrdeF

to ,\1i'taell IheMki<t"'S1.)lid:~l!l, 'Nvi 11~" p-ril:i'lii.d@~ @ liJll~,~lA'P~1 ~ \!0l"i' ~iJ1tli!jJ" J() &o,'IN:l"5m!ll5;5) m:rd ~:~1 if.ircwLS>fr Cltd!lA~

tsim Mr ~D PJIlNrro.NE !'51. bm htitthrG't') h~I",€! h~·~n i!!Jdil~1 t· the f~,n· I'h!ldi(ifj~~d prlmrnrle::t}C~YI~. 'fl~e-.:i'= live} iI1T'~ il1~erll!W:b;· b:rigbt, ~ hllQ'..'it, OUQI*~nr ;·'lIi¢ QFi;!'l¢~ ~ Iv]'der nbl!I}Dl;l 'I"~m hi tile rr.ld1.t.l:i::m.Ii'11 ool~)r 'S'l)e'-;:Ullilill fiB' pl:i;\,~. qIUbw~\~ .. rnl3 ~nbnilCUv~ 1.:O'J4I" "iJ,l'Uctww W (lClIlLpe,!f: 'l1'itl.i [h~llllf mtl{iJit!W tlOt0i',

Additive primaries

Tr8rliti~m~l~iy ,mJ#i~i!L~ ,~"t;!rtJy r:r~I~lRIrj:G~ "!1Vil·q,I%M,~"d 1"wit!~r ~·o!Jlor'liR"~'rU!':n el'Wl~ thel f pri I'n -tr.J~i1 oo~n~.'P;~I'~'n~Lu~oe tr.1Ilsmrt~d Utl'lt ill ~iJnw~~rW tUi~Q.btrmrll1 lis WIU1CiO> uno, t~Ul hll~nlLI1 <e'o~ TYlJi<:!aU)'. th'l~re IS'1I0'oOlItsld:e: ill.[e1'rel:'ellOCe ill tlJ-e' 13·~.l1l!m:1iiL Ii ~i ngluw!Wes- mIlJ tJ:L~r~ftj]lI1:,

~bGl' Illte~si~.}' IR Ln000il'i!:'d. I;.lgnu\llOll:e& "lr£\~si.b~e to lun:unlll';;""lrillR IlL ~,iU@ I1If

~ ~0-75a~'L:flil' l'lly"Y il:l'", m'~"j(oo wi tll ~H~ ~o!ur J;ilr5[jjn~I:~ r~d,.~enl.~'EI.ud Mw:, TIn':~'e,thre~ ~nma<!'t~ tit'~lIfe Nl.l1l: l·uU~fl,ec:~nl ri~. fiji color; i.Il~!IlIJLJlll,,~ J1!ite'11. i.~ll"'t:iIl.~. Ilfu~lt j~ I;]'J:'GoUtieiJ I:I~' t!l~~ ~dJ..~nl;.t! ar qj.~~.h~. mlU. j~lnil !)p.[!~idlired II oIli~o:r w~th in ~td~jtl ~'(I 1J9~!il!L< t 1\~Ill!'J" W'hi'[{j

~'j;: oru;atll'"4 lW the Ul1!J),bi.l1[!i~Q()Il,()f all thro:e l7liinmf,~~Il!~ lQO rEP1.eJi[ 11]lB;~~ity. W~~hhl ;mr-~Qfu\'a1"(!! 1Ipp]l1!l1Iri.:J!lt. t hi~ ~l1rihitl:~liQ;n,

..... 111 erea r,e; wl,.,i tel\: ;To e'l.'~,mle; a>d~iM~~ .'fu{!'Midooj.'~'elOl~ (:;,e'1I0W, C:;'lllB, o~nd ,J!1lIl!l;j;:iJrll'). n\\'P !If die I h ~e-, l~t"hmtrl,¢l

jiL:~j~.t I~ ()al:hll:i1:n:e,;! Ii'!. wn jle~Ellit of ·@Ior

i ~I{i!;nsj ~Y' (~.t!til Z5ii It~tclli;ree 11 ,~,;;;~ \'I'IU ~""e 5?~no,\'; ![limll 2£5 find bJl1tl 2,&5 wfl ~ gl v"" ~'~11:r ~mi reLl ,~5~ c,"III1U·SJp,g 2:~5 \\o'I~] ,)l,i~'~ lT1f~g~t;l), Additivr.l IOOI,Dr p~jmmiC"!Lhl Ul(ld~~. 'I('l,~" ti-J 'lk'i ~t~yEt qj~'"I.l~Q'r ~ij:;i'IlIEj, nru;~ ~r; rel~reiM;! liIf'~ tile m.~.x lmum 1tmmm t

Qlf ~tlnn!ln the !YI .. re~JJo?n~Un! r~ln)r

.;,~Is I'e~e~~'e>.

Oiagr~m 67 Far left: The analogous color scheme whh complementary accent IS an excellent example of parent colors. In this case, they are hues that constitute the predominant use of color within the ccmposltlon. Designer Sated Earls!

Diagram 68 Lett: Overprinting and type reversals are utilized to create LWo adoitkmal colors. Des~9ner Art Chantry

[~ Backg round color co M83 VO KO 60%

~~u",;ZB

Alii' (lQ-dD-LOJ/Des,gner An ~FIf

Figura 28 Purl') and senupure corms are utrl lzed to create a vivid color cornpcsition.

Subtractive color

013gram 69 Below and right:

A few of the primary color sets used by designers.

Pour-color process

Addhlve cotor

Diagram 70 Left: Serntpure and pure colors arc utiliz.ed

in a stersbar cenern to create a kinetic color composition. Designer Jennuzzt Smill1

The Tel''mln flflbgV o~ C6~O'r

55

3.0 primariu

TliT~ ~~LS: .rll prllll<ft Ifje~ e nsttm te ~1118eltl of -t·O'"Cfllm· rhew:l' 'I'll .. lnf#fll,;]tLonlli

C()mmi 1\)11 oil !IILJlllin~~iQn ~l:IZ) ~rhmhft~s> !tre r~" gr@u, 1lI1llrl Mt'~e I wlth ~Igln !Ourpes

JJf [I\I'm~ &)'Hglll f 41;l~ u.S, ~t!lIld.!I.tJ,

ltllOWg;t ~ ~lliJICe. DilA;1 ~ w.t ~lt ~fOD'(J K lind the ~l.itopelt S,lIl'il.tlH ttL It:nOWrl illS :SrilUl'~'C Di"iS, iii Sel 111..6;500 X), ~~rll"IJ i"ll.'3mr.!l1t lamp j SllU.lC~ A; ~,S54- "), ;;l"I!l(l nnon 51l111~1i1 C:-lOllluE' ; i;.80( 1\). '1'hll'~ is nQ'::i(!u,C\l IS:

The 'iflUllg, l!al;m hi.QIt'i!: thetlry, .i:liio kJl!JWD ,ts the rrl..rhroma{,e >colen' th~I)'. iiICILl.L~e..~three: 8.~T~ (11' prl D'lllr~e;s< tMue-A'}'~p''W+, ~reeil·b~ed'~, whlu!;;.II)hwk+.), !mel the bp~,trerit .. ):ii&i~CiSS' Llb::01Y, dCvbio.]J't11i by .E1~\\'BtW rwrli1l1j, IIl11s fom'

L\U; o.f pri.ifladl.!.!. (li"lL!l,I!'-ly,M[BI\Y+, ~~'m-/l'r.!d+, whir~,jbl;!~k+i purple}, &ll botb theories, l1ull,o iVQ nntl f,lI_1Sit!\'e'-stimu11 are used Iii tile ooloulo1ti'l;iliJ ~r O(1l(!r ~f~E!]lt!nll.

Traditional color

3-D color

56

These rhree.theories constitute oolor in a 3-D environment. However, it is now known that the J)hotorecegtor cells Ncar the jt)'Dea respond to tbe additive primaries red, green, and blue. Witbin CIE theory, other light sources are available, for example, fluorescent lighting (Source C\VF) and dusk (there is 1iI0 Source appellation fa]' dusk).

In fact, Sources 050, 065, A, and C\YF are the most common light sources used for measuring colors,

All three theories have in common the pr,ooictli:bLlity of color appearance within

a 3-D ~j]jvirou.ment. em theory is concerned With measuring colors to predict how

to reconstruct them in numerous environments. while the trichromatic color-and opponent-process theories are concerned with dcsorlblrrg how color percepti'un takes place within humans ..

At first glance, 3-D color theory may seem

a bit esoteric for designers, hut a knowledgs of .it is essential to understanding how humans perceive color and {OF predictipg the appearance of a color Within any glven medium or environment. We need a working knowledge df 3-D color theory to know how ptg, small, hright, or dark an object should b.e ,in WIUlt lightlng conditions, with lV.hat type of contrast values.srrnd at what distunce, in order to make the object legible.

Oiagram 71 The field of vision interpreted by the primary visual cortex. As an indlyidual scans their 'Surroundings, multiple images are processed throug h the visual pathway arid interpreted/transmitted throuoh the primary vlsua! cortex and other parts of

the brain.

Primary visual cortex

Color Management

Pri mary vi s!J.al cortex: A portiprr of t:he brain located at the end of the visual path wa y. devoted to the input for and interpretetion of sight

The primary visual cortex is responsible

for phraslng.inforrnarfon in the areas of color, motlon, depth perception, and form. As part of both the visual pathway and the human brain, this cortex acts as a conduit through which visual information is interpreted. As part of a complex visual system, it collects the information. or electrical impulses, groups them into the Cil!egories listed above, interprets them, and communicates with other 'regions within the brain to create a holistk visual interpretation of the objeotrs) under examination by the nrinds eye. The electrical impulses are sent bythe photoreceptor cells in the rods and cones of the eye, along the optic nerves, to the primary visual cortex. The ganglion cells, positioned just behind the rods and cones find attached to the visual pathway. receive eleotrtcalinrpulses and help start the process of classifloation by (Ji,vilding the information into two major categories: motion and fine detatl. This. information travels along the visual pathway into

the primary visual cortex when! further clasaification and interpretauon take place. Bach ,lighpv3ve within tbe spectrum of human Sight has its own unique bandvvldth;

this triggers an elcctrtcal impulse t11M is decoded through the process of human sight. The interpretation of sight is both all external and an Internal phenomenon. However, the object. under examination must be large enough to Cross over, in a distinct order, three photoreceptor cells found within either the cones or rods of the eye. If the object is not large enough to cross over at least three photoreceptor calls in a distinct order, .the object goes unseen, and therefore no electrioal impulse ts.created.

Pupil: The pupil is the black point in the center of the eye tihrol,lgh which light travels in order to sUike the 1:etina. It operates like the leaf shutter ois camera, opening and closing in a ci"cutar.pattern

The cornea, located in front of the pupil,

is responsible for the lirst stage of human perception. The cornea, a clear, protective coating that covers the pupil, ~s a proteind,eh. flexible crystalline tissue located oJ!

the outside of the eyeball .. Asligbt travels through the cornea and pupil, it strikes the' lens of the eye and is iuvcrtcd backwards,

on the retina wall. At t his point light is concerted, or not, to elecrrical impulses that travel through the visual pathway, endiillg up at the primary 'v'isliai coTtex where it is interpreted and translated to other regions found within the human brain. The pupil is

E1: Background color C88 MO Y1QO KO 20%

the portal to human pefception. Without it light, or color, would not reach the inner workings of the mind's eye.

To understand how and why the eye works .is to understand how and why we should create objects thft operate in a certain way. Knowing how humans perceive color-how the eye works~is as crittca] as knmving, how to usc tfie psychological and/or .learned behavioral effects of color and how to

use color through building processes. Understandirrg the apparatus of the human visual pathway and how best to create designs to exploit human physiology is just one more step in the architecture of color.

The physiology or the eye is directly lmked to 3-D COlOT theory and the. standard oi;servers specified by it (y bar 10 and y bar 2).

The Terminology of Color

57

PE

Figure 29

Art Director/Designer Jehu MJl1nos"j

~igure 30

Art Director B1Jb(l~tB Mayer Deslpner Loonerdo Popovic

Figure 29 In mts poster, excellent examples 01 color lise and svrnbolisrn are combined 10 create a powerful message.

~ Rods

(i}Y

Outer retina wall "-

Figure 3:0

An excellent use of a

reductive color palette, and B ccrnposinonal balance that is hig hly kinetic. This IS achieved primarily by stimulating the receptor cells responsible for an object's distinctive sbe pe.

10" standard observer

Fovea

.~ Cone.

Diagram n The above illustration depicts now an object is viewed on the back of the retina wall .

typ-e-CO MO YO KO • WP6CO MO YO KO
bgd co M30 YO KO bqd CO MO YO K100
type-CO M30 YO KD Btvpeco MO YO K1DO
Dgd CO MO YS\ KO bgd CO MO YO KO
Dtypeco MO Y5\ KO
ogd CO MQ YO KO ~".i31

~< Dlrli~6cT~ FiJlilii1 ,Int.!"! k. OHliN .. n~ a~r.:9I'Dll.llWIrnIJiI D.r:!!iUrwt S'Dilill Flji·I'"

lI1JMi D"IOPM ~i!nr FlI~i~

REllinm, me ~ifJn u;t the·!Jm:cl! oI-tbe syebmN where til!!' gllrJgii'Ol't fJf1Ns; ~QJjd dWi;' BI"e ro~trtad

Wh'::n an ubj8",ut is puTtleiVLoU lr.a·· humans, tJH~"lj~h t\Vl!"'I!!~ :rG'pru~~l:itiTIiIl; ~h<! j'nl.~§:,c arc (ijt:h~" rl',!hl(,l~'ted ill [0 th~ ~rf!' ni- tnLn~mjttlH.i ,n!'ellHy fron'1 ;1 ~nume:_ rl'h~ li:l!h r i'i Fi'lt r~~~L'ti'· r!1rmagh tile ~cml~lmlJ hi$, rlgIU-$rde ~Ip, ~ml is then i averted .~mlflipped IJlloL,'.' .. a rds ;'!~ i I' ]1,~~5ie~ t,hlTIligu dIe lens Q~ [1i1~ eye to m;uk~ 1111 Impl'e-s~i{i11 on rhe l"efina· \Villl

Ilf the H/!h t'iVl.l'ile.s nre lnrense et'l.o LlgtJ, the s~ reillH of ligill nctt~'I1(~ dle Vho,t~Heceptor ~'Cns. "Fhes~ dlk"Ctdci.l ilflt'ujse'S, I.::·r~lltoo

~y lighL Sti.tLltilJ'.ftiLlll, ~[re tl ru;n ~1'Oi.JL'jl:;ctl and !i',unt 'tJ:~roL!JJ,h the! rjlliIJ n~r"~-s. ro t.he primm)' j:JiB~~(t1 ~'[jMt~x_

PI@-d'~ AAi.}I~Wi~pf(j1'$ ~!tR{)nsf.Ilf.e' fer nlg/l~' Vi~j'o"

l~Q{~~ ~r:re hi~hl}' seusklve to IlglH '~nd Oll~ril~e ei1t<e[i~ Ir III ,nUl light. 'rh~y ~ re 1\i.::~PQusihlc Io~ LUll: [jJil!tu!~:11ilMl bl,~.d.!:,;., ',!l.i:I;I~'~, !1.El.J VMiu[ioti$ "f whiH:!', Vll( do not

cl~~ i.Il\lll!.llsh cO!or.

Rodl;;: dlro lJ1011t con~'1!n tmt~,J arnuud thu IX!1:inwt~, I)i t.lle ~#',!a_ They d~.jJT;11!L'iA'I

ITII m 1m ber tnwn·r.d the jbuer.r.j b~omilll! Inte~mte.d With ~n i'II"L'e~~ln!l. WI]~lltmti(111 of ~n:~, ~~<tds derive thetr name from rhe~r .sll;LlJle. They are nss®hUet:!. wLth three crPe ..... of ~·fsion In the tJl"lma.~y ~jsL~aj' ,",o~re.U' of

Figure .21

In vtewlnq this example. the cones and rods ere baing utilized to process the impression on the ref na wall. In Icur-colcr process, a form of print-basso qraohics. the color Biray found within this design IS limited in comparison to the original. On a computer

screen. the vie or oasuv

comprehends vi ld details.

Diagram 73 For this example, rods are primarily used to iruarprer the impression on the retina wall. DeS\90er lnyounc Cbci

type CO MO Y60 KO r;;- Background color CD M45 Y100 KO 80%
'bqd C60 MO Y71 KO L-J
MO Y60 KO
MO YO KO
type CO MO Y60 KO
bgd GO MO YO K26 Outer retina WJII tpenmerer) rods ere highly dense in

this area

lnteqretec area of rods and canes

Near mean point on the retina wall; cones are highly dense-

O!agrarn 74 Rods are responsible for processing black, while. and grays.

the bmJIl: mo\~entI~u\ _ f,l.)nl:tt!!!iJh{1L1eU~i and depth, T he ~l)rrellJw~jtltli,lj phottlr~ael'~Qr flekl;s.--[enne.d .'Iii.!uph~. ~[_mrp!~.x. ~md

hrpe rOOII!p:tex ----1lm 1(jt~t0L1 near t:11(e b-:~ck

6i the bruin_ {Sct!" ,d:ltlptL!',. C"fJmn1:e.c\,:lllld l,iJi!ljldifl-"fHI't~l~ _ii:€ld,~ 11 'iJ;j,~i"m:i -) Si mple. 11 ekl~ "contajn dht ~ilGt'Q]l' ~m;1 'o{l" J\~gl OUl;' Ih,;1{ ~re- f1'~mi~~1 wtlier tll;lIl cmlC"eIH rill:: to cue ;mtlth~ I.', m'aklL1~ ~he- po~~trtm of tile ~~lnLuJ us Wlrili!l the rcr,.l~j)t:m field hnll['j'[ilIHL Movl:L1i $[ lm uU me, Jl:1or~ <1:ifecli\'c IhliUI S:WJ:illl L'htJ' <)W3S," C.OI,I'IP1e:i: t'ldd~ "ru£jloIiLl b~l;ll'D

l! ptl:lpl!!crly Or1j::lit",o.d lllarll~ll~ ~Iil, all! ,~d\~~.

[II" r1at]t. bar. Um\'G\i)UT, ~t:1nmIIJS J1)Psit~{iif1 \Vilhu~l thE nlt:~p'mf ~teld 'i~ no~ ~ rltieal

r [!>Dl!1t:Limi rlH di!itunClt 'tm/oiP re g,tou g) , Celh with l • .'l)mpie:r fl'eJds ~~11I'e hil].OO u '~:r 111~lIt from '51 mple ~J~," 1-1~1'.~(i mpl.el:i fields "respond besr ro ~WlInln.~ witl, JI pa tllCli.lJI:r o.r:le~llI!Llo.n ~mt L1i:re!.:I~to:n, cl.nd ~bll LUT.I[:1.th

jJ(f U~I<: ~t1mulll!i jJJ.Iu~rn W iLh.iI.U:ll.t: field ~~ critical. t T.1!JIl· ~lim:ulu s I[I.U~~ (J~ m'~r Hlli'2l8 p.ho,wrt!<1Jc.pwr cdls in oltI€r ~D r);!gis~~'.' H.ypo rr"Oml'lkx L~lbrGL'Bh't! blllolm:i:;:u: 1 flpUt Erornl.mlU]y~nmpt~ I:!o!'!~l~."

Diagram 15

The effect a surface structure has on colore

Scefferlflg: A. pha-n:afi'lleJilIDI ·tJl1.-!'lt fl~~ur.'i wh!UI OgJU .!If.rlkes an obi~(:l wld~' " ro;.ugh' Wdil"ifll Ga!.l~m,~ Ngh~ t~r:tfffe~r fn m.rIjjY dl'Teciim~s· L.il!ht ;lh$(I]"tlE~t! I)yo {U! Obj'I'f()( 1$ eonverted

rn h~n~, ,',~ rough ~!I rt,l(.le~ 1;l,111~t:: mere ~!:!<1uerlll!l, tll.erlo: j,~, I~ t4h"OrRlHtI'i1 or .I(\l.lu, nn<l fjl e obJe~r does J10( t£::t se. htl~, Wh(ln C1~sign!n~ 1m C~l\'.II1)mlkTLt for humnn i:nlr{:rm::ti~.Il. unJlJl'~bnmli:ri~ ~ho.! ~an ditlom,'

ln WMtdt t.1t", a!jj~'lJt w:m bE:f1JIli:::ed [s (!tUlclll. ri tI:U!. ob.i\l'ctiWi~ tn ~l'~'lI~e ~ O'omfon<1I:!J.;: i;lrl\'lnmrnent in which, for ci-x:.1.1ltple. -:i1em,[il"!l lnke:< pll~1:!"e 11l~1iI ;i"rInosphe're wll..:.rtl I" ~\ remperatures .-x:cm'. c~!e~I·illcil. 11 EO~I~l fl"xtu •. U that \wln Ml1~ dWU$e ~C.i!cth:!"'i:n~ WiU l\~lp !ie~) the teraperutuee vJ' 't1Hl ili u ·uts OOW1;I.

Ar!Qi:h~:r solution Lo;;.w ~~~G"Dr .• ~ ~}lllf obm has !L .'50 r~~roJ20nt ~'rIlu~ IlIrimlllF "IilJSJel' (:~~ee (lolu, iXdw,' l- &fo~ pb~in~ rill j 11 bJet:l III

~Fl t!ndm!'1111Bnt rn \'l'Jll!::!h h[~1 t"'IIJ.I,~rHturo;. ('i;'DlJf, dH~ n!iJeor'\'~ hld~x of file QbM~'C'[ -shO\lldi ue me;~su)leil. 11.1 order ttl lll"l!CIl:ltStl1.rld the ~mDmu of absc.u'I,)llolt Lhm wUl LJLkct pl:~~. All IJwll~do:, vendor ~hDU IJ he eomaered if [he m~~nui;~clUT(:1' d4fl~ "Jmt pl'lwld~ [hu~ J ~1:r0r1"(tmLml,

---_----_----

T!'~ ThE min 0 1Q9'1' of Colo.

$~~OI!l .. ~trv~OfD:rs~ 4 hUB fm-dr~d h~ iNJ.riihfJ' <3gIj\!tJ a.mounts ,af~"Q ~~ to

one !tnliJ'.Ni"",-

Tlu; mii!tl1i:ldI nl' 'L:;r!1!-l1til:!~ ~f iC(J(ll1(iliry C;[)t[)~ a~·p~i"ld;:;. lJ'P'Ilfl t]j!3" m{!(hod (If (Joln'r ml.'ifllt heill,R m;e~L

S!ubi.s.i:I,a.t-l!! mhrhl>!l

11] th.e-$ubt tYjt:ri~ 001t11" wheel, em:ll ~~()Ofl Ja-r;r color ls Joo~ [wi berween Its parent pthnari.es_ ,,\}~ ~mIJl~le,. the ~edOi1dflry. (:I}JtIi~ t:J;etItci:l b~' ltllxi i1'~ (jfm~. t'lll'l.i l~llJ~Il~.l! ls pllll"pl!!l, :-I[lLl I1rl,Ui j'lflrl_. nJ:Jj-j.ln c.~ ;rm fu.unclto tile hdl; :ill ~ I'i!lhr Di ru:rp-la ill t~l~ (m"(m- I$fr~~

WIl~:11 rnlJi.-edtogeliwf III Oi!qUEl~ prtns L:.ile tlubua.;:;r.l.ve PI'~ I:IlHri~;s 11 :p"')il!Inl~g.~ t"l(rLj lua~nrAlly..elJmv, aud yeHow/cY!lnl (;tClitf:

I rue s:ecotll.lfJtj L'OlI1EiL ThiJ. Stlcilndm:y uulor Cr~'.t1~~ llymix.lclg_ma.!;l.enW und ytiJimy i~. red, ~H!~' rhat ~t.L~md by i'lYii n n r~d Y!lIUnl,V

E£ i!;l11?im_ Th{!~E! ·p'rl[iul~ifffi, .. \\,.h idl !ll"ci II!MNI r<.l;d:r3d~tioill~i.l fI ~ur-~mltJl' r'r~c~~:,! primfr1g. m~te"jl lartt.! enhrr .~1l8i;itn.rm that ,]11QV.'~

thr ~r*'j1!' dh'"ef"ij.if:iQ~Lti(lH. A ~}x·col{lr process, rrr.nter ls- ,11.'10' m<:d Iilhl.e .. 1'lLls ;ldf1HWO more ~nlnr prlm ~'I'ii.oHo rh ... tt'flrltt lon;)J r!)llr.~\I}l{l~ process: i1L.1c.n:~~c~ nt Oi'J!IJtEl.. £1 ~I(I Jj 111(0 Iln::>en,

White visuable light 35D-750nm

-,

Observer

480nm (green light)

Smooth surface

All other light not reflected off the su rtece is absorbed as. heat

White visuabte liaht 350-750nm

Observer (color chroma

~ ".-' is lessened!

_~/' __ /-- _ ~OO'm {preen llqhtl

Rough surtace -[- - Diffuse scatterinq

Heal absorption ls tess

Di.llgrollm 76 (a and b) The area over which large amounts or light Will be absorbed. It is also noteworthy Ihat both the typeand color com binatfons are equally legible at a distance.

(<:I) The beckqr oune color (vtotetl is absorblnq large emcunts of right 192.2-9%), and will create considerable. heat if exposed to sunlipht.

ILL_ .

tb) The background color tvenow) is abso-bl ng a small (3 mount of light 126.ilD%L and will not qenerate .iii ny

sizable heal.

b

60

Color Management

'rio

j

rililllre~

Art Oit:e~m;~ N~tlD~-l~d JoJirrT.,~B'J.\I Oesjgncr~ OrDW

Additive rn ixi h 9'

The tlll'>;le tir~~li~Q!!U~1 ;lddictive. pril1lariI811·,~r1'l r¥d, treel1~iil1d IMue. ;WH'!gn "~lInbil[Je(], the!t~ thn:e ~re~te wh:i~e'c ~n t7dt#{i~1m~j;)~' tlf~J;)" the tlJ~;~Jl!~i!;! Ql1.rply I!gJH O)Je~t~ b~qeb;. In other wOrOs, ELny black II»n tlil,e !1i~n)Jp~lter s~re(,!1l ts creu.fed hy bloekhIg ';)lll light.

'[h~ ~~~d~' JQlo:r l!~~~ b;:.' iiI:tlxtng r(1I Ollila 1!;w'!1;r~ is yenf)w.",~~m [!nid l~lue make .eyan, and blu8 and red lllill'e.IJIUlauhts,

-Hle!S,~ 3~flfl.(i~·f)' ~QiQJs~ priJ]l<l.I'Y' "olor!: in ~Ilhtqlr!ti"~)i! coloili< tite')lT. which adds b)~!,,:,k rr~ n f!;lmth primary.

3-D mixing

The p.i:l~lla.!;lI' coIDl'1111 J'·D ooW:;' ~iJ[,dlY 'ate bJ,t~~.,~~m~w+,~el'l-, 1't.''I:I+,. w1xi~~.,., aml bbek+. Th<.; receptor ~ni pf the 0Y,"" _ilre graiJp(!tl. in pairs of three types: hlu0lrellow,

Figure 32 On a 12·slep color wheel red is a primary color and green is a secondary color. However, 011 a tour-color process wheel both red and green are secondary colors.

n

]l

~re~>d, and blaek/white. Each ()f theser!!'~pt:or ~.;ill81:IIL~. a ne_gatl",e or jlosWve ''Ool!)r ~n~r, ~!w~, gr~'h, and:blllt'l( bel_' ne_g,1U¥e, and yeUow, red, and \1{Wl~!l'C'~~tI~e, IDMh oi (helle p.tiInElries aa)I)~CS' pure to the nm'eptor rielh~\ !f!.enni~g that. the~ a@11{;Ottl no .,(}th~ r ~olt;1r,Ri.t¢.~pto~ pell~ ,camf~t ~!'1nl tih:lt~ a response for hath of the colors in i~s pair at tltil .. same time, except for 'black and \\'hi.t~', gray i:~ created by ~ (!om~inn'li'On 81 poIIftiv8 ~'ld n~~'ltive. Mim\!ll\.clbll by bo~h whi[~ IJ!n4 ~').il~!; M· th~ same ttrne, HiJ,..,.~rr th~,,- ~~oiHbr,,,, cblJ:)fS :'Creflt-cd b]': bllie ~1Jl(1 ¥ell~'W 'In(~en nnd red Hrc tr.u~tI1itted as pure pri 1l1lll:i~s. 'fh" P'~OOOSiHf eolor r I:ij:itig hegil!S in dr~ :l')Nma'i::l\_ visual, li'i'!I:l![~~ Ji'linhe'r tn ferpre(atioll is'lehen pf{)l;:,et!fuJ in the biffi'll1. (If :rnfi:tlcl1il {l~~.

Nontraditional colo yvheels

In hoth tl(Lcii'th'~ and Nubrrm.!tiv;;!\[!(l11a)' th~)ryr re@1jJ:(U~:;rQ.' die 1ine:i1juril mil;! cI"II?Un~, numl;wOlyw,t(l.()Q.lld~ry ~1q.,T;l

X!~illI l:le r::r~;3led tw' ;tt~r!r1i!l the, 1)1Wi1~ 1!QI(lJ ~~nMl. For exil~np!:e. Jr die ';;;p!rur ],.~He of (In J nd FvLJliul proje.ct ls,t!O'I'l:llll;rted #JJto a color wbe~l, dl~ ~~J.cllilnr '1c1<3F._s,ereat<;d dl~ti"~ l'r!Dni tIm utjgh'ial j).IIiette. If, iit¥ ,Et!i:miIJp[e:, lh~ pfdette i,~"m2tilu' up Q1I}ru~t!', rld, KI!ll1lj p1!!l:q;IIi::, th~ '~LOC~ITtl!lrt oolon; creat,,'lI from thj~'iC!olm" !Fal,etM! df'l:e~ frSHH both the tmditi'(mal adi1iti\'€ and subtmQ,ti\'E!

n

Diagram 77

Color combinations usinq secondary hues with tints are utlliaec to demonstrate wh lch typo and ector combination

IS mast leqlbte.

~2 type C66 M42 Y55 K94 B Backqrou nd color CO M27 Yl00 KD 50%
Ibgd CO M17 Y16 KO
~~~e co M17 Y16 KO
~gd Cl M92 Y1DO KO
.llty:eC1 M92 Y1DO KO
t.i!jd C66 M42 Y55 K94 eolcr .vhed.1hl! ~;()jmeciln b:~iLi.d··~t. .!ei'1itri)' ~'.'i nnd ~]'I)~ l;ItO~ n';ldH.lt"m~l CU1!)1'-"i/;'\1Ic!!!"{7ii!!'1I·

Simple fields of vlision: Photoreceptive fields tha.t are parallel to one another and work,be~t with moving stimuli

The SlllllpJe p'h:otoreoei~[W~fi~[ds"con:tain dfJlI' "ou" fWcl "off" regflOO!s, andare rej;IlOll:sJ~le fOFP!l0Juyi~lg 29 percent of

!!Inl color Cohtcawt pemeiWec hy·lmrrmllJ5, I!Ttl!lwbli'flr, :ilinvp~c tfdd~ do !lot iW<Jo)'l;_ a~ an ~ll,iI'~'PellJd(i!l:I.!:.~1tity_ Simple c~b i'l".roduc.;oe rillli(K~O!I~. itt.l'lut ]01' ~(lm.J~ll;!,X'ph·ptol'eoep~i~ fielti~-~m~p'hoWtlK.o{(j9l'ttlif~l1:i~ are '~I?(ln~ Ihle fm the""pel'll:ep-ih)woUin6illc; 2~ ];!'t'r~llt ~r the (wJvr o::mlh\coIl~[ ~r¢i~'ed IJy hllu;l!tns kino;~itl!\"" ~!i'ls, edgM" ~]]~ 4!11:k I:ii1rrs;), ~l!l;d rL'i'e~ Jl'rltit'lue& bjtl:~'foubr in:put

Wlr }.tl!r~ItJ:OOl1*liMl ):iJ.wW'I'B:t'.t!:~~:/W14B. AJrli!lm,th t:h!1lltltruB p~:iDt,;::)teo.etltu ..... ~ 'fieW§S]:i1iifll~+ oo~ple',,; and hypE!;~:t.\Ompl&x~

do Tr Dnntorprot cell or, th~~ ~lfe intrr()~;QeJy inte,rtwin~'a: ~md ilIh'tt~w()r sim[!e.

fttl.li~ oi)j~~~:!:!.ndeJ: ~ninatl(jh citillse..~

<lV8If t.L'te ~lLnple',i;!Ulllplex ,. and hy,j}~tuQ.m];[~:x fMLd,l;~ tin l1hJ~t <:!~:Itl ~~·tl~(L..~tt.ti~, the (J,1,:!'Je-ct wUI h,we 1]0 dISt1lI1c,f1~mL'Atll minimum, an Qbjet:e["nm8l (i«K!lS ·ov«r three cell" i.ri a db;th~lJt ~oli" find "uti" order.

While

\ ... High chroma

'0- _" (ll.g,.m 78 Prim at v aod secondary colors ar e created

to develop an inclviduallzed color wheel This type of color

• I! wheel IS easy to create and vialds unique color schemes

Nontraditional color wheel

Primary color COM 31

Ii Prlmarv color C 100 M 0

iii Prima ry color c 7 M 91 .. Secondary color COM 60 it Secondary color C 77 M 0 ill _~ondary color C 77 M 91

Y 9' KO
Y 15 K6
Y 100 K 1
V 9. KO
V 9. KO
YO K5 Simple subtractive linixing: Theprocess of remo "ing lightw;a"l!e~ througr th.e absorption. process

. Smlple :l'tibtcletivotlrn:i:dil$. takes hno nl!:1€)01.1n:t t:h~ p.h.enOrJ1]!;)!lID<n ·Pi .~1l\ll9rpd{tt,

t!i~ fI loss of visible light. Thi\ M.jtmllilenO:II m::mlll"S whenever we oh$el"l'e an objeet M 0[/101", wh~~bE!r ix is lr~d~ ~I~hting or .~, ligh.t ,tQIlI"D8 ~h~treflects -q,ff'lil.e C!bJlOCt. Tjl~ Hgh~"&~ dml ~lrq. mtns<1lli Wed l~ELt!l! :OT duolrgh life ohJ~c["'ilre tho?" thin .. arc not absorljoed. The l~ro~ss ol.f ril;lool;jJt.i(jll i~· directlv ~<e'lJIIl:ed to tilt' sf-~~ at (he pi$Umlt particles in fll!&,,~QJ()r.a:nt ~~I' QlFJjepc(_ These particles h'l:l.lfl til impru~t CtlI:tJi. ED the human oI!<~'f!_ Th~ ,s;un il!!m;,"tswhjt_~ light ~m{f a

c~.I:Ored objt!1~t, ~~nrs ~ny red, the objeet abwrl)s IDQ-St af the JJ.gbt and L'O~' the most part ret1e~t!; the ":il'ilw::.h'tngths'in the range: of Rd. Thi~:L~ [rue ii!r allY \:lslh~~ 001or.

·In print-based gra'Pbje~ the majority '01 Enks ~.reI O:dl"I1ltlt:"'e.rtI'l, Il:!cludin1:¥. r(]:U~-[Njlor~n iI. oliTh-OOl<~~ Iift)(:l!;~ it!1~. Thi.!> I'nratl?~Y i~ i.Hl~titll1ahUJd tllik0S illto;l1~:Q~n!1t the phcnorneuon d light abl;Qt'pt'i.o:n-it is uon!!'f.jerc:d simple !'I!l1.!~ml!;!f:I~ mixing.

'T

Fi9J,JliI'.:3 St!JLDg.::;.(aIlI:lj!il"iI~111'!I'nI c:~ .. ~i .... ~ ~it.,tI...,· :Jl:iri EijJ,,~tI;

Figure 33 (8-<:) In the above motion-qraphics piece. the moving elements are hig hlv effective. This '5 due to theaoctcrov found withill human perception. In natelv, the eye is attracted 10 moving objects with a distinct shepe and .a directional orientation.

Diagr-am 79 On OJ 12·st6P wheel. oranse and violet

ar a ;;Qcondary cotoes , 81u9- green, arid yellow-orange are laniary colors. De-signer'S Ned Drew a nd John T. Drew

~typeCS-8 M5B Y51 K85
bgd CO MO YO KO
~Ilpe C4 M75 vss KO
l>,gd C5S M5B V51 K8S
type CO MO vo KO
bgd C4 M75 Va9 KO 62

Figure 3~

Art Dkector/.DC$igncr .John Melincskl

Figure 34 All outstandinq tltustration of how to use simultaneous contrast effectively. The pester communicates both the blinking of Christmas lights, and funningljumplng reindeer.

Diagram 80

Pronounced simultaneous contrast occurs most visibly m the dorsal and tail fll')

of the fish, caustnq a backand-forth motion as if the

fish were swlmmlnq. Designer /iIIl,Istr-lltQr John T. Drew

Corusoauon:

a. A sudden burst of light

b. A flash ctliqht

u

Simultaneous contrast: A strobing effect resulting from the use of unequal portions of colors

Simultaneous contrast is most pronounced with. an imbalance of large and small

areas of color. A pronounced ·simultaneous contrast of color 'Opposites causes <11)1 unpleasant strobing effect.

TO" some degree, simultaneous contrast occurs with all colors, bat it is most pronounced when pure complementary colors are juxtaposed. Thi.s phenomenon is caused by retjnal cone faiigue. The photoreceptor cells I'oune! within. the cones near the_t(lVea of the eye become overworked becauseeach cell can process only OHIO color at 81 time, Tho resultant swHcilling back and forth overstimulntes the photoreceptor cell, for example, the

cell responsible 10,1: green- and red-, thereby creating the visual phenomenon of ximultaueous contrast.

This b a natural phenomenon, I:cganl!ess of the medium used: However, we CHin use it to our advantage. As stated above, pronounced simultaneous contrast is prcdtcrablo when using pllre complcmenrarv colors. As the conn piemcntary colors become less pure,

the effect lessons, which means we om, control the degree of the strobe, Learnlng

to LHihze this effect can lead to il1[]o\'wtiv€

c .,~ AI .~. T

o

•••

N

• • ',.... !II'h~ e- -_-:.

.. ~~.

~ - --

.~eco MO VO KO type C43 MO V79 KG
. .- d C100 M65 VO K30 bgd co M79 V91 KG
~ tvpe ClOD M65 yo K30
bgd CO MO yo KO
type CO M79 Y9l KO
~~ C43 MO Y79 KO ,~ Backqrou nd color

C30 MO Y100 KO 2Q%

colorwork. For example, we can create

a poster that utilizes this hack and forth motion, or design a roo.n utilizing simultaneous contrast to create an illusion of a surreal environment in which people waHdng through feel unsteady or off balance. TIle possibilities are trernendous.

in pnnt-based.jnreractrve, and motion graV).h!CS, s.i.'m~tltaneous contrast must be considered every time letterforrns nrc u~eJ within a color field. It is all hut impossihle to read any informarion when pronounced simultaneous contrast occurs. If you are, creating ,t Web stre, you need to check the work on Mao, \Vindows, and UNIX 1)latf(mns to make sure that no unpleasant color shif,timg has taken place. Some software programs have built-in features that simulate what the Web site will look like

in ~{Ieh one of the plarforms mentioned.

In print-based graphics it is much harder

to predict the outcome of SiIllHI!taneot1s contrast. Due to the design process and the production phases associated wirh j)rintbased graphics, it is far more complicarcd to '~'i"lwlizc the final outcome without viewing the finished work. However, tho first stage

in gUlarding againse unwanted sunultnneous contrast is to print 011't a color proof full~ size. '[he qH{llity~ of the printer will have an affect all the result. If the area in question

- --

I' ~

b V fb ~

is made 11jJ of four-color process builds, it is more predictable than simulated spot colors. If the area in question is made tIP of spot colors, the color printout should be c1,ech"d against, for example, the'Pf\NTONE® formula guide for' color accuracy. If the colors are accurate, the outcome of slmultancons contrast can' be predicted easily. (Au Iris, Cromaljn, Matclrprint, Fuji {qnal Proof, Agra Prine, \Vaterproof, or Kodak Approval color proofing .systern should be used for spoe color work. An I ri~ Iproof matches most spot color for the lowest price.) If the colors do not visually represent the specified ,spot hues, you can create a color matrix to color sink .the spot hues.

(See Chapter 4 lor color sil1l\lil1g.)

Today, npplicaticn programs for graphic design have a colo"!" component bui]t in. This feature allows designers to retrieve the.color builds of any hue used within

the document. As we know, pronounced sunulraneous contrast occurs when pure complernenrary colors are juxtaposed. By reading builds of the hues in questrou, we call predict the amount of sirnultaueous contrast that will occur and then make the appropriate adjustmencs.

Several stratcgies cau be employed to adjust the amonnt of simu ltaneous contrast occurring wrthin a piece:

of magenta

The Terrnino loqv of Color

63

1. Add.a P0,rtion of one color to the other bv setting up <I color matrix with 10- percent incrcinern.s. T'his matrix allows you to determine tho point fUt which sunultancous contrast does not .~Iffect the readability or leg~bility of the type and .oolor combinatton in question. (Sec Chapter 5 for creating color marrices.)

2. Tint the type. and color combinatton

in question with n third color; this also requires the huiJdi.ng of a type and color marrix.

3. Shade the type and color combination with black to lessen the amount of simultrmcousconrrast, again building a type and color matrix.

4, Combine all of the above.

5. Switch t11" type [Inti color combination

to <1 harriwni()H,9 cohn' p(dctte~OIl(o ,l'lat has an equal portion of one color running through both the.cypc and color fields (for example, yellow' type on a green baokground), This is harmonious because the amount of vellow is -stable in botb the foregronnd and dw backgrollt)cL

CVR 19.04%

~ CVD 11.,99% CVR 30.13%

Diagram 81 Various techniques. as merulcned under Simultaneous contrast, above Th~ .. Q techntquea can be utilized to decrease or increase simultaneous contrast

64

GIli'~~ Maroagement

,-------------------~~~~-'.------------,

f·IJj"".35

IIIUstrJ.'laf.l~gl1Jt!" UljJr !=r-tI~

In nn.tft·bl~ed· ]l;ri>f1!l~irCS", ~@lf:lflil.l'I!J~~]; 2,~nt,l 5 will sull ~reUl<!J L1 t\~I()"Qo2I]or ~Clmbirmt~oll, Ilnd ne Il~li:l irilll]'ul j nk i~ Il~'e:i~;:)ry to t;UllI~!0~tt rh~ job; h~ Di IUIF wQl'd~1 i~ tlw l)jj~)u!l' j"!; !(lIh it;¥, th[c~ j,~ !it ill [XIn~i~irB;r~d'~, UWl~)ohJt :Il.ncli n ~~ :1 thme-.[l~jJQr j'o!tJ" Whell'l ti'l1tl ng or !;h8dill1 ~ 1l11('! Dr t')Ath nf rhe <il)ln~, Sf;!~O~

JI (!oJ~~". ~w.Lwh ~h:LC h;~~ m;WitJ>Bnl~i whl t:e" h]aek" ~f.- ~,nm,he--rr (!()10J"_ 'ff<2l1.! (!~I'lli a t'19 ~,~~te

:"! i!oJ¢'r pel"l;!em~g.rI! of nne·lOt th~ nvu h!le~ fO!lml 'l'(llh ~n the rombll1<ldQ)1 r Had t h~~. I'!Kluid !d~ be oons.lde.red ~L. t\'(Q·oo!Q~ job,

Spectral power distribution e'urve: The spe,",wm of eotor ~treD bytlie human eye; wh~o"CJimb:i'nJ!l;d this makes wJ<l1oe, fight

l\, 'Hg'lH SOu:ro:ru flml bk"l!: ttrG' fonn ~r title ~,il:111 nIl- a ~i~lltbn.!lb 11111 cI ~LiI n~ i(lltr;,'rfl1jl'ted hy I,t,~ uaimE::.." [)f r~\\,'~r ~ time_ The ~llfl'lil!'Jellllg.:h gi'ffin,~, the ~r('!o;j)tn 1 po\c'ler cl!l:.ort rilmtif)ll ou rile loS j1llotil;ed ~~.1 ru I!IOMn IJf ~I' tor ,'j !lllteJl U~ht ~omee-. l~::'~m[lLfu; .. f i.1i11u ~Otlro8S giving dllfe-re-m ~pe~lm~ pL1l1>'er dIMr~btl,t U0! I C~I rves nre ~J~Hr dHl'~!,glu. ~nc<l!nrl~;;oo.:rU lirgJui!'Lt.

nnJ !.We~!IlS ~ duf.litJu_

Three Li([l1l suurces ~nt ooEm.mnly ~d \vurh ~Il aU j,mlulil.rilBr!! UI1I'\,\ll}TlinJl_ dtM;iJiin£l'~' [loSt) ~j·r .HJ6:5 ~ S.rJod K I1r t:i .seo K), the us, and R:ufOl"ell,' ~l~ll'l"tlm-ct~ jb1t· :Jv-elr~I~E!

d~y1tg,h r: A (2,[l$-t 1\). ill~ml(leJle-em l1\1lhdll!,!l; :lnd C\VF H,8~){~ [O,I'Il1!),~e.'W(:!Ia~ lI~ht~Ji(g>. 'I'her-e ,ire f)JheJ' $tOrld.'t1-d lIgll[,SOllrees

Figure 35 In this exa mpte, wh lte light is reflected down on to the III ustration end aU ~ighl:\Naves J(t3 absorbed except for the hues seen by the viewer.

Nonoxidized etuminum CVR 47.17% NOfloxidized copper eVA 10.2B% Nonol<idized brass

CVR 10.92% Nonoxidiled steet

eVR 11.16%

Plastics (Ac-rylite gP sheets} 216r4gp red (wntte bgd) 506·ogp green
O15-2gp white CVR 26.45% eVR 3.41%
CVR 77.90% _262·ogp ruet 507-oQp green
Q 15·2 white p·95 CVR 6.50% eVR 5.37%
CVR 77.03% 278-ogp red 605·ogp b//_j(;
D47-2gp ivory CVR 7.01% CVR 2.40%
eVR 62.95% 303-agp ar.ange 606·ogp btue
199·Q black p·95 CVR 21.72% eVR 2c12%
CVR 3.60% 324·ogp brown 607-igp blue
199~ogp black CVR 2.39% CVR 10.22'%.
eVA 0.57% 324-0 brown p·95 593·ogp blue
202-ogp red eVR 5.28% eVR 15.83%
CVR 12.00% 406·igp yellow
205·ogp fed eVR 42.59%
eVR 7.33% 407r2gp yellow
207-ogp red CVR 57.16%
eVA 7,71% 411·5gp yellDw (white bgd)
209·ogp red CVR 43.01%
eVR 4.68% 424-3gp yellow
z n-oao rea eVR 58.12%
CVR 5.13% Diagram 82 The tollowing CVR ratlnqs were measured under D65 Iaveraqe daylightJ.

Metals

Siiver·plaied aluminum eVR 6.01% Gold-p/ared aluminum CVR 4.51%

•'YP'CO Ilgd C98

• [ype CO bgd C79

'M60 Yl 00 'KO M54 yo IKO

M100 YtOO KO M41 Y22 K66

• ~pe C79 M4t Y22 'K6S b9d CO M100 YtOO KO

typo CS8 M5< yo KO bgd CO M60 Y10Q KO

~ Background color

co

M60 Y100 KO

60%

il'''~l,lahlt!, but th~i! thNe ill th~ m ~jQ.r1 W I)f Se~fmriiCJC~ {"nod II'idl! n d~t' ri;IEliJ~tpJ;l~ ¥iJU shnuM ~~~c;i:fy~he lLth ( S()u.~ ~11l ittjl:l~ fr(!!1L1 :L J~ofiljJ; 3i~1l 01' ~J~n'lge gy~t~rll B>l6,;50(l H '(Cor ~\:e,1terc th~5 wlhl Clill;LlIlt: tilnl ~1\Iilt~P~Tf\1 r~'W(l~' d'I~,r.rfl'\lI[i<jJ:l ~~l rlJll: is tlra ~~m!B :til err 4'1'emer dlHIl (11 u u)f SlPurur" D<!i5, ,\s t)Ol~l'Ce ])6,~ rep]'esen ts'm.V('i~I;I,~ fl~'lignt, ~ <S(l1tl'L'C'e rhm .I~ th~ AAntli! ~ll' Al'~I,t~r ~h.'n D65 II/Ill h~ ~'~~iblb rr>lmi 11 ~~tA3:r Jit.>lJIl'I.~ if we Hgt,lt &mrre~' Wo<!H! I!E!~~ th811 Pili,,; ~he .Slittl WatlJd flot b('! vic~ihJI!! I'nxrn 11~ far,

The !J~ me '!lp'pM~ to .tllt!On. ~l@]~. [f tJll.~ strun(l.l1rd 00 uree IS eftli't tj ~I~ li~ht .~):'~a~~'r

rh';~]:l Dr,iii, tile LoqliS ~.ltIllib~lhl~ \v1tnj tl ~h:i!~ hook iu~tt thl::- fip~lhr:.!L~iOn i)rq't~nl Amdty UI CitL:1 he- 1J~~i. If thlt I>UUI'~'tl L'S Ie.s~ tJl,m any

of rh.0 thr\!t: <sYimllh!md, S4:11Ii!";l;!~ IJwml;:.uecl lIb0~'(:-DSti 01' Df,~r A. Oil' CWI"-~'ou eIIlln{Jot jlT.L"th.cl du~ dl~t~'rnl1!e! ~kC w.htleh f.hlt 1)!I,c!1ll1 Ii' il,lwn si~!'l !'!'lIn be \'~ew'ed Ilie;,d~',

Stones

Rose quar1z CVR 25.13% Ortyx

CVR 68.45% TUiB20

eVR 43.34%

Red seoostone CVR 14.37%" Blond ssraetone CVR 30.65% Brown sandstone eVR 27.02% Whire sendstone eVR 53.17% While quartzire CVR 57.25%

Gray ousrtztte {30-40%1 CVR 2802%

Gr3Y overttite (10%, eVR 40.50% Sunrise sandstone

CVR 29.99%

CrUS/Jed black gnmife eVR 6.99%

Gr8nite (speckled bJackiwhilel CVR 16.97<'/"

Spilt complementary colors: Two or more .!Liles on or near the opposi/,e ,;ides of the co/en; ~ I~or e:-:8J<1IIM, the,/®I)jlili! crma,~.I'!i!m&-'f~' ~~I""S IJif~e>fi-oflllilge bu:e Mu~ and Il:f~lI1. wllle]l

ill'e ~i'! 'th..: Idt Il!tti Fi~ilit On"l~l~-~l ... ~n (the ~OJ:Ujlh~I~'LO.::t~I!1 r)' iJ~)J~'r Qf 1·.:.'tl;,oJ<lng.e-j 0:1l c118\ color Wb0)lJ. ~~pl:!l1din~ LlIh T.he,~Jur \vh}1l1 lk:><.::a, §pHt e'~rnph~~]IJ!.1llt'llr:l· Ime~ ean, t,~kC'

U [l: i-6i;m lD( ~lm(l\'l'r ~ny·OQofuI· ~\!1l~~j It!;inA

UW trIl[Jiit:Roilj~J IiIdd~H'tJe 01.' Slibf:rlllIii'R:CJ;! ~cjlm w:h~l, ~~li~~.I:nrleJlilet'l>[tl0' oolb.s lire pr~d'iel'1hLe ;]nJi Ii mib.:d 11] mJl]rnb~r. l!rJM'1eve~·, ~I ;mnIT.~ditjt.I'ml et;l!{]:~ wh~.1 'lliiillri!jW dlfiel;l5llJt reScttlr,<;;. If, llUlr im;talliCle, ':b ()~ior Il>:hcei is def,i~rc~l fT·~jiil nOll1t riid,itl~}nilll ureans (tfi.r 1':}l-itulr;lll:, th~ di~ll1t'li rrod.u~~), nl~:u(tJl(1H"~n~l ~fl!H or)'m'[.l.l.~l!IU!n:tm'Y ootl~n; l,r'l:I m~tllt, f~DJQr ill' tile 'I:\1l001: p~',wai't~1 L;(WI

IVIl Im'!ll!! ~~,iJil,.il1 ~ nf ~ r5fe'.rihl T'tlIJ~t:i;OIlW 0u<1rn-~:\ll2ikm!>e\'\' imp'!I~iII1~Ilt0tl tJ.t1'Ol;I.~1 nl(ljnmu!'1~1,(I(1,1;1 C{lJ<!f whe.ds elm ~~H~~ inll.O",~}j~ color 1;><11eH~., .,\ OOil}F \ .. iu~B11~ml i~,s. coJ,(Ir .\VcJ:w,mes cElj~ DU t1~ri~]~l1 fro:ll~ :Ilmj)~t ~n)'~I'I'h~, ilIl[;[m:ilHl~ indfil.~jilf:1l,

lOQnllo. 01' ~HII:ijJJ~c l'l!!'f.omJ1~~8 ..

Stones tcontempc ceramic tllel JuptJrsna colombo

eVA 17.50%

Almond miwve

CVR 38:55%

Luna perte

eVR 30.93%

Absolute black

CVR 1.25%

Empress green

eVA 3.4.'1%

88rgallo

eVR 28.23%

Tranilfioriro

CVR 57_15%

Nero msrouine

eVR 3.00%

Carrara

CVR 55.89% eomctco

CVR 67.16% Olympus while

eVR 58.03% Salone

CVR 18.96%

San Francisco verde eVR 111.94%

Breccia damascata

eVA 52.80% Ctsssico CVR 50.98%

65

PIQ.Ulle 3li

Hlusteetor iiabiJrf',M~nll.I:;"

Fake stcne-lernlnants (W:ifson art international> araphi!e flG"bula 46Z3·60 CVR 6.27%

Oako13 ridge 455"1-50 eVR ,9.100./"

Dove moreiee 4640c60 eVR 43.94%

Confetti 4205·60

CVR 74.86%

Clay 4658-60

eVR 28.88%

Figure- 36 The black area of this illustration is absorbing 100% of the Ught. To the eye black is the absence 01 light. This absence of light creates "3 negative wnpulse that is as forceful as a pure hue with a high chroma r(lting.

Saffron riglis 4873-6D CVR 45.11%

Gray moraine 4641..f50 eVA 33.57%

flrvne state 1 "163~60 eVR 23.42%

Gray qtsce 4142-60 CVR 42_41%

Neuttet glace 4143-60 CVR 56.40%

type CO M67 YB5 KO .ll~P'CO M100 Y87 KO
bgd C87 M63 Y74 K61 "gd C83 M44 V64 K36
type C37 M63 Y74 K61
bgd CO M67 Y85 KO
.~lpeC83 MM Y64 K36
bgd CO M100YS7 KO 66

Co+or M'anagement

F,iguro 37

:Art Bkector John T. {Drew Designerf.Ph_o,t~grapt}er Halehrfsavat

Figure 37 and Diagram 83 Right: In both figure 37 and diagram 83, well-defined focal points .8 re implemented (0 create superior compositional balance. In diagram 83

an asvmmetrlcel design

is achieved, and In 1igure

37 a symmetrical balance

is achieved,

Diagram 84 Center and far right: In beth posters repetition of form aod a reductive color palette creates a uniq LJ9 and wcnderfu I image. The rand 10~ standard observer Me utilized 10 help create superior composlttcnal balance. Oeslgner Hiroyu~1 Matsutshl

S~a[ldard observer: A set angle of observation which affects the response of normal

color vision

The standard.observer angl'e is like a flashlight beam shining on a wall at close range. The light tml'cb out of the flashlight at a 2' 01"10' an.gk (the t\VO recognized standard observer angles referred to as

y bar 2 and y bar lO)a,nd expOSGS that part of the retina wall to light nr color. For designers, lHluerSI,mding the size of the

area in which sharp, vivid objects can be seen aids in rheoreation and 'structuring of !l document. Forexample, rlre TlIG.';t readable column Width for text tvpe is 18~24 pleas in length. This measurement corresponds to the roo standard observer and! is capable

of producing sharp, vivid inwges. T.here are 6 picas in an inch (2.54cm), so 18-24 picas in lemgth is roughly J-4in (8.S-10om),

Any greater length/widt"h willlie outside the 10° standard observer, with Ilue result that reader, ",HI be reliant on their peripheral vision to pick up the next line of type within. IIH) column. Peripheral Vision is neither sharp nor vivid, hilt it does. give us a g!!neral sense of am: surroundings. Ex~,ending the eopy line length over 4in (lOcm) will make it harder for readers to pick up the Jrre~,;.t Iirre of text, and .cl'eating body copy line lengths that are less than 3in (S.5c:m) 010cs not provide suff,icien[ horizontal clues for OUf clear and sharp vlsion 10 utilize.

type co M13 V25 KO ~ Backqrouod color co M95 V100 KO 10%
bgd C29 M92 V93 KS
.typeCZ9 MS< V93 KS
bgd cas M49 V100 KS
37 type C8S M49 V100 KS
bgd CO M13 V25 KO ~.

For asymmetric and symructrtc designs, fixation points for greater viewing distances.

the 10· standard observer can be tltiH"ed For example, in the design of a poster, both

to create composirlonal balance that is more the 10° and [he 2° standard observers can

effective and pleasing to the eye. With 2-D lbe utilized in the creation of a hierarchical

asymmetric composition, ,luee points are structure suitable for viewing, at a distance.

utilized tocreate a kinetic compositional The 109 standard observer at 6ft (L83m)

balance. This balance usually takes the, form would be an area 12]n (JOcm) in diameter,

of a 2-D trladic relationship. In otJ18~' words, Both can be ir tertwined with the

the viewer's eye ,is pulled from one focal compositional balance and hterarchical

point to another within this type 01 structure of any given design, whether for

compositional balance. a computer screen, television. monitor, or printed sample.

\\11011. designing objects that are meant to be viewed at a reading distance of 18-24in (46-61cml, the 100 standard observer can be utilized to determine focal points within the compositional balance. These areas can be structured in 'such a w."y that the visual message created in each focal point is encapsulated or nearly-encaps-ulatedi within a 3-4il1 (8,5-100m) diameter; Thls will ensure that: the [osseo. is b<1.i.l1g utilized to

its fullest extent, gua.ra.n.tceil1g shurp, vivid objects for better comprehension.

\Vith 3-D color, the 2° ,~wn(brd observer can also be utilized. At a Liist;l.nce of Win (4:6om) from the object being viewed, the 20 standard observer is 4 picas Of 2/1in (1. 70m) in diameter. At 6ft (I.83m), the 2" standard observer is the size of ],6 picas or 22/)i.JJ~ {6.77em). The;2° standard observer seems to coincide better with the eye's natural

CVR 70.03%

eVR 15.26%

In 1976 the International Commission on lllumlnasions (CIE) modified the 1931 standard. observer to create today's standard (X bar 10, Y bar 10, and Z bar 10). This mathematioal system measures the response of the tri st imulus values (X, Y, and 2).

The trisrrmulusvalues correspond maehematlcelly '(0 the way color is seen

by subjects with normal color vision. The

y trietimulus calu« measures the relative lightness to the mind's eye, the amount of color 01' light detected by humans possessing norma] 00101' vision.

The Terrnirio lc qy of Color

67

Standard source: A .light source for which the tnararrrerisfics-wavelength intellsi,ty, etc,bevebeen specified

Within all fields of design, we should be concerned with standard light. sources,

By understanding the source of light we can predict the- color on an .object, as well as the distance at which 'letterfonns and simple symbols can be seen clearly. For example,

a color that is made up of 95 percent vellow and 30 percent magenta will appear a bright vellow-orange in average day tight. However, this same color will appear to have a greenish tinge in fluorescent lighting .. The inteusity or brightness of the color also will be drastically reduced because the llgh t source is considerably less (2,845 K).

In 3-D color theory, tlrere are three common standard light sources:

• acerage daylight: D30 (5,000]() is the u.s. standard, and D65 (6,500 K) is the European standard;

• incandescent -lighting: A (2,854 K); and

• fluoresceni lighting: CWF (4.800 K).

eVR 77.26%

CVR 21.11%

Diagram 85 Tile color shift The way in which we see the upper right square, under
in the three ~quap;;:~ Is tim (.ulOJI unuer -.mr~renl lil:lhting tncanuescem IIghllng and at
eoujvelent of vlewtnq one hue condluons lnffuences tbe 20/20 vision, is tl3/~ft (1.6m);
eVR 15.11% under three different light distance at which we can see the V~SUJ~ distance of the lower
sources: the upper left square objects. In this case, the visual left square. under fluorescent
eVA 15.61% is avereqe daylight. the upper orstance of the upper len lighting arid at 20/20 vision. is
right square incandescent square. under ave-rage claY~lght 51/li4ft (1.5m}, TI1e- variance in
tightl0g, and the IOW.:lf left. and at 20120 vision, is 5V2ft. distance grows exponentially
square fluorescent lighting. ~1.7m): the Visual dlstence or as the object increases ln size. 68

Mosr color samples are measured using one of these three standards. These em] be used to determine co.lor v((l!~e ratings for both foreground and background. They can also be used to help determine the distance at which type and color cornblnations can be seen. The software application Acuity 1.0 presents such 11 system for determining the distance at whioh letterforrns can be seen clearly for any standard eyesight, including 20/20, minimum OIvlV standard, visually impaired, and legally blind. Visually impaired can mean "Q0/60 and higher

vision, or 20/200. Opthalmologists generally consider 20/60 and higher to be the minimum standard for those who are visually impaired. Some legislation considers 20/200 to be visually impaired, but the mainstream medical community dealing with Indtviduals with limited eyesight considers 20/200 to be legally blind.

A color sample will appear drastically different when viewed in one light source

or another. This is why printers, sign manufacturers, legislation, and any business that caters to the design industry uses D50 or D65 as the standard source in verifying colors. For example, all press people check their printed samples under a lit booth

that emits the standard source D50 or D65.

Agure JB In this packape design, simple and complex sutnractlve color mixing takes pia co. A superior usa of form and color this package design is highly kinetic.

Diagram -86 An excellent

lise of color and form. This package design series Illustrates a superior command of the medium. Both simpte and comotex subtractive color mixing take ptace. When viewlnq the packaging design on the shelf complex subtractive mixi ng occurs. When viewing the designs in this bock, simple subtractive mixing lakes place.

Color Management

~igure 38

Art Dir-ector/Oesigner Mihoko Hacniurna

'~p. C? M18 V30 KO ~ 8ac~groLJnd color C\OO M90 YO KO 10%
bgd <:04 MSl V55 K38
36 tvpe eG4 M6l V55 K38
bgd ct M18 V30 KO
38 type C64 MSl V55 K3S
bgd C5 M4 V4 KS This booth is speciflcallv balanced for average daylight so tbat clarification or color can take place, both at the prlntlng facility and at the client's ·l;esidence. By simply placing the printed sample and-spot color specified under daylight, a c!csignE:F OF printer can ca.sily check for accurate color appearance. D~epending upon the type of color specified, the same colormay look very differeu t under average daylight and t:]umescent lighting.

Subtractive co lor m ixi ng: The process of removing lightwaves or matter in physical space to create additional colors

Architecture, graphic and interior design, and any other industry that produces a. .plwsical object that does not have its own l.ight source uses subtractive color mixing, This can be broken "(lo\v11 into two categories: slmple.subtraerive, and complex subtractive mixing. Sunple subtractive mixing· is the process of removing lightwavcs through alisorption. Complex subtractive mb;ing is the process at' removing lighrwaves through absorption and scattering. Both

of these precesses hold clues .as to how humans See colors in '3-D space. Color is

a by-product of I1ghtwaves emitted from a source, for example, the .sun. When these H.ghtw:rves srrike-an object, dependiflg upon the molecular structure of that object, some llglltwal'c$ arc a bsorbcd by the object as

Olagram 87 The ooecnv raUng for each individual hue.

heat and the rest are reflected off its surfaee as a particular color. When the lIghtwaves are detected by hurnans, the process of 3~D color space is coruplered. If, in the process described above, scattering takes place, the same color will appear ro have less chroma. Scattering is.a by-product at texture, The greater and rougher the surface area, the more SC"atter'ing will take place.

Subtnactive calm' is inherently less brilliant and psodnccs a sIn8'llev color spectrum than additive calm. The color spectrum or gamma of these two types of color rendering is fundamentally dissimilar and therefore creates a different color-array, For example, in sUhtmctive and 3-D color theory, there. must be, a SOUTce of light, an object, and

all observe r. These three factors are what describe 3-D color space, These factors arc also fundamental in subtroatss»: color theory,

In additisse colov rni:C"i1.1g, thcre is only a source and an observer. Additive color mixing is more direct as the hghtwaves do not bounce off an object before entering the observer's eye. The source emits IlglH in a straight path to the eye, thereby reducing any loss of light and making color more vivid. \Vith this said, many computer color printers use additive ink primaries (SOlO primary C()101;,~) to produce subtractive color mixing. Used In this way, the additive

The Termi nology of Color

69

plcinwries wiJll produce a smaller oelor spectrum than the su15iract'ive 'I'lrima.ries

it' the- inks m;e- pigment based. For color printers, the primaries used to produce color printouts should be subtractive and/or four- or six-color process.

Additive color primaries should be used when. creating. wadi. for a television morritor or computer screen. Additive primaries are also used With color printers that employ dye-based primaries, such as an Iris, however, such dyes are unstable in light and are therefore not suitable for jobs

that require longevity. Additive, dyebased.pnmanies, when used ina subrractive mixing process, create a greatcr color spectrum than their pigment-based subtractive oounterparts.

,~ 'l.o" ... 't> ~o~ <r ~0'" .1> ~oJ. ,~ <r <r ~\~ fj\~ ~\'l
.<_" :zy.<:l -i' .' o_" ,,:o-<£; x'<:J,{!t " '!; /f;
,. <.c(:'-'iJ<[, _"O ,. i:i 2J-d' _"o 0" ~,
,0 c- ~o ,. , .... r;.,C- ~o~ ,'" <-" o~ ",0
00 ~o cO <;; ~ .... .s~'\. ,c; .-,,'
~o 0° o( 0,0 c"- (.
,. q_"' < c ,. "4.~ ,0 ~ ,.
~., 0° ,0 Jf ~t:! ~o ,,' 0° s- ~o
,. ~., ,. ~o.._· 0° ::../:;.",,, ,. ~.;;.""~ ~o 00
~" ,s..Qv ",0 0° f ~(:r 0" ri:'\~
,. .:,~~ .i> ,0
(. 0" ~.,
",0 4' ~o i:J,0 -<.,-..."",-",; 0°
.:,<' 0" ~.o «.,$'-":'
6'<:-- ,01 -<.,<,
01 .::§,Qv
,,'
.:"p Diagram 88

This chart shows how to equate [he opacity of s n individual Iourcolor process hue.

10

300% (0) of ink coverage

(100% cyan, 100% maqenta, and 1 DO% yellow) or 100% black Transparent", 0% ~101 of Ink coverage

Opaque '"

70

Color Managemen,t

Figure 39

lIIuS1rOtOr .John 1: Drew

Ofagram 89 The parent cctcrs used within the design and their classiflcation. Designer Ned Drew

The company Pantone, Inc., the world leader in ink-matching systems for print and textile products, has developed a sixcolor process system that challenges traditionally held beliefs about the gamma arrangement of subtractive versus additive color theory. With the PANTONE Hexachrome® Color System, the color array of subtractive color mixing has been expanded to rival the chroma and color spectrum of additive color theory. These types of color systems (which in the past have involved up to eight process colors) have been around Ior decades, but are neither standardized nor cost efficient. With advances in printing technology

it is becoming more common for printers

to have six-color presses. Pantorie produces a plug-in extension for common software applications used in the industry to accommodate the Hexachrome System.

Tertiary colors: Colors produced by mixing equal amounts of a primary and a secvndary color

With both traditional and nontraditional color wheels, tertiary hues have infinite color possibilities. Knowing how to get the most from a color wheel is crucial for understanding color dynamics. To make sound color choices, we must understand the principles employed through cogent color practice; the inner workings of a

Figura 39 In this Htustrntion the color palette is com prised of two tenlarv colora. one secondary color. and one primary ector,

•typeC27 MiB YiOO KO ~~ Backqround color C20 MO YiOO KO 10%
bgd C53 M'9 YO KO
• type C76 M33 YO KO
bgd C27 M1B Yl00 KO
type C27 MiB YiOO KO
~d C76 M33 YO KO color wheel independent of the colors

being utilized. These principles have been empirically proven. (Note that in 3-D

color theory, three of the color primaries correspond to additi'0c color theory, and

one of the color primaries corresponds

to subtracti'0c color theory.) No doubt traditional color wheels were derived through empirical research, but through medical endeavors, scientists have come to realize that the color wheels used in additive and subtractive color theory correspond neatly with the way our eyes and brain perceive and interpret colors. What does

this have ,0 do with tertiary colors? Understanding human physiology and how it connects with additive and subtractive color theory demonstrates how powerful these theories, methodologies, and processes are for developing dynamic and communicative color palettes. (See secondary colors for setting up nontraditional color systems.)

Transmitted light: Light that is reflected Transmitted light occurs in subtractioe and 3-D color mixing. Since light is emitted directly from the object to the source in additive color mi","ing, transmitted light does not occur. I.I.1. order for transmitted light to occur, it must happen in 3-D space through the process of light emitting from a source, striking and reflecting off an object, and entering the eye of the observer.

Transparent: If light travels through an object uninterrupted, th e object is said to be transparent

Ink has different levels of transparency, depending on the printing process. In offset litho printing, four to six inks are usually laid down one on top of the other, to generate a full color spectrum. Due to the nature of this process, inks need to be transparent, viscous, tacky, and concentrated, with high levels of pigment. Ink is laid down in very thin layers so that light will either travel through each layer, striking the pigment surface and reflecting back its color, or be absorbed as heat. In commercial screen printing, there is more latitude in

the possibilities of ink characteristics. Silkscreen ink can be opaque, translucent, or virtually transparent depending on the type of ink and the way it is formulated. Silkscreen inks also need to be viscous and sticky but, depending on the job, a thicker layer can be laid down at one time, creating a virtually opaque surface. (This also depends on the transparency of the color itself and the surface on which it is printed.) To understand how this works we need only look at an ink matching system's spot colors and their formulas.

For printing purposes, the system of mixing is referred to as subtractive. This is an important clue to understanding how ink

Diagram SO {a and b) All ink

is inherently transparent, however, scme inks are more transparent than others. This example uses process colorscyan, maqema. yellow, .s nd black-to create the spectrum of hues found on (he page.

These Inks are highly

tra nspa rent. wltb these four process colors, laid down Or1Gon LOP of the other. and in different percenteqes of density, different hues can

be achieved. In 90b, (he parent colors are lnrficated along with their cpacitv rating. Designers Brenda Mctclanus and

SkOUf<3S Design

The Termi nology of Color

71

transparency or opacity is created. The fewer inks used to create a color, the higher its transparency; !he more inks used, the greater its opacity. This includes using black and white ink in the formulation of a color. For example, pure yellow, cyan, and magenta are all equally transparent. If we combine yellow and cyan to make green,

the green is more opaque. Green, however, is still a very transparent color, '@ut if we add magenta to it the color loses more transparency. If we add white ink, black,

or white and black to this formula, it loses even more rransparency. In this example

we can continue to add colors until the ink formulation creates black. To create a black color with subtractive color mb-"ing, all light is absorbed, or subtracted, creating an area on which no light is reflected back to the observer. When creating a design for which ovcrpnnting is planned, the right colors for the job should be determined beforehand, including trapping in the screen-printing process. Trapping is a prepress term that refers to the slight overprinting of one

color on another, around the edges, to compensate for misregistratlon on press.

72

1)"(,'i"~~i'ri.

;~.:&.;.~H.~'II r-e-a <f~,(."!.Ii,,,". i._.'H-=R)'1r4~<·;,r-· ~~r .... ill]:t, !t">.L1l'"{., ".,. l.-o;.(1<O:".t~.II'i ~ . .r .... t.h-t ~-:I..I*!lt. fit!.IH';~""',.l.o~~t,_ .. < ;t,t·?N}'(a>·;'!:.11.L""""-' P~:~.r"l ~.I';.<i;")t:,.~ '!lI:U..I. l:j .... ~

-"'-',~ l.f'.f,ur, ~~:r;~r~.:I':I,f.(r~f'"'t~ .....

~~----~~----- ~~""'-"--' -'~-"-'''-'''~-''''~:-- --'''-'""-''-''~_'~_j.1

Hqure 40

lI/ustrator/lDasrgner Koehl Ogawa

Figure 40 In this example, diffuse scenermn does net take place. therefore the ell roma level at the II ues being utilized is not dlm.nlsbed. The red and dark blue have Clearly the same Y trlstim ulus value.

Olagram 91 Lett:

The dimensicna lrtv of the form causes Ifght'Naves to scatter off the object In dlfferC'nI oirectlons (diffuse scatterlnp). Diffuse scattering and lighting conditions influence hue chroma. This is evident In the photcqraph. The- side of the bag appears to b e .8 different hue (difforent Y trtsttrnulus value) from the fron t. and is a good exarnpte 01 why WE- need to understand how objects interact with their environment Deslqner Mcdemerts

To understand an object's transparency,

and how transparency influences color appenrance; 'we need ro consider the illumtnant (the source of lignt), scatter-in,!? (how the Ught reflects off a surface texture), the properties of the substrate (how

opaque or transparent the object is and Its brightness rating), and standard obseroer

Y 10. The standard observer Y 10 calculates the Y trist·imuht~. These elements are the major factors, in understanding color appearance. Each. factor plays an important role in.uifluenoing the color's intensity and thu~ the readabiljty; and legibility of the object. FN' example, if diffuse 8eattering takes place, the color's intensity or chronu'r will diminish, posstblvcrcaturg readability .and legibility problems, If an object is placed under glass, or is made from it,

the thlckness of the surface Itselfplays a role in 110w rnuch light or color C,all be

'seen through It. Lambert's law states that equal amounts of-absorption result when Hgh t .passes through equal thicknesses of matcriai. n 3!~in (lcm) of matertal absorbs half the Jigl!t, another Ysin behind it will absorb half the amount passing throughthe first layer, so that one-quarter of the original light energy wil] pass through -3/4in (2 em)

.01' material, and so on. If each wavelength

is considered separately, Lambert's law is always true jn the absence of scattering.

If the substrate is made of paper or is

Diagram 92 In this example, the Y trlstlmulus V.aIUBS of the foreground and background have a CVO of over 80%. Designer Tanya Onega

W type C20 MSO Y76 K9 B rvpe CO MO yo KO EJ Background color e98 M54 YO KO 10%
bgd e25 M20 Y19 KO bgd e90 M70 Y19 K4
~YP!3 C25 M20 V1S KO
:1:!!Jd C20 M90 V76 ~9
.~peco MO YO KO
bgd e90 M70 V19 K4 opaque, the brightness rating plays ail Importaht role in the color appearance.

1f the substrate has fl low brightness

rating; the 9010r'S intensity will be greatly diminished to the point that the color specified no longer appears to be the same, no matter the light source. Final!y, the light intensity' has by far the greatest influence on color appearance. The source of lighn operates in the· same manner as the brightness rating of materials. The lower the amount ei light in a gh~en environment, the less color spectrum and intensity will occur, including the object's properties

of transparency.

Tristlmulus values: X, Y, and Z tristimulus velues refer to the amount of light the eyes see from the three primaries-red, g~een,

and blue-of 3-D cofor theory. These values

are determined by the power (light source)

x the reflectance x the f!.tand;:II'd Q._q§.l£cver

(the equivalent of normal color vision within humans). The three most typical standard light sources are Source A (tungsten filament lamp), Source D50 and/or D65 (U.S. and European standards for average daylight), and Source CWF (ffuorescent lighting)

The Y tristimulus 'Value should be taken info accounr for. color use. The. Y value gives the relutive lig\ltl1e§s of the color <IS perceived by the mind's ISYc and relates directly to our response to the color in

Diagram 93 The pnmerv hue USed within diagram 91

and the ccrrespondinc Y trlstlmul us- values.

question. The trtstumrlus, values can be; compared to tho reflective yalues found in some pilim sample books, but as we' all know, a color 1001,s very different under diffe,rent light sources. The reflective value of a color is not the SCire cause of the difference; the efficieuev of the h0I11an eye i.n converting reflective values into electrical impulses is also a-factor.

In much legislation, the Y crtstlmulus has played an important role in calibrating signage for the visually impaired. This is

the standard by which all color calue« are represented. For environmental graphic designers to meet. legal requirements, they must calculate the Y tristimulus for both the foreground and the background calor. For U.s. requircmcrns, there must be a 40 percent contrast differerrtial between the two numbers. The foreground number must have a 70 percent value rating or higher

(up ,(0 100 percent), and the background must have a rating of 30 penlent or lower

to ensure that the visually impaired can distinguish between the two. Understanding the standard observer's visual acuteness

is necessary to .determino the distance

at which type and 0910r combinations.

arc legible .. Wit.hin aU ather fields o] design, a 20" percent Y trrstirnulus differcnttal is needed for normal visfon, including corrected 2{)!20 or near-normal vision.

x 22.93%.

Ttlstlmulus values: Y 27.51% Z 06.07%

Diagram 94 The primarv 11 us usee! within diagram 92

.a nd the corresponding Y tristlmuius values.

The Te rrntnoto'qvof Color

73

There are some color combtnations with a contrast di.ffe_ren:tial of lower than 20 percent that are clearly Visible, however, this number provides a prudent. gui~eli"11e when dealing with any type of signage

or printed material meant to be read

at a distance.

nIe X, Y, and Z trist.imulus values are measured in nanometers (J11,000 of a millimeter) by a data color machine. Trtstimulus-values represent a mathemanoal transformaticn of physical lightwaves and cannot be reproduced by any physical light source; such as a llghtbulb. Tristimulus values are commonly referred to-as-the X,

Y, and Z prtmaries. Combining these measurements with speciajly adapted software allows printers to retrieve ink. formulas from the-companiesthey use.

x 09.55% Trlstlrn ulus val ues: Y 10.02% Z 08,77%

-"VIl_f".~r"1lT1., .. n,..--------~~--~-------

th~ t)hl~ $tate university

F~gurB 41

In this stage performance

tile Hghriog conditions have been devised 10 achieve an erwkoomellt of consistent hue,

Figure 42 (a and bl 1.[1 428, unoercctor addition ~UCM would occur in the cyan plate, and cou Id easily be adjusted

on press. ln 42b. UCA, if needed, would uccur in the rnaqenta plate, and could easily be corrected on press. Percentaqes of the magenta plate run throughout all hues. making it very easy to adjust

on press. However, if the purple were 00 tho bluish side, the document would be difflcutt 10 adjust on press: the mange. would become muddy with the addition of any evan.

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41 '~ype en M66 Y68 K86 type C54 Ml00 VO KO ~~ type C56 M12 VB Kl ~ Background color CSO MO \:'100 KO 60%
bgd C31 Ml V87 KO bgd CO Md3 ViOD KO 'b!;ld C78 M68 V33 KSl
mtvpeCl M70 V25 KO type C64 M58 Y44 K95 .1~fPeC14- M1Z YB K17
ligd en M66 V68 KB6 bgd C54 MiOOVO KO ~gd C5S M12 V8 Ki
type C31 M' VBl KO ivps CO M43 V100KO wee C18 MBS V33 K81
bgd Cl M70 Y25 KO ~gd C54 M100 YO KO bgd C56 M12 YS Kl l.Ind~illo)lof j;)l(!!]tlo~ UJ ei€\'11 .A ffll8tihal! f),f 9t#tmfj !t1;)J:or 1'0 l~pt@Wl l~l~ ~!l!OIfity

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i1( .~ ]l'eIl~-,elll c~ml'l, 30 pe~eeJ'Lt m~~'rii!'a. Ill]il JiIJ lJ'€irrell~ fellow f0~ pn"!;~. I:n this, ~~ (hE; ,c~~TII F~8:W ~vou!pn~ p<ril]tedI1'l!11,~.tl:i

th~ bJ:lIc:k pl~'t.e tF[')~ tl":!'IP1)ilJ~ ]1!U["[1'f:l~~- 'l'bi s rlIIscnlld eiin h8 u,t;1 jO,ecl [hm~lgQ ch~ unels

11'1 Plhf'j,~(l~In{lp when l;!olJ}l' t!~rr<!e~1 n~ ;L j\mu'color pl~\!)Qess IlI1lj,1te. J["h~ L~Sf!): shnply d,lcks <1>~1 the clliL,mnel dL!!'Stred or ~he p~~[e [;0 be illtered, Ai~el' .sel'e<:tiL')g d e p!m~, UlC user _.(:ELtI pAdl clown ~ny,«lf thlt ~ldJn~l'ltlen L .f~tl1rell ill ~lwt.1lI!iJ\~iJ uniJ~~ [mll~e in che LIiiLif,L u~~nll (Auto L()\iek L@''>Ids. £htl"\i~" B:r1i#nn~ lind Cifr!tTlISJ., R0pla~ C~],I.or,

J!nd Vmint'iur!~ l ,o",u,' [jf thil!'.o;;El f~tl.l~ will .~IJmv ~[)trDI 01 i1dtl.i r~olJ ~ I dfi-"l~) t)'_ In ~lL;I:L'Il~ dilL1ie~ ,tt 1l.l3}' be "e'e~flJ':< tJ:iJ :tdd (,)I_j~~r

to file yL3'lI~~w lind m~~J.e !~[~ r1l\tL;.~ ;1~ 1\'e:lI, H(IW.e:\1,~r; the d~llSit-r(lf ~ ~0J{!r for p'lle,s~., i.n",lmling 1~ltLoell, sh(l~d(j ne\'el' exeeed '9.I;l per!.le'J1{, Thli::> Is "~~l:uS"e, on l}ra~. ,:lOt littlE] o.cOUI:.M dJ<:: ~IlL, 1& HI:wfi~(jj :t1,L~() tll~ pnpt."~

311M )lE>c~l1~ to ~~vcl1, Tl~r~' j,:; m ill il;!.ilil~lim of 2 I,jt!T=lll tlut. tiiil:L 'Il,,"b'ell cu~o~ ~Kl;e~~hJ] .m i:I1Il;!3~lB, u~.", !hh: In(mnmtiol'l l:l~ le~1f! lJ IHIi;ir Window\S ln [h~ ml]jH unenu o( ~'flli{l~hop,

'I'll i~ 1"j n ,.Jlm1,1' ~01:L to 'HPr>L)l'[ .... 'er clre stl~do\V' tJl'~~ widLifi t!l1e illl~!.1:8 Crl ~~~~ ~f ~tl~' (If rl\ie'-mlll"'Plrrf,w~ 1][, ~ 'i ~"l)lm [len~j l')! ()~' 98, p_~rce Il{, UncleNG1Qlr Mlq:LiiOtleis, l1lw.ilt, i~rp!Cff.lty Ui~d re II1l~pro~'e fl~t ,~hfiIlO'\\' .ue1~l;<.

bl .knl:i-ooJ~· pi'l:K.:~~, L'3dh pb~t~ D~ e.hI1Jl]~lel is sepamtttd and RJ p~ am \ '"'t~ti;!r.j l'n0lP! proo~!>~ed} ro chsar i'ilm 111 tlte "):I'ELl nf Ull'!' !J.~H £L/LiIE ooJ;;:; with;I!J c~I1Mn line fretjuem!y, 13,1 0. 1 ~~ ~ lLriI~s Jl'!"T Jjijeh PF·I)' r:Mrt0l1J~ Illo [8 ~Olne in m<ln~' tiUiiel'enJ, S'h~;f)es, bitt f~;Cfll!ly.. ~rL'! ~1Vltl, ch'CcLLthilr, tl~ ~qll<h'e. l~l!J,r cblilir ~'{>~tU1] lU1<lgt$ .!fur lUgLuLl jlL~I.~~. IJ'L:t[']~e:;;, ehe M.~l'@ ~~"II)€e~~ f!h~}u!d I ic {bJLt:)\\·~'tL V,'lno'n «:J'otll [I!!i O~l-e,r thl? "shmkH .... :Lt~Li~ •• ndd m~)I:EL thmSi~' to rlil' u~'~ri ~hm,\!Jl'.1 to improvE! the L'OJitIF &:f'r!'I.'tnIiIL

When €('mLillctiJ1i_Il pnr$\i Clile('\i;;)s. ~Ldtj;1 ~im] 'il ooj,[jF l1'Il!n h~ addEd: in t h!;! l'I'Pi'iUhlg pmQ~JS, 'r1re i'LT~~~ person 1m's ;)umrnl r)ve1' (Iotidl'ug ~'Ild :$~Wt"rQem!l.§\ [he -am (JUJU .. f I n,li, itow, tlms lLlter-Jul!; dle t1n~J. appenmnO(f, [-hJWl!IU€,r_ l!l.m r C;r.;,t'tSllljll1, ll1d~~dlng ]J1"l1\~Sl 'lp~~~,j}l(Jrl, dill nOL m~.'!t:J wire tult 11ru~'" tu 11m t,l1lii I" ~tljPJtl.ellr _ 1;111.l j)!'CS$ pt:I"!;GJn .Im(f:f\\'s the ~'iAipmel1l It!ill:tr~~ [bmi! mltul~'! ![[;](] has

~L ~iinJlPFi[Jr tmdItLTsum,t!inQ. of hd~\\ rml~h

75

ro d1.~1 ri\,u Ut! ui l~men IJ!iJ'r IiL'l\'i\l1_ it i~ t:t(:rl~tly allUlL'(~l~jat~ to t:e I on 11"12$-" pi!!fiI!('IJL ~il~ tl:!l~ j<JJ' II ~lS mel l1lI\.!~h or I'Illr e.m.1tL~h or I:j<ne ~"I' i1l@re oo~rs, bur flre 11,!;~S L~e rson ue~ ee rlMke l he t'i.e&Hsi@H €On ~lo\1l' llltlCtJ t6 cflL~] [1]0 m.ILlch L~~,

inc-ease in cyan density __J Dlagrem 95 This ex ample I illustrates the color density for

each process channel; a. color-

corrected com poslte image;

a high-density cyan composite Imaqe: a composite image comprised of evan magenta. and yellow; a composite image comprised of evan and yellow; a ccmposhe image comprised 01 eva n and magenta; and a composite image of rnaqenta and yellow

~II!,II~

~ Wm=Iw/Ot-:sl!l1'Yt' r.-.IFir1 E!lr,11~

----_ .. _-- ..... _

Agure 43 Warm and cool colors are juxtaposed, allowing the human form to come forth. The- shadinq rechnlque within the human form allows for subtle variations of tonal texture on the surface of the skln.

I [r;-i'lll

I ! II I

Magenta 30~~ Yellow 75%

Dla9ram 96 Right Undercolcr removal 1$ used to create a black hue that has less ,11,;3 n 300% total ink coverage.

UI'lE!e~sol!ot rolftio'or>ilIIUillEl~: A. method of rel!~oMijJg cotor fa ;~<J~ ifU$ge ®Iil'lity

10 i01Ir·.;:olll)t process printIng, the relJWVil1 ,)e ~y:m, f.l.LL111.'t:nw,. mid y~lI()w foom Uie blll·~k sh;tdow IltL~l~ will corupeusare (o:r ink bu Ilrl~l]) b~' ruplm::in!li t with b.!~leli:. ill I:.

Thl,s P'1IOe.e:-;s: CLi(~ dnwn 011 ill", umount oJ Ink used nrul LI"I1!pr{lV~.~ tmilf'LIl!1:- Mu(!;t prl.lu~n; till 11 ot allow for mare thnri JtH} percent tofal iul, oo,re~!J.Il,e at iiij)! litiiv~n po<l.t~t ,within"" phorograph: 400 ~n'ellt

Is the ul:!ui v,~Jell r or HID pel1r{trH ~l'lt~] i nk L"I)"'N':Jj~ of m.1I four J'[fO~~~S (mlm·$.

In dle process uf eolcr (mrf'<!c~i L'Ig Im£It~~, you have t.11~ (j~H.km oi n!111{l~'1 nt I;Nll)r d-ensitr t hllllll!'lh !Jhot'~ hQP br gOillfi thT'OLi.!l,h ;lillY of the IIlItljlll~tll'l·ent fel'ltti res, linde. Im:l!$l III the i11itm. m~nu cr ~hrn'llgh :tn inLlh'!(ltl~d' dUll] nel, r n e i ~h~r ~j~~, HCt!VlIW th~

it,dunn m·tion dialog p~teH.c ~Q r!Jjtt ymG cnn !wtnli thm!ll,lb the Imil!1e ~I!ld d-E:term i I~e

l!1~ fI!!""€;l~ w. here co!o!!" rome ... ~1 i~ ne~ded. A\uiJ clr{lpolu Th~ W"I'm dropout I,~ used

to de~rlQ.e the areus wi thin ;Ill Image '[lw~ should have eolor d~n~ity but. due [(J UI(' pflllttl~1l; prouc~~, la5lf~ their ~l,[lr ~Qmplc.lr.!ly Thls iJtiW!Uy [)CC!JT~ il'il hlthtltJueJ !n'lms._

To gl1MoCI 1~i¥1 i~L~t th[~ ])henQ-me~w.l"l,

1.1 bghlil!;htt'd :ET-£!:L~ ~h(l1l.Id be j_[(l lcii~ tli an 2-~ ]1'1.l.r~"m r of 001 ur. Thj~ wirl :1 ucount frlf lilt! 2.~1 r0n;!ent dropolll t dmt {),.mUT~ em Inu~~. Po~ e·JIi.ml!1le. j n tlw ,R.Ti!!1I Qf ;l

m!vpeCO MO YO KO
bgd C11 M96 Y71 Kl
B,ypeC75 M68 Y67 K90
bgd CO MO VO KO
.'L'i'PgCl1 M96 Y71 Kl
bgd C7S M68 Y67 K90 r:::l

~ Bacxqrcu nd color

CO M43 Vi 00 KO 70%

])h~~mph wh ~ re! h~1 ~llglaLS jlT~ IiDtI,!; t I'ro1U'l11 neerl r 1"11 e eolor bu 1M ,!Y!10l'l h~oc dw;" to J peroeur CY'EiL1, ,'\ P(.<r(}€>JU l'tI~gwn:a, J, P8tCl<.::J'll yellow. lIlHI ] 01' 2 pereen t bbdl. US!l tg Lhc merhod ~t'ol:u!'il~~ l'il}(~~e wi.!! t:n"'UT'~ ~I]m :1 fDillT-Go!tlr p r(J0t:s:.; i [n:~It~ will b~ L'tII.o~ [!>lJrr~~[cJ !lmp~~Jy loT' pR'~~ .. (S@>[! Ch~ipt~t 6 fo~~Httmllilll.'( (!Q]mCN- W'B~~_)

Vl$UlIJ (!l!ltIiw3l{: iI"Il'~ pafli'Wl!l'Y fr~m tile ayes to the ba~ of tf1'"" bra/", rhill ~ mt!1!i~, to whiM t/I{J eftJd!IGaj' Impfl/ses travel to be ftICogl1i.zed· .md .fnterpretlld in tile m.lnd's eye, 'I'ISt.iin~'f <rw l'J'fJht side up

With :l:lur'l]nl~ e",~,~i,§.Itl. apet!tD<n .st:(!;> lh'.J \¥l}dJ li K(t ~1 1200 ph[)w,~rh. l'h8 0y~' do£,l!; nut muY~ in a srntidth mmm~r, hut ruthe in r.apjd, Jerky- mov·~~mmt:!;. Th~ ~.~'~ p~m~e~ wi1:jt i s jl1 frollt of it. () I~';!' jt'l;C2lti~m P~)~l1't af~~' ~11 other. 1'h~ mi nd'~ ~}'e I*~~e:; ~~i]] ft~ Illes ~I>$.eth<!r Imrl a iSe;1J1l11~~ ~hnl'eo!lmp]l of

nn ~ges. f..aeh eleetrtea I impul se Cl'e,_t0.d ITt nght\!ffive~ strilrlnll; tile. photore-c~pw~ Ck'il mjUrI~s, 1o(:;llt..lli wH.hlil the yj~ LLBI. piiltlnv~y, Ll'AI\'l:]~ to (he ['Tliln.~ry \'iSHII'1 oorl~-"-. wh!<!'n:;i l is Or,~Hl.izeL! I!ltd in~c'TpJ'(:~ed i u rhu m'i nd \~ cvu i!1.~tilli.r!y_ TI16'-~' i.~md JiIIIEth I"':~y OOn~ist~ or liAhtwn ves !l'UJ I.llli:l;~1 t [nil. tJ:I~ OOnLlMl, t.nt'L"BH n~ tllTnlJl\h du! l1'i~ 01 rid laus, and .strih ill~, rhe ,etrIJl;t' \,\,.:1]1. Th~i~n:lt€ !1Jt thi~ rmil1.[ i;:; Ijl~_~,i{I~-dml'n aud b~{!ln'l'".tll\d_ 'rile I iglrrw~I~~S

~ f~t 11 rm l~ru~~eJ h~r~11!;! Trn-J~ ~ml ~nlliili!, w11 ~oh in tU111 ])M~ rh!'!' 1l1'~1mllltJ.i)'tl r,(j t 1HI

~4nl1:l!~H (~~II~. where tJte ~1,!J.{:ttlc:il! impul~e;; tnl'l't,..,] ,dLlilg th~ Clpti'OJ nerve lJntl.tI,~ the

op L10:" ,chhl.'lIU! ~.nd [)Bt'<:> d1,C righ L ancl I~ft larerul g,el~.i()llhUl: ~()~:I}'. From lhc:l1~ ~l:ltj(,]H~, rbe .ill.FGlnnlUioJI i.-; ~r~,lt~llftilt~d m tll(! prnnary visual L'I.lrt"_'X ro, rmllJu,ljl' oot~g()riz:!ti~m muJ i IltEI1[1l'E!tal.ti()ll by tJJi~ ~eg,ion of time! hruin :lnd l'I1>~mr others. lmr d~fi<o~,t 8lrmg ih i<8 ~t)i1Ilpl!i!~. i"'iitll\v.,,~' "",ill Je(!'re~~e rh e ~I sua I ;H~IJH}' 01 the (i'Il,So'jl"'ve!,

When the Ji&;htl'l',l;ves are processed into dt:dl'I~llilJ1pl1l.l ~.t~, the hi LCI1~j,(y IN ill:l\v:h~,uh fh~y tire creuccs uot u~IJS rhu dmm.ll. O~' :~ eolor but !Llw the ",'Ohj~ it'l;~lt. ~(lT ex ~mp.le. [0 ureure red,. rhu trr~ at retiuu] mJru~ ~h:lti,~ l>r!'I~~jth!Ol to rn(nm~ t(1 fil.'e with fr)TCE!.whi'!l;l [l! e [)¢tJer hv,Q tYPf!':9 ·or ,~n(,! fi re fu i i'lt Iy. W[rh ~ he pllll~[)'r~~iP'~ol' ce.l1 primru'l~, ~ Ii the c~(j~~ 0~ bf)~h .~I~llmrcU'P~ ~ ltd (~d(~i(tve '11tfNfrlg C~JI h..: :"1~11. The. oelor ~p~~t:rllltl III wluch lmll'! ffi IlS can seeis i.rQil:l 3t«1-7S0 Jlm.rIOll.Ll!l[~T [nnt) wrn\leh~;l~glh~. By ~lt"!J'.ring the at'ii,;jtuH uj ti.lil.lN~j ctll liil.plLiil~~ 1J,~'Ilt!I'~ tl!d wh~1:i lhtl ntlunnl eoncs tin.', Jifr~rJ:!'!lt imfrli art: L'l·!t,i(0U tu .11.~ru~11Iu~ th~ :IH~y [)t GO l~lrs 1ij~jbll3 Wlnll~!~[I]:>;. Thil'l I'irmyii'JC1ltldB~ th6 idr£llti.uc8ti Dlil Dj e(,l/c'n- '~~!I~[~, C'~!T)m ;1, ~~~rumti i1FJ (~~ cr,/m- i;'1l.t I'lff,llj'm'l). :l!'ld

11!I~ll'1Iy f)~i1eI coi[o), ~l>a;t!"lNr~ristJcs

Th s TarminolOD\f .-.t C(]I~r

n

W:!Iii'm cC!~a'F-I~ ~IDr'S tJlr~lt PWrJi~~" thr. 8'~j'~"~e or SR' objeet fto;1l<r.g 1I0tllr,er tnt! ol!b~ervl!'r ~an it i5'

\Wann t-fl.J>Dr'!'l nrc tf~Fi.vcd ~'J'(J!11I yen~w_ Iilr.~n~,~, unrl t,~~._ Ally Ifll€ L'omp~jsed of

3 nlliijority of nn~ [')~ moru flf th~:~ c()I'[)r3 G,_~ s~id W IN;! ',;\"8 rrn , i ncJuJin!J, hn If ~l f ;IJI clIp(~()lf'ied purpl.E!ll. In nUl~ init::-m<HC!lll'ng ~r ... t~IIlL~. n i.l1J1ieroL~~ li,mrm ['ill rples ~ont~ 111 more tlran ~(J pe'.l'o;:le III of r~fl; ~nr color lil<!( CQm~.i.n::l. !h<:>re thMl $0 percell t or ~rcl~()\"', Ol"ilI.llgc, Or re~ is' saId to be ",1Irl1l.

H warm und c[)D1 co Ion; am used apprepri fJ:ti!!ly. the-y' can i:u (IUflll'C'J! thu

;~ pp~,~l'~ nee d'~ d~f;r!l.l1. I r 000] ~olD['~' ~ n~ fI~'l.ce~l i1~h!!'Id \\':If!11 ~(lJ(lfll, III t~ will !livo£! rhe desj~ fhoe 8PPf;!:i~l'~ nee Qr ~ ".jJ FOl'llll1t, wh Ue If warm C~IOI'S, are l~bG~'~ beh~ nd (!'<)OI COIc!'I'~, the I!e:;i~il wUl .~]lpel1 r ~·I1. T.I'LI~ phellUnlt:HYIl, cLJmhl1'Loo w~tl1 ~MJt:

~1_Hd phlot:ln~[H, C!'1C~1 res l~.Eilll!:L..ie CO!ll,p(j~L{io.rI.

Diagram 97 Right In tf IS example a 2·D and 3·0 color effect is created.

Diagram 98 Lett I n this example the i ntense red beckurcund will cause the cones within the eye to fire with force. The stimulation within the eye- end visual pa.thway is an excellent example of how color can

be utinred 10 help create kinetic compositions. Desfqner Theron Moore

Di.aQfam 99 Right~ To create the color red the cone that is sensitive to the light wave must fire with force while the other two fire faintly

figure 44

.An i;}jrectoTJDe.sigOfHs Brenda 'McMunl'JS and Skouras Design

Figure 44 This book cover design shows an excellent

use of warm. eenu-tone colors. Of colors with a warmish tint The black hue IS surrounded by w a rm colors, causing an optical illusion that casts a wa rmlsh lint.

When a hue is comprised of near-equal proportions of warm and cool colors, other factors that influence color appearance need to be understood. In addition to the formula of the ink there are four major factors that influence appearance:

• the translucence of the ink;

• the substrate on which the ink is printed;

• the lighting conditions in which the object is placed; and

• the order in which tile inks are laid down on press in order to build the color.

The transparency of an ink depends upon the type of printing being used. With commercial screen printing, inks will be more opaque. The amount of ink commercial screen printers can lay down on press is far greater than what can be laid down for commercial offset and web printing. Commercial screen printers can also place agents, or pigments, in their inks to increase opacity without altering color to any great extent. The drawback with commercial screen printing is that

it provides only limited resolution. Most commercial screen printers have a hard time holding anything over 75 lines per inch, but the saturation, the amount, and the quality of ink laid down on press at one time are unlike that possible with any other commercial process.

Diagram 1=00 Ia and bi The large box. in 100.a is 100% magenta and '\00% vellow. The small box is ~O% magenta and 20% yellow. The cpecitv 01 the sma!l box is drastically less

(80%1, and in [his facsimile the while of the paper is coming through \0 create pastel pink. In 100b. the small box has 80% 01 color and therefore is 20% less opaque Iha(l the large box,

t,ype C38 M53 Y58 K37 bgd CO M4S Y 100 K7

C33 M12 VB2 KO 10%

type CO M45 Yl001<7

bgd C38 M53 Y58 K37

• type co MO YO K94 bgd C30 Ml00 Yl00 K20

• type C30 M100 Y100 K20 bgd CO MO YO K94

B Backqround color

As most inks are translucent, the substrate on which the color is printed will int1uence its appearance. In commercial screen printing, many different materials other than paper can be utilized. Each of these substrates has its own characteristics which will influence the hue unless the ink is

100 percent opaque. For example, if you print on blue plastic and don't add any agents to increase the opacity of your

ink, the imprinted area will be drastically influenced by this blue. This holds true for commercial offset printing. Although offset printers use paper only, paper is available

in many different textures and colors, each of which can influence the outcome for the imprinted area. There are many different manufacturers of paper, each using a slightly or drastically different process. White paper should be selected under daylight conditions in order to determine whether it has a warm or a cool tint. All paper sold commercially

is given a brightness rating, which subtlety or drastically influences the appearance

of color. The higher the brightness rating, the more vivid or chromatic the color will appear. Also, paper can be purchased either coated or uncoated. Coated paper comes

in many different forms-matte finish,

gloss finish, clay coated, etc.-each of which influences color appearance. Coated paper does not absorb as much ink or color as uncoated, so more light passes through the

Dfagrilm 101 Ia and bJ

Prtntlna order has .iii n inf uence Or! color appearance. In these two examples. the printing order has btl-en cbe nqed. h.

10 'la. magenta is laid down last, while in 101 b, cyan is last.

ink and bounces off the white surface of the paper, creating more vivid colors than on uncoated stock.

In printing, the order in which color is laid down on press in order to build a hue influences color appearance. For example,

if we create a purple by adding 100 percent magenta and 100 percent cyan, the color will be either warm or cool depending upon which ink is laid on top of the other. The usual order for laying down in the four-color process is black, cyan, magenta, then yellow. Changing this order by asking the press person to print yellow first will create a warm, greenish tint on any printable

surface. However, understanding how trapping works, and if an area can be held

in registration within the printing process,

is crucial in order to determine whether the order can be arranged to cast the desired tint, or whether back trapping is necessary (changing the printing order of cyan and magenta) to obtain maximum image quality.

~...,-----------

Ii
Ii
~
~~
l~
"
II,
II II
Ii <:> <:> <:> 1"\1

i'1i1oJ""'4i;.

.... ! D;',,".JID~!i!!.r H.n," =""I!"I

Figure 45 (ll and b) In both examples above, warm colors (Ire vlll'led with various

deg rees of shadi ng. These childlike drawings are more psychologically effective using warm color schemes

to communicate the intended m~ssage. (See Chapter 7 for psychological and/or lee rned bebevtoral eflects.I

type CO MeO Y,OO KO II ~ype CO M35 V15 KO
bgd ct M6 Y85 KO ~)gd C91 M6l V19 K2
type C7 M12 Y45 KO L";dego Me Y85 KO
bgd co M60 Yl0D KO M87 Y96 K12
M61 Y'9 K2
M,2 V4S KO Wavelength range: The visual range within which humans can distinguish the color spectrum

This rang0 is 380-750 nanometers (nm), The purple family falls between 380 and 480nm, rho blue family between 4'50 and SOOnm, the greem between S.Q(} and 560nm,

t.he yellow between 56U and 590[1111; at-Hinge between 5')0 and 610nm, and red between '1====================,,[___[,1 610 and 750nl11. Combinations of these

colors are found Ileal' the borders of each color range.

,Websafe· Color Cube: An arrangement of the 216 hues. at 20 percent intervals, that can be depicted accurately with most common computer platforms, This includes black and w.hite-.lind their shades and tints (see color shades and f!%r tints). ~=========""":::::;;;;;:;~~~","",~~~~~_Jlb Although most platforms and their

corresponding monitors can detect millions of colors, all but 216 individuu] hues will differ from one to auorher. The two most oommon pla-tforlllS-MaQinto~lh and Windows, Operating Sy,s,tems-ho<tl.l have th", abilirv to detect millions of colors,

but because, of the difference in the way they operate, only 216 Indtvtdual calm's

correspond. The Websafe Color Cube ,is ____ ...L_-'c considered a browser-safe color palette.

The \'i!ebsafe Color Cube ensures C010T rcliabildty and accuracy for designers worki ng on the In tcrnet regardless of rlrc

:)

=<-=-,~~~-",., --=-

~~

~~,r,

FilJi.:J~i !-IF.. Art 'DIne;;;t;:Ir/O!!~n!!J' ~." HnM~' ~OO PJ:iUlt ~(jl'il~

Figure 46 Ia-c) This conference Web-silt'! dcslqn demonstrates a subtle- USB of hue. The predominant use of paste! yellows and oranqes relates

to the environment in which the design conference was held <0011a, cetart.

Diagram 103 Rj9ht~ This twopart diagram illustrates both the DOS and Mac color cubes that create a lotal 01 216 weosere colors.

CC3300

D84020

Diagram 102 Each of the cclorsafe hues has six digits that are paired. Any Web color thai is not paired is r-et a websafe color.

Color Management

piatforrn ali browser in which the design will be viewed, Working outside this. color mutrtx will cause the desi{\ll co

differ greatly in hoth its color and texture, irorn platform to platform.

The cube is deslgiJe(1 so chat the aciclciti'l)c COral' primaries (red, gJ'cc;n, [mol blue) and their secondary colors (cyan, yellow, and magenta) are arranged at each corner of the nine-sided cube. Tihe p'rimary and s.eco];ldmy colors are placed on different corners, depending 011 the platform. Most programs used for the conszruouou of Web sites and photo manipuletion have a default color palette made up of 216c.o.lors. These color swatches represent Websafe colors. For example, Photoshop allows U.SCI'S to load Websafe colors frGm their 2,D color palette fcacure.

In the creation of the Websaje Color Cube, OF anv other 'iVebsafe color-swatch library, tile pd~llary colors, secondary colors, shades, unci tints, including black and

white, are created nccordmg ro the.tenets

of additis»: color them)l. Since rh sse color ltbraries are meant to be' viewed only by projecting llgl1.t directly info the human eye, subtractice c%)' .theo!)) docs not apply, However, these applicanon programs do

use subtrucuve color mixing (operator interlace only) in the ereatton of hues,

Netscape (Mac} color cube

'Nebsafe color swatch

type- CO M20 Y69 KO B typeC73 M67 Y66 K83
bgd cis M26 V5 KO bgd C1 MO Y24 KO
type C73 M26 Y5 KO
Ibgo co M20 Y69 KD
II IYp.C1 MO Y24 KO
bgd C73 M67 Y66 K83 ~ Background color

co M20 Vl00 KO 20%

The hues ,hat are created through these Wohsafe color libraries 1'1<1'\'e more intensity 01" chroma than their suhtmctivo color counterparrs, Photographs for Web design have to be saved in RGB mode (additive prhnartcs) prim to manipulation to ensure 8Il) accurate dep ictjon of the color chroma used within the photograph.

Most photographs set up for Web design are saved as either a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) or a Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) file. Both of these file formats compress files that then decompress whom they are opened .. JPEG format works well with tl continuous-tone photograph, and

GIF format works well for lirre art such as illustrations. graphtc-based lnr13ges, and typography, or for any gmphic elements, including flat colors used on a Website. Venturing outside the Websafc Color Cube or l\tebsafe color palette will create color appearance problems and textural auomalies in the site.

Y trlstlmulus value: A measure indicating the relative lightness of a color to the mind's eve In 3~D colo')" theory; the tristimulns vajues

x., Y" and Z plot the power of the" Ugh! source x the reflectance value x tlrc stsmdart! ob,ser"vc:r, but it is the Y value that is meaningful to designers. With the Y'value (the color 'Cal-uc number), designcrs can

type co M1 00 Y68 KO bgd eo M30 Y100 KO

tvpe Cl00 M91 yO kO bgd co M'OOY6S KO

typo C 100 M57 YO KZ bgd C50 MO Y,OO KO

'predict the legibility of type and OGI0~' combinations, no matter what the medtum utilized, ]11 the past, color legibility fOF normal 00101" vision was based solely 011

the exper ience of the designer. The Y tristimulus value is the fi;rst building block ill understanding tile architecture ofhuman color perception. These values tell the designer how well humans can perceive a color, color comhinatiorr, image, symbol, logo mark, or ty·pc ant! color eombinarion, for any substrate, including brick, cinder block, stone, metal, plastic, fabric, wood, glass, etc,

Motion, fOHW, and depth play important

roles in determining visual acuity. This is why legislation mandates other V[SUfl] factors for legibility for the legally blind. Depending upon the lighting conditions at the location of the s.lglJ, one of the three standard sources should be U's.ed. With each standard source, the Y trisNmulus value will change.

The Y trtsumulus value used, along with the principles of color contrast, color value, mud simultaneous eontrast ourtined in Chapter 2 and Acudty 1.0,. wtll help to ensure color legibiJiny, the clear human perocptlon of color, ill any given situatlon.

y tr~ tvpe 18.55 = 'ltt (O.3ml
Y trl bgd 5729 Iviewl ng distance for 20)20 vision)
Y tri type 04.23 = jft 10.3",'
Y tr! bgd 05.09 (Viewing distance for 20/2Q vision) Y trl type 05,78 '= 111 IO.3m)

Y trl bgd 38,04 (Viewil1g dlctc nee for 20/.2Q vialon ~

Olagram 104 The color swatches above create a visual lesting

range for vlewl ng at .a distance of no qreater than 1ft (O.3ml. This will ensu re absolute visual clartrv of all .a natcrnlcal parts found within the lettertorm.

The Terminology of Color

81

rrgUijB 47

Art 'mrec1or Hi.oyuki ucno

Designers,Himyuki ueno and Mevuml 11zumino lllustretcr Himyuki U one

Figure 4-' White. black. and grays are utilized 10 Create

In1S dynamic: compoaltlcn.

The y tristlmulus values for these hues (subtractive color theory) will help you to understand the legibWty Issues concerned with compositions fnc~uding grayscaie.

rvpe CO MO VO K36

bgd CO MO VO K91

tvpe CO MO YO K91

bgd CO MO yo K36

Basic Color Theories

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84

Color Mali)8'gement

figure'

Studio Rosie Lee

Dias..-arn 1 There is no color on earth. AU color seen by man is a resutt of light that is reflected off the surface of objects. Tho hjgher the chroma, the more intense

the light. The SU n is the most natura I~y lntense light source.

Red, green, and blue are additive primaries, and are considered the first stage of color vision.

Figure 1 ~a-j) Primary and secunda ry colors are used in til is plece to fake advantage of the chroma val ues found in addltlve color theory. These intense colors are

used to activate the work, and prcvlde continuity [hroug hour the motion graph ics

CO M30 Y100 KO 30%

type C94 M66 Y37 Kl0 • type CO MO YO KO
'hgd Cl M16 Y99 KO ~g~ CO M87 Y99 KO
.~ypeC21 Ml00 Y95 KO • t~peC40 MO Y17 KO
~gd C94 M66 Y37 Kl0 Dad C84 M57 vi KO
1.~ypeCl M16 Y99 KO type CO M87 Y99 KO
I ifJgd CS4 M66 Y37 Kl0 bgd C40 MO Y17 KO Additive Color Theory

3~dditive color theory is US\1~Jly ruore familiar to those who study the hard sciences', but this rs changiug. To understand addttivc color theory, it is helpful

to understand a little of the physiology involved in the human perception of color.

Addirive color theory explains-the process of adding lightwaves Eo one another, either in physical space or in the brain,

to create additional colors, hence its name. Any standard light source-including television monitors, computer screens, electronic kiosks, Lightbulbs, and the sunuses this proce S8.

Additive .color theory is based 011 three basic primaries: red, green, and blue.

These colors are used because of their location in 3-D space. They offer the ,\'iclcst triadic relationship, or spectrum, possible for mixing or viewing.

The wavelength measurement of red is

7,00 nanometers (nm), of green 546nm,

and of blue 436.11111. When mixed together, red and green create a. spectrum of yellow lights (hues). Addjng green and bl(l.e.ligh~s yield's a spectrum from blue-greens to pure cyan, and adding blue and red Ilghts results in a spectrum from purples to pure magcnra,

Diagram 2 The hues that

are marked "1 U are the orfmertes for additive color theory', and those marked "2" see the primaries for subtractive color theory.

Yellow, cyan, and magem.esubtractive crtmeuea=a-e

the secondary color'S for the additive primaries, Additive primaries relate to the vounpHelmholtz nrichrornauc color) theory and offer the IMg€:st color spectrum.

EJ. Backqrcund color

There arc three basic types ofudditive colormixi"hg: Iightweves added together by direct transmitted ligbt; lightwaves emi.tting from

a spinning disk of different prjmary colors; and dotted. areasof pure additive primaries that create the appearance of a mixed color in the mind's eye.

Direct Traasmirted Light

The first type of additive mixing is commonly used ill the production of stage performance, Iilm, and video, the second

in prurt and television, Everyone has been 10 a 'musical concert where the use of colored spotlights was apparent. In this process, if two different light sources

OF different colors are beamed down simultaneously, the wavelengths create an addjtive mix. However, when the lightwaves strike the performer, the color mixing becomes subtractive.

In print-bused productionvadditive eolon mixing takes place simultaneouslv with simple or complex subtractive mixing only when the illusion of one color is created

by a combmutton or primartes that are mixed together withiu the mind's eye. This process is additive color nnxing used withm a subtractive. context nndshoukl not be confused with additive color theory. Fa!' example, if a four-color photograph is built from four 133-line screens and the primaries

Diagram 3: In the diagram above r-ed and blue are laid down side-by-side, creating the appea ranee of a third color assirmlated within the mind's eye,

do not overlap, the color mixing is

additive. If the colors do overlap, it becomes simple or complex subtractive color mixing. In orher words, in there is an area where

the primaries do not overlap, but arc laid down side by side (one dot next to the other), the C910r milxing is an' additive process if addifional huers) arc created within the mind'seye: color mixiilg that takes place through the visual pathway of humans is additive. Ii color mixing takes place through the overlapping of :two colors in physical space before entering the human eye, it is a subtractive mixing process.

i=iiJl!~1I :;: ~lIrli;:lC[lr:I;i~I)r.ir.;I.IJ.~IJt1

SIs;n!!lnt LDOd\litfllollft' JiJ~ i:!iJ~[I

Figure 2 ta-el This Brutha

LOve piece was desig ned

with a push/pull use of color;

A warm, high-Chroma color field flattens the space. The higher the chroma, the more intensified the effect. Th is

color effect is ampllried when viewed 0(1 a computer monitor .

• type CO M96 YIOO KO • IypeC67 M57 YO KO
bgd CO M56 Y99 KO bgd C75 MO YlOO KO
.1!VpeC67 M57 YO KO • 'ype CO M96 VIOO KO
I LJgd co M96 Y100 KO bgd C82 M21 V31 Kl5
~t;gg7 M56 Y99 KO
M57 yo KO PII'()je~Qd Light

TJJ ~ $e"c01i.d t~ IJif iiddl~iv~Il:l.l:xlil@. H.~ I:!9mrurinLy \~ In the w<rhl:t(.l~y he'himl [:.'Qt~ ... -teJ~'t118ill!llv~nbe.:-;, El.~~t;r(jlUl In dles>e tlli:le$' til'!!!IlflilK'L'( r!h,e l:uf{mn~[J;cm d~~\[ mee~ '\~lth tire three pcl'llml.rle:..; red., green.,. :mIld ,biLle. 'rh~ el.?'llrof;l$· p~~ r.ht':Qtl:g~ u .iHlt:'r {~J" sfr4k1p,1li ;PhtK~P1w1' dtl~dl1 la,hl m'fI"lik. (ilF the r~ev"~j,;)]:l. 61i~e 'clt:!Ll"OOrf,~Spp~uti!i l1)

~i'!lI!t ]liAft'!~1fI oo11k}·~lJjl:l. pl'~e;ct die t:ulA~

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fn,C:"!:ij~it pr:I!l.~(!,m!i j il. ~nJBr to pn.-'t1ill.~ 't'frOA'NLrffll,~~~~ibnity. I IQ\1!e';-I!r?,\!,\~,iJ8

F~gure 3 Ia-e} In this motiongraphics piece, an elfecti .... e

use or color is being utilized. The high chroma values in frames 1 and 2: are outside

the CMYK color spectrum.

a nd are highly intensified

on the compute. monitor.

The intensification of hue

is caused by lig ht being projected directly into the human experlence-cthe source of light is not reflected off or an object. but transmitted directly into the eye. When viewing work on the computer screen, the second type of additive color mixing, through projected light, occu rs.

High concentration of rods

Integration of rods and cones

Hjg h concentration of cones

Qr tile:)Je t"y~ ;do 1lo( UQlf"nlj}IlY;jjs_e 'tr1lditlD11ill ~dd [fh'e-,!1!1'illnm'i.es far ~hg pm~e(:lI{)ill Qt'ri!awl.

lI\;d~~h\1eqo~Qr ilhe;l~'I:.i::::Llltes di.mc:.L"Jy [0, IIh~ YoulJti<H,elhlhM(!;l ~h,e0ry': [i[]~w k.lo\1,lil ~!inhe: f.r~dtt.a,tmlti.c 0prUr- ['ht!~ in. tJh~'s~iTls~ tl1m;! Ifh4J pn(Jlm~~;gwr oW.~,lb~~:ted cj~~-lll [0 ~nl'l i .. }\,tl;!I. re~Ji'r>l7d 10 th~1lam,j,j prJrIiIl!f~J;~",~i, ,It'l"{!~m, and Blul!!"_ RIim:~ITiBli thiit ai-eJp'l"in'rudi di\:i .Qf'ha.Vle thE!! tB'Jl.sp~tT~m'~ilLliI~ tlm~ th!1J' _~e >G'IIfl detl;()t 'Fh}$ jll ,..,my the ,s,li;y '19Q)~ Mmw i [f rel1l1ty dmlIl. in il ph('t:9!!;~llh, III ~he

ease oh tale-vlsiQ!lI Siet. !lb,!! IU:lrnill)' If~hlts tlJ!lJ,e'~ilLl lIJ t1ke' l)~pCls!'re. w;i\:;:' ~ t:a~","'i~. 'the .!l~t .reS:"~lves dooitr{)il1t:h:L~ptll~~ ;_Ii~d ltBItsnllrll' mel[[ OiJIhvmtl ro ~JnL~U;)WtCIIi.

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~llits J.:f now boetn,g ~b!lneAged;; the l'lluY:L:ONB _~ ATCliH'tNG' S'fS:r:FiM@ bif-enii J)rhu.hn.wd, colm'.s~s~~:l!I rhiu,chu ;ml'lt~ l.h:~ chtCU,l'I~ ~rodtL~.d jhrcl1@~ ~~Ldi,t1ve .0!llcr: {,h~.(lr.

Povea

Retina wall

Diaqrem 4 This diagram nlustrates the makeup of the back of the retina wall. Note that the roves is oif center

type 1;:=1 1'1192 Y2D !CO • 'ypeC59 MO Y21 KO f§ Background color ClOD MO YO KD 30%
bgd C59 MO Y21 KO bqd C8 MS5 Y1DO Kl
M65 YjDO Kl • LvpeC61 MO Yl00 KO
MO Y1DO KO bqd C82 M73 YO KO
type C8l M73 YO KO ti(pe C28 M2 Yl00 KO
bgd C2B M2 Yl00 KO JLgd C1 M92 Y20 KO Subtractive Color Theory

\li<hell l~ru'llliJ~ <loou[~oio:r,; grJlphi~ de:s1.We~s; mce 'Ill smlLiy mtp.ese1'J 00, 'tI:Ji:l!!:raoth:);!. oo]W' [-.he.my 'olllw, :j4i:1s"d;:;>\vIi~ ttt[)~t ~gg:I:tJWf~ fi~~d it (I!il'l()tiT~ ro U!1I~,!?!'llta:n

(0~ ~II:ii'1p:~j '\vh): thiil (Ja1lGi~~ (HI II! computer me1'lifiiU' c1D n~~ mal;(l'h tho~ prliRted on p~~- It,iil1;l~eftlJ Wfi ~~i~~~:tmd 3_li(;,ru~~~ 00 U:lldel·5ta.ID~L:tlddUtlv\<, stlbWleU\\le~ m:nd 3.D e0.iot (heo!l'YO,

T:be i:}'pt~ pl'.ljj'l:Ll.l'l¥~ t6t ~,ul:iti'!!'OtWE!

colar j~re>a.~11 y(!;110 ·.!IInd mJI~ill:a. 'Jl"\1e:;oe, jlr:i:tnil!~Le;trlJ:neti0lt n~otlj' \1iSi~j] ·th{f'"at!'[lj,u,,'"e" pn1fu!riQs. IJ:iF rgil, ~ro(,!jn, ;!:na.bl~!E!'I;i~ ~iJey !,Ire The ~1lI1~Jlemi!"t3"l :~]"Ia. ~(!'(ll),drnr:y- eonms

~t thB' adiJjtiv~ l'miln"l!i~S. When ~i1 thl:l~>f: 1IIlh~l%I()ti'l'll;! .p.l'lmm']e-s are, clllmb.ilJJeii '!IE

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~r l!!J:btlI(ll;l~l!I" leao:ll:1ig blfl,ek.

Additive chroma

PANTONE" color formula guide

PANTONP Hexachrcrne colors

Hiqh-cf rcma chart

D~a9ram 5 This illustration depicts the hiqh-chrcma lne for addltlve, PANTONEolI formula guide. PANYONE" Hexachrorne colors, and fourcolor process spectrum.

87

'fi~re4' Art~Ol'r·Bt1oT{Des.i9(1fo'.lIrmn:::Jt.~I SmIth

Figura 4 A book cover desigo usfng <I gross screen pattern

01 21pi with dots. A typical computer monitor has the capacity to display nlpi whh plxers th.at are square in shape.

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bgd CO MO VO KO bgd CO MO VBS 1(0
a type CO MO V8S KO
bgd CO MBS vas KO
• type-CO MO VO KO
bgd CBS M8S VO 1(0 88

Color Management

i

Ii

Figure .5

Art Dir.octor/Desi'gner '~your19 l~ SlJ n

Black

While

Black is. detected py the human eye when no light is transmltted into it. Yellow and cyan mixed together in different .luoportions yield an array from yil;l~ow-greeli1IfiLue-greell to a pure greeu C0],Of; wellow illld.nt!.lge.rlta added 'together in different p;t(lpattions.·yid:d au array from yelloW-Or2Llll~eJo~lhIJ[e-red to a pure red; and cyan ·~rRil. magcnra added together in different proportions yield an arHIY from Cl)l.an.-blue/blue-purple1reddlshpurple to a pure purple.

\Vb.ell J.ekil ing ~lIlth IlTill t~b~sed '!!"l'l1phl(.'~, mt>:l'e Qttel"l t,l!,ml' flXl)it, 'prlntlng ti'lk~.s. pl![lQ"e

an I\"lil~e SlicKilL:. J?r'l:ni.hlg 11l11~<II'e very ti-~llslLte,em ILll~l t~Nn;efo~)!t i)lacJ[ ~s aclJ,erl as.a uOl1rdl j:'!'ri:mmy ul s!1bml:.~tl'i!e30lo.r ~h:e(jry re DT'C;ille oo[o~ deilsity rInd oo.lor :l1lililllfl.i:l&i and to Ji.rnJ_lIi1in ~tic qklh::lt. ~p&th:l:ttl. In JlT.ill~-h~""rJ, ~nteT:;[cti.\l~,. ~1~;,IitunElll41I1tll!J., and motion gmpbJj,i!S, black is ael~I>Edllln~d

8 ~'OI:or, as is' whi.te.

\ H.;9h chroma

'.

o

White

Fi9u~e 5 When creatinq artwork Icr reproduction purposes color sl1ifting will take place. No matter the monitor, the software, or the hardware devices used, color appearance- will shift from medl urn to medium, from software 10 software, and

from printing device to

printing device. However. understanding how subtractive color theorv and additive color theory work with ina 3-D environment wm help you rnanaqa hue outcome. In this example, simple subtractive color mixing lakes placE!there is no scattering Involved.

Additive color wheel

Subtractive color wbeei

Diagram 6 This til ree-part diagram demonstrates how additive and subtractive primaries interrelate. Subtractive prima rles are secondary on the additive color wheel, and additive pnmaries are secondary on the su btractlve wheel.

Addltlve and subtractive CO~Or primaries

.iypeC75 M6a Y67 K90 ~ Background color C100 MO YO KO 20%
~gd C70 M70 YO K6
type C50 MO Y100 KO
bgd C75 M68 Y67 K90
tvpe C70 M70 YO K6
"9d eso MO Y100 KO Simple Subtractive Mixing

In subtractive color theory, color mixing

can be subdivided intosimple and complex subtractive mixing. Simple subtractive mixing is the process of rcrnovmg hghtwaves through absorption. The phenomenon of absorption results in it loss of visihle l,lgln.

If all the light is-absorbed by the color/ object, the radiant energy is transformed into heat and the object appears' black.

If the substrate absorbs only part of the Ugh t that strikes the surface, it wil! appear to have a color other than black and the temperature \ViII be less than its bliick counterpart. This occurs whenever we observe an object of color, regardless of the light source, Tire lightwaves transmitted back or through the object are those that have not been absorbed. The effect of this process can be directly related to the size,

of the pligment particles in the color, which help impart color to thG; eye. The sun emits white Ii.ght onto a colored object, let us say red-thE: ob.i'~J absorbs most of the Light and reflects 1l1ilill!y ~Iie 'I'\'.mvcl~~h in the rai!:~ ~i I~, Tm!S.is true roT .~hy "il;il,;j~ O£~Jor.

Diagram '"I Simple subtractive {left) and complex subtractive mixing {righl).

Complex Subtractive Mixing Complex subtractive mixing is the

process of removing Iightwaves through bach absorption and scattering. Scattering results when wavelengths interact with matter, causing light to be reernitted in various directions rather than refleeting off in one direction, as with simple. subtractive mrxing. Scattering accounts for the sky being blue and the.clouds white. If all of the lightwaves falling on an object scatter, the object appears white; if partial absorprion takes place, the object appears colored;

and if all the lightwaves are absorbed, the object appears black.

In reality, neither scatteri ng nor absorption are absolute. The appearanoe of color depends upon the. size of the pigment's pauricles .. Lighter colors arc produced by smaller particles, and darker colors by larger ones. If the pigment and resin of the object have extremely small particles, ft will appear transparent. In other words, the size of thc matter and the m()l1d:~llar structure of the o:bj~~hf d~~l'IDine th~ object's color.

PIII'I"~

~tu"" """11"~1. r.l"Cdtll

Figure 6 Ia-c) In the above motion-graphics piece, additive color theorv applies for the: oripmal medium, however. within this book, sim pie subtractive color mixing occurs.

.!:ypeC5 Mi8 Y86 KO o lypeC6 M6S Y31 KO
Ilsd C67 M7B Y21 K4 bgd CD MO YO KO
•typeC67 M78 Y21 K4 'YP. C67 MO Y89 KO
bgd C6 M6S Y31 KO bgd C5 M1S Y8S KO
III'W.CD MO VO KO •typeC11 M94 V67 Kl
bgdCll M94 V67 Kl bgd 067 MO V89 KO 90

Color Management

Figl,.(i~ 7

ArfOlreciorlP&S19!ler 8~!lielle Foushee

Figure 7 In 3-D color theory, the poster is the object by wbicf lighl ls reftected

ttbe sourcel, and projected lnto the human experience tthe observer).

3-D Cololr Theory

Traditionally, the term "3-D color theory" has been used to describe how color reacts, and behaves in our external environment, However, this book broadens the definrtion to include theories from the field of ophthalmology that pertain to the human internal environment. By broadening the definition, an important triadic relationship between the source or light, the object, and the observer is completed. This relationship provides the foundation for makutg infotrrwti color choices based speoiftoally on how the audience will visualjze the work.

How the Eye 'Works

The eye works in some'-w&is-like the lens and aperture of fl. Mmera, and the pi'~cess by which the receptor cells transmit color to the mind's e?e·C"~:l,l 1J;e likened to the use of dHferent SCfl'(e.n percehtages in order to create an impure color irr subtractive, fourcolor pr0CCSS printing.

First, lightwaves pass, through the cornea, which covers and protects the iris as a clear filter protects a camera lens; On striking the cornea, the light,hwe's are bent: thts starts the process of exposing the inlage

to the retina. The iris, which gives us our sparkling·gr·een, blue, brown, or black eyes, works much like the.focusing ring and leaf

-.~,

---_

Fove-a

~ Cones

Iris

/

,o~ standarc observer

Outer retina wall

observer/size of the object is imaged on the retina wall.

I tvpe C67 M57 YO KO ~ Backqround color C75 MO Yl00 KO 30%
bgd C70 MO Yl00 KO
l'ftJe C14 MO Yl00 KO
(}S;d C67 M57 YO KO
tvpe C70 MO Y100 KO
bgd C14 MO Yl00 KO shutter of a camera lens. It helps to focus the image and adjust the atnill:unt.(Jf l!g~t passing through the pupil to define rhe depth of field. The pupil, which operates lit~e the aperture of a camera, is located at the midpoint of the eye. It is through the pupil, the black part in the center of the eye, that light travels in order to strike the retina, which is located in the hack of the eyeball. The lens of the eye is like the camera's glass lens. It is a curved .piece of protein-rich, t1exi1iii~ ~stalline tissue that forms a clear image all the retina; thus complertng the focusing process of tbe eye. At this point, the lightwaves have made their way through the focusing pathway and emerged upside down and backwards. TL'I:Ilt~h~f1omenon takes place between the oornea and the le-ns of the. eye, with the lightwavos bending and inverting as they travel.

Wfth nOTmal~~ight, a person se~' rhe world as in a 120" phptQl!raph. The eye· scans-a i~~ne in small, mpli! Jerks rather thnn in :ft:rj.11ooth rn~llIj,er, ;l],d l'Hr~r.e.s!!ions ~re c:ot'eQt~~ by f!1:f1tlonyoint;l, '1'1]1':11 the e~es 1.11dVe.; .for e'JUlll!lple ''olDen [hey i!l.fitl

Jl_gh t, tllo.::)' fl:;,:; on, an bJdi vklual object illitl dmll. i:rt~ya.ti~ln tA.i'J.~on tl~!:! lte}(t ~b)~.t:L 1J'h,l.n'l eO~'l1s ~)nly at u~~ €JJI:IlIti:O:rl pOil1ls. Whill"" !i1;~~~ q.t:(i~ln~' .$0 1i~'l)illay" tniit Vl;!;jiDn se.~mi; to b,,(smooth. )\t s3C!h {j)(~ltiel1 poimt, a (lJ:ou~.~d image is flashed ~Il tbe rO v 'El;~,

Diagram 9 Slae and tcceuon of tvplce I fixation points found within 1lgu(e 9. In desiqn. the compositional balance found within a given piece is the primary determinant or fixation points.

~~~ ~;;

~

Ptxauon ponus

=-
--
~"po CO MO VO KO M96 V91 K6 [~] type CO MD VO Kl00
i!lgd en M77 V66 K2 M24 VB' Kl bgd C43 M31 Y29 K13
o woe cn M77 Y56 K2 C3 M24 VB' Kl
bgd co MO YO KO ci M96 Y91 K5
M31 Y29 Kl3
MO YO KIOO creating an impression. In turn, this impression generates electrical impulses through several photoreceptor cell

matrices .locared in the visual pathway. This organizes the image into color, motion, form/silhouette, and depth. The visual pathway links the eyes to .the back of the brairr-vthe primary visual cortex. Electrical impulses travel along this path to be organized and interpreted in the mind's eye, instantly and right side up.

Elqure.B

Art Director 'Babette Mayer Desij),ner Leonardo R0p.,ol,dc

o

.

Figure a for this: image, only

a small amount of fixation is needed 10 comprehend (he lOl81 com position. Simplistic com positions do not need a qceat deal of fixation ln order for the tctalltv within the mind's eye to be com orebencec.

Basic Color Th·eo·ries

91

@]

I~nif

Y\

I

'I:

~I~ n ~.O U r~,:, .: -~

f;Fil:l;W.~r.J!

·'.E,1'l.1i"=i:~'LE.tj~:.q:.n, .. g.1:I"':.:rL.

~~=-F..!.IZ'1'"

r~Ii~~~ .irii.CClr.ILU;iIIIP1='1:....:f_c:u.:r_ ..

FI£!lntt9

Art (Hrecto;;/Oesigner Ganta Uchiktba

Figure 9 The greater IhB complexltv, the qreater the amount of fixation points needed to comprehend

the total composition. The larger the number of fixation points. the longer it takes

to comprehend. If there is a viewing time limit, graphics should be mora simplistic 10 enable faster comprehension. This includes all media

Cones and rods derive their names from their shape. They are 'associated with

three types of vision in the primary visual cortex: motion, form/silhouette, and depth. The corresponding photoreceptive fields-· simple, complex, and hypencomplex-are located near the back of the brain. The simple-photorecepnve fields lie parallel to one another and work best with moving stimuli. They contain clear "on" and "off"

regions. Simple cells give binocular input to the complex field cells. Complex fields react most favorably to stimuli that arc oriented properly across the field. They contain no dlstinot "on/off" regions, so

b stimulus length is not critical. Complex .L.FliIi-u-;-.1-D---------~-·-·~~~~~~~--'--=-i,ield cells give binocular input to the

~_Il!<','m~"! ~l""'twn 911l:,

II~----------~~~------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------~-

92

Agure 10 Ia and b} In both examples the coropostttooai balance is simplistic and induces a strong concentrated area of fixation points. Thereare numerous fixations due to the complexity found within the qrass

Color Management

Located off-center on the retina wall is the area called the fo\(ea. In this area, the cone receptor cells are extremely concentrared. Cones are responsible for our perception of bright light and c010r. This type of vision is used primarily in dnylight. The other photoreceptor cells are called rods; they are responsible for our night vtsion, which operates efficienrly in dim lighting. Rods

do not dlsttngujsh color, bur they are htghly sensitive to light. The most concentrated area of rods .is around the perimeter of the retina. They diminish in number toward the fovea, becoming integrated with all increasing concentration of cones.

hypercornplex cells. Ilypercomplex fields react most favornbly to stimuli rhat are moving in a particular direction and orientation. Within these fields, the length of the stimuli pattern is critical.

Cones are responsible for one more dimension of vision-color. The capability to see and value. color is one of the- most important functions in the visual process:

Three types of cone, each sensitive to

one of the three additive primaries (red, green, and blue), mediate the color visual process. These primanies correspond

to those used by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclaivage (CrE), the international commission on illumination, which also uses red, green, and blue. The optic nerve and middle area of the retina wall seem to be governed by the color opponent theory, with the three different cells responding ei ther to red/green, blue/yellow, Or black/white. Blue and green input yields yellow if there is a J;JCk of yellow-sensitive cones.

To summarize. wavelengths of color are focused and inverted through the cornea and lens of the eye, forming an image on

the retina. wall. Cones and rods catch <lie lightwaves, organizing and categorizilag them through thetr receptor eells into electrical impulses. These impulses travel through the

Additive color

3-D color

Diagram 10

This. two-pert itlustratlcn depicts hDW 3-D COIOj primaries and additive color primaries interrelate.

GtYPe-C32 M27 V4' KO II two C9 MS V5 KO
bgd C9 MS V5 KO _l>9d CiD M70 V72 K69
G type C70 M70 V72 K69
bgd C2 M2 V, KO
type C2 M2 Vi KO
bgd C32 M27 V41 KO ~ aackqround cOIDr ceo M92 YO KO 30%

Baste Color Theortes

93

visual pathway, where they are interpreted by the primary visual cortex of the >brain insta ntly and right side up, as an object or a scene, The visual process ends at this point, and thenund's eye, or brain, begins the interpretive and/or reoognittve procedure. Having. a fundamental understanding of how the human, eyes work in relationship to the source, object, and observer. we can begin to grasp how color theories arc interrelated.

FigurE! 11

Art Dlrel;t(lrlDesigner Jannuzai Smith

Figure 1'l In an em plrtcel

color study 01 16 lndlvlduals. the pink/red squares and the purple so uares were perceived first N lne individuals saw

the pink/red squares, six

saw the purple squares, and one indivioual saw the blue squares first. ~t is lnterestl ng to note thai purple and red

are at either end of the- color spectrum perceived by humans.

Diagram 11 The cones that are sensitive to red, blue, and green can detect any combi nations of the three primaries, Above is the spectrum of visible light that humans can S88.

magrQm 12 Rods are sensitive to white, black, and shades of gray. The gradation of grs.ys 8(13 extremetv sensitive to any variation detected bv tile rods.

t1 'yp. ceo M90 YO KO Gwpeco Ml00 Y50 KO
bqd CSO MO Y30 KO bgd CD MO YO KO
wee CD MO yo KO
tJgd CSD M90 YO KO
Ii!lpe CSO MO Y30 KO
tigd CO M100Y50 KO 94

II··

Art Oirector/Pesigl\_ar'" A"do Okumur~

Color Management

The Young-Helmholtz Theory

Two r!"!I;!orl~ 9i color ~'il!j,Qn, the You~l~llelmJ:ial~z [hJll"llITY ~ibt tfl~hrom1ltic l.'"Olbr tf1eol'1i') ami t1w oppon~nt"pl'C1be;;!W t.h~DW. &\'rf,}~w hy EW;!1i!d '{oe'rI\~, PM'M~ flilL'tbter 11)111 r ln~I<lUnn., ~1ith (lor t.I\~!i' rheaJ"i,t;S h(~1~llfP~.rr (If ~ ]~Y' to lmdeps ~~l'ldil1g jrnlm "'is1 .... I:I.

In 1964, two research t~mJlls, ~'[lI'I~ing in.dt!:peiu!~Jlll); of one aiLtlli\thoT, iIi!IJ:;!.DMered tfuut ~lil.b t-sl'!Ils'dll Wl Ptiotw'N!ep~Of oell1; E\uspand to t1u'ee typ~l;. of p~ent \\'Ryelen!ihf-treJ:!, ~f'tl~[J, :<ncl Mue:-which i,lf'ill'JoD$is.rem \!J'j~h tl1'~ 'inu1i~Hel"'Jl~ol~ thBl~I'1t. These rcc0plof' limlw; Mn! j~J.L!iL[AiiU.

in the 'r~r~n !It.lj~nt til the rf~vefl,

The fm ~tiwi af titreo t.hree rel.i~uil ~O'!l~' prOlli'ti':lJeS {red, ~oi!!~liI, ~mIN(je) fjull~ribed 111 the W,mng,.H';ltmnaJw tJteo~ ll~ ~i!'t$ ." ·~I1(l~. ~[!J;i t:orp,~ I'){ lo!t.H\!.: jly. pruclmniT1lJ!I1tly ~r~i(h'J.' to QiJ[!e eolor l,lr W,L~'t:lJGn~1:1:t ~1l4

m i r,LtmallY'!;ietl~UlVe (0 nnO'ther enln" dl'

\\"11 ~\l>UII~tlt, 1'0 '-Iti:<!1 re rIM-I 1I~ till;! t!y,e .ll'l;!e$

ft" tnE' tyPe ~lr r~r.1klnl Ctln:~ thnt '~'llel'J"l ~ .... ", ~~ md h;rs TO £ire witl .. r fQ~~ wbile [me :0 []];.e-r two tYJl~ 01 rHlimJ: {illt li':"IfJ'l tl v;

\\~[h clk, tftru(l p«rnaPi~\\! nil ~h~ uQ1QI'2i

oi rheJil''I;ClI:flJ'm, fr0n1·,l8fI~7:!'l(H'Im wal"l.lIC<[IAths, .d~ III hi!!' seen ])'.0 humans r.bT(;]IlI]ljn II.lOOI'!l.tions (0 UH: 3mujml!>i or ,j:!oJl.l(_,trien! Impulses generated when the-rennnl cones fire. For example.. wh~~~ IS creale'd when all three lyp~ of nlllfflli ~ne fira ~ ~ fjl1Ce w lth force, while ttl' produce yellow, the red and grcl:lI cones n~ye 10

be srimnlated to an averageextent and the blue retinal cones to:a lesser <:&te:J]t. All three lypes oi {.'ffl1I1\! flinctioll sbutilt~>fIeously; no one type can operate alone.

T'll~ X®n)l.,1 Iillmh~ll~r_ fheo'l'Y ?JrSCL e%pjjlin~' the ilIllSion_ of =mpl.;:me.nt<l1~ j!Jlt:tint~~~, Thes,!: i1¢l'~tir when tJ~ foI;:tJm~lllrm~l'nti ll~UfD~~ b~!'Q(I:m"', m'~rslil.JllJh.t""h~r.ld 1lEl:~I~iI:1tl. Ii ~e- ~mrt!;At Uti lrttlill.tidu~l cmo.r, say roo, Rlf 1'1 m in lite vI' UI.',j ~a thel) 1q,~11 to a wh1~1i: Itlt!;)k'!iiWUlld, ~ will see 1 f:l! cU~lpremenllll~'Y, g!'€"911. Gr~l1 rtl~(i!~ wlllliu u Jj)I"~T" f1akl 0.1' tetl 'ill th~ ~me till edsl L;' ~rflaAr~ til b~ Il;Iti.iUU~'l' tJemnl~ the h:LI ret11Iill12bl1C.lf.llC~DRH! m'entl m Llmted, 'Ore.uJIIIt Lbei< (!~mFi~Qjemul'Y jl"[,l.)tirnl~~ g~en. This !lffiN:t il> ~lI~tL MmllitJllnlmUa a'.fImnl~.L. illltcl1 t o~~ ur~' wltl.L ~vt:t~ Inus.to

RfrJ me ":.lI:!Jl!nl, dcpendi nt nu lIs. ,,-m~i1l'1t Q,f CGlIll;F;, ~(W1hilil~~ ion or color, "'rnG jlmhUll~ of 01 ruma, 1'~onol1ncedi:lil.u!tlml!t:iuS::·tl'IJlmlf:li~{ i:!l -pmdll,ce3 hy nn imbalance betwel!D snhdJ and l~l1l'eas of color. A more pronounced simultaneous contrast of color oJ~p~fiif~ causes an unstable juxtap~itlQn or unpleasant strobine i!ffel;lt, ~all1, these eff~~s are all forms of color illU'Sion caused by retinal cone fatigue.

Figura 12 After staring at this color field for two m i nutes. then looking at a blank white wall, an array of afterimage colors will emerge.

Oiagram 13 Stare at the grE!en or red color fer a minute or two, then look at the while squares. These- will appear to have the enertrnane of the two hues (green having red and red having green) .

• type co MO YO KO l~ Bi)ckground color e90 M53 YO KO 50%
bgd C76 M70 Y66 KB7
GLypeC81 M93 Y19 K4
bgd CO MO YO KO
.!,ypeC76 M70 Y66 K87
_ .bgd C81 M93 V19 K4 Opponent-process Theory

Ewald Hering's opponent-process theory explains the function of the cones, rods, and optic nerves found around the fovea in the middle of the retina wall. No rods are

located in the area of the fovea itself, but they become highly concentrated as we move outward to the perimeter of the retina. The mid-area of the retina, between the fovea nnd perimeter, has equalarnounfa of rods amt1 cones. 1'11~ ruccptor Cla'l]s; !!iiC!!Ated

in thi~, ~J;l;!a functlon i1fflilllE~.d; frl)m ~hOl;e fomu:l in tlire m..ea Of the p&lmeter of the retil'lll \vall, ~ur explained by Hering's theory. The reeeptor cells IIr~ trouped in pairs of three types: blue/yellow, green/red, and bL1.ckAvll ~te. &m.h of tbe lfetlh hll~~ II negat! ve ~!IIi ;) Pf'~l tl 'oW tlol~lr ~eJl~(jr----blu~ gn.'Cll. lirnu black at"e.u.egap".:f. und yellow, red, 3nJ while !l'jJ::s~:t:iw. Tlie,,1l t;j}DPI"S do not COil tai n Ul!1y pwpc:rt$plil,li of otheir cokm; ~fllI·iI1;ethel'dort! pure ,r, l:h~. ~y~ Th~ rei3.efll:m"" ~ililll~ du "ot ha .... e the l:l'@ppbiHty Gi" stimu1n~ing a fe~IJFmse l',;jr 11ll;lth Ilqj~·1It jJn~, except for hiladk'·~tnd whit'E!; Rmit ~M ~·>lHI]~!':h:~ll1lh(lk.1. ~nd th<;!.!)MP!'lneIlt"l1i'&e~ rhe~rle3 h{l!tJ

that whit>e is 11!a'e9!ied or the presenee of a selllsllJl,on and 'l.illi(:lt by dle-·jllnieil(!€ ef one; -an:y r~pe af gfllY \1,'flU l!tlle A;ft:9l~ IJr ,1 p1hrHI1l ~11>l;l::ltce uF Ili!l!u at,~(;i;rditt!}W the roUIllg' Hdliilh~ l1~~tll', Elnd !L.oom buiation ~)i p©:sitlj,llf Ill,d rlC-~li\'(r' rt'~V[Jui1es according to tilt! aPJI'Un~la(-pra';':b"!l~ tk~"1uy-

Basic Color Theories

95

F~gLlrc 13

Art DirBt1orlDa-sign&r Akio Okumura

Figure 13 In viewing til IS image, a Ilthe photcreceptcr cells within the cortes are

bel ng utilized ill order 10- process the array of ector found on the bog. Constantly firing with different degrees of force, the photoreceptor cells will quickly become tatlqoed, causlnp simultaneous contrast and its by-product, afterimage,

~ Rods

Outer retina wall '"

10~ standard observer

.f;> Cones

Lens

Iris

" Outer retina wall

Diagram 14 The mechanics- of the eyeball, iIIusLrating how and where the opponentprocess theory takes place

.tvpeC65 M5S Y38 K7
._. bgd C9. M96 V'8 K37
.'!:ypeC94 M96 Y4S K37
~gd CB5 M58 V38 K7
type C71 M7 V58 KO
t>gd C2 M2 V75 XO 96

Illumination: The Source

·rilE!. iirst of .th", tri.8idic. cf)mp[~rnU-li.fu::;- of

()9[~r iii tIl!:;! !i~1t: ~t)u:rCE:: In 17.10, Sir l~~:n~ ]!.I,:-wttm ~!l~ 11}1 e..\;perimBnt in \"hiGh l1gtLt w~~ln()\k.;!l'I into \'!~jhl~ tlolors by th~tJ$e j}f a pd"lm. Tll1j!i'a~P[~reiiml!mt I&J

to the i:Us(l1;!<\lli!ry of th~ \"i~1J.~1 S]~~~nlm

of wllv'lJ,eugths i IUl 0\,'11. 'IS color, ill!!t can stimulate. tthe humaneye, 'Til\} I'un s~[wn.1m af coltir as':IlRIl hy the human ~f!! ma!i',i;!E' 1(l:1,l:ite ngtil,t. A Il!:\ht ~~u~e ~~n he in the

i.onn of the stun er a I,lghtbLllh, and e.111 be in(!>r>lJi(id.cd b,)1 Jts'~I]~IW, 0r. p~W'er, x timel PliD~~iji1j!\ th8 ''i'!L\{61~ni!~h ~ti~\!e~..x time 'NtH Siil''e t h~ ~1'l1!,[!tr:3] pitf_r di,~rM$u tial'l.IJ,LlI"!l'(, 011 :~ lrgh~fiPur~'I!!, li.1(al1l1!l'w~} .. ,r·I:i(~}.tret,;lj lmll'illg i::IiJi§l'ent Ape:otlnlii 'P'l)~~!!'1i" JilSU'.ifjll.ri,iln OlJJ'~l!:$

, i'li: ~!1I'y:ll~ht. lllll;1i",M~cent light. dcr lin fj)i'~renli't tilL}'.

Oilyllgbt. and ~Tnr OOllOOit of Ught, j,; iJt'1!l.oFi~·e~ 1J1 ][::;: \>Mveetl~th (Qr w'~,'lill~tlllrh F8nArd, \V1ir.i.dl~~ ]ll!tle.wur~d 1:t:J n;JIJ(11rn.e~l~ (nm), l nm bil'llnglJl,Jj[jopp~j) ()i~

mi!lime~F. Thtl ~'l'!'i\cf'CI~ill1i~~IS',(>f tl<ght vlmr ~'r,e vi~ib(f! lJrl lJl'" ImmJiJ1 "".!(~ llflI,~~ frout ~'!,I;j(,l-. 15'.o'.mrn -, 'f'11 e ~liDl' p,lJ,Tpl~ I.UL!l'.~ sit th4:l llpl1Qlj] o;j th~ ~N~.~~LlIlr\ {J~nr:rI'JJ); ,;md i:o:'.fuU0~ved 11>' IJWfcf (dBt1nJjlil), ~en (,'i()Onm}, rtllkl':;" .~J5j)1nml, I~rnllte ~.599mn);~md rrutl tr;S;Qtl1T.i), whlJ(]h 1i~4t fheu;>p or the :speot.l1UI1TL Th~ ].wtlaj]!J e~~ peflre:ly!;!s'l!iS, ~iSlllli ni~ht LID!' 1:io,W.) 011[:1': 'Ii ssunll fr.actlml(l~ ch~ \vli",,!@

Figura 14-

Art i)J.rector/Deslgner M~un9r;;;~k RJ)oo

Figure 14 The photoreceptor cells within the rods are actively utilized to process this image. As the light source decreases, the gray tones will g.ain darker values. and as light increases. the tones will lighten.

Diagram 15 A reoresenterjcn of the visual spectrum of colors that humans can see.

OIS'lgram 1?

Three hues: seen jn average daylight, and the same three hues seen in poor lighting ccndltlcns. As bright light fades. \day1ight), the cones become less effective and the rods take over process: ng all visible light

Diagram 1:6

Examples of ligllt sources D65 .. Average day

9,300 K:::: Early afternoon light 4,800 K = Noon sun

r;;'i Backqrcu nd color L___J

type ell M8 '17 KO bgd C23 1M23 V27 KO

H if:; gwO~~OO ~~OO ~g5

type C23 M23 V27 KO bgd C'IOO Ml00 Vl00 K85

CO M75 Y100 KO 50%

J

lIth<ty l:if elt!{l~TOIill~l(,!Ei~ i~lfi:r:!t:tii:'ln. In

tt:o!5l!111noi d:ttt iW:oIVul!:![.ljth.';\ :r.y I qsltllniC'l~tB:t:li;n; t thi!) mil: ha~ Bil),tflblis~~d ,~1Ilumber M ~tan.d.·ll"d H~.h.Hl)qFOe!l. These atre JtiCtltifilJCd ~>s·&1aI~(lBii" A. W:, 8,~llitI' Dl0i'D6"5. 'S~uru~ /1,. 'i)~"'~~~ ar- iI Lempe::;I1rI.[ure.-o.r2,S54 ~r91"'j'J~ (K} mlcll5'Tll~ equi'i,'IllIe.tllt "".r,J;fu;¥tt p.mG'i.u!:!"l!lii3 ~\Y <l ItI:lJ(g$tl$l.H1~l:rlent .h(rnj)f :5bLlITC:I!'~(J opel';il"tes> iltf.n t6tnj}Q~b~t,l.u:~ HI 4;$M !~jl11l1 tII'Jli;oo,:.hll1iJl[~~~:I!_g!lll ~"Un:. &ill[.lli! [.1< Qf.I~r.ues .~ t a fe.nE!~;:<tW.m.t.url!> or '6.5Pi) It iHXll '~l}pfW;,irniat.M iJ,'\;.-em~~ d:)l~,,.]f~tc·i!W"ur~e- 1)08. me IYii!'tlpt"lbf) ~t~'I1\l;~l'{l, h~~ alre:m:llt.e..I:.olof ~81)lpern'tul;e;~ il!If ;;;,~~Itfd rtri mul 7 ,O!D() ~~, bucll!; ';:;'\<eI;I!~~ ~ I\SOoO It The U~& S!1lI:1.1r4'j1)n'\;., So.urM m;·o .. 'O.p!",rnres' lIt: 5.0{l:O K,

Itrrel~ Dfrh.e;;l': $lJ1~ttJJ.[n1 ~1ii~~ emits Jl dlf~lr.(!nl! &pectF:iI1:P0'1'r!G'I~ di~~Fijbllti'oql,

I u·rl!lIcll.el:ng riw iz:d[(lcr h1iin!!; moll~L~L!Tkd b,y .chll~.~g: il.~ ;~ppm~nrrneB._li'ilf"~:jlil'l1p'le, ~ c(llot~ thll~ I~J~~ tin! i~:me m:. e~4;)h !Jther In S;CtLliP!C'l); ~ m~lr looJ; '/lery differenr frolll O[IA~ ~l!lotllBF if) &mme &. 1'j~~ p.henome.tion i~ ~J:Ill!t1 ,C1;II (if rai~litlo;n, J L lof< hl'l(JOf,lmU 00 1.1!-11! tll>B rjpt i>i\,'<llcl~n:L ;iCU1 rae t{j <Ici.hilf;'!re tlJ~ Wo:rref' 31HP~iUt of ~t:il'1lHhElti,Otl 01 ~hlC'nye lut ~I ~);I!!\n m"!lta[1(f~ • .In other wordS, Gll:J J1dtlli!l/l! !:j(lm~(,! IJ ,( dil,:,~llI.ii:1u) till e.61~~.!n!.U tht: ~M.I2:'11 ~S'pqll"e rill Jne~l.tdl';,Soe.el1t lig,lluu!l.. \V\'thin 'INJOO' relld,I.Uon. ~h.", )ili0IIDrn6na.n ·of twg ,()olo:ii'~ wH:ll dlll'erell.t £p~Qtrir1 rl2:F1~tmll:!e

()1J f'\-Ies· I1IJpool:htg't.lw .:,mmif -W;f!(r~I" on'F: l'l~ln

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«(fl]~r 'ltm~ ®Ctl.py t±tl;l; SDl:1:t!i1l ~tlWL,(; o'IlF :)"nJ)th.ii!r, I;J,ec~u~ (If rlil.i~ p11%.LtOI1tew2\l1, cohm GanJ:l(l"t be Illl1tehecl by t'lleit Pr2i1Ecbnoe CU!ll~'8& fU-istimultlg \~llt~~sl, lnrt t.liB.~fllllllfla.tbjiin~t the: ooJur ttil the 0Y"~ in. dil11e'l'f;!m l~~ ilQ:vre~ .l!:~m l:i~w;6'j1~ul'ed.

FiOU[C'.15

Art Director/Designer MYlJl1g:si~ H~u'

Flgu..-e 15 ln thls poster the colors end their correspcncane values will change in different I ightiog ccnoitions. TIl is applies to beth the highlight, midlones. Clild shadow

areas of the photograph .EI nd typographyc Color shifting

in the shadow areas will be minimal, and in standard light sources will be Imperceptible in the black area. In poor lighting conditions all color is eradicated, turning the poster into a uravscete composition.

97

• !:";lpe CiOO Ml00 Y100 K92 . ~d Co, M44 Y65 K9

, C20 M15 Y2S KO Cl00 Ml00 Y'OO 'K92

M46 Y59 K2 M15 Y25 KO

• tvpe C64 M44 Y6S K9 bgd C34 110146 Y59 K2

98

I

Figure 16

Art 'Direfto-r/Designe-r Asio O~1!j m.u ra

Figure 16 Allhough the label has a smooth surface. diffuse scattering will occur due- to the bottle's shape. The shape of an object will influence ector appearance whether the object IS smooth or rouqh. hi this example the g1are that occurs is caused by the total amount 01 while light retlectinq oH the object.

Color Managemen~

Reflectance: The ,Object

T'he second of the triadic components 61' color is· the object. What happens when lightwaves strike di.(fcrent surfaces? A lightwave travels through Ill" air in a strnlght line. 8Jl1y when interrupted by an obJect can it change its course, and the sUldace of the object ·~cterrni'nes the extent to. which this will change. If UglJt travels thrOlLlgJl lin object uninterrupted, the object is said to btl transparent; AU light passes through transparen t objects, except for a small arnouut HInt is reflected off their surface. Sea tted~ng occurs if light strikes an object with a rough surface: this causes the wavelengths ro refleot rn many directions. When s,c,attcring is excessive, Light. is said

to be diffusely reflected. If thc object is smooth and nnrrorlike, reflecting all of the liglht back in the opposite direction, the object is saHi to be opaque: H )~OU hold a flashli!i;ht at a 4S'''angle to the face of a vertical mirror, the i'ight\vaves will reflect bad, in another 15° angle, If HlC object is transparent alld the.source of light s,trikiJ:l'g the ghss is at it 45" anglc, 90 percent of the light transmits through the glass at all angle of 2~" off the verticel plane, and if') percept 01' the light is reflected back at a 45-0 angle, in tlle opposite direction. This accounts for the glare often encountered with glass, varriish, and some inks. The rougher the surIac.e, the more 'sca~terif)g will occur,

Th" opposite of trunsmttted ligut i,$ absorbed light. If alii of the light is absorbed' by an object, tIre object appears black. O.lllSUUl)Y, days a black top conducts heat by absorbing thi' energy of light. Lambert's Law states that equal thicknesses of matenal will produce equal amounts of absorption. If no ~ca1-tering takes place, a li HIe over J/Yin (Lcm) of material will absorb one half of the light. If another one hall' of the rema.ihIng light 1.5 absorbed by rl'l10ther 3/Riu (Icm) of material, only one-quarter of the original ,Light will he left.

Another 1111portant law in li~ht absorption is B8_Ul"S Law. This states that equal amounts ohlhsorbing material will produce equal amounts 01' absorbed Iioght. This is important in understanding how the pigment in ink works in printed inatcriul, Including translucent material. The size of the pigment particles directly iuliluences which wavelengths arc absorbed and which are transmitted 01' re£Je,cted back; this is called the refractive index.

If there is no absorption and all wavelengths ~fr,e reflected hack, .11.8 pigment ,is said co

be white, It; there is partinlabsorption., the pigment particles will reflect back oulv the wavelengths compatible to their size and wil] absorb the others, crearing the appearance of a color.

Source: white visible light 350-750 nm

Observer

Smooth surface

650nm Ired light)

magram 18

Complex and simple color mixing. djfll1se scattering, and the lnteractlon of llqhrwaves on different substrates.

Rough surface

SOurce: white vlslble light 35Q-750nm

Observer {color chroma is lessened!

6S0om {red light)

Diffuse sceuerinu

type C8S Ma9 V36 K16 GtYP.e-C37 Mol V22 KO
Ilgd C37 M41 V22 KO bgd C5 MO V4 KO
~V:de m M~8 V16 KO
M89 Y36 K16
type C5 MO V4 KO
bgd C29 M~8 Vi6 KO ~ Backorcund color

C54 M25 V 19 K8 20%

The spectra! chrrractcrtsties of materials

elm he described by a spectra! transmirtance or reflectance curve. Speetml refers to tho total quantity of vadants within a hght's wavelength, not to he confused with specular, which refers to the reflection caused by smooth surfaces. The refractive index varies-with tfl<d type of surfnce=-gloss, matte, or rough (in the case of printed p:!J\itldr.ials, uncoated). With printing inks,

an jnterqsting and common phenomenon occurs. Most inks are translucent and the surface under chom opaque. Together, they c.r.eat~'q diffuse reflection surface. This occuns w4th'inks that are applied to a surface coated with a clear varnrsh: it

can also CCCU.I with matte and nonglossy surfaces it:. there is a degree of unevenness

or roughness.

The spectral transrnittance or reflectance curve deseri\;>cs tl1Te characteristics of t.he object just RS the spectral power dist.ributicn curves describe the eharacterjsfics of the source of light. Materia! than is.colored absorbs complementary hues arrd reflectS light of its own hue. ,""ith thiS knowledge'

alone, yOUI cannot accumtclv or even.

genemlly predict the kgibihty of colors in relationship to distance: In Qlr(k,r to do this, you must look.at all three components on 3-D color (SOll.rCC, object, and observer) in conjunction Y~<ith one another.

100% of ligh~

112

U J
i I
1f4in 1/4io
6.3Smm 6.35mm Diagram 19 Lambert's law states that equa I thicknesses 01 materte I produce equal amounts of absorption.

99

I I

Figure 17

Art·Dkect.o~iI.De.sign.er Gj-H~IJf1, S W!1

Figure 17 <a and b)

An excellent example of diffuse scetterlnp caused bV the unusual shapes found with i n each object.

II t'tpe CO MO yo KO _l'i9d C100 M100 Y100 K99

11 [)'tde g~~o ~l~O mo ~~9

r::l typo e C65 MoO V56 Kl L.:J i>!;!d CO MO YO KO

• rvpe C33 M27 Y31 KO bgd e65 M50 Yo6 K1

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