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of the Catholic World in G race and Communion with the Apostolic See. The race of man, after its miserable fall from God, the Creator and the Giver of heavenly gifts, "through the envy of the devil," separated into two diverse and opposite parts, of which the one ste adfastly contends for truth and virtue, the other of those things which are cont rary to virtue and to truth. The one is the kingdom of God on earth, namely, the true Church of Jesus Christ; and those who desire from their heart to be united with it, so as to gain salvation, must of necessity serve God and His only-bego tten Son with their whole mind and with an entire will. The other is the kingdom of Satan, in whose possession and control are all whosoever follow the fatal ex ample of their leader and of our first parents, those who refuse to obey the div ine and eternal law, and who have many aims of their own in contempt of God, and many aims also against God. 2. This twofold kingdom St. Augustine keenly discer ned and described after the manner of two cities, contrary in their laws because striving for contrary objects; and with a subtle brevity he expressed the effic ient cause of each in these words: "Two loves formed two cities: the love of sel f, reaching even to contempt of God, an earthly city; and the love of God, reach ing to contempt of self, a heavenly one."1 At every period of time each has been in conflict with the other, with a variety and multiplicity of weapons and of w arfare, although not always with equal ardor and assault. At this period, howeve r, the partisans of evil seems to be combining together, and to be struggling wi th united vehemence, led on or assisted by that strongly organized and widesprea d association called the Freemasons. No longer making any secret of their purpos es, they are now boldly rising up against God Himself. They are planning the des truction of holy Church publicly and openly, and this with the set purpose of ut terly despoiling the nations of Christendom, if it were possible, of the blessin gs obtained for us through Jesus Christ our Saviour. Lamenting these evils, We a re constrained by the charity which urges Our heart to cry out often to God: "Fo r lo, Thy enemies have made a noise; and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. They have taken a malicious counsel against Thy people, and they have cons ulted against Thy saints. They have said, `come, and let us destroy them, so tha t they be not a nation.’” 2 3. At so urgent a crisis, when so fierce and so pres sing an onslaught is made upon the Christian name, it is Our office to point out the danger, to mark who are the adversaries, and to the best of Our power to ma ke head against their plans and devices, that those may not perish whose salvati on is committed to Us, and that the kingdom of Jesus Christ entrusted to Our cha rge may not stand and remain whole, but may be enlarged by an ever-increasing gr owth throughout the world. 4. The Roman Pontiffs Our predecessors, in their ince ssant watchfulness over the safety of the Christian people, were prompt in detec ting the presence and the purpose of this capital enemy
immediately it sprang into the light instead of hiding as a dark conspiracy; and , moreover, they took occasion with true foresight to give, as it were on their guard, and not allow themselves to he caught by the devices and snares laid out to deceive them. 5. The first warning of the danger was given by Clement XII in the year l738, 3 and his constitution was confirmed and renewed by Benedict XIV. 4 Pius VII followed the same path; 5 and Leo XII, by his apostolic constitution , Quo Graviora, 6 put together the acts and decrees of former Pontiffs on this s ubject, and ratified and confirmed them forever. In the same sense spoke Pius VI II, 7 Gregory XVI, 8 and, many times over, Pius IX. 9 6. For as soon as the cons titution and the spirit of the masonic sect were clearly discovered by manifest signs of its actions, by the investigation of its causes, by publication of its laws, and of its rites and commentaries, with the addition often of the personal testimony of those who were in the secret, this apostolic see denounced the sec t of the Freemasons, and publicly declared its constitution, as contrary to law and right, to be pernicious no less to Christiandom than to the State; and it fo rbade any one to enter the society, under the penalties which the Church is wont to inflict upon exceptionally guilty persons. The sectaries, indignant at this, thinking to elude or to weaken the force of these decrees, partly by contempt o f them, and partly by calumny, accused the sovereign Pontiffs who had passed the m either of exceeding the bounds of moderation in their decrees or of decreeing what was not just. This was the manner in which they endeavored to elude the aut hority and the weight of the apostolic constitutions of Clement XII and Benedict XIV, as well as of Pius VII and Pius IX. 10 Yet, in the very society itself, th ere were to be found men who unwillingly acknowledged that the Roman Pontiffs ha d acted within their right, according to the Catholic doctrine and discipline. T he Pontiffs received the same assent, and in strong terms, from many princes and heads of governments, who made it their business either to delate the masonic s ociety to the apostolic see, or of their own accord by special enactments to bra nd it as pernicious, as, for example, in Holland, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, B avaria, Savoy, and other parts of Italy. 7. But, what is of highest importance, the course of events has demonstrated the prudence of Our predecessors. For thei r provident and paternal solicitude had not always and every where the result de sired; and this, either because of the simulation and cunning of some who were a ctive agents in the mischief, or else of the thoughtless levity of the rest who ought, in their own interest, to have given to the matter their diligent attenti on. In consequence, the sect of Freemasons grew with a rapidity beyond conceptio n in the course of a century and a half, until it came to be able, by means of f raud or of audacity, to gain such entrance into every rank of the State as to se em to be almost its ruling power. This swift and formidable advance has brought upon the Church, upon the power of princes, upon the public well-being, precisel y that grievous harm which Our predecessors had long before foreseen. Such a con dition has been reached that henceforth there will be grave reason to fear, not indeed for the Church -- for her foundation is much too firm to be overturned by the effort of men -- but for those States in which prevails the power, either o f the sect of which we are speaking or of other sects not dissimilar which lend themselves to it as disciples and subordinates. 8. For these reasons We no soone r came to the helm of the Church than We clearly saw and felt it to be Our duty to use Our authority to the very utmost against so vast an evil. We have several times already, as occasion served, attacked certain chief points of teaching wh ich showed in a special manner the perverse influence of Masonic opinions. Thus, in Our encyclical letter, Quod Apostolici Muneris, We endeavored to refute the monstrous doctrines of the socialists and communists; afterwards, in another beg inning "Arcanum," We took pains to defend and explain the true and genuine idea of domestic life, of which marriage is the spring and origin; and again, in that which begins "Diuturnum,"
11 We described the ideal of political government conformed to the principles of Ch ristian wisdom, which is marvelously in harmony, on the one hand, with the natur al order of things, and, in the other, with the well-being of both sovereign pri nces and of nations. It is now Our intention, following the example of Our prede cessors, directly to treat of the masonic society itself, of its whole teaching, of its aims, and of its manner of thinking and acting, in order to bring more a nd more into the light its power for evil, and to do what We can to arrest the c ontagion of this fatal plague. 9. There are several organized bodies which, thou gh differing in name, in ceremonial, in form and origin, are nevertheless so bou nd together by community of purpose and by the similarity of their main opinions , as to make in fact one thing with the sect of the Freemasons, which is a kind of center whence they all go forth, and whither they all return. Now, these no l onger show a desire to remain concealed; for they hold their meetings in the day light and before the public eye, and publish their own newspaper organs; and yet , when thoroughly understood, they are found still to retain the nature and the habits of secret societies. There are many things like mysteries which it is the fixed rule to hide with extreme care, not only from strangers, but from very ma ny members, also; such as their secret and final designs, the names of the chief leaders, and certain secret and inner meetings, as well as their decisions, and the ways and means of carrying them out. This is, no doubt, the object of the m anifold difference among the members as to right, office, and privilege, of the received distinction of orders and grades, and of that severe discipline which i s maintained. Candidates are generally commanded to promise -- nay, with a speci al oath, to swear -- that they will never, to any person, at any time or in any way, make known the members, the passes, or the subjects discussed. Thus, with a fraudulent external appearance, and with a style of simulation which is always the same, the Freemasons, like the Manichees of old, strive, as far as possible, to conceal themselves, and to admit no witnesses but their own members. As a co nvenient manner of concealment, they assume the character of literary men and sc holars associated for purposes of learning. They speak of their zeal for a more cultured refinement, and of their love for the poor; and they declare their one wish to be the amelioration of the condition of the masses, and to share with th e largest possible number all the benefits of civil life. Were these purposes ai med at in real truth, they are by no means the whole of their object. Moreover, to be enrolled, it is necessary that the candidates promise and undertake to be thenceforward strictly obedient to their leaders and masters with the utmost sub mission and fidelity, and to be in readiness to do their bidding upon the slight est expression of their will; or, if disobedient, to submit to the direst penalt ies and death itself. As a fact, if any are judged to have betrayed the doings o f the sect or to have resisted commands given, punishment is inflicted on them n ot infrequently, and with so much audacity and dexterity that the assassin very often escapes the detection and penalty of his crime. 10. But to simulate and wi sh to lie hid; to bind men like slaves in the very tightest bonds, and without g iving any sufficient reason; to make use of men enslaved to the will of another for any arbitrary act; to arm men s right hands for bloodshed after securing imp unity for the crime -- all this is an enormity from which nature recoils. Wheref ore, reason and truth itself make it plain that the society of which we are spea king is in antagonism with justice and natural uprightness. And this becomes sti ll plainer, inasmuch as other arguments, also, and those very manifest, prove th at it is essentially opposed to natural virtue. For, no matter how great may be men s cleverness in concealing and their experience in lying, it is impossible t o prevent the effects of any cause from showing, in some way, the intrinsic natu re of the cause whence they come. "A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor a b ad tree produce good fruit." 12 Now, the masonic sect produces fruits that are p ernicious and of the bitterest savor. For, from what We have above most clearly shown, that which is their ultimate purpose forces itself into view -- namely, t he utter overthrow of that whole religious and political order of the world whic h the Christian teaching has produced, and the substitution of a new state of th
ings in accordance
with their ideas, of which the foundations and laws shall be drawn from mere nat uralism. 11. What We have said, and are about to say, must be understood of the sect of the Freemasons taken generically, and in so far as it comprises the asso ciations kindred to it and confederated with it, but not of the individual membe rs of them. There may be persons amongst these, and not a few who, although not free from the guilt of having entangled themselves in such associations, yet are neither themselves partners in their criminal acts nor aware of the ultimate ob ject which they are endeavoring to attain. In the same way, some of the affiliat ed societies, perhaps, by no means approve of the extreme conclusions which they would, if consistent, embrace as necessarily following from their common princi ples, did not their very foulness strike them with horror. Some of these, again, are led by circumstances of times and places either to aim at smaller things th an the others usually attempt or than they themselves would wish to attempt. The y are not, however, for this reason, to be reckoned as alien to the masonic fede ration; for the masonic federation is to be judged not so much by the things whi ch it has done, or brought to completion, as by the sum of its pronounced opinio ns. 12. Now, the fundamental doctrine of the naturalists, which they sufficientl y make known by their very name, is that human nature and human reason ought in all things to be mistress and guide. Laying this down, they care little for duti es to God, or pervert them by erroneous and vague opinions. For they deny that a nything has been taught by God; they allow no dogma of religion or truth which c annot be understood by the human intelligence, nor any teacher who ought to be b elieved by reason of his authority. And since it is the special and exclusive du ty of the Catholic Church fully to set forth in words truths divinely received, to teach, besides other divine helps to salvation, the authority of its office, and to defend the same with perfect purity, it is against the Church that the ra ge and attack of the enemies are principally directed. 13. In those matters whic h regard religion let it be seen how the sect of the Freemasons acts, especially where it is more free to act without restraint, and then let any one judge whet her in fact it does not wish to carry out the policy of the naturalists. By a lo ng and persevering labor, they endeavor to bring about this result -- namely, th at the teaching office and authority of the Church may become of no account in t he civil State; and for this same reason they declare to the people and contend that Church and State ought to be altogether disunited. By this means they rejec t from the laws and from the commonwealth the wholesome influence of the Catholi c religion; and they consequently imagine that States ought to be constituted wi thout any regard for the laws and precepts of the Church. 14. Nor do they think it enough to disregard the Church -- the best of guides -- unless they also inju re it by their hostility. Indeed, with them it is lawful to attack with impunity the very foundations of the Catholic religion, in speech, in writing, and in te aching; and even the rights of the Church are not spared, and the offices with w hich it is divinely invested are not safe. The least possible liberty to manage affairs is left to the Church; and this is done by laws not apparently very host ile, but in reality framed and fitted to hinder freedom of action. Moreover, We see exceptional and onerous laws imposed upon the clergy, to the end that they m ay be continually diminished in number and in necessary means. We see also the r emnants of the possessions of the Church fettered by the strictest conditions, a nd subjected to the power and arbitrary will of the administrators of the State, and the religious orders rooted up and scattered. 15. But against the apostolic see and the Roman Pontiff the contention of these enemies has been for a long t ime directed. The Pontiff was first, for specious reasons, thrust out from the b ulwark of his liberty and of his right, the civil princedom; soon, he was unjust ly driven into a condition which was unbearable because of the difficulties rais ed on all sides; and now the time has come when the partisans of the sects openl y declare, what in secret among themselves they have for a long time plotted, th at the sacred power of the Pontiffs must be abolished, and that the papacy itsel f, founded by divine right,
must be utterly destroyed. If other proofs were wanting, this fact would be suff iciently disclosed by the testimony of men well informed, of whom some at other times, and others again recently, have declared it to be true of the Freemasons that they especially desire to assail the Church with irreconcilable hostility, and that they will never rest until they have destroyed whatever the supreme Pon tiffs have established for the sake of religion. 16. If those who are admitted a s members are not commanded to abjure by any form of words the Catholic doctrine s, this omission, so far from being adverse to the designs of the Freemasons, is more useful for their purposes. First, in this way they easily deceive the simp le-minded and the heedless, and can induce a far greater number to become member s. Again, as all who offer themselves are received whatever may be their form of religion, they thereby teach the great error of this age -- that a regard for r eligion should be held as an indifferent matter, and that all religions are alik e. This manner of reasoning is calculated to bring about the ruin of all forms o f religion, and especially of the Catholic religion, which, as it is the only on e that is true, cannot, without great injustice, be regarded as merely equal to other religions. 17. But the naturalists go much further; for having, in the hig hest things, entered upon a wholly erroneous course, they are carried headlong t o extremes, either by reason of the weakness of human nature, or because God inf licts upon them the just punishment of their pride. Hence it happens that they n o longer consider as certain and permanent those things which are fully understo od by the natural light of reason, such as certainly are -- the existence of God , the immaterial nature of the human soul, and its immortality. The sect of the Freemasons, by a similar course of error, is exposed to these same dangers; for, although in a general way they may profess the existence of God, they themselve s are witnesses that they do not all maintain this truth with the full assent of the mind or with a firm conviction. Neither do they conceal that this question about God is the greatest source and cause of discords among them; in fact, it i s certain that a considerable contention about this same subject has existed amo ng them very lately. But, indeed, the sect allows great liberty to its votaries, so that to each side is given the right to defend its own opinion, either that there is a God, or that there is none; and those who obstinately contend that th ere is no God are as easily initiated as those who contend that God exists, thou gh, like the pantheists, they have false notions concerning Him: all which is no thing else than taking away the reality, while retaining some absurd representat ion of the divine nature. 18. When this greatest fundamental truth has been over turned or weakened, it follows that those truths, also, which are known by the t eaching of nature must begin to fall -- namely, that all things were made by the free will of God the Creator; that the world is governed by Providence; that so uls do not die; that to this life of men upon the earth there will succeed anoth er and an everlasting life. 19. When these truths are done away with, which are as the principles of nature and important for knowledge and for practical use, i t is easy to see what will become of both public and private morality. We say no thing of those more heavenly virtues, which no one can exercise or even acquire without a special gift and grace of God; of which necessarily no trace can be fo und in those who reject as unknown the redemption of mankind, the grace of God, the sacraments, and the happiness to be obtained in heaven. We speak now of the duties which have their origin in natural probity. That God is the Creator of th e world and its provident Ruler; that the eternal law commands the natural order to be maintained, and forbids that it be disturbed; that the last end of men is a destiny far above human things and beyond this sojourning upon the earth: the se are the sources and these the principles of all justice and morality. If thes e be taken away, as the naturalists and Freemasons desire, there will immediatel y be no knowledge as to what constitutes justice and injustice, or upon what pri nciple morality is founded. And, in truth, the teaching of morality which alone finds favor with the sect of Freemasons, and in which
they contend that youth should be instructed, is that which they call "civil," a nd "independent," and "free," namely, that which does not contain any religious belief. But, how insufficient such teaching is, how wanting in soundness, and ho w easily moved by every impulse of passion, is sufficiently proved by its sad fr uits, which have already begun to appear. For, wherever, by removing Christian e ducation, this teaching has begun more completely to rule, there goodness and in tegrity of morals have begun quickly to perish, monstrous and shameful opinions have grown up, and the audacity of evil deeds has risen to a high degree. All th is is commonly complained of and deplored; and not a few of those who by no mean s wish to do so are compelled by abundant evidence to give not infrequently the same testimony. 20. Moreover, human nature was stained by original sin, and is t herefore more disposed to vice than to virtue. For a virtuous life it is absolut ely necessary to restrain the disorderly movements of the soul, and to make the passions obedient to reason. In this conflict human things must very often be de spised, and the greatest labors and hardships must be undergone, in order that r eason may always hold its sway. But the naturalists and Freemasons, having no fa ith in those things which we have learned by the revelation of God, deny that ou r first parents sinned, and consequently think that free will is not at all weak ened and inclined to evil. 13 On the contrary, exaggerating rather the power and the excellence of nature, and placing therein alone the principle and rule of j ustice, they cannot even imagine that there is any need at all of a constant str uggle and a perfect steadfastness to overcome the violence and rule of our passi ons. Wherefore we see that men are publicly tempted by the many allurements of p leasure; that there are journals and pamphlets with neither moderation nor shame ; that stage-plays are remarkable for license; that designs for works of art are shamelessly sought in the laws of a so-called realism; that the contrivances of a soft and delicate life are most carefully devised; and that all the blandishm ents of pleasure are diligently sought out by which virtue may be lulled to slee p. Wickedly, also, but at the same time quite consistently, do those act who do away with the expectation of the joys of heaven, and bring down all happiness to the level of mortality, and, as it were, sink it in the earth. Of what We have said the following fact, astonishing not so much in itself as in its open expres sion, may serve as a confirmation. For, since generally no one is accustomed to obey crafty and clever men so submissively as those whose soul is weakened and b roken down by the domination of the passions, there have been in the sect of the Freemasons some who have plainly determined and proposed that, artfully and of set purpose, the multitude should be satiated with a boundless license of vice, as, when this had been done, it would easily come under their power and authorit y for any acts of daring. 21. What refers to domestic life in the teaching of th e naturalists is almost all contained in the following declarations: that marria ge belongs to the genus of commercial contracts, which can rightly be revoked by the will of those who made them, and that the civil rulers of the State have po wer over the matrimonial bond; that in the education of youth nothing is to he t aught in the matter of religion as of certain and fixed opinion; and each one mu st he left at liberty to follow, when he comes of age, whatever he may prefer. T o these things the Freemasons fully assent; and not only assent, but have long e ndeavored to make them into a law and institution. For in many countries, and th ose nominally Catholic, it is enacted that no marriages shall be considered lawf ul except those contracted by the civil rite; in other places the law permits di vorce; and in others every effort is used to make it lawful as soon as may be. T hus, the time is quickly coming when marriages will be turned into another kind of contract -- that is into changeable and uncertain unions which fancy may join together, and which the same when changed may disunite. With the greatest unani mity the sect of the Freemasons also endeavors to take to itself the education o f youth. They think that they can easily mold to their opinions that soft and pl iant age, and
bend it whither they will; and that nothing can be more fitted than this to enab le them to bring up the youth of the State after their own plan. Therefore, in t he education and instruction of children they allow no share, either of teaching or of discipline, to the ministers of the Church; and in many places they have procured that the education of youth shall he exclusively in the hands of laymen , and that nothing which treats of the most important and most holy duties of me n to God shall be introduced into the instructions on morals. 22. Then come thei r doctrines of politics, in which the naturalists lay down that all men have the same right, and are in every respect of equal and like condition; that each one is naturally free; that no one has the right to command another; that it is an act of violence to require men to obey any authority other than that which is ob tained from themselves. According to this, therefore, all things belong to the f ree people; power is held by the command or permission of the people, so that, w hen the popular will changes, rulers may lawfully be deposed and the source of a ll rights and civil duties is either in the multitude or in the governing author ity when this is constituted according to the latest doctrines. It is held also that the State should be without God; that in the various forms of religion ther e is no reason why one should have precedence of another; and that they are all to occupy the same place. 23. That these doctrines are equally acceptable to the Freemasons, and that they would wish to constitute States according to this exa mple and model, is too well known to require proof. For some time past they have openly endeavored to bring this about with all their strength and resources; an d in this they prepare the way for not a few holder men who are hurrying on even to worse things, in their endeavor to obtain equality and community of all good s by the destruction of every distinction of rank and property. 24. What, theref ore, sect of the Freemasons is, and what course it pursues, appears sufficiently from the summary. We have briefly given. Their chief dogmas are so greatly and manifestly at variance with reason that nothing can be more perverse. To wish to destroy the religion and the Church which God Himself has established, and whos e perpetuity He insures by His protection, and to bring back after a lapse of ei ghteen centuries the manners and customs of the pagans, is signal folly and auda cious impiety. Neither is it less horrible nor more tolerable that they should r epudiate the benefits which Jesus Christ so mercifully obtained, not only for in dividuals, but also for the family and for civil society, benefits which, even a ccording to the judgment and testimony of enemies of Christianity, are very grea t. In this insane and wicked endeavor we may almost see the implacable hatred an d spirit of revenge with which Satan himself is inflamed against Jesus Christ.-So also the studious endeavor of the Freemasons to destroy the chief foundation s of justice and honesty, and to co-operate with those who would wish, as if the y were mere animals, to do what they please, tends only to the ignominious and d isgraceful ruin of the human race. The evil, too, is increased by the dangers wh ich threaten both domestic and civil society. As We have elsewhere shown, 14 in marriage, according to the belief of almost every nation, there is something sac red and religious; and the law of God has determined that marriages shall not be dissolved. If they are deprived of their sacred character, and made dissoluble, trouble and confusion in the family will be the result, the wife being deprived of her dignity and the children left without protection as to their interests a nd well being.-- To have in public matters no care for religion, and in the arra ngement and administration of civil affairs to have no more regard for God than if He did not exist, is a rashness unknown to the very pagans; for in their hear t and soul the notion of a divinity and the need of public religion were so firm ly fixed that they would have thought it easier to have a city without foundatio n than a city without God. Human society, indeed for which by nature we are form ed, has been constituted by God the Author of nature; and from Him, as from thei r principle and source, flow in all their strength and permanence the countless benefits with which society abounds. As we are
each of us admonished by the very voice of nature to worship God in piety and ho liness, as the Giver unto us of life and of all that is good therein, so also an d for the same reason, nations and States are bound to worship Him; and therefor e it is clear that those who would absolve society from all religious duty act n ot only unjustly but also with ignorance and folly. 25. As men are by the will o f God born for civil union and society, and as the power to rule is so necessary a bond of society that, if it be taken away, society must at once be broken up, it follows that from Him who is the Author of society has come also the authori ty to rule; so that whosoever rules, he is the minister of God. Wherefore, as th e end and nature of human society so requires, it is right to obey the just comm ands of lawful authority, as it is right to obey God who ruleth all things; and it is most untrue that the people have it in their power to cast aside their obe dience whensoever they please. 26. In like manner, no one doubts that all men ar e equal one to another, so far as regards their common origin and nature, or the last end which each one has to attain, or the rights and duties which are thenc e derived. But, as the abilities of all are not equal, as one differs from anoth er in the powers of mind or body, and as there are very many dissimilarities of manner, disposition, and character, it is most repugnant to reason to endeavor t o confine all within the same measure, and to extend complete equality to the in stitutions of civil life. Just as a perfect condition of the body results from t he conjunction and composition of its various members, which, though differing i n form and purpose, make, by their union and the distribution of each one to its proper place, a combination beautiful to behold, firm in strength, and necessar y for use; so, in the commonwealth, there is an almost infinite dissimilarity of men, as parts of the whole. If they are to be all equal, and each is to follow his own will, the State will appear most deformed; but if, with a distinction of degrees of dignity, of pursuits and employments, all aptly conspire for the com mon good, they will present the image of a State both well constituted and confo rmable to nature. 27. Now, from the disturbing errors which We have described th e greatest dangers to States are to be feared. For, the fear of God and reverenc e for divine laws being taken away, the authority of rulers despised, sedition p ermitted and approved, and the popular passions urged on to lawlessness, with no restraint save that of punishment, a change and overthrow of all things will ne cessarily follow. Yea, this change and overthrow is deliberately planned and put forward by many associations of communists and socialists; and to their underta kings the sect of Freemasons is not hostile, but greatly favors their designs, a nd holds in common with them their chief opinions. And if these men do not at on ce and everywhere endeavor to carry out their extreme views, it is not to be att ributed to their teaching and their will, but to the virtue of that divine relig ion which cannot be destroyed; and also because the sounder part of men, refusin g to be enslaved to secret societies, vigorously resist their insane attempts. 2 8. Would that all men would judge of the tree by its fruit, and would acknowledg e the seed and origin of the evils which press upon us, and of the dangers that are impending! We have to deal with a deceitful and crafty enemy, who, gratifyin g the ears of people and of princes, has ensnared them by smooth speeches and by adulation. Ingratiating themselves with rulers under a pretense of friendship, the Freemasons have endeavored to make them their allies and powerful helpers fo r the destruction of the Christian name; and that they might more strongly urge them on, they have, with determined calumny, accused the Church of invidiously c ontending with rulers in matters that affect their authority and sovereign power . Having, by these artifices, insured their own safety and audacity, they have b egun to exercise great weight in the government of States; but nevertheless they are prepared to shake the foundations of empires, to harass the rulers of the S tate, to accuse, and to cast them out, as often as they appear to govern otherwi se than they themselves could have wished. In like manner, they have by flattery deluded the people. Proclaiming with a loud voice liberty and public prosperity , and saying that
it was owing to the Church and to sovereigns that the multitude were not drawn o ut of their unjust servitude and poverty, they have imposed upon the people, and , exciting them by a thirst for novelty, they have urged them to assail both the Church and the civil power. Nevertheless, the expectation of the benefits which was hoped for is greater than the reality; indeed, the common people, more oppr essed than they were before, are deprived in their misery of that solace which, if things had been arranged in a Christian manner, they would have had with ease and in abundance. But, whoever strive against the order which Divine Providence has constituted pay usually the penalty of their pride, and meet with afflictio n and misery where they rashly hoped to find all things prosperous and in confor mity with their desires. 29. The Church, if she directs men to render obedience chiefly and above all to God the sovereign Lord, is wrongly and falsely believed either to be envious of the civil power or to arrogate to herself something of the rights of sovereigns. On the contrary, she teaches that what is rightly due to the civil power must be rendered to it with a conviction and consciousness of duty. In teaching that from God Himself comes the right of ruling, she adds a g reat dignity to civil authority, and on small help towards obtaining the obedien ce and good-will of the citizens. The friend of peace and sustainer of concord, she embraces all with maternal love; and, intent only upon giving help to mortal man, she teaches that to justice must be joined clemency, equity to authority, and moderation to lawgiving; that no one s right must be violated; that order an d public tranquility are to he maintained; and that the poverty of those are in need is, as far as possible, to be relieved by public and private charity. "But for this reason," to use the words of St. Augustine, "men think, or would have i t believed, that Christian teaching is not suited to the good of the State; for they wish the State to be founded not on solid virtue, but on the impunity of vi ce." 15 Knowing these things, both princes and people would act with political w isdom, 16 and according to the needs of general safety, if, instead of joining w ith Freemasons to destroy the Church, they joined with the Church in repelling t heir attacks. 30. Whatever the future may be, in this grave and widespread evil it is Our duty, venerable brethren, to endeavor to find a remedy. And because We know that Our best and firmest hope of a remedy is in the power of that divine religion which the Freemasons hate in proportion to their fear of it, We think i t to be of chief importance to call that most saving power to Our aid against th e common enemy. Therefore, whatsoever the Roman Pontiffs Our predecessors have d ecreed for the purpose of opposing the undertakings and endeavors of the masonic sect, and whatsoever they have enacted to enter or withdraw men from societies of this kind, We ratify and confirm it all by our apostolic authority: and trust ing greatly to the good will of Christians, We pray and beseech each one, for th e sake of his eternal salvation, to be most conscientiously careful not in the l east to depart from what the apostolic see has commanded in this matter. 31. We pray and beseech you, venerable brethren, to join your efforts with Ours, and ea rnestly to strive for the extirpation of this foul plague, which is creeping thr ough the veins of the body politic. You have to defend the glory of God and the salvation of your neighbor; and with the object of your strife before you, neith er courage nor strength will be wanting. It will be for your prudence to judge b y what means you can best overcome the difficulties and obstacles you meet with. But, as it befits the authority of Our office that We Ourselves should point ou t some suitable way of proceeding, We wish it to be your rule first of all to te ar away the mask from Freemasonry, and to let it be seen as it really is; and by sermons and pastoral letters to instruct the people as to the artifices used by societies of this kind in seducing men and enticing them into their ranks, and as to the depravity of their opinions and the wickedness of their acts. As Our p redecessors have many times repeated, let no man think that he may for any reaso n whatsoever join the masonic sect, if he values his Catholic name and his etern al salvation as he ought to value them. Let no one be deceived by a pretense of honesty. It may seem to some that Freemasons demand nothing that is openly contr ary to religion and morality;
but, as the whole principle and object of the sect lies in what is vicious and c riminal, to join with these men or in any way to help them cannot be lawful. 32. Further, by assiduous teaching and exhortation, the multitude must be drawn to learn diligently the precepts of religion; for which purpose we earnestly advise that by opportune writings and sermons they be taught the elements of those sac red truths in which Christian philosophy is contained. The result of this will b e that the minds of men will be made sound by instruction, and will be protected against many forms of error and inducements to wickedness, especially in the pr esent unbounded freedom of writing and insatiable eagerness for learning. 33. Gr eat, indeed, is the work; but in it the clergy will share your labors, if, throu gh your care, they are fitted for it by learning and a well-turned life. This go od and great work requires to be helped also by the industry of those amongst th e laity in whom a love of religion and of country is joined to learning and good ness of life. By uniting the efforts of both clergy and laity, strive, venerable brethren, to make men thoroughly know and love the Church; for, the greater the ir knowledge and love of the Church, the more will they be turned away from clan destine societies. 34. Wherefore, not without cause do We use this occasion to s tate again what We have stated elsewhere, namely, that the Third Order of St. Fr ancis, whose discipline We a little while ago prudently mitigated, 16 should be studiously promoted and sustained; for the whole object of this Order, as consti tuted by its founder, is to invite men to an imitation of Jesus Christ, to a lov e of the Church, and to the observance of all Christian virtues; and therefore i t ought to be of great influence in suppressing the contagion of wicked societie s. Let, therefore, this holy sodality be strengthened by a daily increase. Among st the many benefits to be expected from it will be the great benefit of drawing the minds of men to liberty, fraternity, and equality of right; not such as the Freemasons absurdly imagine, but such as Jesus Christ obtained for the human ra ce and St. Francis aspired to: the liberty, We mean, of sons of God, through whi ch we may be free from slavery to Satan or to our passions, both of them most wi cked masters; the fraternity whose origin is in God, the common Creator and Fath er of all; the equality which, founded on justice and charity, does not take awa y all distinctions among men, but, out of the varieties of life, of duties, and of pursuits, forms that union and that harmony which naturally tend to the benef it and dignity of society. 35. In the third place, there is a matter wisely inst ituted by our forefathers, but in course of time laid aside, which may now be us ed as a pattern and form of something similar. We mean the associations of guild s of workmen, for the protection, under the guidance of religion, both of their temporal interests and of their morality. If our ancestors, by long use and expe rience, felt the benefit of these guilds, our age perhaps will feel it the more by reason of the opportunity which they will give of crushing the power of the s ects. Those who support themselves by the labor of their hands, besides being, b y their very condition most worthy above all others of charity and consolation, are also especially exposed to the allurements of men whose ways lie in fraud an d deceit. Therefore, they ought to be helped with the greatest possible kindness , and to be invited to join associations that are good, lest they be drawn away to others that are evil. For this reason, We greatly wish, for the salvation of the people, that, under the auspices and patronage of the bishops, and at conven ient times, these gilds may be generally restored. To Our great delight, sodiali ties of this kind and also associations of masters have in many places already b een established, having, each class of them, for their object to help the honest workman, to protect and guard his children and family, and to promote in them p iety, Christian knowledge, and a moral life. And in this matter We cannot omit m entioning that exemplary society, named after its founder, St. Vincent, which ha s deserved so well of the lower classes. Its acts and its aims are well known. I ts whole object is to give relief to the poor and miserable. This it does with s ingular prudence and modesty; and the less it wishes to be seen, the better is i t fitted for the exercise of Christian charity,
and for the relief of suffering. 36. In the fourth place, in order more easily t o attain what We wish, to your fidelity and watchfulness We commend in a special manner the young, as being the hope of human society. Devote the greatest part of your care to their instruction; and do not think that any precaution can be g reat enough in keeping them from masters and schools whence the pestilent breath of the sects is to be feared. Under your guidance, let parents, religious instr uctors, and priests having the cure of souls use every opportunity, in their Chr istian teaching, of warning their children and pupils of the infamous nature of these societies, so that they may learn in good time to beware of the various an d fraudulent artifices by which their promoters are accustomed to ensnare people . And those who instruct the young in religious knowledge will act wisely if the y induce all of them to resolve and to undertake never to bind themselves to any society without the knowledge of their parents, or the advice of their parish p riest or director. 37. We well know, however, that our united labors will by no means suffice to pluck up these pernicious seeds from the Lord s field, unless t he Heavenly Master of the vineyard shall mercifully help us in our endeavors. We must, therefore, with great and anxious care, implore of Him the help which the greatness of the danger and of the need requires. The sect of the Freemasons sh ows itself insolent and proud of its success, and seems as if it would put no bo unds to its pertinacity. Its followers, joined together by a wicked compact and by secret counsels, give help one to another, and excite one another to an audac ity for evil things. So vehement an attack demands an equal defense-namely, that all good men should form the widest possible association of action and of praye r. We beseech them, therefore, with united hearts, to stand together and unmoved against the advancing force of the sects; and in mourning and supplication to s tretch out their hands to God, praying that the Christian name may flourish and prosper, that the Church may enjoy its needed liberty, that those who have gone astray may return to a right mind, that error at length may give place to truth, and vice to virtue. Let us take our helper and intercessor the Virgin Mary, Mot her of God, so that she, who from the moment of her conception overcame Satan ma y show her power over these evil sects, in which is revived the contumacious spi rit of the demon, together with his unsubdued perfidy and deceit. Let us beseech Michael, the prince of the heavenly angels, who drove out the infernal foe; and Joseph, the spouse of the most holy Virgin, and heavenly patron of the Catholic Church; and the great Apostles, Peter and Paul, the fathers and victorious cham pions of the Christian faith. By their patronage, and by perseverance in united prayer, we hope that God will mercifully and opportunely succor the human race, which is encompassed by so many dangers. 38. As a pledge of heavenly gifts and o f Our benevolence, We lovingly grant in the Lord, to you, venerable brethren, an d to the clergy and all the people committed to your watchful care, Our apostoli c benediction. Given at St. Peter s in Rome, the twentieth day of April, 1884, t he sixth year of Our pontificate. LATIN TEXT: Acta Leonis, 4: 43-70; Acta Sanctae Sedis, 16:417-33. ENGLISH TRANSL ATION: The Church Speaks to the Modern World, ed. by Etienne Gilson (Image Books , 1954), 117-39.
REFERENCES: 1. De cit. Dei, 14, 28 (PL 41, 436). 2. Ps. 82:24. 3. Const. In Emin enti, April 24, 1738. 4. Const. Providas, May 18, 1751. 5. Const. Ecclesiam a Je su Christo, Sept. 13, 1821. 6. Const. given March 13,1825. 7. Encyc. Traditi, Ma y 21,1829. 8. Encyc. Mirari, August 15,1832. 9. Encyc. Qui Pluribus, Nov. 9, 184 6; address Multiplices inter, Sept. 25,1865, etc. 10. Clement XII (1730-40); Ben edict XIV (1740-58); Pius VII (1800-23); Pius IX (1846-78). 11. See nos. 79, 81, 84. 12. Matt. 7:18. 13. Trid., sess. vi, De justif., c. 1. Text of the Council of Trent: tametsi in eis (sc. Judaeis) liberum arbitrium minime extinctum esse t, viribus licet attenuatum et inclinatum.” 14. See Arcanum, no. 81. 15. Epistol a 137, ad Volusianum, c. v, n. 20 (PL 33, 525). 16. The text here refers to the encyclical letter Auspicato Concessum (Sept. 17, 1882), in which Pope Leo XIII h ad recently glorified St. Francis of Assisi on the occasion of the seventh cente nary of his birth. In this encyclical, the Pope had presented the Third Order of St. Francis as a Christian answer to the social problems of the times. The cons titution Misericors Dei Filius (June 23, 1883) expressly recalled that the negle ct in which Christian virtues are held is the main cause of the evils that threa ten societies. In confirming the rule of the Third Order and adapting it to the needs of modern times, Pope Leo XIII had intended to bring back the largest poss ible number of souls to the practice of these virtues. COMMENTARIES: "Di alcuni documenti poco noti dimostranti ciò che della setta massonica definisce la recen te enciclica Humanum genus." Civiltà Cattolica, ser. 12, 6 (7 maggio 1884), 40615. "The late encyclical and the English Masons." Tablet, 63 (May 3, 1884), 681. Meschler, Moritz. "Die päpstliche Enzyklika Humanum genus." Stimmen aus Maria L aach, 27 (1884), 113-34. "Mirabili effetti dell enciclica papale Humanum genus c ontro la massoneria." Civiltà Cattolica, ser. 12, 6 (27 maggio 1884), 525-35. "O ttimo provvedimento del santo padre riguardante i frammassoni." Civilta Cattolic a, ser. 12, 7 (26 giugno 1884), 35-45. “The pope and Freemasonry." Ave Maria, 20 (December 13, 1884), 993-94. "Pope Leo and the Freemasons." Dublin Review, 95 ( July, 1884), 144-65.
1st. Praelocution by Albert Pike on Leo XIII’s Humanum Genus Against Freemasonry From the Allocution of the Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the 33d Deg ree for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States of America. Delivered in October, 1884, in Supreme Council. This is a formal speech that preceded Pike’s written reply which follows If the Encyclical Letter of Leo XIII., entitled, from its opening words, “HUMANU M GENUS,” had been nothing more than a denunciation of Freemasonry, I should not have thought it worth replying to. But under the guise of a condemnation of Fre emasonry, and a recital of the enormities and immoralities of the Order, in some respects so absurdly false as to be ludicrous, notwithstanding its malignity, i t proved upon perusal to be a declaration of war, and the signal for a crusade, against the rights of men individually and of communities of men as organisms; a gainst the separation of Church and State, and the confinement of the Church wit hin the limits of its legitimate functions; against education free from sectaria n religious influences; against the civil policy of non-Catholic countries in re gard to marriage and divorce; against the great doctrine upon which, as upon a r ock not to be shaken, the foundations of our Republic rest, that “men are superi or to institutions, and not institutions to men;” against the right of the peopl e to depose oppressive, cruel and worthless rulers; against the exercise of the rights of free thought and free speech, and against, not only republican, but al l constitutional government. It was the signal for the outbreaking of an already organized conspiracy against the peace of the world, the progress of intellect, the emancipation of humanity, the immunity of human creatures from arrest, impr isonment, torture, and murder by arbitrary power, the right of men to the free p ursuit of happiness. It was a declaration of war, arraying all faithful Catholic s in the United States, not only against their fellow-citizens, the Brethren of the Order of Freemasons, but against the principles that are the very life-blood of the government of the people of which they were supposed to be a part, and n ot the members of Italian Colonies, docile and obedient subjects of a foreign Po tentate, and of the Cardinals, European and American, his Princes of the Church. Therefore, seeing it nowhere replied to in the English language in a manner tha t seemed to me worthy of Freemasonry, I undertook to answer it for the Ancient a nd Accepted Scottish Rite, which has been ever prompt to vindicate itself from a spersion, and carry the war into the quarters of error. I did not propose to sta nd upon the defensive, protesting against the accusations of the Papal Bull, as unjust to the Freemasonry of the English-speaking countries of the world, pleadi ng the irresponsibility of British and American Masonry for the acts or opinions of the Freemasonry of the Continent of Europe; nor was I inclined to apologize for the audacity of Free-masonry in daring to exist and to be on the side of the great principles of free government. When the journal in London which speaks fo r the Freemasonry of the Grand Lodge of England, deprecatingly protested that th e English Masonry was innocent of the charges preferred by the Papal Bull agains t Freemasonry as one and indivisible; when it declared that the English Freemaso nry had no opinions, political or religious, and that it did not in the least de gree sympathize with the loose opinions and extravagant utterances of part of th e Continental Freemasonry, it was very justly and very conclusively checkmated b y the Romish organs with the reply: “It is idle for you to protest. You are Free masons, and you recognize them as Freemasons. You give them countenance, encoura gement and support, and you are jointly responsible with them and cannot shirk t hat responsibility.” And here is what is said by the Bishop of Ascalon, Vicar-Ap ostolic of Bombay, etc., in a pastoral letter promulgating the Bull: “In the per formance of their duty, the Parish Priests and Confessors must not admit as vali d or reasonable the common excuse that Freemasonry in India and England aims at nothing but social amusement, mutual advancement, and charitable benevolence. Su ch objects require neither a terrible
oath of secrecy nor an elaborate system and scale of numerous Degrees, nor a con nection with the Masonic Lodges of other countries, about whose anti-Christian, anti-social, and revolutionary character and aim no doubt nor further concealmen t is possible. The Masonic Lodges all over the world are firmly knitted and boun d together in solidarity. If all of them share in the pleasure of a triumph achi eved by a particular Lodge, or by the Lodges of a particular country, all must l ikewise submit to the ^254 stigma of an anti-Christian, anti-social, and revolut ionary sect, as which Freemasonry is in many countries already openly known, and even unblushingly confessed by its own adepts.” I was not willing that the Anci ent and Accepted Scottish Rite of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States should humiliate itself to as little purpose; nor was there any danger that it would do so. The organs of our American Masonry were inclined to treat the Encyc lical Letter as needing no reply, and to regard it with contemptuous indifferenc e. In their opinion, it seemed, the lightnings of the Vatican were harmless, and the American Masonry would do a foolish thing to pay any attention to the Bull. It may be so; and I receive with due humility the admonition that to reply to i t was to make much ado about nothing. But the Freemasonry of the United States i s not what it was in the days of the Fathers. While it has succeeded, obedient t o the impulsion of Brother Richard Vaux, of Pennsylvania, and others, in pretty effectually isolating itself from the Masonry of the rest of the world, other Or ders at home unceremoniously jostle it in the struggle for precedence, and it in vain appeals to its antiquity and former prestige to protect it against irrever ence. Incalculable harm is being done by Bodies of base origin, whose agents tra verse the country soliciting men to receive the counterfeit Degrees which they p eddle, selling them by the score for ten or fifteen dollars to anyone who will b uy, and conferring all in an hour or so, or by administering a single obligation . Rites without claim to be Masonic, teaching nothing worth nothing, flauntingly advertise their multitudes of Degrees, that are nothing but numbers and names; new Orders called Masonic spring up like mushrooms; and even the legitimate Maso nry, held responsible for all these nuisances and vagaries, parades its uniforms and gewgaws, collars and jewels, too much in the public view, and has so gained popularity while losing its right to reverence. Its complacent sense of securit y may be rudely disturbed by and by. It seems to me that an organized crusade ag ainst it by all the Roman Catholics in the United States, an anti-Masonic moveme nt organized and directed by the Papacy, and engineered by Priests, Bishops, and Cardinals, is not a thing to be made light of by the American Masonry, treated with indifference and regarded with a lordly and sublime contempt. And it is ver y certain that its protestations that it has no political or religious opinions, and no sympathies with the revolutionary tendencies of the Masonry of the Con^2 55 tinent, will neither placate the Papacy nor win for it respect any-where. If, in other countries, Freemasonry has lost sight of the Ancient Landmarks, even t olerating communism and atheism, it is better to endure ten years of these evils than it would be to live a week under the devilish tyranny of the Inquisition a nd of the black soldiery of Loyola. Atheism is a dreary unbelief, but it at leas t does not persecute, torture, or roast men who believe that there is a God. Fre emasonry will not long indulge in extravagances of opinion or action anywhere. I t has within itself the energy and capacity to free itself in time of all errors ; and he greatly belittles Humanity who proclaims it to be unsafe to let Error s ay what it will, if Truth is free to combat and confute it. But Freemasonry will effect its re-forms in its own proper way; and would not resort, if it could, n ot even to save itself from dissolution, to means like those which the Papacy ha s heretofore employed, and would gladly employ again to extirpate Judaism, Heres y and Freemasonry. Nowhere in the world has Freemasonry ever conspired against a ny Government entitled to its
obedience or to men’s respect. Wherever now there is a Constitutional Government which respects the rights of men and of the people and the public opinion of th e world, it is the loyal supporter of that Government. It has never taken pay fr om armed Despotism, or abetted persecution. It has fostered no Borgias; no stran glers or starvers to death of other Popes, like Boniface VII.; no poisoners, lik e Alexander VI. and Paul III. It has no roll of beatified Inquisitors or other m urderers; and it has never, in any country, been the enemy of the people, the su ppressor of scientific truth, the stifler of the Godgiven right of free inquiry as to the great problems, intellectual and spiritual, presented by the Universe, the extorter of confession by the rack, the burner of women and of the exhumed bodies of the dead. It has never been the enemy of the human race, and the curse and dread of Christendom. Its patron Saints have always been St. John the Bapti st and St. John the Evangelist, and not Pedro Arbues d’Epila, Principal Inquisit or of Zaragoza, who, slain in 1485, was beatified by Alexander VII. in 1664. It is not when the powers of the Papacy are concentrated to crush the Freemasonry o f the Latin Kingdoms and Republics of the world, that the Masons of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in the United States will, from any motive whatever, proclaim that they have no sympathy with the Masons of the Continent of Europe, ^256 or with those of Mexico or of the South American Republics. If these fall i nto errors of practice or indulge in extravagances of dogma, we will dissent and remonstrate; but we will not forget that the Freemasonry of our Rite and of the French Rite, has always been the Apostle of Civil and Religious Liberty, and th at the blood of Spanish and other Latin Freemasons has again and again glorified and sanctified the implements of torture, the scaffold and the stake, of the Pa pacy and the Inquisition. Neither does Freemasonry any more execrate the atrocit ies of the Papacy than it does those of Henry VIII. of England and his daughter Elizabeth, the murder of Sir Thomas More and that of Servetus, and those of the Quakers put to death by bigotry in New England; than the cruel torturing and sla ying of Covenanters and Non-Conformists, the ferocities of Claverhouse and Kirk, and the pitiless slaughtering of Catholic Priests by the revolutionary fury of France. It well knows and cheerfully acknowledges the services which some of the Roman Pontiffs and a multitude of its clergy have in the past centuries rendere d to Humanity. It has always done ample justice to their pure lives, their good deeds, their self-denial, their devotedness, their unostentatious heroism, as th ese have been eloquently and beautifully portrayed by Kenelm Henry Digby. It has always done full justice to the memories of the faithful and devoted Missionari es of the Order of Jesus and others, who bore the Cross into every barbarous lan d under the sun, to make known to savages the truths and errors taught by the Ro man Church, and the simpler arts of civilization. It was never the unreasoning a nd insensate reviler of that Church, railing against it without measure or regar d to justice and truth; nor could it be, remembering that not only Bayard and Du Guesclin, but Sir Henry More, Las Casas and Fenelon were loyal servants of it. But also it has known to its cost that none of the pages of the History of the W orld are more full of frightful crimes and monstrous acts of cruel outrages than those of the Papacy of Rome; and it now knows, by the revival of the Bulls of B enedict and Clement, that the seeming moderation, mildness and liberality of opi nion of that Church have been but a mask, which, being torn from its face, its i ntolerant, persecuting, cruel, inhuman spirit flames out as ferociously as ever from its bloody eyes. It seems to have learned nothing, and to be incapable of l earning anything, although a higher will and a sterner law than its own have mad e it powerless to burn heretics, whether men or women, ^257 free-thinkers and Fr eemasons, at the stake, or to extort confessions of guilt by torture; and permit it no longer to persecute science as heresy and blasphemy.
For surely if the age of the Papacy had brought with it a larger measure of wisd om, as men were fondly hoping, the present Pope would not, at this age of the wo rld, have ordered every Catholic in every Republic in the world to become not on ly disloyal to but the irreconcilable enemy of the Government under which he liv es. Nor would the present Pope have re-enacted and made his own the Bulls of Ben edict and Clement, or have pronounced against Catholics who persist in continuin g to be Freemasons, all the lesser and greater penalties ever prescribed by any of his predecessors. For (not to multiply appalling instances) he cannot be igno rant that, at the first auto da fe, (“Act of the Faith”) celebrated at Valladoli d in Spain, on the 21st of May, 1559, and at the second even more solemn one, he ld in the same city in the presence of Philip II. himself, his son and sister, t he Prince of Parma, and many Grandees and Nobles of Spain and high ladies of the Court and country, there were strangled and then burned, for the unpardonable s in of having be-come convinced of the truth of, and therefore having embraced, s ome of the opinions of Martin Luther, Dona Beatrix de Vibero Cazalla and nine ot her women, in presence of the audience; and at the first, the body of Dona Eleon ora de Vibero (who had been interred as a Catholic, without suspicion ever havin g been raised as to her orthodoxy, and when she had, in her last sickness, taken all the sacraments), having been exhumed, was borne to the pyre on a bier, ador ned with a San Benito of flames, the pasteboard mitre on its head, and so burned . Upon the confession extracted from some prisoners under the tortures, or by th reats of torture, the Fiscal of the Inquisition had accused her, after her buria l, of Lutheranism for permitting her home to be used for Lutheran assemblings; w hereupon she was adjudged by the beloved Tribunal of the Papacy to have died in heresy, her memory was condemned to infamy en-tailed on her posterity, and her p roperty confiscated, her body ordered to be exhumed and burned, her house razed to the ground and forbidden to be rebuilded and a monument was ordered to be set up on the site with an inscription relating to this event. Even the impudence o f a Roman Catholic journalist will hardly venture to stigmatize this as false. I t is related by Juan Antonio Llorente, in his “Critical History of the Inquisiti on in Spain,” de-rived from original documents in the archives of the Supreme Tr i^258 bunal and those of the Subterranean Tribunals of the Holy Office: from whi ch came the statements contained in our “Reply” of the number of victims butcher ed by Torquemada and his successors. Llorente was ex-Secretary of the Inquisitio n of the Court, Canon of the Primatical Church of Toledo, Chancellor of the Univ ersity of that city, Knight of the Order of Charles III., and member of the Roya l Academies of History and of the Spanish Language at Madrid. “All these disposi tions” (of the judgment against the dead woman Eleonora) “were executed,” Lloren te says: “I have seen the place, the column and the inscriptions. It is stated t hat this monument of human ferocity against the dead was demolished in 1809.” Bu t at these auto de fes the Archbishops and Bishops, clergy, nobles, and ladies p resent were not entirely deprived of the expected luxury and pleasure of seeing human creatures burned alive. At the first, Francisco de Vibero Cazalla and the Licentiate Antonio Herrezuelo, and at the second, Don Carlos de Seso and Juan Sa nchez, were roasted alive for the mortal sin of Lutheranism. Of a score or two o f suspected Lutherans and others, not burned alive, or strangled and then burned , all the property they possessed was confiscated to the uses of the Holy Office , a method of enriching itself which it had then pursued with great diligence, b y continual confiscations, for eighty years, and yet was not weary. At the secon d, Dona Marina de Guevara, a Nun, accused of Lutheranism, suffered. The Supreme Tribunal decreed that she was guilty, and had incurred the penalty of the greate r excommunication and “remitted” her “to the judicial power and to the secular a rm” of the Corregidor and his Lieutenant, “to whom,” the judgment said, “we reco mmend to treat her with kindness and pity,” that Tribunal knowing that sentence of death must inevitably and necessarily follow, and that its own judgment was r eally the
death sentence. If the Corregidor had dared to mitigate the penalty, he would hi mself have felt fastened into his flesh the sharp and venomous fangs of the Inqu isition, for he would have proven himself a favourer of heretics. What a hideous formula was that recommendation to kindness and pity! “It is impossible,” Llore nte says, “to impose on God by formulas contrary to the secret dispositions of t he heart.” “Since the Inquisition was established,” Llorente wrote in 1817, “the re has hardly been a man celebrated for his knowledge who has not been persecute d as a heretic;” and he gives a formidable list of ^259 those who suffered in th eir liberty, honour and fortune “because they would not shamefully adopt scholas tic opinions or erroneous systems born in the ages of ignorance and of barbarism .” Certainly the restoration of this convenient instrument of the Apostolic See, which acts on anonymous denunciations, takes testimony ex parte upon such denun ciations, and convicts on suspicions, and confessions extorted by an admirable v ariety of tortures, and even upon persistent refusals to confess, is not impossi ble; because, on the 21st of July, 1814, Ferdinand VII. re-established it in Spa in, after Bonaparte had suppressed it in 1808, and the Cortes-General Extraordin ary of Spain had done the same on the 12th of February, 1813.* The time may even come again, if Constitutional Government can be destroyed by the Papacy in Spai n, Portugal or Italy, when that may happen to a Freemason, which happened to Gas pardo de Santa Cruz and his son under Ferdinand and Isabella, about the year 148 7. The father had taken refuge at Toulouse, in France, where he died, after he h ad been burned in effigy at Zaragoza. One of his sons was arrested by order of t he Inquisitors for having aided the escape of his father. He underwent the punis hment of the public auto da fe, and was condemned to take a copy of the judgment rendered against his father, to go to Toulouse and present this copy to the Dom inicans, demanding that his father’s body should be exhumed and burned; and, fin ally, to return to Zaragoza and make report to the Inquisitors of the execution of the sentence. And to this shameful, revolting, and monstrous judgment he subm itted without murmuring, and executed it. In 1524 (Charles V. being then Emperor of the Romans) there was put up, in the Inquisition at Sevilla, by the Licentia te de la * In the Gaceta of the Spanish Government, No. of date 23d February, 1826, the e xecution of a person accused of Masonry is thus referred to: “Yesterday was hung in this city Antonio Caso, (alias) Jaramalla; he died impenitent, and leaving in consternation the n umerous concourse which were present at the spectacle; a terrible whirlwind maki ng it more horrible, which took place while this criminal was expiring, who came forth from the prison blaspheming, speaking such words as may not be repeated w ithout shame, and although gagged he repeated as well as he could, ‘Viva mi Sect a? Viva la Institucion Masonical!’ So he was dragged by the tail of a horse to t he scaffold. Not-withstanding the efforts which Priests of all classes had made, they had not been able to induce him to pronounce the name of Jesus and Mary. A fter he was dead, his right hand was cut off, and dragging his body they took it to a dung-heap. Thus do these proclaimers of liberty miserably end their lives; and this is the felicity which they promise to those who follow them,—to go to abide where the beasts do.” ^260 Cueva, by the order and at the cost of the Empe ror, an inscription in Latin, composed by Diego de Cortegana, by which it was st ated that, from the time of the establishment of the Inquisition there, in
1485, under the Pontificate of Sextus IV. and during the reign of Ferdinand V. a nd Isabella, until 1524, “more than two thousand persons obstinate in heresy had been delivered to the flames, after having been judged conformably to law, with the approbation and favour of Innocent VIII., Alexander VI., Pius III., Julius II., Leo X., Adrian VI., and Clement VII.” The Church of Rome had prepared and m atured all its plans of campaign against liberal institutions and Constitutional Government, carefully, thoroughly, and comprehensively, before the Encyclical L etter “Humanum Genus” gave the signal for opening the campaign and commencing th e new crusade, to endanger the peace of the world, foment anarchy, and initiate a new era of violence and murder. A clerical victory at the elections in Belgium has been followed by the enactment of a law destructive of the common-school sy stem, and placing education under the control of the Priests and Jesuits. It wil l not disturb the Pope or his Cardinal-Princes if civil war results, as now seem s probable, if thousands of lives are sacrificed, if the King loses his throne, and the Kingdom of Belgium is obliterated. In Spain the Romish clergy have set o n foot a demonstration in every Church throughout the realm in favour of the tem poral power of the Pope; and if Alfonso does not place himself unreservedly in t he hands and at the bidding of the Church, revolutionary movements against his t hrone, already beginning to appear in the north of Spain, will be fomented. The Pope promulgates an Encyclical Letter against the adoption of a new law of divor ce by the legislative power of France, and instructs the Bishops to annul it so far as they may find it possible. And we may look for disturbances in Mexico and the South American States, fomented by the Priesthood in obedience to the order s issued from the Vatican against Freemasons and Constitutional Government. By P apal Brief of January 17, 1750, the Father Joseph Torrubia, Pro-Censor and Revis er of the Inquisition, was authorized to pro-cure initiation into Masonry, to ta ke all the oaths that might be required of him, and to use every means possible to acquire the most complete knowledge of the membership of the Freemasonry of S pain; and in March, 1751, the Father Tottubia, having taken without sinfulness t he oaths required, and been initiated, put into the hands of the Grand Inquisito r the ninety-seven lists of membership ^261 of the ninety-seven Lodges at that t ime in activity in Spain: upon which, on the 2d of July, 1751, the King Ferdinan d VI. decreed the complete suppression of the Masonic Order, and prescribed the punishment of death, without any form of preliminary procedure, against all who should be convicted of belonging to it. Undoubtedly Pope Leo XIII. would conside r it laudable for any good Catholic now, if need were, to imitate the example of the Father Joseph Torrubia; and entirely proper for himself to grant such a bri ef as was granted to that worthy Father; although all honest men ought to regard such a service as base and infamous, and consider perjury and betrayal of confi dence to be virtues only in the eyes of the Church and not in those of God. But his Apostolic Holiness has graciously permitted that during one year, those who in obedience to his orders renounce Masonry, shall not be required to divulge th e names of their superiors in the Order;— not because to do so would be unuttera ble baseness, but because it is politic, as likely to induce many to renounce th e Order, who would not be willing to do that and at the same time become faithle ss and perjured scoundrels. While inciting the fanatical and venal instruments o f his Priest-hood against Freemasonry and Constitutional Government, the Pope om its nothing to make more effectual his edict of Excommunication. It is necessary to give assurance to those who may help in the good work of exterminating Freem asonry, overturning Constitutional Government, and re-enslaving intellects, soul s and science, of immunity, if not in this world, then certainly in the next, fo r all the outrages, villainies and crimes that they may commit.
Accordingly the Pope embraces the present occasion, while he is causing disturba nces in Belgium, Spain, Mexico and Italy, to issue his proclamation, as Spiritua l Autocrat of the whole world, panoplied with all the powers of the Almighty God , by which he plenarily pardons all the sins of a great number of the faithful, neither knowing nor caring what the enormity of those sins may be. The paragraph s which follow, taken from a translation in the Catholic Examiner of Brooklyn, o f the Encyclical Letter of Leo XIII., of August 30, 1884, “setting apart October as a month of prayer to the Mother of God,” will show that we do not misunderst and the use to which the Pope puts his plenary indulgences. The italics are ours : “For it is, indeed, an arduous and exceedingly weighty matter that is now in h and; it is to humiliate an old and most subtle enemy in the ^262 spread-out arra y of his power; to win back the freedom of the Church and of her Head; to preser ve and secure the fortifications within which should rest in peace the safety an d weal of human society. ****** “That the heavenly treasures of the Church may b e thrown open to all, we hereby renew every indulgence granted by us last year. To all those, therefore, who shall have assisted on the prescribed days at the p ublic recital of the Rosary, and have prayed for our intentions; to all those, a lso, who from legitimate causes shall have been compelled to do so in private, w e grant for each occasion an indulgence of seven years and seven times forty day s. To those who, in the prescribed space of time, shall have performed these dev otions at least ten times—either publicly in the churches or from just causes in the privacy of their homes—and shall have expiated their sins by confession and have received communion at the altar, we grant from the treasury of the Church a plenary indulgence. We also grant this full forgiveness of sins and plenary re mission of punishment to all those who, either on the feast-day itself of our Bl essed Lady of the Rosary, or on any day within the subsequent eight days, shall have washed the stains from their souls and have holily partaken of the Divine b anquet, and shall have also prayed in any church to God and His holy Mother for our intentions.” What these “intentions” are, the Letter HUMANUM GENUS does not permit the world to doubt. And in the latest Encyclical Letter, granting absolut ions in advance, they are expressed in this sentence: “May our Heavenly Patrones s, invoked by us through the Rosary, graciously be with us and obtain that, all disagreements of opinion being removed and Christianity restored through the wor ld, we may obtain from God the wished for peace in the Church.” It is also procl aimed that another letter is about to be issued which will cause a profound sens ation in the Catholic world, in which the Pope is to expound to his vassals his opinions in regard to civil government. He cannot make them much more plain than he has already made them; but it is not probable that his lofty intentions will be in any degree abated. He has already proclaimed war against Protestantism, f ree education, and constitutional restraints upon arbitrary power; and he will c ontinue to do so more and more emphatically and offensively, until not only the rulers of Protestant countries, but all, wherever constitutional government exis ts, will find themselves compelled to declare the Papacy the malignant disturber of the peace of the world, and to unite in measures to curb its arrogance and d eprive it of the power of making mischief and of its cherished prerogative of be ing the curse and the terror of the world. ^263 Freemasonry makes no war upon th e Roman Catholic religion. To do this is impossible for it, because it has never ceased to pro-claim its cardinal tenets to be the most perfect and absolute equ ality of right of free opinion in matters of faith and creed. It denies the righ t of one Faith to tolerate another. To tolerate is to permit; and to permit is t o refrain from prohibiting or preventing; and so a right to
tolerate would imply a right to forbid. If there be a right to tolerate, every F aith has it alike. One is in no wise, in the eye of Masonry, superior to the oth er, and of two opposing faiths each can-not be superior to the other, nor can ea ch tolerate the other. Rome does claim the right to prohibit, precisely now as s he al-ways did. She is never tolerant except upon compulsion. And Masonry, havin g nothing to say as to her religious tenets denies her right to interfere with t he free exercise of opinion. It will be said that the English-speaking Freemason ry will not receive Catholics into its bosom. That is not true. It will not rece ive Jesuits, because no oath that it can administer would bind the conscience of a Jesuit; and it refuses also to receive Atheists; not denying their perfect ri ght to be atheists, but declining to accept them for associates, because Masonry recognizes a Supreme Will, Wisdom and Power, a God, Who is a protecting Provide nce and to Whom it is not folly to pray, and Who has not made persecution a reli gious duty, nor savage cruelty and blood-guiltiness a passport to Paradise. ^264 TOP 1st. Praelocution by Albert Pike on Leo XIII’s Humanum Genus Against Freemas onry 2nd. A Reply of Freemasonry in Behalf of Humanity to the Encyclical Letter Humanum Genus of Pope Leo XIII by Albert Pike 2nd. A REPLY OF FREEMASONRY IN BEHALF OF HUMANITY TO THE ENCYCLICAL LETTER “HUMA NUM GENUS” OF THE POPE LEO XIII. FROM THE GRAND ORIENT OF CHARLESTON IN THE STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA. THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE 33D DEGREE OF THE ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED SCOTTISH RITE OF FREEMASON RY, FOR THE SOUTHERN JURISDICTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: BY THE GRAND COMMANDER: To the Brethren of our Obedience throughout all our Jurisdiction: It is known un to you that Leo XIII., at present the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, claimin g to be the successor of Saint Peter the Apostle, infallible, and the Vicegerent of God, has lately issued an Encyclical Letter to the Catholic World, to be kno wn hereafter, from the words with which it begins, as the Letter HUMANUM GENUS, in calumnius denunciation of Freemasonry and Freemasons. The Ancient and Accepte d Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, which, a century and more ago, accepted the Apos tolate of Civil and Religious Liberty, and hath, since then, not faltered in its purpose of making these as common among men as light and air, has not thought i t necessary to be in haste, here in the United States, to make reply to the Bull of Excommunication of the Roman Pontiff; because it finds, in the Letter itself , the most sufficient proof that it does not need to feel any fear for the resul ts of the long controversy ^265 which, forced by the Church of Rome, by its Jesu it soldiery and by its bloody and ferocious Tribunals of the Holy Office, on lon g-suffering Humanity, has brought upon itself signal discomfiture, with immense loss of temporal and spiritual power.
Least of all will it, now or at any time, or anywhere, seek to conciliate the Ch urch of Rome, or to plead in avoidance of its denunciations, that it does not in any wise intermeddle or concern itself with questions of civil government or re ligion. It leaves that to those Bodies and Journals, to which it may seem advisa ble or expedient, reminding them that it long ago said to them this, which it ma y now be profitable for them to ponder upon: “In this Freemasonry we do not disc laim all the attributes that once distinguished the Order, except a portion of i ts morality; nor protest against the suspicion that it has a political and relig ious creed, as though it were an accusation of crime. It is not a negative but a positive Institution, that does not rely upon the insignificance of its objects to make it sufficiently contemptible not to excite the fears of Emperors and Ki ngs. The sedulous disclaimer by English and German Masonry, and very recently by that of France, of all pretence to religious or political principle, has not av erted the thunderbolts of the Vatican, and the humiliation has, so far, been fru itless.” But it is the right of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Freemasonry to make answer if it sees fit, and to carry the war into the quarters of error, ho wever willing it might be to leave the Encyclical Letter to have its effect, and work to the Church of Rome all the harm it may, without comment. It neither fea rs the Pontiff, nor concerns itself about his vituperations; and it could do its elf, and the great cause in which it is enlisted, sufficient service, perhaps, b y republishing the Letter, and giving to it as wide publicity as possible. We wi ll probably do that hereafter; as we have already, some years ago, published in full translations of the equally formidable Bulls of the Predecessors, Clement a nd Benedict, of the present Pope. Neither should we be concerned if it were to b e thought, by the outside world, in case we should remain silent, that our Freem asonry is afraid to reply, or feels that it cannot efficiently defend itself. Bu t, as it seems to be considered by many of you, our very dear Brethren, that we ought to make answer for you, we willingly undertake to do so, for ourselves and you, and for our Freemasonry, so far as we may have authority to speak for it. In doing this we shall not set forth the whole Letter, nor quote ^266 from it at very great length; but only so far as it may be necessary to set its words fort h, to enable you and others who may read what we write, to see against what it i n reality is that the Church of Rome launches its no longer formidable lightning s. In its long war against Humanity and human progress, against Science and Civi lization, and against the truth of God revealed in Nature, the Roman Church has been greatly shorn of power and influence, until it has become but the feeble ef figy of what it was in 1483, when it made Tomas Torquemada Inquisitor of the Fai th in Spain, and in the eighteen years of that Official’s rule burned at the sta ke in that Kingdom eight thousand eight hundred Hebrews and Heretics. But the Po pe is still a great religious Potentate, wielding an immense influence, especial ly over ignorance, throughout a large part of Christendom, with an army of over 11,000 Jesuit Fathers, Professors and Coadjutors, of whom there are nearly 2,000 Fathers in England and the United States. While Freemasonry has never feared, i t has never undervalued its mighty antagonist, and it does not underestimate him now, although it listens with equanimity to these words, with which his Letter begins: “THE HUMAN RACE, after its most miserable defection, through the wiles of the Devil, from its Creator, God, the giver of celestial gifts, has divided into two differ ent and opposite factions; of which one fights ever for truth and virtue, the ot her for their opposites. One is the Kingdom of God on earth, the true Church of Jesus Christ, . . . the other is the Kingdom of Satan. . . . But at this time th ose who support the worst faction seem all to be conspiring and striving most vi gorously, led and aided by what is called Freemasonry, a society of men most wid ely spread and firmly established. For now in no way
concealing their designs, they are rousing themselves most boldly against the po wer of God; undisguisedly and openly they are planning destruction for the Holy Church, and they do so with this intention—that they may, if it be possible, com pletely despoil Christian Nations of the benefits obtained through Jesus Christ our Saviour.” “In so pressing a danger, in so monstrous and obstinate an attack on Christianity, it is Our duty to indicate the peril, to point out Our adversar ies, and as far as we can to resist their plans and designs, that those whose sa fety has been entrusted to Us may not perish everlastingly: and that the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, which We have received to protect, not only may stand and rema in unimpaired, but may even be increased throughout the world.” This is clearly a manifesto against every other Church, calling itself “Christian,” than the Rom anCatholic Church, as no part of ^267 “the Kingdom of God upon Earth,” of “the t rue Church of Jesus Christ;” as in no wise dispensing among men “the benefits ob tained through Jesus Christ our Savior.” The Pope has alone received “the Kingdo m of Jesus Christ” to protect. All so-called “Christianity,” except the Roman Ch urch, is “the Kingdom of Satan.” Thus this Letter is the shrill and discordant w ar-cry of Intolerance and of “death to Heresy,” sounded from the summit of the V atican, and echoing and re-echoing over the world. “Therefore, whatsoever the Po pes our Predecessors have decreed to hinder the designs and attempts of the Sect of Freemasons; whatsoever they have ordained to deter or recall persons from So cieties of this kind, each and all we do ratify and confirm by our Apostolic Aut hority.” And these are specially stated to be, the Bull In Eminenti of Clement X II., dated 27th April, 1738, confirmed and renewed by that beginning Providas of Benedict XIV., 17th of May, 1751; the Edict of Pius VII., in 1821, and the Apos tolic Edict Quo Graviora of Leo XII., in 1825; with those of Pius VII., in 1829, Gregory XVI., in 1832, and Pius IX., in 1846, 1865, etc. The title of the Bull IN EMINENTI of Clement XII. is “Condemnatio Societatis seu Conventiculorum de Li beri Muratori, seu the Freemasons, under the penalty ipso facto incurred, of exc ommunication; absolution from it, except in articulo mortis, being reserved to t he Supreme Pontiff.” Let us give the exact language, translated, of the closing sentences of this celebrated Bull. It will sound strangely, even to Catholics, a t this day; but their Spiritual Sovereign has, by plenarily confirming and re-en acting it, made it a part, in the very words, of his Letter Encyclical: “We will , moreover, and command, that as well Bishops and Superior Prelates, and other O rdinaries of particular places, AS THE INQUISITORS OF HERETICAL PRAVITY UNIVERSA LLY DEPUTED, of what State, degree, condition, Order, dignity or pre-eminence so ever, PROCEED and INQUIRE, and RESTRAIN and COERCE the same, AS VEHEMENTLY SUSPE CTED OF HERESY, WITH CONDIGN PUNISHMENT; for to them and each of them we hereby give and impart free power of PROCEEDING, INQUIRING AGAINST, and of COERCING and RESTRAINING WITH CONDIGN PUNISHMENTS, the same transgressors; AND OF CALLING IN , IF IT SHALL BE NECESSARY, THE HELP OF THE SECULAR ARM.... Let no one, therefor e, infringe, or by rash attempt contradict, this page of our Declaration, Condem nation, Command, Prohibition and Interdict; but if any one shall presume to at-t empt this, let him know that he will incur the indignation of Almighty God, and of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul.” ^268 The Bull of Benedict XIV., “By whi ch,” the title reads, “certain Societies or Conventicles, de Liberi Muratori seu the Freemasons, or otherwise called, iterum damnantur et prohibentur, with invo cations
of the arm and aid of the Secular Princes and Powers,” was issued to remove doub ts whether the penalty of excommunication ipso facto pronounced by Clement, was still in full force, not having yet been confirmed by Benedict. It prescribed ho w absolution might be obtained by penitents renouncing Masonry; but incited the competent judges and tribunals to proceed with renewed activity against the viol ators of that Constitution of Clement, and he confirmed it in its very words, in serting it in full in this his own Bull. And he specially declared that “among t he gravest causes of the aforesaid prohibition and damnation, one is, that in su ch Societies and Conventicles, men of any Religion and Sect whatsoever do consoc iate; whereby it sufficiently appears that great mischief to the purity of the C atholic religion may arise.” The Archbishop of Avignon, publishing this Bull on the 22d of July, 1751, to the Clergy and Faithful of his Diocese, required all F reemasons therein to renounce the Order, addressing themselves to him or to the Father Inquisitor or one of the Vicars-General; and specially commanded, on pena lty of excommunication, those having possession of a certain manuscript-book, co ntaining the regulations of the Order, and the signatures of those admitted into it, to place it, as soon as possible, in his hands, or those of the Inquisitor; and anyone knowing where it was, to give information thereof. And he said, “If anyone, which God forbid! is blind and hardened enough to still persist in these societies named Freemasons, or called by any other name, let him know that we w ill proceed against him as suspected of heresy, according to the full rigour of the law.” The ratification and full confirmation of everything in these Bulls of Clement and Benedict, formally excommunicates ipso facto every Freemason in the world; and, so far as the Pope can do it, releases the people of Germany and Br azil from their allegiance to their Emperors, and those of Sweden and Norway and the Netherlands from their allegiance to their Kings; and, when the Prince of W ales shall become King, will release every Catholic in Great Britain and its col onies from their allegiance. How fully these excommunications ipso facto, and re ferences of cases, as of heretical pravity, to the Inquisition, with power to ca ll on the Secular arm, and light again the fire of Hell on earth at new Autos da Fe, are re-enacted by the new Bull HUMANUM GENUS, will fully appear from the wo rds which we next quote: ^269 “Seeing then that the purpose and nature of Freema sonry has been discovered from the clear evidence of facts, from the knowledge o f its causes, from the publication of its laws, rites and documents, and from th e confirmatory testimony of those who had part in it, this Apostolic See has dec lared and clearly proclaimed that the Sect of Freemasons, established against la w and right, is dangerous no less to Christianity than to the State, and has pro claimed and ordered, UNDER THE HEAVIER PENALTIES USED BY THE CHURCH AGAINST THE GUILTY, that no one should be enrolled in that Society.” “And this action of the Pope seemed to be entirely approved by many Princes and rulers WHOSE CARE IT WA S EITHER TO PROCEED AGAINST THE MASONIC SOCIETY BEFORE THE APOSTOLIC SEE, Or of themselves to condemn them to punishment, by laws passed for this purpose, as in Holland, Austria, Switzerland, SPAIN, Bavaria, Savoy, and other parts of Italy. ” “Proceeding against it before the Apostolic See”—that is, making their subject s victims of the merciless and remorseless Inquisition, in Portugal. “Or by laws passed by themselves, to condemn them to punishment,” like that of Ferdinand VI I. of Spain, of August 1, 1824—a decree expedited condemning to death all Freema sons who should not declare themselves such within thirty days; after which time all were to be hung within twenty-four hours, without other form of trial, who might be recognized as Freemasons, not having so declared themselves. The Masons of France do not forget that, soon after the Bull In Eminenti issued (of April 27, 1738), a
French writer on Freemasonry was burned to death at Rome; nor those of Portugal the memorable Bull of 1st September, 1774, which proclaimed and eulogized the se rvices rendered to the Papacy in Portugal, since 1732; viz., that there had been made to do penance in public Autos 23,068 persons; that 1,415 had been burned; that 2,000 had been thrown into the Tagus, and more than that number had died in prison; nor those of Spain, that Riego was brutally put to death at Madrid, Pal acios at Cadiz, Galvez at Granada, and others in Sevilla and Barcelona, for the sole offense of being Masons. In 1737, Clement XII. issued an Allocution authori zing the mission of an Inquisitor to Leghorn, because a Lodge there was said to receive Roman Catholics, Protestants and Jews. It is the crowning glory of Freem asonry that, requiring only that a Candidate shall believe and put his trust in a living and personal God, a beneficent and protecting Providence, to whom it is not folly to pray; and shall believe in the continued existence of the Soul of man after the death of the body, it receives into its Lodges the ^270 Christian of every sect, the Hebrew, the Moslem and the Parsee, and unites them in the hol y bonds of Brotherhood. In the eye of the Papacy, it is a crime to belong to an Order which is thus constituted; and this the Letter of the Pope Leo (successor of “Divus Alexander VI., Iste Deus”)* preaches to Catholics living in a Republic , the very cornerstone of which is religious toleration, and which was peopled i n large measure, at first, by Puritans, Quakers, Church-of-England-men and Hugue nots. “Under the heavier penalties used by the Church against the guilty.” Yea, under the heaviest; to which, if that Church could do it, it would again resort today. We have seen a Catholic Ultramontane Archbishop in Brazil, within a few y ears, excommunicate all the Freemasons in his jurisdiction; forbid the administr ation of the Last Sacraments to Masons dying; forbid their burial in consecrated ground; forbid the Priests to solemnize the Rites of Marriage between a Freemas on and any woman, and so compel the Parliament of that Catholic country to make lawful a marriage solemnized by a civil magistrate. We know what these heavier p enalties of the Church were. They are the same as when, at Toledo, in 1486, twen ty-seven persons were burned by the Inquisition, chiefly for being Hebrews; and at Sevilla, in 1481, 2,000, for the same crime—two thousand human beings, roaste d to death by slow fires, assassinated in the name of a religion of peace;—the s ame as when, in Spain, from 1481 to 1498, Torquemada burned eight thousand eight hundred men and women;—as when his successor, the Dominican Friar Diego Deza, s uccessively Bishop of Samoa, Salamanca, Jaen and Palencia, and Archbishop of Sev illa, in eight years, from 1498 to 1506, burned 1,664;—as when his successor, th e most celebrated Archbishop of Toledo, Cisneros, a Franciscan Brother, from 150 7 to 1517, burned 2,536;—as when the Cardinal Adriano, Bishop of Tortosa, succee ding Cisneros as Inquisitor-General, from 1518 to 1522, burned 1,344; —as when t he Cardinal Alonso Manrique, Archbishop of Sevilla, * Corius, in Historia Mediolanense describes more accurately than any other writ er the coronation at Rome in the Church of San Pietro, on the 27th of August, 1492, of Pope ALEXANDER VI. Rodrigos Borgia, father of Cesar Borgia. When his election was announced, b y throwing from the window of the Vatican little strips of paper, with his name as Pope written in Latin on them, and these beginnings, full of a vain ostentati on, were observed with astonishment, the Cardinal de Medicis said to Lorenzo Cib o, “Monseigneur, we are delivered over to the gullet of the most voracious wolf that has perhaps ever been in the world, and which will infallibly devour us, if we do not anticipate him by flight.” ^271
succeeding him, from 1523 to 1538, burned 2,250;—as when Taveda, Archbishop of T oledo, succeeding Manrique in 1539, and dying in 1545, burned alive 840;—as when Cardinal Loaisa, General of the Dominicans, Confessor of Charles V., Commissary -General of the Crusade and Archbishop of Sevilla, from the 15th of February, 15 46, to the 22nd of April in the same year, burned 120;—as when his successor Fer nando Valdes, Archbishop of Sevilla, from 1547 to 1566, burned 2,400;—as when, f rom 1566 to 1572, Cardinal Espinosa burned 720; and from 1572 to 1594, Pedro de Cordova Ponce de Liano, Bishop of Badajoz, Inquisitor-General, burned 2,816; and Jeronimo de Lara, Bishop of Cartagena, in a few months, 128; and Pedro Portocar rero, Bishop of Cuenca, InquisitorGeneral from 1596 to 1599, burned 184; and Fer nando Nino de Guevara, from 1599 to 1602, burned 240; and Juan de Zuniga, Bishop of Cartagena, in a few months, 80; and Juan Baptista de Azevedo, from 1603 to 1 607, 400;—as when, from 1643 to 1665, the Inquisitor-General Diego Arce y Reinos o burned 1,422; and Diego Sarmiento de VallaOn one of the great triumphal arches erected, in letters of gold on a blue ground, was the legend: VATICINIUM VATICA NI IMPERII; on another part of it, ALEX. VI. PONT. MAX.; and on another, DIVI AL EXANDRI MAGNI CORONATIO. And on another arch were inscribed the lines, composed by the Protonotary Angello, MAGNA FUIT, NUNC ROMA EST MAXIMA, SEXTUS REGNAT ALEX ANDER, ILLE VIR, ISTE DEUS;” “By CAESAR ROME WAS GREAT, BUT NOW IS GREATEST: REI GNS ALEXANDER SIXTH: THE FORMER WAS A MAN, THE LATTER IS GOD.” In another verse, it was written, SCIT VENISSE SUUM PATRIA GRATA JOVEM: THE GRATEFUL COUNTRY KNOW S ITS JOVE HAS COME; In another, INVICTOQUE JOVI EST CURA PRIMUS HONOR, To THE U NCONQUERED JOVE PROTECTION IS THE CHIEFEST HONOUR. Another verse was, LIBERTAS, PIA JUSTITIA, ET PAX AUREA, OPES, QUAE SUNT TIBI, ROMA, NOVUS FUIT DEUS ISTE TIB I. LIBERTY, PIOUS JUSTICE, GOLDEN PEACE, THE LARGESSES WHICH ROME! ARE THINE, TH IS NEW GOD BRINGS TO THEE. Petrus Delphinus, who was a spectator, says that he r ead the inscription “CAESARE MAGNA FUIT, NUNC ROMA EST MAXIMA: SEXTUS REGNAT ALE XANDER: ILLE VIR, ISTE DEUS,” and that he heard it not much commended’ by many consider-able persons. ^272 dares, from 1669 to 1699, burned 1,248;—as when, fro m 1699 to 1720, 884 were burned; and from 1720 to 1733, by the Inquisitor-Genera l Juan de Camargo, 442; 238 from 1733 to 1740; 136 from 1742 to 1745; 10 from 17 46 to 1759, and 4 from 1750 to 1783. As when, in all, from 1481 to 1783, besides the thousands upon thousands murdered by the Inquisition in other ways, thirtyfour thousand six hundred and fifty-six men and women were burned to death, in S pain alone; and 304,451 endured other heavy punishments. What a Devil’s Carnival , of the Church “CAESARE
that so hates Free-masonry! Civilized Humanity was successfully endeavoring to f orget these and a thousand other atrocities of savage mercilessness that seem to those who have not read history to be incredible and monstrous fictions. It was beginning to believe that the Church, which had during three hundred long years resorted to and availed itself of the methods and practices of its creature, th e Holy Office, or Inquisition, had become humanized and enlightened, by the beau tiful influences of Science and an immensely larger knowledge of Humanity and of God, acquired by studying the great Book of Nature, His first and absolutely au thentic Revelation of Himself. It was believed that the Papal Despotism, Viceger ency of God in its own estimation, would not today, if it had the power, impriso n or torture an observer of nature who should deny that, at the command of Joshu a, in order to enable the Israelites to slaughter the Amorites satisfactorily, t he Sun stood still upon Gideon in the midst of Heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day, and the Moon stayed in the Valley of Ajalon. It was not beli eved that it would now, if it could, visit with “the heavier penalties” a physic ian who might doubt whether, when Christ abode on earth, Devils found homes some where in the interiors of men, and when compelled to vacate these homes, sought new abodes in the swine, grubbing for roots in the arid soil of Galilee. It was believed that the Church Infallible had at least tacitly relinquished some of th e gross absurdities of its old beliefs, errors and fallacies contradicted and ex ploded by the revelation of the Creator Himself, made known to men by His hand-m aidens, Geology and Palaeontology, Chemistry, Astronomy and Dynamics. It was not supposed that, if it still had the power, the Church of Rome would today senten ce Darwin and his disciples even to march in procession in an Auto da Fe grotesq uely clad as heretics, much less burn them alive, as it would with great rejoici ng have done three centuries ago. ^273 It was believed that the Pope looked with at least tolerant and indulgent eyes upon the people of the great Protestant Ki ngdoms and Countries, upon the Clergy and Laity of other denominations of Christ ians, upon even such Hebrews as Sir Moses Montefiore; felt that the Turk, the Mo or, the Parsee or the Hebrew was entitled to somewhat more merciful consideratio n and greater immunity from torture and mutilation than the dog, the wolf, or th e hyena; and no longer considered it to be contrary to the law of God for men to insist upon imposing constitutional restrictions upon Autocracies and Despotism s, and for the people to demand to have a voice in the making of laws. We, here in the United States, fondly believe in the entente cordiale between our constit utional Republicanism and the humanized Church of Rome. Free of all apprehension of danger from its ambition, slow to believe that it would gladly, if it could, turn back the hands upon the dial of Time, rob Humanity here of all the civil, political and religious rights which it has acquired in the long and bloody stru ggle of ages against its murderous oppressors, and put in force from ocean to oc ean and from the Arctic Seas to the Gulf of Mexico the ferocious regime of Loyol a and Torquemada, we looked with indifference on its acquisition everywhere of p roperty of immense value, free from taxation, on its creation here of Princes of the Church, on its energetic proselytism, and on its stealthy approaches to pow er. There has never been, in this country, any opposition on the part of Freemas onry to Catholicism as a religion. One great and cardinal principal of our Order being Toleration, perfect and absolute, the right of every man to worship God i n accordance with the convictions of his own conscience, we have not even felt i ndignation when the educational establishments of Catholicism have made priests of our sons, and devotees or nuns of our daughters. With a hundred thousand memb ers of the Roman Catholic faith in its Lodges, in the various Latin countries of the world, the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite could have no dislike to Cath olicism as a religion. It has only denied its right to compel men to profess a b elief in what it might, in its pretended infallibility, decree to be religious t ruth, and to persecute with rack and fagot, or otherwise, and grill and roast al ive those who do not consent to believe that which
they can-not believe. Freemasonry here has not been willing to think that the He ad of the oldest and greatest of Christian Churches, successor of the pen^274 ni less Galilean Fisherman Peter, dreamed of renewing and reviving against the Orde r throughout the whole world, the Bulls of his predecessors Clement and Benedict , and of excommunicating and declaring subject to the heavier penalties of the C hurch the Emperor and Crown Prince of Germany, Masons and Patrons of Masonry; th e Crown Princes of the Netherlands, of Denmark, and of Great Britain, and the Ki ng of Sweden and Norway, Grand Masters of Masons; the Emperor of Brazil, member of the Supreme Council of that Empire; the President and ex-President of Mexico, the exPresident of Honduras, the President of Venezuela, Sagasta, Prime Ministe r, and ex-Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Spain, with hundreds upon hu ndreds of the great wise men of the age in every civilized country in the world. For, by thus reviving and con-firming all the enactments of his predecessors, i t is decreed that the Inquisition, if its existence and power can be restored, w ill have the power and right, and find it to be its duty, to cause to be dug up and burned in an Auto da Fe (as it has in its days of power and irresponsibility done by its sentences with the mortal remains of relapsed Jews and heretics), t he bones of Bishops of the Episcopal Church, of Chief Magistrates of Republics, of great Princes and immortal Patriots, of Riego and Juarez, of Garfield and Gar ibaldi and Washington. But suddenly the ghastly spectre of a hideous and frightf ul Past stands in the twilight after the red sunset of the Papacy, upon the summ it of the Vatican, and cries out this baleful proclamation to a startled world: “For this reason, when We first came to the helm of the Church, We saw and plain ly felt that, so far as was possible, We ought to resist this enormous evil by t he opposition of our authority. Having often obtained a favourable opportunity, We have attacked the chief heads of the doctrines into which the perversity of M asonic opinions seemed especially to have entered. . . . Moreover, by the Letter beginning Diuturnum,’ we have marked out and set forth a form of political pow er in accordance with the principles of Christian wisdom, wonderfully coherent b oth with the nature of things, and with the safety of Peoples and Princes. Now, there-fore, by the example of our predecessors we have decided to proceed direct ly against the Masonic Society itself, against their whole teaching, their plans and habit of thought and act, so that the poisonous strength of that Sect may b e more and more brought to light, and that this may avail to check the contagion of the dangerous plague.” Thus this letter, beginning “Humanum Genus,” The Huma n Race, is not only an open declaration against Freemasonry, unex^275 pected, bu t not unwelcome; but it is, as will be more fully seen as we proceed further wit h it, much more than that, and fitly beginning with those words; because, if wha t has come to pass during the last hundred years, not only in Protestant countri es, but in Catholic countries as well, in the matter of civil polity, the advanc ement of scientific knowledge, and immunity from persecution and torture, has be en for the benefit of the Common People, THIS ENCYCLICAL LETTER IS A DECLARATION OF WAR AGAINST THE HUMAN RACE. It is not unwelcome to Freemasonry, we repeat; n ot because Freemasonry desires hostile relations with the Church of Rome, but be cause it prefers open war to covert hostility; and it has long known that, in th ese United States, and especially in Louisiana, the influence of that Church has been constantly exerted against itself, while there has been seeming peace, by attempts to procure renunciation of Masonry from Masons on their deathbeds, and by making wives agents of the Priesthood, to persuade their husbands, if by pers uasion they could effect it, and if not, then by persistent discontent and
querulous complaining, making home a Purgatory, to force them either to renounce Freemasonry altogether or at least to cease to attend the meetings of the Lodge s, and be no longer actively engaged in the good works of the Order. Having info rmed those to whom the Letter is addressed that he had already expressed to them his views in regard to the proper form and nature of political government, the Pontifex Maximus proceeds to allege that Freemasonry is endeavoring to carry int o real effect the views of the Materialists; than which nothing could be more un true, in regard to the Freemasonry of all English-speaking countries; and in rep ly to which, as to other countries than these, it is true to say that not one Fr eemason in a thousand anywhere is a Materialist, except in France and Belgium; a nd that even in these two countries those who are far from being Materialists ou tnumber the latter five-hundred fold. The Letter proceeds to make proof of its a ssertion in these words, speaking of Freemasonry: “In truth, with long and perti nacious labour, it exerts itself for this purpose, that the rule of the Church s hould be of no weight, that its authority should be as nothing in a State; and f or this reason they everywhere assert and insist that sacred and civil matters o ught to be wholly distinct. By this they exclude the most whole-some virtue of t he Catholic religion from the laws and from the administration of a country; and the consequence is that they think ^276 whole States ought to be constituted ou tside of the institutes and precepts of the Church.” In other words, the Roman C hurch protests against that fundamental principle of constitutional government, dear above almost all else to the people of the United States, that Church and S tate should act each within its proper sphere, and that with the civil governmen t and political administration of affairs the Church should have nothing to do. The people of the United States do not propose to argue that with the Church of Rome. “Nor are they content,” the letter continues, “with neglecting the Church, their best guide, unless they can injure her by hostility. And, in truth, they are allowed with impunity to attack the very foundations of the Catholic religio n by speaking, writing and teaching.” Alas! Humanity has at last an opportunity, not in Protestant countries only, but in Italy itself, in Spain and Portugal, i n Mexico and Brazil, and all South America, in speech and writing, to utter its thoughts, arraign its oppressors and defend the rights given it by God; and ther e is no longer an Inquisition to burn at the stake those who are too free with t ongue or pen. The people of the United States will never permit any Church to ci rcumscribe the freedom of the press; nor can they ever be made to believe that f ree discussion will be for the discomfiture of Truth and to the profit of Error, unless God ceases to be on the side of the Truth. The Letter then complains of various measures of the Italian Government to the injury of the Papacy; as to wh ich that government is probably not afraid of the Pope’s appeal to the public op inions of the world. One sentence only we quote: “We see the Societies of religi ous Orders overturned and dispersed.” Yes, on the 3rd of September, 1759, all Je suits were banished from Portugal and its dominions; and other Catholic countrie s, not urged thereto by Freemasonry, have found it necessary to their own peace and well-being to do the same. And it proved to be an unfortunate day for Brazil when, not very many years ago, offering an asylum to the Jesuits expelled from other countries, it entrusted to them the charge of the public institutions of e ducation; and Jesuitism and Ultramontanism undertook to possess themselves of th e government of the country and suppress Freemasonry. “If,” the Pope says, “those who are enrolled into their number are by no means ordered to forswear in set form the Catholic Institutions, this indeed is so far from b eing repugnant to the designs of Freemasons that it rather serves them. For, in the first place, they ^277
easily deceive in this way the simple and incautious, and offer attractions to f ar more persons. Then, moreover, by accepting any that present themselves, no ma tter of what religion, they gain their purpose of urging THAT GREAT ERROR OF THE PRESENT DAY, ViZ., that questions of religion ought to be left undetermined, an d that there should be no distinction made between varieties. AND THIS POLICY AI MS AT THE DESTRUCTION OF ALL RELIGIONS, ESPECIALLY AT THAT OF THE CATHOLIC RELIG ION, WHICH, SINCE IT IS THE ONLY TRUE ONE, CAN-NOT BE REDUCED TO EQUALITY WITH T HE REST WITHOUT THE GREATEST IN JURY.” Questions of religion, then, must not be left undetermined, and distinction must be made between varieties; and the Catho lic religion must be determined to be the only true one. How? By what power? By the Sovereign, by the Civil Power, or shall the power to decree itself the only Church “possessed of the Kingdom of God,” be admitted to be inherent in the Cath olic Church itself? Of course, this. Is not the Pope infallible? Is he not Jove, and Divus, and Iste Deus? In either case, the power to prohibit the existence o f all other Churches must follow; the power to punish adherence to other creeds as heresies, civil power and criminal jurisdiction, the power of repression, of punishing relapses, must be vested in the Jesuits, and in the Inquisition, reviv ed, and armed with all its old powers. All means to effect the absolutely necess ary end of suppression and extirpation must be legitimate, and the reign of the Devil of persecution and torture must begin again. Freemasonry opens its doors t o men of all religions alike; and the most splendid jewel of the prerogative of the Scottish Freemasonry in the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States is, t hat on Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday the Episcopal clergyman and Hebrew Rabb i can and do stand together at its altars, in presence of the Seven Lights, the latter thanking God that he has at length found one place where he is the perfec t equal and full brother of men of the Christian faith. Never, never will that F reemasonry permit this jewel to be filched from it by craft and treachery and fr aud and falsehood, or torn from it by force. It has been once attempted here and failed; and it will always fail. The Encyclical Letter then makes this extraord inary statement, to which every Freemason in every English-speaking country in t he world, and those of every other, with but two or three exceptions, will oppos e either an indignant or contemptuous denial; for, as a charge against Freemason ry in general, it is a shameless libel: ^278 “But, in truth, the Sect grants gre at license to its initiates, allowing them to defend either position, that there is a God, or that there is no God; and those who resolutely maintain that there is none are initiated as easily as those who think indeed that there is a God, but hold about him views as depraved as are those of the Pantheists.” The Grand Orient of France has been proclaimed by the Freemasonry of Great Britain and the United States to be no longer a Masonic power, because it has struck out of its Constitution the requirement of a declaration of belief in the existence of a G od; not denying it, but, as it claims, leaving entire freedom of conscience. And when the Convention of certain Supreme Councils at Lausanne substituted for the word “God” the phrases “Force Superieure” and “Principe Creative,” we denounced it as a departure from Masonic principles, and it was finally abandoned. By the Ancient Ritual of Freemasonry and by its fundamental Law, no Atheist can be mad e a Mason, any more than a woman can; and no person can be initiated without kne eling “for the benefit of Lodge prayer” and professing that he puts his trust in God. It is true that there are Lodges in France and Belgium, and perhaps in Ita ly, which do not deny initiation to one professing himself an Atheist; but these are condemned with almost entire unanimity everywhere else in the world. Freema sonry is not responsible for private vagaries of unbelief in France. If its prin ciples were what the Pope alleges them to be, there would not be thousands of cl ergymen, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and of other denominations, members of Ma sonic Lodges in all the English-speaking countries, and very many of them member s of the higher
Bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The Pope next proceeds to spea k of the subjects of marriage, education and civil government; and it is herein that the full scope and intent of the Letter appear. The Materialists, he says, have this system: “Marriage, they say, belongs to the class of contracts; it can lawfully be rescinded at the will of the contracting parties; and power as rega rds the marriage tie is in the hands of the civil rulers. In educating children, they consider that no religious instruction should be given according to any fi xed and determined purpose; it is to be open to each, when grown up, to follow w hat religion he may prefer.” And then he says: “Freemasons, moreover, clearly as sent to these very principles; and not only do they assent, but they are, and ha ve long been, anxious to introduce them into habit and usage.” ^279 To prove thi s, for it is the only thing that he offers in justification of the assertion, he says: “Already in many regions, and those, too, belonging to the Catholic faith , it is decided that no marriages shall be deemed lawful except those contracted by the civil rite; in some places divorces are allowed by law; in other places efforts are being made that they should be so allowed as soon as possible. Thus, what they are hastening to is, that the nature of marriage may be converted int o unstable and temporary unions, which passion may form, and passion again disso lve.” Pope Leo XIII. does not know, and has not a shred of evidence to convince him, that Freemasonry takes into consideration, in any way, the question of the mode of marriage. That is a matter wholly foreign to Freemasonry, and about whic h as an Order it has never sought to ascertain the collective opinion of its mem bers. Each has his own opinion, whatever it may be; and no other Mason has anyth ing to do with that opinion. Marriage has been declared by legislation in many c ountries to be a civil contract; but it is certainly not known among Masons that Freemasonry, as an Order, or by any sort of concert among any considerable numb er of its members, has borne any part in procuring such legislation anywhere. We doubt if any Masons in England or the United States ever heard the subject ment ioned in a Lodge. Nothing could more certainly tend to dissension; for very many Freemasons everywhere agree to a great ex-tent with the Church of Rome in its v iews of marriage and divorce. Of these I am one. Again, the Pope quite recklessl y says: “However, with the utmost harmony of intentions, the Sect of Freemasons has this also in view —to seize for itself the education of youth.” Their object , he says, is to mould those of tender age, and pervert them to their own ends. “Wherefore, in the education and teaching of boys, they allow the Ministers of t he Church no share in direction or watchfulness; and already in several places t hey have gained their point, that the whole training of youth should be in the h ands of the Laity; and that also in forming their characters there should be no mixture of those great and most holy duties which unite man to God.” Freemasonry has turned its attention to the education of the young, so far only as it has h ere and there established institutions of very moderate pretensions, for the edu cation of children of poor or deceased Brethren of the Order. It is quite true t hat it has not seen fit to entrust such schools to the care and charge of the Ro man Catholic Clergy, its enemies; but the offices of religion are in none of the m disregarded. The Order has never made any attempt any^280 where “to seize for itself the education of youth.” It has never endeavored anywhere “to gain the po int that the whole training of youths should be in the hands of the Laity.” It h as meddled with that matter just as little as it has meddled with the subject of marriage; and there are as many different opinions among Freemasons upon the on e subject as upon the other; but what these opinions are Freemasonry does not in quire. It has not been the Freemasons who have settled these things in the Unite d States.
Each of them has acted on his own private opinion in regard to each without any Masonic organization or concert of action whatever. But Pope Leo XIII. desired t o denounce the laws which in many countries make marriage a civil contract and a llow divorces, and the laws, institutions, corporations, and associations which maintain schools, academies and colleges unconnected with the churches; and espe cially, perhaps, those laws which do not permit any portion of the monies raised by public taxation or appropriated by our States for the support of public scho ols to be placed in the hands of the Roman Catholic Clergy for the maintenance o f schools to be managed by them, and in which children are to be educated to bec ome Roman Catholics. And this portion of his letter, so entirely foreign to the subject of Freemasonry, is evidently a mandate of urgency to the Catholic Clergy and Laity to secure active, combined and persistent effort by them hereafter, i n the United States, and elsewhere, to have marriage made no longer a civil cont ract, but a Sacrament of Holy Church, with prohibition of divorce; and to obtain for the Catholic Clergy the control, as far as it can be done, of the public ed ucation of the young, and of a share of the funds furnished for that purpose by the public. If the Jesuits and other clergy who manage and conduct the Catholic Schools and Seminaries in the United States are also instructed by it to devote their efforts hereafter to converting to Catholicism the children of Protestants who may be entrusted to them for tuition, so that each school and seminary and college is to be an institution de Propaganda fide, it will be manly and honest to avow this openly. The suppressions of the true and suggestions of the false, once justified by the Disciples of Loyola and exposed by Pascal, are not now reg arded by honest men as consistent with religious duty or personal honour or comm on honesty. Hitherto, though many converts to Catholicism, especially among pupi ls of that sex which is more sensitive to religious influences than the other, h ave returned to their homes from Roman Catholic Seminaries, the man^281 agers of these have always protested that all attempts to convert pupils were scrupulous ly refrained from; and these protestations have been believed; many Protestants, indeed, not being unwilling that their children, if fairly dealt with, should e mbrace the Roman Catholic faith, if their convictions should lead them to do so. Unquestionably the Encyclical Letter contains a vigorous denunciation of the om ission of the special religious instruction of that Church in the education of t he young, and chides all who neglect the work of proselyting. The letter then pr oceeds to state the materialistic principles of statesmanship. It says: “They ma intain that all things are vested in a free people; that power is held by the or der or permission of that people, so that, if the popular pleasure change, Princ es may be de-graded from their rank even against their will. They assert that th e source of all laws and civil duties is either in the multitude, or in the powe r that rules the State, and this when formed by the newest teaching.” And the le tter avers “that these very sentiments are equally pleasing to the Freemasons; a nd that they wish to arrange States after this likeness and pattern, is too well known to need demonstration. For long indeed they have been openly working for this object with all their strength and resources.” These are the political prin ciples of all English-speaking Masons; not because they are Freemasons, not beca use these principles are taught in their lodges, for they teach nothing there in regard to politics or systems of government; but because they are Englishmen, S cotsmen, Irishmen, or citizens of the United States, and their civil governments are founded upon these principles. In other countries these are the principles which have always inspired the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite and the French or Modern Rite; and these Rites have therefore always been the advocates and ch ampions, especially in the Latin countries of Europe, of freedom and constitutio nal government; and in this chiefly consist their glory and their honour. The Ro man Catholic Church has been always and everywhere on the side
of the arbitrary power of Princes and Potentates; Masonry on the side of the peo ple. Thou has said truly, O Pope! Then the Successor of Saint Peter thus announc es to the Faithful the law by which they are to be absolutely governed—the law o f the Divine right of anointed Princes: “As men are born by the will of God for civil union and association, and as the power of ruling is so necessary a bond o f civil society, that on its removal that society must suddenly be severed, it f ollows that He who gave ^282 birth to society gives birth also to the rule of au thority. WHENCE IT IS UNDERSTOOD THAT HE IN WHOM POWER IS, WHOEVER HE IS, Is GOD ’S MINISTER. Wherefore, so far as the end and nature of human society require, i t is as right to obey lawful authority, when it issues just orders, as it is to obey the power of God who rules all things; and this is pre-eminently inconsiste nt with truth, THAT IT SHOULD DEPEND UPON THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE TO CAST OFF OBE DIENCE AT ITS PLEASURE.” Is every one, then, who finds himself actually possessi ng power, thereby God’s Minister? Was Cromwell God’s Minister? Was William of Or ange God’s Minister? Was Napoleon the Great? Were William and Mary God’s Ministe rs? Are the King and Parliament of Italy God’s Ministers? Are the Emperors of Ge rmany and Brazil God’s Ministers? Oh, no! The Pope means those in whom power is, they having lawful authority, i.e., those whose rule and power are sanctioned b y the Church. How, according to his doctrine, if it be pre-eminently inconsisten t with truth that the people may rid a country of a ferocious and brutal tyrant by compelling his abdication—of a Ferdinand VII., or Philip II. (whose will and that of the Church of Rome Alva executed in the Netherlands, leaving written the re all over the land the never-to-be-effaced records of the blood-guiltiness of the Church and King)—of a Bomba, of a Nero, of a Caligula, of a Borgia—how is an y bloody and brutal miscreant, wearing the purple, to be dethroned? Must the peo ple endure until God shall remove the butchering malefactor by death, that perha ps Commodus may succeed Tiberius, or a worse and meaner tyrant follow Bomba? The re must be some power on earth to set free a suffering people. It must not “depe nd upon the will of the people to cast off obedience at its pleasure—all Catholi cs are ordered to believe.” When, then? When THE CHURCH may authorize it; when t he Pope may declare the Throne forfeited for crime, and excommunicate the Ruler, as Heretic or Freemason? Is it not this that is meant? Thus the Pope pronounces by his prerogative of infallibility, and as Vicegerent of God, whom it is as un lawful to refuse to obey as it is to refuse “to obey the power of God, Who rules all things,” that the dethronement of James II., Catholic King of England, was an act of disobedience of the power of God. “On the contempt for the authority o f Princes, on the allowing and approving of lust for sedition, on the granting o f full license to the passions of the people, bridled only by the fear of punish ment, there must of necessity arise a change and over-throw of all things.” ^283 The Freemasons, he passionately cries, “have begun to have great weight in ruli ng States, but they are ready to shake the foundations of Empires, and to censur e, accuse and drive out the chief men of a State, whenever its administration se ems different from their wishes. Just so have they deluded the people by their f lattery. By calling in sounding terms for liberty and public prosperity, and say ing that it is owing to the Church and Princes that the people are not delivered from unjust slavery and want, they have imposed upon the populace, and have ins tigated it by a thirst for revolution to attack the power of both.” Where? Garib aldi, in Italy, was a Freemason, and there are perhaps a hundred and fifty Mason ic
Lodges in Italy; and yet a King rules peacefully there, upheld by the Freemasons , his Minister, Depretis, being a Mason. In Brazil the Emperor is a Freemason of the 33d Degree, and there have been no insurrections or disturbances of the pub lic peace there, though the Freemasons assemble in some two hundred Lodges and h igher Bodies. In Portugal there are a Grand Orient and Supreme Council and sixty or seventy Lodges, and the Marshal Duke Saldanha, who by peaceful revolution ga ve that Kingdom a constitutional government, as ex-Grand Master of Masons; and y et a King reigns peacefully in Portugal. In Spain there are two hundred Lodges, and Sagasta is a Freemason, and Alfonso reigns secure, his throne upheld by Free masonry. Attacks upon the Church and Princes, the Pope exclaims, instigated by F reemasons, have given the people greater expectation than reality of advantage. “Nay, rather, the common people, suffering worse oppression, are for the most pa rt forced to be without those very alleviations of their miseries, which they wo uld find with ease and abundance, if matters were arranged according to Christia n ordinances. But as many as strive AGAINST THE ORDER ARRANGED BY DIVINE PROVIDE NCE usually pay this penalty for their pride, that they meet with a wretched and miserable fortune in the quarter whence they rashly expected prosperity and suc cess.” The Spanish colonies in the New World threw off by revolt the intolerable yoke of oppression of the Spanish Crown, and made themselves free Republics. Th ey were not content with “matters arranged according to Christian Ordinances” by the Catholic Church, for the benefit of a rapacious and cruel government, with those “Ordinances” administered by Inquisitors. Are the people of Mexico losers thereby? Are those of Chile or Venezuela? The Netherlands, bled nearly unto deat h, at last, by heroic endurance and ^284 matchless courage, rescued their countr y from the Satanic rule of Alva. France put an end to such Saturnalia of Hell th ere as that of the Eve of St. Bartholomew, and in carrying away the Pope to Avig non paid Rome in full for the blood with which the grey hairs of old Coligni dab bled the stones of Paris. God, by the instrumentality of Luther, avenged the mur der of Albigenses and Lollards, Huss and Wiclif, Jerome of Prague and Savonarola , seriously disarranging “matters arranged according to Christian Ordinances.” H as all this been to the manifest disadvantage of the people of the liberated cou ntries of the world? Have the Netherlands, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, lost by it? Is France miserable and suffering? Is Germany wretched? Does Great Britain lang uish for want of the tender mercies of the Papacy? That great statesman, Edmund Burke, said that he did not know how to draw an indictment against a whole peopl e; but we have thus shown, by the very words, faithfully translated, of the Roma n Pontiff himself, that this Encyclical Letter, which purports to be only an arr aignment and condemnation of Freemasonry, is in its principle intent and deepest significance an indictment, not only of the people of every Republic and Consti tutional Monarchy in the world, but of every Protestant country in the world; an d not only of the people of every Protestant country in the world, but of all th at portion of the people of every Catholic country who have in these later centu ries asserted the right of the people to have a voice in the affairs of governme nt, and to be secure in their persons and lives against the infernal methods of procedure, the creation of imaginary crimes, and the cruel torturings upon mere suspicion, of such tribunals as the Inquisition. It is a sentence purporting to be uttered by the voice of God, outlawing and excluding from Heaven all the patr iots and lovers of liberty and liberators of the people, all the array of martyr s who have died in endeavoring to vindicate the right of humanity to freedom of thought and conscience. It denounces as wicked and criminal, and contrary to the ordinances of the Christian religion, not only the laws which permit the solemn ization of marriage by the civil magistrate, and those which exclude sectarian r eligious teachings from schools and seminaries maintained by public taxation; no t only the constitutional provisions which in all the States of these United Sta tes decree the separation of Church
and State, and refuse to the Church any part in the civil government of the coun try; not only those by which the pretensions of the Churches and their right to dictate opinions may be ^285 freely discussed by the public press; but also the great principle on which the governments of all Republics are founded, of the so vereignty of the people, the only legitimate source and author of civil power an d government. It asserts the divine right of Princes, if held by the Church of R ome to have lawful authority, to govern men against their will; that they are th e Ministers of God; and that the people have no power to free themselves from th e tyranny and oppression of these divinely commissioned scourges and Assassins o f Humanity. It is an indictment of Humanity itself, for its instinctive struggle s to lift itself above the miseries and indignities of bodily and intellectual b ondage to Priest and Potentate; for the involuntary and irrepressible aspiration s of its soul towards light and knowledge and the free atmosphere of intellectua l expansion; and for the not more involuntary quiverings of its tortured, racked , wrenched and multilated muscles and nerves. It is an indictment of Civilizatio n, of Progress, of the Spirit of Manhood, of the self-respect of the Peoples, of the Progress onward and upward of Humanity, of the Spirit of the Age, which is the very Inspiration of God; and of God Himself and the beneficent Providence of God, Who loves the people in rags, hungry and hopeless, better than He loves th e Priests in scarlet and the Tyrants in purple. In renewing and by his Apostolic authority confirming everything decreed by former Popes against Freemasonry, ra tifying their Bulls as well in general as in particular, Leo XIII. leaves to his faithful subjects no discretionary power to regard any portions of those anathe mas as obsolete, or to pay respect and obedience to those laws, Bills of Right, or Constitutions of the countries in which they live, which may forbid the enfor cement of the commands of the Church contained in these Bulls. For he immediatel y adds: “Having entire confidence in this respect, in the good will of those who are Christians, we beseech them, in the name of their eternal salvation, and WE DEMAND of them to make it for themselves a sacred obligation of conscience, NEV ER TO DEPART, EVEN BY ONE SINGLE LINE, FROM THE MANDATES PROMULGATED ON THIS SUB JECT BY THE APOSTOLIC SEE.” He then proceeds to direct by what measures and devi ces the Clergy are “to cause to disappear the impure contagion of the poi-son wh ich circulates in the veins of society, and infects it throughout. First—By tear ing off the mask of Freemasonry, and showing it as it is. ^286 Second—By special discourses and pastoral letters to instruct the people. “Remind the people,” he says, “that by virtue of the decrees often issued by our predecessors, no Catho lic, if he desires to continue worthy of the name, and to have for his salvation the concern which it deserves, can, under any pretext, affiliate with the Sect of Freemasons.” Then, by frequent instructions and exhortations to help the mass es to acquire a knowledge of religion, expounding, in writing and orally, the el ements of the sacred principles which constitute the Christian philosophy; and s o to increase the devotion of Clergy and Laity to the Catholic Church, the resul t whereof will be increased disgust for secret societies and greater care to avo id them. To which method of inculcating what is believed by the Church to be tru th, and opposing the progress of what it believes to be error, a Freemason will be the last man in the world to object, if it is not to be supplemented by other too well-known methods. And, to engage with great zeal in increasing and streng thening the Third Order of Saint Francis, in the discipline whereof the Pope cla ims to have made wise modifications, so that “it may be able to render
great service in helping to overcome the contagion of these detestable Sects.” T hird—To re-engage in establishing corporations of workingmen to protect, under t he tutorship of religion, the interests of labor and the morals of workers; with societies of patrons, to assist and instruct the proletaires, such as is the So ciety of Saint Vincent de Paul. Fourth—Vigilantly to watch with pastoral solicit ude over the young, drawing them away, by renewed efforts, from the schools and teachers where they would be exposed to breathe the poisoned breath of the Sects ; parents, teachers and curates, urged by the Bishops, guarding their children a nd pupils against “these criminal societies,” which are ever endeavoring to ensn are them; those who have it in charge to prepare young persons to receive the sa craments, inducing every one of them to take a firm resolution not to join any s ociety without the knowledge of their parents or without having consulted their curate or confessor. For the rest, to implore the aid of the Lord, with great ar dor and reiterated solicitations, proportioned to the necessity of the circumsta nces and the intensity of the peril. “Haughty on account of its former successes, the Sect of Freemasons insolently erects its head, and its audacity no longer seems to know any ^287 bounds. United to one a nother by the bond of a criminal federation, and by their secret plans, its adep ts lend to each other mutual support and incite each other to dare and to do evi l.” “To which violent attack an energetic defense must respond. Good men must un ite and form an immense coalition of prayers and efforts. Especially the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, must be besought to become the auxiliary and interpreter of the Church, displaying her power against the Sects which are reviving the rebel lious spirit, the incorrigible perfidy, and the cunning of the Devil. Saint Mich ael, who precipitated the revolted angels into hell; Saint Joseph, husband of th e Virgin, and the great Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, must also be enlist ed; and thus the imminent danger to the human race may be averted.” Instruction of the people in religious doctrine; enlargement of the Third Order of Francisca ns, organization of associations of workingmen; gaining control of the education of the young, and incessant prayer—these are to be the ostensible means of offe nse and defense. A la bonne heure! if no more were meant. But the Church of Rome has never been in the habit of making known the real means or instruments which it has determined to use for the suppression of heresy or to repress the strugg les of Humanity to escape from the intolerable burdens of oppression; and it is not likely to do it now. The ostentatious recital of these peaceful means of ant agonism does not agree with the explicit reenactments of the Bulls of Clement an d Benedict. The Church has other measures in view than teaching and prayer; and it is already using them in Belgium and Brazil. It has mysteries the divulgation of which is interdicted; Conclaves and Consistories, Generals of the Order, Ass emblies that are secret, as their decisions and the means and agents of executio n are. The adepts blindly and without discussion obey the injunctions of their c hiefs, holding themselves always ready, upon the slightest notification or hardl y perceptible sign, to execute the orders given them, devoting themselves in adv ance, in case of disobedience, to the most terrible penalties, and even to death , were the order even to bring about the murder of another William the Silent or of the Chiefs of a Republic. With such a Past as that of the Church of Rome is, it would have been wise not to provoke comment upon its real crimes by accusing others of having committed imaginary ones; or exposure of the doctrines of the Jesuits by libeling those of Freemasonry. It is not only just and fair and reaso nable, but of absolute necessity, to conclude that anyone who speaks to men by a uthority intends the consequences that may naturally, anywhere, be the effects
^288 of his words. It is even of absolute necessity, sometimes, to conclude that ambiguous phrases and significant suggestions and veiled meanings, when used as they are here, are employed to induce the commission of infamies, the explicit incitation whereunto might startle the conscience of Humanity. And this is espec ially of unavoidable necessity, in the interpretation of the mandates of the Chu rch of Rome, against those whom it considers its enemies. For it has never yet r epudiated and condemned the maxims of the Spanish Jesuits or declared the suppre ssion of the Truth or the suggestion of False-hood, for the benefit of the Churc h, to be contrary to the Spirit of the Gospel, or confessed itself ashamed for h aving so long employed the infernal enginery of the Inquisition. It is infallibl e, can never have erred, can never change. It long ago lost all right to expect the world to give it credit for honesty of intention or frankness of expression. This new Proclamation of Interdict and Excommunication is, it is probable, more especially intended as a political manifesto to the Clergy and Catholics of Ita ly, Spain, Portugal, Belgium and Brazil, inciting them to treasonable plottings and combinations against the Constitutional Governments of those countries. It p reaches to them a new Crusade, the purpose whereof is to destroy those governmen ts, to depose the Monarchs who permit the existence of Freemasonry in their domi nions and the expression of the voice of the people in public affairs; and to pl ace in those Kingdoms the education of the young in the hands of the soldiery of Loyola, and the power of persecuting Freemasonry and Heresy and the favouring o f liberal government in the Holy Office or Inquisition, armed with all its old i nhuman and unchristian powers, against which the sense of justice of the whole w orld long ago revolted. In Brazil it incites the Archbishop of Rio de Janeiro an d the Bishop of Para, and all the Jesuits and Ultramontane Clergy, to renew the war a few years ago waged by them against Freemasonry, against the Emperor and P arliament, and the Laws of the Empire, acting towards the Emperor as towards one excommunicated, reprobated and accursed. Thus it menaces the public peace in th ose countries, inciting revolt and insurrection and assassination, and makes the Lord’s Prayer the patent of an Inquisitor, and the Sermon on the Mount a warran t for murder. Already the General of the Jesuits and the Chief Inquisitor of the Holy Office have promulgated their orders to their troops and officials, comman ding them to use their utmost exertions to carry into ^289 effect the mandates o f the Encyclical Letter. In Spain and Portugal secret anti-Masonic associations are already being organized under these orders, and like organizations may be lo oked for in the United States, with resort to every other means of warfare again st the great principles which Freemasonry represents, that can be prudently and safely employed. It is also a political manifesto, and more, for our neighboring Republic of Mexico, and those of Central and South America. There are Grand Lod ges and Supreme Councils of Masons in most of them; and in all Masonry is free t o exist and work undisturbed, and is powerful and influential. In Mexico the exP resident, now President-elect of the Republic, and the Actual President are 33ds , members of the Supreme Council of Mexico created by us, as the President Comon fort was a 33d, Grand Commander of that Supreme Council, and as the President Ju arez was a Mason. It is well known that the population at large of the Republic is uneducated and grossly ignorant, and slavishly subservient to the Priesthood; and that it detests and hates Protestants as heretics, damned by the anathemas of the Church, and unfit to live. The Priesthood in Mexico has always been the u ncompromising and wily enemy of every patriotic President, of Republican Governm ent, of Freemasonry, of the principles on which constitutional governments are f ounded, and of all the men by whose sublime efforts and sacrifices Mexico was ma de and has been maintained a Republic. It is also well known that, in consequenc e of the friendly relations between our two Republics, and the
extension of railroads in Mexico, built by the capital of our citizens, there no w are in that country a great number of citizens of the United States, many of w hom have purchased mines and lands and are working and cultivating them. The Let ter HUMANUM GENUS is so framed and worded as to be calculated, and must therefor e be taken to be artfully and deliberately intended to incite the Priesthood in Mexico to renewed zeal against heresy and heretics, and more persistent and cont inuous and better organized and more audacious efforts to destroy Freemasonry th ere, and overturn Republicanism. If citizens of the United States peaceably enga ged there in useful avocations should be assassinated by mobs, instigated, if no t openly led, by the Priests; if Diaz and Gonzales and other Freemasons should b e murdered and the Church should inaugurate a bloody civil war, Pope Leo XIII. w ill not be able, by any special pleading, to avoid the responsibility for all th e fatal consequences that may ensue. ^290 For men have not forgotten that Ignati us Loyola, founder of the Order of Jesus, promulgated this law. “Visum est nobis in Domino nullas Constitutiones posse obligationem ad peccatum mortale vel veni ale inducere, nisi Superior (in nomine J.-C. vel in virtute obedientiae), jubere t.” “It has seemed to us in the Lord that no Constitutions can make it obligator y to commit a mortal or a pardonable sin unless the Superior (in the name of Jes us Christ, or in virtue of obedience) may so order.” No doubt the general of the Jesuits holds the same doctrine today, and is ready to apply it, if occasion sh ould demand, that the Superior in the Order has the power to command an inferior to commit a mortal sin. It is a fruitful and convenient doctrine, when the matt er in hand is to destroy Constitutional Governments in Catholic countries. There is still more to be considered by the people of the United States; which, when they come fully to comprehend the purport of this manifesto from the Vatican, th ey will consider. The Catholics, whom it proposes to organize into Italian colon ies or camps here, obeying the laws enacted at Rome, regulating their political action by principles hostile to those on which Republican Government is founded, and sedulously inculcating these upon the young entrusted to their charge, are being thoroughly informed of its contents and meaning; for it is already being r ead in all their churches. Those whose principles it damns as detestable and wic ked will come to the knowledge of it more slowly, feeling, even if Freemasons, l ittle interest in a Papal Bull against Freemasonry, and little inclined to read so long a paper; and slow to believe that it is an attack upon the civil institu tions and systems of government under which they live. But they will well unders tand it by and by and have something to say in regard to it. It makes it to be o f divine obligation for every faithful Catholic in the United States to be at he art the mortal and uncompromising enemy of the principles and spirit, the plan a nd purpose, of the Government under which he lives, and whose equal laws permit him to plot and conspire against it with impunity. It proclaims it to the devout believer as a truth spoken by the mouth of God, that the great axiomatic princi ples, dear to the lovers of human liberty in every age, dear especially, dear be yond price or expression, to the people of the United States, on which, as upon the immovable adamant of eternal Truth, their systems of government is builded, ^291 are false and criminal and wicked, making the United States to be a part of the Kingdom of Satan. It makes it his and her duty, therefore, to do all that i t may be possible to do to eradicate these principles and destroy all that is bu ilded upon them; to gain control, so far as possible, of the education of youth and convert the young to the Catholic faith; to win or buy for the Catholic Chur ch a power and influence in the government of the country. Already the Encyclica l Letter is acted upon as a political manifesto in Ireland.
Archbishop McCabe, we are told, has written a letter with reference to the appro aching election of Lord Mayor for Dublin. He says he is unable to understand how Catholics could in honor and conscience cast their votes for Mr. Winstanley, wh o is both a Home Ruler and a Freemason. “As a Freemason he is a member of a soci ety which aims to overthrow religion. To Freemasonry the revolutions of the last century were traceable. No one can plead non-participation as long as he remain s a Mason.” And Mr. Winstanley has repudiated Freemasonry to obtain votes; and h e has been defeated. But—for which thanks be unto the God of Hosts, “from Whom a ll glories are! “—Freemasonry is mightier than the Church of Rome; for it posses ses the invincible might of the Spirit of the Age and of the convictions of civi lized Humanity; and it will continue to grow in strength and greatness, while th at Church in love with and doting upon its old traditions, and incapable of lear ning any-thing, will continue to decay. The palsied hand of the Papacy is too fe eble to arrest the march of human progress. It cannot bring back the obsolete do ctrine that Kings reign by divine right. In vain it will preach new Crusades aga inst Freemasonry, or Heresy, or Republicanism. It will continue to sigh in vain for the return of the days of Philip II. and Mary of England, of Loyola and Alva and Torquemada. If it succeeds in instigating the Kings of Spain and Portugal t o engage in the work of extirpating Freemasonry, these will owe to it the speedy loss of their crowns. The world is no longer in a humor to be saddled and bitte d like an ass and ridden by Capuchins and Franciscans. Humanity has inhaled the fresh, keen winds of freedom, and has escaped from companionship with the herds that chew the cud and the inmates of stables and kennels, to the highlands of Li berty, Equality and Brotherhood. The world is not likely to forget that the infa llible Pope Urban ^292 VIII., Barberini, set his signature to the sentence which condemned to perpetual imprisonment, to adjuration and to silence, Galileo Gali lei, who, it is known, avoided being burned at the stake by denying on bended kn ees the deductions of positive science, which demonstrated the movement of the e arth; and on the 2d day of July, 1633, the Cardinal of Santo Onofio Berberini, i n the name of the Pope, his uncle, announced to the world the condemnation of Ga lileo by an Encyclical Letter, from the Latin whereof we trans-late these words: “For which matter Galileo, accused and confined in the prisons of the Holy Offi ce, has been condemned to adjure the said opinion....” Nor are Freemasons likely to forget that when the Bull of Clement XII., which Leo XIII. now revives and r e-enacts, was published, Cardinal Firrao explained the nature of the punishments which were required to be inflicted on Masons, and what the kind of service was which the Pope demanded from “the Secular Arm.” “It is forbidden,” he says . . . “to affiliate one’s self with the Societies of Masons . . . UNDER PENALTY OF D EATH AND OF CONFISCATION OF GOODS, AND TO DIE UNABSOLVED, AND WITHOUT HOPE OF SA LVATION.” Who will be audacious enough to censure us for replying defiantly to a decree which, by revivor of the Bull of Clement, condemns every Freemason in th e world to death and confiscation, and damns him in advance to die without hope of salvation? The world has not forgotten that when Charles IX. of France and th e Duc de Guise at first disowned responsibility for the massacre of 20,000 Prote stants, and others, on the Eve and after the Eve of St. Bartholomew, the Catholi c Clergy assumed it. Heaven adopted it, they said: “it was not the massacre of t he King and the Duke; it was the Justice of God.” Then the slaughter recommenced , of neighbor by neighbor, of women, of children, of children unborn, in order t o extinguish families, the wombs of the mothers cut open, and the children torn from them, for fear they might survive. “The paper would weep if we should write upon it all that was done.” Men remember that at Saint-Michel, the Jesuit Auger , sent thither from the College of Paris, announced to Bordeaux that the Arch-an gel Michael had made the great massacre, and deplored the sluggishness
of the Governor and Magistrates of Bordeaux. After the 24th of August there were feasts. The Catholic Clergy had theirs, at Paris, on the 28th, and ordered a ju bilee, to which the King and Court went, and returned thanks to God. And the Kin g, who pro-claimed that he had caused Coligni to be killed, and that he would ^2 93 have poniarded him with his own hand, was flattered to intoxication by the pr aises and congratulations of Rome. Do men not remember that there were feasts an d great gaieties at Rome on ac-count of the massacre? That the Pope chaunted the Te Deum Laudamus, and sent to “his son,” Charles IX. (to win for whom the whole credit of the massacre the Cardinal of Lorraine moved heaven and earth), the Ro se of Gold? That a medal was coined by Rome to commemorate it; and that a painti ng of the bloody scene was made, and until lately hung in the Vatican? Freemason ry is strong enough everywhere now to defend itself, and does not dread even the Hierarchy of the Roman Church, with its great revenues, and its Cardinal Prince s, claiming to issue the Decrees and Bulletins of God, and to hold the keys with which it locks and unlocks at pleasure the Gates of Paradise. The powers of Fre emasonry, too, sending their words to one another over the four continents and t he great islands of the Southern seas, colonized by Englishmen, speak, but with only the authority of reason, Urbi et Orbi, to men of free souls and high courag e and quick intelligence. It does not need that Freemasonry should take up arms of any sort against the Church of Rome. Science, the wider knowledge of what God is, learned from His works; the irresistible progress of Civilization, the Spir it of the Nineteenth Century; these are the sufficient avengers of the mutilatio ns and murders of the long ages of a horrid Past. These have already avenged Hum anity, and Freemasonry need not add another word— Except these—that there are tw o questions to be asked, and answer thereunto demanded of all Roman Catholics in the United States who are loyal to the Constitution of Government under which t hey live, patriotic citizens of the United States: Do not your consciences tell you that what is now demanded of you by Pope Leo XIII., by the General of the Je suits and Chief Inquisitor is, TO ENGAGE ACTIVELY IN A CONSPIRACY AGAINST THAT C ONSTITUTION OF GOVERNMENT, AND THE PRINCIPLES ON WHICH IT IS FOUNDED; AFTER THE DETHRONEMENT OF WHICH PRINCIPLES THAT CONSTITUTION OF GOVERNMENT COULD NOT LIVE AN HOUR? If you cannot see it in that light, do not your consciences and common sense tell you that TO APPROVE AND FAVOUR AND GIVE AID AND ASSISTANCE TO AN OPEN CONSPIRACY AGAINST EVERY OTHER RE-PUBLIC AND EVERY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY IN T HE WORLD, AND THE PRINCIPLES ON WHICH THEY ARE FOUNDED, IS TO PLAY A PART THAT I S INCONSISTENT WITH THE PRINCIPLES THAT YOU PROFESS TO BE ^294 GOVERNED BY HERE, IS IN OPPOSITION TO ALL THE SYMPATHIES OF THE COUNTRY IN WHICH YOU LIVE, AND IS HOSTILE TO THE INFLUENCES OF ITS EXAMPLE AMONG THE PEOPLE OF OTHER COUNTRIES, T REACHEROUS TO YOUR OWN COUNTRY, AND UNWORTHY OF AMERICAN CITIZENS? You will have to answer these questions, for they will not cease to be reiterated until you d o, AND NOT BY FREEMASONRY ALONE. Given at the Grand Orient aforesaid, the first day of August, 1884, and of the Supreme Council the 84th year. The Grand Command er,
(Signed) ALBERT PIKE, 33°.
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