“PRODUCTION PROCESS OF APPLE MACBOOK”

PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TOWARDS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT

(Approved by AICTE, Govt. of India) (Equivalent to MBA) ACADEMIC SESSION 2009-11

SUBJECT-POM

Under the Guidance of: Prof. S.K DUBEY Associate Professor(Operation) IMS, Ghaziabad

Submitted By: Manisha Agarwal (BM-09100) Nikhil Singh (BM- 09124) Noopur Verma (BM-09131) Nupur Sharma (BM-09132)

INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES C-238, BULANDSHAHR ROAD, LAL QUAN, PB NO: - 57,GHAZIABAD -201009.

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that all the information that has been collected, analyzed and documented for the project is authentic possession of us. We would like to categorically mention that the work here has neither been purchased nor acquired by any other unfair means. However, for the purpose of the project, information already compiled in many sources has been utilized.

(MANISHA AGARWAL)

(NIKHIL SINGH)

(NOOPUR VERMA)

(NUPUR SHARMA)

 

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this is a report on “PRODUCTION PROCESS OF APPLE MACBOOK” submitted by Manisha Agarwal, Nikhil Singh, Noopur Verma, Nupur Sharma as a part of the PGDM curriculum for the third trimester. The work has been undertaken and completed under the guidance of Prof. S.K.Dubey and is satisfactory.

Project Coordinator: PROF S.K.DUBEY Date: 31-03-10

INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES GHAZIABAD
  3 

CERTIFICATE

We hereby certify that content presented in the project entitled “PRODUCTION PROCESS OF APPLE MACBOOK” in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANGEMENT from IMS GHAZIABAD is an authentic record of our own work, carried out under the guidance of our project guide, Dr. S.K.DUBEY. The matter embodied in the project has not been copied by us from any sources.

PLACE- GHAZIABAD DATE : 31-03 2010

Manisha Agarwal(BM-09100) Nikhil singh(BM-09124) Noopur Verma(BM-09131)
Nupur Sharma(BM-09132)

This is to certify that above statements made by the students are true to the best of my knowledge.

PROF S.K.DUBEY

(Project coordinator)

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Perseverance, inspiration and motivation have always played a key role in the success of any venture. A successful and satisfactory completion of any project is the outcome of the invaluable aggregate contribution of different persons fully in radical direction, explicitly or implicitly. Whereas vast, varied and valuable reading efforts leads to substantial acquisition of knowledge via books and allied information sources. True expertise excludes from collateral practical works and experiences. Words have never seemed as inadequate as now, when we are endeavoring to express our heartfelt gratitude at the culmination of the project, to all those made it possible. Even the best effort is waste without proper guidance and advice. We highly solicit to PROF. S.K.DUBEY for launching us into this foray and for giving time-to-time suggestion and their valuable guidance, co-operation, inspiration and keen supervision to our project. Last but not the least; we are grateful to God, our Parents, Elders and Friends for encouraging us to take up this challenging task.

PREFACE

The primary objective of this report is to provide the insight into the core of PRODUCTION PROCESS OF APPLE MACBOOK and an understanding of Production process of Apple MacBook & its importance in relation to Quality of its products and why it has an edge over other laptop making companies. We hope that the report has made the text interesting and lucid. In writing this report, we have benefited immensely by referring to many publications and articles. We express my gratitude to all such authors and publishers. Any suggestions to improve this report in contents or in style are always welcome and will be appreciated and acknowledged.

 

 

ABSTRACT
‘APPLE’ the American multinational company that designs and manufactures consumer electronics, computer software, and commercial servers. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the ipod, the iphone and the ipad. As of January 2010 the company operates 284 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry. Apple doesn’t simply make a statement. It lives it by ensuring that its employees understand the vision and strive to reach it. Apple is popular for the quality of its products. The quality of its product is resultant of its unique manufacturing process. Earlier Apple used to manufacture a thin, bowl-shaped shell that has an internal skeleton to hold the internal parts together in MacBook Pro. Now it uses the material machined from the aluminum block, which is collected and recycled. Jobs noted that the new MacBooks "are the industry’s greenest notebooks.” The environmentally friendly LED backlit display also offers other advantages; it turns on instantly when the display is opened as there is no warm up time required by a conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp backlight.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

TOPIC Introduction History of Apple Products of Apple About Mac Book Apple Debuts new 15” MacBook Pro Apple unveils new 13” MacBook Manufacturing process of Apple’s MacBook Conclusion References

PAGE NO. 10 11 16 22 25 28 32 37 39

 

INTRODUCTION
Apple Inc. is an American multinational company that designs and manufactures consumer electronics, computer software, and commercial servers. The company's best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the ipod, the iphone and the ipad. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the ilife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iwork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; and Logic studio, a suite of audio tools. As of January 2010 the company operates 284 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. Established in Cupertino, California on April 1, 1976 and incorporated January 3, 1977, the company was called Apple Computer, Inc. For its first 30 years, but dropped the word "Computer" on January 9, 2007 to reflect the company's ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. Apple has about 35,000 employees worldwide and had worldwide annual sales of US$42.91 billion in its fiscal year ending September 26, 2009. For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to its distinctive advertising campaign. Unique reputation of Apple includes a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand, particularly in the United States. Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008 and in the world in 2008, 2009, and 2010. “Man is the creator of change in this world. As such he should be above systems and structures, and not subordinate to them.” Apple lives in this vision through the technologies it develops for consumers and corporations. It strives to make its customers masters of the products they have bought. Apple doesn’t simply make a statement. It lives it by ensuring that its employees understand the vision and strive to reach it. It has put systems in place to enable smooth customer interaction. It has put objectives in place to continuously move forward; implemented strategies to fulfill these objectives; and ensured that the right marketing; financial and operational structures are in place to apply the strategies.   10 

HISTORY OF APPLE
Apple computer was founded by Steve Jobs with 21 years and Stephen G. Wozniak with 26 years in Palo Alto/California in 1976. As many other company legends in the USA everything started in a garage where the technique freaks developed and produced the first operating Apple I computer circuit board. The first buyer of 50 Apple I circuit boards was Paul Terrel, owner of the Byte shop for computer systems. Steve Wozniak is an engineer, Steve Jobs a businessman. Steve Wozniak therefore put the first computers together, he had gained experience at Hewlett-Packard with the construction of pocket calculators and a computer with keyboard and coloured monitor screen. Steve Jobs concentrated on the business part. Pre-foundation- Before Steve Wozniak co-founded Apple, he was an electronics hacker. As a kid, Wozniak would become so engrossed in mathematical ponderings his mother would have to shake him to bring him back to reality. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were outcasts while they were in high school; by 1975, each had dropped out of college (Reed College and UC Berkeley, respectively). Wozniak found a job at Hewlett-Packard and helped his friend Steve Jobs design video games for Atari. The Apple I:- Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had been friends for some time, having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a machine and selling it. Jobs approached a local computer store, The Byte Shop, who said they would be interested in the machine, but only if it came fully assembled. The owner, Paul Terrell, went further, saying he would order 50 of the machines and pay US$500 each on delivery. Jobs then took the purchase order that he had been given from the Byte Shop to Cramer Electronics, a national electronic parts distributor, and ordered the components he needed to assemble the Apple I Computer. The machine had only a few notable features. One was the use of a TV as the display system, whereas many machines had no display at all. This was not like the displays of later machines, however; text was displayed at a terribly slow 60 characters per second. However, this was still faster than the teletypes used on contemporary machines of that era. The Apple I also included bootstrap code on ROM, which made it easier to start up. Finally, at the insistence of Paul Terrell, Wozniak also designed a cassette interface for loading and saving programs, at the   11 

then-rapid pace of 1200 bit/s. Although the machine was fairly simple, it was nevertheless a masterpiece of design, using far fewer parts than anything in its class, and quickly earning Wozniak a reputation as a master designer. Eventually 200 of the Apple I's were built. The Apple II:- Many of the design features of the I were due to the limited amount of money they had to construct the prototype, but with the income from the sales he was able to start construction of a greatly improved machine, the Apple II; it was presented to the public at the first West coast computer Faire on April 16 and April 17, 1977. On the first day of exhibition, Jobs introduced Apple II to a Japanese chemist named Toshio Mizushima who became the first authorized Apple dealer in Japan. The main difference internally was a completely redesigned TV interface, which held the display in memory. Now not only useful for simple text display, the Apple II included graphics, and, eventually, color. Jobs meanwhile pressed for a much improved case and keyboard, with the idea that the machine should be complete and ready to run out of the box. This was almost the case for the Apple I machines sold to The Byte Shop, but one still needed to plug various parts together and type in the code to run BASIC. The Apple II was released in 1977 and became the computer generally credited with creating the home computer market. Millions were sold well into the 1980s. A number of different models of the Apple II series were built, including the Apple IIe and Apple II GS, which could still be found in many schools as late as 2005. The Apple III:- By the early 1980s, Apple Computer faced increasing competition While the Apple II was already established as a successful business-ready platform because of Visicalc, Apple was not contented. The Apple III (Apple 3) was designed to take on the IBM PC in the business environment. The Apple III was a relatively conservative design for computers of the era. Unfortunately, the physical design of the case was not sufficient to cool the components inside it. By removing the fan from the design, the Apple III was prone to overheating. This caused the integrated circuit chips to disconnect from the motherboard. Customers who contacted Apple customer service were told to "drop the computer on the desk", which would cause the ICs to fall back in to place.

 

12 

Thousands of Apple III computers were recalled and, although a new model was introduced in 1983 to rectify the problems, the damage was already done. The Apple IPO:- On December 12, 1980, Apple launched the Initial Public Offering of its stock to the investing public. When Apple went public, it generated more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly created more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history. Several venture capitalists cashed out, reaping billions in long-term capital gains. The business of the meeting had been planned (or choreographed) so that the voting could be staged in 15 minutes or less. In most cases, voting proxies are collected by mail and counted days or months before a meeting. In this case, after the IPO, many shares were in new hands. Xerox PARC and the LISA:- In December, 1979, Steve Jobs and a group of Apple Computer engineers toured the Xerox PARC laboratories and witnessed Xerox’s research into the GUI as demonstrated on the Alto Computer. It was this moment that Steve Jobs realized that the future of computers was in the GUI, rather than the standard text-based interface. Apple Computer's engineers did not come up with the LISA interface overnight. In fact, the first iteration of the soon-ubiquitous WIMP interface was a poorly-drawn picture of a floppy disk. It was only after months of usability testing and work that Apple settled on the LISA interface of windows and icons. The Lisa was introduced in 1983 at a cost of US$9,995. Because of the high price, it failed to penetrate the market, however it was a useful proof of concept. The release of Macintosh and the 1984 commercial:- The Mawas announced to the press in October 1983, followed by an 18-page brochure included with various magazines in December. Its debut, however, was announced by a single national broadcast of the now famous US$1.5 million television commercial, "1984". It was directed by Ridley Scott, aired during the third quarter of Super bowl XVIII on January 24, 1984, and is now considered a "watershed event" and a "masterpiece." 1984 used an unnamed heroine to represent the coming of the Macintosh (indicated by her white tank top with a Picasso-style picture of Apple’s Macintosh computer on it) as a means of saving humanity from "conformity" (Big Brother). These images were an Allusion to George Orwell's noted novel, nineteen eighty four, which described a dystopian future ruled by a televised "Big Brother."

 

13 

It came bundled with two applications designed to show off its interface: Mac write and Mac Paint. Although the Mac garnered an immediate, enthusiastic following, it was too radical for some, who labeled it a mere "toy". Because the machine was entirely designed around the GUI, existing text-mode and command driven applications had to be redesigned and the programming code rewritten; this was a challenging undertaking that many software developers shied away from, and resulted in an initial lack of software for the new system. In April 1984 Microsoft's Multi Plan migrated over from MS-DOS, followed by Microsoft Word in January 1985. In 1985, Lotus software introduced Lotus Jazz after the success of Lotus 1-2-3 for the IBM PC, although it was largely a flop. Apple introduced Macintosh Office the same year with the lemmings add, infamous for insulting potential customers. It was not successful. While it did briefly license some of its own designs, Apple did not allow other computer makers to "clone" the Mac until the 1990s, long after Microsoft dominated the marketplace with its broad licensing program. By then, it was too late for Apple to reclaim its lost market share and the Macintosh clones achieved limited success before being axed after Steve Jobs returned to Apple Computer in 1997. The AppleII family of 1980s:- Apple now had two separate, incompatible platforms: the Apple II, an affordable, expandable home computer, and the Apple Macintosh, the closed platform for professionals. John Gruber, among others, has speculated that this platform incompatibility was the main reason the Macintosh did not share the initial commercial success which was experienced by the Apple II in the late 1970s. However, by the mid - 1980s, the Apple II was now competing with the IBM PC and its clones, and a new energy was focused upon marketing the Macintosh. The Mac family:- The original model evolved into the Mac Plus in 1986 and spawned the Mac SE and the Mac II in 1987 and the Mac Classic and Mac LC in 1990. Meanwhile, Apple attempted its first portable Macs: the failed Macintosh Portable in 1989 and then the more popular PowerBookin 1991, a landmark product that established the modern form and ergonomic layout of thelaptop. Popular products and increasing revenues made this a good time for Apple. MacAddict magazine has called 1989 to 1991 the "first golden age" of the Macintosh. On February 19, 1987, Apple registered the "Apple.com" domain name,

 

14 

making it one of the first hundred companies to register a .com address on the nascent Internet. The early mid 1990s:- Apple's response to the PC threat was a profusion of new Macintosh lines including Quadris, Centris, and Performa. Unfortunately, these new lines were marketed poorly. For one, there were too many models, differentiated by very minor graduations in their tech specs. The excess of arbitrary model numbers confused many consumers and hurt Apple's reputation for simplicity. Apple's retail resellers like Searsand comp USA often failed to sell or even competently display these Macs. Compounding matters was the fact while the machines were cheaper than a comparable PC (counting all the things built in which had to be added to the 'bare bones PC') the poor marketing gave the impression that the machines were more expensive. In addition to computers, Apple has also produced consumer devices. In 1993, Apple released the Newton, an early PDA. Though it failed commercially, it defined and launched the category and was a forerunner and inspiration of devices such as Palm Pilot and Pocket PC. 1998-2001: Apple’s Renaissance:- The imac, ibook, and Power Mac G4 and the AirPort product series, which helped popularize the use of wireless LAN technology to connect computers to networks. In 2001, Apple introduced MAC OS X, an operating system based on NEXT's NEXT Step and the Free BSD kernel. In May 2001, after much speculation, Apple announced the opening of a line of Apple retail stores. In October 2001, Apple introduced its first iPod portable digital audio player. On January 10, 2006, the first Intel-based machines, the iMac and MacBook Pro, were introduced. They were based on the Intel Core Duo platform. This introduction came with the news that Apple will complete the transition to Intel processors on all hardware by the end of 2006, a year ahead of the originally quoted schedule.

 

15 

PRODUCTS OF APPLE
iPod:- The iPod is a portable media player designed and marketed by Apple and launched on October 23, 2001. The product line-up includes the hard drive-based iPod classic, the touchscreen iPod Touch, the video-capable iPod Nano, and the compact iPod Shuffle. The iPhone can function as an iPod but is generally treated as a separate product. Former iPod models include the iPod Mini and the spin-off iPod Photo(since reintegrated into the main iPod Classic line). iPod Classic models store media on an internal hard drive, while all other models use flash memory to enable their smaller size (the discontinued Mini used a MicroDrive miniature hard drive). As with many other digital music players, iPods can also serve as external data storage devices. Storage capacity varies by model, ranging from 2GB for the iPod Shuffle to 160GB for the iPod Classic. iTunes:- Apple's iTunes software can be used to transfer music to the devices from computers using certain versions of Apple Macintosh and Microsoft windows operating systems. For users who choose not to use Apple's software or whose computers cannot run iTunes software, several open source alternatives to iTunes are also available. iTunes and its alternatives may also transfer photos, videos, games, contact information, e-mailsettings, Web bookmarks, and calendars to iPod models supporting those features. iMac:- The iMac is a range of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its introduction in 1998, and has evolved through four distinct forms. In its original form, the iMac G3, the iMac was gum-drop or egg-shaped with a CRT monitor, mainly enclosed by colored, translucent plastic. The second major revision, the iMac G4, moved to a design of a hemispherical base containing all the main components and an LCD monitor on a freely moving arm attached to the top of the base. The iMac G5 and the Intel iMac placed all the components immediately behind the display, creating a slim unified design that tilts only up and down on a simple metal base. The current iMac shares the same form as the previous models, but is now thinner and uses anodized aluminum and black-bordered glass for its case. In October 2009, Apple released a refresh of the iMac line. An LED backlit 16:9 widescreen was introduced in 21.5" and 27" models, replacing the 20" and 24"   16 

16:10 aspect ratio screens of the previous generation. The 27" models also have a digital video input port to allow the system to serve as a display for other systems or devices. Video card options entirely switched to ATI, save for the standard onboard Nyidia card in the base model. The iMac's processor selection saw a significant increase. Existing Core 2 Duo technology offered speed bumps in the lower models, and Intel's new Core i5 and Core i7 chips are now available in the high end model, signifying the first quad-core iMac. Default RAM has also been increased across the iMac range. With the advent of larger screens, Apple doubled the number of memory slots from two to four. Consequently, the maximum memory capacity was also doubled (to 16GB). iBook:- The iBook is a line of discontinued laptop computers sold by Apple Inc. between 1999 and 2006. The line was targeted at the consumer and education markets, with lower specifications and prices than the PowerBook, Apple's higher-end line of laptop computers. Three distinct designs of the iBook were introduced during its lifetime. The first design, known as the "Clamshell", was a significant departure from portable computer designs at the time due to its shape, bright colors, incorporation of a handle, and wireless networking. Two years later, a second line abandoned the original form factor in favor of a more conventional rectangular design. In October 2003, the third design added a Power PC G4 chip and a slot-loading drive. The iBook was a commercial success. The line continually received processor, memory, hard disk upgrades, and new colors. Fire Wire and video out were later added. The design was discontinued in May 2001, in favor of the new "Dual USB" iBooks. Vestiges of design ideas first adopted in the iBook G3 can be still be seen today: moving interface ports from the back to the side and leaving them uncovered, and integrated wireless networking. Apple replaced the iBook line with the Mac Book in May 2006 during Apple’s transition to Intel processors. Power Mac G4:- The Power Mac G4 is a series of personal computers that were designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple between 1999 and 2004. They use the Power PC G4(PPC74xx) series of microprocessors. The original Apple Power Mac G4, code name "Yikes!", was introduced at the Seybold conference in San Francisco

 

17 

on August 31, 1999, with 400 MHz, 450 MHz and 500 MHz configurations available. In October 1999, Apple was forced to postpone the 500 MHz due to poor yield of the 500 MHz chips. In response, Apple “speed dumped” the processor speed in each configuration by 50 MHz but caused some controversy by not decreasing the price of the machines. The design was updated at the Mac World Expo New York on July 19, 2000; the new revision included dual-processor 450 MHz and 500 MHz versions, and a lowend single CPU 400 MHz model. It was also the first personal computer to include gigabit Ethernet as standard. Most people saw this revision as a stopgap release, because higher clocked G4s were not available; the G4’s Motorola XPC107 “Grackle” PCI/Memory controller prevented the G4 from hitting speeds higher than 500 MHz. The dual 500 MHz models featured DVD-RAM optical drive. Zip drives were optional on all models. These models also introduced Apple's proprietary Apple Display Connector video port. Apple's marketing name for this series is the Power Mac Gigabit Ethernet. The code name was Mystic. iWork:- iWork is an office suite of desktop applications created by Apple for the Mac OS X and iPhone OS operating systems. The first version of iWork, iWork '05, was released in 2005. The suite originally bundled Keynote, a presentation program which had previously been sold as a standalone application, and Pages, a combined word processing and page layout application. In 2007, Apple released iWork '08, which contained a new spreas sheet application, Numbers. iWork also includes access toiWork.com, a beta service that allows users to upload and share documents online with others, who can download them and give feedback. iWork integrates with existing applications from Apple's iLife suite through the Media Browser, which allows users to drag and drop music from iTunes , movies from iMovie, and photos from iPhoto and Aperture directly into iWork documents. Although iWork is billed by Apple as "a successor to Apple Works", it does not replicate the functionality of AppleWorks's database and drawing tools.

 

18 

iWork Version Keynote Version iWork '05 iWork '06 iWork '08 iWork '09 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

Pages Version 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

Numbers Version --1.0 2.0

Release Date 1/22/2005 1/10/2006 8/7/2007 1/6/2009

iPad:- The iPad is the second tablet computer developed by Apple Inc., after the Newton. Announced on January 27, 2010, it is part of a device category between a smartphone and a laptop computer. Similar in functionality to a larger and more powerful iPhone or iPod Touch, it runs a modified version of the same operating system(iPhone OS), with a user interface redesigned to take advantage of the larger screen. The iPad has a 9.7-inch (25 cm) LED blacklit multi-touch display with a pixel resolution of 1024×768, 16 to 64 gigabytes(GB) of flash memory, a 1-gigahertz (GHz) Apple A4 processor, Bluetooth 2.1, and a 30-pin dock connector to sync with iTunes and connect wired accessories. Two models have been announced: one with 802.11 Wi-Fi and one with 802.11n Wi-Fi and 3G (which can connect to HSDPA cellular networks), and Assisted GPS. Both models may be purchased with three different storage capacities. As Apple's first device to use its iBookstore service and companion iBooks ebook reading application, the iPad has been compared with Amazon's Kindle and Barnes & Noble's Nook. Like the iPhone, the iPad shares its name with existing products. The most publicized is the Fujitsu iPad, a mobile multi-functional device sold to retailers to help clerks verify prices, check inventory, and close sales. The Japanese company Fujitsu introduced the iPAD in 2002, and the following year applied for the trademark. But the firm found the mark was already owned by Mag-Tek. Fujitsu's application was listed as "abandoned" in April 2009, and the ownership of the mark is unclear. Fujitsu is consulting attorneys over what, if any, action it may take. On March 26, 2010 Fujitsu transferred their US trademark on iPad to Apple. iLife:- iLife is a suite of software applications developed by Apple for organizing, editing, and publishing photos, movies, and music. The suite comprises five   19 

applications: iPhoto, iMovie, iDVD, GarageBand, and iWeb, all of which run on the Mac OS X operating system. The latest release, iLife '09, was announced on January 6, 2009, and is included with new Mac computers. The suite is also sold stand alone. Components of iLife are iPhoto, iMovie, iDVD, Garage band, iWeb and Mobile Me Web Gallery. Final cut studio:- Final Cut Studio is a professional video and audio production suite for Mac OS X from Apple Inc., and a direct competitor to Avid Media Composer in the high-end movie production industry. Final Cut Studio contains six main applications and several smaller applications used in editing video. Logic studio:- Logic Studio is a music production suite by Apple Inc. The first version of Logic Studio was unveiled on September 12, 2007. Macintosh:- The Macintosh or Mac, is a series of several lines of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The first Macintosh was introduced on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a commandline interface. Through the second half of the 1980s, the company built market share only to see it dissipate in the 1990s as the personal computer market shifted towards IBM PC compatible machines running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows. Apple consolidated multiple consumer-level desktop models into the 1998 iMac all-in-one, which was a sales success and saw the Macintosh brand revitalized. Current Mac systems are mainly targeted at the home, education, and creative professional markets. They are: the aforementioned (though upgraded) iMac and the entry-level Mac mini desktop models, the workstation-level Mac Pro tower, the MacBook, MacBook Air and MacBook Pro laptops, and the Xserve server. Production of the Mac is based on a vertical integration model in that Apple facilitates all aspects of its hardware and creates its own operating system that is pre-installed on all Mac computers. This is in contrast to most IBM PC compatibles, where multiple sellers create hardware intended to run another company's operating software. Apple exclusively produces Mac hardware, choosing internal systems, designs, and prices. Apple does use third party components, however. Current Mac CPUs use Intel's x86 architecture; models from 1994-2006 used the AIM alliance's Power PC and models   20 

from 1984-1994 used Motorola's 68k. Apple also develops the operating system for the Mac, currently Mac OS X version 10.6 “Snow Leopord”. The modern Mac, like other personal computers, is capable of running alternative operating systems such as Linux, Free BSD, and, in the case of Intel-based Macs,Microsoft Windows. However, Apple does not license Mac OS X for use on non-Apple computers. Mac OS X:- Mac OS X is a series of operating systems and graphical user interfaces developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. Since 2002, Mac OS X has been included with all new Macintosh computer systems. It is the successor to Mac OS 9, the final release of the "classic" Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. Mac OS X, whose "X" represents the Roman numeral for 10 and is a prominent part of its brand identity, is a Unix-based graphical operating system, built on technologies developed at NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in late 1996. Its sixth release, Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard", gained UNIX 03 certification while running on processors. The first version released was Mac OS X server in 1999, and a desktop-oriented version, Mac OS X v10.0"Cheetah" followed on March 24, 2001. Releases of Mac OS X are named after big cats: for example, Mac OS X v10.6 is usually referred to by Apple and users as "Snow Leopord". The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart, and includes tools to facilitate management of workgroups of Mac OS X machines, and to provide access to network services. These tools include a mail transfer agent, a Samba Server, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others. It is pre-loaded on Apple's Xserve server hardware, but can be run on almost all of Apple's current selling computer models. Apple also produces specialized versions of Mac OS X for use on four of its consumer devices: the iPhone OS for the iPhone, iPod Touch, and iPad, as well as an unnamed version for the AppleTV.

 

21 

ABOUT MAC BOOK
An LED-backlit display of brilliance:- (A 13.3 –inch glossy widescreen) The moment you open your new MacBook, its glossy LED-backlit display greets you with glorious, full-screen brightness and brings your photos, movies, and presentations alive with luminous color. The widescreen resolution of 1280 by 800 pixels gives you plenty of room to multitask, yet it’s compact enough to take anywhere. And the display is greener than ever: power efficient, free of harmful toxins such as mercury, and made of arsenic-free glass. The longest lasting MacBook battery ever:- (upto 7 hours per charge, upto 1000 recharges.) Now take MacBook with you everywhere without worrying about plugging in or even carrying your power adapter. Its built-in lithium-polymer battery lasts up to 7 hours on a single charge,1 which makes it perfect for long flights, all-day workshops, and marathon study sessions. Thanks to its advanced battery chemistry and charging technology, the MacBook battery can be recharged up to 1000 times — good for about five years of typical usage — and lasts nearly three times the lifespan of typical notebook batteries.2 That makes for less waste. And that, in turn, makes for one environmentally friendly battery. Multi- Touch comes to MacBook:- (more room to navigate, more ways to interact.) The first thing you might notice — or not notice — about the new MacBook MultiTouch trackpad is the button. The entire trackpad is the button, so you can click anywhere on the touch-friendly glass surface. Not having a separate button also makes for a larger trackpad surface, giving your fingers more room to move, click, and gesture. And because the trackpad supports Multi-Touch gestures, you can use one or more fingers to interact with your documents, images, and applications with gestures such as two-finger scroll, pinch, swipe, and rotate. If you come from a rightclick world, you can configure a right-click area on the trackpad or simply press with two fingers. High performance comes standard:• Action hero:- With MacBook, you get an amazing consumer-level graphics experience that’s great for popular 3D games like Spore, Call of Duty, and Sims 3. The NVIDIA GeForce 9400M graphics processor provides an outstanding everyday graphics experience with up to a 5x performance boost.3   22 

Based on an advanced architecture, NVIDIA graphics deliver smooth, responsive gameplay, so you can immerse yourself in game worlds that come to life with rich color, fine detail, and fluid motion — all without sacrificing battery life. • Productivity expert:- With a fast 2.26GHz Intel Core 2 Duo processor, MacBook breezes through everyday tasks such as emailing, web browsing, and working with documents, spreadsheets, and presentations in iWork or Microsoft Office for Mac (sold separately). It also provides plenty of horsepower for more processor-intensive activities such as retouching a photo in iPhoto, editing an iMovie project, and composing a new song using GarageBand, so you can make the most of the included iLife suite of applications. It even runs Microsoft Windows at native speeds. Better still, MacBook comes standard with 2GB of memory (with support for up to 4GB), so you can run multiple applications smoothly and efficiently. • Personal librarian:-Music, photos, and movies — not to mention your documents and other files — start adding up. That’s why MacBook offers plenty of storage space. It includes a large 250GB hard drive with options up to a voluminous 500GB, so you can take it all with you. MagSafe and more. Much more:• Even the power cord is an innovation:-The MagSafe Power Adapter has a magnetic connection instead of a physical one. So if someone happens to trip over the power cord while you’re working, they won’t send your new MacBook flying off a table or desk. Instead, the cord breaks cleanly away, without damage to either the cord or the system. As a bonus, you can tell if your MacBook is fully charged when the LED on the connector changes from amber to green. • Burn CDs and DVDs:- MacBook comes standard with a built-in SuperDrive. What makes it super? You can enjoy your favorite DVD movies and music CDs. You can burn your own CDs or DVDs to back up data or create your own music mixes. Or you can use the included iDVD software to burn Hollywood-style iMovie creations then watch them on a DVD player. • Wireless that works:-Connect to the Internet at fast speeds anywhere thanks to the built-in AirPort Extreme 802.11n Wi-Fi.5 Like everything else about a   23 

Mac, joining Wi-Fi networks couldn’t be simpler. If you’ve previously connected to a network, your Mac automatically logs you in so you can immediately email, surf the web, or video chat.6 Have a phone, headset, keyboard, or mouse with Bluetooth wireless technology? They can all connect to your MacBook courtesy of built-in Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR technology — and it remembers all your devices, too. • Ports with possibilities:- With MacBook, you get easy plug-and-play support for your digital devices including your digital camera, printer, external hard drive, mouse, and keyboard — not to mention your iPhone and iPod. Just connect them to one of the handy ports. Want to expand your workspace? Use the new Mini DisplayPort to connect an Apple LED Cinema Display to extend your MacBook desktop. Or connect a projector to show your work on the big screen. MacBook also includes a Gigabit Ethernet port, a headphone jack that doubles as an audio-in port, and a convenient lock slot so you can keep your MacBook secure. Video Chat with anyone:• Built-in iSight camera:- Cleverly integrated — almost hidden — at the top of the MacBook display is an iSight camera that takes photos and shoots video. Use it with the built-in microphone and the included iChat software, so you can be anywhere without actually being there. Video chat with up to three of your friends, share a video with your mom, or give a presentation to a client.5 Use your iSight with Photo Booth to take quick pictures and add fun photo effects. Or use it with QuickTime X to record a video and share it to iTunes, MobileMe, or YouTube with just a click. Best of all, there’s no need to waste valuable primping time installing software or configuring the camera. Like everything Mac, iSight just works, right out of the box.

 

24 

APPLE DEBUTS NEW 15" MACBOOK PRO
Apple revealed details of its redesigned 15-inch MacBook Pro, including a new unibody construction, far more powerful NVIDIA graphics, Display Port output, a new glass touchpad with multitouch gestures, and a revised appearance with similarities to the iMac. Construction and Ports Apple detailed a new "unibody" construction method for the MacBook Pro that improves upon the current model's thin aluminum shell, reinforced with an internal frame. The new design is patterned after the MacBook Air released in January, although it appears similar to the MacBooks. The new construction employs half the structural parts of the former "discrete" MacBook Pro design but provides a case that is stronger, torsionally rigid, 5.5 pounds light, and 0.95 inches thin. It features a MacBook Air-style keyboard recessed into the frame. All I/O ports are located on left side, including: MagSafe, Gigabit Ethernet, Firewire 800, Dual USB 2.0, Mini Display Port (HDMI could not drive a 30" display), Analog/digital audio in and out, ExpressCard 34 slot, and a side-mounted battery indicator light. Graphics and Display The MacBook Pro includes a new NVIDIA graphics architecture which combines a NVIDIA CPU-supporting chipset and graphics processor on one die. Originally designed for desktops, Apple worked with NVIDIA to develop a mobile version for the MacBook Pro, the company said. This new technology allow users to switch between the NVIDIA GeForce 9400M integrated graphics processor for better battery life and the more powerful NVIDIA GeForce 9600M GT discrete graphics processor for higher performance. The GeForce 9400M integrated chipset has 16 parallel graphics cores, delivers 54 gigiflops of graphics performance, while the 9600M GT has 32 cores and 125 gigiflops of processing power. The 9400M is rated for 5 hours of battery, while the 9600M GT provides 4 hours. The graphics chips also power a new "instant on" 15.4-inch LED display that   25 

is 30 percent more efficient with brighter, high intensity colors. Multi-touch Glass Trackpad The new MacBook Pro also features a new 39 percent larger multi-touch trackpad that supports additional gestures and acts as a single button. The glass surface of the trackpad promises less friction for "silky-smooth travel." The new trackpad supports virtual software buttons, as well as one- to four-fingered multitouch gestures: • • • two finger pinch and rotate three finger slides four fingers bring up Exposé and app switching

New Battery Cover and Easy Access The new battery cover provides easy access to the hard drive bay, which supports both a standard mechanical hard drive and a new solid state drive option. Locking the system with a security cable also locks the cover on the battery and drive. Side-mounted Battery Indicator Light The MacBook Pro's new side-mounted battery indicator light means users won't have to turn the machine upside down to see the status of their notebook's battery if the machine is not powered on. Optical Disc Drive, Backlit Keyboard, iSight, Latch and More The optical drive is located on right edge. It provides a DVD burner but does not support Blu-ray. Jobs said "Blu-ray is a bag of hurt. I don’t mean from the consumer point of view. It’s great to watch movies, but the licensing is so complex. We’re waiting until things settle down, and waiting until Blu-ray takes off before we burden our customers with the cost of licensing."Meanwhile, the new MacBook Pro will continue to supply a backlit keyboard, sudden motion sensor, stereo speakers, iSight camera, mic, and now supply a magnetic latch like the MacBook Air rather than a physical latching mechanism.The new design features rounded, tapered edges without the series of screws that hold the top bezel to the frame as in earlier designs. There are several screws on the bottom of the machine.

 

26 

MacBook Pro Configurations The 2.4 GHz, 15-inch aluminum MacBook Pro will sell for $1,999 and include/The 2.53 GHz aluminum MacBook Pro is priced at $2,499 and includes:: 15.4-inch widescreen LED-backlit 1440 x 900 glossy display;2.4 Ghz/2.53 Ghz Intel Core 2 Duo with 3MB shared L2 cache;1066 MHz front-side bus;2GB 1066 MHz DDR3 SDRAM, expandable to 4GB;NVIDIA GeForce 9400M integrated graphics;NVIDIA GeForce 9600M GT discrete graphics with 256MB GDDR3 video memory;250GB serial ATA hard drive running at 5400 rpm, with Sudden Motion Sensor;a slot-load 8X SuperDrive with double-layer support (DVD±R DL/DVD±RW/CD-RW) optical drive;Mini DisplayPort for video output (adapters sold separately);built-in AirPort Extreme 802.11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2.1+EDR;Gigabit Ethernet port;built-in iSight video camera;two USB 2.0 ports;one FireWire 800 port;ExpressCard/34 expansion card slot;one audio line in and one audio line out port, each supporting both optical digital and analog;glass MultiTouch trackpad and illuminated keyboard; and 85 Watt MagSafe Power Adapter.

Build-to-order options for the MacBook Pro include a 2.8 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo processor, the ability to upgrade to 4GB 1066 MHz DDR3 SDRAM, 250GB 7200 rpm, 320GB 5400 rpm or a 320GB 7200 rpm hard drive, a 128GB solid state drive, Mini DisplayPort to DVI Adapter, Mini DisplayPort to Dual-Link DVI Adapter (for 30-inch DVI display), Mini DisplayPort to VGA Adapter, Apple USB Modem, Apple Remote, Apple MagSafe Airline Adapter and the AppleCare Protection Plan.

 

27 

APPLE UNVEILS NEW 13" MACBOOK
Apple on Tuesday unveiled its next-generation 13-inch MacBook, which includes a new unibody construction, more powerful NVIDIA graphics, Display Port output, a new glass touchpad with multitouch gestures, and a revised appearance nearly identical to the new MacBook Pro. Construction Apple detailed a new "unibody" construction method for the MacBook that improves upon the current model's plastic shell, reinforced with an internal frame. The new design is patterned after the MacBook Air released in January and is extremely similar to that of the new MacBook Pro.The new construction provides a case that is stronger, torsionally rigid, 4.5 pounds light, and 0.95 inches thin. It features a MacBook Air-style keyboard recessed into the frame. All I/O ports are located on left side, including: MagSafe, Gigabit Ethernet, Dual USB 2.0, Mini Display Port, Analog/digital audio in and out, and a side-mounted battery indicator light. Graphics The new MacBook line features the powerful new NVIDIA GeForce 9400M, a revolutionary new 3D integrated graphics processor that features 16 parallel processing cores and delivers up to five times the 3D graphics performance as previous MacBook and MacBook Air designs. Apple has worked together with NVIDIA on this groundbreaking graphics processor and is the first to bring it to market in the new MacBook family. Multitouch Glass Trackpad The new MacBook also features a new 39 percent larger multitouch trackpad that supports additional gestures and acts as a single button. The glass surface of the trackpad promises less friction for "silky-smooth travel." The new trackpad supports virtual software buttons, as well as one- to four-fingered multitouch gestures: • • •   two finger pinch and rotate three finger slides four fingers bring up Exposé and app switching 28 

Optical Drive, Latch, and More The optical drive is located on right edge. It provides a DVD burner but does not support Blu-ray. Jobs said "Blu-ray is a bag of hurt. I don’t mean from the consumer point of view. It’s great to watch movies, but the licensing is so complex. We’re waiting until things settle down, and waiting until Blu-ray takes off before we burden our customers with the cost of licensing." The new notebooks continue to supply a backlit keyboard, sudden motion sensor, stereo speakers, iSight camera, mic, and magnetic latch. New Battery Cover and Easy Access The new battery cover provides easy access to the hard drive bay, which supports both a standard mechanical hard drive and a new solid state drive option. Locking the system with a security cable also locks the cover on the battery and drive. Side-mounted Battery Indicator Light The MacBook's new side-mounted battery indicator light means users won't have to turn the machine upside down to see the status of their notebook's battery if the machine is not powered on. MacBook Configurations The 2.0 GHz, 13-inch aluminum MacBook will sell for $1,299 and include/The 2.4 GHz aluminum MacBook is priced at $1,599 and includes:13.3-inch widescreen LED-backlit 1280 x 800 glossy display; 2.0 Ghz/2.4 Ghz Intel Core 2 Duo with 3MB shared L2 cache;1066 MHz front-side bus; 2GB 1066 MHz DDR3 SDRAM, expandable to 4GB; NVIDIA GeForce 9400M integrated graphics; 160GB serial ATA hard drive running at 5400 rpm, with Sudden Motion Sensor; a slot-load 8X SuperDrive with double-layer support (DVD±R DL/DVD±RW/CD-RW) optical drive;Mini DisplayPort for video output (adapters sold separately); built-in AirPort Extreme 802.11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2.1+EDR; Gigabit Ethernet port;built-in iSight video camera;two USB 2.0 ports; One audio line in and one audio line out port, each supporting both optical digital and analog;glass Multi-Touch trackpad; and 60 Watt MagSafe Power Adapter.

 

29 

Build-to-order options for the MacBook include the ability to upgrade to 4GB 1066 MHz DDR3 SDRAM, a 250GB 5400 rpm, 320GB 5400 rpm hard drive, a 128GB solid state drive, Mini DisplayPort to DVI Adapter, Mini DisplayPort to Dual-Link DVI Adapter (for 30-inch DVI display), Mini DisplayPort to VGA Adapter, Apple USB Modem, Apple Remote, Apple MagSafe Airline Adapter and the AppleCare Protection Plan. In addition, Apple said the existing white plastic MacBook will continue to be sold for $999. UNIQUE FEATURES OF NEW 15” MACBOOK PRO. Along with all the other technology of Apple, there is quite a bit of time devoted to showing off the innovative manufacturing process in the new 15″ MacBook Pro. Previous versions of the MacBook Pro were made from pressed aluminum parts held together with screws and fitted with plastic gaskets to cover the seams. The new MacBook Pro enclosure is milled from a single “brick” of aluminum. This approach allows for a seamless enclosure with no visible screws and a few other innovative features. Apple is referring to this new approach as a unibody enclosure. They employ CNC machines to carve the unibody from a solid block of metal that starts out weighing 2.5lbs and ends up as a .25lb top enclosure. The other 90% of the original piece is recovered during the manufacturing process and recycled to make new aluminum blocks. The result is a thinner and lighter enclosure that is simultaneously stronger and stiffer. The aesthetics are affected as well. Gone are the screws along the side and the opening for the sleep light to shine through the case is actually perforated by laser so that it’s virtually invisible to the naked eye. The only breaks along the edge of the new MacBook Pro are from the various ports on the left, the superdrive slot on the right, and the IR port on the front. The screws holding the top case and the bottom together are found along the back edge and underneath the new access door along the front. The new access door covers the battery and the hard drive. The battery is not part of the bottom case anymore and is entirely covered by the access door. Because the battery is otherwise   30 

covered by the access door, the battery indicator lights are visible through perforations in the side of the enclosure. This gives the new MacBook Pro a very clean look along the bottom as well. Improvements to the manufacturing process go beyond the new unibody construction. Apple has also dropped a number of harmful chemicals by using LED backlighting (no Mercury) and removing BFR and PVC from the logic board, cables and connectors. The unibody enclosure also means fewer extraneous bits and pieces to hold the enclosure together that would have gone to a landfill before. The packaging has also been reduced by 37%, which means less paper products and decreased environmental impact from transportation. The significance of all these changes is a new laptop that is almost entirely recyclable and has earned the highest rating of EPEAT Gold.

 

31 

MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF APPLE’s MACBOOK
Apple's new MacBook and MacBook Pro feature precision unibody enclosures milled from an extruded block of aluminum, allowing them to get even thinner while retaining rigid durability and a stronger, cleaner, and more polished design. Here's a detailed overview of the process. Jonathan Ive, Apple’s senior vice president of Industrial Design, noted that, "Traditionally notebooks are made from multiple parts. With the new MacBook, we’ve replaced all of those parts with just one part—the unibody. The MacBook’s unibody enclosure is made from a single block of aluminum, making the new MacBook fundamentally thinner, stronger and more robust with a fit and finish that we’ve never even dreamed of before.” CNC Unibody Fabrication :- The previous MacBook Pro uses a thin, bowl-shaped shell that has an internal skeleton to hold the internal parts together. The top bezel lays on top and is screwed in place on the sides and back edge. These pieces allow for some tolerance, requiring plastic gaskets to fit the components together snugly. The new 15" MacBook Pro, along with its nearly identical 13.3" MacBook version, start with an extruded block of aluminum that is carved out using CNC or "computer numerical control" machines in a process used by the aerospace industry to build mission critical, high precision components. The process starts with raw aluminum, selected for its favorable strength to weight ratio and the flexibility it offers in processing and the flexibility it offers in processing.

 

32 

Extruded aluminum sheets are cut into blocks that undergo 13 separate milling operations.

Apple uses CNC to precision cut keyboard holes from the face of the slab (below top), mill out the "thumbscoop" that provides enough of a recession to open the display lid comfortably without putting too much pressure on the lid, machine out complex patterns from the inside (below middle) and perforate the speaker grill holes using lasers (below bottom).

 

33 

A portion of the front edge is milled thin enough that a laser can be used to microperforate the metal to allow light from the sleep indicator LED to pass through the metal. When the sleep indicator is off, the metal appears to be solid. Apple has already used this process on the MacBook Air and the Bluetooth Keyboard that shipped last fall alongside the aluminum iMac. Once the inside is precision cut (below top) leaving a design that is, as Ive observed, "in many ways more beautifully internally than externally", the edges are rounded and polished (below bottom).

 

34 

The environmentally-friendly recycled bits:- The material machined from the aluminum block is collected and recycled. Jobs noted that the new MacBooks "are the industry’s greenest notebooks.” Apple says the entire new MacBook line meets stringent Energy Star 4.0, EPEAT Gold and RoHS environmental standards, and leads the industry in the elimination of toxic chemicals by containing no brominated flame retardants, using only PVC-free internal cables and components, and using energy efficient LEDbacklit displays that are mercury-free and made with arsenic-free glass.

 

35 

Glass-faced, LED backlit display:- The environmentally-friendly LED backlit display also offers other advantages; it turns on instantly when the display is opened as there is no warm up time required by a conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp backlight. It also requires less energy, allowing for 30% better efficiency while providing a brighter, more vivid display, or in the words of Bob Mansfield, Senior Vice President of Mac Hardware, "what you notice as a customer is that the color has a lot more pop." Unlike the existing MacBook Pro, which houses the display recessed into an aluminum frame, the new design fits the display into a thinner lid and the entire inside face of the panel is covered with a single glass panel similar to the face of the iPhone, with a black margin around the display (below).

 

36 

CONCLUSION
The previous MacBook Pro uses a thin, bowl-shaped, pressed metal shell that has a metal formed internal skeleton to hold the internal parts together. The top bezel lays on top and is screwed in place on the sides and back edge. These pieces allow for some tolerance, requiring plastic gaskets to fit the components together snugly. The new 15" MacBook Pro, along with its nearly identical 13.3" MacBook version, start with an extruded block of raw aluminum, selected for its favorable strength to weight ratio and the flexibility it offers in processing and finishing. Starting with an aluminium extrusion is an excellent strategy often used to reduce machining times. Extrusion can produce a pre-finished section in almost any shape which is then cut to length before the detailed machining work is performed. This eliminates the need to 'block out' an aluminium billet before finish machining. In the Macbook process, waterjet cutters are used to slice up the extrusions and to quickly remove the areas where it woudl be milled right through such as where the keyboard fits. The aluminium extrusion is then carved out using high speed CNC or "computer numerical control" machining in a process used by the aerospace industry to build mission critical, high precision components. The aluminium extrusion undergoes 13 separate milling operations. Apple uses high speed CNC machining to precision cut keyboard holes from the face of the slab, mill out the "thumbscoop" that provides enough of a recession to open the display lid comfortably without putting too much pressure on the lid, and machine out complex patterns from the inside. Now comes the part where the lasers are used. Laser drilling is used to create micro-perforations in the aluminium that light can pass through but are practically invisible to the human eye. Laser drilling has limitations on how deep it can penetrate, so a portion of the front edge is milled thin enough that the laser can be used to micro-perforate the metal to allow light from the sleep indicator LED to pass through the metal. When the sleep   37 

indicator is off, the metal appears to be solid. Apple has already used this process on the MacBook Air and the Bluetooth Keyboard that shipped last year alongside the aluminium iMac. Once the inside is precision CNC machined it leaves a design that is in many ways more beautiful internally than externally. The component is finished by automated deburring, edge rounding and polishing. The environmentally friendly recycled bits:- The material machined from the aluminium block (swarf) is collected and recycled. Jobs noted that the new MacBooks "are the industry’s greenest notebooks. Apple says the entire new MacBook line meets stringent Energy Star 4.0, EPEAT Gold and RoHS environmental standards, and leads the industry in the elimination of toxic chemicals by containing no brominated flame retardants, using only PVC-free internal cables and components, and using energy efficient LEDbacklit displays that are mercury-free and made with arsenic-free glass. What advantages are there to manufacturing from a solid aluminium billet using CNC machining? Carving out of aluminum eliminates the need to bend the metal and create weak spots or microfolds and rifts. There are no seams in the final product, so it is smooth. Screws aren’t needed to tie the products together. The shell is one piece of metal so it is super light, super strong and super cheap. You can be a whole lot more creative with the design when you are machining it rather than pressing metal. As Peter Oppenheimer said at the recent earnings call, this innovation is something "Apple's competitors won't be able to match for some time to come. We expect the process to drive down the prices of MacBooks over the next few years and at the same time allow Apple to continue to lead in the innovation department. Design changes should come much more rapidly with rapid prototyping."

 

38 

REFERENCES
BOOKS REFERRED:-

• Mahadevan,B. (2009), ‘Operations Management- Theory and Practice’, Pearson Publications • Aswathapa,K. (2008), ‘Production and Operations Management’ WEBSITES REFERRED:• • • • • http://www.appleinsider.com/articles/08/10/14/apple_details_new_macbook_ manufacturing_process.html http://gizmodo.com/5063227/how-the-macbooks-are-carved-out-of-solidaluminum http://www.apple.com/macbook/design.html http://digg.com/apple/Apple_details_new_MacBook_manufacturing_process http://www.manufacturelink.com.au/news/view/apple-macbookmanufacturing-process.aspx

 

39 

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful