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all the world over. They have been widely praised by such outstanding figures of the science world as Domingo Sanchez, Julian de la Villa, Jose Maria Sosa, Francisco Tello and Fernando de Castro, to cite only some examples. As has often been pointed out in the past, Cajal's scientific drawings are a legacy to the world of art whilst also displaying the multiple creative facets of their author, for whom, as with the great names of the Renaissance, science and art constitute two complementary aspects of human knowledge.
-BALLESTEROS GAIBROIS, Manuel: Historia Universal. Madrid. Editorial Gredos, J 965
-BAZZI, F: "LAnatomia nell'arte e l'iconografia anatomica attaversoi tempi".
Noticiario Lisapharrna, 1958 (Pp. J -32)
-BUSTAMANTE, Jose Manuel: "Anatornia. Restaurados J 20 al10S despues. Cajal los dibuj6 a mano para cnsefiar a sus alumnos", E1 Mundo elmundo.es t suplementos I magazine 142 I 142 Sunday 16 June 2002
-CASTRO, Fernando de: "Santiago Ram6n y Cajal (1852-1934)". Madrid, Archivos de Neurobiologfa, 1934, Vol. XIV (Pp. 833-865)
-CASTRO, Fernando de: Cajal y la escuela neurologica espanola. Madrid, Editorial de la Universidad Complutense. 198.1
-DuRAN MUNOZ, G. and ALONSO BURON. E: Cajal. Vida y obra. Escritos ineditos. Madrid, Editorial Cientifico Medica, 1983
-"Homenaje a Cajal". Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Medicina, Madrid, 1984, Vol. cn (Pp. 485-512)
-LAIN ENTRALGO, Pedro: Historia Universal de la Medicina, Barcelona, Salvat Editores, 1972-1975, Vols. I-VII
-LOPEZ PINERO, Jose Marfa et al: La imagen del cuerpo humano en la medicina modema (siglos XVI-XX). Barcelona, Bancaja, 1999 [Exhibition Catalogue)
-MARANON, Gregorio: Santiago Ram6n y Cajal. Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales de Madrid [Speech), 1947
-MARAVALL, Jose Antonio: " La epoca del Renacimiento". Historia Universal de la Medieina, Barcelona, Salvat Editores, 1973, Vol. IV
-PEREZ DE TUDELA Y BUESO, Marfa Angustias: El grafismo, base fundamental para el cientifico D. Santiago Ram6n y Cajal. Degree thesis of the Fine Arts Faculty of Madrid, 1987 [Unpublished)
-PEREZ DE TUDELA Y BUESO, Marfa Angustias: "Publicaciones del Profesor D.
Santiago Ramon y Cajal existentes en los fondos de la Biblioteca del Instituto de Neurobiologia Santiago Ramon y Cajal". Trabajos del Instituto Caja\, Madrid, 1983, Vol. LXXIV (Pp. 169-235)
-PREMUDA, L.: Storia dell'iconografia anatomica, Milan, Ciba Edizioni, 1993
-RAMON Y CAJAL, Santiago: Charlas de cafe. Pensamientos, anecdotas y
confidencias. Madrid, Beltran, 1947
-RAMON Y CAJAL, Santiago: Manual de Histologfa normal y de tecnica rnicrografica para usa de estudiantes, Madrid, Imprenta y Libreria de Nicolas Moya, 1921
-RAMON Y CAJAL, Santiago: EI mundo visto a los ochenta aries. Impresiones de un arterioscler6tico. Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 1960
-RAMON Y CAJAL, Santiago: Obras literarias completas. Madrid, 1947, Capitulo VIII: "Redacci6n del trabajo cientifico. Reglas y consejos sabre investigacion cientifica" (Pp. 599-609)
-RAMON Y CAJAL, Santiago: Recuerdos de mi vida: mi infancia y mi juventud and Historia de mi labor cientifica. Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 1981
-SANCHEZ, Domingo: Cajal [Speech read in the Spanish Society of Anthropology, Ethnography and Prehistory). Madrid, 1936
-SO SA, Jose Marfa: Santiago Ram6n y Cajal. Montevideo, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias, 1952
-TELLO, Francisco: "Homenaje a Don Santiago Ram6n y Cajal". Medicina.
Revista Mexicana. Mexico, ED., 1959, vol. XXIX, n? 898
-VILLA, Julian de la: Cajal, observado por un disector; Madrid, Instituto de Espana, 1952
SCIENTIFIC AND DOCUMENTARY APPRAISAL OF THE HISTOLOGICAL DRAWINGS OF SANTIAGO RAMON Y CAJAL (1852-1934)
PABLO GARCiA, VIRGINIA G. MARiN, M" CRUZ OSUNA AND MIGUEL FREIRE
A commonly used method in Anatomy and Histology for illustrating the descriptions in the age in which Ram6n y Cajal started his scientific career was by scientific drawings. When the photographic techniques were improving, Ram6n y Cajal, little by little, included photographs in his text-books and scientific publications. without forgetting at any time, the advantages and disadvantages of both methods of illustration.
The scientific works of Ramon y Cajal were carried out with the intention of publishing them in textbooks and in scientific works and not to display them separately outside of their illustrative scientific context. This does not mean that the scientific drawings of Ramon y Cajal are not of artistic interest apart from the scientific information that they contain. The scientific drawings of Ramon y Cajal enable both scientific and artistic readers to study them, without distraction from their main aim of the scientific description of the nervous system of man and animals.
Ramon y Cajal drew and painted from his childhood, acquiring a skill and personal style that is highlighted in his scientific drawings when they are compared with those of his contemporaries. But moreover, the scientific information that these drawings show continues to be up to date and a point of reference for neuroscientists. Thus, we have a body of work that is exceptional and unique in the world.
THE SCIENTIFIC DRAWING CONCEPT OF RAM6N Y CAJAL
For Santiago Ramon y Cajal! "El buen dibujo como la buena preparacion microscopica, son pedazos de la realidad, documentos cientificos que conservan indefinidamente su valor y cuya revision sera siempre provechosa, cualesquiera que sean las interpretaciones a que hayan dado origen'": The scientific concept of Ramon y Cajal also includes those that are" scrupulously copied from nature" without any "theoretical prejudice'l-'.
Throughout his scientific career he defended independence of the nervous cell (neuronism) against those who believed the nervous system to be made up of joined cells forming a network (reticularism). Ramon y Cajal had the opportunity of seeing drawings that were "very schematic and slanted" when he compared them with his own".
TYPES OF HISTOLOGICAL DRAWINGS
Santiago Ramon y Cajal distinguishes three types of scientific drawings in the legend of figures of his scientific texts. In the figures that do not inform us of anything, he only writes down the figure's description, we have to understand that the drawing is an exact copy of the histological preparation. When Ramon y Cajal specifies at the beginning of the legend of figures that it is a diagram, we should understand that the figures are not exact copies of the histological preparation and their intention is to show general characteristics or organization principles of the nerve system. The third type of drawing, which Ramon y Cajal called semi-diagrammatic, has characteristics of the two previous types of scientific drawings. On the one hand, they are figures copied from several histological preparations and organised in order to describe some principle of the structural organisation of the nervous system.
Generally speaking, in the diagrams, Ram6n y Cajal includes arrows that indicate the direction ofthe nervous current (CAT 124) that illustrates his theory of dynamic polarisation>. Sometimes, he also includes arrows in illustrations that are not diagrams.
HOW DID RAM6N Y CAJAL MAKE THE HISTOLOGICAL DRAWINGS?
Amongst the world of neuro-scientists, especially in North America, the word has spread that Ramon y Cajal rnade his scientific drawings from memory without looking at the microscope. This is a question that foreign scientists ask me when they visit the Ram6n y Cajal Museum. This rumour seems to be based on some comments from an introductory note by Wilder Penfield to the English translation of (Neuronism or Reticularismry and has been denied by DeFelipe and Jones6
A reading of the scientific work of Ramon y Cajal does not leave any doubt as to the use of the camera lucida or the drawing tube by him".
Contemporaries of Ram6n y Cajal who saw him drawing said that he drew by looking at the histological preparation through the microscope and drawing on a piece of paper on his right-hand side, where the exact reproduction of the nerve cells of the preparation appeared, without using the camera lucida that Ram6n y Cajal considered troublesome''. One possible explanation of this way of drawing is that Ram6n y Cajal managed to blend the microscope image with the drawing that he was making on the paper seen with his right eye, and so not needing the camera lucida that specifically carried out the function of mixing both images together.
When Ram6n y Cajal was drawing preparations impregnated with silver dichromate, he used to put in the same drawing neurons that were in different optical sections and even neurons belonging to different preparations.
The semi-schematic and schematic drawings were made without the direct use of the microscope on outlines made from previous drawings by simplifying them.
Ram6n y Cajal used a drawing technique depending on the dyeing or impregnation method of the histological preparation that he took as the model. The purpose of his histological drawings was to be as faithful as possible to what the histological preparation showed.
The first part of his scientific work was largely based on the silver dichromate method. With this method of impregnation, the nerve cells appear in a dark blackish-red colour on a clear yellow background. Ram6n y Cajal started drawing these nerve cells using first a pencil to make an outline, and then using India ink to draw a tracing covering the pencil sketch. In some places, he reconsiders the outline in pencil not drawing with India ink on top, and he does not erase the pencil outline, which can be seen with a little attention in the original drawing (CAT 023).
In 1903, when Ram6n y Cajal invented the reduced silver methoel, which made it possible to study the inside of nerve cells, he changed his drawing technique so as to more faithfully reflect what he saw in the histological preparation. At that time, in addition to pencil and India ink, he used watercolours or aquarelle with grey tones for the background of the drawing (CAT 037).
Ram6n y Cajal used a similar procedure with the histological preparations undertaken using another method that he invented in 1913, the sublimated-gold method. In this case, besides pencil, India ink and grey watercolours, he was able to use coloured aquarelle (CAT 011).
THE USE OF COLOUR IN THE PRINTING OF THE HISTOLOGICAL DRAWINGS OF RAMON Y CAJAL
Ram6n y Cajal used colour in the printing of his histological drawings for two main purposes: 1. make the colour of the nerve cell or the background of the drawing come close to the colour the preparation had or. 2. To use different colours in order to distinguish different types of nerve cells or different parts of the same nerve cell.
In his early work 0881-1885)9, Ram6n y Cajal was already using colour as a background for the scientific drawings in order to highlight the nerve endings in the striated muscles of a frog. He also used colour to catch the resemblance of the fucsin or violet dahlia colour in the cholera virgule bacillus.
In a re-print from 1924, in volume I of the book Selected Works, Ram6n y Cajal published plates of the work "Structure of the nerve centres of birds" from 1888, with a yellow-coloured background similar to the one that can be observed under a microscope in the preparation impregnated by Golgi's method.
In the Histologia del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados ("Histology of the Nervous System of Man and Vertebrates'T'v, taking the re-publication in French from 1952 as the point of reference, we can find 127 colour illustrations. He generally used only one colour that could be blue, red, magenta or brown that coincided with the histological dye. Fig. shows the publication of a drawing (CAT 024) in blue made originally with India ink and graphite on board.
The use of several colours at the same time can be illustrated by Ram6n y Cajal's work La anatomia [ina de la medula espinal ("The fine anatomy of the spinal corel") 11. He came to use four colours in order to distinguish cells and nerve fibres and even different parts of the same cell.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PUBLICATION
Ram6n y Cajal wrote down specific instructions for the printing in the margin of his original drawings. The puhlication size was always smaller than that of the original drawing. Ram6n y Cajal used the following expressions relating to the size of the print: "quitese una 3" parte"("take off a 1/3 part") (CAT 001), "quitese liS" ("remove 115") (CAT 037), "quitese algo mas de un 4°" ("remove rather more than a 1/4") (CAT 049), etc.; also adding instructions for its proper publication "cuadrese" ("square it up") (CAT 037), "siluetense las letras de margen" ("silhouette the letters from the margin") (CAT 082), "siluetense letras" ("silhouette the letters") (CAT 113), "cuadrese sin siluetar" ("square it up without silhouette") (CAT 153).
ANNOTATIONS AND CORRECTIONS
Ram6n y Cajal also wrote annotations of a scientific nature in the margins of his original drawings. For instance, referring to the dendritic spines, he wrote in the drawing CAT 005, "cortas y pocas" ("short and few"), referring to figure A; with reference to the region and the animal under study "visual conejo 1 rnes" ("visual rabbit 1 month") and "perm regi6n m6triz medula" ("dog, cord motor region").
Another example is the drawing CAT 008 that contains Ram6n y Cajal's discovery of an "accessory body" nowadays known as "Ramon y Cajal's body", marked with an "a" in the drawing. There are annotations with respect to the "Pappenheim" dyeing process, the dyeing of the "gris verdosa las granulaciones motoras" ("greenish-grey of the motor granulations") colour, and of the size of the pyramidal cells "ABC, piramides gran des"; "DEFG pequefias"; "H, I piram .. med .. "("ABC, large pyramids"; "DEFG small"; "H, I med. pyr.").
Ram6n y Cajal corrected the scientific drawings using a white substance, possibly gouache (CAT 023, CAT 026, CAT 111).
THE SCIENTIFIC DRAWINGS OF THE EXHIBITION "SANTIAGO RAM6N Y CAJAL (1852-2003): SCIENCE AND ART"
The scientific drawings of Santiago Ram6n y Cajal constitute a collection of extremely important scientific, artistic and historical value. These drawings allow us to come close, with extraordinary fidelity, to the structural knowledge of the nervous system, as well as enabling us to make a journey through the main discoveries of Mr. Santiago Ramon y Cajal.
169 drawings have been selected from the approximately 2000 that are kept in the Ramon y Cajal Museum for this exhibition. Those that have been chosen are the most representative ones from the different areas of study of the nervous system.
We highlight some of the histological drawings related to the main discoveries of Ram6n y Cajal and the staining methods he developed.
The discovery of the growth cones (h) is illustrated in the drawing of the spinal cord of a chicken embryo after 3 days incubation in CAT 001.
The developmemt of cerebellum granules is described in the drawing CAT 002. From the surface the granule cell is differentiating at the same time that it is going to deep. First we see the development of the axon, which gives rise to the parallel fibres (5-9), and then the development of the dendrites begins (8-12).
The discovery of the dendritic spines by Ramon y Cajal is illustrated in the drawing CAT 005. The drawing shows four samples of dendrites (A, D, B, C) with different types of dendritic spines. In D, Ram6n y Cajal shows irregular projections that he interprets as a temporary arrangement. These filopodia are nowadays a very active field of research, which is confirming Ram6n y Cajal's idea of considering them as being temporary arrangements,
The discovery of the accessmy body, today known as "Ramon y Cajal's body" in his honour, in the nucleus of the adult human pyramidal cells is shown in the drawing CAT 008, marked with the letter "a". The structure, molecular composition and its function are being actively researched.
In 1913, Ram6n y Cajal developed the sublimated-gold method that bears his name. This method impregnates astrocytes (A, B, C, D) with its vascular feet (a, b, d) as can be seen in the drawing (CAT OIl).
The short axon cells, as Ram6n y Cajal refers to them, are iI1ustrated in the drawing of the cerebral cortex, CAT 035. Axons ("a") are shown with very different axonal trees terminating inside the cerebral cortex.
The discovery of the connections between the granular cells (D) of the dentate gyrus and the pyramids of CA3 (C) is shown in the drawing
With the semi-schematic drawing (CAT 071), Ram6n y Cajal described the brain cerebellar circuits: parallel fibres or axons of the granule cell ("g"), mossy fibres ("]:"), climbing fibres ("n"), basket Cd") cells ("]:") Purkinje cell ("a") with its axon ("0"). CAT 104 shows Cajal's discovery of the nerve ceLls of the intestine muscular plexus, which are today named in his honour as Cajal's interstitial cells.
From the diagrammatic drawings made by Ram6n y Cajal to describe the functioning of the nervous system, we have selected the drawing CAT 124, which shows the nervous connections between the brain and the spinal cord. The arrows indicate the direction of the nervous current.
In order to illustrate the studies of regeneration and degeneration of the nervous system carried out by Ram6n y Cajal using the reduced silver nitrate method that he himself developed, we have selected one example of a graft (CAT 141) and another of traumatic regeneration (CAT 157).
CAT 141 shows a graft of a piece of sciatic nerve (B) into a previous wound of the rabbit sciatic nerve. We can see fibres (e, f) being regenerated that are being attracted towards the graft. In CAT 157, we can see that when the axon (b) of a pyramidal cell (a) is cut, new axon branches grow (a) that try to connect with the adjoining pyramidal cells (C). The arrows show the new circuit that has been created.
To conclude, we show a drawing of the development of senile plates (A, B, C) in a patient with senile dementia. The terminal axonic branches (A) are degenerating (B) until an amorphous mass is formed (C).
PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION
The scientific drawings are preserved in cabinet made of cardboard that is free of acid and lignin, with an alkaline reserve and lined with black cloth of archive quality, with the inside in white. Every drawing is contained inside
a folder that is made of paper that is permanently acid-free and that has alkaline reserve (Fig. 2). The cabinets are kept in controlled light, humidity (40-45%) and temperature (19° C) conditions.
The scientific drawings show the ageing of the support (paper or board), surface dirt and oxidation marks from the adhesive sticky-tape used. These marks are being eliminated using pure white clay impregnated in a mixture that has equal parts of acetone, ethanol and toluene. The technique (India ink, aquarelle, etc) is seen to be in a good state of preservation.
DOCUMENTARY HANDLING OF THE HISTOLOGICAL DRAWINGS
The documentary series scientific drawings, which forms part of the Ramon y Cajal Museum, is being subject to a thorough form of catalographic description for every document unit, that is to say piece by piece, which is being carried out without losing the perspective of the whole series at any time.12
The planned handling of documents involves identification and evaluation from all pcrspectives+-'. To this end, we use an extensive record card that utilises 15 fields with which we cover the multiple needs of every one of the documents and of the series in general. We also make use of an image field that digitally reproduces the document described (Fig. 3). We can split the fields up in the following way with respect to their function within the catalogue:
- Source and identity of the document: author, date and place, title, signature, inventory, source.
- Nature of the document: technique, support, dimensions, state of preservation, inscriptions.
- Description and indexing: scientific theme, scientific description.
- Ownership, uses, publications, and exhibitions: Owner, bibliography.
There is also a field for other data in which we can add those extra annotations that may be necessary in each case.
Both because of its source and origin, and due to the time that has passed since its genesis, this graphic documentation that we are handling belongs to a historical category and its informative and testimonial value has to be conserved on a permanent basis. Some 2000 units make up the Scientific Drawings Series, which is today preserved at the Ram6n y Cajal Museum. These were undertaken by Santiago Ram6n y Cajal for research purposes with the aim of being reproduced as an ideal complement to his research work, in numerous publications that appeared throughout his life. Many of these continue being republished on a periodic basis.
All the archive documentation has been passed down to our time with its own history (about the source of the records it was kept in, preservation, etc.), This is also the case, and this has largely been possible, with the personal archives!". In all of tbose institutions in which historical documentary records were kept, whether they are archives, museums or libraries, we can find a varied documentary tradition. Along with Cajal's numerous originals, we have also preserved facsimile copies, copies from other authors, press cuttings, etc. Far from lessening the importance of this documentary collection, this fact has enriched it in terms of being faithful and authentic to the period and circumstances in which it was made.
This factor does not have the same sort of bearing on the description
and documentary preservation. On the one hand. preservation is applied equally to the whole series, since the unit endows us with the documentary nature that we refer to: the scientific drawings. With respect to the description, we have systematically noted which type of original, copy, facsimile, cutting, etc. we are referring to in each case. In this way, we have maintained the veracity of and faithfulness to the record that we are charged with being responsible for.
This work has been financed with the Aid of the Caja Madrid Foundation for the Restoration and Preservation of the so-called "Cajal Legacy" of the year 2003.
Ramon y Cajal, S. Textura del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados. Imprenta y Libreria de Nicolas Moya, Madrid, 1899. Torno I, prologo,
"A good drawing as a good microscopic preparation are pieces of reality, scientific documents that indefinitely preserve their value and whose revision will always be useful, whatever interpretations they have given rise to".
3 Ramon y Cajal. S. Recuerdos de rn i vida: Historia de mi labor cienufica.
Alianza Editorial, S.A., Madrid, 1981, page 29 J.
4 idem l.
5 "The protoplasmic expansions and cellular body posses a form ofaxipetic conduction (in other words, towards the axon) ; while the axon possesses a form of dendrifugal and somatifugal conduction (in other words, that comes from either the dendrites or the cellular body)". Ram6n y Cajal, S. "Textura del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados". Printing works and bookshop of Nicolas Moya, Madrid, j 899, volume I, page 88.
6 DeFelipe, J. and Jones, E.G. "Cajal on the Cerebral Cortex". Oxford University Press. J 988, pages 4-5.
Ram6n y Cajal, S. (189 j) "Sur la structure de l'ecorce cerebrale de quelques mamiferes". La Cellule 7:125-176.
8 Julian de la Villa (1952) "Cajal, observado pol' un disector", Institute of Spain, Page 24, Madrid.
9 Merchan. A. "Santiago Ram6n y Cajal. Discurso de doctorado y trabajos de juventud". Universidad Europea CEES ediciones, 200l.
j 0 Ramon y Cajal, S. "Histologic du Systerne Nerveux de I'Homme et des Vertebres" Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas. Instituro Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, 1952.
j j Ram6n y Cajal, S. "L'anatornie fine de la moelle epiniere", In: Atlas del' pathologischen histologic des nervensystems". IV Lieferung. Verlag von August Hirschwald, Berlin, 1895.
j 2 Dictionary of Archive Terminology. Madrid: General Sub-board of State Archives, 1995 (2nd ed.)
13 El archivo del museo y su rratamiento: fondos documenta.les y fondos adrninistrativos. In: JORNADAS DE MUSEOLOGIA (2nd. 1996. Madrid). The museum: documentation centre: minutes of the II Museumology Sessions:
Madrid: Association of Museum Specialists of Spain, 1997
14 Les archives personnelles des scientifiques : classement et conservation / Direction des Archives de France. Paris: National archives, 1995
SCIENTIFIC AND DOCUMENTARY APPRAISAL OF THE HISTOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS OF SANTIAGO RAMON Y CAJAL (1852-1934)
VIRGINIA G" MARIN AND MIGUEL FREIRE
Higher living organisms are made up of a very varied number of units called cells. Cells were first seen under the microscope by Robert Hooke, in 1665, when he observed the structure of the vegetable matter of cork. He found a system of cavities he called cells and pores because they reminded him of the appearance of small cells on the panels of bees
Later on, Schleiden and Schwarm (1838, 1.839) created the Cellular Theory by making observations in the vegetable and animal kingdoms respectively, confirming that all living beings are made up of independent cells. Subsequently, in 1858, Virchow, came to the conclusion that all cells came from another cell. Cellular Theory began being confirmed as the different tissues were studied, except for the nervous system, where it was not known whether the nerve cells were independent or formed a continuous network.
In 1718, the Dutch scientist Leeuwenhoeck, the inventor of the microscope, observed the microscopic structure of the nerves for the first time. In the years 1833-36, a doctor from Berlin, Christian Ehrenber identified the "spherical ganglions" (the bodies of the neurons) for the first time, as well as seeing the nerve fibres as structural elements of the nervous system. But the scientists of that time did not know how to determine whether Ehrenberg's spherical ganglions and the neuronal fibres of the fine structure of the nervous system belonged to the same category, whether they were made up of distinct "cellular" elements, or whether, on the other hand, cellular theory could not be applied to the nervous system' .
Otto Deiters was able to see partially completed nerve cells, with all their extensions, in the spinal cord of an ox for the first time. He managed to mechanically separate them [Tom parts of the nerve tissue, having first treated them with matters that softened the intercellular cement. 1865 saw the appearance of an essay of his, in which he clearly established that all multi-polar nerve cells possesses a body or soma from which two extensions emanate: one smooth, fine branched one that he called an axis cylinder, and that we today know by the name of axon, and several of greater calibre, relatively short, very well branched out, which he called proto-plasmic appendices and are today known as dendrites.
At the time when Cajal started his studies, nerve tissue was included amongst the compound tissues, being defined as a range of fibres and cells placed in the middle of a mass of connecting tissue. The nerve fibres were almost exclusively composed of a white matter, and the nerve cells, also called ganglion corpuscles or cells were described as being in the grey matter, mixed with the fibres. The knowledge of the nerve centres was very scanty. Fibres came out of the grey matter that ended in the periphery and fibres from the white matter stopped with them, the latter being entrusted with conducting the nerve current from the periphery to the centres. The way in which these latter fibres terminated, in the nerve centres, and in general terms, the real way that the nerve fibres of any origin terminated, in the grey matter, was totally and completely unknown-.
RETICULAR AND NEURONAL THEORIES
In his autobiography, Ram6n y Cajal describes the position that the study of the nervous system found itself in:
"Two main hypotheses, concerning the intimate structure of the grey matter, are argued about in the field of science: that concerning the reticulum, defended by almost all neurologists, and that of free termination, timidly suggested by two solitary colleagues, His and Forel, without gaining any
Director Gerente de Obra Social Caja Madrid CARLOS MARiA MARTiNEZ MARTiNEZ
Director de La Casa Encendida JOSE GUlRAO CABRERA
La Casa Encendida
Disefio y maquetaci6n Manuel Ferro
Ave del Paratso Ediciones
Asesoria cientifica Miguel Angel Freire Mallo
Cintas and Spring Traductores
Asesoria artistica Paloma Esteban Leal
Instituto de Neurobiologia Santiago Ramon y Cajal Unidad Movil
Asesoria fotografica Isabel Argerich Fernandez
Juan Arino Marta Elorriaga
© de la edicion, La Casa Encendida © de los textos, sus autores
© de la fotografias, Herederos de Santiago Ramon y CajaJ © Cnac-rnnam dist RMN, M. Beck-Coppola
© Cnac-mnarn dist RMN, Gerard Blot
© Alfonso (Archivo General de la Adrninistracion) © Kunsthistorisches Museum, Viena
Catalogaci6n artistic a de los dibujos Mercedes Marfagon Sanz
Documentaci6n fotografica Herena Troitirio Hernandez
M" Angeles Ramon y Cajal Silvia Cariadas
Maria Ramon y Cajal
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
Encarnacion Ramon y Cajal
Jose Manuel Saiz de los Terreros Fundacion Residencia de Estudiantes
Eugenia Gimeno Pascual Juan Antonio Saez Degano Pilar Sedano Espin
Sonia Tortajada Hernando
v.« Impresores, S.A.
LS.B.N.84-95321-46-7 Deposito Legal: M-47531-2004